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NP3. Africa Pilot. Vol.3. 14 edition 2006

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NP 3
RECORD OF AMENDMENTS
The table below is to record Section IV Notices to Mariners amendments affecting this volume.
Sub−paragraph numbers in the margin of the body of the book are to assist the user when making amendments to this volume.
Weekly Notices to Mariners (Section IV)
2006 2007 2008 2009
IMPORTANT − SEE RELATED ADMIRALTY PUBLICATIONS
This is one of a series of publications produced by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office which should be consulted by users of
Admiralty Charts. The full list of such publications is as follows:
Notices to Mariners (Annual, permanent, temporary and preliminary), Chart 5011 (Symbols and abbreviations), The Mariner’s
Handbook (especially Chapters 1 and 2 for important information on the use of UKHO products, their accuracy and limitations),
Sailing Directions (Pilots), List of Lights and Fog Signals, List of Radio Signals, Tide Tables and their digital equivalents.
All charts and publications should be kept up to date with the latest amendments.
NP 3
AFRICA PILOT
VOLUME III
South and east coasts of Africa from Cape Agulhas to Raas Binna, including
the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba
FOURTEENTH EDITION
2006
PUBLISHED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE
ii
Crown Copyright 2006
To be obtained from Agents
for the sale of Admiralty Charts and Publications
Copyright for some of the material in
this publication is owned by the authority
named under the item and permission for its
reproduction must be obtained from the owner.
Previous editions:
First published 1864. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2nd Edition 1865. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3rd Edition 1878. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4th Edition 1884. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5th Edition 1889. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6th Edition 1897. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7th Edition 1905. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8th Edition 1915. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9th Edition 1929. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10th Edition 1939. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11th Edition 1954. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12th Edition 1967. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13th Edition 1980. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Note. The 1st and 2nd Editions were entitled African pilot for south and east coasts of Africa
iii
PREFACE
The Fourteenth Edition of Africa Pilot Volume III has been compiled by Lieutenant Commander G.H. Rayner R.N. The United Kingdom
Hydrographic Office has used all reasonable endeavours to ensure that this Pilot contains all the appropriate information obtained by and
assessed by it at the date shown below. Information assessed or received after that date will be included in Admiralty Notices to Mariners
where appropriate. If in doubt see The Mariner’s Handbook for details of what Admiralty Notices to Mariners are and how to use them. This edition supersedes the Thirteenth Edition (1980) and Supplement No.10 (2001), which are cancelled.
Information on currents and climate have been based on data provided by the Met Office, Exeter.
The following sources of information, other than UKHO Publications and Ministry of Defence papers, have been consulted:
British
Lloyd’s List, Ports of the World 2005
Lloyd’s Shipping Statistics 2005
Whitaker’s Almanack 2006
The Statesman’s Yearbook 2006
South African
SAN HO-21 − South African Sailing Directions Volume 1, 1999
SAN HO-23 − South African Sailing Directions Volume 3, 2003
General
Port websites produced by Port Authorities
Dr. D.W.Williams
United Kingdom National Hydrographer
United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
Admiralty Way
Taunton
Somerset
England
20th April 2006
iv
CONTENTS
Pages
Preface iii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents iv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Explanatory notes vi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations viii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary x. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index chartlet facing 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 1
Navigation and regulations
Limits of the book (1.1) 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Navigational dangers and hazards (1.2) 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Traffic and operations (1.7) 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charts (1.17) 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aids to navigation (1.20) 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pilotage (1.23) 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radio facilities (1.24) 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regulations (1.33) 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signals (1.41) 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distress and rescue (1.45) 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Countries and ports
South Africa (1.54) 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mozambique (1.64) 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tanzania (1.74) 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kenya (1.83) 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Somalia (1.92) 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principal ports, harbours and anchorages (1.101) 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Port services — summary (1.102) 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Natural conditions
Maritime topography (1.107) 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Currents, tidal streams and flow (1.113) 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea level and tides (1.120) 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea and swell (1.121) 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sea water characteristics (1.123) 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ice conditions (1.125) 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climate and weather (1.126) 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climate tables (1.166) 56. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meteorological conversion table and scales (1.183) 74. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 2
Cape Agulhas to Cape Padrone 77. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 3
Cape Padrone to Waterfall Bluff 111. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 4
Waterfall Bluff to Ponta do Ouro 147. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 5
Ponta do Ouro to Ponta Namalungo 179. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 6
Ponta Namalungo to Cabo Delgado 219. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 7
Cabo Delgado to Ras Ndege 247. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTENTS
v
CHAPTER 8
Ras Ndege to Pangani 275. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 9
Pangani to Chale Point, including Pemba Island 301. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 10
Chale Point to Raas Kaambooni 323. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 11
Raas Kaambooni to Raas Binna 351. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDICES AND INDEX
Appendix I — Rules for the navigation of laden tankers off the South African coast 371. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix II — Rebublic of South Africa − practice and exercise areas 372. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix III — Rebublic of South Africa − port closure 373. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix IV — South African Maritime Safety Authority (SAMSA) Reporting System 374. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix V — Extracts from “The Tanzania Harbours Regulations, 1991” 375. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index 378. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
EXPLANATORY NOTES
Admiralty Sailing Directions are intended for use by vessels of 150 gt or more. They amplify charted detail and contain information
needed for safe navigation which is not available from Admiralty charts, or other hydrographic publications. They are intended to be read in
conjunction with the charts quoted in the text.
This volume of the Sailing Directions will be kept up-to-date by the issue of a new edition at intervals of approximately 3 years, without
the use of supplements. In addition important amendments which cannot await the new edition are published in Section IV of the weekly
editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners. A list of such amendments and notices in force is published quarterly. Those still in force at the end
of the year are reprinted in the Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
This volume should not be used without reference to Section IV of the weekly editions of Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
CD−ROM
Status. A compact disc is provided at the back of this volume. The paper publication of Sailing Directions satisfies the requirements of
Chapter V of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea. The CD version does not satisfy these requirements and should only
be used in conjunction with the paper publication and any amendments affecting the paper publication. Where any discrepancy exists
between data on the CD and in the paper publication of Sailing Directions, the paper publication (inclusive of amendments) is to be relied
upon.
Disclaimer. Whilst the UKHO has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the data on the CD was accurate at the time of production, it
has not verified the data for navigational purposes and the CD is not suitable, and is not to be relied upon, for navigation. The use of the CD for
this purpose is at the user’s own risk. The UKHO accepts no liability (except in the case of death or personal injury caused by the negligence
of the UKHO) whether in contract, tort, under any statute or otherwise and whether or not arising out of any negligence on the part of the
UKHO in respect of any inadequacy of any kind whatsoever in the data on the CD or in the means of distribution.
Conditions of release. The material supplied on the CD−ROM is protected by Crown Copyright. No part of the data may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise
without the prior written permission of the UKHO. The copyright material, its derivatives and its outputs may not be sold or distributed or
commercially exploited in either an original or derived form without the prior written permission of the UKHO. For the avoidance of doubt,
the supplied material, its derivatives and its outputs shall not be placed, or allowed to be placed, on a computer accessible to Third Parties
whether via the Internet or otherwise. The release of the supplied material in no way implies that the UKHO will supply further material.
References to hydrographic and other publications
The Mariner’s Handbook gives general information affecting navigation and is complementary to this volume.
Ocean Passages for the World and Routeing Charts contain ocean routeing information and should be consulted for other than coastal
passages.
Admiralty List of Lights should be consulted for details of lights, lanbys and fog signals, as these are not fully described in this volume.
Admiralty List of Radio Signals should be consulted for information relating to coast and port radio stations, radio details of pilotage
services, radar beacons and radio direction finding stations, meteorological services, radio aids to navigation, Global Maritime Distress and
Safety System (GMDSS) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) stations, as these are only briefly referred to in this volume.
Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners contains in addition to the temporary and preliminary notices, and amendments and
notices affecting Sailing Directions, a number of notices giving information of a permanent nature covering radio messages and navigational
warnings, distress and rescue at sea and exercise areas.
The International Code of Signals should be consulted for details of distress and life-saving signals, international ice-breaker signals as
well as international flag signals.
Remarks on subject matter
Buoys are generally described in detail only when they have special navigational significance, or where the scale of the chart is too small
to show all the details clearly.
Chart index diagrams in this volume show only those Admiralty charts of a suitable scale to give good coverage of the area. Mariners
should consult NP 131 Catalogue of Admiralty Charts and Publications for details of larger scale charts.
Chart references in the text normally refer to the largest scale Admiralty chart but occasionally a smaller scale chart may be quoted where
its use is more appropriate.
Firing, practice and exercise areas. Submarine exercise areas are mentioned in Sailing Directions. Other firing, practice and exercise
areas maybe mentioned with limited details. Signals and buoys used in connection with these areas maybe mentioned if significant for
navigation. Attention is invited to the Annual Notice to Mariners on this subject.
EXPLANATORY NOTES
vii
Names have been taken from the most authoritative source. When an obsolete name still appears on the chart, it is given in brackets
following the proper name at the principal description of the feature in the text and where the name is first mentioned.
Tidal information relating the daily vertical movements of the water is not given; for this Admiralty Tide Tables should be consulted.
Changes in water level of an abnormal nature are mentioned.
Time difference used in the text when applied to the time of High Water found from the Admiralty Tide Tables, gives the time of the event
being described in the Standard Time kept in the area of that event. Due allowance must be made for any seasonal daylight saving time which
may be kept.
Wreck information is included where drying or below-water wrecks are relatively permanent features having significance for
navigation or anchoring.
Units and terminology used in this volume
Latitude and Longitude given in brackets are approximate and are taken from the chart quoted.
Bearings and directions are referred to the true compass and when given in degrees are reckoned clockwise from 000° (North) to 359°
Bearings used for positioning are given from the reference object.
Bearings of objects, alignments and light sectors are given as seen from the vessel.
Courses always refer to the course to be made good over the ground.
Winds are described by the direction from which they blow.
Tidal streams and currents are described by the direction towards which they flow.
Distances are expressed in sea miles of 60 to a degree of latitude and sub-divided into cables of one tenth of a sea mile.
Depths are given below chart datum, except where otherwise stated.
Heights of objects refer to the height of the object above the ground and are invariably expressed as “... m in height”.
Elevations, as distinct from heights, are given above Mean High Water Springs or Mean Higher High Water whichever is quoted in
Admiralty Tide Tables, and expressed as, “an elevation of ... m”. However the elevation of natural features such as hills may alternatively be
expressed as “... m high” since in this case there can be no confusion between elevation and height.
Metric units are used for all measurements of depths, heights and short distances, but where feet/fathoms charts are referred to, these
latter units are given in brackets after the metric values for depths and heights shown on the chart.
Time is expressed in the four-figure notation beginning at midnight and is given in local time unless otherwise stated. Details of local time
kept will be found in Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Bands is the word used to indicate horizontal marking.
Stripes is the word used to indicate markings which are vertical, unless stated to be diagonal.
Conspicuous objects are natural and artificial marks which are outstanding, easily identifiable and clearly visible to the mariner over a
large area of sea in varying conditions of light. If the scale is large enough they will normally be shown on the chart in bold capitals and may be
marked “conspic”.
Prominent objects are those which are easily identifiable, but do not justify being classified as conspicuous.
viii
ABBREVIATIONS
The following abbreviations are used in the text:
AIS Automatic Identification System
ALC Articulated loading column
ALP Articulated loading platform
AMVER Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue
System
°C degrees Celsius
CALM Catenary anchor leg mooring
CBM Conventional buoy mooring
CDC Certain Dangerous Cargo
CVTS Co−operative Vessel Traffic System
DF direction finding
DG degaussing
DGPS Differential Global Positioning System
DW Deep Water
DSC Digital Selective Calling
dwt deadweight tonnage
DZ danger zone
E east (easterly, eastward, eastern, easternmost)
EEZ exclusive economic zone
ELSBM Exposed location single buoy mooring
ENE east-north-east
EPIRB Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon
ESE east-south-east
ETA estimated time of arrival
ETD estimated time of departure
EU European Union
feu forty foot equivalent unit
fm fathom(s)
FPSO Floating production storage and offloading
vessel
FPU Floating production unit
FSO Floating storage and offloading vessel
ft foot (feet)
g/cm
3
gram per cubic centimetre
GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
GPS Global Positioning System
GRP glass reinforced plastic
grt gross register tonnage
gt gross tonnage
HAT Highest Astronomical Tide
HF high frequency
hm hectometre
HMS Her (His) Majesty’s Ship
hp horse power
hPa hectopascal
HSC High Speed Craft
HW High Water
IALA International Association of Lighthouse
Authorities
IHO International Hydrographic Organization
IMO International Maritime Organization
ITCZ Intertropical Convergence Zone
JRCC Joint Rescue Co−ordination Centre
kHz kilohertz
km kilometre(s)
kn knot(s)
kW kilowatt(s)
Lanby Large automatic navigation buoy
LASH Lighter Aboard Ship
LAT Lowest Astronomical Tide
LF low frequency
LHG Liquefied Hazardous Gas
LMT Local Mean Time
LNG Liquefied Natural Gas
LOA Length overall
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
LW Low Water
m metre(s)
mb millibar(s)
MCTS Marine Communications and Traffic Services
Centres
MF medium frequency
MHz megahertz
MHHW Mean Higher High Water
MHLW Mean Higher Low Water
MHW Mean High Water
MHWN Mean High Water Neaps
MHWS Mean High Water Springs
MLHW Mean Lower High Water
MLLW Mean Lower Low Water
MLW Mean Low Water
MLWN Mean Low Water Neaps
MLWS Mean Low Water Springs
mm millimetre(s)
MMSI Maritime Mobile Service Identity
MRCC Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centre
MRSC Maritime Rescue Sub-Centre
MSI Marine Safety Information
MSL Mean Sea Level
MV Motor Vessel
MW megawatt(s)
MY Motor Yacht
N north (northerly, northward, northern,
northernmost)
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Navtex Navigational Telex System
NE north-east
NNE north-north-east
NNW north-north-west
No number
nrt nett register tonnage
NW north-west
ODAS Ocean Data Acquisition System
PEL Port Entry Light
PLEM Pipe line end manifold
POL Petrol, Oil & Lubricants
PSSA Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas
PWC Personal watercraft
RCC Rescue Co−ordination Centre
RMS Royal Mail Ship
RN Royal Navy
RoRo Roll−on, Roll−off
RT radio telephony
ABBREVIATIONS
ix
S south (southerly, southward, southern,
southernmost)
SALM Single anchor leg mooring system
SALS Single anchored leg storage system
SAR Search and Rescue
Satnav Satellite navigation
SBM Single buoy mooring
SE south-east
SPM Single point mooring
sq square
SS Steamship
SSE south-south-east
SSW south-south-west
SW south-west
SWATH small waterplane area twin hull ship
teu twenty foot equivalent unit
TSS Traffic Separation Scheme
UHF ultra high frequency
UKC under keel clearance
UKHO United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
ULCC Ultra Large Crude Carrier
UN United Nations
UT Universal Time
UTC Co-ordinated Universal Time
VDR Voyage Data Recorder
VHF very high frequency
VLCC Very Large Crude Carrier
VMRS Vessel Movement Reporting System
VTC Vessel Traffic Centre
VTMS Vessel Traffic Management System
VTS Vessel Traffic Services
W west (westerly, westward, western,
westernmost)
WGS World Geodetic System
WMO World Meteorological Organization
WNW west-north-west
WSW west-south-west
WT radio (wireless) telegraphy
x
GLOSSARY
Afrikaans (K), Arabic (A), Italian (I), Portuguese (P), Somali (S) and Swahili (W) terms and words found on charts and in the Sailing Directions
Foreign word Language English meaning
a P the (fem). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aanleplek K wharf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . abra P cove, creek, haven. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . abyad A white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . acantilados P cliffs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . adentro P inner, inside. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aduana P customs house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aguada P watering place. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ahmer A red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ain A springs (of water). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . akhder A green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . al A the. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . albufera P lagoon, pond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aldeia P hamlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . alto/s P height/heights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . altura/s P height/heights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . amarelo P yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . amik A deep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . amshi−deladel A slow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . amwaj A breakers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ancho P wide, broad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ancoradouro P anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angostura P narrows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . angra P creek, bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aquario P aquarium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . areia P sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ari A shallow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aro S peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . arquipelago P archipelago. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . arrecife P reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . as P the (fem). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . asfer A yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aswed A black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . atalaia P lookout, watchtower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . atta A bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . atta metawel A bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . awari A shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . azraq A blue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . azul P blue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baai K bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baaitjie K cove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bab A entrance, gate, strait. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . babur A steam vessel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bacia P basin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baggerbank K spoil ground. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baía I, P bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bairro P district (of town), ward. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baixio, baixa P shallow, shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baixo, a P shallow, shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . baken K beacon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . balisar, baliza P beacon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . banchi I banks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . banchina I quay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . banco I, P bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bandar S bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bandar W port, harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bank K bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bannaanka S plain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . barra P bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . basilica P basilica. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . batería P battery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . beer A well. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . behr A sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . behr neksan A half tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . behr seneh A high water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . behr yari A ebb. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bejirah A lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . beled A town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bender W port, harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreign word Language English meaning
berg K mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . berge K mountains, mountain chain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . berosi A anchor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . betihet A marsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . biyogal S lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blinder K submerged rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . blou K blue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . boca P mouth, entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . boei K buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . boia P buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . boot K boat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . boya A buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . boya abu nakus A bell-buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . boya en nur A light-buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . boya es siti A whistle-buoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . branco P white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . branders K breakers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . branding K surf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . breekwater K breakwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . buffel K buffalo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bukah et tin A mudbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bur yar S hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . burf A spire. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . burj A tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . but S mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . buur, buuraha S hill, mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . byo galen S lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cabeco/a P summit of a hill or shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cabo P cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cais P quay or wharf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cala P creek, channel, narrow inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . calata I wharf, unloading quay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . calheta P inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . canal P channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . canale I channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . canto P bluff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . capela P chapel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . capo I cape, headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . carreira P narrow channel, slipway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . casa I, P house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . casal P farmhouse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . casino I country house, club. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . castel, castello I castle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . castelo P castle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . catedral P cathedral. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cattedrale I cathedral. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cemiterio P cemetery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cerro P hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . chale P chalet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cidade P city, large town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cidadela P citadel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cima P summit, crest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cinzento P grey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colina P hill, hillock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . collina I hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . collinette I small hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . colonia P colony, settlement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . concha P cove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cono P cone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . convento P convent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cor I creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . coroa P sandy head. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . costa P coast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cruz P cross. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dar A house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dawamir dakhil el behr A rock (below water). . . . . . . . . . dawamir kherej el behr A rock (above water). . . . . . . . . . debab A fog, mist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . de dentro (adj) P inner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xi
Foreign word Language English meaning
de fora P outer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . deked S harbour, wharf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dekeh el amwal A quay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dekhul A entrance, passage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dekka hak el mal A wharf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dekka hak en nazul A pier. . . . . . . . . . . . . dekka saghir A jetty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . derbeh ghefleh A squall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . desembarcadouro P landing place. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . deurvaart K passage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . diepte K depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dique P mole, dock, embankment, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . levee
diyik A narrow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . doca P dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . doh S channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dok K dock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dooiety K neap tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dorp K village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . droog K dry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . drywend K afloat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dud S forest, mound, embankment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . duiker K cormorant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . duin K dune. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . duna P dune. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eb K ebb. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eiland K island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eilandjie K islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . el A the (masc). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . el medd A tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . enseada P bay, bight, cove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . entrada P entrance, fairway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ermida P hermitage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . esclusa P lock (canal or basin). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eskarp K escarpment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . espigão P projecting point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . esporão P groyne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . estacada P pier, projecting wharf, mole. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . estaleiro P shipyard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . este, leste P east, eastern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . esteiro P creek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . estreito P strait, narrows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . estuario P estuary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fabrica P factory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fanale I light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . farilhão P stack, steep rocky islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fenar A lighthouse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fisa A fast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fiume I river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fok el jebel A summit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fontein K spring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fortaleza P fortress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forte I, P fort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fortino I small fort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . foz P mouth of a river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fundeadouro P anchorage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fungo W bank, shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ga’an baded A arm of the sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gashirad S island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . geel K yellow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gees S point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . geneza W castle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gestrand K aground. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gety K tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gevaar K danger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ghabeh A wood (trees). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ghalah A deep. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gharb A west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ghobar A fog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ghubbat A bay, gulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreign word Language English meaning
ghubbet S bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . golf K wave. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . golfo I gulf, bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . golfo P gulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . grande P large. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . groen K green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gubed S bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gumbur S hillock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . har S mountain, range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hawe K harbour, port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hawehoof K mole. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hawekom K basin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . heb A coast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hejer A stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . heuwel K hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hindernis K obstruction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hoek K corner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hoog K high. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hoogte K height, elevation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hori A canoe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hotel P hotel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hout K wood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . husun A castle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . igreja P church. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilha P island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilhéu P islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ilhota P islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . illin S entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ínsua P small islet or rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . interior P inner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isola I island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . isolotto I islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . istmo P isthmus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jaba S hill, mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jakkals K jackal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jebeh A forest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jebel A, S hill, mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jebel el hejer A cliff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jebel en nes A sandhill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jebel kayem A peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jebel saghir A hillock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jejirah A island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jejirah saghir A islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jenub A south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jiwe mwamba W rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jori S bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kaai K jetty, quay, wharf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kaap K cape, headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kabellengte K cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kalah A fort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . karn A peak, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . katah A rock (below water). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kateh el behr A bottom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kazika W half-tide rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kebir A great. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kenisah A church. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . keryah A village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ket-ket A shingle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khelij A gulf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kheter A danger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khor A channel, creek, gulf, inlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khoor S bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khul A flood, spring tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . khul kebir A flood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kidif nes A dune. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kilima W hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kisiwa W island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kitif en nes A sandbank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . klip K stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kloof K gorge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xii
Foreign word Language English meaning
knoop K knot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kob A marsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . koers K course. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kom en nes A dune. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kompass K compass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kop K hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . koppie K hillock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . krans K cliff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kubbah A dome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kubbeh A beacon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kuddam A ahead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kur S hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kurum S hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kus K coast, shore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . laag K low. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . laag S water channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lago P lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lagoa P small lake, marsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . laguna P lagoon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . laje P flat-topped rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . land K land. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . landteken K landmark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . leeu K lion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . leimerk K leading mark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . levante P eastern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lugar P hamlet, place. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ma hali A fresh water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ma mutawasid A half tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . magneties K magnetic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maken en nazel A landing place. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . malgas K gannet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mar P sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . margen P shore, river bank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marina I beach, landing-place. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marso A harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marso keshef A roadstead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marso saghir A basin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . masajid S mosque. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . masjid S mosque. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mast K mast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mata P forest, wood, thicket. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mauj A wave. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mayeh A current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medina A town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . medkhel A entrance, inlet, passage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . meer K lake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . meerplek K mooring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . megjrib A west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . menarah A lighthouse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . meridional P southern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . merk K mark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . merkeb abu shirah A sailing vessel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . mersa A anchorage, port (harbour). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mesjid A mosque. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . meter A rain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mis K fog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlango W channel, entrance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mlima W mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mnara W tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . modder K mud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . moeras K swamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . moinho P mill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . moj A wave. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . molhe P mole, pier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . molo I breakwater, mole. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . montagna I mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . montanha P mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . monte I mount. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . monte P mount, mountain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . moreno P brown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . morro P hill knoll. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreign word Language English meaning
mossel K mussel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mowyah hali A fresh water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mto W creek, river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . murjan A coral (red). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mustenka A marsh, swamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mwamba W shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . negro P black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nehr A river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nehr saghir A stream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nek K col, pass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nes A sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . newel K mist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ngome W castle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . noord K north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nord I north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . norte P north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nuksan el behr A low water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nuovo I new. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nur A light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o P the (masc). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oasi I oasis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . occidental P western. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oeste P west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ondersee berg K seamount. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . onderwater K submerged. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oorspoel K awash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oos K east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . op land K ashore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oriental P eastern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . os P the (masc). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . palheiros P fishing village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . parcel P reef, shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . paredão P seawall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . passagem P channel, passage, pass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . passo I passage, pass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pedra P rock, stone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . peiling K bearing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pena P rocky peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . penedo P rocky peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . península P peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . penisola I peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pequeno P small. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pico P peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . piek K peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pier K pier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . piloto P pilot (official). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pinhal P pine wood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ponta P point (of land). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pontal P promontory, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ponte P bridge, pier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ponté−cais P pier, jetty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . portinho P small port or harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . porto I, P port, harbour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . povoa P large town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . povoação P village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . povoado P village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . praia P beach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . preto, a P black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . promontório P promontory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . punt K point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . punta I point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pwani W coast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qoor, qooriga S bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . quebra−mar P breakwater. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . quebrada P cut, gap, precipice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rada I road. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . radiobaken K radio beacon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rampa P ramp, boat−slip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . raas S cape, point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GLOSSARY
xiii
Foreign word Language English meaning
ras W, S point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ras el jebel A summit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rasi S cape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reeh A wind. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . reen K rain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . resif A wharf. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . restinga P reef, spit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ria P estuary, sunken valley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ribero P brook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ridotto I redoubt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rio P river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rivier K river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . riviermonding K estuary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rocca I rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rocha P rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rochedo P rocky place. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rocher P rock, rocky place. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rondawel K round hut. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rooi K red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rots K boulder, rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rubad S marsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ruban A pilot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sabbia I sand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . saghir A small. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sahel A shore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ras A, S cape, head, headland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sahil A beach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sanatorio P sanatorium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sandbank K bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . santa P saint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . santo P saint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . são P saint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sawa sawa A abeam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sawiyah A point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . scogliera I ridge of rocks awash. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . scoglio I rock, reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sebchet I salt marsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . secca I reef, sandbank, shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seco P dry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sedd A mole. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sedef A shells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see K sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seegras K kelp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seekart K chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seemeer K lagoon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seemyl K mile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seewarts K off shore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . segnale I signal, mark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sehab A mist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sejirah A tree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . septentrional P northern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . serih A speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . serra I, P mountain range. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . serro P rocky reef or ridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shaab S reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sha’ab A coral (white). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sha’b A reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shacaabi S reef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shaikh A chief, leader. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shaka W islet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sharqi A east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shimal A north. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . shureh A mangrove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sirocco I south-east. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skeep K ship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skeepswerf K dockyard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . skiereiland K peninsula. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . snelheid K speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sotavento P leeward. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . springty K spring tide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stad K city, town. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stilwater K slack water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foreign word Language English meaning
stormwind K gale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . strand K beach, shore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stroom K current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sud I south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . suid K south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sul P south. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . swart K black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . taagga S upland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tafel K table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . teken K mark. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tel A hill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tel saghir A hillock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . terra P land. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tin A mud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . togga S watercourse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . toring K tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . torre I, P tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tufan A storm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . turab A mud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . uadi I valley, river bed, river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . uadi W river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . upulu W channel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vaam K fathom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vaarwater K fairway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vale P valley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vallei K valley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . varadouro P landing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vecchio I old, ancient. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . verde P green. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vermelho/a P red. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vigía P lookout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vila P town, village, villa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . villaggio I village. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vis K fish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vlack water K shoal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vlei K marsh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vloed K flood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vloedbos K mangrove. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . voorgebergte K bluff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . voorstrand K foreshore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vuurtoring K lighthouse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . volção P volcano. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wadi A mouth (of river), water course. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wadi W river. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wal K embankment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . walvis K whale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . webi S river (seasonally flowing). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wehel A swamp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . werayi A astern. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . werweling K eddy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wes K west. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wit K white. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wolk K cloud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wrak K wreck. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xoor S bay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yemin el merkeb A starboard (side). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yesar el merkeb A port (side of vessel). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yster K iron. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zaimah A boat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zoba’ah ghefleh A squall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NOTES
xiv
NP 64 RED SEA AND
GULF OF ADEN PILOT
G
u
l
f
o
f
A
d
e
n
S
O
M
A
L
I
A
MOZAMBIQUE
Beira
Europa
B
a
s
s
a
s
d
a
I
d
n
i
a
TANZANIA
KENYA
See
Index
Chart 3(b)
See
Index
Chart 3(a)
Maputo
Richards Bay
Inhambane
INDIAN
OCEAN
R. Zambeze
Limpopo R.
See
Index
Chart 3(b) M
O
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A
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B
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REPUBLIC OF
SOUTH AFRICA
Durban
NP 39
SOUTH
INDIAN
OCEAN
PILOT
REPUBLIC OF
SOUTH AFRICA
INDIAN
OCEAN
NP 39
SOUTH INDIAN
OCEAN PILOT
AGULHAS
BANK
AFRICA PILOT VOL II
NP 2
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3300
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4204
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760
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2949
3877
642
4701
4700
2095
2969
2966
578
4204
3300
648
4204
4701
4700
0306
11
5
3
4
2
20°
20°
20°
30°
30°
30°
40°
Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
40°
50°
10°
N
10°
S
0°
20°
20°
20°
40°
40°
40°
25°
25°
25°
35°
35°
35°
30°
30°
Longitude 30° East from Greenwich
Africa Pilot Vol III
NP 3(a)
For continuation
see Index 3(b)
20°
30°
40°
10°
N
10°
S
0°
20°
40°
25°
35°
30°
KENYA
TANZANIA
For continuation see
adjoining index
ZANZIBAR I.
Mombasa
Pemba (Porto Amelia)
TANZANIA
Dar es Salaam
MAFIA I.
Nacala
M
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I. Epidendron
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NP 39
SOUTH
INDIAN
OCEAN
PILOT
For continuation see
adjoining index
See Index Chart
NP 3(a)
See Index Chart NP 3(a)
PEMBA
P. de Mozambique
Mocímboa da Praia
Angoche
Lindi
Kilwa Kivinje
Tanga
Lamu
Malindi
2926
2933
2935
2934
2927
2949
3361
3361
3362
3310
3310
2929
2949
2927
2927
2929
2949
2933
0306
10
9
8
7
7
6
5
5
36°
36°
37°
37°
38°
38°
39°
Longitude 39° East from Greenwich
40°41°
41°
42°
42°
2°2°
3°
3°
4°4°
5°5°
7°
7°
8°
8°
9°
9°
10°
10°
6°6°
Africa Pilot Vol III
36°
36°
37°
37°
38°
38°
39°
Longitude 39° East from Greenwich
40°41°
41°
42°
42°
11°
11°
12°12°
13°
13°
15°15°
16°
16°
17°
17°
18°
18°
19°19°
14°14°
NP 3(b)
1
LAWS AND REGULATIONS APPERTAINING TO NAVIGATION
While, in the interests of the safety of shipping, the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office makes every endeavour to include in its
hydrographic publications details of the laws and regulations of all countries appertaining to navigation, it must be clearly understood:
(a) that no liability whatever will be accepted for failure to publish details of any particular law or regulation, and
(b) that publication of details of a law or regulation is solely for the safety and convenience of shipping and implies no recognition
of the international validity of the law or regulation.
AFRICA PILOT
VOLUME III
CHAPTER 1
NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS
COUNTRIES AND PORTS
NATURAL CONDITIONS
NAVIGATION AND REGULATIONS
LIMITS OF THE BOOK
Chart 4072
Area covered
1.1
1
This volume contains Sailing Directions for the coastal
waters of the S and E coasts of Africa from Cape Agulhas
(34°50′S 20°01′E) to Raas Binna (11°09′N 51°11′E), and
for the sea area of the Indian Ocean and the W side of
Mozambique Channel contained within the limits defined
below:
Lat N Long E
From Raas Binna:11°09′ 51°11′
E to position:11°09′ 61°20′
Lat S Long E
Thence S to position: 2°00′ 61°20′
Thence W to position: 2°00′ 50°00′
Thence SW to position:10°00′ 42°30′
Thence S to position:16°00′ 42°30′
Thence SW to position:20°00′ 39°00′
Thence S to position:45°00′ 39°00′
Thence W to position:45°00′ 20°00′
Thence N to Cape Agulhas:34°50′ 20°01′
NAVIGATIONAL DANGERS AND HAZARDS
Coastal conditions
1.2
1
Passages between ports on the coast covered by this
book are subject to conditions imposed by the currents and
weather of the Indian Ocean.
In the area between Cape Agulhas and Mozambique
Channel, the dominating factors are the Agulhas Current
(1.117) which sets S and W with considerable strength, and
the heavy and dangerous seas sometimes encountered near
the edge of the continental shelf, particularly off East
London (33°02′S 27°55′E).
2
Mariners NE−bound, if hugging the coast to avoid the
strength of the adverse Agulhas Current and possibly gain
benefit of an inshore counter current, must proceed with
caution and when uncertain of their position keep in depths
greater than 75 m. They should take great care to avoid the
salient points and be very wary of indraughts into the bays
which can occur even when the weather is fair and there is
no strong onshore wind.
3
Mariners SW−bound between Cape Saint Lucia (28°31′S
32°24′E) and East London may save time by keeping in
the fast core of the Agulhas Current, but it should be
appreciated that heavy and dangerous seas may be
encountered in this area. See 1.122 for caution concerning
“abnormal waves”.
CHAPTER 1
2
Navigation amongst coral
1.3
1
For information on navigating in coral waters see The
Mariner’s Handbook.
Overhead cables
1.4
1
Overhead cables are mentioned in the text where the
clearance beneath them may be a hazard to navigation.
Some of these cables carry high voltages, and sufficient
clearance must be allowed when passing underneath them.
2
Mariners are advised that the actual clearance of an
overhead cable may differ from its charted value due to
changes in atmospheric conditions, water levels and in
winter by the ice and snow conditions.
3
For information on safety clearances and the radar
responses to be expected see The Mariner’s Handbook.
Shark nets
1.5
1
Shark nets made of polyethylene rope and twine, marked
by orange and yellow buoys may be encountered in depths
of approximately 15 m around the S and E coasts of the
Republic of South Africa. Although these nets, which may
or may not be charted, are relatively close to the shore, the
continental shelf is often very narrow and vessels on
passage are advised to remain at least 1 mile offshore in
order to avoid them. A list of coastal resorts having shark
nets is included in South African Annual Notices to
Mariners.
Piracy and armed robbery
1.6
1
The United Kingdom’s Department of Transport has
brought to the attention of shipowners, masters and crews,
the risk of acts of piracy on the high seas or armed
robbery against ships at anchor off ports or when underway
through a coastal state’s territorial waters. It outlines steps
that should be taken to reduce risk of such attacks, possible
responses to them and the need to report attacks, both
successful and unsuccessful, to the authorities of the
relevant coastal state and to the ship’s own maritime
administration.
2
Incidents of piracy and armed robbery against ships
whilst alongside and underway have been reported in areas
covered by this volume. Mariners should be aware of the
risks that may be incurred by vessels of any size whilst
alongside or on passage, especially at speeds of less than
12 kn, and are therefore advised to exercise due caution.
There has also been an increased use of mortars,
rocket−propelled grenades and other heavy weapons by
pirates.
3
For further information, including recommended
precautions and reporting details, see The Mariner’s
Handbook and Admiralty List of Radio Signals Vol 1 (1).
TRAFFIC AND OPERATIONS
Traffic
Shipping
1.7
1
For details of offshore routes through the area, including
Mozambique Channel, and trans−ocean routes, see Ocean
Passages for the World.
Routeing measures
1.8
1
Traffic separation scheme off the coast of South
Africa. Traffic separation schemes have been established as
indicated below.
IMO adopted:
Alphard Banks (S of Cape Infanta) (2.10).
F A Platform (S of Cape Saint Blaize) (2.10).
Not IMO adopted:
2
Approaches to Port Elizabeth (2.167). Although not
IMO adopted, within this scheme Rule 10 of The
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions
at Sea (1972) applies.
For further information see Annual Summary of
Admiralty Notices to Mariners Notice No 17, The Mariner’s
Handbook and IMO publication Ship’s Routing.
3
Rules for the navigation of laden tankers off the
coast of South Africa. Laden tankers, whether W−bound
or E−bound, should follow the IMO adopted routeing
arrangements as detailed in Appendix I.
Any breakdown, collision, other accident or possible
danger to navigation occurring to such a vessel within
50 miles of the coast of the Republic of South Africa, must
be reported immediately. For reporting procedures see
Admiralty List of Radio Signal Vol 1 (1).
Fishing
General remarks
1.9
1
Extensive fishing is carried out on the continental shelf
of Southern Africa. Lit or unlit buoys, marking trawling
areas, may be encountered.
Tuna long line fishing may be encountered within
20 miles of the coast of Kenya. The fishing lines, up to
4 miles in length, are marked by buoys and flags.
Fish aggregation devices
1.10
1
In 2005, a number of Fish Aggregating Devices (FAD)
were moored in depths from 300 to 650 m along sections
of the coast of Tanzania as part of a fisheries development
trial.
On the surface, a FAD is marked by a line of up to 25
yellow plastic floats on a wire 30 m in length; a 2 m pole,
with radar reflector, may be present at the end of the float
line. During the SE Monsoon, all or part of the float
section may be submerged, re−surfacing during the NE
Monsoon
2
Vessels are advised to maintain a safe distance of about
5 cables from FAD positions, the locations of which are
promulgated by Temporary and Preliminary Notices to
Mariners.
Fishery inspection vessels
1.11
1
In certain areas, which within the limits of this book
include all waters to S and W of 16°12′S 40°00′E, the
International Commission for South East Atlantic Fisheries
(ICSEAF) operates an inspection service for the purpose of
controlling the mesh size of trawl nets. See also Africa
Pilot Volume II and The Antarctic Pilot.
Mariners should give a wide berth to inspection vessels
flying the blue and yellow ICSEAF pennant (1.43) as they
may be unable to manoeuvre.
CHAPTER 1
3
Exercise areas
Firing practice
1.12
1
Gunnery and bombing practices, and defence exercises,
similar to those described in the Annual Summary of
Admiralty Notices to Mariners, take place in a number of
areas off the coast of South Africa. Notice of firing
practices, giving the limits of the area, nature and duration
of the practice, and specified navigation rules, are
promulgated by local Notices to Mariners and radio
navigation warnings.
2
For limits and details of areas off the coast of the
Republic of South Africa see Appendix II.
Caution. Range authorities are responsible that no risk
is caused to vessels, but should a vessel find itself in an
area where practice is in progress, course and speed should
be maintained or, if unable to do so for navigational
reasons, the vessel should endeavour to clear the practice
area as quickly as possible.
For signals used by warships see 1.41.
Submarine exercises
1.13
1
Submarines of the South African Navy may be met on
the surface at night, particularly in the vicinity of Port
Elizabeth, East London and Durban. Notice of exercises is
given only in exceptional circumstances and therefore a
good look−out should be kept for submarines. See 1.42 for
signals used in relation to submarine activity.
Marine exploitation
Oil and gas fields
1.14
1
Offshore oil and gas exploration and production is
carried out within the area covered by this volume, in
particular between Cape Agulhas and Durban. Numerous
underwater obstructions, abandoned or suspended
wellheads, exist extending to a height of 4⋅6 m above the
seabed.
Pipelines
1.15
1
Caution. Mariners are advised not to anchor or trawl in
the vicinity of pipelines. Gas from a damaged oil or gas
pipeline could cause an explosion, loss of a vessel’s
buoyancy, or other serious hazard. Pipelines are not always
buried and their presence may effectively reduce the
charted depth by as much as 2 m. They may also span
seabed undulations and cause fishing gear to become
irrecoverably snagged, putting a vessel in severe danger.
See Annual Notice to Mariners No 24 and The Mariner’s
Handbook.
Helicopter operations
1.16
1
Any ship may need to make use of helicopters either as
a matter of routine or in an emergency. Embarkation of
pilots, delivery of essential stores or changing crew by
helicopter are already routine operations for large tankers or
bulk carriers off certain ports. These vessels either carry
their own company handbook on helicopter operations or
one issued by the International Chamber of Shipping.
However, in an emergency any vessel may be called upon
to operate with helicopters. For further information see
Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to Mariners and The
Mariner’s Handbook.
2
A routine helicopter service is available off Durban
(4.81).
CHARTS
General information
1.17
1
The attention of mariners is drawn to the article on
“Charts” contained in The Mariner’s Handbook. This article
describes the considerations to be taken onto account when
assessing the degrees of reliance that can be placed on a
particular chart
2
Chart maintenance for most minor ports within the area
covered by this book depends on data received from local
authorities which vary considerably from country to
country: information is often based only on reports from
ships. Mariners should be aware that hydrographic and
navigational information is not being received regularly
from some of the countries within the limits of this book.
Charts and publications therefore may not be fully
up−to−date. Mariners are advised to take note of the
‘source data diagrams’ on the charts and to navigate with
caution; also to seek information from other sources that
may be available to them.
3
Orthography presents a problem in many areas covered
by this volume. Since the dates of the original surveys and
the topographical maps, every country has changed its form
of government; in many cases changes of names have
followed. Names on charts therefore may not always be
those in current use, but where a new or alternative name
is known it is given in this book in addition to the old
name.
Admiralty charts
1.18
1
The following summarises the state of Admiralty
charting for each country within the limits of this volume.
Republic of South Africa. Charts are derived from
South African Navy Hydrographic Office charts which are
largely based on South African surveys.
Mozambique. Charts are based on Portuguese charts and
surveys to 1975; thereafter, on surveys and information
from INAHINA the Mozambique Government
Hydrographic Office.
2
Tanzania and Kenya. Charts are based on British
surveys conducted at various dates during the twentieth
century, and some on lead−line surveys from the late
nineteenth century. These surveys are supplemented by later
information from principal port authorities. Charts of
Victoria Nyanza (Lake Victoria) are not subject to regular
correction by Admiralty Notices to Mariners.
Somalia. Coastal charts and harbour plans are based on
Italian Government charts published between 1934 and
1942.
Foreign charts
1.19
1
In certain areas where the Admiralty charts show
insufficient detail for navigation close inshore these Sailing
Directions have been written using foreign charts. These
are not quoted as reference charts in the text, which has
been written on the assumption that mariners wishing to
navigate in these areas will have provided themselves with
suitable charts with which to do so.
2
Foreign charts may be obtained from the publishing
authorities shown below and in the Catalogue of Admiralty
Charts. These charts are not issued by the UK
CHAPTER 1
4
Hydrographic Office, nor are they amended by Admiralty
Notices to Mariners:
Mozambique. National Institute of Hydrography and
Navigation, Av Karl Marx No.153, P.O. Box 2089,
Maputo. E−mail: inahina@inahina.gov.mz.
South Africa. Hydrographic Office, Private Bag XI
Tokai, 7966 Cape Town. E−mail:
Hydrosan@iafrica.com.
AIDS TO NAVIGATION
Lights
1.20
1
Navigational lights are the responsibility of the
appropriate national authorities.
Major lights are those with a nominal range of 15 miles
or more.
Only the structures of individual lights are described in
this volume; for further details of lights see Admiralty List
of Lights and Fog Signals Volume D.
Landmarks
1.21
1
Caution is necessary when evaluating the descriptions
given in this volume concerning landmarks such as trees
and the colour and shape of buildings and other marks.
New buildings may have been erected and old trees or
houses destroyed, so that the marks, which may at one time
have been conspicuous on account of their isolation, shape
or colour, may no longer exist or may now be difficult to
identify.
Buoys
1.22
1
The IALA Maritime Buoyage System Region A (red to
port) is used throughout the area covered by this volume.
For full details of the system see The Mariner’s Handbook
and NP735−IALA Maritime Buoyage System.
PILOTAGE
General
1.23
1
Information on pilotage procedures at individual ports is
given in the text relating to the port concerned. See also
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).
RADIO FACILITIES
Position fixing systems
Satellite navigation systems
1.24
1
GPS, the Navstar Global Positioning System, is a
military satellite navigation system owned and operated by
the United States Department of Defense; it provides
world−wide position fixing.
The system is referenced to the datum of the World
Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) and therefore positions
obtained from GPS may require adjustment to the datum of
the chart being used.
2
GLONASS, the Russian Global Navigation Satellite
System, is similar to GPS in that it is a space−based
navigation system which provides world−wide position
fixing.
The system is referenced to the Soviet Geocentric
Co−ordinate System 1990 (SGS90) and, as for positions
obtained from GPS, may require adjustment to the datum
of the chart being used.
3
DGPS. Differential GPS compares the position of a
fixed point, referred to as the reference station, with
positions obtained from a GPS receiver at that point. The
resulting differences are then broadcast as corrections to
suitable receivers to overcome the inherent limitations of
GPS. For a list of reference stations within the limits of
this volume see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
4
Caution. Satellite navigation systems are under the
control of the owning nation which can impose selective
availability or downgrade the accuracy to levels less than
that available from terrestrial radio navigation systems.
Therefore satellite based systems should only be utilised at
the user’s risk.
For full details on satellite navigation systems see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Racons
1.25
1
Those racons which are pertinent to coastal and inshore
navigation are included within the navigational text. See
also Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Radio stations
1.26
1
For full details of all radio stations which transmit in the
area covered by this volume see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 1 (1).
Automatic Identification System
1.27
1
The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a SOLAS
requirement to assist information exchange between ships
and shore reporting stations, or ship−to−ship. Description of
the system is given in The Mariner’s Handbook.
Radio navigational warnings
World−wide navigational warnings
1.28
1
This volume of Sailing Directions lies within the limits
of NAVAREAS VII and VIII of the World−Wide
Navigational Warning Service (WWNWS), and within the
limits of the United States’ HYDROPAC warning service.
Broadcasts for the sea areas covered by this volume are as
follows:
NAVAREA VII warnings, issued by the Hydrographic
Office of the Republic of South Africa, are broadcast
through:
2
a) SafetyNET.
b) The NAVTEX service from Port Elizabeth and
Durban.
NAVAREA VIII warnings, issued by The Chief
Hydrographer to the Government of India, are broadcast
through:
a) SafetyNET.
3
HYDROPAC warnings, issued by the United States of
America’s National Imagery and Mapping Agency, are
broadcast by the U.S. Coastguard through stations at Guam
and Honolulu.
For a description of Navigational Warnings see The
Mariner’s Handbook. For full details of the NAVAREA and
HYDROPAC warning systems see Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volumes 3 (1) 3 (2) and 5.
CHAPTER 1
5
Coastal warnings
1.29
1
Coastal warnings are issued and broadcast by national
coast radio stations. For broadcast details see Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 3 (1).
Local warnings
1.30
1
Local warnings cover the area within the limits of
jurisdiction of a harbour or port authority and may be
issued by those authorities. They may be issued in the
national language only and supplement the coastal
navigational warnings by giving information which the
ocean−going ship may not normally require. For broadcast
details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 3 (1).
Radio weather reports
METAREAs VII and VIII warnings/bulletins
1.31
1
The World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) has
established a global service for the broadcast of high seas
weather warnings and routine weather bulletins, through the
Enhanced Group Calling International SafetyNET Service.
METeorological service AREAS (METAREAS) are
identical to the 16 NAVAREAS within the World−Wide
Navigational Warning Service (WWNWS).
2
Each METAREA has a designated National
Meteorological Service responsible for issuing high seas
weather warnings and bulletins. The designated authorities
are not necessarily in the same country as the NAVAREA
co−ordinators. Weather warnings and routine bulletins are
broadcast through:
3
a) National coast radio stations.
b) SafetyNET (Enhanced Group Calling International
SafetyNET).
For broadcast details, including radio−facsimile
broadcasts, see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volumes 3 (1) and 5.
Radio medical advice
1.32
1
Mariners may obtain medical advice by radio from the
International Radio−Medical Centre (CIRM) in Rome. For
further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 1 (1).
REGULATIONS
International regulations
Submarine cables and pipelines
1.33
1
Mariners are warned that every care should be taken to
avoid anchoring, trawling or other activities in the vicinity
of submarine cables or pipelines on account of the serious
consequences which would result from fouling them.
2
Submarine cables may contain high voltages and contact
with them, or proximity to them, poses an extreme danger.
If a submarine cable is fouled it should never be cut. See
The Mariner’s Handbook for information on The
International Convention for the Protection of Submarine
Cables.
For submarine pipelines see 1.15.
Pollution
1.34
1
The International Convention for the Prevention of
Pollution from Ships 1973 was adopted by the International
Conference on Marine Pollution convened by the IMO in
1973. It was modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating
thereto and adopted by the International Conference on
Tanker Safety and Pollution Prevention convened by the
IMO in 1978. The convention, as modified by the protocol,
is known as MARPOL 73/78.
2
The convention consists of 6 annexes. Annex I (oil),
Annex II (Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk), Annex III
(Harmful Substances carried at Sea in packaged Form) and
Annex V (Garbage from Ships) are mandatory; Annex IV
(Sewage from Ships) and Annex VI (Air Pollution) are
optional.
3
Under the convention, a Master has the duty to report
pollution incidents or damage and breakdowns affecting the
safety of his vessel to the coastal authorities. Specific
instructions on reporting are given in Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 1 (1).
MARPOL 73/78 and Annexes are described in detail in
The Mariner’s Handbook.
Facilities for the disposal of oily waste and garbage,
where known, are described under the heading ‘other
facilities’ for the appropriate port within this book.
National regulations
Republic of South Africa
1.35
1
South African Maritime Safety Authority (SAMSA)
Reporting System. Under these regulations vessels bound
for South African ports must transmit an information report
not less than 96 hours before the vessel’s ETA at its first
South African port. For further details see Appendix IV and
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 1 (1).
2
Merchant Shipping (Maritime Security) Regulations,
2004, in South African Waters and Ports. South Africa
has implemented the maritime security requirements of the
International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) code.
The regulations apply in the following ports within this
volume: Mossel Bay, Port Elizabeth, East London, Durban
and Richards Bay.
3
The regulations apply to passenger ships, cargo ships of
500 grt or more, and to mobile offshore drilling units
(MODUs) on international voyages; they do not apply to
fishing vessels, vessels used solely for sport or recreation,
government ships engaged solely on non−commercial
voyages, coasting ships, and ships transiting South Africa’s
territorial waters. For further details see South African
Annual Notices to Mariners.
4
Closure of ports. See Appendix III.
1.36
1
“Proclaimed guano islands” By government
proclamation, certain islands off the coast of the Republic
of South Africa are reserved for the collection of guano.
Landing on these islands without a permit is prohibited,
and within the territorial waters of the Republic it is
forbidden to kill or disturb seabirds or to take their eggs.
“Proclaimed guano islands” within the limits of this book
are:
Seal Island (Mossel Bay) (2.76)
Bird Island (2.201).
2
Protection of seals. The killing of seals within the
territorial waters of the Republic of South Africa is
CHAPTER 1
6
prohibited, except at certain times of the year and within
the necessary permit.
Mozambique
1.37
1
Regulations not known.
Tanzania
1.38
1
“The Tanzania Harbours Regulations, 1991”, a modified
form of the earlier “East African Harbours Regulations
1970” (1.39), apply to the following ports and harbours:
Mtwara (7.42)
Mikindani (7.29)
Lindi (7.77)
Kilwa Kisiwani (Kilwa Masoko) (7.105)
Kilwa Kivinje (7.120)
Tirene Bay (Kilindoni, Mafia) (7.171)
Dar es Salaam (8.29)
2
Bagamoyo (8.84)
Pangani (8.155)
Tanga (9.15)
Extracts from the regulations are given at Appendix V;
copies of the complete regulations may be obtained from:
Tanzania Harbours Authority,
Bandari Street,
P O Box 9184,
Dar es Salaam,
Tanzania.
3
For details of port regulations in Zanzibar and Pemba,
contact the Zanzibar Ports Corporation, PO Box 263,
Zanzibar.
Kenya
1.39
1
“The East African Harbours Regulations 1970” date
from the time when the ports and harbours of both
Tanzania and Kenya were administered by the East African
Harbours Corporation, a body which was dissolved in
1978. It is reported (2005) that new regulations are being
drafted for ports in Kenya, but until that process is
complete the 1970 regulations remain in force at the
following ports and harbours:
2
Vanga (9.83)
Shimoni (9.85) and Wasin Channel (9.77)
Funzi Bay (9.86)
Port of Mombasa (10.10)
Mtwapa Creek (10.69)
Kilifi Creek (10.61)
Malindi (10.83)
Lamu (10.120)
3
Kiunga (10.146)
Copies of the regulations may be obtained from:
Kenya Ports Authority,
P O Box 95009,
Mombasa 80104,
Kenya.
Somalia
1.40
1
Sailing vessels, boats under power or otherwise, and
tugs or other small craft within a radius of 1 mile of the
entrance to, or within the waters of ports, or in channels,
estuaries and rivers in Somalia, must keep clear of all
power vessels entering or leaving. Masters of power vessels
observing a breach of these regulations should give at least
five short and rapid blasts on the whistle.
Power vessels within the areas described above should
be navigated with caution and at a reduced speed.
SIGNALS
National signals
South African firing ranges and exercise areas
1.41
1
Shore batteries display red flags by day and red fixed or
flashing lights by night when firing practices are in
progress.
All range safety craft, vessels towing targets, and control
launches for radio−controlled targets display a large red
flag at the masthead and, in addition, a painted canvas strip
2 m by 1 m with red and white chequers placed on the
foredeck or cabin top.
2
Ships and aircraft carrying out night firing exercises may
illuminate with bright red or orange flares. By day, ships
display a red flag.
South African submarines
1.42
1
The submarines are fitted with an amber quick flashing
light as an aid to identification. See The Mariner’s
Handbook for caution regarding submarines’ navigation
lights.
The signal displayed by South African warships to
indicate that submarines, which may be submerged, are in
the vicinity, and the signals used by South African
submarines when submerged, are the same as those
described in Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to
Mariners.
2
South African submarines are fitted with one indicator
buoy which can be released if the submarine is unable to
surface; it is cylindrical, about 0⋅6 m in length and 0⋅2 m in
width, painted orange and surmounted by an aerial.
International Commission for South East Atlantic
Fisheries (ICSEAF) — signals
1.43
1
For information about the Commission see 1.11.
Storm warning signals
1.44
1
The International System of Visual Storm Warning
Signals is described in The Mariner’s Handbook. Signals
which have been adopted for use within the area of this
book are given below.
Republic of South Africa:
At Mossel Bay and Port Elizabeth, cones displayed in
the international system for gale or storm winds
from the NW, SW, NE and SE quadrants are
shown.
CHAPTER 1
7
2
Mozambique:
The following international and national signals are
used at ports in Mozambique.
Storm Signals − Mozambique Ports (1.44)
DISTRESS AND RESCUE
General information
Radio monitoring
1.45
1
Mariners are reminded that active GMDSS receivers
together with a continuous watch on the VHF radio distress
frequency are most important factors in the arrangements
for the rescue of people in distress at sea.
GMDSS
1.46
1
The Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
(GMDSS) enables Search and Rescue authorities on shore,
in addition to shipping in the immediate vicinity of a vessel
in distress, to be rapidly alerted to an incident so that
assistance can be provided with he minimum of delay.
Details of the GMDSS and the associated coast radio
stations are given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 5.
Ship reporting systems
General information
1.47
1
Several ship reporting systems, designed to provide
information on shipping in the event of a search and rescue
(SAR) incident, extend over the coastal and offshore waters
within the limits of this volume.
Reporting systems within the limits of this volume are
listed below. Full details of each system, including
coverage area, are given in Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 1 (1).
World−wide
1.48
1
AMVER, the Automated Mutual−assistance Vessel
Rescue system, is operated by the United States Coast
Guard, and provides world−wide cover for assistance in the
development and co−ordination of Search and Rescue
(SAR) efforts. Participation is voluntary, except for certain
U.S. flag vessels, or U.S. interest vessels.
2
Merchant vessels of all nations making offshore voyages
are encouraged to send movement reports and periodic
position reports. The AMVER Centre is then able to
provide SAR authorities, on demand, accurate information
on the position and characteristics of vessels in the vicinity
of a reported distress.
South Africa
1.49
1
The South African Ship Reporting system (SAFREP)
covers the coastal and offshore waters of South Africa.
Participation is voluntary, for vessels of any nationality,
tonnage and type, although the emphasis is placed on
trading vessels of over 100 grt. Reports may be sent via
South African coast radio stations or Inmarsat.
Madagascar
1.50
1
Mariners navigating within the area bounded by latitudes
5°S and 30°S, and longitude 60°E and the coast of Africa,
are asked to make daily position reports through the nearest
coast radio station in Madagascar.
India
1.51
1
The Indian Ship Position and Information Reporting
System (INSPIRES) covers the area N of 10°30′S within
the limits of this volume. The system is mandatory for all
Indian merchant ships over 300 grt, and vessels from other
nations are encouraged to participate. Reports should be
sent via selected Indian coast radio stations.
2
INDSAR is a voluntary ship reporting system for foreign
vessels over 300 grt operating in, or transiting through, the
the Indian Search and Rescue Region (ISRR), the W limit
of which is 60°E. INDSAR is supplementary to INSPIRES
and is operated by the Indian Coast Guard through the
MRCC in Mumbai (Bombay).
Rescue services
General information
1.52
1
The entire area described in this volume is covered by
several Search and Rescue Regions (SRR), each associated
with the adjacent nation state. For further details see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5.
General arrangements for Search and Rescue (SAR) are
described in Annual Summary of Admiralty Notices to
Mariners and the International Aeronautical and Maritime
Search and Rescue (IAMSAR) manual.
CHAPTER 1
8
Lifeboat stations
1.53
1
South Africa’s National Sea Rescue Institute (NSRI) is a
voluntary organisation which mans a fleet of 53 rescue
craft at 28 lifeboat stations along the entire coast of South
Africa. Vessels vary in size from 3 to 7 m rigid inflatables,
for rapid response in inshore waters, to self−righting
all−weather vessels up to 13 m in length, which have a
range of 50 miles from their operating base.
Lifeboat stations within the limits of this volume are at
the following locations:
2
Struisbaai (2.26)
Stilbaai (2.51)
Mossel Bay (2.52)
Wilderness (2.89)
Knysna (2.99)
Plettenbergbaai (2.117)
Port Saint Francis (2.145)
Port Elizabeth (2.151)
3
Port Alfred (3.20)
East London (3.41)
Port Saint John’s (3.137)
Port Edward (4.15)
Shelly Beach (4.15)
Durban (4.46)
Richards Bay (4.117)
CHAPTER 1
9
COUNTRIES AND PORTS
SOUTH AFRICA
General description
1.54
1
The Republic of South Africa, commonly known as
South Africa, occupies the S−most part of the African
continent. It is bounded on the NW by Namibia, on the N
by Botswana, and on the NE by Zimbabwe, Mozambique
and Swaziland. The independent state of Lesotho forms an
enclave within the territory of South Africa.
2
The republic comprises nine provinces: Northern Cape,
Western Cape, Eastern Cape, North−West, Free State,
KwaZulu−Natal, Gauteng, Mpumalanga and Northern
Province (Limpopo). Within the limits of this book, only
the three provinces of Western Cape, Eastern Cape and
KwaZulu−Natal have coastlines.
National limits
1.55
1
For the limits of Territorial Sea and Fisheries Zone
claimed by the country see Annual Summary of Admiralty
Notices to Mariners, Annual Notice No 12 and The
Mariner’s Handbook.
History
1.56
1
By the eighth century AD Bantu−speaking peoples had
arrived from the N and settled in southern Africa. In 1488
the Portuguese navigator Bartolomeu Dias sighted what
came to be known as Cape of Good Hope (34°21′S
18°30′E) and rounded the S−most tip of Africa. That this
was the turning point of the long sought route to the East
was not confirmed until 1497 when Vasco da Gama sailed
beyond the farthest point reached by his compatriot Dias
and subsequently reached India. For the next century the
Portuguese continued to brave the “sea of storms” round
the cape to carry on their valuable trade with the East, but
they had little contact with the shores of South Africa
except to provision their ships.
2
In 1652 the Dutch East India Company founded a
settlement at Table Bay (33°55′S 18°25′E) which had
become an important port of call for ships on passage to
the East. The colony expanded and remained under
company rule until 1795 when the British Government took
possession, but at the peace of Amiens in 1802 it was
ceded to its former possessors. In 1806 Cape Colony, as it
was to become, was again taken by the British and their
possession was confirmed at the general peace in 1814. It
was during this period that the Boers, frontier farmers of
mainly Dutch descent, came to regard themselves as
“Afrikaaners”.
3
Natal, so named by Vasco da Gama who landed there on
Christmas Day 1497, was first settled in 1824 by a small
party of British subjects who landed on the coast where
Durban now stands, although there has been two previous
attempts by the Dutch to form a colony. At the time of its
settlement, the country formed part of the Zulu Kingdom.
Though initially forming part of Cape Colony, Natal was
established as a separate colony in 1856. The province of
Zululand was annexed to Natal in 1897.
4
Between 1835 and 1837 there occurred the Great Trek
in which large numbers of Boers, the “Voortrekkers”,
migrated from Cape Colony to settle in the interior. As a
result of these migrations two Boer republics were
established, Orange Free State in 1848 and South African
Republic in the territory of Transvaal in 1864. These
republics remained independent until after the Anglo−Boer
War of 1899−1902 when they became, respectively, the
British colonies of Orange River Colony and Transvaal.
5
In 1910 the four self−governing British colonies of Cape
Colony, Natal, Orange River Colony and Transvaal united
to form the Union of South Africa. Full independence
followed in 1931 and in 1961 the country became the
Republic of South Africa.
Government
1.57
1
An interim non−racial, democratic constitution came into
effect in April 1994 and was made law in December 1996.
Legislative power is held by a two chamber Parliament
comprising a National Assembly, with between 350 and
400 members directly elected for a term of 5 years, and a
National Council of Provinces (NCOP), with 54 permanent
and 36 special delegates representing the interests of the
nine provinces. The President is elected by Parliament for a
5 year term.
The administrative capital is Tshwane (formerly
Pretoria), legislative capital Cape Town, and judicial capital
Bloemfontein.
Population
1.58
1
In 2004 the population was estimated at 47⋅7 million.
Languages
1.59
1
There are 11 official languages. Afrikaans and English
are the languages of administration, but official business
may also be carried out in IsiNdebele, IslXhosa, IsiZulu,
Sepedi, Sosetho, SiSwati, Setswana, Tshivenda and
Xitsonga.
Physical features
1.60
1
Almost the whole of Southern Africa consists of a
plateau between 900 and 1500 m high bordered by a
coastal zone which on the S and E varies from 50 to
150 miles in width. The Great Escarpment, forming the
edge of this plateau, is a striking physical feature which
has a profound influence on the weather and climate of the
sub−continent. That part of the Great Escarpment in Natal
and Transvaal is known as Drakensberg range; along the
border between Natal and Lesotho the peaks are more than
3300 m high and are frequently snow−covered. The Low
Veld, in which the Kruger National Park is situated, is a
strip of country generally less than 500 m high lying
between the E part of The Great Escarpment and the
Mozambique border; it includes the E part of Swaziland.
2
The South African coastline has few bays or
indentations suitable as harbours, and the mouths of most
of its rivers are closed by bars.
Flora and fauna
Flora
1.61
1
South Africa has about 18 000 different plant species.
Some of these are unique, with remarkable properties. The
leadwood tree, for instance, is so hard that even a sharp
axe bounces off it. Such hardwoods are so strong that they
do not rot, but merely erode like rocks.
CHAPTER 1
10
The yellow−wood tree (Cynaroides), which can grow to
over 40 m high, has historical significance in that large
numbers were used by the Voortrekkers to build wagons
and settlers’ homes.
2
The most prolific tree in South Africa, and one of the
prettiest, is the sweet−thorn tree or wag−’n−bietjie
(wait−a−minute). This tree, growing in isolation in the
desert, may be of such value as a landmark that on a map
it may achieve the geographical importance of a hill or
even a village. This tree has long white thorns which can
be used as needles. Its sweet gum was used by pioneers for
confectionary; they also used its bark for rope, its wood for
wagon parts, and its leaves and pods for fodder. A few
handfuls of its pods have more nutritional value than an
armful of hay.
3
The acacia thorn−trees are characteristic of Southern
Africa. The most famous is probably the flat−topped
umbrella tree, one of the many species of acacia
thorn−trees found in South Africa.
One of the strangest trees in South Africa is the
Euphorbia or Naboom, a weird and very large cactus−like
tree which, when wounded by a blow, “bleeds” a white
poisonous milk−like latex.
4
One of the natural wonders of South Africa is the
annual winter blossoming of the Namaqualand daisies in
the semi−desert of the western Cape near Springbok. The
undulating land is blanketed in brightly coloured daisies
from horizon to horizon.
5
Among the plant curiosities are a number of species of
cycads, “fossil” plants which grew on Earth long before the
advent of present day trees. There is the “resurrection
bush”, a shrub that can look brittle and dead one day but,
after a shower of rain, will suddenly be supple with life. In
the desert areas plants have adopted peculiar ways to avoid
being eaten; some look like stones while others, in order to
attract passing insects, have a smell similar to rotting meat
(the carrion−flower) or they have colours so bright that
they shimmer in the air (mesembryanthemum).
Fauna
1.62
1
Partly because of its abundance of plant life and its
widely differing types of country, South Africa supports a
considerable variety of wild life. The excessive hunting of
game in the 19th century caused the near extinction of
many species, but after the turn of the century and with the
establishment of the vast Kruger National Park the animals
slowly recovered. There are now numerous national parks
and nature reserves, about 3 % of the country’s land area
being proclaimed for wild life. Among the large mammals
unique to South Africa are brown hyena, bontebok,
blesbok, springbok, black wildebeest, southern white rhino,
and Cape mountain zebra.
2
South Africa has one tenth of the world’s known species
of birds, including the largest bird (ostrich) and the largest
flying bird, the “gompou” or kori bustard which can weigh
20 kg.
The reptile population is interesting, with the crocodile,
monitor lizard, and several species of tortoise. One of the
world’s four known leather−back turtle breeding grounds is
on the coast of Zululand.
Industry and trade
1.63
1
South Africa is rich in natural resources, with mining
and agriculture being the mainstays of the economy. South
Africa is the world’s largest producer of gold, platinum,
diamonds, manganese, chrome and vanadium. Other
principal minerals mined are coal, copper, iron ore,
limestone, uranium, flourspar, andalusite, zinc, zirconium
and titanium. Other principal industries include automobile
assembly, machinery, textiles, chemicals, fertilizer, natural
gas processing and the production of oil from coal.
2
As much of the land is pasture, livestock farming is
widespread. Principal crops are maize, sugar cane, fruits
and vegetables, wheat, sorghum, sunflower seeds and
groundnuts. The products from man−made forestry
plantations form a significant part of the economy, as does
the fishing industry.
The main trading partners are the USA, European
countries and Japan.
3
Guano, for use as a fertiliser, is obtained from a number
of Government “Proclaimed Guano Islands” situated on the
W and S coasts of the Republic of South Africa. For
regulations concerning these islands see 1.36.
MOZAMBIQUE
General description
1.64
1
The Republic of Mozambique has a coastline of
1430 miles. It is bounded on the S and W Swaziland, South
Africa and Zimbabwe, and on the NW by Zambia and
Malawi, and on the N by Tanzania. The country is divided
into eleven provinces: Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane,
Manica, City of Maputo, Province of Maputo, Nampula,
Niassa, Sofala, Tete and Zambézia. The capital is Maputo.
National limits
1.65
1
For the limits of Territorial Sea and Fisheries Zone
claimed by the country see Annual Summary of Admiralty
Notices to Mariners, Annual Notice No 12 and The
Mariner’s Handbook.
History
1.66
1
By the 10th century Arab and Indian traders were
visiting Sofala (20°10′S 34°45′E) to buy gold brought from
the interior by Africans. In 1498, two months after landing
at Natal, Vasco da Gama reached Mozambique and at
Quelimane (17°53′S 36°53′E) and Mozambique Island
(15°02′S 40°44′E) found a black Muslim community of
traders. The Portuguese started to colonise the country in
1505 and in due course secured most of the ports formerly
used by Arab traders, that of Maputo (Lourenço Marques)
(25°58′S 32°35′E) being added in 1871. Known as
Portuguese East Africa or Moçambique, the country
remained a colony of Portugal until gaining independence
on 25th June 1975. The new People’s Republic of
Mozambique became a one party state. Civil war raged
until 1992 when a peace settlement was agreed. Since then
the Republic of Mozambique has been attempting to
reconstruct its damaged economy and infrastructure,
hampered in the years 2000 and 2001 by devastating floods
followed by two years of severe drought.
Government
1.67
1
In 1990, one−party rule was abandoned in favour of a
multi−party system leading to elections in 1994. Under the
2004 constitution there is a single chamber legislature, the
Assembly of the Republic, which has 250 members directly
elected for a five year term. The President is also directly
elected and serves a five year term renewable only once.
CHAPTER 1
11
Population
1.68
1
In 2004, the population was estimated at 18⋅8 million
Languages
1.69
1
Portuguese is the official language, but there are 16
other ethnic languages. English is widely spoken.
Physical features
1.70
1
There is a marked difference between the coasts of the S
and N parts of Mozambique. To the S of Porto de
Mozambique (15°03′S 40°47′E) the coast is generally low,
sandy and lined with mangroves, but to the N of that port
the coast is considerably indented, with rocky headlands
and rugged cliffs, and is fringed by an almost continuous
chain of islands. The coastal plain, formed by major rivers,
is much wider than elsewhere in Southern Africa and
nearly half of the country consists of low−lying
sedimentary rock and marshland.
2
A mountain chain more than 2400 m high forms the
backbone of the country and steep edge of the continental
plateau, but in the districts adjoining the lower part of Rio
Zambeze, and in some other parts, the country slopes
gradually to the coast. The largest rivers are Rio Limpopo
(25°10′S 33°30′E) and Rio Zambeze (18°50’S 36°15′E).
3
Nearly the whole of the coast between Baía de Maputo
and Cabo Delgado (10°41′S 40°38′E) consists of marshy
land, and immense quantities of decaying vegetation are
brought down by the large rivers particularly in Baía de
Maputo and in the delta of Rio Zambeze. These factors and
the successive effects of strong sun, heavy rains and night
dews all tend to create unhealthy conditions on the coast
and malaria is endemic. The upper plateaux inland are cool
and healthy.
Flora and fauna
Flora
1.71
1
On the coast, especially on the estuaries and the delta of
Rio Zambeze, mangrove and marsh−type vegetation is
common. Near some of the beaches are the largest palm
groves in the world. The W and N highlands are patched
with moist, mountain forest, sometimes of needle−leaf trees.
The remainder of the landscape of Mozambique is
dominated by savannah, more or less dry and open
woodlands with occasional tracts of short−grass steppe.
Fauna
1.72
1
Mozambique has some of the finest big game country in
the whole of Africa and various areas have been
established as reserves. Gorongosa National Game Reserve,
80 miles N of Beira, covers 734 square miles and has large
herds of buffalo, lion, elephant, hippopotamus, kudu and
many other species.
Industry and trade
1.73
1
The country is predominantly rural with little
manufacturing industry although there is some substantial
industry around Maputo, and less so around Beira. There
are considerable oil, gas, mineral and hydro−electric
resources to be developed. Principal exports are shellfish,
cotton, cashew nuts, sugar and coconuts; principal imports
are manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals and
foodstuffs. South Africa is the main trading partner, but
Mozambique’s ports handle trade for the landlocked
countries of the interior.
TANZANIA
General description
1.74
1
The United Republic of Tanzania comprises the
mainland territory of Tanganyika and the off−lying islands
of Zanzibar and Mafia. Zanzibar is a small archipelago
comprising the two large islands of Unguja, commonly
known as Zanzibar, and Pemba, together with a number of
small surrounding islands.
2
The coast of Tanganyika is about 500 miles in length.
The country is bounded on the S by Mozambique; on the
SW by Malawi and Zambia; on the W by the Democratic
Republic of Congo, Burundi and Rwanda; on the N by
Uganda and Kenya.
Dar es Salaam is the largest town, main port and former
capital of Tanzania; in 1996 the capital was transferred to
Dodoma in the interior, but Dar es Salaam remains the
economic and administrative centre.
3
Malaria is prevalent throughout Tanzania, except at
elevations above 1600 m. Swimming in lakes and rivers is
not recommended due to the presence of bilharzia.
National limits
1.75
1
For the limits of Territorial Sea and Fisheries Zone
claimed by the country see Annual Summary of Admiralty
Notices to Mariners, Annual Notice No 12 and The
Mariner’s Handbook.
History
1.76
1
Bantu people settled in the area from the 5th century
and by the 8th century Arab and Indian traders are known
to have visited the coast of East Africa. As a result of
these links there grew up between the 12th and 15th
centuries a number of rich Swahili city−states trading in
gold, ivory and slaves from the interior.
2
With the arrival of the Portuguese at the beginning of
the 16th century, a protracted rivalry developed between
them and the Arabs. The Portuguese took possession of the
islands of Zanzibar and Pemba in 1505, and subsequently
established forts on the mainland in order to gain control of
the coastal trade. In 1698, however, the inhabitants of
Zanzibar drove out the Portuguese with the assistance of
the Arabs of Oman, who thereafter sent a governor to
Zanzibar. In 1832 the Sultan of Oman transferred his
capital to Zanzibar, and by 1835 a large strip of the coast
of East Africa, from the vicinity of Cabo Delgado (10°41′S
40°38′E) to Warshiikh (2°17′N 45°48′E), was effectively
under his rule; trade, particularly in slaves and ivory,
flourished. These African dominions of Oman became
independent, under the Sultan of Zanzibar, in 1856.
3
The Sultanate of Zanzibar became a British protectorate
in 1890, and about the same time the mainland possessions
of the Sultan, forming parts of what are now Tanganyika,
Kenya and Somalia, were ceded to Germany, Great Britain
and Italy, respectively.
Tanganyika remained a German protectorate from 1891
to the end of the First World War, thereafter being
administered by Great Britain until gaining independence in
1961. On 9th December 1962 Tanganyika became a
republic within the British Commonwealth.
CHAPTER 1
12
4
The Sultanate of Zanzibar became independent in 1963,
but in the following year the Sultan was overthrown and on
26th April 1964 Zanzibar and Pemba joined with
Tanganyika to form the United Republic of Tanzania.
Government
1.77
1
The United Republic of Tanzania is a multi−party
democracy. The single chamber National Assembly has 286
members of which 280 are directly elected for a five year
term, five are chosen by Zanzibar’s House of
Representatives, and one is the Attorney General. The
President can appoint up to ten additional members to the
National Assembly. The President is always from
Tanganyika and is directly elected for a five year term
renewable only once; the Vice President is always from
Zanzibar. The National Assembly enacts laws that deal with
the whole of Tanzania or just with Tanganyika. Zanzibar
has its own 50−member House of Representatives to enact
laws specific to Zanzibar.
Population
1.78
1
In 2004 the population was estimated at 36⋅6 million.
Languages
1.79
1
The official languages are Swahili and English.
Physical features
1.80
1
The islands of Zanzibar and Pemba both stand on coral
flats. On Zanzibar the hills attain elevations of 135 m;
undulating ridges, with plains between them, extend N and
S and in several instances show a coralline surface. Pemba
has no main ridge or line of hills, but all hills are about
90 m high with ridges radiating in all directions from a
central point, generally in horse−shoe curves. The soil is
extremely fertile, tropical cereals and edible roots growing
in profusion on both islands, although on Zanzibar the soil
is sandy in places.
2
Within the coast of Tanganyika there is a low plain,
composed of coral partly covered with sand or with rich
alluvial soil and dense bush or mangroves, and varying in
width from 10 to 40 miles. Beyond the plain the country
rises to a plateau which constitutes the greater part of the
hinterland. This plateau falls very sharply from a general
level of about 1200 m to the levels of the lakes, Lake
Tanganyika 789 m and Lake Nyasa (Malawi) 490 , lying in
the trough of Rift Valley, a deep and narrow gorge which
traverses the plateau. Lake Tanganyika, the median line of
which forms the W boundary of Tanganyika, is 350 miles
long with a greatest width of 45 miles; its greatest depth is
1277 m.
3
Victoria Nyanza (Lake Victoria) (Charts 3252, 3665),
situated in the NW part of the country, lies at an elevation
of 1131 m. It has an area of about 27 000 square miles and
is the second largest fresh−water lake in the world. The
boundary between Tanganyika and Uganda passes through
the middle of the lake.
4
The highest points in Tanganyika are the extinct
volcanoes in the NE: Mount Kilimanjaro (2°50′S 36°30′E),
5894 m high and snow−capped, is the highest peak in
Africa; Mount Meru, 4564 m high, lies 40 miles E of
Mount Kilimanjaro. In the SW part of the country are the
Livingstone Mountains where the highest peak is over
2700 m high.
5
The largest rivers are Rio Rovuma (Mto Ruvúma)
(10°28′S 40°27′E) and Mto Rufiji (7°50′S 39°25′E), both of
which rise in the central plateau. Mto Pangani (5°26′S
39°00′E) rises on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro and
flows into the sea after a general SE course of 250 miles.
Among other rivers are Mto Ruvu (6°23′S 38°51′E) and
Mto Wami (6°07′S 38°49′E), but all the rivers are shallow
and scarcely navigable for any craft larger than a power
launch.
Flora and fauna
1.81
1
Almost one quarter of the land area of Tanzania has
been set aside as national parks, game reserves and forest
reserves.
Industry and trade
1.82
1
The economy of Tanganyika is based mainly on the
production and export of primary produce and the growing
of foodstuffs for local consumption. The principal crops are
sisal, cotton, coffee, cashew nuts and oilseeds. Diamonds
are the most important mineral. There are large numbers of
cattle, and hides and skins are valuable exports.
Sardines and tuna are caught and exported.
Industry is largely concerned with the processing of raw
material for either export or local consumption.
2
Zanzibar provides the greater part of the world’s supply
of cloves, over 80% of the output being grown on Pemba;
cloves and clove oil form more than half the exports of the
two islands. Second in importance is the coconut industry.
Tanzania’s principal exports are coffee, cotton and
cashew nuts; main imports are machinery, oil and oil
derivatives, manufactured goods, chemicals and fertilisers.
KENYA
General description
1.83
1
The Republic of Kenya has a coastline of 259 miles in
length. The country is bounded on the SW by Tanzania, on
the W by Uganda, on the NW by Sudan, on the N by
Ethiopia, and on the E by Somalia. The capital of Kenya,
Nairobi (1°17′S 36°49′E), is 307 miles by road from the
country’s main port of Mombasa.
2
For administrative purposes the country is divided into
Nairobi Area and seven provinces, each province being
further divided into a number of districts.
In general Kenya has a very healthy climate, although
malaria is endemic and a hazard in the coastal region. The
valley of Mto Tana (10.104) is plagued by swarms of
mosquitoes at certain seasons. Swimming in rivers or lakes
should be avoided due to bilharzia.
National limits
1.84
1
For the limits of Territorial Sea and Fisheries Zone
claimed by the country see Annual Summary of Admiralty
Notices to Mariners, Annual Notice No 12 and The
Mariner’s Handbook.
History
1.85
1
The seaboard of Kenya has a common history with the
remainder of the coast of East Africa (1.76). The African
dominion of Oman, which became independent under the
Sultan of Zanzibar in 1856, included a coastal strip
10 miles wide extending from the present boundary with
CHAPTER 1
13
Tanzania to Kipini (2°32′S 40°32′E), adjacent islands and
Lamu Island. However, the interior of the country was not
penetrated as deeply as was Tanganyika by the Arabs in
search of slaves and ivory, the hinterland being populated
by a number of different African tribes which farmed and
engaged in a considerable amount of inter−regional trade.
2
In 1884 the British East Africa Company obtained a
trading concession from the Sultan of Zanzibar, and later
made treaties with local chiefs in the hinterland in the
name of the British Crown. In 1895 the entire territory
became the East African Protectorate, administered at first
by the British East Africa Company and after 1905 by the
British Government. In 1920 the East Africa Protectorate
was annexed to the British Crown under the name of
Kenya Colony, but this did not include the coastal strip
leased from the Sultan of Zanzibar which became Kenya
Protectorate.
3
Kenya Colony and Kenya Protectorate were united on
12th December 1963 to form the independent state of
Kenya which became a republic one year later.
Government
1.86
1
Kenya has a single chamber legislature, the National
Assembly, which has 224 members of whom 210 are
directly elected for a five year term, 12 are appointed by
the President, and the remaining two are the
Attorney−General and the Speaker. The President is also
directly elected and serves a five year term.
Population
1.87
1
In 2004 the population was estimated at 32 million
Languages
1.88
1
Swahili and English are the official languages; numerous
indigenous languages are also spoken.
Physical features
1.89
1
Within a narrow coastal belt there is a sparsely
populated plateau which rises to meet the base of the
highlands at 1370 m. The highlands rise to a general
elevation of 3000 m and culminate in Mount Kenya (0°15′S
36°55′E), 5197 m high. Cutting through the highlands from
S to N is the Great Rift Valley, creating escarpments up to
900 m high and up to 35 miles apart. To the W the land
slopes down towards Lake Victoria (1.80), part of which
lies within the boundaries of Kenya. Lake Rudolph, in the
NW part of the country, has an area of about 3500 square
miles, and there are several smaller lakes some of which lie
at elevations of about 1800 m.
2
Mto Tana (2°32′S 40°32′E) (10.104) is the principal
river of Kenya. It rises on the slopes of Mount Kenya and
its lower part is navigable for shallow draught power
vessels for about 200 miles above its mouth. The only other
rivers of any navigable importance are Mtwapa Creek
(3°58′S 39°46′E) (10.69) and Kilifi Creek (3°38′S 39°52′E)
(10.61), both of which are navigable for shallow draught
vessels for a few miles within their entrances.
Flora and fauna
1.90
1
The acacia savannah plains and woodlands of E and S
Kenya contain some of the largest concentrations of game
animals in East Africa. These include some of the rarer
species of African wildlife such as black rhinoceros.
Grevy’s zebra, Hunter’s hartebeest, eland, greater and lesser
kudu, cheetah, elephant, buffalo, lion and leopard. In
addition there are the eland of the highland grassland, the
giant forest hog and the hippopotamus of the lakes and
rivers. Kenya also has a huge variety of bird−life. The
Government of Kenya is concerned to protect the wildlife
of the country, and since 1978 it has banned hunting.
Industry and trade
1.91
1
Kenya is primarily an agricultural country. As agriculture
is possible from sea level to altitudes of over 2700 m,
tropical, sub−tropical and temperate crops can be grown
and mixed farming is carried on. Four−fifths of the country
is range−land producing mainly livestock products and
supporting wild game which is a major attraction of the
country’s tourist industry. In the highlands the principal
crops are coffee, tea, sisal, pyrethrum, maize and wheat,
while at sea lower altitudes are grown coconuts, cashew
nuts, cotton, sugar, sisal and maize.
2
Industrial development is increasing with the production
of steel, textiles, tyres and the processing of agricultural
products. There is an oil refinery at Mombasa supplying
both Kenya and Uganda.
Principal exports are coffee and tea, which account for
about one−third of total export value, also fruit vegetables
and other agricultural products. Main imports are industrial
machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, metals,
pharmaceuticals and chemicals.
SOMALIA
General description
1.92
1
The Somali Democratic Republic occupies the greater
part of the NE extremity of the African continent known as
the Horn of Africa. It is bounded on the SE by the Indian
Ocean and on the N by the Gulf of Aden; on the W it is
bounded by Kenya, Ethiopia and the Republic of Djibouti.
The capital is Muqdisho, and for administrative purposes
the country is divided into regions.
2
Most of the country is thinly populated by nomadic
pastoralists. Concentrations of population are in the coastal
towns, in the cultivated area between the rivers Jubba and
Shabeelle, and in the towns of the N.
Malaria is endemic, but otherwise the climate on the
coast covered by this book is healthy.
National limits
1.93
1
For the limits of Territorial Sea and Fisheries Zone
claimed by the country see Annual Summary of Admiralty
Notices to Mariners, Annual Notice No 12 and The
Mariner’s Handbook.
History
1.94
1
The history of the Somali people, the “Black Berbers”
of early Greek and Arab writers, covers many thousands of
years. As early as 1500 BC the port of Muqdisho was
known to the Egyptians, who called the country the “Land
of Punt”. Islam reached Somalia from Saudi Arabia in the
7th century AD.
2
The African dominions of Oman (1.76), which became
independent under the Sultan of Zanzibar in 1856, included
much of the S part of Somalia. In 1889 Italy concluded
treaties with the Sultan of Zanzibar and local Somali rulers
CHAPTER 1
14
and proclaimed a protectorate along the coast from River
Jubba (0°15′S 42°38′E) to the E frontier of British
Somaliland, 140 miles WSW of Raas Caseyr (11°50′N
51°17′E), which territory had become a British protectorate
two years earlier. The territory on the W bank of River
Jubba, including the port of Kismaayo, was ceded to Italy
by Great Britain after the First World War.
3
During the Second World War, Italian Somaliland
Protectorate was occupied by British and Commonwealth
forces and the territory remained under British
administration until 1950 when Italy was granted
trusteeship by the United Nations.
In 1960 the Italian Trusteeship Territory of Somalia and
British Somaliland Protectorate both gained independence
and united to form the Somali Republic. On 21st October
1969 the armed forces assumed supreme power and the
country became known as the Somali Democratic Republic.
4
The country became a one−party state in 1979, and by
the late 1980s opposition to the Government led to civil
war which affected much of the country. The central
government failed and after foreign peace−keeping forces
were withdrawn in 1995, the country effectively
disintegrated into factional fighting between rival
‘warlords’.
Government
1.95
1
Internal disputes between rival factions continue and
there is (2006) no effective central government.
Population
1.96
1
In 2004 the population was estimated at 8⋅3 million.
Language
1.97
1
Somali and Arabic are the official languages; English
and Italian are also spoken.
Physical features
1.98
1
Most of Somalia consists of savannah plains, but the NE
part of the country is mountainous. There are only two
main rivers in Somalia, the Shabeelle and Jubba; both
originate in Ethiopia and flow into S Somalia. River (Webi)
Jubba (11.38) has been ascended for over 400 miles above
its entrance. Webi Shabeelle flows generally SE through
pastoral and agricultural country; it does not enter the sea,
but terminates in a marshy lake not far from the lower
reaches of River Jubba. In the central and N parts of the
country the rivers are dry for the greater part of the year.
Fauna
1.99
1
Somalia has numerous species of wild animals. The
greatest profusion exists in the S part of the country, near
the principal rivers, and includes elephant, rhinoceros,
hippopotamus, giraffe, zebra, hartebeeste, gazelle, the
greater and lesser kudu and the smaller species of antelope.
Animals in the N and drier areas include the rare oryx and
the wild ass.
Industry and trade
1.100
1
Somalia is essentially a pastoral country and about
four−fifths of the inhabitants depend on the rearing of
goats, sheep, cattle and camels. A large part of the interior
is waterless and barren, but in the S part of the country,
especially in the valleys adjoining the rivers Jubba and
Shabeelle, there are sugar and banana plantations; sorghum,
maize and cassava are also grown. Principal exports are
fresh fruit, livestock, hides and skins.
PRINCIPAL PORTS, HARBOURS AND
ANCHORAGES
1.101
Republic of South Africa
Place and position Remarks
Mossel Bay
(34°11′S 22°09′E) (2.52)
Small port
Port Elizabeth
(33°58′S 25°38′E) (2.151)
Major port
East London
(33°02′S 27°55′E) (3.41)
Major port
Durban
(29°52′S 31°02′E) (4.46)
Major port
Richards Bay
(28°48′S 32°03′E) (4.117)
Major port
Mozambique
Place and position Remarks
Maputo
(25°58′S 32°34′E) (5.34)
Major port
Inhambane
(23°52′S 35°23′E) (5.110)
Small port
Beira
(19°50′S 34°50′E) (5.156)
Major port
Quelimane
(17°53′S 36°53′E) (5.234)
Small port
Nacala
(14°32′S 40°40′E) (6.50)
Small port
Pemba
(12°58′S 40°29′E) (6.97)
Small port
Tanzania
Place and position Remarks
Mtwara
(10°16′S 40°12′E) (7.42)
The third principal port of
Tanzania
Lindi
(10°00′S 39°43′E) (7.77)
Small port for coastal
traffic
Kilwa Kisiwani (Kilwa Ma-
soko)
(8°56′S 39°31′E) (7.105)
Small port with deep water
anchorage
Kilwa Kivenje
(8°45′S 39°25′E) (7.120)
Open roadstead
Dar es Salaam
(6°50′S 39°18′E) (8.29)
The principal port of
Tanzania
Zanzibar Harbour
(6°09′S 39°11′E) (8.109)
The principal port of Zanzi-
bar Island
Tanga
(5°03′S 39°07′E) (9.15)
The second principal port
of Tanzania
CHAPTER 1
15
Kenya
Place and position Remarks
Mombasa
(4°04′S 39°40′E) (10.10)
The principal port of Kenya
Malindi
(3°13′S 40°07′E) (10.83)
Anchorage
Lamu
(2°16′S 40°54′E) (10.120)
Minor port
Somalia
Place and position Remarks
Kismaayo
(0°23′S 42°33′E) (11.22)
Small port
Muqdisho
(2°01′N 45°21′E) (11.72)
The principal port of
Somalia, reported (2000) as
closed
El Maan
(2°10′N 45°36′E) (11.104)
Anchorage used during clo-
sure of Muqdisho
PORT SERVICES − SUMMARY
Docking facilities
1.102
1
Ports with docking facilities and, where details are
available, the largest vessel that can be accommodated are
as follows:
South Africa
Mossel Bay. Patent slip, lift 200 tonnes displacement
(2.81).
2
Port Elizabeth. Patent slip, lift 1200 tons. Maximum
size of vessel: length 82 m; width 12 m; draught
3⋅8 m forward, 7⋅5 m aft (2.182).
East London. Princess Elizabeth dry dock
accommodates vessels with an overall length of
190 m (3.69).
Durban. Prince Edward Graving Dock has an extreme
length of 364 m with caisson in outer stop (4.78).
3
Mozambique
Maputo. Small dry dock, length 80 m (5.67).
Beira. Small dry dock, length 115 m (5.185).
Kenya
Mombasa. A dry dock of length 180 m can
accommodate vessels up to 20 000 dwt (10.47).
Other facilities
Compass adjustment
1.103
1
South Africa
Durban (4.79).
Somalia
El Maan (11.110).
Deratting
1.104
1
Deratting and deratting exemption certificates.
South Africa:
Port Elizabeth (2.183).
East London (3.70).
Durban (4.79).
Richards Bay (4.148).
2
Mozambique:
Maputo (5.68).
Beira (5.186).
Tanzania:
Dar es Salaam (8.68).
Kenya:
Mombasa (10.48).
1.105
1
Deratting exemption certificates only.
Mozambique:
Nacala (6.77).
Tanzania:
Zanzibar (8.143).
Measured distance
1.106
1
South Africa:
Durban (4.66).
CHAPTER 1
16
NATURAL CONDITIONS
MARITIME TOPOGRAPHY
General remarks
Charts 4204, 4700, 4072
Area south of Mozambique Channel
1.107
1
Agulhas Plateau, which lies SE of Cape Agulhas
(34°50′S 20°01′E) and about 120 miles off the edge of the
continental shelf, is an extensive area with depths less than
4000 m. Over the shallowest region, depths in general are
slightly less than 2500 m. The following seamounts lie
between Agulhas Plateau and the continental shelf:
Natal Seamount (37°25′S 22°15′E), depth 1845 m
Mallory Seamount (36°50′S 22°20′E), depth 701 m
Shackleton Seamount (36°55′S 22°45′E), depth
1158 m
Davie Seamount (36°30′S 24°20′E), depth 1320 m
2
Mozambique Plateau is an elongated feature lying
roughly parallel to the coast of SE Africa and extends for
approximately 110 miles S from the continental shelf off
Ponta Závora (24°31′S 35°12′E) to about 40°S. Except on
its N part, where it is virtually an extension from the
continental shelf, the depths on this ridge are generally
between 1000 m and 4000 m, but there are a few areas
with depths less than 2000 m. The shallowest part of the
main ridge lies 280 miles SE of Durban (29°52′S 31°02′E)
where the least charted depth is 1132 m.
3
Mozambique Basin lies E of Mozambique Plateau and
extends N from about 42°S to the S end of Mozambique
Channel and has maximum depths of 6000 m. This
approximately 270 miles wide basin is bounded on the E
and W sides by the steep scarp of the N−S trending
Madagascar and Mozambique Plateaux, and on the N and S
sides by the Mozambique Channel and the South West
Indian Ridge.
4
Transkei Basin, which is comparatively small in extent,
lies between Agulhas Plateau and Mozambique Plateau.
Depths within the small deep−sea basin are generally
greater than 4500 m. Transkei Basin is virtually separated
from Mozambique Basin by a chain of small ridges with
depths less than 4000 m which stretch from the S end of
Mozambique Plateau to the NE part of Agulhas Plateau,
where Africana Seamount (37°15′S 29°05′E) rises to a
depth of 1434 m. Natal Valley, leading off the NE part of
the Transkei Basin, lies between Mozambique Plateau and
the continental shelf.
5
Madagascar Plateau, located S of Madagascar Island
between 26°S and 36°S, is a N−S elongated feature with a
maximum width of 320 miles. The shallowest portion of the
ridge lies at depths from about 100 to 2500 m.
Charts 4700, 4701, 4072
Mozambique Channel
1.108
1
Mozambique Channel lies between the coast of
Mozambique and the island of Madagascar. This basin
depicts a general hour−glass shape and has an average
width of 215 miles, maximum width of 430 miles and
minimum width of 135 miles. The S end of the channel
extends from Ponta do Ouro (26°51′S 32°54′E) to the S
extremity of Madagascar; the N end extends from the
mouth of Rio Rovuma (Mto Ruvúma) (10°28′S 40°26′E) to
the N point of the island of Grande Comore (11°22′S
43°21′E and thence to the N extremity of Madagascar. The
E side of the Mozambique Channel beyond the limits of
this book is described in South Indian Ocean Pilot.
2
Almirante Leite Bank (26°12′S 35°03′E), least depth
69 m, lies about 120 miles ENE of Ponto do Ouro.
Paisley Seamount (14°10′S 41°30′E), near the N end
of the Davie Ridge (1.112), has a depth of 296 m
over a rocky bottom in its central part; in 1978 a
depth of 267 m was reported near its S side.
Charts 4701, 4703, 4072
Area north of Mozambique Channel
1.109
1
Somali Basin, with general depths of more than 4000 m,
covers the greater part of this area. The N part of the
Somali Basin is a small oceanic basin N of about 4°N,
between the African continental margin and the Chain
Ridge (7°00′N 55°00′E). The basin has an average water
depth of about 5100 m and is characterised by a very low
bathymetric relief.
2
Carlsberg Ridge (7°30′N 60°00′E), a NW−SE trending
ridge segment separating the Somali Basin from the
Arabian Basin, intrudes into the the NE part of the area
covered by this volume.
Chain Ridge (7°00′N 55°00′E), lying about 270 miles
offshore in the N part of the area covered by this volume,
rises steeply from depths greater than 5000 m to a series of
summits some with depths of less than 2000 m. From the
NE side of Chain Ridge, Owen Fracture Zone extends into
the Arabian Sea.
3
Error Seamount (10°15′N 56°00′E) lies at the NW end
of the Carlsberg Ridge, about 275 miles E of Raas
Xaafuun, and has a least charted depth of 368 m. A
detailed bathymetric chart suggests this seamount is about
23 miles long and 9 miles wide, and rises by about 4000 m
from the surrounding sea floor.
4
Andrew Tablemount (6°40′N 50°30′E), charted depth
1534 m.
David Seaknoll (6°25′N 50°15′E), charted depth 1710 m.
Coco−de−Mer Seamounts (0°26′N 56°00′E), a group of
seamounts with a least charted depth of 191 m.
Chart 4072
Continental shelf
1.110
1
The continental shelf is widest off the S coast of South
Africa, where it extends to 120 miles SSE of Cape Agulhas
(34°50′S 20°01′E). The gradient is steep out to depths of
about 75 m. The outer part of the shelf, which includes
Agulhas Bank (2.3) has many ridges and depressions, these
irregularities being caused by the strong SW−going Agulhas
Current (1.117). The shelf bottom is mostly sand with
abundant shells, but small areas to the W are mud−covered
and rock has been reported in a number of places,
especially on the outer part.
2
On the E coast of Africa the continental shelf is for the
most part narrow (less than 5 miles wide) and poorly
surveyed. The edge lies at comparatively shallow depths,
commonly between 60 m and 100 m. In places there
appears to be no shelf along straight stretches of coast,
suggesting a fault origin. Indentations in the coast are
accompanied by a widening of the shelf, but narrow zones
occur off points and islands.
3
A normal configuration of shelf, slope and rise is found
in the N part of the Somali Basin although the shelf here is
very narrow, between 5 and 11 miles wide, and is confined
by the Chain Ridge.
CHAPTER 1
17
Seabed
1.111
1
Generally sand appears to be the principal constituent,
with mud dominant in the deeper water.
In the Mozambique Channel there is little variation in
the sediment type, which is characterised by the remains of
calcareous deposits and algae.
Seismic and volcanic activity
Chart 4072
1.112
1
In general, the East African sea floor is characterised by
the occurrence of many ridges and plateaux that are free
from earthquake activity. The most seismically active area
is the Carlsberg Ridge (7°30′N 60°00′E) (1.109), which
depicts the presence of a well−defined deep median valley,
characterised by earthquake epicentres.
In the Somali Basin (1.109), lying S of the Carlsberg
Ridge, the area is largely devoid of earthquake activity.
2
The NNE−SSW trending Mozambique Channel (1.108)
is dominated by the roughly N−S trending Davie Ridge
(16°00′S 41°40′E), chart 4701, which is about 16 miles
wide at the seabed. Earthquake epicentres and volcanic
activity within the Mozambique Channel are associated
with the Davie Ridge.
In the Mozambique Basin (1.107), S of the Mozambique
Channel, earthquake epicentres are located within the
relatively large region of fracture zones present within the
basin.
CURRENTS, TIDAL STREAMS AND FLOW
Currents
General circulation
1.113
1
Currents for the area are shown in diagrams 1.113.1 to
1.113.3 which show predominant directions, constancy and
rates; the details being derived from observations taken by
ships on passage.
In the diagrams, the following interpretations are used:
Predominant Direction, is the mean direction within a
continuous 90° sector containing the highest
proportion of observations from all sectors.
2
Average rate, is the rate to the nearest ¼ kn of the
average of the highest 50% in predominant sectors.
Rates above or below those shown may be
experienced.
Constancy, is a measure of persistence. Low
constancy implies marked variability in rate and
direction.
3
Major currents run parallel and close to the coast of the
continent. Though frequently strong, these currents
concentrate into narrow flows becoming weak more than
100 miles offshore. Variations in the coastal currents
throughout the year are only slight to the S of 2°S. To the
N, the Somali Current reverses in direction during the year
driven by the monsoon winds. During the SW Monsoon the
current flows NE; in the NE Monsoon it flows SW.
4
Wind and current do not necessarily change at the same
time. Along the coast to the N of 15°S abrupt changes in
the direction of the current may be experienced over short
distances, especially when the seasonal changes in the
Somali Current are in progress.
5
The SW flowing Somali Current is sustained by the
Indian NE Monsoon Current. Otherwise the coastal currents
are sustained by the South Equatorial Current which skirts
the N of Madagascar to approach the coast of Africa near
Cabo Delgado. There it divides to form the N−going East
African Coast Current and the S−going Mozambique
current. Another flow from the Indian Ocean passes S of
Madagascar to combine with the Mozambique Current and
form the Agulhas current.
6
To the W of Cape Recife, the Agulhas current divides,
part following the coast of South Africa to join the
Benguela Current in the Atlantic Ocean, and the other
turning S to form a large eddy, or series of eddies, of
warm water on the fringe of the cold E−going Southern
Ocean Current.
Somali Current
1.114
1
During December, January and February the NE
Monsoon brings a high constancy of SW sets, occasionally
with rates of 3 or 4 kn. During March the Indian NE
Monsoon Current moves nearer to the Equator and as a
consequence SW−going sets along the coast of Somalia are
then limited to the zone S of about 4°N. To the N of this
latitude the current is NE−going.
2
During April, the NE flow becomes established along
the coast, although just N of the Equator it does not
become fully established until May. During the SW
Monsoon the Somali Current is notably strong from June to
September; NE−going currents up to 7 kn have been
recorded. The flow away from the NE part of the coast of
Somalia results in upwelling. This colder water from depth
has lowered surface sea temperatures to 14°C off Raas
Xaafuun during the SW Monsoon.
3
In October, the NE−going current weakens. By then
there is some flow towards Somalia from the open Arabian
Sea between 5°N and 10°N. This flow reaches the coast
during November at about 6°N to give SW sets, though for
a time NE sets still prevail along the coast to the N and S.
By December SW flows are established along the whole of
the E coast of Somalia.
East African Coast Current
1.115
1
This N−going current extends from the vicinity of Cabo
Delgado (10°41′S 40°38′E) to about 2°S. Unlike the Somali
Current, it has no seasonal reversal of flow.
Mozambique Current
1.116
1
Mozambique Current flows S along the coast of
Mozambique from the vicinity of Cabo Delgado (10°41′S
40°38′E). The current is strongest from October to
February, rates of 4 kn being attained occasionally.
The mean drift of the Mozambique Current between
latitudes 10°S and 26°S is weakest in June and July when
it is, respectively, 8 and 7 miles per day.
2
Inshore counter−currents are common in the vicinity of
Banco de Sofala (20°S 35°E) and in Baía de Maputo (26°S
33°E).
The pattern of currents in Mozambique Channel can be
significantly modified for a time by tropical cyclones
(1.118).
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >75%
Moderate constancy 50%-75%
Low constancy <50%
KEY
½
½
½
½
½
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
2
2
1½
1½
1½
1½
1¼
1¼
1¼
1¼
1
1
1
¼ ¼
¼
¼
¼
M
O
Z
A
M
B
I
Q
U
E
C
U
R
R
E
N
T
SOUTH
EQUATORI AL
CURRENT
I NDI AN NE
MONSOON
CURRENT
EAST AFRICAN
COAST CURRENT
S
O
M
A
L
I
C
U
R
R
E
N
T
A
G
U
L
H
A
S
C
U
R
R
E
N
T
SOUTHERN OCEAN CURRENT
Probable direction when
observation count is low
Vector mean currents JANUARY (1.113.1)
CHAPTER 1
18
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
30°20°
60°
50°
40°
30°20°
60°
Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
High constancy >75%
Moderate constancy 50%-75%
Low constancy <50%
KEY
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
¾
¾
¾
¾
2
1
1
3
2
1
1¼
1½
1½
¼
¼
2
1
2½
1½
M
O
Z
A
M
B
I
Q
U
E
C
U
R
R
E
N
T
SOUTH
EQUATORI AL
CURRENT
EAST
AFRI CAN
COAST
CURRENT
S
O
M
A
L
I
C
U
R
R
E
N
T
A
G
U
L
H
A
S
C
U
R
R
E
N
T
SOUTHERN OCEAN CURRENT
Probable direction when
observation count is low
Vector mean currents JULY (1.113.2)
CHAPTER 1
19
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
30°20°
60°
50°
40°
30°20°
60°
Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
KEY
High constancy >75%
Moderate constancy 50%-75%
Low constancy <50%
¾
¾
½
½
1
1½
1½
1¼
1½
1½
1¼
1
1
1
1
1
½
½
½
½
½
½
½
1¼
¼
¼
¾
¾
¾
¾
1
1
1¼
1¼
1½
1¼
1¼
Vector-mean currents between monsoons (1.113.3)
Average rate in knots is indicated in figures.
Arrows indicate the predominant direction.
The constancy of a current is indicated by the
thickness of the arrow thus:
MARCH
NOVEMBER OCTOBER APRIL CHAPTER 1
20
0°
10°
S
10°
N
0°
10°
S
10°
N
50° 60°
40°
40°
Longitude 50° East from Greenwich
0°
10°
S
10°
N
0°
10°
S
10°
N
50° 60°
40°
40°
Longitude 50° East from Greenwich
0°
10°
S
10°
N
0°
10°
S
10°
N
50° 60°
40°
40°
Longitude 50° East from Greenwich
0°
10°
S
10°
N
0°
10°
S
10°
N
50° 60°
40°
40°
Longitude 50° East from Greenwich
CHAPTER 1
21
Agulhas Current
1.117
1
This is a continuation of Mozambique Current
augmented by part of the South Equatorial Current flowing
S of Madagascar. It closely follows the coast of South
Africa to the vicinity of East London, and is particularly
fast and narrow off the coast between Cape Saint Lucia
and East London. It sets most strongly during the southern
summer; rates of about 5 kn have been recorded in all
months of the year. The core of the current lies close to the
continental slope, and it appears that the inshore edge of
the core approximates to the 200 m depth contour.
2
Inshore counter currents are common near the coast
between Cape Agulhas and Durban though such currents
are very narrow to the NE of East London. Eddies between
these counter currents and the Agulhas Current can create
local onshore sets, sometimes strong. The position and
strength of these onshore sets depends upon recent weather.
Effect of tropical cyclones
1.118
1
The area is subject to occasional tropical cyclones,
mostly in the vicinity of Mozambique Channel, as shown
in diagrams 1.118.1 to 1.118.6. The prevailing pattern of
currents is affected by the violent winds. The current
generated by a cyclone sets in a general downwind
direction, but is deflected to the left (in the S hemisphere)
by between 20° and 45°. Slow−moving tropical cyclones
are most likely to generate significant changes and these
can exceed 2 kn. Where a cyclone approaches the coast,
still higher rates may be produced as a result of water
being driven against the coast and then flowing parallel to
it.
Tidal streams
1.119
1
In the whole of the area covered by this book the tidal
streams are weak, except very close inshore. As the
currents are comparatively strong and subject to
considerable variations with change of wind etc., the effect
of the tidal streams on the resultant water flow is negligible
at more than a few miles offshore except perhaps opposite
the mouths of the larger rivers.
2
Close inshore in the vicinity of entrances to bays and
rivers the effect of the tidal stream becomes increasingly
important as the feature is approached. Streams of as much
as 5 kn are experienced across the entrance bars of some
rivers. In general, the river current causes the rate and
duration of the ebb stream to exceed considerably those of
the flood stream, especially during the rainy season.
SEA LEVEL AND TIDES
Tides
1.120
1
Tides are mainly semi−diurnal throughout the area
covered by this book.
The mean spring range of the tide is from 1⋅5 to 2⋅0 m
on the coast of South Africa, increasing to about 5⋅5 m at
Beira and then decreasing to between 3⋅5 and 3⋅0 m in
Tanzania and Kenya. At the N limit of the book, about
11°N, the range has decreased further to about 1⋅5 m.
SEA AND SWELL
Sea and swell conditions
1.121
1
The prevailing swell, as shown in diagrams 1.121.1 to
1.121.8, varies in direction between S and W from the W
limit of this book, at longitude 20°E, to the S end of
Mozambique Channel. Rough or very rough seas occur
when active depressions and troughs move E and NE
across the extreme S part of the area. In Mozambique
Channel the swell is mainly moderate, but is frequently
disrupted as the SE trade wind is deflected by the island of
Madagascar. The main direction is from between E and SE.
Swell and sea disturbance are greatest at each end of the
channel.
2
An approaching cyclone may introduce a marked
increase in swell in Mozambique Channel or its
approaches. The sea area between the N entrance of
Mozambique Channel and latitude 11°N is dominated by
the SE trade which produces a moderate swell from
between SE and S. Near the coast the wind is S to SW and
the slight to moderate swell runs NE parallel to the coast.
The increasing wind during the afternoon sea breeze raises
a moderate sea, and troublesome rollers can develop. Sea
and swell are increased considerably when either monsoon
reaches its maximum strength of force 6 or 7.
Abnormal waves
1.122
1
Under certain weather conditions abnormal waves of
exceptional height occasionally occur off the SE coast of
South Africa, causing severe damage to ships unfortunate
enough to encounter them. In 1968 SS World Glory
(28 300 grt) encountered such a wave and was broken in
two, subsequently sinking with loss of life.
2
These abnormal waves, which may attain a height of
20 m or more, instead of having the normal sinusoidal
wave−form have a very steep−fronted leading edge
preceded by a very deep trough; the wave moving NE at
an appreciable speed. These waves are known to occur
between latitudes 29° and 33°30′S, mainly just to seaward
of the continental shelf where the Agulhas Current (1.117)
runs most strongly; a ship has, however, reported sustaining
damage from such a wave 30 miles to seaward of the
continental shelf. Such abnormal waves can occur anywhere
in the main stream of the Agulhas Current, and indeed,
recent satellite imagery has shown the occurrence of very
high waves in the Agulhas Current retroflection region S of
the Agulhas Bank (36°00′S 21°00′E). No encounters with
abnormal waves have been reported inside the 200 m depth
contour. When heavy seas have been experienced outside
the 200 m depth contour, much calmer seas have been
found closer inshore in depths of 100 m.
3
Abnormal waves are apparently caused by a combination
of sea and swell waves moving NE against the Agulhas
Current, combined with the passage of a cold front. Swell
waves generated from storms in high latitudes are almost
always present off the SE coast of South Africa, generally
moving in a NE direction. These are sometimes augmented
by other swell waves from a depression in the vicinity of
Prince Edward Islands (47°S 38°E) and by sea waves
generated from local depressions also moving in a general
NE direction. Thus there may be three and sometimes more
wave trains, each with widely differing wave−lengths, all
moving in the same general direction. Very occasionally the
crests of these different wave trains will coincide causing a
wave of exceptional height to build up and last for a short
time. The extent of this exceptional height will be only a
1985 - 1990
1991 - 1995
1996 - 2000
2001 - 2003
35° 40° 45° 50° 55°
30°
35°
Longitude 40° East from Greenwich 50° 55°
30°
5°
10°
15°
20°
30°
25°
35°
40°
5°
10°
15°
20°
30°
25°
35°
40°
Southern Hemisphere Tropical Cyclone Tracks DECEMBER 1985 - 2003 (1.118.1)
CHAPTER 1
22
1985 - 1990
1991 - 1995
1996 - 2000
2001 - 2003
35° 40° 45° 50° 55°
30°
35° Longitude 40° East from Greenwich 50° 55°30°
5°
10°
15°
20°
30°
25°
35°
40°
5°
10°
15°
20°
30°
25°
35°
40°
Southern Hemisphere Tropical Cyclone Tracks JANUARY 1985 - 2003 (1.118.2)
CHAPTER 1
23
1985 - 1990
1991 - 1995
1996 - 2000
2001 - 2003
35° 40° 45° 50° 55°
30°
35°
Longitude 40° East from Greenwich 50° 55°
30°
5°
10°
15°
20°
30°
25°
35°
40°
5°
10°
15°
20°
30°
25°
35°
40°
Southern Hemisphere Tropical Cyclone Tracks FEBRUARY 1985 - 2003 (1.118.3)
CHAPTER 1
24
1985 - 1990
1991 - 1995
1996 - 2000
2001 - 2003
35° 40° 45° 50° 55°
30°
35°
Longitude 40° East from Greenwich 50° 55°
30°
5°
10°
15°
20°
30°
25°
35°
40°
5°
10°
15°
20°
30°
25°
35°
40°
Southern Hemisphere Tropical Cyclone Tracks MARCH 1985 - 2003 (1.118.4)
CHAPTER 1
25
1985 - 1990
1991 - 1995
1996 - 2000
2001 - 2003
35° 40° 45° 50° 55°
30°
35°
Longitude 40° East from Greenwich 50° 55°
30°
5°
10°
15°
20°
30°
25°
35°
40°
5°
10°
15°
20°
30°
25°
35°
40°
Southern Hemisphere Tropical Cyclone Tracks APRIL 1985 - 2003 (1.118.5)
CHAPTER 1
26
N
o
v
e
m
b
e
r
1
9
9
3
M
a
y
1
9
8
4
M
a
y
1
9
9
8
J
u
n
e
1
9
9
2
M
a
y
2
0
0
2
N
o
v
e
m
b
e
r
1
9
9
7
N
o
v
e
m
b
e
r
2
0
0
3
D
e
c
e
m
b
e
r
1
9
9
2
J
a
n
u
a
r
y
1
9
9
1
November 1986
40°45°50°55°60°65°70°
40°45°50°Longitude 55° East from Greenwich60°65°70°
15°
10°
5°
15°
5°
10°
Northern Hemisphere Tropical Cyclone Tracks 1984 - 2003 (1.118.6)
CHAPTER 1
27
0.1-2.2
2.3-4.2
4.3-6.2
6.3-8.2
8.3+
3
Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of swell of different heights (in metres) according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Swell distribution JANUARY (1.121.1)
CHAPTER 1
28
0°
10°
N
10°
N
10°
S
10°
S
0°
20°Longitude 30° East from Greenwich60°50°40° 20°30°60°50°40° CHAPTER 1
29
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Swell distribution JANUARY (1.121.2)
0.1-2.2
2.3-4.2
4.3-6.2
6.3-8.2
8.3+
3
Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of swell of different heights (in metres) according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
20°
40°
30°
20°
40°
30°
20°60°50°30°40°
20°60°50°30°Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
0.1-2.2
2.3-4.2
4.3-6.2
6.3-8.2
8.3+
3
Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of swell of different heights (in metres) according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0°
10°
N
10°
N
10°
S
10°
S
0°
20°Longitude 30° East from Greenwich60°50°40° 20°30°60°50°40° Swell distribution APRIL (1.121.3)
CHAPTER 1
30
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Swell distribution APRIL (1.121.4)
0.1-2.2
2.3-4.2
4.3-6.2
6.3-8.2
8.3+
3
Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of swell of different heights (in metres) according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
CHAPTER 1
31
20°
40°
30°
20°
40°
30°
20°60°50°30°40°
60°Longitude 50° East from Greenwich30° 40° 0.1-2.2
2.3-4.2
4.3-6.2
6.3-8.2
8.3+
3
Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of swell of different heights (in metres) according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Swell distribution JULY (1.121.5)
CHAPTER 1
32
0°
10°
N
10°
N
10°
S
10°
S
0°
20°Longitude 30° East from Greenwich60°50°40° 20°30°60°50°40° 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
INSUFFICIENT
DATA
INSUFFICIENT
DATA
0
0
Swell distribution JULY (1.121.6)
0.1-2.2
2.3-4.2
4.3-6.2
6.3-8.2
8.3+
3
Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of swell of different heights (in metres) according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
CHAPTER 1
33
20°
40°
30°
20°
40°
30°
20°60°50°30°40°
20°60°50°30°Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
0.1-2.2
2.3-4.2
4.3-6.2
6.3-8.2
8.3+
3
Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of swell of different heights (in metres) according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Swell distribution OCTOBER (1.121.7)
CHAPTER 1
34
0°
10°
N
10°
N
10°
S
10°
S
0°
20°Longitude 30° East from Greenwich60°50°40° 20°30°60°50°40° 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
INSUFFICIENT
DATA
INSUFFICIENT
DATA
0
Swell distribution OCTOBER (1.121.8)
0.1-2.2
2.3-4.2
4.3-6.2
6.3-8.2
8.3+
3
Swell direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of swell of different heights (in metres) according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of swell from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
CHAPTER 1
35
20°
40°
30°
20°
40°
30°
20°60°50°30°40°
20°60°50°Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
CHAPTER 1
36
few cables both along the direction the waves are travelling
and along the crest of the wave. In the open sea this wave
will be sinusoidal in form and a well found ship, properly
handled, should ride safely over it. However, when the cold
front of a depression moves along the SE coast of South
Africa it is preceded by a strong NE wind. If this blows
for a sufficient length of time it will increase the velocity
of the Agulhas Current to as much as 5 kn. On the passage
of the front the wind changes direction abruptly and within
4 hours may be blowing strongly from SW. Under these
conditions sea waves will rapidly build up, moving NE
against the much stronger than usual Agulhas Current. If
this occurs when there is already a heavy NE−going swell
running, the occasional wave of exceptional height, which
will build up just to seaward of the edge of the continental
shelf, will no longer be sinusoidal but extremely
steep−fronted and preceded by a very deep trough. A ship
steering SW and meeting such a trough will find her bows
still dropping into the trough with increasing momentum
when she encounters the steep−fronted face of the
oncoming wave, which she heads straight into, the wave
eventually breaking over the fore part of the ship with
devastating force. Because of the shape of the wave, a ship
heading NE is much less likely to sustain serious damage.
4
Caution. Abnormal waves as described above may be
experienced at any time of the year if the weather
conditions are right, though such conditions are likely to
occur most frequently in the winter months. Ships
proceeding SW off the SE coast of South Africa in
conditions of heavy swell from a SW direction, and with
strong NE winds blowing with a falling barometer, should
keep well clear of the seaward edge of the continental shelf
if a cold front bringing strong SW winds is forecast. The
best procedure to adopt in such conditions is to move
inshore, out of the Agulhas current; additionally, speed
should be reduced substantially, particularly if proceeding
SW.
SEA WATER CHARACTERISTICS
Salinity
1.123
1
For an explanation of salinity as applied to sea water see
The Mariner’s Handbook. The unit of measurement is the
practical Salinity unit(s).
The salinity of sea water has little variation over the
seasons and the area covered by this book. Salinity is
lowest in equatorial regions with the highest values
occurring in the Gulf of Aden where values of 36⋅1 ppt to
36⋅3 ppt occur throughout the year. Sanility values N of the
equator, in the Somali Basin, range from 35⋅2 ppt in July to
35⋅8 ppt in February; values S of the equator range from
35⋅2 ppt in December to 35⋅5 ppt in June. High rainfall and
river run−off lead to local low salinity masses forming in
coastal regions adjacent to rivers.
Density
1.124
1
For an explanation of density as applied to sea water see
The Mariner’s Handbook.
The density of sea water in the S of the area covered by
this volume is 1⋅023g/cm to 1⋅025g/cm, and in the N it
is 1⋅024g/cm to 1⋅029g/cm. Along the equator the density
is just below 1⋅023g/cm3. The lowest values occur in the
Mozambique Channel as a result of river run−ff in coastal
regions.
ICE
1.125
1
The limit of Antarctic pack ice lies beyond the S
boundary, 45°S, of the area covered by this book. A few
widely spaced icebergs however, penetrate the S part of the
area.
Near the meridian of 20°E iceberg sightings have been
reported as far N as latitude 35°S. Such sightings must be
considered extremely rare but mariners should not discount
an encounter near the S coast of South Africa.
For information on ice hazards at sea consult The
Mariner’s Handbook and the Antarctic Pilot.
CLIMATE AND WEATHER
General information
1.126
1
This section should be read in conjunction with the
section on General Maritime Meteorology in The Mariner’s
Handbook. Routine weather reports and forecasts are
broadcast by shore radio stations, and warnings of
hazardous conditions are issued. Details are given in
Admiralty List of Radio Signals.
Diagrams 1.126.1 to 1.126.16 illustrate the seasonal
distribution of various weather elements.
2
The coastline covered by this book has been divided
into four zones for the purpose of describing the climate
and weather:
Zone A − Coast of the Republic of South Africa.
Zone B − Coast of Mozambique.
Zone C − Coasts of Tanzania and Kenya.
Zone D − Coast of Somalia.
Zone A − Coast of the Republic of South
Africa
General conditions
1.127
1
Disturbed conditions occur in the extreme S part of the
zone from May to October. Mainly fair weather prevails
over the rest of the area, with adequate rainfall and
moderate temperature. From October to April, the coastal
area S of about 33°S has frequent strong to gale force
winds and heavy seas. Sea fog is rare.
Pressure.
1.128
1
The subtropical anticyclone with an axis of high
pressure lies just N of 30°S in winter, and somewhat
farther S in summer. The zone of high pressure includes
separate anticyclonic cells with intervening troughs of low
pressure. See diagrams 1.126.1 to 1.126.2.
Average values of pressure are listed in the climatic
tables for selected stations. Significant deviations of
pressure from average are frequent. Frontal troughs cross
the area and are associated with depressions moving E over
the Southern Ocean.
Depressions
1.129
1
The tracks of these Southern Ocean depressions keep
well S of the area covered by this book although fringe
effects are encountered to the N of Durban. Secondary
depressions from the South Atlantic curve NE causing
rough weather along the coast from Cape Agulhas to
Durban. Developing shallow coastal depressions often
produce a strong circulation and confused sea over this
limited area.
CHAPTER 1
37
Fronts.
1.130
1
Heavy squalls and a sharp drop in temperature
accompany the sudden change to SW winds astern of a
cold front. Sudden changes of direction from NW to SW
are frequent as troughs move E.
Winds
1.131
1
See diagrams 1.126.3 to 1.126.12.
Winds over the open sea. Between Cape Agulhas and
Durban, winds from between NW and SW predominate
from April to September, with about 30 per cent of
observations reporting force 7 or more. From October to
March the directions are more variable and the frequency
of strong winds drops below 20 per cent. The wind
distribution over the N part is variable, with 20−30 per cent
of observations reporting strong winds or above from July
to October and less than 20 per cent in other months; NE
winds are most frequent.
2
Coastal winds. Strong to gale force winds may persist
for several days between Cape Agulhas and Port Elizabeth.
Wind summaries for selected locations are included in the
climatic tables. Rough sea and a heavy swell with mist and
driving rain occur in exposed approaches. July is the most
disturbed month.
3
The SE coast is affected at times by hot dry winds
blowing from the central plateau. These winds known
locally as ”bergs” often precede a coastal low and may
occur in any month. The temperature may reach 40°C and
the humidity 10 per cent or less. Land and sea breezes are
common along most of the coastline. The cold air flow off
the mountain slopes at night develops into sudden squalls
off the steeper parts of the adjacent hinterland.
Cloud
1.132
1
Cloud summaries for selected stations are given in the
climatic tables. Along the S coasts cloud amounts are
greatest from May to September; on the E coast the most
cloud occurs from April to October. In the S tip of the
zone, cloud cover tends to decrease during daylight; along
the E coast the reverse occurs in most months.
Precipitation
1.133
1
The mean annual amounts along the S coast range from
about 400 mm in the W to 600 mm in the E. Durban has
about 1000 mm, most of which occurs between October
and April. Annual amounts are usually close to the climatic
normal. Thunderstorms are rare to the W of East London;
the frequency increases considerably towards Durban.
About 100 storms a year are reported over the Drakensberg
range (1.60). Reports of hail are rare.
Fog and visibility
1.134
1
Sea fog is infrequent in all months. Visibility less than
5 miles is reported in 10 percent of observations; the
occurrence drops to 5 percent in the NE part of the zone.
Visibility may temporarily fall to less than half a mile in
heavy rainstorms. During offshore winds, dust may
considerably reduce visibility. Climatic tables provide
summaries on the occurrence of fog at selected stations.
Sea fog is most likely near Cape Agulhas and the coast
may become obscured during onshore winds.
Air temperature
1.135
1
Details are given in the climatic tables.
Maximum temperatures often occur at around noon just
prior to the onset of the sea breeze. The extreme maxima
occur during the berg winds. The minimum temperature
usually occurs at around dawn. The most rapid change of
air temperature over the sea occurs with the cold air from
SW astern of a cold front. Normally, the air temperature
over the open sea seldom deviates more than about 1°C
from the seasonal value. Hot air from the land may be
10°C above the water temperature near the coast. The
temperature may fall to 0°C around dawn in places;
otherwise the whole coastal belt is free of frost.
Humidity
1.136
1
This ranges from the high values associated with
onshore breezes to below 10 per cent in air from the high
ground. Details are provided in the climatic tables and in
diagrams 1.126.13 and 1.126.14. High values occur along
the estuaries at around dawn; these drop steadily to 50 per
cent or less by noon. The arrival of the sea breeze
increases humidity on the coast. Towards sunset humidity
rises quickly as the air cools and the wind drops; for a
while condensation accumulates on exposed surfaces. The S
extreme of the zone has spells of near saturation with moist
air from the Atlantic Ocean.
Sea surface temperature
1.137
1
Isotherms are shown on diagrams 1.126.15 and 1.126.16.
Maxima occur in February and minima in August. The
influence of the warm Agulhas Current is evident. Towards
Cape Agulhas the current weakens and diverges; the sea
surface temperature is variable and drops considerably
during persistent W winds.
Zone B − Coast of Mozambique
General conditions.
1.138
1
High temperatures combine with high humidity in the
wet season. SE trade winds prevail over the sea in the S
part of the zone and seasonal monsoons are dominant in
the N. Gales and fog are both rare; occasionally tropical
cyclones may reach the coast between 10°S and 25°S.
Pressure
1.139
1
The pressure fields are shown in the diagrams 1.126.1 to
1.126.2. A tropical low moves S over Africa during
October and the centre reaches 17°S by January. This low
pressure area then drifts N in February and moves N more
quickly during March and April as the pressure rises over
the S. Minor troughs and shallow depressions intrude into
the subtropical high at times. These bring variations to the
wind and weather as they move N over the S part of
Mozambique. The regular diurnal pressure variation in this
zone is about 2 to 3 hPa. A pressure below the normal may
signify the approach of a tropical cyclone.
Cyclones
1.140
1
An occasional tropical cyclone may enter Mozambique
Channel between November and April and on rare
occasions may reach the African coast. On average, two
cyclones occur each year in Mozambique Channel. Most
LOW
LOW
HIGH
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
8
1
0
1
4
1
0
1
2
1
0
0
6
1
0
1
4
1
0
1
6
1
0
1
8
1
0
1
2
Mean sea level barometric pressure (hPa) FEBRUARY (1.126.1)
CHAPTER 1
38
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
30°20°
60°
50°
40°
30°20°
60°
Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
HIGH
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
2
1
0
1
4
1
0
1
6
1
0
1
8
1
0
2
0
1
0
2
2
1
0
2
4
Mean sea level barometric pressure (hPa) AUGUST (1.126.2)
CHAPTER 1
39
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
30°20°
60°
50°
40°
30°20°
60°
Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
1
2
5
5
1
0
<1
<1
>5
<5
>10
Percentage frequency of winds more than Beaufort force 7 FEBRUARY (1.126.3)
CHAPTER 1
40
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
30°20°
60°
50°
40°
30°20°
60°
Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
3
0
2
0
5
2
2
2
5
1
0
1
5
2
0
>20
<2
Percentage frequency of winds more than Beaufort force 7 AUGUST (1.126.4)
CHAPTER 1
41
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
30°20°
60°
50°
40°
30°20°
60°
Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
4
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
<1
<1
<1
1
1
1
2
2
5
6
8
<1
Wind distribution JANUARY (1.126.5)
CHAPTER 1
42
0°
10°
N
10°
N
10°
S
10°
S
0°
20°Longitude 30° East from Greenwich60°50°40° 20°30°60°50°40° CHAPTER 1
43
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
4
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
4 7 2 1 1
1
1
1
1
0
<1
0
0
0
0
Wind distribution JANUARY (1.126.6)
20°
40°
30°
20°
40°
30°
20°60°50°30°40°
20°60°50°30°Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
4
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
10
10
11
16
13
7
9
7
3
4
4
1
CHAPTER 1
44
Wind distribution APRIL (1.126.7)
0°
10°
N
10°
N
10°
S
10°
S
0°
20°Longitude 30° East from Greenwich60°50°40° 20°30°60°50°40° Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
4
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
5
6
3
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
<1
<1
1
0
0
Wind distribution APRIL (1.126.8)
CHAPTER 1
45
20°
40°
30°
20°
40°
30°
20°60°50°30°40°
20°60°50°30°Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
4
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
0
0
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
<1
1
1
1
CHAPTER 1
46
Wind distribution JULY (1.126.9)
0°
10°
N
10°
N
10°
S
10°
S
0°
20°Longitude 30° East from Greenwich60°50°40° 20°30°60°50°40° Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
4
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
2
2
4
1
1
1
0
0
INSUFFICIENT
DATA
INSUFFICIENT
DATA
0
0
1
3
3
Wind distribution JULY (1.126.10)
CHAPTER 1
47
20°
40°
30°
20°
40°
30°
20°60°50°30°40°
20°60°50°30°Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
4
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
7
7
8
5
6
4
2
3
3
1
1
1
CHAPTER 1
48
Wind distribution OCTOBER (1.126.11)
0°
10°
N
10°
N
10°
S
10°
S
0°
20°Longitude 30° East from Greenwich60°50°40° 20°30°60°50°40° Wind direction is towards the circle centre. The figure within the circle gives the percentage of calms.
4
This scale is further subdivided to indicate the frequency of winds of different Beaufort force according to the legend:
EXPLANATION. The frequency of wind from any direction is given according to the scale:
0%102030
40
50%
2
2
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
<1
<1
<1
1
5
Wind distribution OCTOBER (1.126.12)
CHAPTER 1
49
20°
40°
30°
20°
40°
30°
20°60°50°30°40°
20°60°50°30°Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
7
5
8
0
8
0
8
0
8
0
<75
>80
>80
>80
Mean humidity % FEBRUARY (1.126.13)
CHAPTER 1
50
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
30°20°
60°
50°
40°
30°20°
60°
Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
8
0
8
0
8
0
7
5
7
0
7
5
7
5
7
5
8
0
8
5
<75
<75
<80
<80
<70
Mean humidity % AUGUST (1.126.14)
CHAPTER 1
51
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
30°20°
60°
50°
40°
30°20°
60°
Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
2
7
2
8
2
9
2
8
2
7
2
6
2
5
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
0
1
9
Mean sea surface temperature (°C) FEBRUARY (1.126.15)
CHAPTER 1
52
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
30°20°
60°
50°
40°
30°20°
60°
Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
2
5
2
6
2
6
2
5
2
4
2
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
1
9
1
8
1
7
1
6
1
9
2
0
Mean sea surface temperature (°C) AUGUST (1.126.16)
CHAPTER 1
53
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
30°20°
60°
50°
40°
30°20°
60°
Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
CHAPTER 1
54
cyclones track W from the Indian Ocean towards the island
of Madagascar. Those reaching Mozambique Channel then
curve S or SE. Some tracks are very unpredictable and
cyclones may trace loops and reversals. See diagrams
1.118.1 to 1.118.5. They normal leave the channel through
the S entrance. A description of tropical cyclone behaviour
is contained in The Mariner’s Handbook.
Winds
1.141
1
See diagrams 1.126.3 to 1.126.12.
Winds over the open sea. The SE trade wind dominates
the zone S of 18°S throughout the year. NE winds are,
however, frequent in September and October. Wind
direction is more seasonal farther N, being SE from April
to August and NE from October to February. The average
strength is light to moderate. Though fresh at times, it
seldom reaches force 7. Strong winds from S direction may
reach force 7 in the S part of the zone.
2
Winds in coastal waters. The main variations are
described in The Mariner’s Handbook. Winds tend to blow
parallel with the coast, especially when high ground is near.
Land and sea breezes are regular features but are deviated
by local topography. The sea breeze sets in by
mid−morning and may reach force 4 or 5 in the afternoon
when the gradient wind is onshore. Mainly light land
breezes develop at night but these may bring sudden
squalls in the N. Around dawn and dusk calm and light
winds are frequent.
Wind information is provided in the climatic tables.
Cloud
1.142
1
Summer is cloudier than winter with more cloud over S
parts. During persistent onshore winds, cloud forms on land
near the coast. The average cover over the sea is 3 to
4 oktas with little diurnal or seasonal variation.
Precipitation
1.143
1
The wet season runs from November to April, the dry
from June to September. Annual rainfall along the coast
ranges from 700 mm to 1500 mm. The rainfall is much
greater than in Zone A with the Beira area having the
heaviest falls. In the wet season long spells of heavy rain
cause flooding; thunderstorms are frequent at this time.
Fog and visibility
1.144
1
The sea off Mozambique is seldom affected by fog but
visibility of less than 5 miles occurs at times during August
to October. Patchy radiation fog forms overnight along
parts of the coast in winter. This usually clears soon after
sunrise and the estuaries are most likely to be affected.
Heavy rain may reduce visibility below ½ mile.
Air temperature
1.145
1
Values are provided for selected stations in the tables.
Hot summers and moderate winter temperatures feature in
the S of the zone, hot winters and even hotter summers in
the north. Extreme values are more likely in the S. Air
from the hot hinterland brings the highest temperatures and
these are associated with low humidity. Cool S winds
provide respite from the high temperature at times. Sudden
variations occur over the S parts during the passage of
troughs of low pressure.
Humidity
1.146
1
High values normally occur around dawn and at sunset
with low values during mid−afternoon. The regular sea
breeze from mid−morning to late afternoon maintains
humidity between 60 and 65 per cent. Details are provided
in the climatic tables and in diagrams 1.126.13 and
1.126.14.
Sea surface temperature
1.147
1
Isotherms are shown on diagrams 1.126.15 and 1.126.16.
Highest temperatures occur in February and the lowest in
August. The S−going Mozambique Current carries high
temperature water to the S.
Zone C − Coasts of Tanzania and Kenya
General conditions
1.148
1
Temperature information is provided in the climatic
tables. Sea breezes reduce the daytime extremes, but
increase the humidity. The period from December to April
is particularly oppressive. Rainfall is abundant in the wet
period (November to May) and moderate in other months.
The N to NE Monsoon wind prevails from December to
March; the SE trade dominates during the rest of the year.
Gales are rare, but tropical cyclones may reach the coast
on rare occasions. Fog is almost unknown over the sea.
Pressure
1.149
1
The mean pressure pattern from April to October is
similar to that of July. The equatorial trough is dominant
from late November to early March. See diagrams 1.126.1
to 1.126.2.
The pressure gradient is slack for most of the time.
There are no features such as ”fronts” or ”convergence
zones” with regular definition at the surface, but cells of
heavy rainstorms are encountered.
Winds
1.150
1
See diagrams 1.126.3 to 1.126.12.
Winds over the open sea. The S to SE Monsoon
prevails from April to October; the NE Monsoon from
November to March. The transition period varies
considerably from year to year. The wind directions are
more variable in April and October. The S to SE Monsoon
is generally stronger than the NE Monsoon. From May to
August the SE trade wind ranges from force 4 to 7. In
other months, including the NE Monsoon, force 3 winds
prevail. Gales are very infrequent.
2
Coastal winds. A land breeze develops at night and a
moderate sea breeze, often reaching force 4, sets in during
late forenoon on most days; force 6 may develop in
favourable conditions. Gusts of force 8 occur locally in
thundery squalls and are most frequent in the transition
months of April, September and October. There is a remote
chance of a tropical cyclone from the Indian Ocean
reaching the coast near latitude 10°S.
Cloud
1.151
1
At sea there are 2 or 3 oktas for most of the year, but
this increases to 4 or 5 oktas around 10°S from January to
April. Coastal stations average 5 oktas cloud cover and
Zanzibar has nearly 6 oktas.
CHAPTER 1
55
Precipitation
1.152
1
The rainy season is from December to April over the S
part of the zone, the period from June to October being
relatively dry. In the N the wet months are April and May
but wet spells occur in June and July. The wet season from
April to July is called the ”long rains” by the Kenyans. A
secondary wet period around Mombasa is called the ”short
rains”. Most rainfall occurs in short thundery downpours;
50mm sometimes falls in 1 hour and 200 mm in 24 hours.
The period from January to March is the main
thunderstorm season, but storm occurrence varies
considerably from year to year.
Fog and visibility
1.153
1
Visibility is good or very good and fog is rare. Poor
visibility due to haze is most common during January,
August and September. Heavy rainstorms may reduce
visibility to less than half mile. Fog on land is infrequent,
but may occur briefly around dawn over marshy estuaries.
Air temperature
1.154
1
The air temperature over the sea is similar to the water
temperature. From July to September the seasonal average
is 25°C; in other months 27° to 28°C. Variations from
normal are slight. Along the coast, lowest temperatures of
around 15°C occur around dawn; the highest of around
40°C occur in air from the land during the afternoon.
Humidity
1.155
1
The humid period occurs a little earlier in the S than in
the N and accompanies the rainy season. In the dry season,
the highest humidity occurs around dawn and the lowest in
the afternoon. The diurnal change is more variable in the
wet season. Details are provided in the climatic tables and
in diagrams 1.126.13 and 1.126.14.
Sea surface temperature
1.156
1
Representative sea surface temperatures are given in
diagrams 1.126.15 and 1.126.16.
The isotherms indicate 27° to 28°C for most of the year,
decreasing to 25°C from July to September. Deviations
from average are small.
Zone D − Coast of Somalia
General conditions
1.157
1
Throughout the year the weather is hot. There are small
to moderate amounts of rainfall in the S, with very small
amounts over most of the area. From May to September S
to SW winds prevail, becoming N to NE from November
to March. Gales may be encountered in the N of the zone
but seldom in the S. Tropical cyclones moving W or NW
near the island of Suqutrá may affect the NE tip on rare
occasions. Haze and mist are rather common in the N
during the SW Monsoon but sea fog is rare. Sea
temperature is abnormally low and variable near Raas
Xaafuun due to persistent upwelling.
Pressure
1.158
1
Diagrams 1.126.1 to 1.126.2 indicate the seasonal
pressure variations. The diagrams for January and July
show the regular monsoons; April and October are the
transitional months. The onset and end the monsoons vary
from year to year. Annual variations from the normal
pressure pattern may be significant. The regular diurnal
range of pressure is about 3 hPa; maxima occur at 1000
and 2200 local time; minima at 0400 and 1600 local time.
The inter−tropical convergence zone (ITCZ), the meeting
point of the dominant wind circulations of the N and S
hemispheres, is generally inactive in this zone.
Winds
1.159
1
See diagrams 1.126.3 to 1.126.12.
Wind offshore. The N to NE Monsoon prevails from
November to March and the S to SW Monsoon from May
to September. Light variable breezes predominate during
the transitional months of April and October. The mean
strength of the NE Monsoon is force 4, with 30 per cent
reaching force 5 and 20 per cent light winds. The SW
Monsoon also averages force 4 S of 5°N. From June to
August it increases sharply to average force 6 between 5°N
and 10°N. Gales occur in 17 per cent of ship reports in
July, but less during June and August and infrequently
during May and September.
2
Wind inshore. Regular land and sea breezes are almost
a daily routine, but coastal deflection is a major factor. The
counter or combined effects of the gradient and diurnal
components during the NE Monsoon produce a high
proportion of calms at night, followed by light N winds at
dawn. These gradually increase and veer to moderate or
fresh NE or E by afternoon. There are only a few reporting
stations along this thinly inhabited coast. At Muqdisho
winds are mainly light, but about 5 per cent reach force 6
in December and January.
Cloud
1.160
1
Cloud over the sea varies from 3 oktas during February
to April to 4 to 5 oktas from May to July. Reports from
coastal stations are few.
Precipitation
1.161
1
Rainfall is negligible in some years; in the S the total
rainfall is small and unreliable for a tropical area.
Thunderstorms occur on about one day per month in April
and May.
Fog and visibility
1.162
1
Fog is almost unknown over the sea, although mist and
haze are relatively frequent over the N during the SW
Monsoon from June to September. The sector of cold water
between 5°N and 10°N is affected by poor visibility with
SW winds.
Air temperature
1.163
1
The highest values of 28°C occur in April and May, the
lowest of 25°C, between July and September. Deviations
from the average seldom exceed 2°C between October and
May. In the N variations of 3°C are recorded between June
and September. Values for selected stations are given in the
climatic tables. The highest temperatures occur when the
CHAPTER 1
56
air comes off the land during the day and the lowest
readings occur around dawn.
Humidity
1.164
1
The dominant onshore winds keep the humidity high
along the coast during the day. Away from the coast the
humidity falls quickly. Very low values occur on occasions
when air comes off the land in the daytime. Details are
provided in the climatic tables and in diagrams 1.126.13
and 1.126.14.
Sea surface temperature
1.165
1
Representative sea surface temperatures are given in
diagrams 1.126.15 and 1.126.16.
The water is warmest in April and coolest in August.
The closely spaced isotherms near Raas Xaafuun,
emphasize the area of colder water resulting from
upwelling. Greater variations from normal occur here and
amount to 5°C at times. Elsewhere the water temperature
seldom varies more than 2°C above or below the average.
CLIMATE INFORMATION
1.166
1
The tables which follow, give data for several coastal
stations that regularly undertake weather observations.
Substantial deviations from the mean values given are
experienced from month to month and year to year. The
values for the stations may not represent the conditions
elsewhere. Coastal topography, diurnal variation, and high
local features may cause significant local variations. The
following information gives guidance and the best known
variations:
2
Wind speed is often greater and direction more
constant over the sea.
Cloud tends to increase during the day and disperse
at night over land.
There is little change in cloud between day and night
over the sea.
Rainfall is greater over land particularly for onshore
winds and in hilly areas.
3
Overland fog is most frequent around dawn and
clearing by noon.
Temperatures are generally higher over land than sea
in summer.
Temperatures are lower over land than over the sea in
winter.
Muqdisho
Malindi
Tanga
Pemba
Inhambane
Maputo
Durban
Port Saint John’s (Cape Hermes)
East London
Port Elizabeth
Mossel Bay
Cape Agulhas
Cape Saint Lucia
Porto de Mozambique (Lumbo)
Mombasa
Dar es Salaam
1.182
1.181
1.180
1.179
1.178
1.177
1.176
1.175
1.174
1.173
1.172
1.171
1.170
1.169
1.168
1.167
CHAPTER 1
57
Location of climate stations (1.166)
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
N
10°
S
10°
0°
20°
30°
40°
30°20°
60°
50°
40°
30°20°
60°
Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0830
0800
1500
1400
1400
1500
0830
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
58
1.167
WMO No 68920 CAPE AGULHAS (34
°
50
′
S, 20
°
01
′
E) Height above MSL − 14 m
Climate Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2004
January 1014
25
18
27
13
81
69
5
4
20
6
1
3
24
17
7
10
17
9
12
0
2
19
20
12
20
21
4
2
12
15
0
1
0
February 1015
24
18
27
15
85
73
6
4
17
5
1
7
24
18
6
9
16
6
13
0
4
22
21
12
17
20
3
1
12
16
0
1
0
March 1016
23
17
26
13
88
76
5
4
26
7
1
8
26
13
4
6
17
10
15
0
3
25
17
7
13
28
4
3
11
14
1
2
0
April
1016
20
15
25
12
88
78
5
4
51
8
3
9
20
7
5
4
16
18
18
0
5
22
9
6
8
32
8
10
10
13
0
2
0
May 1018
19
14
25
10
87
78
5
5
55
8
4
12
9
4
2
6
21
23
19
1
6
17
6
2
14
30
12
12
9
12
1
2
0
June 1019
18
12
24
8
84
75
4
4
54
10
10
12
6
2
2
4
21
26
17
3
6
13
4
2
7
34
17
14
10
13
1
1
0
July
1021
17
11
23
7
85
76
4
4
63
11
8
10
8
3
2
6
22
24
17
2
5
17
5
3
6
36
17
9
11
14
1
0
0
August 1020
17
11
22
8
86
77
5
4
61
11
8
10
9
4
5
6
22
22
14
2
5
16
8
3
11
33
15
7
11
15
1
1
0
September 1019
18
12
23
8
86
75
5
4
36
9
4
9
16
6
5
9
21
15
15
0
4
18
10
6
17
31
10
4
12
16
1
1
0
October
1018
20
14
23
10
83
73
5
4
33
7
3
5
27
11
5
9
18
10
12
0
3
21
16
8
17
26
6
3
12
16
1
0
0
November 1017
22
15
25
11
81
71
6
4
21
6
1
4
24
16
6
9
19
10
11
0
1
19
21
9
19
26
4
1
13
17
1
0
0
December 1015
23
17
26
13
81
69
5
4
16
5
1
4
19
20
5
10
23
7
11
0
2
17
22
9
17
27
5
1
12
17
1
0
0
Means
1017
20
14
29*
7§
85
74
5
4
_
_
4
8
18
10
4
7
19
15
15
1
4
19
13
6
14
29
9
5
11
15
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
453
93
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
9
10
2
Extreme values _
_
_
35†
5‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
20
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
59
1.168
WMO No 68928 MOSSEL BAY (34
°
11
′
S, 22
°
09
′
E) Height above MSL − 61 m
Climate Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2004
January 1014
24
18
28
15
80
72
5
4
26
6
7
7
12
6
12
21
12
7
16
0
0
16
20
32
30
1
0
1
8
16
1
1
0
February 1015
24
18
28
14
83
75
5
4
22
6
7
5
11
7
9
16
10
12
23
1
1
17
22
28
27
3
0
1
7
14
1
2
1
March 1016
23
17
27
13
85
76
5
4
29
7
10
5
10
4
9
14
15
12
21
2
2
16
15
29
31
2
0
3
7
13
1
4
1
April
1017
21
15
28
12
82
75
5
4
36
7
13
4
4
3
5
13
18
23
17
5
4
12
8
26
30
6
2
7
7
11
0
3
1
May 1018
21
14
29
10
75
68
4
4
22
6
14
1
1
0
4
11
24
33
12
5
4
7
5
23
32
10
8
6
8
10
0
2
0
June 1020
20
12
28
9
70
61
4
4
22
6
15
0
1
0
2
7
33
34
8
8
4
5
4
15
26
13
15
10
9
9
0
1
0
July
1021
19
12
27
7
70
61
4
4
24
6
14
2
1
0
3
10
27
37
6
6
5
7
4
16
26
14
13
9
9
11
0
1
0
August 1020
19
12
27
8
75
66
4
4
39
7
13
2
2
1
3
9
25
33
12
6
4
9
7
19
32
10
7
6
8
12
1
1
0
September 1019
19
12
25
9
78
70
5
5
24
7
12
4
3
1
7
12
23
24
14
2
3
14
12
23
35
6
2
3
8
14
0
1
0
October
1018
20
14
26
10
79
71
5
4
43
8
11
6
8
3
8
16
12
18
18
2
2
17
14
27
34
2
1
1
8
16
1
1
0
November 1017
21
15
25
12
79
71
5
4
33
7
10
5
9
6
14
19
12
8
17
1
1
17
19
30
29
2
0
1
8
16
1
2
0
December 1015
23
17
27
13
78
71
5
4
23
6
9
6
13
4
13
23
12
5
15
1
1
17
17
32
29
2
0
1
8
16
1
1
1
Means
1018
21
15
32*
7§
78
70
5
4
_
_
11
4
6
3
7
14
19
21
15
3
3
13
12
25
30
6
4
4
8
13
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
343
79
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
7
18
5
Extreme values _
_
_
37†
5‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
20
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
60
1.169
WMO No 68842 PORT ELIZABETH (33
°
59
′
S, 25
°
37
′
E) Height above MSL − 61 m
Climate Table compiled from observations 1974 to 2004
January 1014
26
17
32
11
76
63
5
3
35
7
4
14
13
3
5
23
23
1
14
0
1
32
11
15
37
4
0
0
9
16
0
1
1
February 1014
26
18
32
12
81
65
5
4
38
7
5
13
14
4
3
22
20
2
17
0
2
38
9
15
31
5
0
0
9
16
0
1
1
March 1016
25
16
31
8
83
65
5
4
41
9
7
11
10
2
2
18
25
2
23
0
4
32
9
11
34
9
0
1
7
14
0
2
2
April
1017
23
14
32
7
84
64
4
4
46
9
8
9
5
1
1
13
29
4
30
2
9
26
6
9
29
15
2
2
7
13
0
2
2
May 1018
22
11
32
5
82
57
4
4
32
7
9
4
1
1
1
8
34
9
33
4
8
16
2
6
34
21
4
5
6
12
0
2
1
June 1020
20
8
30
2
80
53
3
3
58
8
11
2
1
0
1
6
36
13
30
8
11
8
2
4
24
27
7
9
6
11
0
1
0
July
1021
20
8
29
2
80
54
3
3
43
7
11
3
1
1
1
7
34
12
30
7
10
10
2
6
24
26
8
7
6
12
0
2
0
August 1020
20
10
31
4
81
59
4
3
60
8
9
4
2
1
1
8
36
8
31
2
9
16
4
9
32
20
5
3
6
13
0
1
1
September 1019
20
11
30
5
80
64
5
4
54
9
10
9
4
2
3
10
34
5
23
0
5
24
7
13
35
13
1
2
8
15
1
1
1
October
1018
21
13
30
6
77
65
5
4
60
10
7
12
11
3
3
19
28
2
15
0
3
30
9
10
37
10
0
1
10
16
1
1
1
November 1016
22
15
29
9
75
65
5
4
75
10
5
11
12
4
3
24
26
1
14
0
2
29
11
13
37
8
0
0
10
17
1
1
1
December 1014
24
16
30
11
75
63
4
4
39
8
4
12
14
3
5
22
25
1
14
0
1
31
11
15
36
6
0
0
10
17
0
1
1
Means
1017
22
13
35*
1§
79
62
4
4
_
_
8
9
7
2
2
15
29
5
23
2
5
24
7
11
32
14
2
3
8
14
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
581
99
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
4
16
10
Extreme values _
_
_
40†
−1‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
31
31
31
20
31
31
31
31
31
31
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
61
1.170
WMO No 68858 EAST LONDON (33
°
02
′
S, 27
°
50
′
E) Height above MSL − 125 m
Climate Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2004
January 1014
26
19
32
13
76
70
5
4
92
12
4
24
8
2
3
22
21
1
15
1
13
33
11
18
22
1
0
1
8
13
0
1
3
February 1014
26
19
32
15
79
71
5
4
75
12
4
26
6
1
2
19
25
3
14
0
12
36
9
14
25
2
0
2
8
13
0
0
2
March 1016
25
18
32
13
81
70
5
4
118
13
9
19
3
1
2
15
27
4
20
0
14
29
11
13
28
1
1
3
7
11
0
1
3
April
1017
24
16
32
11
79
66
4
4
74
10
16
12
2
1
1
6
34
10
18
1
15
24
8
15
27
4
1
5
7
10
0
0
2
May 1018
23
13
32
8
71
58
3
3
36
5
18
3
0
0
0
4
34
27
14
2
8
22
9
16
22
12
2
7
7
10
0
0
1
June 1021
22
11
30
6
66
51
3
3
28
4
22
1
0
0
0
1
36
31
9
3
7
16
9
15
20
17
4
9
8
9
0
0
0
July
1022
22
10
31
5
64
50
3
3
24
4
21
3
1
0
1
3
31
32
8
3
6
18
13
15
23
14
3
5
8
10
0
0
0
August 1020
22
11
32
6
70
58
3
3
57
7
19
6
1
0
1
4
38
21
10
1
10
21
10
19
25
9
2
3
8
11
0
0
0
September 1019
22
13
32
8
72
64
4
4
101
9
12
15
3
1
1
11
38
7
12
0
11
25
9
21
27
4
1
2
8
13
0
0
1
October
1018
22
14
30
10
73
68
5
5
109
13
4
25
8
1
2
19
26
2
13
1
15
30
8
14
28
3
0
1
9
14
0
1
2
November 1016
23
16
30
11
73
70
5
5
120
14
4
21
9
3
5
25
22
1
10
0
15
26
10
15
30
3
0
1
9
14
0
1
3
December 1014
25
17
30
13
74
70
5
5
92
12
3
20
13
2
4
24
22
1
11
0
11
32
12
18
24
2
0
1
9
13
0
0
2
Means
1018
23
15
35*
4§
73
64
4
4
_
_
11
15
4
1
2
13
29
12
13
1
12
26
10
16
25
6
1
3
8
12
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
926
115
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2
4
18
Extreme values _
_
_
39†
3‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
20
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
62
1.171
WMO No 68674 PORT SAINT JOHNS (CAPE HERMES) (31
°
38
′
S, 29
°
33
′
E) Height above MSL − 47 m
Climate Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2004
January 1013
25
20
29
16
82
80
5
5
101
11
7
19
1
1
1
25
1
7
38
6
36
3
5
3
39
0
2
6
9
18
1
0
1
February 1014
26
21
29
17
83
79
5
4
100
9
9
18
2
1
1
22
1
9
37
7
34
5
2
2
32
2
5
11
9
18
1
0
1
March 1015
25
20
28
16
82
79
5
4
110
9
9
14
1
2
1
18
1
17
37
8
32
4
3
3
39
1
3
7
8
17
0
0
2
April
1017
24
18
27
15
77
77
4
4
74
7
9
8
1
0
1
17
2
33
29
8
34
2
1
4
35
1
3
12
8
16
0
0
1
May 1018
23
16
28
12
66
69
3
3
28
3
5
7
1
1
1
14
0
47
24
8
32
2
2
2
36
0
3
15
9
15
0
0
1
June 1021
22
14
28
11
62
66
3
3
16
3
5
7
1
1
0
14
1
54
17
9
26
2
1
1
35
2
8
16
10
14
0
0
1
July
1021
22
14
29
10
62
66
2
2
28
3
6
5
1
0
0
12
2
51
23
7
32
2
2
2
34
1
8
12
10
15
0
0
0
August 1020
21
14
27
11
70
72
3
3
35
5
9
9
1
1
0
18
0
32
30
5
31
6
2
1
41
1
4
9
9
18
0
0
0
September 1018
21
15
27
11
76
77
4
4
81
8
11
12
5
1
1
22
2
18
28
4
32
3
2
1
46
1
2
9
9
18
0
0
0
October
1018
22
16
26
12
78
79
5
5
81
11
7
18
3
2
1
32
0
8
29
4
33
5
3
3
43
0
1
8
11
19
0
0
1
November 1016
23
18
26
14
80
80
5
5
105
11
11
18
0
1
1
36
0
6
27
6
35
2
5
3
42
0
1
6
11
19
0
0
2
December 1014
24
19
27
15
81
80
5
5
88
11
7
18
1
2
1
31
1
4
35
3
37
2
4
2
39
1
2
10
10
16
1
0
1
Means
1017
23
17
32*
10§
75
75
4
4
_
_
8
13
1
1
1
22
1
24
29
6
33
3
3
2
39
1
3
10
9
17
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
847
91
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
3
0
10
Extreme values _
_
_
34†
8‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
20
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
63
1.172
WMO No 68588 DURBAN (29
°
58
′
S, 30
°
57
′
E) Height above MSL − 14 m
Climate Table compiled from observations 1974 to 2004
January 1013
28
21
33
16
76
70
5
5
114
12
14
19
1
1
11
28
3
1
22
4
29
21
6
30
7
0
0
3
7
12
0
0
3
February 1014
28
22
32
17
77
70
5
4
113
11
19
16
1
1
8
23
4
2
26
2
30
21
8
30
7
0
0
2
6
12
0
0
2
March 1015
28
21
32
16
78
69
4
4
106
12
18
9
0
0
4
26
7
3
33
4
30
19
6
32
5
1
0
3
5
12
0
0
3
April
1017
26
18
31
14
78
66
4
3
79
8
16
3
0
0
2
20
7
7
45
4
34
18
5
30
6
0
0
3
4
11
0
0
2
May 1019
25
14
30
9
75
60
3
3
31
5
12
1
1
0
1
15
6
12
52
5
31
18
5
29
6
1
0
5
3
10
0
0
1
June 1021
23
11
29
7
72
54
2
2
17
3
16
1
0
0
1
14
6
10
52
6
28
16
5
31
7
0
0
7
3
9
0
0
1
July
1022
23
11
29
6
73
54
3
2
41
5
14
1
0
0
2
15
5
9
54
5
30
17
7
27
7
1
1
5
3
10
0
0
1
August 1021
23
13
30
8
74
60
3
3
43
5
14
4
0
0
2
19
6
8
47
7
30
15
8
30
6
1
0
3
4
12
0
0
1
September 1019
23
15
30
10
74
66
4
4
68
8
17
10
1
0
5
27
5
4
31
5
30
13
6
32
9
1
0
4
6
12
0
0
1
October
1018
24
17
30
12
73
69
5
5
96
13
18
18
1
0
11
27
3
1
21
5
28
16
5
32
9
1
0
4
8
13
0
0
3
November 1016
25
19
31
13
74
70
5
5
114
13
13
21
1
1
17
21
3
2
21
5
30
16
7
31
7
1
0
3
8
12
0
0
4
December 1014
27
20
32
15
75
71
5
5
111
15
13
24
2
1
15
22
2
1
20
3
30
20
7
31
7
0
0
2
8
12
0
0
4
Means
1017
25
17
34*
6§
75
65
4
4
_
_
15
10
1
1
7
21
5
5
35
5
30
18
6
30
7
1
0
3
5
12
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
933
110
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
2
26
Extreme values _
_
_
37†
4‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
31
31
31
20
31
31
31
31
31
31
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
64
1.173
WMO No 68496 CAPE SAINT LUCIA (28
°
30
′
S, 32
°
24
′
E) Height above MSL − 107 m
Climate Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2004
January 1013
28
22
32
17
84
76
5
4
115
10
9
23
4
6
6
17
9
11
15
1
45
9
13
11
13
2
1
5
10
16
1
0
1
February 1014
28
22
31
18
87
77
5
4
131
11
5
18
3
4
5
15
10
23
17
1
43
9
14
10
14
2
0
7
9
13
0
0
1
March 1015
28
21
31
16
87
77
4
4
102
10
7
13
2
4
5
16
18
23
12
2
43
8
10
14
15
2
2
4
10
15
1
0
2
April
1017
26
19
30
15
86
76
4
3
111
9
6
14
1
2
3
16
25
28
5
4
41
7
7
9
20
3
3
6
11
14
1
0
2
May 1018
24
17
28
12
86
74
3
3
63
6
6
9
0
3
3
14
28
34
3
5
40
4
7
11
19
4
3
7
13
13
0
0
1
June 1021
22
14
27
10
83
70
3
3
60
6
5
5
0
2
3
14
27
42
2
8
29
3
6
10
22
4
6
12
13
12
0
0
1
July
1022
22
14
27
10
84
70
3
3
71
7
6
8
1
3
5
15
22
37
3
4
37
3
6
14
18
3
6
9
14
13
1
0
0
August 1021
22
15
28
11
84
73
3
3
57
6
7
14
1
3
4
15
18
34
4
6
47
2
8
12
18
2
2
3
13
15
1
0
1
September 1018
23
17
29
12
85
76
5
4
71
8
9
19
2
5
6
19
12
19
9
4
45
5
10
12
16
2
2
4
13
17
1
0
1
October
1018
24
18
29
13
84
78
6
5
95
12
9
21
2
8
6
17
10
18
10
3
49
6
10
12
14
2
1
3
12
17
1
0
2
November 1016
25
19
30
15
84
79
6
5
141
12
10
21
4
5
8
20
7
11
14
1
47
7
11
14
13
1
1
5
12
16
1
0
2
December 1014
27
21
31
16
83
77
6
4
84
10
10
25
2
6
6
18
9
10
14
1
48
7
12
11
14
2
1
4
11
16
1
0
2
Means
1017
25
18
33*
9§
85
75
4
4
_
_
8
16
2
4
5
16
16
24
9
3
43
6
10
12
16
2
2
6
12
15
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1101
107
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
8
1
15
Extreme values _
_
_
36†
7‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
20
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0900
0900
0900
1500
1500
1500
1500
0900
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
65
1.174
WMO No 67341 MAPUTO (25
°
55
′
S, 32
°
34
′
E) Height above MSL − 44 m
Climate Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2004
January 1013
31
23
37
19
81
62
5
4
101
9
17
3
3
3
44
14
3
9
4
4
14
55
15
10
1
0
1
0
7
12
0
0
4
February 1013
31
23
35
20
83
63
5
4
104
9
12
1
1
3
50
14
4
8
7
3
12
54
18
10
1
0
2
0
7
11
0
0
3
March 1015
31
22
36
19
83
61
4
4
71
7
12
3
2
2
42
13
4
14
8
7
13
46
17
10
1
1
5
0
6
10
0
0
3
April
1017
29
20
35
16
84
59
4
4
34
5
14
2
1
1
37
16
4
13
12
13
11
42
18
8
1
1
6
0
6
10
0
0
2
May 1019
28
17
33
13
85
55
3
3
15
3
18
1
1
1
28
17
3
17
14
18
8
34
15
10
2
1
11
1
6
9
0
2
1
June 1022
26
14
31
11
85
53
2
3
14
3
18
1
1
1
28
14
3
12
22
18
6
25
18
12
2
2
16
1
5
9
0
3
0
July
1023
25
14
31
10
84
53
2
3
10
2
23
1
0
0
30
15
3
13
15
18
6
29
18
11
3
1
14
0
6
10
0
3
0
August 1021
27
15
34
11
83
54
3
3
13
2
25
1
0
0
32
12
3
17
10
19
12
35
15
9
1
0
8
1
7
11
0
1
1
September 1019
28
17
37
13
79
56
4
3
26
4
29
2
2
2
34
12
3
9
7
15
19
40
15
6
1
0
4
0
8
12
0
1
1
October
1017
28
19
36
15
77
61
5
4
52
7
25
4
3
5
33
10
4
12
4
7
19
43
17
8
2
0
3
1
8
13
0
0
2
November 1015
29
20
36
17
77
62
6
5
81
8
27
4
3
5
36
9
3
8
5
7
20
44
15
9
1
1
3
0
8
13
0
0
4
December 1014
30
22
37
18
78
62
5
5
82
8
26
5
4
6
31
9
2
12
5
6
18
50
13
8
0
0
4
1
8
12
0
0
5
Means
1017
28
19
40*
9§
82
58
4
4
_
_
21
2
2
2
35
13
3
12
10
11
13
41
16
10
1
1
7
0
7
11
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
603
67
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
10
26
Extreme values _
_
_
43†
7‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
66
1.175
WMO No 67323 INHAMBANE (23
°
52
′
S, 35
°
23
′
E) Height above MSL − 15 m
Climate Table compiled from observations 1974 to 2004
January 1012
32
23
33
21
79
64
5
5
75
7
11
8
7
16
17
4
1
2
34
8
23
19
28
13
2
1
0
6
5
9
0
0
2
February 1012
32
23
33
21
81
65
5
5
65
6
6
5
8
14
18
5
1
1
42
6
14
23
34
16
1
1
0
5
4
9
0
0
1
March 1013
31
22
33
20
83
63
4
5
69
7
5
3
6
8
17
7
2
2
50
7
16
18
30
16
2
1
0
10
3
8
0
0
1
April
1016
30
20
31
18
85
63
4
5
40
6
5
0
2
6
18
5
1
1
62
9
14
16
27
13
3
1
1
16
2
7
0
0
1
May 1018
28
18
30
15
87
62
3
4
21
4
5
1
1
4
17
7
2
3
60
14
18
12
18
15
3
1
1
18
3
7
0
0
1
June 1021
26
17
28
14
87
62
3
4
8
2
10
0
1
4
19
5
3
2
56
15
16
9
12
20
3
3
2
20
3
6
0
0
0
July
1022
26
16
28
14
89
61
3
4
15
3
8
1
1
5
15
7
2
2
59
16
17
11
16
15
3
2
1
19
3
7
0
0
0
August 1021
26
16
28
13
86
63
3
4
16
3
15
2
3
6
13
4
1
3
53
19
26
13
19
12
1
1
1
8
3
8
0
0
0
September 1019
27
18
30
15
81
64
4
4
24
3
16
7
7
9
12
4
0
2
43
20
31
15
20
10
0
0
1
3
4
9
0
0
0
October
1017
28
19
30
16
76
63
5
5
32
4
15
14
11
16
11
2
1
1
29
15
31
18
23
8
1
0
1
3
6
10
0
0
1
November 1015
29
21
32
18
76
67
6
5
52
5
16
16
13
10
13
2
1
1
28
18
33
19
16
7
1
0
1
5
6
10
0
0
2
December 1013
30
22
32
19
76
64
5
5
68
4
15
11
11
14
12
4
2
1
30
12
24
22
23
11
1
0
1
6
5
9
0
0
2
Means
1017
29
20
34*
13§
82
63
4
4
_
_
11
6
6
9
15
5
1
2
45
13
22
16
22
13
2
1
1
10
4
8
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
485
54
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
2
11
Extreme values _
_
_
36†
11‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
31
31
31
21
31
31
31
31
31
31
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
| Rare
{ All observations
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0900
0900
0900
1500
1500
1500
1500
0900
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
67
1.176
WMO No 67241 PORTO DE MOZAMBIQUE (LUMBO) (15
°
02
′
S, 40
°
40
′
E) Height above MSL − 11 m
Climate Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2004
January 1010
32
23
34
21
83
71
5
6
133
8
20
4
1
1
3
6
11
7
47
14
15
30
6
6
1
8
1
19
2
5
0
0
9
February 1009
32
23
34
22
87
72
6
6
114
11
13
2
1
2
6
16
29
6
25
10
9
20
5
24
6
11
4
11
3
5
0
0
9
March 1011
32
23
33
21
88
72
5
5
148
10
9
3
1
2
9
13
30
4
29
6
7
35
12
19
4
4
1
12
3
5
0
0
5
April
1012
31
22
32
19
85
69
4
4
45
5
1
2
0
2
11
25
29
3
27
3
1
13
20
52
4
2
0
5
3
7
0
0
3
May 1015
31
20
32
16
84
65
3
4
19
3
1
1
1
2
13
24
29
3
26
0
2
11
20
52
5
3
0
7
3
6
0
0
0
June 1018
28
17
29
15
85
63
4
4
20
4
0
0
0
0
12
25
39
1
23
0
1
9
16
61
5
5
0
3
3
8
0
1
0
July
1019
28
16
29
14
86
64
4
4
25
5
1
1
1
1
16
24
32
1
23
1
1
12
19
56
3
1
1
6
3
8
0
1
0
August 1019
28
17
29
14
84
64
3
3
15
2
2
1
3
2
11
23
31
4
23
1
6
26
18
44
3
0
0
2
3
9
0
1
0
September 1016
29
18
31
15
80
64
3
3
3
1
13
2
7
2
19
11
13
7
26
4
11
44
19
17
3
0
0
2
3
8
0
1
0
October
1015
31
20
32
17
73
64
4
2
4
1
20
6
10
4
17
6
6
3
28
6
20
46
9
15
1
0
0
3
3
7
0
0
0
November 1013
32
22
34
19
73
66
4
3
50
3
23
9
13
2
11
6
0
8
28
8
19
42
9
14
1
1
1
5
3
7
0
0
2
December 1012
33
23
35
21
78
69
5
5
89
5
29
6
4
2
6
8
6
5
34
13
15
37
10
8
1
2
2
12
3
6
0
0
3
Means
1014
30
20
35*
13§
82
67
4
4
_
_
11
3
4
2
11
16
21
4
28
5
9
27
14
31
3
3
1
7
3
7
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
665
58
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
4
32
Extreme values _
_
_
36†
10‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
68
1.177
WMO No 67215 PEMBA (12
°
59
′
S, 40
°
32
′
E) Height above MSL − 50 m
Climate Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2004
January 1010
31
24
34
21
85
74
6
6
146
12
24
5
3
1
5
9
26
14
13
15
38
20
6
4
2
5
4
6
5
8
0
0
14
February 1010
31
23
33
22
87
75
6
6
156
12
19
6
2
1
5
17
22
11
17
12
32
23
7
2
3
8
6
7
5
7
0
0
14
March 1011
31
23
32
21
88
72
6
6
169
13
8
1
1
1
13
32
24
4
16
7
24
19
32
8
2
3
2
3
5
7
0
0
12
April
1013
30
22
32
19
85
67
4
5
72
8
0
2
3
5
26
45
12
0
7
1
4
14
50
27
2
1
0
1
7
9
0
0
6
May 1015
30
21
31
17
83
64
4
4
23
3
1
1
1
4
26
49
12
0
6
1
2
12
53
28
3
1
0
0
7
10
0
0
1
June 1018
28
19
29
16
81
61
3
4
26
4
0
0
0
5
21
54
15
1
4
0
2
13
53
29
1
1
0
1
8
12
0
0
0
July
1019
27
18
28
16
82
63
4
4
15
3
0
0
0
4
26
51
14
1
4
0
2
17
52
25
1
1
0
2
8
12
0
0
0
August 1019
28
19
29
17
81
64
4
4
5
1
0
0
1
6
33
36
13
1
10
1
7
26
54
11
0
1
0
0
7
11
0
1
0
September 1017
28
20
31
18
77
65
4
3
6
1
9
4
5
8
20
19
15
4
16
4
25
33
31
6
0
0
0
1
6
11
0
1
0
October
1015
29
22
31
18
74
66
4
3
4
1
18
19
8
8
18
6
10
2
11
4
35
33
24
4
0
0
0
0
7
11
0
0
0
November 1013
30
23
32
21
75
67
5
3
27
3
17
25
8
3
17
4
9
4
13
5
46
32
14
1
0
1
0
1
6
12
0
0
2
December 1012
31
24
32
21
81
73
6
5
81
7
29
14
8
4
8
6
12
5
14
6
43
34
10
2
0
1
0
4
5
10
0
0
9
Means
1014
29
21
35*
15§
81
67
5
4
_
_
11
7
3
4
18
27
15
4
11
5
22
23
32
12
1
2
1
2
6
10
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
730
68
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
3
58
Extreme values _
_
_
39†
11‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
20
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0900
0900
0900
1500
1500
1500
1500
0900
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
69
1.178
WMO No 63894 DAR ES SALAAM (06
°
52
′
S, 39
°
12
′
E) Height above MSL − 53 m
Climate Table compiled from observations 1974 to 2004
January 1011
32
24
34
22
78
64
6
5
107
7
48
24
3
1
3
2
2
8
9
29
49
12
1
2
1
1
3
2
8
11
0
0
4
February 1011
32
24
34
21
77
62
5
4
99
4
41
27
2
2
4
1
4
7
12
24
50
14
2
2
1
1
3
3
7
11
0
0
5
March 1011
32
24
34
21
82
68
5
5
181
11
16
9
4
5
19
12
4
4
27
12
33
18
10
11
4
3
2
7
5
8
0
0
8
April
1012
31
23
33
20
87
73
5
6
322
15
1
0
2
6
50
23
3
1
14
3
8
12
28
31
6
2
2
8
6
8
0
0
7
May 1015
30
22
32
18
86
67
5
5
186
12
0
0
1
8
60
21
2
0
8
0
2
6
43
40
4
1
0
4
7
9
0
0
1
June 1017
29
20
31
17
84
59
4
5
51
5
0
0
1
7
61
25
1
0
5
1
1
8
44
40
4
0
0
2
8
10
0
0
0
July
1018
29
19
31
16
85
56
4
5
28
3
0
0
1
9
58
25
1
0
6
0
2
10
46
38
3
0
0
1
7
10
0
0
0
August 1018
29
18
32
16
83
54
4
5
37
4
1
0
2
11
50
18
1
0
17
1
6
17
51
22
2
0
0
1
5
10
0
1
0
September 1016
30
19
33
16
77
54
4
4
25
4
1
3
14
29
32
5
1
0
15
3
14
27
40
15
0
0
0
1
5
11
0
1
0
October
1015
31
20
33
17
74
57
5
4
70
6
2
9
26
26
20
3
0
1
13
4
24
38
26
6
0
0
1
1
5
11
0
1
0
November 1013
32
22
34
19
74
61
5
4
96
7
6
23
24
17
8
3
1
1
17
5
41
37
11
3
0
1
0
2
5
10
0
0
2
December 1012
32
23
33
20
78
65
5
4
117
9
26
33
8
4
5
3
2
4
15
15
51
21
4
2
1
1
1
4
7
10
0
0
4
Means
1014
31
21
37*
14§
81
61
5
5
_
_
12
11
7
10
31
12
2
2
13
8
23
18
26
18
2
1
1
3
6
10
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1319
87
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2
3
31
Extreme values _
_
_
53†
10‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
31
31
31
20
31
31
31
31
31
31
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0900
0900
0900
1500
1500
1500
1500
0900
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
70
1.179
WMO No 63844 TANGA (05
°
05
′
S, 39
°
04
′
E) Height above MSL − 35 m
Climate Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2004
January 1010
32
24
34
22
73
65
5
4
36
4
41
28
4
0
1
2
3
11
10
3
24
57
13
2
0
1
0
0
6
12
0
0
0
February 1010
33
24
35
23
71
61
4
3
13
2
35
33
6
1
1
2
2
9
11
2
23
56
14
5
0
0
0
0
6
12
0
0
0
March 1010
33
24
34
23
76
62
5
4
95
9
15
14
4
1
7
18
12
4
25
1
5
32
36
22
3
1
0
0
5
10
0
0
1
April
1011
32
24
33
22
81
68
5
5
174
14
2
1
1
1
11
39
32
3
10
0
2
2
21
61
10
1
0
3
7
10
0
0
1
May 1014
16
22
16
21
83
69
5
5
216
14
1
0
1
0
10
51
33
0
4
1
0
0
8
67
17
4
1
2
8
9
0
0
0
June 1016
29
21
30
19
80
63
5
5
78
9
1
0
0
2
10
49
32
1
5
1
0
0
9
76
13
1
0
0
8
11
0
0
0
July
1017
28
20
29
19
80
62
5
5
24
7
1
0
0
1
7
49
37
1
4
0
0
0
15
75
7
2
0
1
8
10
0
0
0
August 1017
29
20
30
19
82
63
5
5
58
10
0
0
0
1
9
50
31
1
8
1
0
1
21
72
4
1
0
0
7
10
0
0
0
September 1016
30
20
30
18
80
62
5
4
49
9
1
1
1
3
22
33
27
1
12
0
0
3
35
61
1
0
0
0
6
10
0
0
0
October
1014
31
21
32
20
77
61
6
3
73
9
3
2
3
7
25
22
14
2
22
0
1
2
37
56
3
1
0
0
5
10
0
0
0
November 1012
32
23
32
21
78
66
6
4
88
9
11
8
4
4
13
14
14
5
27
1
4
21
39
31
1
1
1
1
4
9
0
0
1
December 1011
32
23
33
22
75
66
5
4
57
8
26
32
6
2
2
5
4
6
17
2
14
56
16
10
1
1
0
0
5
11
0
0
0
Means
1013
31
22
33*
17§
78
64
5
4
_
_
11
10
2
2
10
28
20
4
13
1
6
19
22
45
5
1
0
1
6
10
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
951
104
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
0
0
4
Extreme values _
_
_
35†
10‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
18
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0900
0900
0900
1500
1500
1500
1500
0900
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
71
1.180
WMO No 63820 MOMBASA (04
°
02
′
S, 39
°
37
′
E) Height above MSL − 55 m
Climate Table compiled from observations 1974 to 2004
January 1011
32
23
34
21
77
61
5
4
38
4
51
20
2
0
1
1
2
15
8
3
23
64
7
1
0
0
1
1
7
12
0
0
1
February 1010
33
23
35
21
75
59
5
3
13
2
44
23
3
0
1
2
4
11
12
1
14
69
14
2
0
0
0
0
6
13
0
0
1
March 1010
33
24
35
22
77
61
5
4
47
6
14
12
4
2
10
15
10
6
27
1
4
41
37
15
1
1
0
0
5
12
0
0
4
April
1011
31
24
33
22
82
67
5
5
152
13
0
1
0
1
28
48
11
1
10
1
1
4
36
49
7
1
0
1
7
11
0
0
4
May 1013
30
22
32
21
85
70
6
5
246
15
0
0
1
2
28
57
7
0
5
1
0
0
15
64
18
1
0
1
9
11
0
0
1
June 1015
29
21
30
19
84
67
5
5
85
13
0
0
0
1
28
63
6
0
2
0
0
0
11
73
15
0
0
1
9
12
0
0
0
July
1016
28
20
30
17
86
68
5
5
63
13
0
0
0
2
24
65
7
0
2
0
0
0
16
74
9
0
0
1
8
11
0
0
0
August 1016
28
20
29
18
85
66
5
5
67
14
0
0
0
2
37
53
5
0
3
0
0
0
32
64
4
0
0
0
8
11
0
0
0
September 1015
29
20
30
19
82
65
5
4
45
11
0
0
1
6
44
42
3
0
4
1
0
1
50
47
1
0
0
0
8
11
0
0
0
October
1013
30
21
31
20
80
66
6
4
75
11
1
2
2
13
41
26
5
1
9
0
0
6
60
31
2
1
0
0
6
11
0
0
0
November 1012
31
23
32
21
80
68
5
4
101
11
5
6
5
7
16
18
8
4
31
1
2
21
55
17
1
1
1
1
4
10
0
0
2
December 1011
32
23
33
21
79
67
5
4
104
11
34
16
3
2
2
5
6
13
19
3
20
52
17
4
1
1
1
1
6
11
0
0
2
Means
1013
30
22
36*
17§
81
65
5
4
_
_
12
7
2
3
22
33
6
4
11
1
5
21
29
37
5
1
0
1
7
11
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1036
126
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
1
15
Extreme values _
_
_
39†
12‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
31
31
31
20
31
31
31
31
31
31
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0800
0800
0800
1400
1400
1400
1400
0800
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
72
1.181
WMO No 63799 MALINDI (03
°
14
′
S, 40
°
06
′
E) Height above MSL − 23 m
Climate Table compiled from observations 1984 to 2004
January 1011
31
24
33
22
76
66
5
3
12
3
18
33
6
1
0
0
0
23
19
2
25
67
4
1
0
0
0
1
7
13
0
0
0
February 1010
32
24
32
22
75
64
5
3
4
1
16
30
11
1
1
1
1
17
22
2
20
70
8
0
0
0
0
0
6
14
0
0
1
March 1010
33
25
34
23
74
64
5
3
25
4
6
19
15
7
12
9
2
5
25
1
7
51
22
18
1
0
0
0
6
13
0
0
2
April
1010
31
25
33
22
80
69
5
5
171
13
1
0
1
4
43
31
3
1
16
0
0
5
16
68
8
0
1
2
7
13
0
0
3
May 1013
29
24
31
21
83
75
6
5
260
18
0
0
0
2
47
42
3
1
5
0
0
0
3
77
19
0
0
1
9
13
0
0
1
June 1015
28
23
29
20
79
73
5
5
132
15
0
0
0
2
56
35
2
1
4
0
1
0
2
76
17
3
1
0
10
14
0
0
0
July
1016
28
22
28
20
79
73
5
5
86
16
0
0
0
5
62
25
2
1
5
0
0
0
3
85
12
0
0
0
10
13
0
0
0
August 1016
28
22
29
20
78
70
5
5
55
12
1
0
0
4
73
17
1
0
4
1
0
0
7
82
6
4
0
0
11
14
1
0
0
September 1015
29
22
30
20
76
68
5
4
50
11
0
0
0
10
75
13
1
0
1
0
0
1
14
80
4
1
0
0
11
14
0
0
0
October
1013
30
23
31
20
75
68
5
4
76
9
0
1
3
22
54
10
1
0
9
0
2
4
32
59
2
1
0
0
9
13
0
0
0
November 1012
31
23
32
21
77
69
5
4
61
7
1
3
10
20
29
8
1
3
25
1
1
15
48
32
1
1
0
1
6
12
0
0
1
December 1011
31
24
32
22
78
68
5
4
44
6
14
18
12
4
4
2
2
22
22
1
17
54
19
7
0
0
1
1
6
12
0
0
1
Means
1013
30
23
35*
17§
78
69
5
4
_
_
5
8
5
7
38
16
2
6
13
1
6
22
15
49
6
1
0
0
8
13
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
976
115
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
2
1
10
Extreme values _
_
_
38†
11‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
21
21
21
19
21
21
21
21
21
21
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
Month
Temperatures
Average
humidity
Average
cloud
cover
Precipitation
Wind distribution − Percentage of observations from
Mean
wind
speed
hPa °C °C °C °C % % Oktas mm Knots
Mean
daily max.
Mean
daily min.
Mean highest
in each month
Mean lowest
in each month
Average
fall
No. of days with
1 mm or more
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
N
NE
E
SE
S
SW
W
NW
Calm
Average pressure
at MSL
0300
0930
0300
1530
1300
1300
1430
0830
Fog
Thunder
Gale or above
Number
of days
with
CHAPTER 1
73
1.182
WMO No 63260 MUQDISHO (02
°
02
′
N, 45
°
21
′
E) Height above MSL − 9 m
Climate Table compiled from observations 1974 to 1993
January 1012
31
24
32
23
74
70
4
2
0
0
2
44
54
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
92
4
1
0
0
0
0
16
20
1
0
0
February 1012
31
24
33
23
73
67
4
2
0
0
2
22
75
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
2
92
3
1
0
0
0
0
16
19
1
0
0
March 1011
31
25
32
24
70
66
5
3
0
0
1
5
77
17
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
71
23
1
1
2
1
0
13
15
0
0
0
April
1011
32
26
33
23
71
67
5
5
59
4
2
2
19
24
23
20
3
3
4
1
0
14
35
31
17
2
0
0
9
12
0
0
0
May 1012
31
25
31
21
75
70
5
5
43
2
2
0
0
2
20
60
13
3
0
1
0
1
1
24
66
7
0
0
11
13
0
0
0
June 1014
30
25
31
23
76
72
5
5
45
7
0
0
1
1
6
81
10
1
0
0
1
0
0
3
92
3
1
0
15
16
1
0
0
July
1015
29
24
30
23
78
73
6
5
50
6
0
0
0
0
12
81
6
1
0
0
0
0
0
6
92
2
0
0
15
17
0
0
0
August 1015
29
24
30
23
78
73
6
5
40
5
1
0
2
0
9
86
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
92
4
0
0
15
17
1
0
0
September 1014
30
24
30
23
76
71
5
4
24
1
1
0
0
2
29
67
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
20
77
1
0
0
14
16
0
0
0
October
1013
31
25
31
24
74
70
5
4
15
2
0
0
7
19
50
23
0
0
1
0
2
3
15
55
24
1
0
0
10
12
0
0
0
November 1013
31
25
32
24
73
70
5
4
28
2
1
6
52
23
15
2
0
0
1
2
4
34
31
22
5
1
0
1
11
12
0
0
0
December 1012
31
24
33
23
73
71
5
3
7
1
1
38
61
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
3
91
4
1
0
0
0
0
15
18
0
0
0
Means
1013
30
24
33*
20§
74
70
5
4
_
_
1
10
29
7
14
35
3
1
0
1
1
33
10
14
39
2
0
0
13
16
_
_
_
Totals _
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
311
30
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
5
1
2
Extreme values _
_
_
34†
10‡
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
No. of y
ears
No
. of
years
observations
20
20
20
6
20
20
20
20
20
20
* Mean of highest each year
§ Mean of lowest each year
† Highest recorded temperature
‡ Lowest recorded temperature
74
1.183
METEOROLOGICAL CONVERSION TABLE AND SCALES
Fahrenheit to Celsius
°Fahrenheit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
°F
Degrees Celsius
−100
−90
−80
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
−0
+0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
−73⋅3
−67⋅8
−62⋅2
−56⋅7
−51⋅1
−45⋅6
−40⋅0
−34⋅4
−28⋅9
−23⋅3
−17⋅8
−17⋅8
−12⋅2
−6⋅7
−1⋅1
+4⋅4
10⋅0
15⋅6
21⋅1
26⋅7
32⋅2
37⋅8
43⋅3
48⋅9
−73⋅9
−68⋅3
−62⋅8
−57⋅2
−51⋅7
−46⋅1
−40⋅6
−35⋅0
−29⋅4
−23⋅9
−18⋅3
−17⋅2
−11⋅7
−6⋅1
−0⋅6
+5⋅0
10⋅6
16⋅1
21⋅7
27⋅2
32⋅8
38⋅3
43⋅9
49⋅4
−74⋅4
−68⋅9
−63⋅3
−57⋅8
−52⋅2
−46⋅7
−41⋅1
−35⋅6
−30⋅0
−24⋅4
−18⋅9
−16⋅7
−11⋅1
−5⋅6
0
+5⋅6
11⋅1
16⋅7
22⋅2
27⋅8
33⋅3
38⋅9
44⋅4
50⋅0
−75⋅0
−69⋅4
−63⋅9
−58⋅3
−52⋅8
−47⋅2
−41⋅7
−36⋅1
−30⋅6
−25⋅0
−19⋅4
−16⋅1
−10⋅6
−5⋅0
+0⋅6
6⋅1
11⋅7
17⋅2
22⋅8
28⋅3
33⋅9
39⋅4
45⋅0
50⋅6
−75⋅6
−70⋅0
−64⋅4
−58⋅9
−53⋅3
−47⋅8
−42⋅2
−36⋅7
−31⋅1
−25⋅6
−20⋅0
−15⋅6
−10⋅0
−4⋅4
+1⋅1
6⋅7
12⋅2
17⋅8
23⋅3
28⋅9
34⋅4
40⋅0
45⋅6
51⋅1
−76⋅1
−70⋅6
−65⋅0
−59⋅4
−53⋅9
−48⋅3
−42⋅8
−37⋅2
−31⋅7
−26⋅1
−20⋅6
−15⋅0
−9⋅4
−3⋅9
+1⋅7
7⋅2
12⋅8
18⋅3
23⋅9
29⋅4
35⋅0
40⋅6
46⋅1
51⋅7
−76⋅7
−71⋅1
−65⋅6
−60⋅0
−54⋅4
−48⋅9
−43⋅3
−37⋅8
−32⋅2
−26⋅7
−21⋅1
−14⋅4
−8⋅9
−3⋅3
+2⋅2
7⋅8
13⋅3
18⋅9
24⋅4
30⋅0
35⋅6
41⋅1
46⋅7
52⋅2
−77⋅2
−71⋅7
−66⋅1
−60⋅6
−55⋅0
−49⋅4
−43⋅9
−38⋅3
−32⋅8
−27⋅2
−21⋅7
−13⋅9
−8⋅3
−2⋅8
+2⋅8
8⋅3
13⋅9
19⋅4
25⋅0
30⋅6
36⋅1
41⋅7
47⋅2
52⋅8
−77⋅8
−72⋅2
−66⋅7
−61⋅1
−55⋅6
−50⋅0
−44⋅4
−38⋅9
−33⋅3
−27⋅8
−22⋅2
−13⋅3
−7⋅8
−2⋅2
+3⋅3
8⋅9
14⋅4
20⋅0
25⋅6
31⋅1
36⋅7
42⋅2
47⋅8
53⋅3
−78⋅3
−72⋅8
−67⋅2
−61⋅7
−56⋅1
−50⋅6
−45⋅0
−39⋅4
−33⋅9
−28⋅3
−22⋅8
−12⋅8
−7⋅2
−1⋅7
+3⋅9
9⋅4
15⋅0
20⋅6
26⋅1
31⋅7
37⋅2
42⋅8
48⋅3
53⋅9
Celsius to Fahrenheit
°Celsius
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
°C
Degrees Fahrenheit
−70
−60
−50
−40
−30
−20
−10
−0
+0
10
20
30
40
50
−94⋅0
−76⋅0
−58⋅0
−40⋅0
−22⋅0
−4⋅0
+14⋅0
32⋅0
32⋅0
50⋅0
68⋅0
86⋅0
104⋅0
122⋅0
−95⋅8
−77⋅8
−59⋅8
−41⋅8
−23⋅8
−5⋅8
+12⋅2
30⋅2
33⋅8
51⋅8
69⋅8
87⋅8
105⋅8
123⋅8
−97⋅6
−79⋅6
−61⋅6
−43⋅6
−25⋅6
−7⋅6
+10⋅4
28⋅4
35⋅6
53⋅6
71⋅6
89⋅6
107⋅6
125⋅6
−99⋅4
−81⋅4
−63⋅4
−45⋅4
−27⋅4
−9⋅4
+8⋅6
26⋅6
37⋅4
55⋅4
73⋅4
91⋅4
109⋅4
127⋅4
−101⋅2
−83⋅2
−65⋅2
−47⋅2
−29⋅2
−11⋅2
+6⋅8
24⋅8
39⋅2
57⋅2
75⋅2
93⋅2
111⋅2
129⋅2
−103⋅0
−85⋅0
−67⋅0
−49⋅0
−31⋅0
−13⋅0
+5⋅0
23⋅0
41⋅0
59⋅0
77⋅0
95⋅0
113⋅0
131⋅0
−104⋅8
−86⋅8
−68⋅8
−50⋅8
−32⋅8
−14⋅8
+3⋅2
21⋅2
42⋅8
60⋅8
78⋅8
96⋅8
114⋅8
132⋅8
−106⋅6
−88⋅6
−70⋅6
−52⋅6
−34⋅6
−16⋅6
+1⋅4
19⋅4
44⋅6
62⋅6
80⋅6
98⋅6
116⋅6
134⋅6
−108⋅4
−90⋅4
−72⋅4
−54⋅4
−36⋅4
18⋅4
−0⋅4
+17⋅6
46⋅4
64⋅4
82⋅4
100⋅4
118⋅4
136⋅4
−110⋅2
−92⋅2
−74⋅2
−56⋅2
−38⋅2
−20⋅2
−2⋅2
+15⋅8
48⋅2
66⋅2
84⋅2
102⋅2
120⋅2
138⋅2
MILLIBARS TO INCHES
950 960 970
980 990
1000 1010 1020
1030 1040
1050
28 29
30 31
INCHES
millimetres
50
0
10 20 30
40
60 70 80 90
100
(1) (for small values)
0
0⋅5 1⋅5
3⋅52⋅5
1
3
4
500 1000
1500 2000
2500 3000
millimetres
(2) (for large values)
0
5 10
20 30 40
50
60 70
80 90
100
110 120
inches
MILLIBARS
MILLIMETRES TO INCHES
2
0
inches
NOTES
75
C
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P
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C
a
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A
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P
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A
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P
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t
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a
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t
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G
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i
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P
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M
o
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e
l
B
a
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C
a
p
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B
a
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r
a
c
o
u
t
a
4155
4156
4153
4154
4157
4158
4
1
5
8
4
1
5
4
578
2095
0306
2.8
2
.
1
8
7
2
.
1
3
1
2
.
1
0
7
2
.
9
2
2
.
8
7
2
.
4
2
2
.
3
1
2
.
1
7
2
.
1
1
9
2
.
1
5
1
2
.
5
2
32°
33°
35°
34°
36°
37°
20° 21° 22° Longitude 23° East from Greenwich 25° 26° 27°
20° 21° 22° 23° 24° 25° 26° 27°
32°
33°
35°
34°
36°
37°
Chapter 2 - Cape Agulhas to Cape Padrone
76
77
CHAPTER 2
CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE PADRONE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 578, 2095
Scope of the chapter
2.1
1
This chapter describes passage off the coast of South
Africa from Cape Agulhas (34°50′S 20°01′E) to Cape
Padrone, 325 miles ENE, and includes descriptions of the
ports of Mossel Bay (Mosselbaai) and Port Elizabeth.
2
The chapter is divided into the following four sections:
Offshore route − Cape Agulhas to Cape Recife
(34°02′S 25°42′E) (2.8).
Cape Agulhas to Mossel Bay (34°08′S 22°10′E)
(2.15).
Mossel Bay to Cape Saint Francis (34°12′S 24°52′E)
(2.86).
Cape Saint Francis to Cape Padrone (33°46′S
26°28′E) (2.129).
Topography
2.2
1
Between Cape Agulhas and Cape Padrone the coast is a
series of wide sandy bays separated by rocky headlands
and backed by mountain ranges.
Agulhas Bank
2.3
1
Agulhas Bank is the outer part of the continental shelf
which extends to 120 miles SSE from Cape Agulhas. The
sides of the bank rise fairly steeply to a depth of 200 m,
but the SE side of the bank is more irregular than the SW
side. General depths on the bank are from 80 to 145 m,
increasing to 190 m on the S part. Heavy and turbulent
seas are frequently experienced off the S and W edges of
Agulhas Bank, particularly during strong SW winds, but on
reaching depths from 130 to 100 m there is usually a
marked improvement in conditions and the sea becomes
comparatively smooth.
Routeing
2.4
1
Rules for the navigation of laden tankers off the South
African coast are given at Appendix I. See also 2.7
regarding currents.
Shark nets
2.5
1
See 1.5.
Marine exploitation
2.6
1
Oil and gas fields occur within the area covered by this
chapter. Production platforms and associated structures,
including tanker moorings, storage tankers and platforms on
pipelines, generally exhibit Mo(U) lights, aircraft
obstruction lights, and audible fog signals. Unauthorised
navigation is prohibited within 500 m of all such structures,
including storage tankers which can swing about their
moorings. Tankers manoeuvring in the vicinity of platforms
and moorings should be given a wide berth.
2
Pipelines. Mariners are advised not to anchor or trawl in
the vicinity of pipelines. Gas from a damaged oil or gas
pipeline could cause an explosion, loss of a vessel’s
buoyancy or other serious hazard. Pipelines are not always
buried and may effectively reduce the charted depth by up
to 2 m. They may also span seabed undulations and cause
fishing gear to become irrecoverably snagged, putting a
vessel in severe danger.
3
Wellheads. Numerous abandoned or suspended
wellheads are situated on the seabed in the area covered by
this chapter. The wellheads extend to a height of 4⋅6 m
above the seabed and although not of direct concern to
most surface vessels, they do present a hazard to the nets
of bottom trawlers.
For further information see Annual Notice to Mariners
No.24 and The Mariner’s Handbook.
Current
2.7
1
The Agulhas Current has an effect throughout the area
covered by this chapter. For further details see 1.117.
Caution. If E−bound and keeping close to the coast to
avoid the full strength of the Agulhas Current, it is
essential to guard against onshore or NE sets which are
often experienced along this coast. As dense fogs
sometimes occur it is inadvisable to hug the land at night
or in reduced visibility.
OFFSHORE ROUTE − CAPE AGULHAS TO CAPE RECIFE
General information
Charts 4153, 4155, 4156
Route
2.8
1
From a position 25 miles S of Cape Agulhas (34°50′S
20°01′E) the route leads about 290 miles ENE to a position
SSE of Cape Recife.
Marine exploitation.
2.9
1
Between 30 and 50 miles off the coast there are sites of
marine exploration associated with above−water structures:
Sable Oilfield FPSO (35°12′S 21°19′E).
Oribi and Oryx Oilfields (centred on 35°13′S
21°31′E).
EM Control Buoy (34°55′S 21°43′E).
FA Production Platform (34°58′S 22°10′E).
2
In an extensive area around these sites, and towards the
coast, there are numerous submerged abandoned and
suspended well heads. For further information see 2.6.
Traffic separation schemes
2.10
1
Two traffic separation schemes, the limits of which are
shown on the chart, are established within the offshore
route: Alphard Banks (35°03′S 20°55′E) and FA Platform
(34°56′S 22°10′E). Both schemes are IMO−adopted and
CHAPTER 2
78
Rule 10 of The International Regulations for Preventing
Collisions at Sea (1972) applies.
Climate information
2.11
1
For Cape Agulhas (34°50′S 20°01′E) see 1.167.
Directions
(continued from Africa Pilot Volume II)
Principal marks
2.12
1
Offshore mark:
FA Platform (34°58′S 22°10′E).
Major Lights:
Cape Agulhas Light (34°50′S 20°01′E) (2.22).
Sable Oilfield FPSO (35°12′S 21°19′E).
FA Platform (34°58′S 22°10′E).
Cape Saint Francis Light (34°13′S 24°50′E) (2.122).
Cape Recife Light (34°02′S 25°42′E) (2.136).
Other aids to navigation
2.13
1
Racons:
EM Control Light−buoy (34°55′S 21°43′E).
FA Platform (34°58′S 22°10′E).
Sable Oilfield FPSO (35°12′S 21°19′E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Track
2.14
1
From a position 25 miles S of Cape Agulhas (34°50′S
20°01′E) the route leads E, passing:
Through the E−bound lane of the Alphard Banks TSS
(35°03′S 20°55′E), and:
2
S of Alphard Banks (35°03′S 20°54′E) which consists
of numerous coral heads with depths from 15⋅5 to
32 m; in 1966 it was reported that depths over the
banks are probably less than charted. In heavy
swell the sea breaks on the 15⋅5 m patch at the W
end of the banks. Thence:
3
N of the Sable Oilfield prohibited area (35°12′S
21°19′E), within which is moored FPSO Glas
Dowr, thence:
N of Oribi Oilfield CALM buoy, moored 7½ cables N
of a floating production platform (35°14′S
21°30′E); lights are exhibited from both structures.
A storage tanker is secured to the buoy for the
greater part of the year. Thence:
4
S of EM Control Light−buoy (special) (34°55′S
21°43′E), thence:
Through the E−bound lane of the FA Platform TSS
(34°56′S 22°10′E), and:
S of FA Platform (34°58′S 22°10′E), from which a
light is exhibited, thence:
5
The route leads generally ENE, passing:
SSE of Seal Point (34°13′S 24°50′E) (2.124), from
which Cape Saint Francis Light (2.122) is
exhibited, thence:
To a position SSE of Cape Recife (34°02′S 25°42′E),
from which a light (2.136) is exhibited.
(Directions continue for the coastal passage at 2.193)
CAPE AGULHAS TO MOSSEL BAY
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 4153
Area covered
2.15
1
This section describes the coastal passage from Cape
Agulhas to Mossel Bay, including the port of Mossel Bay,
presented in four parts as follows:
Cape Agulhas to Martha Point (2.17).
Martha Point to Cape Barracouta (2.31).
Cape Barracouta to Mossel Bay (2.42).
Mossel Bay (2.52).
Topography
2.16
1
Between Cape Agulhas and Mossel Bay, 115 miles ENE,
the coastal plain is backed by mountain ranges. In clear
weather the peaks of the Langeberge Range, which lie
between 25 and 30 miles inland, provide useful marks. This
range, forming part of the coastal escarpment, extends for
about 75 miles between the meridians of Struispunt
(20°15′E) and that of Ystervarkpunt (21°45′E). The E part
of this range, and the W part of Outeniekwaberge (2.88),
form a distinctive background to the foothills (2.43) lying
about 10 miles from Ystervarkpunt.
CAPE AGULHAS TO MARTHA POINT
General information
Chart 4153
Route
2.17
1
From a position S of Cape Agulhas (34°50′S 20°01′E)
the route leads generally ENE to a position SSE of Martha
Point (34°34′S 20°24′E) 25 miles NE.
Topography
2.18
1
Between Cape Agulhas and St Mungo Point, 1 mile
ENE, and thence to Northumberland Point, 2 miles farther
ENE, the coast is of rugged sandstone and quartz rocks
fringed by reefs extending 4 cables offshore. Both
headlands, St Mungo and Northumberland, are named after
nineteenth century shipwrecks; several other coastal features
farther E are also named after shipping casualties. The sea
breaks heavily along this part of the coast, especially
during S winds.
2
Between Northumberland Point and Martha Point the
coast is low and backed by numerous sandhills 30 to 72 m
high, often bush covered, inland of which there is a range
of green covered hills.
The coast between Cape Agulhas and Northumberland
Point is unapproachable by boats at all times.
CHAPTER 2
79
Hazards
2.19
1
Firing range. A weapons testing range extends up to
5 km from the coast in the vicinity of Hooppunt (34°37′S
20°18′E). Onshore, temporary lights and masts associated
with the range may appear in the vicinity. For further
details see Appendix II and South African Annual Notice to
Mariners.
2
Fishing activities. Fishing vessels often operate off Cape
Agulhas and should be given a wide berth.
Rescue
2.20
1
The NSRI maintains a rescue craft at Struisbaai (34°48′S
20°03′E) (2.26). See 1.45 and Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 5 for further information on rescue.
Climate information
2.21
1
For Cape Agulhas (34°50′S 20°01′E) see 1.167.
Directions
(continued from Africa Pilot Volume II)
Principal marks
2.22
1
Landmarks:
Tower (concrete, flashing red obstruction lights,
elevation 89 m) (34°38′S 20°13′E).
Tower (concrete, red obstruction lights, elevation
109 m) (34°33′S 20°23′E).
See 2.19 concerning temporary marks.
2
Major light:
Cape Agulhas Light (red tower, white band and
lantern, 27 m in height) (34°50′S 20°01′E).
Track
2.23
1
Caution. Depths from 4⋅5 m and 8⋅5 m lie 1 mile S and
2 miles SW respectively of Cape Agulhas. In bad weather
the sea breaks in this vicinity and these depths are
dangerous to deep draught vessels even in a moderate
swell. In order to avoid the off−lying dangers, Cape
Agulhas should be rounded at a distance of at least 3 miles.
2
From a position S of Cape Agulhas (34°50′S 20°01′E),
the track leads ENE, passing (with positions from Cape
Agulhas Light):
3
SSE of Cape Agulhas, a rocky projection which
forms the S−most point of Africa. The name is
derived from the Portuguese for ‘needles’
(agulhas), either as a result of problems early
Portuguese explorers encountered with their
compass needles, or the resemblance to needles of
the off−lying sharp rocks. A Light (2.22) is
exhibited from the cape. A radio mast, exhibiting
red obstruction lights, stands 1 mile NE of the
light. The cape itself is low, but it may be
distinguished from other points in the vicinity by
the features of the adjoining land. A bush−covered
ridge, about 137 m high, lies 1 mile landward of
the cape and a similar ridge, 156 m high at its W
end, lies 1 mile farther inland; these ridges help to
identify the cape from W and E, but they appear
as one when viewed from S. Thence:
4
SSE of Northumberland Point (3 miles ENE), which
is low and sandy. A dangerous reef, with some
rocks awash, extends 1¼ miles E of the point.
Close off the E extremity of the reef there is a
dangerous rock over which there is a depth of less
than 2 m and on which the sea sometimes breaks.
Two dangerous wrecks lie close SW and E of the
rock. Vessels rounding Northumberland Point
should do so at a distance of at least 2 miles.
Thence:
5
Clear of a shoal patch (5½ miles E), charted at
13⋅4 m although less water is reported (1975). The
sea breaks heavily over the shoal in bad weather
and it is dangerous, even in a moderate swell, to
deep draught vessels which are advised to pass at
least 2½ miles to seaward of it. Thence:
6
SSE of reef patches (14½ miles NE), over which the
sea nearly always breaks, extending up to 2 miles
SE of Struispunt, a low sandy promontory backed
by sandhills and fringed with rocks on which
stands Struispunt Light (white disc, red stripe, on
concrete pyramid tower). Outer Blinder, the
outermost patch, has a depth of 5⋅5 m over it and
Bulldog Reef, 3 cables NW of Outer Blinder, has
several rocky heads with depths of less than 2 m.
When in the vicinity of Struispunt it is advisable
to remain in depths greater than 50 m. Boat
passages lead between Struispunt and the rocks
inshore of Bulldog Reef close SE, but they should
only be used in fine weather and with local
knowledge.
Cape Agulhas from S (2.23)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Cape Agulhas Light TV Mast
CHAPTER 2
80
Martha Point (2.24)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Tower 109m
2.24
1
Between Struispunt and Martha’s Reef, 11 miles NE, the
coast should not be approached within a distance of 2 miles
without local knowledge. The sandy beach is fringed with
flat jagged rocks and reefs. The reefs extend variable
distances offshore causing confused and breaking seas
during bad weather and making the beach unapproachable.
2
The track continues ENE passing (with positions from
Struispunt (34°41′S 20°14′E)):
SSE of Miles Barton Reef (5 miles ENE), a series of
submerged rocky patches up to 3½ miles ESE of
Hooppunt (5 miles NE). Hooppunt forms a slight
bulge in the sandy coastline and may be identified
by two bare, high and pointed sandhills lying close
behind it. Thence:
3
SSE of Atlas Reef (6½ miles NE), thence:
To a position SSE of Martha’s Reef (11 miles NE), a
series of rocky ledges over which the sea breaks
heavily extending SE from Martha Point.
2.25
1
Useful marks:
Struisbaai buildings (34°48′S 20°03′E) (2.26).
Die Mond. (34°43′S 20°07′E), a cutting through the
sandhills of Struisbaai where Heuningsnes River
enters the sea.
(Directions continue at 2.36)
Struisbaai
General information
2.26
1
Description. Struisbaai is both the name of the bay
entered between Northumberland Point (34°48′S 20°04′E)
and Struispunt, 11 miles NE, and also the name of the
village situated close NW of Northumberland Point. See
caution at 2.29 concerning position.
During the forenoon, the white buildings of the village
are prominent from E when the sun is on them.
2
Topography. A sandy beach extends from the SW
corner of the bay to within 2 miles of Struispunt where the
coast is fringed with jagged rocks. The beach is backed by
numerous sandhills 30 m high and partially covered with
scrub, while beyond the sandhills the land rises to 60 m
high and terminates in a green−covered ridge.
3
Heuningsnes River enters the bay at De Monde (2.25)
and is open to the sea at HW. Behind the sandhills the
river opens into a shallow lagoon which is a designated
wildfowl sanctuary.
Harbour
2.27
1
General information. A small harbour at Struisbaai
village is used by fishing vessels and, during the summer,
by large numbers of pleasure craft. The harbour is subject
to severe silting and depths can be less than 1 m at LW
depending on the state of dredging.
2
A boulder−lined concrete breakwater extends about
200 m NNE on the S side of the harbour, at the outer
extremity of which is a light (white hut, red bands, 5 m in
height). A boulder groyne 100 m long on the NW side of
the harbour has at its root a directional light (red metal
post).
3
Caution. At night from a distance, floodlights at the
harbour can obscure the breakwater and direction lights.
Directions. The harbour is entered between two rocky
reefs on the N side of Northumberland Point. The white
sector (266°−270°) of the direction light clears, with a
margin for safety, the end of the breakwater.
4
Anchorage. See 2.30.
Berths: a 20 m long quay at the seaward end of the
breakwater, a small jetty and 3 slipways.
Markusbaai
2.28
1
General information. Markusbaai (34°39′S 20°16′E) is
entered between Struispunt and Hooppunt. On the W side
of the bay, N of Struispunt, the coast is of sandstone cliffs
9 m high and the foreshore is encumbered by rocks. Farther
NE, towards Hooppunt, the coast is of sand dunes and the
bay is sandy and apparently rock−free. See caution at 2.29
concerning position, and Appendix II for details of exercise
areas.
2
Anchorage. In W and NW winds Markusbaai provides
shelter equal to that of Struisbaai.
Landing on the W side of the bay at Waenhuiskrans
(Arniston), should not be attempted without local
knowledge. On the N side of the bay landing is normally
impracticable because of the surf conditions.
2.29
1
Caution. Owing to the similarity of the features of
Struisbaai and Markusbaai, it may sometimes be difficult to
determine whether a vessel is to E or W of Struispunt. In
hazy or foggy weather the high land within Cape Agulhas
may not be visible, although the sandhills of Struisbaai and
the breakers off Northumberland Point may be distinctly
seen. In such circumstances care is necessary in
approaching the land, but it should be possible to identify
Struispunt by its light−tower (2.23).
CHAPTER 2
81
Anchorage
2.30
1
Good shelter may be obtained in the SW part of
Struisbaai (34°46′E, 20°05′E) with winds between W and
NW, but with winds between E and WSW the bay is
wholly unsafe and should not be approached as the sea
then breaks in depths from 12 to 15 m. If sheltering from a
NW gale, it is advisable to put to sea immediately the gale
subsides as the wind frequently freshens and backs in a
few hours and a heavy sea is raised very quickly.
2
The anchorage recommended is under the lee of
Northumberland Point, at 1 mile NE of the Struisbaai
fishing harbour (2.27), in depths from 9 to 10 m, sand; here
the bottom is clear, but closer inshore it is foul. Deeper
draught vessels may obtain anchorage farther offshore in a
depth of about 13 m.
MARTHA POINT TO CAPE BARRACOUTA
General information
Chart 4153
Route
2.31
1
From a position SSE of Martha Point (34°34′S 20°24′E)
the route leads generally ENE to a position SSE of Cape
Barracouta (34°26′S 21°18′E) 45 miles ENE.
Topography
2.32
1
From Martha Point 8 miles NE to Koppie Alleen, the
coast is for the most part a sandy beach and free of rocks
except at its SW end near Skipskop.
2
From Koppie Alleen 17 miles E to Cape Infanta there
are high cliffs fringed with off−lying rocks and occasional
sandy stretches. One 3 mile section of sandy beach occurs
where the Potberg range of hills approaches the coast. This
range rises gently from Cape Infanta and extends 18 miles
WNW with several well−defined summits, the highest and
most W of which forms an excellent landmark and is also
named Potberg.
3
Between the entrance to Breërivier, which enters Saint
Sebastian Bay N of Cape Infanta, and Cape Barracouta
23 miles E, the coast consists of steep cliffs for the most
part, but there are occasional small sandy beaches and
rocky outcrops. The terrain close behind the coast in the
mid part of this section is generally bush−covered and rises
to a ridge of hillocks up to 180 m high; along this ridge
there are several white farm buildings, some of which are
prominent.
Marine exploitation
2.33
1
Several submerged abandoned or suspended well heads
are within 20 miles of the coast.
Firing range
2.34
1
See 2.19.
Rescue
2.35
1
The NSRI maintains a rescue craft at Stilbaai (34°23′S
20°26′E) (2.51). See 1.45 and Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 5 for further information on rescue.
Directions
(continued from 2.25)
Principal marks
2.36
1
Landmarks:
Tower (34°33′S 20°23′E), (2.22).
Potberg (34°22′S 20°34′E), the farthest W and highest
summit of the Potberg range of coastal hills.
Tower (concrete, red obstruction lights, elevation
282 m) (34°26′S 20°48′E).
2
Major light:
Cape Infanta Light (square topmark on framework
tower, red lantern, 15 m in height) (34°28′S
20°51′E).
Track
2.37
1
From a position SSE of Martha Point (34°34′S 20°24′E)
the track leads generally ENE, passing (with positions from
Cape Infanta Light (34°28′S 20°51′E)):
2
SSE of Die Witsand (20 miles WSW), a vast area of
high bare sandhills behind the beach which can be
seen from a great distance offshore. The bay here
provides little or no shelter and cannot be
recommended as an anchorage owing to the heavy
swell that sets into it. Thence:
3
SSE of Koppie Alleen (17 miles W), where there is a
solitary white house; four similar houses are set in
a gully but can only be seen from S. Here the
nature of the coastline changes abruptly from
sandy beach to high cliffs. Thence:
4
SSE of Cape Infanta, a narrow and comparatively low
promontory fringed with rocks. Cape Infanta Light
Cape Infanta from SSE (2.37)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Tower 282m Hill 242m
Cape Infanta Light
CHAPTER 2
82
(2.36) is exhibited 1¼ miles WSW and a small
reef, The Blinder, lies 5 cables SE. Saint Sebastian
Point, 2 miles N of the cape, is a bold headland.
Thence:
5
SSE of Duiwenhoksrivier (10 miles NE), a small
stream which enters the sea at the small fishing
harbour of Puntjie. Neither the river mouth nor the
few chalet structures which comprise Puntjie are
prominent, but the vicinity may be identified by a
prominent sand patch on the W bank close to the
river entrance. The mouth of the river is normally
open but it is not prominent except from close SW.
There is a jetty for small craft within the E
entrance point of Duiwenhoksrivier at Puntjie.
Thence:
6
SSE of Odendaalspunt (18 miles ENE) which has a
narrow but prominent sand patch extending from it
in a NE direction, thence:
7
To a position at least 2 miles S of Cape Barracouta
(23 miles E) and keeping in depths greater than
50 m; a rocky patch, parts of which are awash, lies
6 cables S of the cape. The cape forms a rounded
point which, though not prominent from W or S,
may be identified by a prominent reddish−coloured
sand patch extending between 1 and 2 miles NW
from it. From E the cape appears as a low tongue
of land extending S. Cape Barracouta is named
after one of the vessels used in Captain Owen’s
epic survey of the African coast in the early
nineteenth century.
2.38
1
Useful mark:
Duine Rug (34°18′S 20°56′E), a prominent hill 223 m
high.
(Directions continue at 2.46)
Saint Sebastian Bay
2.39
1
Description. The bay is entered between Cape Infanta
(34°28′S 20°52′E) and the mouth of Duiwenhoksrivier,
9 miles NE. The entrance to Breërivier (2.40) is in the NW
part of the bay. The W side of the bay affords shelter from
all winds except those between E and S.
2
Between Cape Infanta and the mouth of
Duiwenhoksrivier there are several small bays. John
Richard’s Bay close SW of Cape Infanta, and Papkuilbaai
close N of the cape; both have at their heads sandy
beaches fringed with rocky ledges. These two small bays
provide no shelter and landing in them would be hazardous
at any time.
3
Stilbaai, 1 mile N of Cape Infanta, is a small inlet with
a beach of large rounded stones; it is the only landing
place for many miles and it can often be used when it is
unsafe to cross the bar of Breërivier (2.40).
Infanta, close S of the entrance to Breërivier, is a small
fishing village and holiday resort with a slipway for small
boats.
4
Anchorage. The recommended anchorage is in depths
from 14 to 15 m, sand, with Saint Sebastian Point (34°26′S
20°52′E) (2.37) bearing 180° distant 8 cables. Saint
Sebastian Point is fringed by rocks extending 1 cable
offshore, with depths of 15 m 3 cables from the point.
Breërivier
2.40
1
Description. Breërivier (34°24′S 20°51′E) flows into
Saint Sebastian Bay through sandbanks which leave only a
narrow navigable channel. Depths in the entrance are
continually changing, though the channel is always close to
the S bank. The coast on the S side, up to 1 mile N from
Infanta (34°25′S 20°50′E), is low, sandy and fringed by
boulders. N of the entrance the coast is backed by sandhills
for up to 1 mile NE of Witsand (2.41).
2
There have been no recent surveys of the river, but it is
reported that a depth of 2 m over the bar has been
maintained in recent years. The bar can be difficult to
cross, and within the bar short choppy seas may be
encountered during strong W winds. In winter the bar is
generally impassable due to standing waves, up to 2 m in
height, set up by the prevailing NW wind.
Local knowledge is required to enter Breërivier.
3
For the first 2 miles or so within the entrance the
channel is tortuous and changeable, but after that it flows
evenly between steep banks; shallow draught vessels should
have no difficulty in proceeding as far as Malgas (34°18′S
20°35′E), 20 miles from the entrance.
2.41
1
Port Beaufort. (34°24′S 20°50′E) is a village situated
on the N bank of Breërivier, 1 mile from the mouth. It was
first established as a port in 1822, but since 1945 the river
has not been navigated by a vessel of any great size and
the port has declined; it is now used only by small fishing
boats and pleasure craft, for which there are three small
boat harbours and also several mooring bays along the
shore. Witsand is a holiday resort extending E from Port
Beaufort to the mouth of the river.
CAPE BARRACOUTA TO MOSSEL BAY
General information
Chart 4153
Route
2.42
1
From a position S of Cape Barracouta (34°26′S 21°18′E)
the route leads generally NNE to a position off Cape Saint
Blaize, 45 miles ENE, at the S approach to Mossel Bay.
Topography
2.43
1
Between Cape Barracouta and Stilbaai, 8 miles ENE, the
coast is rocky and indented with several small sandy bays.
From Stilbaai 13 miles E to Ystervarkpunt the coast is
bold and rocky with sand cliffs from 15 to 60 m high.
Rocky ledges, on which the sea breaks heavily, extend up
to 1 cable offshore in places.
2
From Ystervarkpunt to the mouth of Gouritsrivier
8 miles ENE, the coast is low, rugged and indented, with
rocky ledges and occasional small sandy bays. Gouritsrivier
enters the sea between Gouritsmond and Kanonpunt. A
sand spit on the W side of the river mouth constricts the
entrance to less than 1 cable in width. The channel is very
shallow and because of breakers the bar is normally
impassable.
3
East of Gouritsrivier, low rocky headlands alternate with
the larger bays of Visbaai and Vleesbaai (2.50) which are
backed by extensive sand dunes, until undulating hills more
than 200 m high, reach the coast at Cape Saint Blaize.
4
Visbaai (34°19′S 21°56′E) is entered between Kanonpunt
and Vleespunt, and may be identified by reddish−coloured
sand dunes which extend about 6 cables inland from a
sandy beach at the head of the bay. During NW winds the
bay provides temporary shelter for small craft; with S or E
winds heavy rollers set in. Landing is impracticable at most
times.
CHAPTER 2
83
Kanonpunt from SSE, with Visbaai to right (2.48)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Marine exploitation
2.44
1
See 2.6
Rescue
2.45
1
See 2.85.
Directions
(continued from 2.38)
Principal marks
2.46
1
Landmarks:
For landmarks in the vicinity of Mossel Bay see 2.72.
Major lights:
Ystervarkpunt Light (square shape on framework
tower, black and yellow bands, 21 m in height)
(34°24′S 21°44′E).
Cape St Blaize Light (White square tower, 14 m in
height (34°11′S 22°10′E).
Track
2.47
1
From a position at least 2 miles S of Cape Barracouta
(34°26′S 21°18′E) (2.37) the track leads generally E,
passing (with positions from Morris Point (34°24′S
21°26′E)):
S of Jongensfontein (5 miles WSW), a holiday resort
at the head of a small bay; the buildings are
prominent from SE during the forenoon. Thence:
S of Leven Point (3¼ miles WSW), a prominent
bluff, named after the ship used by Captain Owen
during his epic survey of the African coast in the
early nineteenth century, thence:
2
S of rocks, awash and below water, extending
7 cables SSE from Morris Point, a low sandy
point. A patch of high reddish−coloured sand
dunes extends for 2 miles along the coast between
Leven Point and Morris Point; the patch is very
prominent from SE. Thence:
3
S of Stilbaai (close NE) (2.51), with a sandy beach
on its N side behind which the land is
bush−covered and rises to the flat summit of
Nonnieskop, 8 cables inland, thence:
S of Leeukop (4½ miles ENE), the highest of two
bare coastal sand dunes which stand out clearly
from the surrounding vegetation, thence:
S of Bloukrans (10½ miles E), a 12 m high rocky
cliff, thence:
4
S of Ystervarkpunt (15 miles E), where a light (2.46)
is exhibited; the headland is somewhat lower than
the coast W of it and it is fringed with reefs on
which the sea breaks heavily. Buffelskop is a
rounded hill 1 mile NNW of the light.
Aasvoëlberg, 10 miles farther NNW, is the highest
peak of the foothills in the vicinity of Albertinia.
A radio tower (red lights), 1¼ miles E of
Aasvoëlberg, may not be visible from all aspects
to seaward because of intervening hills.
2.48
1
Thence the track leads ENE, passing (with positions
from Ystervarkpunt Light (34°24′S 21°44′E)):
SSE of Bull Point (3½ miles E), a rocky promontory
identified by a prominent white house nearby; a
heavy sea normally breaks along this part of the
coast making any close approach extremely
hazardous. Hoëkop, a summit on the coastal ridge
is 1¼ miles NE of Bull Point. Thence:
2
SSE of the mouth of Gouritsrivier (8½ miles ENE)
(2.43). Although the land W of the river is low,
the mouth may be identified by the white buildings
of Gouritsmond, a resort on the W entrance point,
Vleespunt and Vleesbaai (right) from S (2.48)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 2
84
Cape Saint Blaize from S (2.48)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Stadium floodlights
Cape Saint Blaize Lighthouse
and by a sand patch behind them. The E bank of
the river is steeper than the W bank and is
generally rocky; a sand patch on the hillside is
prominent and there are some conspicuous
buildings. Thence:
3
SSE of foul ground extending 6 cables SE from
Kanonpunt (10 miles ENE), a low tongue of rock
and shingle with two small grey buildings close to
its extremity; in rough weather there is an uneasy
ground swell in the vicinity and the water becomes
discoloured. Thence:
4
SSE of Visbaai (11 miles ENE) (2.43), and:
Clear of a light−buoy (ODAS) (13½ miles E) which
has no navigational significance, thence:
SSE of Vleespunt (12 miles ENE), a rocky, steep−to
projection terminating in a group of boulders 25 m
high connected to the mainland by a low strip.
Thence
5
SSE of Pinnacle Point (21 miles ENE), a well defined
point E of which rugged cliffs 60 to 90 m high,
backed by gently undulating hills more than 200 m
high, extend nearly 4 miles to Cape Saint Blaize.
The sea breaks heavily on this stretch of coast.
Thence:
6
To a position SSE of Cape Saint Blaize (24½ miles
ENE), a prominent bluff with a tongue of low land
at its extremity. Cape Saint Blaize Lighthouse
(2.46) stands on the bluff and it is prominent when
seen against the dark hillside.
7
Clearing bearing. Care is necessary when passing
Kanonpunt at night as Cape Saint Blaize Light (2.46) is
15 miles distant. The light should be kept bearing less than
046°, but if it cannot be seen it is advisable to keep in
depths of 40 m or more.
2.49
1
Useful marks:
Church spire (white) (34°22′S 21°24′E) at
Stilbaai−Wes; a tower (red obstruction lights) (not
charted) is established, 12 cables farther ENE, on a
bush covered hill above Stilbaai−Oos.
Water tower (34°11′S 22°03′E).
Water tower (34°12′S 22°06′E).
(Directions continue for coastal passage at 2.90,
directions for Mossel Bay are given at 2.72)
Vleesbaai
2.50
1
Description. Vleesbaai (34°15′S 21°58′E) is entered
between Vleespunt and Pinnacle Point (2.48). From
Vleespunt to the village of Vleesbaai, 1½ miles WNW, the
coast is rocky. Thereafter the bay is sandy with prominent
sand dunes up to 30 m high backed by cultivated hills from
120 m to 150 m high, about 1 mile inland. A few ravines
break the continuity of the dunes along the N side of the
bay; close E of one of them, 5½ miles NNE of Vleespunt,
there is a prominent group of white holiday bungalows.
2
Caution. An underwater gas pipeline from the FA
Platform, 45 miles SSE, comes ashore at the head of the
bay 5 miles NNE of Vleespunt, see 2.6.
Anchorage. Vleesbaai affords shelter from NW gales.
The recommended berth is in the W corner of the bay, off
Vleesbaai village, in a depth of 15 m with Vleespunt
Cape Saint Blaize from E (2.48)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Cape Saint Blaize Lighthouse
CHAPTER 2
85
bearing 157° distant 13 cables. If sheltering from a gale, it
is necessary to be prepared to put to sea immediately it
subsides as a heavy SW swell then usually sets in causing
a dangerous breaking sea in the anchorage.
3
The best landing place in Vleesbaai is a sandy cove
between the rocks close to Vleespunt. Landing at the head
of the bay is seldom practicable; the whole length of the
sandy beach is normally lined with heavy breakers, and
off−lying patches of rock are only visible at LW.
Stilbaai
2.51
1
Description. Stilbaai is entered between a reef extending
7 cables SSE from Morris Point (34°24′S 21°26′E) (2.47)
and Preekstoel, a group of rocks 2 miles NE.
Kafferkuilsrivier enters the bay 1 mile N of Morris
Point, but its mouth is almost closed, leaving a narrow
channel over the bar which is only navigable by small
boats at HW. A road bridge spans the river about 1 mile
from its mouth.
2
Anchorage. During SW winds, which prevail in winter,
small craft may obtain good shelter under the lee of Morris
Point and the reef, but with winds between S and E the
anchorage is not safe. The anchorage appears to be clear,
with depths decreasing regularly from 18 m to 7 m, sand
and broken shells. The berth recommended is 3 cables
offshore, in a depth of 12 m, with Morris Point bearing
205° distant 4½ cables.
3
Harbour. Stilbaai−Wes is a fishing harbour 6 miles
NNW of Morris Point; the main village, plainly visible
from SE, is about 1 mile farther NW. The harbour is well
protected except during and after prolonged E winds when
the swell sweeps around the end of the harbour jetty which
extends N for 24 m. A light (metal column) is exhibited
from the head of the jetty and a concrete pillar (black, 2 m
in height) is in the water about 2 cables N of the jetty
head.
4
Berth. Stilbaai−Wes harbour has a fish quay 60 m in
length and an extensive concrete boat ramp.
MOSSEL BAY
General information
Chart 4154
Position
2.52
1
Mossel Bay (Mosselbaai) is entered between Cape Saint
Blaize (34°11′S 22°10′E) and the mouth of
Groot−Brakrivier 9 miles NNE. The Port of Mossel Bay, on
the N side of Cape Saint Blaize, comprises Mossel Bay
harbour and offshore moorings for an oil terminal.
Function
2.53
1
Traditionally a significant port for the fishing industry,
with only limited cargo activity, more recently Mossel Bay
has developed as a base for the offshore oil and gas
industry, and also has an oil terminal.
Topography
2.54
1
High land, in excess of 150 m, in the SW of the bay
terminates in the prominent bluff of Cape Saint Blaize
(2.48). Mossel Bay harbour is ¾ mile NW of the cape and
the town stands on N−facing rising ground between the
harbour and the crest of the high ground.
2
The SW shore of the bay, NW of Mossel Bay harbour,
is rocky except for three small sandy bays. Munro’s Bay,
close W of the harbour is separated by a rocky outcrop
from Santos Bay where a pavilion with a domed roof
stands at the head of the bay. Die Bakke, which has rocky
ledges either side of a small sandy beach, is 8 cables
WNW of the harbour.
3
From a position 2¼ miles WNW of Cape Saint Blaize a
sandy beach mostly fringed with off−lying rocky ledges
curves N and E to the mouth of Groot−Brakrivier (2.91).
Hartenbosrivier flows into the bay 4½ miles NNW of
Cape Saint Blaize. The locality may be identified by high
land S of the river valley and by road and rail bridges,
visible from seaward, which span the river.
4
Klein−Brakrivier flows out through sand dunes 2 miles
NE of Hartenbosrivier. Between the two rivers,
bush−covered slopes rise gently to a 160 m high summit
1½ miles inland. A beach clear of rocks extends ½ mile NE
from the mouth of Klein−Brakrivier.
Port limits
2.55
1
The area W of a line between Cape Saint Blaize Light
(2.46) and the entrance to Klein Brakrivier, about 5¾ miles
N, as shown on the chart.
Approach and entry
2.56
1
The port is approached from E by passing N of Cape
Saint Blaize and the harbour is entered from NNW through
a dredged channel.
Traffic
2.57
1
In 2005 the port was used by 44 vessels with a total of
1 245 837 dwt.
Port authority
2.58
1
National Ports Authority of South Africa, PO Box 1942,
Mossel Bay 6500.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
2.59
1
The entrance channel at the approach to the harbour
breakwater is dredged to a maintained depth of 7⋅7 m.
During W or SW gales (2.63) a ground swell causes
heavy seas to break continuously over the breakwater and
shoaling is likely to occur off its extremity.
Deepest and longest berth
2.60
1
No.4 Quay, length 274 m, see 2.80.
Tidal levels
2.61
1
Mean spring range about 1⋅8 m; mean neap range about
0⋅4 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled
2.62
1
Harbour: length 130 m, draught 6⋅5 m, 5 000 tons
displacement.
Oil terminal moorings: 50 000 dwt.
Local weather and sea state
2.63
1
Mossel Bay normally affords good shelter during the
winter months (May to October) when NW gales prevail.
CHAPTER 2
86
At the height of these gales, when heavy seas are likely to
be encountered to the W of Cape Saint Blaize (2.48), the
water in the bay remains smooth. If the wind backs to the
W or SW, however, a heavy swell sweeps round Cape
Saint Blaize rendering the anchorage (2.66) unsafe, and
ships at anchor must be prepared to put to sea at short
notice.
2
During SE gales, which are frequent in the summer
months (October to May), a heavy breaking sea rolls into
the bay. With such winds there is normally a fairly strong
E−going current in the anchorage, and ships at anchor with
plenty of cable out usually ride safely.
Arrival information
Port operations
2.64
1
The Port Control Centre operates 24 hours, 7 days a
week.
Berthing at the Oil Terminal SPM and CBM is daylight
hours only; unberthing from the SPM is day and night.
Notice of ETA required
2.65
1
See 1.35. Tankers bound for the oil terminal, at least
72 hours in advance; other vessels 3 hours in advance. See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3) for further
details.
Outer anchorage
2.66
1
Within the bay the holding ground of mud and sand is
good. Due to the heavy ground swell (2.63) which can
develop at any time of year, it is inadvisable to anchor in
depths of less than 15 m.
2
Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring is prohibited in the
vicinity of the oil terminal moorings and pipelines. No ship
larger than a fishing vessel is permitted to anchor within
1⋅6 miles of the shore.
Pilotage
2.67
1
Pilotage is compulsory. Pilots board about 2 miles N of
Cape Saint Blaize Light (34°11′S 22°10′E). Tankers bound
for the Oil Terminal moorings are boarded 1 to 2 miles E
of the mooring facility. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (3).
Tugs
2.68
1
One small tug is available.
Harbour
General layout
2.69
1
The harbour is protected on the E side by a mole and a
breakwater which together extend 3 cables NNW from the
Mossel Bay from SE (2.69)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 2
87
shore, and on the W side by a wide mole extending
1½ cables NE from the shore. Alongside berths are
contained within these structures.
Storm signals
2.70
1
Visual storm warning signals are displayed, see 1.44.
Climate information
2.71
1
See 1.168.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 2.48)
Principal marks
2.72
1
Landmarks:
Cape Saint Blaize Lighthouse (34°11′⋅2S 22°09′⋅4E)
(2.46).
Spire (34°11′⋅1S 22°08′⋅0E).
Chimney (34°08′⋅7S 22°06′⋅3E), fronted by prominent
oil tanks.
Filtration plant (light coloured, elevation 158 m)
(34°03′⋅2S 22°11′⋅0E), with a clump of trees
nearby. Bottelierskop (2.90) (Chart 4155) is a
prominent hill 2½ miles WNW of the plant.
2
Major light:
Cape Saint Blaize Light — as above.
Approaches
2.73
1
From a position SSE of Cape Saint Blaize (34°11′⋅1S
22°09′⋅7E) the track leads generally N, passing E of
Blinder Rock, 2¼ cables SE of the cape, thence NNW to
the vicinity of the pilot boarding position (2.67).
2
Caution. Vessels approaching from W are advised to
clear Blinder Rock by at least 3 cables as there is often an
uncomfortable swell in the vicinity of the rock, upon which
the sea nearly always breaks heavily.
3
Clearing bearings. Pinnacle Point (34°12′⋅5S 22°05′⋅4E)
should bear 270° or more until Cape Saint Blaize Light,
3½ miles ENE, bears 317°, thence course may be altered N
to round Cape Saint Blaize.
Entrance channel
2.74
1
The harbour is approached from NNW through a
dredged channel (2.59) and entered between:
N extremity of E Breakwater (34°10′⋅5S 22°08′⋅9),
from which a light (white framework structure,
9 m in height) is exhibited, and:
The broad extremity of No 4 Quay, 1 cable SW, from
which a light (column, 8 m in height) is exhibited
at both the N and E corners.
Useful marks
2.75
1
Water tower (34°11′⋅6S 22°06′⋅2E).
School (white building) (34°11′⋅3S 22°08′⋅5E),
prominent when viewed from NE or ENE.
Stadium (floodlight masts) (34°11′⋅2S 22°08′⋅8E),
prominent when viewed from NE or ENE.
Television mast (red lights) (34°11′⋅2S 22°08′⋅8E).
Beacon (pillar, 6 m in height (34°11′⋅1S 22°09′⋅1E),
on a ridge with an elevation of 100 m.
Berthing marks, see 2.78.
Berths
Anchorage
2.76
1
The holding ground of mud and sand is good. The
anchorage recommended is in a depth of 20 m with Seal
Island (34°09′⋅1S 22°07′⋅2E), a proclaimed guano island
(1.36), bearing 276° distant 1½ miles. Fishing vessels and
smaller craft may obtain anchorage off Munro’s Bay
(34°10′⋅6S 22°08′⋅4E) in a depth of 7⋅3 m. See 2.63 for
local weather conditions and 2.66 for prohibited anchorage
areas.
2
Dumping ground. An area S of Seal Island, as shown on
the chart, is used by the oil development industry for the
storage of mooring equipment. Two marker buoys (special)
within the area are subject to re−location without notice.
Moorings
2.77
1
An oil terminal at Voorbaai, 8 cables NW of Seal Island
(34°09′⋅1S 22°07′⋅2E) is served by two offshore moorings
contained within the prohibited anchorage area. Each
mooring has a prohibited entry area extending for a radius
of 500 m.
2
Normal seamanlike precautions must be taken at all
times at the berths as they are in an open roadstead and
strong winds may develop with little warning, see 2.63.
2.78
1
Oil terminal CBM. A buoy (special, spar) moored
6 cables NE of Seal Island marks the seaward end of a
submarine oil pipeline connected to the shore 9 cables W.
Tankers up to 50 000 dwt can be accommodated at the
berth which is in depths from 15 to 18 m, sandy bottom.
Berthing is normally only carried out by day.
2
Vessels moor with 250 m of cable out on each bower
anchor and secure (ship’s head ESE) to five mooring buoys
Mossel Bay from N (2.72)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 2
88
abeam and astern; ten full length mooring lines are
required.
3
Berthing marks. Two pairs of beacons indicate where
tankers should drop their anchors. Lights are exhibited from
the beacons between arrival and departure of a tanker.
At Voorbaai, in line bearing 288⋅5°:
Front beacon (column) (34°08′⋅4S 22°06′⋅8E).
Rear beacon (column) (240 m from front).
Close WNW of Die Bakke, in line bearing 198°:
Front beacon (column) (34°10′⋅2S 22°07′⋅3E).
Rear beacon (column) (175 m from front).
2.79
1
Oil Terminal SPM. An SPM light−buoy is moored
1¼ miles ENE of Seal Island. A submarine oil pipeline
extends WSW from the buoy to the shore W of Seal
Island.
Tankers up to 50 000 dwt can be accommodated at the
SPM. Berthing is normally only carried out by day, but
unberthing can be day or night.
Alongside berths
2.80
1
No 1 Quay to No 3 Quay on the E side of the harbour
comprise the fishing harbour. No 3 Quay has a length of
213 m and depths from 5⋅2 m to 5⋅7 m.
No 4 Quay on the W side of the harbour is the main
commercial quay; length 274 m, dredged depth 7⋅2 m.
2
No 5 Quay on SW side of the harbour has a length of
170 m and depths of 3⋅7 m.
Vincent Jetty on the S side of the harbour is 143 m long
and used for harbour craft and small boats. A light
(column, 8 m in height) is exhibited at the jetty head and
the Harbour Master’s Office is at the jetty root.
Port services
Repairs
2.81
1
Moderate repairs to hull, engines and boilers can be
undertaken. A patent slip can handle vessels of up to
200 tonnes displacement.
Other facilities
2.82
1
Hospital at Mossel Bay town.
Supplies
2.83
1
Fresh water is piped to berths in the harbour. Fuel oil
from road tankers is available for small vessels. Fresh
provisions are obtainable in fair quantities with notice;
fresh fish is abundant.
Communications
2.84
1
An airstrip is close to the town. There is an airport at
George (33°58′S 22°25′E) (Chart 4155), 40 km NE.
Rescue
2.85
1
The NSRI maintains a rescue craft at the harbour. See
1.45 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5 for
further information on rescue.
MOSSEL BAY TO CAPE SAINT FRANCIS
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 4155
Area covered
2.86
1
This section describes the coastal passage from Mossel
Bay to Cape Saint Francis, presented in four parts as
follows:
Mossel Bay to Gericke Point (2.87).
Gericke Point to Cape Seal, including Knysna (2.92).
Cape Seal to Aasvogel Point (2.107).
Aasvogel Point to Cape Saint Francis (2.119).
MOSSEL BAY TO GERICKE POINT
General information
Chart 4155
Route
2.87
1
From a position S of Cape Saint Blaize (34°11′S
22°10′E) the route leads ENE to a position S of Gericke
Point (34°02′S 22°46′E) 31 miles ENE.
Topography
2.88
1
About 10 miles inland and parallel with the coast
between Mossel Bay (34°08′S 22°10′E) and Knysna
41 miles E, are the peaks of the Outeniekwaberge range,
some of which rise to over 1500 m. The most prominent of
these peaks, providing good marks in clear weather, are
listed at 2.90.
2
Numerous small rivers rise in Outeniekwaberge and
before flowing into the sea form deep channels in the high
plateaux which extend to the coast.
Between Mossel Bay and Maalgaterivier 13 miles NE,
the coastal fringe is heavily built−up and further
development is apparent.
3
From the mouth of Groot−Brakrivier (34°03′S 22°14′E)
(2.91), a sandy beach extends 4 miles E. Rocky ledges
front the coast for the first mile, thence the beach appears
to be free of rocks but is normally surf−bound. The holiday
resorts of Outeniqua Strand and Glentana Beach, backed by
scrub−covered sandy hillocks, extend along nearly the
entire length of this beach.
4
To the E of Glentana Beach the sandy hillocks give way
abruptly to steep and rugged cliffs with off−lying rocks.
These cliffs, up to 75 m high and intersected with narrow
ravines, continue E and ENE for 12 miles to Victoria Bay,
2 miles WSW of Wilderness (34°00′S 22°35′E).
5
For 3 miles E of Wilderness a sandy beach, fringed with
drying rocky ledges, is backed by a ridge of irregular
bush−covered sandhills. Farther E, to Gericke Point, the
sandhills become stony and finally merge into sandstone
cliffs of a reddish colour up to 150 m high.
6
Inland between Wilderness and Gericke Point, 9½ miles
ESE, several lakes lie about 2 miles behind the coastal
hills. To the N of these lakes the land, which rises to
elevations above 200 m, is partially cultivated and scattered
with many small but prominent clumps of trees.
CHAPTER 2
89
Rescue
2.89
1
The NSRI maintains a rescue craft at Wilderness
(34°00′S 22°35E) at the mouth of Touwsrivier. See 1.45
and Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5 for further
information on rescue.
Directions
(continued from 2.49)
Principal marks
2.90
1
Landmarks:
Bottelierskop (34°02′S 22°08′E), a prominent hill with
a remarkable rocky outcrop at its summit
resembling the neck of a squat bottle.
Filtration plant (34°03′S 22°11′E) (2.72).
2
Engelseberg (33°52′S 22°08′E).
Skurweberg (33°53′S 22°14′E), with Jonkersberg,
1 mile S.
Cradock’s Berg (33°54′S 22°28′E); a radio mast (red
obstruction lights) is 2 miles SSW.
Melville Peak (33°54′S 22°33′E).
3
Major light:
Cape Saint Blaize Light (34°11′S 22°10′E) (2.46).
Track
2.91
1
From a position SSE of Cape Saint Blaize (34°11′S
22°10′E) (2.48) the track leads ENE, passing (with
positions from the cape):
SSE of the mouth of Groot−Brakrivier (9 miles NNE),
which enters the sea between high bush−covered
sand dunes. The Island, a holiday resort, is situated
on a promontory close within the river mouth.
Thence:
2
SSE of the mouth of Maalgaterivier (12½ miles NE)
which enters the sea between high cliffs. The river
water is dark red in colour and the mouth is
frequently choked with sand. The remains of a
stranded wreck, 8 cables W of the mouth, are
visible on close inspection but are not conspicuous.
Thence:
3
SSE of Heroldsbaai (14 miles NE), a slight
indentation in high cliffs where there is a beach
which provides safe landing for small craft in calm
weather, but with S or SE winds a heavy surf sets
in. Voëlklip is a prominent boulder close to the
end of a comparatively low tongue of rock
extending from the high ground on the W side of
Heroldsbaai. Thence:
4
SSE of the mouth of Gwaingrivier (16 miles ENE)
which flows through a ravine easily identified from
seaward. The river water is dark red and the
mouth is seldom open except after heavy rains.
Thence:
5
SSE of rocks awash about 1 cable off Rooiklip
(18 miles ENE), a red coloured coastal bluff. A
prominent white house is on the top of the cliffs
5 cables WNW of the bluff. Thence:
6
SSE of Kaaimansrivier (23 miles ENE), which flows
into the sea between steep wooded banks. A
railway bridge spanning the river mouth is
prominent from SE. The mouth is always open to
the sea, but a shallow rocky bar and a wide
shallow sand bar over which the surf always
breaks prevents even small craft from entering.
Thence:
7
SSE of Touwsrivier (24 miles ENE), a small stream
the mouth of which is normally closed; a bridge
carrying the road and railway across the river is
prominent from S. The buildings of a large hotel,
standing near the summit of a ridge 2½ miles E of
Touwsrivier, are fairly prominent. Property
development is active in the vicinity. Thence:
8
To a position S of several above−water and
below−water rocks extending at least a cable from
the foot of Gericke Point (26 miles ENE), a
prominent bluff. Sphinx Rock, so named because
of its appearance from certain directions, is a
rocky outcrop close SE of Gericke Point and
connected to it by a short rocky isthmus which
covers at HW.
(Directions continue at 2.95)
GERICKE POINT TO CAPE SEAL
General information
Chart 4155
Route
2.92
1
From a position S of Gericke Point (34°02′S 22°46′E)
the route leads E to a position S of Cape Seal (34°06′S
23°25′E) 32 miles E.
Topography
2.93
1
High cliffs extend 6 cables NE from Gericke Point then
terminate abruptly as the coast turns E and becomes a
sandy beach for 1¼ miles to Kingfisher Creek.
2
Between Kingfisher Creek and Brenton−on−Sea 11 miles
ESE, the coast is a sandy beach interspersed with rocky
ledges and off−lying reefs. To the E of a prominent sand
patch, 1 mile E of Kingfisher Creek, there are
grass−covered sand dunes backed by a range of
Gericke Point and Sphinx Rock from SSW (2.91)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 2
90
scrub−covered coastal hills. In the vicinity of both
Kingfisher Creek and Goukamma River, 8 miles ESE, the
land is low. Within the coast, about 3 miles inland, the land
rises abruptly and presents a smooth green appearance with
scattered clumps of trees. In the background are the high
peaks of Outeniekwaberge (2.88).
3
Between Brenton−on−Sea and Cape Seal, 20 miles E,
high steep−sided cliffs rise to over 120 m in places and
rocky ledges generally fringe the coast. Off these cliffs
several detached rocky boulders rise from the sea; some of
these boulders are bare, some are covered with vegetation,
and some are as high as the cliffs themselves. The land
behind the cliffs rises to elevations greater than 200 m
consisting of open grassland and wooded areas.
Nature reserve
2.94
1
The entire peninsula of Robberg, extending 2 miles W
from Cape Seal (34°06′S 23°25′E) is a nature reserve. The
sea area out to 1 mile from the HW mark is a declared
marine reserve where no fishing is allowed except from
shore with a valid permit.
Directions
(continued from 2.91)
Principal marks
2.95
1
Landmarks:
Lattice mast (red and white bands, red obstruction
lights) (34°02°S 22°50′E).
Radio tower (concrete, red obstruction lights, 24 m in
height) (34°04′S 23°03′E), close to the 234 m
summit of a hill, 1 mile NW of the entrance to
Knysna Harbour.
Building (white, with flagstaff) (34°05′S 23°04E), the
old Pilot House, at the E side of the entrance to
Knysna Harbour.
2
Major Light:
Cape Seal Light (yellow disc on metal framework
tower, 6 m in height) (34°06′S 23°24′E).
Gericke Point to Knysna
2.96
1
Caution. Between Gericke Point (34°02′S 22°46′E) and
Walker Point 11 miles ESE, it is advisable to keep at least
2½ miles offshore and keep in depths greater than 40 m.
Track. From a position S of the rocks off Gericke Point
the track leads generally E, passing (with positions from
Walker Point (34°06′S 22°59′E)):
2
S of the high cliffs close NE of Gericke Point which
form the W shore of a small bay; the bay has a
foul bottom and is unsuitable as a small boat
anchorage. Thence:
3
S of the mouth of Kingfisher Creek (10 miles WNW)
which drains through the sand at its closed mouth.
A prominent white sand patch extends 1 mile E
from the mouth and many buildings of Sedgefield
holiday resort may be seen on the E bank of the
creek. A lattice mast (2.95) stands 1¾ miles E of
the mouth. Thence:
4
S of the rocky foul ground (see caution above)
extending nearly 2 miles offshore between
Kingfisher Creek and Goukamma River (1½ miles
WNW), which is nearly always closed. A
dangerous rock lies 3¾ miles ESE of Gericke
Point and another rock with a depth of 5⋅2 m over
it lies 6 cables SE of the dangerous rock. Rocks
awash, on which the sea always break, lie
1¾ miles W of Walker Point. In bad weather the
sea breaks heavily up to 1 mile offshore between
Kingfisher Creek and Goukamma River, but not
always to the seaward limit of the foul area. Even
in calm weather, on−shore sets are often
experienced. Thence:
5
Clear of Dalgleish Bank (6 miles SSW), steep−to and
of coral. Deep draught vessels should pass well S
of this bank. Thence:
6
S of a rock with an elevation of 1⋅5 m, which forms
part of a chain of awash and below−water rocks
extending 3 cables seaward from Walker Point, a
low rocky point projecting 7 cables from the shore.
A small bay, entered close W of Walker Point, has
a sandy beach at its head which may be used as a
landing place in an emergency, but otherwise the
bay is generally foul. Thence:
7
S of Castle Rock (2¼ miles ENE), a boulder some
10 m high close S of high ground on which stands
the seaside resort of Brenton−on−Sea. Hotel
buildings and a nearby sand patch are prominent at
the W extremity of the resort. Thence:
8
To a position S of rocks, both above and below
water, either side of the entrance to Knysna
Harbour (4 miles E). A radio tower (2.95) stands
1 mile NW of the entrance and the old pilot house
is a conspicuous building (2.95) close E of the
entrance.
(Directions for Knysna are given at 2.100)
Knysna to Cape Seal
2.97
1
From a position S of rocks, either side of the entrance
to Knysna Harbour (34°05′S 23°04′E), the track continues
E, passing (with positions from the entrance):
2
S of Noetsie River (3½ miles E), which enters the sea
through a small sandy beach between high wooded
hills; the mouth is normally closed. Several houses,
two resembling medieval castles, are situated
behind the beach. Between Knysna Harbour
entrance and Noetsie River, the coast is of rugged
red cliffs, 60 to 75 m high, with patches of shingle
beach and off−lying rocks extending as much as
5 cables from the cliffs in places. Thence:
3
S of rocks awash 3 cables S of Grootkop
(7½ miles E), a headland with an isolated peak of
70 m at its extremity, thence:
4
S of Kranshoekrivier (8 miles E) which enters the sea
through a deep gorge easily identified from
seaward. Kranshoek, a hill close E of the river,
also helps to identify the locality. Between Noetsie
River and Kranshoekrivier the land behind the
precipitous cliffs is heavily wooded, but to the E
of Kranshoek it presents a grassy appearance with
occasional clumps of trees. Thence:
5
To a position S of Cape Seal (17 miles E) at the E
extremity of Robberg, a heavily wooded narrow
peninsula and nature reserve (2.94), with rugged
cliffs on each side, projecting 2 miles ESE from
the coast. The Gap is a break in the cliffs near the
mainland which can give the peninsula the
appearance of an island when viewed from S at a
distance. Die Eiland is a large mass of rock close
off the S side of the peninsula to which it is
connected by a sandy isthmus. From this isthmus a
prominent sand patch extends almost to the summit
CHAPTER 2
91
of the peninsula. A light (2.95) is exhibited
3 cables W of the cape; the structure of the
light−tower is not prominent.
2.98
1
Useful marks:
Hoëberg (33°51′S 22°48′E).
Spitskop (33°55′S 23°07′E), a sharp peak.
Radio mast (34°04′S 23°20′E).
(Directions continue at 2.112)
Knysna Harbour
Chart 4155 (see 1.19)
General information
2.99
1
Description. Knysna Harbour (34°04′S 23°03′E) is
entered between the steep and rocky headlands of Western
Head and Eastern Head, thence a narrow channel leads for
about 2 miles NW and N between the drying mud flats of
Knysna Lagoon to an alongside berth at the low−lying
Thesen’s Island. The island is connected to the town of
Knysna (2.105) close N, by a stone causeway. A low
railway viaduct crosses the lagoon SW from Knysna. The
area NW of the viaduct is shallow and has not been
surveyed.
2
Although at one time some minor commercial activity
took place at the harbour, it is now used principally by
yachts and fishing vessels, but access for low powered
vessels is not easy owing to the heavy breakers which
usually occur across the entrance.
3
Depths. The depths over the bars are subject to
considerable variation, being dependent on meteorological
conditions and whether or not Knysna River is in spate. In
1966 there was a least depth of 5⋅8 m over the Outer Bar
and 3⋅9 m over the Inner Bar.
4
Time of entry. The best time for a power−driven vessel
to enter Knysna Harbour is shortly before HW. Caution.
Any attempt to enter, or leave, during the period of the
out−going stream can be most dangerous, especially if there
are breakers on the bar. If the harbour is entered during the
early forenoon when the sun is still low, the sandbanks
within the lagoon and the channel can be easily
distinguished by the colour of the water.
5
Near HW and LW, with a heavy sea on the bars, there
is a strong set towards Emu Rock (2.101), whence it is
deflected towards the W shore seaward of the inner bar. It
is advisable therefore, to wait until the in−going stream has
been flowing for at least 2 hours before attempting to cross
the bars with a breaking sea, for by this time the stream
and the breakers will be acting together and there is
unlikely to be any set across the channel.
6
If waiting for the tide before crossing the bars, in
moderate weather, anchorage may be obtained off the
harbour entrance in depths from 20 to 30 m, blue clay.
During unsettled weather, however, it is advisable to remain
underway until the bars are passable as a heavy sea
frequently sets in from the SW with little or no warning.
7
Time of departure. It is advisable to leave Knysna
Harbour shortly before HW when the in−going tidal stream
has reduced in strength.
During the out−going tidal stream, breakers occur over
the bars. If it is necessary to depart shortly before LW after
the breakers have subsided, the vessel should keep well
clear of the E side of the channel towards which the
out−going stream will still be setting.
8
Pilotage. There is no pilotage service.
9
Regulations. The area up to the HW mark is part of the
Knysna National Lake Area, controlled by the National
Parks Board. The Warden’s office is at New Jetty (2.104).
Strict pollution control measures are in force and excessive
speed is forbidden.
10
Rescue. The NSRI maintains a rescue craft at Knysna
Harbour, close behind Fountain Point (2.100). See 1.45 and
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5 for further
information on rescue.
11
Navigational aids. Within Knysna Lagoon the channel
is marked by buoys (safe water). Beacons (black posts)
mark the channel edges; in most cases square topmarks
mark the port side and triangular topmarks the starboard
side. These marks are not charted and are moved as
required to follow the changing course of the channel.
Knysna Harbour from SE (2.99)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 2
92
Knysna Harbour Entrance (2.100)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Needles Point
Duiker Rocks Fountain Point
Light−beacon
Western Head Eastern Head
Directions
2.100
1
Landmarks.
Radio tower (34°04′⋅2S 23°02′⋅6E) (2.95).
Building (34°04′⋅8S 23°04′⋅0E) (2.95).
Two chimneys (34°02′⋅9S 23°03′⋅0E), within a group
of six, at a large timber and boat−building factory
on the W side of Thesen’s Island.
2
Track. From a position S of the entrance to Knysna
Harbour the track leads N between the steep and rocky
headlands of Western Head and Eastern Head.
Leading light−beacons:
Front light−beacon (white stone beacon, 9 m in
height) on Fountain Point (34°04′⋅6S 23°03′⋅6E),
the NW extremity of Eastern Head.
Rear light−beacon (inverted triangle on mast, red and
white bands) (4½ cables N of front light−beacon).
3
The alignment (006°) of these light−beacons leads
through the entrance, passing (with positions from Fountain
Point Light−beacon):
W of South East Rocks (1 mile SE), a group of
above−water and submerged rocks which form the
outermost danger on the E side of the entrance,
thence:
4
E of Black Rocks, a group of above−water and
submerged rocks on which the sea always breaks,
extending 1¼ cables SSE from the S extremity of
Western Head (6 cables SSW); these rocks form
the outermost danger on the W side of the
entrance, thence:
5
W of Mewstone Rock (5½ cables SSE), a steep−sided
boulder, thence:
Over the outer bar to a position close E of Needles
Point (3½ cables SSW), the E extremity of Western
Head.
6
During SE winds, when the breakers extending from the
W entrance point are normally heavy, it is recommended to
approach the entrance on a NW course passing 2 cables
SW of Mewstone Rock and turning on to the leading line
to pass close to Needles Point; there is usually a strip of
unbroken water near Needles Point even when the breakers
over the bars are heavy. At other times, approach the
entrance slightly E of the leading line until nearly abreast
Needles Point.
2.101
1
From a position close E of Needles Point the alignment
(006°) of the leading marks continues, passing:
W of Emu Rock (3 cables S), with a least depth of
1⋅2 m and over which the sea does not always
break. Between Needles Point and Emu Rock the
effective width of the channel is at its narrowest,
being restricted to about ½ cable. Between Emu
Rock and the E shore, at Outer Obelisk Point
1 cable farther E, the ground is rocky and foul. For
set towards Emu Rock see 2.99. Thence:
2
Over the inner bar (2¾ cables S) (2.99), thence:
E of Duiker Rocks (1¾ cables SSW).
When the rocks are abeam to port, alter course gradually
W to pass just under ½ cable off Fountain Point in the
deepest part of the channel. Thence:
To a position between Fountain Point and Black Point
(1½ cables W) at the entrance to Knysna Lagoon.
3
Just before Fountain Point comes abeam, alter course
sharply to port to bring Fountain Point astern bearing about
120°. The in−going tidal stream runs very strongly in the
vicinity of Fountain Point and care is necessary to avoid
being swept past the point on to the shallows to the N.
Similarly, the out−going tidal stream sets strongly towards
the rocks between Fountain Point and Inner Obelisk Point,
1 cable SSE.
2.102
1
Thence the track is close to the shore of Western Head,
passing (with positions from Fountain Point Light−beacon):
NNE of Black Point (1½ cables W), and:
SSW of the drying bank off Leisure Island
(½ mile N); low and almost completely built−over
although many trees and bushes remain between
the houses, thence:
To a position NNE of Green Point (2½ cables
WNW).
2
When Green Point is abeam to port, alter course WNW
towards Best Cove, 2 cables farther WNW. This alteration
should be made in good time as the flood stream runs very
strongly round Black Point and Green Point and there is a
danger of being set on to a sandspit 1 cable N of Green
Point.
From Best Cove the track leads NW for about 4 cables,
keeping close to the SW shore.
CHAPTER 2
93
3
Leading beacons:
Front beacon (disc on white pole) (34°03′⋅6S
23°02′⋅3E).
Rear beacon (triangle on red pole) (170 m NW of
front beacon).
Caution. In 1997 it was reported that the beacons
were not in a good state of repair and that they
were not easy to distinguish against the
background.
4
The NW course should be maintained until slightly NE
of the leading line in order to avoid a bank, with a charted
depth of 3⋅9 m, extending about ½ cable from the shore; it
has been reported that there may be less water over this
bank and that a tide−rip occurs over it. When past this
hazard, maintain the track of the leading line (309°)
passing close to the SW shore to approach the alignment of
the next pair of leading marks and taking care not to
overshoot them as shallow water lies close W near the
shore.
5
Leading light−beacons:
Front (white post) (34°03′⋅9S 23°02′⋅6E).
Rear (white post) (100 m from front beacon).
6
The alignment (186°) astern, of these light−beacons,
together with the concrete tower (2.95) close to the highest
point of Western Head, leads through the channel to New
Jetty (2.104), where a light (private) is exhibited, at the W
extremity of Thesen’s Island. Shoaling has been reported on
the W side of the channel, 2 cables S of the jetty, but the E
side of the channel is comparatively steep−to and well
defined.
Anchorage
2.103
1
Except for small craft, there is insufficient swinging
room for anchoring in Knysna Harbour. For anchorage
outside the harbour entrance see 2.99.
Berth
2.104
1
New jetty (34°02′⋅9S 23°02′⋅8E) on the W side of
Thesen’s Island; length 122 m; depth 3⋅7 m close alongside
but shelves steeply to 5⋅8 m; reported (1999) to be in a
poor state of repair.
Knysna
2.105
1
General information. The town of Knysna (34°02′S
23°03′E) is on the N shore of Knysna Lagoon, 3 miles
from the harbour entrance.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 1⋅7 m; mean neap
range about 0⋅5 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide
Tables.
2
Berths. New jetty (2.104) at Thesen’s Island, connected
to Knysna by a causeway. Knysna Yacht Club, 4 cables N
of New Jetty, has a floating jetty, a small slipway and a
clubhouse. Close N of the yacht club is a large yacht basin
belonging to Knysna Quays.
Repairs. Small repairs can be undertaken. A slip is
close N of New Jetty.
Supplies. Diesel oil, water and provisions are available.
Anchorage
Buffelsbaai
2.106
1
Description. Buffelsbaai is entered between Walker
Point (34°06′S 22°59′E) and Castle Rock (2.96) 2¼ miles
NE. Rocky ledges fringe the E side of Walker Point for
about 5 cables, thence the head of the bay has a sandy
beach with occasional rocky outcrops which dry. Steeply
sloping bush−covered hills lie behind the beach.
2
Brenton−on−Sea (2.96) is on high ground close N of
Castle Rock. A caravan park forms a small holiday resort
near the inshore end of Walker Point. A launching ramp for
small craft, protected by a breakwater, is near the W
extremity of the bay.
3
Anchorage. During NW winds a sheltered anchorage is
6 cables NNE of Walker Point in depths from 9 to 12 m,
sand and clay; nearer the point the bottom is rocky. If the
wind backs to S of W it is advisable to put to sea
immediately as a heavy swell and breaking sea usually sets
in.
CAPE SEAL TO AASVOGEL POINT
General information
Chart 4155
Route
2.107
1
From a position S of Cape Seal (34°06′S 23°25′E) the
route leads E for about 45 miles to a position S of
Aasvogel Point (34°06′S 24°19′E).
Topography
2.108
1
The Tsitsikammaberge range is separated from the
Outeniekwaberge range (2.88) by Keurboomsrivier, the
largest river on this part of the coast, which extends NW
from Plettenbergbaai (34°03′S 23°26′E). Tsitsikammaberge
lies parallel to the coast, 4 to 7 miles inland, between
Plettenbergbaai and Tsitsikama Point, 50 miles E. There are
several well defined and easily identifiable peaks the most
prominent of which are listed at 2.112.
2
At the coast, Plettenbergbaai (2.117) is a wide bay with
a sandy shore where Keurboomsrivier enters the sea. From
the river mouth to Keurboomstrand, 4 miles NE, the sandy
beach is backed by bush−covered sand dunes up to 45 m
high. Between Keurboomstrand and Nature’s Valley, 5 miles
farther ENE, the shore is rugged with several rocky points.
Nature’s Valley has the only long sandy beach between
Plettenbergbaai and Slangbaai, 60 miles ESE.
3
Between Nature’s Valley and Stormsrivier, 17 miles E,
the coast has high inaccessible cliffs with off−lying rocky
banks. The comparatively flat tableland between the coast
and the Tsitsikammaberge range is intersected by the
ravines of numerous rivers and water courses; the land
between the ravines is generally covered with extensive
forestry plantations.
4
From Stormsrivier to Elandsrivier, 9 miles E, the cliffs
are thickly wooded with few indentations. For the next
3 miles, to close E of the rocky inlet of Jaftaskraal (2.118),
the cliffs are almost perpendicular; thereafter they become
less steep as far as Grootrivier, 3 miles farther E.
Onshore sets
2.109
1
Caution. Great care is necessary when navigation
between Cape Seal (34°06′S 23°25′E) and Cape Saint
Francis 73 miles E, due to the frequency of onshore sets
which may be experienced during calm weather as well as
during gales. The stretch of coast between Aasvogel Point
(34°06′S 24°19′E) and Klippen Point 16 miles ESE, is
notorious for the number of vessels wrecked on it.
2
A distance of at least 2½ miles offshore should be
maintained by day and much farther seaward at night, in
CHAPTER 2
94
reduced visibility, or at other times when it is more
difficult to monitor position. The irregularity of the bottom
means that depth provides little guide to distance offshore.
National park
2.110
1
The coast between Grootrivier, 11 miles NE of Cape
Seal, and Grootrivier, 31 miles farther E, forms
Tsitsikamma National Park. Trawling and fishing is
prohibited out to varying distances from the LW line as
follows:
Between 33°59′⋅00S 23°34′⋅60E and 33°58′⋅80S
23°38′⋅80E, 5 cables.
Between 33°58′⋅80S 23°38′⋅80E and 34°03′⋅55S
24°11′⋅65E, 3 miles.
Rescue
2.111
1
The NSRI maintains a rescue craft at Plettenbergbaai
(34°03′S 23°23′E) (2.117). See 1.45 and Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 5 for further information on rescue.
Directions
(continued from 2.98)
Principal marks
2.112
1
Landmarks:
Thumb Peak (33°51′S 23°37′E); the name reflects its
shape.
Formosa Peak (33°52′S 23°42′E), the highest peak in
the Tsitsikammaberge range.
Grenadier’s Cap (33°55′S 23°43′E); the name reflects
its shape.
2
Wit−elskop (33°58′S 24°06′E), a pyramidal peak
which presents a flat top when seen from SW or
SE.
Blouberg (33°59′S 24°19′E), saddle−shaped when
seen from S but from other directions it appears to
have a flat top.
Major light:
Cape Seal Light (34°06′S 23°24′E) (2.95).
Cape Seal to Storm Point
2.113
1
Caution, onshore sets, see 2.109. From a position S of
Cape Seal (34°06′S 23°25′E) the track leads generally E,
passing (with positions from the cape):
S of Whale Rock (3 to 4½ cables E), a shoal patch
with a least depth of 1⋅2 m over which the sea
nearly always breaks, but on occasions it is
deceptively calm. Whale Rock should be cleared
by at least 1 mile. Thence:
2
S of Plettenbergbaai (2.117) (close NE), a wide
sweeping bay with a sandy shore extending either
side of the mouth of Keurboomsrivier. The town of
Plettenbergbaai, a popular holiday resort, is on
rising ground S of the river mouth. A conspicuous
hotel stands at Beacon Island, a rocky promontory
on the shore at the town. Keurboomstrand is
another holiday resort 5 miles NE of Beacon Island
consisting of white houses and a prominent hotel.
Large numbers of fishing vessels shelter in
Plettenbergbaai during SW gales.
(Directions for Plettenbergbaai are given at 2.117)
2.114
1
Thence the track continues E, passing:
S of reefs extending 2½ cables from Grootbank
(7½ miles NE), the outermost of several off−lying
reefs along the rugged coast with rocky points
between Keurboomstrand (6½ miles NNE) and
Komkromma Point (8½ miles NE); a distance of at
least 2 miles should be maintained off this part of
the coast. Thence:
2
S of Komkromma Point (8½ miles NE). Soutrivier
enters the sea along this rocky coast 8 cables NNE
of the point. The river is steep−sided and navigable
by small craft for about 1 mile from its mouth; the
bar at the entrance is normally surf−bound, but it
is passable during calm weather. Thence:
3
S of Nature’s Valley (10½ miles NE), a holiday
township fronted by a sandy beach over 1 mile in
length, the only long sandy stretch between
Plettenbergbaai and Slangbaai 55 miles ESE. There
are no off−lying below−water rocks and landing on
the beach could be effected in calm weather.
Grootrivier, not navigable and at the W limit of
Tsitsikamma National Park (2.110), enters the sea
through a narrow channel at the E end of the
beach after passing through a wide lagoon. Behind
the lagoon the land is thickly wooded, rising to
over 200 m high, and intersected by a steep ravine
through which Grootrivier flows. Thence:
4
S of Die Punt (11 miles NE), a rocky point which has
dark vegetation above the cliffs at its extremity.
The mouth of Kliprivier, 2 miles E of Die Punt,
may be identified by bare vertical cliffs on its E
side with white rocks at sea level. Thence:
5
S of Bloukransrivier (14 miles NE) which enters the
sea between very steep wooded banks. The
location may also be identified by a high single
arch road bridge which spans the river about
1 mile from its mouth, but it is only conspicuous
when viewed within a narrow angle from S.
Thence:
6
S of Kleinbosrivier (21 miles ENE) which flows out
over the cliffs at the centre of a slight indentation
just over a mile in length. After rainy weather,
when the river is in spate, the waterfall is
prominent. Wall Point, prominent and named after
its perpendicular appearance, is at the E end of the
indentation; it is light in colour with rocks at its
base. Thence:
7
To a position S of a bank with a least depth of
23⋅5 m, rock and sand, 1½ miles SW of Storm
Point (24½ miles ENE); the sea breaks over the
bank in heavy weather.
2.115
1
Useful marks
Radio mast (34°04′S 23°20′E).
Hotel at Beacon Island (34°04′S 23°23′E) (2.117).
Radio mast (33°59′S 23°26′E).
Stormsrivierpiek (33°57′S 23°54′E).
Storm Point to Aasvogel Point
2.116
1
From a position S of Storm Point (34°02′S 23°54′E) the
track continues E, passing (with positions from the point):
S of Stormsrivier (close NE), which flows through a
ravine with steep wooded sides up to 180 m high.
A suspension bridge spans the river about 5 cables
from the entrance. Between the river mouth and
CHAPTER 2
95
Aasvogel Point 21 miles ESE, the coast is fringed
with above−water and below−water rocks
extending up to 3 cables offshore. Thence:
2
S of Sanddrifrivier (5½ miles E) which enters the sea
through a narrow ravine; a waterfall, about
2 cables inland, is visible when due S. Thence:
3
S of Elandsrivier (9 miles E), identified by a group of
white rocks close within its E entrance point. A
sand bank, with a depth of 29 m and over which
the sea seldom breaks, lies 1 mile S of the river
mouth. A narrow sand bar between the rocks on
each side of the river mouth could, in an
emergency, provide a landing place for a small
boat in favourable conditions. Thence:
4
S of Robbehoek Point (11½ miles E), a rocky
promontory extending 2 cables seaward from the
base of almost vertical cliffs, thence:
5
S of Grootrivier (15 miles E), which forms the E
limit of Tsitsikamma National Park (2.110); a
sandy beach extends 1½ miles ESE from the river
mouth and terminates in a prominent triangular
sand patch. Rocks and rocky ledges extending
3 cables seaward make landing impracticable.
Caution. Foul uneven ground extends up to
1½ miles offshore between Grootrivier and
Aasvogel Point, 6 miles ESE; in bad weather the
sea breaks heavily over the shallowest part on
which there is a least depth of 4⋅2 m (17 miles
ESE). Thence:
6
S of Eersterivier (18 miles ESE), a small stream
which has a number of rocky boulders off its
entrance, under the lee of which boats may land in
favourable conditions. The buildings of a former
Decca navigation system transmitting station are
close to the edge of 120 m high cliffs 1 mile E of
the entrance. Thence:
To a position S of Aasvogel Point (21 miles ESE)
which has cliffs rising to 192 m high and may be
identified by a strip of sand lying within the point.
(Directions continue at 2.122)
Anchorages
Chart 4155 (see 1.19)
Plettenbergbaai
2.117
1
General information. Plettenbergbaai is entered between
Cape Seal (34°06′⋅5S 23°24′⋅8E), at the E extremity of the
rugged Robberg peninsula (2.97), and Bloubankies, a rocky
point off Keurboomstrand 6½ miles NNE. The shoreline in
between is a sandy beach except for rocky patches in the
vicinity of the town of Plettenbergbaai where the shallow
Piesangrivier, with seldom more than 0⋅5 m of water over
its bar, enters the bay (34°03′⋅6S 23°22′⋅8E). On the SE
side of the river mouth Beacon Island is a rocky
promontory on which stands a large conspicuous hotel and
Blind Rocks are a group of drying rocks 1½ cables ENE of
the hotel.
2
Keurboomsrivier (34°02′S 23°23′E) enters the sea at
Plettenbergbaai. Within its entrance the river opens out into
a lagoon, about 2 cables wide, lying parallel to the coast
and separated from the sea by a narrow strip of sand which
sometimes covers at HW.
The river is navigable for small craft for about 8 miles
above its mouth, but the bar is only passable under
favourable conditions.
3
Directions. If rounding Cape Seal, Whale rock (2.113),
between 3 and 4½ cables E, should be cleared by at least
1 mile; the inshore passage should not be attempted without
local knowledge.
The left tangents of Robberg peninsula and Die Eiland,
off its S shore 1¼ miles W of Cape Seal, in line bearing
276° pass very close S of Whale Rock. The right tangent
of Robberg peninsula bearing 285° passes very close N of
Whale Rock.
4
Anchorage. Other than Whale Rock there are no
off−lying dangers in the approaches to Plettenbergbaai
which provides sheltered anchorage with good holding
ground except during SE gales when the full force of the
wind is felt and a heavy swell sets in.
Unlike Mossel Bay (2.66), the heavy ground swell
caused by W winds does not generally enter the anchorage,
but vessels at anchor must be prepared to put to sea at
short notice if SE gales are forecast.
5
A good berth, as indicated on the chart in a depth of
45 m, is with Cape Seal Light (2.95) bearing 210° distant
4 miles.
During W gales, sheltered anchorage may be obtained in
the SW corner of the bay in a depth of 15 m, sand, with
The Gap (2.97) at Robberg bearing 198° and the extremity
of Cape Seal bearing 134°.
6
Owing to the surf, landing in Plettenbergbaai is not
always practicable except under the lee of Blind Rocks on
the beach between the mouth of Piesangsrivier and Lookout
Rocks, small rocky point 3 cables N.
Jaftaskraal
2.118
1
Jaftaskraal (34°03′S 24°08′E), a rocky inlet close NE of
Robbehoek Point (2.116), provides excellent shelter for
fishing vessels and other small vessels except during S
winds. At all other times the inlet is calm, even when the
sea outside is breaking heavily. The bottom, of sand and
small pebbles, is free of rocks and the holding ground is
good.
Plettenbergbaai from E (2.117)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 2
96
AASVOGEL POINT TO CAPE SAINT
FRANCIS
General information
Chart 4155
Route
2.119
1
From a position S of Aasvogel Point (34°06′S 24°19′E)
the route leads generally E for about 27 miles to a position
S of Cape Saint Francis (34°12′S 24°52′E).
Topography
2.120
1
Peaks of the Tsitsikammaberge range lie parallel to the
coast about 6 miles inland terminating E of the vicinity of
Tsitsikamma Point (34°10′S 24°29′E); the most prominent
peaks are listed at 2.112 and 2.122.
2
At the coast, from Aasvogel Point 4 miles E to Klaise
River the shore is rocky, thence for the next 6 miles SE to
Tsitsikamma Point sandy beaches alternate with
boulder−strewn sections, all fringed with off−lying rocks
which continue 6 miles ESE to Klippen Point. The coast
between Tsitsikamma Point and Klippen Point is relatively
low and backed with bush−covered and bare sand dunes
rising up to 180 m high 2 miles inland.
3
Between Klippen Point and Seal Point, 11½ miles E,
there are two sandy bays: Slangbaai (2.126), backed by
bare and bush−covered sandhills 25 to 110 m high; and
Thys Bay (2.127), where a prominent strip of shifting sand
dunes extends 3 miles E from the head of the bay.
4
From the E end of the sandy head of Thys Bay to Seal
Point, 5½ miles ESE, the coast is rocky and rugged with
grass−covered cliffs from 15 to 30 m high for the first
3½ miles and from 3 to 10 m high in the vicinity of Seal
Point. An extensive plain extends from 3 to 4 miles inland
from Seal Point.
Onshore sets
2.121
1
See caution at 2.109.
Directions
(continued from 2.116)
Principal marks
2.122
1
Landmarks:
Two radio masts (red obstruction lights, 115 m in
height) (34°02′S 24°26′E) stand on the summit of
a 755 m peak.
Vergaderingskop (34°03′S 24°30′E), a sharp conical
peak at the E end of the Tsitsikammaberge range.
Seal Point Lighthouse (white round masonry tower,
28 m in height) (34°13′S 24°50′E).
2
Inland peaks N of Cape Saint Francis:
Bakenberg (33°57′S 24°41′E) (Chart 4156), a double
peak 783 m high.
Klipfonteinberg (33°52′S 24°43′E) (Chart 2095), a
sharp peak 883 m high.
Mount Cockscomb (33°35′S 24°48′E) (Chart 2095),
the highest peak of the Great Winterhoek Range,
lies 37 miles N of Cape Saint Francis and is
prominent in clear weather.
3
Major light:
Cape Saint Francis Light, exhibited from Seal Point
Lighthouse — as above.
Seal Point Lighthouse (2.122)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Aasvogel Point to Klippen Point
2.123
1
From a position S of Aasvogel Point (34°06′S 24°19′E)
the track leads generally E, passing (with positions from
the point):
S of Klasie River (4 miles E), a small stream with
foul ground extending 3 cables seaward, thence:
S of Tsitsikamma River (7 miles ESE); the river
mouth may be identified by the low coastal sand
dunes extending NW from it and, in contrast,
wooded terrain on the SE side, thence:
2
S of Tsitsikamma Point (10 miles ESE); rounded and
somewhat ill−defined, being low and shelving with
Klippen Point from SW − Slangbaai to right (2.123)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 2
97
rocks and breakers extending at least 8 cables
offshore. The bottom is very uneven offshore and
a bank of coral and rock extends seaward for
5 miles, having a least depth of 25⋅5 m 5 miles
WSW of the point. Between Tsitsikamma Point
and Klippen Point the shore is fringed with rocks
and breakers and shoal water extends up to 1 mile
offshore. Thence:
3
S of Wreck Point (14 miles ESE), which may be
identified by a prominent peak, 177 m high, about
1 mile NNW. Close E of the point a small cove
has a sandy beach at its head where, under the lee
of a rocky shelf, landing can sometimes be
effected. Thence:
4
To a position S of Klippen Point (16 miles ESE), a
wooded rocky point 9 m high. A reef of boulders,
the highest of which is 4 m high, and below−water
rocks extend 8 cables ESE from the point; the sea
nearly always breaks heavily outside this reef.
Slangbaai (2.126) lies close E of the point.
Klippen Point to Cape Saint Francis
2.124
1
From a position S of Klippen Point (34°11⋅S 24°36′E)
the track continues E, passing (with positions from the
point):
S of Thys Point (5½ miles E), 15 m high and
wooded. A reef of submerged rocks extends
6 cables ESE from the point off which the sea
breaks heavily. Thys Bay (2.127) lies close E of
the point; from the head of the bay for 3 miles E,
a strip of shifting sand dunes is prominent.
Thence:
2
S of Scholtzkraal (8½ miles E), an indentation in the
cliffs leading to a sandy inlet with a small
waterfall at its head. Landing may be effected by
small boats at HW through a narrow cleft in the
rocks which extend 3 cables offshore. Thence:
3
At least 2 miles S of Seal Point (11½ miles E) in
depths of about 100 m if E−bound, and if
W−bound it is advisable to keep farther offshore to
take advantage of the Agulhas Current (1.117).
Seal Point is low and rocky with rocks, awash and
submerged, close to its extremity. A reef, with a
least depth of 4⋅9 m and on which the sea nearly
always breaks, lies 4 cables SE of the point and
foul rocky ground extends 8 cables farther SE.
Cape Saint Francis Light (2.122) is exhibited close
to the extremity of Seal Point. Thence:
4
To a position at least 2 miles S of Cape Saint Francis
(13 miles E), a narrow rocky promontory identified
by two bush−covered dunes with a bare sand ridge
between them; the NW dune is 39 m high and the
SE dune is 37 m high. A ledge of boulders up to
4 m high lies at the extremity of the cape and
merges into a reef with rocks awash and
submerged. This reef extends 3 cables SE and is
usually clearly marked by breakers. Two detached
rocks, each about 3 m high, lie close to the SW
side of the reef. If rounding the cape to enter
Krommebaai, close N, pass 2 miles off in depths
from 30 to 50 m. A light (white pole, 3 m in
height) is exhibited close to the extremity of Cape
Saint Francis.
2.125
1
Useful mark:
Humansdorp (34°02′S 24°46′E), a town backed by a
mountainous skyline (2.122) can be seen from
seaward. At night the lights of the town are
prominent.
(Directions continue at 2.136)
Seal Point Lighthouse from SW − Cape Saint Francis in background (2.124)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
Cape Saint Francis (2.124)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photographs − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 2
98
Bays
Slangbaai
2.126
1
Description. Slangbaai, entered between Klippen Point
(34°11′S 24°36′E) and Thys Point 5½ miles E, is backed
by bare and bush−covered sandhills 25 to 110 m high; at
the W side of the bay, near Klippen Point, they lie close to
the coast and at the head of the bay they are backed by
grassy farmland rising from the river valleys.
2
The shore is fringed with rocks for 6 cables NE of
Klippen Point, then a sandy beach curves E for about
3 miles past the mouths of Klipdrifrivier, at the head of the
bay, and Slang River 1 mile E; their mouths are usually
closed, but the rivers may break through the sand during
flash floods inland. This part of the shore is clear of
off−lying rocks except for a small outcrop close W of
Klipdrifrivier mouth. A heavy surf normally fringes the
beach, but landing can sometimes be effected close N of
the rocks in the W part of the bay. The sandy beach
terminates 1 mile ESE of Slang River, thence a rocky shore
continues to Thys Point.
3
A small cove, protected by a rocky ledge lying parallel
to the shore, is situated close E of White Point, 2 miles
ESE of the mouth of Slang River. In fair weather, landing
at the cove is possible at HW when the boulders which
encumber it are covered.
Anchorage. During NW and SW winds, good sheltered
anchorage, sandy bottom, may be obtained in the SW
corner of Slangbaai. Numerous small fishing vessels are
likely to be found at anchor in the bay.
Thys Bay
2.127
1
Description. Thys Bay, small and sandy, is entered close
E of Thys Point (34°11′S 24°43′E). A strip of shifting sand
dunes extends 3 miles E from the head of the bay and is
prominent; the highest dune, which is stable and partly
covered with scrub, is about 110 m high.
Anchorage may be effected in the bay. There is a
rock−free landing for boats under the lee of the reef
extending from Thys Point.
Seal Point to Cape Saint Francis
2.128
1
Description. A bay entered between Seal Point (34°13′S
24°50′E) and Cape Saint Francis, 2 miles ENE, has at its
head a large sandy beach clear of dangers and backed by
bushy sand dunes from 10 to 20 m high.
Anchorage. The centre of the bay provides good
anchorage, fine sand bottom, with Cape Saint Francis Light
(2.122) bearing WSW. It is necessary to be prepared to put
to sea immediately on the approach of bad weather from S
or E as the anchorage then becomes unsafe.
2
During favourable weather, landing is possible in the W
part of the bay clear of the rocks fringing Seal Point.
Landing should not be attempted at LW as there is then a
dangerous surf in the shallows.
CAPE SAINT FRANCIS TO CAPE PADRONE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 4156, 4157
Area covered
2.129
1
This section describes the coastal passage from Cape
Saint Francis to Cape Padrone, including Port Elizabeth,
presented in three parts as follows:
Cape Saint Francis to Cape Recife (2.131).
Port Elizabeth (2.151).
Cape Recife to Cape Padrone (2.187).
Dumping grounds
2.130
1
Areas used as dumping grounds for explosives are
charted S and ESE of Cape Recife in the vicinity of
34°16′S 25°43′E and 34°07′S 26°10′E.
Caution. Projectiles and mustard gas containers dumped
about 14 miles S of Cape Recife shortly after the Second
World War have since spread over a considerable area
between Cape Saint Francis (34°12′S 24°52′E) and Bird
Island (33°51′S 26°17′E) out to depths of 400 m and may
still be picked up in trawls.
CAPE SAINT FRANCIS TO CAPE RECIFE
General information
Chart 4156
Route
2.131
1
From a position S of Cape Saint Francis (34°12′S
24°52′E) the route leads ENE for about 45 miles to a
position SSE of Cape Recife (34°02′S 25°42′E).
Topography
2.132
1
Between Cape Saint Francis and Cape Recife the shore
is backed by sandhills, bushed−covered for the most part.
To the N of Saint Francis Bay, peaks of the Elandsberge
and Van Stadensberge ranges (2.136) provide a prominent
backdrop.
2
With the exception of a few rocky sections between
Cape Saint Francis and Jeffreys Bay, 9 miles NNE, sandy
beaches extend along the coast as far as the mouth of
Maitland River (33°59′S 25°18′E). To the E of Maitland
River the nature of the coastline changes abruptly from
sand to rocky ledges.
Marine exploitation
2.133
1
There are numerous submerged abandoned and
suspended wellheads on the continental shelf off Cape
Recife. For further details see 2.6.
Dumping ground
2.134
1
See 2.130.
Rescue
2.135
1
The NSRI maintains a rescue craft at Port Saint Francis
(2.145). See 1.45 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 5 for further information on rescue.
CHAPTER 2
99
Saint Francis Bay − Water Tower at Paradise Beach from SE (2.136)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Directions
(continued from 2.125)
Principal marks
2.136
1
Landmarks:
Water tower (34°06′S 24°54′E), on the summit of a
sand dune at Paradise Beach.
Blouberg (33°48′S 25°05′E), the SE−most of the three
peaks of the Elandsberge range.
Radio tower (33°53′S 25°17′E), and the 607 m
summit of Brak River Hill, ½ mile WNW, a
remarkable double peak forming an abrupt
termination to the Van Stadensberg range.
2
Hotel (34°01′S 25°21′E), extensive white buildings,
blue roof, and the pavilion of a tidal swimming
pool on the coast.
Radio tower (red and white bands, red obstruction
lights) (33°56′S 25°26′E).
Building (34°01′S 25°40′E), the tower−like
administrative building of the University of Port
Elizabeth.
3
Major lights:
Cape Saint Francis Light (34°13′S 24°50′E) (2.122),
exhibited from Seal Point Lighthouse.
Cape Recife Light (8−sided masonry tower, white and
black bands, red dome) (34°02′S 25°42′E).
Saint Francis Bay − Conspicuous Hotel (2.136)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
Hotel
Cape Recife Lighthouse from E (2.136)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photographs − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 2
100
Cape Saint Francis to Classen Point
2.137
1
From a position S of Cape Saint Francis (34°12′S
24°52′E) the track leads ENE, across Saint Francis Bay,
passing (with positions from Cape Saint Francis):
SSE of Paradise Beach (5 miles NNE) where several
large white houses and a water tower (2.136) are
prominent, thence:
2
SSE of rocky foul ground, over which the sea breaks
in all but the calmest weather, extending 2 miles
SE from Seekoeipunt (7 miles NNE) which lies at
the end of a range of dark bush−covered sand
dunes, the highest of which is surmounted by a
beacon (white, elevation 32 m). Vessels passing
Seekoeipunt should keep at least 3 miles off by
day and in depths of 30 m or more at night.
Thence:
3
SSE of the head of Saint Francis Bay (18 miles NE)
(2.142) backed by shifting sand dunes, thence:
SSE of the mouth of Van Stadensrivier (22½ miles
NE) (2.149), thence:
4
SSE of the mouth of Maitland River (25 miles NE)
(2.149). About 7 cables ESE of the river the nature
of the coast changes abruptly from sand to rocky
ledges which, interspersed with occasional small
sandy beaches, extend to Cape Recife 20 miles E.
There is clear water close seaward of these rocky
ledges for 3¼ miles ESE of the river mouth to the
vicinity of a conspicuous hotel (2.136). Thence:
5
SSE of foul rocky ground and below−water ledges
extending 3 cables offshore between Laurie’s Bay
(28 miles ENE), identified by some holiday
bungalows and a large cream−coloured building at
the summit of high ground to the E, and Classen
Point, 2 miles farther E. Thence:
6
To a position SSE of Classen Point (30 miles ENE),
the E entrance point to Saint Francis Bay,
identified by a few huts backed by dark
bush−covered sand dunes. A ledge of rocks
extends 2 cables SE of the point.
Classen Point to Cape Recife
2.138
1
Caution. Between Classen Point (34°02′S 25°26′E) and
Cape Recife, 13 miles E, the seabed is foul and rocky in
depths of less than 20 m. An indraught often sets in
towards the coast between Chelsea Point (34°03′S 25°38′E)
and Cape Recife, 3½ miles E. During the day it is
advisable to pass at least 3 miles clear of these points. At
night, or in poor visibility, depths of at least 100 m should
be maintained until E of Cape Recife.
2.139
1
From a position SSE of Classen Point the track
continues ENE, passing (with positions from Cape Recife
34°02′S 25°42′E)):
2
SSE of Bushy Beach, a sandy indentation which
extends for 2 miles E of Classen Point and is
backed by sparse vegetation except close E of the
point. Apart from a small clear stretch, the position
of which is indicated by Goeweneurskop (11 miles
W) a wooded hill lying 2 cables inland, the whole
beach is fringed with drying and submerged rocks
which extend up to 4 cables offshore in places.
Thence:
3
SSE of Sardinia Bay (2.148) (11 miles W), at the E
end of Bushy Beach. The small bay provides the
only reasonable landing place between
Kabeljousriviermond (38 miles W) and Cape
Recife. Thence:
4
SSE of rocks fronting Skoenmakerskop (7 miles W), a
village deriving its name from a wooded ridge
90 m high extending inland from it. Holiday
bungalows and some prominent white buildings of
the village stretch along a coastal road for nearly
1 mile. Thence:
5
SSE of rocks fronting Club Point (5½ miles WSW),
identified by two large buildings standing close to
the coastal road in its vicinity, thence:
2.140
1
SSE of foul ground off Chelsea Point (3½ miles
WSW), maintaining a distance off the low lying
point of at least 3 miles, see caution (2.138). A
ridge of heavily wooded sand dunes, parallel to the
coast between Skoenmakerskop and Chelsea Point,
attains an elevation of 36 m within the point.
Drying rocky ledges extend 2 cables seaward and
the sea breaks heavily over an extensive
submerged reef between 5 and 7 cables ESE of the
point. Thence:
2
SSE of Shelley Bay (2 miles WSW), which is foul
and rocky out to the 20 m depth contour and
provides an indifferent anchorage. The shore is
mostly fringed with rocks and submerged ledges,
and a heavy surf normally occurs. Within the bay
a rifle range has a danger area extending up to
1½ miles off the coast, see Appendix II. Thence:
3
SSE of Thunderbolt Reef (8 cables SSW), a
dangerous patch of rocks with depths less than 2 m
Cape Recife from SE (2.140)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
University Building
Cape Recife Light
Thunderbolt Reef breaking
CHAPTER 2
101
over which the sea generally breaks except
occasionally at HW during fine weather. Thence:
4
To a position at least 3 miles SSE of Cape Recife,
fringed by a submerged reef extending 6 cables SE
on which the sea usually breaks heavily. Cape
Recife is low and covered with scrub except for
bare sand at its extremity, where a lighthouse
(2.136) is established, and a prominent strip of
bare white sand stretching from the head of
Shelley Bay to the E side of the cape. Recife
Hillock (8 cables WNW) from a distance may
appear as the termination of the coastline. A
tower−like building (2.136) (2 miles NW) is likely
to be the first object sighted when approaching
Cape Recife from S by day.
2.141
1
Useful marks:
Lovemore Hill (34°00′S 25°26′E), high and thickly
wooded except for a clearing at the summit where
there is a large prominent building.
Botha Kop (34°00′S 25°30′E), sparsely wooded and
when seen from the E has a bluff appearance; a
radio mast (framework, red obstruction lights, 46 m
in height) stands on the summit.
Four radio masts (red obstruction lights) (34°00′S
25°34′E).
(Directions continue at 2.193, directions for Port Elizabeth are given at 2.172)
Saint Francis Bay
Chart 4156 (see 1.19)
General Information
2.142
1
Description. Saint Francis Bay is entered between Cape
Saint Francis (34°12′S 24°52′E) and Classen Point 30 miles
ENE. There are no known off−lying dangers in this large
bay which includes Krommebaai (2.143) and Jeffreys Bay
(2.146) along its W shore. Several rivers enter the bay, but
their mouths are either closed or suitable only for small
craft.
Topography, see 2.132.
Principal marks, see 2.136.
Krommebaai
2.143
1
General information. Krommebaai is entered between
Cape Saint Francis (34°12′S 24°52′E) (2.124) and the
mouth of Kromrivier, 3½ miles NNW. Sea Vista is a large
seaside resort at the head of the bay.
2
From the cape to the head of the bay, 2½ miles NW, the
coast consists of bush−covered sand dunes fronted by a
narrow beach off which rugged rocky ledges extend a short
distance seaward. Thereafter, to the mouth of Kromrivier,
the beach is clear of off−lying rocks.
3
A light−buoy (special) marks the site of underwater
instruments 2 miles NNE of Cape Saint Francis.
2.144
1
Anchorage, in depths from 14 to 16 m, sand, with Cape
Saint Francis bearing 180° distant 2 miles. This berth is
sheltered during W gales, but it is not safe with E winds.
During SW winds a heavy swell sweeps round Cape Saint
Francis into the anchorage.
2
The best berth for smaller vessels, in depths from 8 to
9 m, is 5 cables off the rocky NE shore of Cape Saint
Francis midway between the extremity of the cape and the
head of the bay. The sandy bottom here is free of rocks
and provides good holding ground under most conditions
except during strong E winds.
3
Between the head of the bay and the mouth of
Kromrivier, a submerged reef extends 2 cables offshore and
the bottom is generally rocky in the N part of the bay
between this reef and the mouth of Kromrivier. In addition,
shallow water extends 7 cables offshore from close S of the
river mouth. Anchoring in this vicinity is not
recommended.
4
The best landing place in Krommebaai is at the S end of
the sandy beach 2¼ miles NW of Cape Saint Francis, close
to a long ledge of boulders which dries; here the surf is
generally low and sometimes non−existent.
2.145
1
Port Saint Francis, 1¼ miles NW of Cape Saint
Francis, is enclosed by two rockfill breakwaters with
overlapping extremities creating an entrance facing N. A
light (pole, 3 m in height) on each breakwater marks the
entrance. Within the breakwaters a basin has floating
marinas and finger jetties.
A chokka (squid) fishing fleet operates from Port Saint
Francis and an NSRI rescue craft (2.135) is based there.
Jeffreys Bay
2.146
1
General information. Jeffreys Bay (34°03′S 24°56′E) is
a slight indentation in the coast 1½ miles N of Seekoeipunt
(2.137) and a centre for the local chokka (squid) fishing
industry. The town of Jeffreys Bay, a popular resort with
some prominent buildings, extends to Noorskloofpunt
1¾ miles father N.
2
A gap between the rocky ledges fringing the sandy
beach of the bay provides the best landing place in the area
and is much used by the catamarans of the chokka
fishermen.
3
Anchorage. Moderate shelter may be obtained off the
bay during W winds. The best anchorage, in a depth of
20 m, sand, lies due E of the landing place.
Laurie’s Bay
2.147
1
Laurie’s Bay (34°02′S 25°24′E) (2.137). In suitable
weather, which rarely occurs, small boats with local
knowledge may enter the bay by a narrow passage between
some boulders about 5 m high and a submerged reef to the
W.
Sardinia Bay
2.148
1
Description. Sardinia Bay (34°02′S 25°29′E) was once
used as a harbour for small fishing vessels and it provides
the only reasonable landing place between
Kabeljousriviermond (34°00′S 24°56′E) and Cape Recife,
38 miles E.
2
Approach. The sandy beach is approached between a
drying reef to the W and Holland Reef to the E; the reef is
composed of drying rocks and a few above−water rocks up
to 2 m high which extend about 7 cables SE from a drying
sand spit. Landing should only be attempted at LW, when
there is usually calm water in the lee of the reefs.
3
Caution. Between the inshore end of Holland Reef and
the next rocky point 7 cables E, there is another small
sandy beach which is apparently clear of off−lying rocks.
Heavy breakers usually occur in the approach to this beach,
even when Holland Reef provides a lee during SW winds,
and so it cannot be considered a safe landing place.
CHAPTER 2
102
Rivers
2.149
1
Kromrivier (34°08′S 24°50′E) is navigable by small
craft for a considerable distance upstream. Local knowledge
is required to enter the river.
Seekoeirivier (34°05′S 24°54′E), normally closed by a
sand bar, but the river may break through after heavy rains.
Landing at the mouth is dangerous because of the reef
extending from Seekoeipunt (2.137).
2
Kabeljousriviermond (34°00′S 24°56′E), is normally
closed. A holiday camp ½ mile SW of the river has several
prominent white buildings, and closer to the mouth there is
a small group of older bungalows; these buildings and the
relatively dark vegetation on its banks serve to identify the
river.
3
Gamtoosrivier (33°58′S 25°02′E). The mouth is always
open to some extent, but the river may break through the
sand bar anywhere between this position and 2½ miles
farther E. Within the bar the river is deep and tidal
influence is felt for about 8 miles upstream. A road bridge
and an aqueduct, both visible from seaward, cross the river
about 2 miles inland. To the E of Gamtoosrivier the land
rises sharply to a wooded coastal plain fronted by extensive
and high sand dunes.
4
Van Stadensrivier (33°58′S 25°13′E), the mouth of
which is normally closed, may be identified by high bare
sand dunes, forming a saddle−shaped peak, which extend
well inland on its W bank. High bush−covered hills at the
foot of which stands a cluster of holiday dwellings, lie
close to the E bank of the river.
5
A solitary small outcrop of rock, 0⋅3 m high, lies close
to the HW line 1¼ miles E of the Van Stadensrivier. Apart
from this outcrop, the sandy beach between Van
Stadensrivier and Maitland River 3¾ miles ESE is clear of
off−lying rocks.
6
Maitland River (33°59′S 25°18′E), the mouth of which
is normally closed, may be identified by bare sand dunes
on its W bank which extend farther inland than those on
the W bank of Van Stadensrivier; the dunes to the E are
bush−covered. A pipeline aqueduct which crosses the river
near its mouth is visible from close S.
Anchorages
2.150
1
For anchorage in Krommebaai see 2.144, and in Jeffreys
Bay see 2.146. Anchoring off the coast anywhere between
Classen Point (34°02′S 25°26′E) and Cape Recife, 13 miles
E, is not recommended.
PORT ELIZABETH
General information
Charts 4157, 4158 plan of Port Elizabeth
Position
2.151
1
Port Elizabeth (33°58′S 25°38′E) is situated at the SW
corner of Algoa Bay, nearly midway between Cape Town
and Durban.
Function
2.152
1
One of South Africa’s major ports; in 1999 the city had
a population of just over 1 million. Most of the commercial
traffic in the port is related to activities in the immediate
hinterland which is both industrialised and intensively
farmed.
2
Port Elizabeth and nearby Uitenhage are major centres
in the motor vehicle industry and trade through the port
reflects this activity. Other exports include manganese ore,
steel and the agricultural products of timber, wool, textiles,
skins, hides and fruit.
Topography
2.153
1
The city rises from the harbour and low−lying foreshore
area to a comparatively flat plateau about 60 m high. The
industrial part of the city, on flat and low−lying ground to
the N of the harbour, extends almost to Swartkopsrivier
6 miles N.
Port limits
2.154
1
The area W of a line between positions about 8½ cables
E from both Cape Recife (34°02′S 25°42′E) and the mouth
of Swartkopsrivier, 10½ miles NNW, as shown on Chart
4157.
Approach and entry
2.155
1
The port is approached from S or E, either through lanes
in a traffic separation scheme (2.167) which converge on a
precautionary area NE of the harbour entrance, or via
inshore traffic zones. Final approach and entry through a
dredged channel is guided by the alignment of leading and
directional lights.
Traffic
2.156
1
In 2005 the port was used by 879 vessels with a total of
26 675 671 dwt.
Port authority
2.157
1
National Ports Authority of South Africa, PO Box 162,
Port Elizabeth 6000.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
2.158
1
The approach channel is dredged to a maintained depth
of 14⋅5 m. Within the harbour, depths are maintained by
dredging as shown on the harbour plan. Attention is drawn
to the notes on the chart concerning dredged depths and
chart datum.
Deepest and longest berth
2.159
1
Charl Malan Quay, berths 102 and 103 (2.181),
combined length 635 m, charted depth 12⋅2 m.
Tidal levels
2.160
1
Mean spring range about 1⋅7 m; mean neap range about
0⋅5 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled
2.161
1
Draught 12⋅1 m, although deeper vessels may be
accommodated after consultation with the Port Captain.
Local weather and sea state
2.162
1
Algoa Bay is exposed to SE gales which are frequent
between October and March; at their height a heavy
breaking sea rolls into the anchorages off Port Elizabeth,
but vessels with plenty of cable out generally ride easily,
CHAPTER 2
103
though somewhat uncomfortably, beam on to the swell
under the influence of a strong E−going counter current.
Arrival information
Port operations
2.163
1
Pilotage, tugs and berthing services are available every
day until 0200, but closed on 1st January, 1st May, 25th
December. The Oil Tanker Berth (2.181) has daylight
berthing only.
Notice of ETA required
2.164
1
See 1.35. ETA should be sent 72 hours and 12 hours in
advance. Confirmation of ETA should follow when within
VHF range and when 16 miles E of the harbour, for vessels
approaching from E, and 3½ miles S of Cape Recife, for
vessels approaching from W. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (3).
Pilotage
2.165
1
Pilotage is compulsory. Vessels, except tankers, not
exceeding 70 m in length may obtain pilotage exemption.
For pilot availability see 2.163. The pilot boards about
2½ miles NE of South Breakwater Head Light, as shown
on the chart. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (3).
2
Pilot ladders must comply with SOLAS regulations. All
vessels with a freeboard greater than 9 m must have an
accommodation ladder rigged in conjunction with the pilot
ladder. Man ropes must be provided.
Tugs
2.166
1
Tugs are available.
Traffic regulations
2.167
1
Traffic Separation Scheme. A TSS, the limits of which
are shown on the chart, is established in the approaches to
Port Elizabeth; it is not IMO−adopted. The South African
authorities advise that the principles for the use of the
routeing system defined in Rule 10 of The International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (1972) apply.
2
Vessel Traffic Service. The Port Elizabeth VTS is
mandatory for the following:
(1) Vessels of 15 m or more in length.
(2) Towing vessels, where the tow is 15 m or more in
length, or the overall length of vessel and tow is
of 30 m or more.
(3) Any passenger carrying vessels.
For details of procedures and reporting points see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).
3
Prohibited area. Entry is prohibited into a marine farm
area centred on 33°56′⋅9S 25°37′⋅5E, as shown on the
chart, due to the presence of floating or fixed structures
and their associated moorings. Prior permission from the
Harbour Master must be obtained if it is necessary to enter
the area.
4
Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring is prohibited in the
approach channel to Port Elizabeth Harbour.
Harbour
General layout
2.168
1
The harbour faces NE and is protected on the SE and E
sides by a breakwater. The N side is protected by a seawall
on the outer edge of the wide Charl Malan Quay.
Alongside berths are contained within these structures.
Bakensrivier, the mouth of which is canalised and
spanned by three bridges, flows into the harbour from W.
Though liable to flash floods, the river is overgrown with
weed and is not navigable.
Traffic signals
2.169
1
Traffic signals are exhibited as follows from the Port
Control Building situated on the NE corner of Charl Malan
Quay (33°57′⋅5S 25°38′⋅5E):
Fixed red light Vessel leaving
Fixed green light Vessel entering
Flashing red light Port closed
Storm signals
2.170
1
Visual storm warning signals are displayed, see 1.44.
Climate information
2.171
1
See 1.169.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 2.141)
Principal marks
2.172
1
Landmarks:
Building (34°01′S 25°40′E) (2.136).
Golf Club House (34°00′⋅0S 25°40′⋅7E).
Hotel (33°59′⋅6S 25°40′⋅6E).
Flats (33°59′⋅3S 25°40′⋅3E).
2
Flats (33°59′⋅0S 25°39′⋅7E).
Hotel (33°58′⋅7S 25°38′⋅8E).
Entrance to Port Elizabeth from N (2.172)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − S. Turner, MV Saga Rose)
CHAPTER 2
104
Port Control Building from NNE (2.172)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − S. Turner, MV Saga Rose)
Port Control Building (33°57′⋅3S 25°38′⋅3E).
Port Administrative Building (33°57′⋅3S 25°37′⋅4E)
and 2 buildings 2¼ cables farther WSW and SW.
3
Hospital (33°57′⋅4S 25°36′⋅0E).
Jail (33°55′⋅6S 25°36′⋅6E).
Radio mast (red and white bands, red obstruction
lights) (33°55′⋅5S 25°35′⋅5E).
Chimney (33°55′⋅2S 25°36′⋅1E) and 2 chimneys
6½ cables N.
Chimney (33°53′⋅1S 25°37′⋅2E) and 6 chimneys
1¼ miles NW.
4
Major lights:
Cape Recife Light (34°01′⋅7S 25°42′⋅1E) (2.136).
Leading Lights (33°57′⋅3S 25°37′⋅2E) (2.175).
Deal Light (square on framework tower, red lantern,
22 m in height) (33°54′⋅9S 25°36′⋅9E). The
light−tower is difficult to identify because of an
elevated road close behind it.
Other aids to navigation
2.173
1
Racon:
At light−buoy (33°55′⋅6S 25°40′⋅4E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Approach from south
2.174
1
From a position SSE of Cape Recife (34°02′S 25°42′E)
the track leads generally N, passing (with positions from
Cape Recife Light):
E of a submerged reef extending 6 cables SE from
Cape Recife (2.140), and:
Through the entrance of the N−bound TSS traffic lane
(4½ miles E), thence:
W of Riy Bank (2.194) (8 miles ENE).
2
Thence the track leads NW in the traffic lane, through a
precautionary area (centred 6 miles N), to the pilot boarding
position close E of a light−buoy (safe water, racon)
(6¼ miles NNW).
2.175
1
Leading lights:
Front (square on framework tower, red and white
bands, 31 m in height) (33°57′⋅3S 25°37′⋅2E).
Rear (white pole, 5 m in height) (2½ cables SW of
front light).
The alignment (238°) of these lights leads SW, passing
(with positions from the front light):
2
Through the dredged approach channel 5 cables wide,
thence:
To a position about 6 cables NNW of the head of
South Breakwater (1¼ miles E) from which a light
(white concrete tower) is exhibited. Thence:
3
Direction light (metal tower, 31 m in height) (1½ miles
ESE). The line of bearing 167¾° of this light leads in
mid−channel to the harbour entrance, 2 cables wide,
passing:
Between South Breakwater and the E extremity of
Charl Malin Quay, where lights are exhibited at
the NE corner (metal pole, 10 m in height) and SE
corner (white pole, 3 m in height).
Direction Light and Hotel (33°58′⋅75S 25°38′⋅8E) (2.175)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − S. Turner, MV Saga Rose)
4
Leading lights:
Front (metal pole, 6 m in height) (33°57′⋅7S
25°37′⋅7E).
Rear (concrete column, 9 m in height) (180 m W of
front light).
The alignment (263°) of these lights marks the centre of
the basin between Charl Malan Quay and No 2 Quay.
2.176
1
Inshore Traffic Zone.
Caution. Vessels using the Inshore Traffic Zone should
make due allowance for the strong indraught often
experienced between Cape Recife and Dispatch Rock,
3 miles N; heavy surf occurs along this stretch of coast.
2
All vessels should pass E of Dispatch Rock, also known
as Roman Rock, which is steep−to on its SE side and
marked by a light−buoy (E cardinal); its position is also
indicated by:
CHAPTER 2
105
3
The alignment (173°) of Cape Recife Light (2.136)
and a beacon (black and white bands, stone, 8 m
in height) 2¾ cables N, and:
A beacon (red and white bands, stone, 8 m in height)
(33°59′⋅5S 25°40′⋅6E), bearing 237°.
Dispatch Rock and adjacent shoals are covered by the
red sector (162° − 190°) of Cape Recife Light (2.136).
Approach from east
2.177
1
From a position 6 miles NNE of Riy Bank (33°59′S
25°52′E) the track leads W, passing (with positions from
Cape Recife Light (34°02′S 25°42′E):
N of Riy Bank (2.194), thence:
Through the entrance of the W−bound TSS traffic
lane (10 miles NE), thence:
2
The track continues W in the traffic lane and into a
precautionary area (centred 6 miles N), where the track
alters WSW to the pilot boarding position close E of a
light−buoy (safe water, racon) (6¼ miles NNW).
Thence as for 2.175.
Directions for leaving harbour
2.178
1
If E−bound from Port Elizabeth during fine weather, and
draught permitting, it is recommended to use Bird Island
Passage (2.198) and then pass at least 3 miles off Cape
Padrone, thereby avoiding the full strength of the
SW−going current to the S of Bird Island.
Useful marks
2.179
1
Botha Kop (34°00′S 25°30′E) (2.141) (Chart 4156).
Four radio masts (34°00′S 25°34′E) (2.141) (Chart
4156).
Radio mast (red obstruction lights, orange and white
bands) (33°56′S 25°34′E) (Chart 4156), the lights
are only visible from seaward on clear dark nights.
2
Disused lighthouse (white octagonal tower, 26 m in
height) (33°57′⋅7S 25°37′⋅3E), standing on a hill;
although dwarfed by nearby tall buildings, the
lighthouse is illuminated at night and provides a
prominent mark.
Shark Rock Pier Light (white pole), exhibited 7 cables
WNW of Beacon Point (33°58′⋅8S 25°39′⋅6E).
Berths
Anchorages
2.180
1
Designated anchorages for different classes of vessel, as
shown on the chart, are as follows:
No 1 33°57′⋅5S 25°40′⋅0E Small Craft
No 2 33°53′⋅5S 25°40′⋅0E General
No 3 33°52′⋅5S 25°43′⋅5E Hazardous
2
For local weather and sea conditions at the anchorages
see 2.162.
Alongside berths
2.181
1
The main berths are as follows (with positions from
South Breakwater Light, 33°57′⋅2S 25°38′⋅6E):
Charl Malan Quay (4 cables SW). The S side has
four berths, numbered 100 to 103. Berth 100 is the
Ro−Ro Berth, charted depth 10⋅9 m; Berths 102
and 103, containers, are the longest and deepest,
combined length 635 m, charted depth 12⋅1 m. The
E side forms East Quay, length 400 m, charted
depth 12⋅1 m.
2
No 2 Quay (7 cables SW), general cargo, has two
berths, combined length 520 m, charted depth
10⋅9 m.
No 3 Quay (8 cables SW), general cargo, has three
berths, combined length 520 m, charted depth 6⋅9
to 9⋅9 m.
Bulk Cargo Quay (8 cables SSW), two berths,
combined length 370 m, charted depth 12⋅1 m;
maximum vessel length 250 m.
3
Oil Tanker Berth (6 cables S), length 242 m, charted
depth 9⋅8 m; maximum vessel length 203 m.
4
Berths for smaller vessels are as follows:
Fisheries Jetty, 2 cables W of the Bulk Cargo Quay,
length 165 m, charted depth 6⋅4 m.
Dom Pedro Trawler Quay, close SW of the Bulk
Cargo Quay, depth variable but maximum 5⋅4 m.
Tug Jetty, close S of Ro−Ro Berth, length 120 m,
charted depth 6⋅9 m.
5
Naval Jetty, S of the mouth of Bakensrivier at the W
end of No 3 Quay is 78 m long and of solid
construction; it lies adjacent to SAS Donkin, a
shore training establishment of the South African
Navy (Citizen Force) situated close N of the
mouth of Bakensrivier.
Port services
Repairs
2.182
1
Large repairs to hull, engines and boilers can be
undertaken and there are facilities for underwater hull
cleaning. However, prior consultation with the shore
authorities should be made to ensure that the specific repair
facilities are available.
A patent slip has a lift of 1200 tons, taking vessels up to
82 m length and 12 m beam.
Other facilities
2.183
1
Hospitals. Deratting and Deratting Exemption
Certificates issued. There are no facilities for receiving
dirty ballast water.
Supplies
2.184
1
Fuel oil, fresh water at all berths, provisions and stores
are available.
Communications
2.185
1
A national airport, linked to the international airports of
Johannesburg and Cape Town, is 3 km SW of the harbour.
Rescue
2.186
1
A regional headquarters of the National Sea Rescue
Institute (NSRI) is at Port Elizabeth, and a rescue craft is
based there. See 1.45 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 5 for further information on rescue.
CHAPTER 2
106
CAPE RECIFE TO CAPE PADRONE
General information
Chart 4156
Route
2.187
1
From a position SSE of Cape Recife (34°02′S 25°42′E)
the direct route leads ENE across Algoa Bay for about
41 miles to a position SSE of Cape Padrone (33°46′S
26°28′E).
An inshore route from NE of Port Elizabeth (33°58′S
25°38′E), passing closer to the head of Algoa Bay and via
Bird Island Passage, 35 miles ENE, is described at 2.195
and 2.198.
Topography
2.188
1
From Cape Recife (2.140) to Port Elizabeth Harbour,
5 miles NW, the coast is low and fringed by rocks and
exposed sandy beaches. Between the harbour and
Swartkopsrivier, 6 miles N, the coast remains low, but the
city rises inland to a comparatively flat plateau about 60 m
high.
2
The coast of Algoa Bay, from Swartkopsrivier 38 miles
to Woody Cape, is a sandy beach backed by sand dunes.
Between Swartkopsrivier and Sondagsrivier 14 miles NE,
the country within the coast is generally flat with Coegakop
(2.193) a conspicuous feature.
3
Between Sondagsrivier and Woody Cape 24 miles ESE,
the bare shifting sand dunes, with occasional patches of
scrub, are up to 140 m high and extend up to 1½ miles
inland. To the N of the sand dunes there is a range of
bush−covered sand hills, up to 165 m high, within which
the land rises to forest−covered ridges intersected by fertile
valleys and farm land. The summits are not well defined
with the possible exception of Boshoek 4½ miles NNW of
Woody Cape, which, with a slightly lower twin peak 1 mile
SW of it, is most easily identified from S and SE.
4
At Woody Cape (2.194) sandstone cliffs, up to 45 m
high, front the coast from 4 miles W to 1 mile E of the
cape. Shifting sand dunes, generally 60 to 100 m high
either side of the cape, reach their highest elevation of
140 m about 1 mile WNW of it. At Cape Padrone, 7 miles
E of Woody Cape, a 1 mile length of sandstone cliffs, 10 to
15 m high, fronts the shore.
5
Between the cliffs at the two capes, a sandy beach is
backed by sand dunes, close inland of which a line of
sandstone cliffs may be seen where it has been uncovered
by the shifting of the sand. Farther inland the sand dunes
give way to grassy ridges backed by densely wooded hills.
Marine exploitation
2.189
1
There are numerous submerged abandoned and
suspended wellheads on the continental shelf off Cape
Recife and Algoa Bay. For further details see 2.6.
Dumping ground
2.190
1
See 2.130.
Rescue
2.191
1
See 2.186.
Natural conditions
2.192
1
Tidal streams. Within Algoa Bay tidal streams are very
weak.
Current. To the S of the Bird Islands the Agulhas
Current (1.117) is constantly SW−going and strong; a set
towards the Bird Islands may be experienced.
Within Algoa Bay there is frequently a NE−going
counter current, particularly after SE gales, and onshore
sets may occur.
Directions
(continued from 2.14 and 2.141)
Principal marks
2.193
1
Landmarks:
Building (34°01′S 25°40′E) (2.136).
For Port Elizabeth see 2.172.
Coegakop (33°46′S 25°37′E), a hill with two
summits; the SW summit is lower and has a
quarry on its SE side which appears light−coloured
in the morning sun. The comparatively flat country
surrounding this hill makes it visible from a
considerable distance.
Radio tower (33°37′S 26°05′E).
Woody Cape (33°46′S 26°19′E) (2.194).
2
Major lights:
Cape Recife Light (34°02′S 25°42′E) (2.136).
Deal Light (33°55′S 25°37′E) (2.172).
Bird Island Light (Red square tower, white bands,
26 m in height) (33°51′S 26°17′E).
Bird Island and Light (2.193)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − Captain Peter Mosselberger)
CHAPTER 2
107
Saint Francis Bay − Woody Cape from SE (2.194)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Track
2.194
1
From a position at least 3 miles SSE of Cape Recife
(34°02′S 25°42′E) the track leads ENE across Algoa Bay,
passing (with positions from Cape Recife):
SSE of Riy Bank (8 miles ENE), rocky and foul, and
normally marked by overfalls and broken water;
during and after gales the sea breaks over it
heavily. All vessels, other than fishing vessels,
should keep well clear. Thence:
2
SSE of the broad expanse of Algoa Bay (15 miles
NE) (2.195), thence:
SSE of the reefs and above−water rocks up to
1¼ miles S of Bird Island (31 miles ESE) (2.201),
where a light (2.193) is exhibited. No advantage is
to be gained by approaching within 3 miles of Bird
Island Light. In poor visibility it is advisable to
keep in depths of at least 100 m. Thence:
3
SSE of Woody Cape (35 miles ENE) where sandstone
cliffs up to 45 m high line the coast; the cape is
prominent due to its dark vegetation which stands
out against light−coloured shifting sand dunes
either side. Thence:
4
To a position at least 3 miles SSE of Cape Padrone
(41 miles ENE), the E extremity of a sandstone
cliff 1 mile in length and from 10 to 15 m high.
Foul ground, over which the sea breaks heavily in
bad weather, extends 1½ miles S of the cape. At
night or in poor visibility, vessels should keep in
depths of 75 m or more when passing Cape
Padrone.
(Directions continue at 3.15)
Algoa Bay
Charts 4156, 4157, 4158 plan of Bird Island Passage
General information
2.195
1
Description. Algoa Bay is entered between Cape Recife
(34°02′S 25°42′E) and Woody Cape, 35 miles ENE; Cape
Padrone lies 7 miles farther E. The bay is open to the full
force of SE gales which are frequent between October and
March.
Topography. See 2.188.
Traffic regulations. See 2.167.
Natural conditions. See 2.192.
Directions
2.196
1
Principal marks. See 2.193.
Track. From a position in the Port Elizabeth Inshore
Traffic Zone, N of the Precautionary Area centred 6 miles
N of Cape Recife (34°02′S 25°42′E), the track leads
generally NE then E, passing (with positions from Cape
Recife):
Cape Padrone from SE (2.194)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 2
108
2
SE of the mouth of Swartkopsrivier (10½ miles
NNW), where the surf is normally heavy over the
shallow bar. A prominent bridge spans the river
close within its mouth, landward of which the river
opens out into a wide estuary with extensive
mudflats and is navigable for about 8 miles by
small craft. Thence:
3
SSE of the bare rock island of Jahleel, 7 cables off
Coegariviermond (13½ miles N), a river generally
closed, and where works are in progress (2006)
constructing the deep water port of Ngqura,
thence:
4
Either side of Brenton Island (13 miles NNE) and
Saint Croix Island, 1 mile farther N; both are fairly
steep−to and of bare rock although Saint Croix
Island, the larger, has some patches of stunted
vegetation. Thence:
5
Clear of a 15⋅8 m patch (12½ miles NNE), thence:
6
SSE of the mouth of Sondagsrivier (20 miles NNE),
which may be identified by the contrasting
topography of the two banks. On the W bank the
sand dunes, some bush−covered, rise to 40 m high
and extend 2 miles inland. The E bank rises
sharply to Landmanskop, the bush−covered summit
of a ridge running parallel to the coast. In the
immediate vicinity of the mouth of the river this
wooded terrain extends to within 2 cables of the
shore. The river mouth is always open, but its bar
is shallow and there is usually too much surf to
allow the passage of boats. Within the bar the river
is navigable by small craft as far as a road bridge
about 4½ miles upstream. Thence:
7
To a position NW of Bird Islands (31 miles ENE).
(Directions continue for Bird Island Passage at 2.199)
Anchorage
2.197
1
See 2.200.
Bird Island Passage
Chart 4158 plan of Bird Island Passage
General information
2.198
1
Description. Bird Island Passage lies between Woody
Cape (33°46′S 26°19′E) (2.194) and Bird Islands (2.201),
4½ miles SSW.
Topography. See 2.188.
Depths. The passage is comparatively deep and clear of
dangers. A least charted depth of 14⋅3 m is in mid channel.
2
Natural conditions. The current in the channel is
generally W−going but weak, and on occasions after W
winds an E−going counter current may be experienced.
Within 1 mile of Woody Cape, however, the current is
nearly always E−going and sometimes strong. Tidal streams
are negligible.
Directions
(continued from 2.196)
2.199
Principal marks. See 2.193.
1
Track. At night it is advisable to keep closer to the
mainland than to Bird Island; the mainland is higher and
more easily seen, and the roar of the surf is more distinct
than the sound of breakers off the islands. Continuous
sounding and radar watch should be maintained in order to
avoid approaching too close to Woody Cape, and depths of
20 m or more should be maintained except off the cape
where a ledge with a least depth of 15⋅5 m projects as
much as 1½ miles S.
2
When clear of Bird Island Passage, Padrone (33°46′S
26°28′E) (2.194) should be passed at a distance of at least
3 miles.
(Directions continue for passage E at 3.15)
Anchorage
Chart 4157
2.200
1
Safe and convenient anchorage may generally be
obtained in designated areas off Port Elizabeth (2.180).
Moderately sheltered anchorage may be obtained
3 cables NW of the N extremity of Saint Croix Island
(33°48′S 25°46′E) in a depth of 18 m, sand, with the W
peak of the island bearing 140°; only a very small part of
the anchorage is sheltered from the heavy seas caused by
SE gales.
Bird Islands
Chart 4158 plan of Bird Island Passage
General information
2.201
1
Description. Bird Islands (33°50′S 26°17′E) are a group
of small low−lying islands of varying size lying 4½ miles
SSW of Woody Cape.
Topography. Bird Island, from which is exhibited Bird
Island Light (2.193), is the largest of the group and a
proclaimed guano island (1.36). The island is low and
appears bright green except over guano flats at its E end
and in the vicinity of the lighthouse and of living quarters
at its NW end.
2
Positions of the following islands are given from Bird
Island Light (33°50′⋅5S 26°17′⋅2E).
Black Rocks (1¼ miles W) consist of five small
outcrops almost joined together by a reef of drying and
submerged rocks and they are usually surrounded by heavy
breakers. The largest rock, 6 m high, is covered with a
white cap of guano. Large numbers of seals congregate on
the rocks during the breeding season.
3
Seal Island (7 cables NW) is the second largest of the
Bird Islands. There is a small colony of penguins on the
island. Until the mid 20th century it was the base for
sealers operating on Black Rocks.
Stag Island (5 cables NNW) has a central shingle beach
covered with sparse vegetation.
North Patch (8½ cables N) is a small reef of rocks
which dry.
4
Natural conditions. In the vicinity of the islands the
current is uncertain and irregular both in direction and
strength, although it is generally weak. Tidal streams are
negligible.
Directions
2.202
Principal mark. Bird Island Light (33°50′⋅5S 26°17′⋅2E)
(2.193).
1
Bird Island Passage, between Bird Islands and the
mainland 4½ miles NNE, is described at 2.198.
2
South Passage, about 7 cables wide, lies between the
Bird Islands and a series of rocks and reefs to the S
(positions from Bird Island Light (33°50′⋅5S 26°17′⋅2E)):
West Rock (1½ miles WSW) over which the sea
always breaks.
CHAPTER 2
109
Doddington Rock (1¼ miles SSW) over which the sea
always breaks; named after an the East Indiaman
Doddington wrecked there in 1755.
East Reef (1¼ miles S) over which the sea generally
breaks.
3
Caution. South Passage appears to be clear of dangers,
but it cannot be recommended as heavy breaking seas
cover the whole area except in the calmest weather.
2.203
1
Boat passages between the islands:
Between Black Rocks and the chain of rocks and
reefs extending from Seal Island to within ½ cable
of Black Rocks, a channel has a depth of 7 m.
Local knowledge is required.
Off the SW corner of Seal Island at HW, but a
treacherous backwash makes it dangerous.
2
Close E of Seal Island at HW; this passage is safe
under normal conditions.
Between a shoal surrounding North Patch and shallow
water to the N of Stag Island, a channel 1½ cables
wide has a least depth of 5⋅7 m.
Anchorage
2.204
1
The best anchorage in the vicinity of Bird Islands is in a
depth of about 15 m with North Patch (2.201) bearing 180°
distant 5 cables and in line with Bird Island Light (2.193),
as shown on the chart. In 1950, South African Surveying
Ship Protea (980 tons) anchored here frequently and at no
time did she drag. A sudden shift of wind from light E to
strong W sets up a steep and confused sea in the
anchorage.
2
The best anchorage for Bird Island, providing shelter
from SW winds, is in Stag Bay, the stretch of water to the
E of Bird Island, Stag Island and North Patch (2.201). The
best anchorage is 6 cables NE of Bird Island Light (2.193),
in depths from 8 to 11 m, as indicated on the chart. The
holding ground is good, but an uncomfortable swell usually
sweeps round the reef on the E extremity of Bird Island. In
the N part of the bay the holding ground is poor and ships
at anchor have been known to drag.
3
Seal Bay, NW of the islands, provides shelter in SE or
E winds. The best anchorage is in depths from 25 to 27 m,
coarse sand, with Bird Island Light (2.193) bearing 123°
distant 1¼ miles and in line with the SW extremity of Seal
Island. The holding ground is not as good as that in Stag
Bay and it is necessary to be prepared to leave the
anchorage at short notice if the wind freshens from the W.
4
The shallow lagoon formed by the islands provides a
calm anchorage for boats, even in S winds when a lee is
formed by the surf breaking in depths of 5 m between Bird
Island and Black Rocks (2.201).
5
Landing. A boat approaching the landing place on the
NE shore of Bird Island should keep on the alignment of
the lighthouse (2.193) bearing 233° in order to avoid the
breakers which normally extend for some 3 cables ESE of
Stag Island.
With E winds there is a safe landing place for boats at
HW on the NW extremity of Bird Island.
R E P U B L I C O F
S O U T H A F R I C A
East London
Great Fish Point
Port Alfred
Groot-Keirivier
Mbashe Point
Rame Head
Port Saint John’s
Waterfall Bluff
C
a
p
e
P
a
d
r
o
n
e
4158
4159
2086
3794
3793
4162
4162
4156
0306
3
.
1
2
3
.
2
7
3
.
7
8
3
.
9
2
3
.
1
0
8
3
.
1
2
1
3.41
30°29°28°27°
30°
30'30'30'
30'30'
30'
30'
30'
30'
30'
30'
30'
30'
30'30'
29°Longitude 28° East from Greenwich27°
35°
34°
33°
32°
31°
35°
34°
33°
32°
31°
Chapter 3 - Cape Padrone to Waterfall Bluff
110
111
CHAPTER 3
CAPE PADRONE TO WATERFALL BLUFF
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 2095, 3300
Scope of the chapter
3.1
1
This chapter describes passage off the coast of South
Africa from Cape Padrone (33°46′S 26°28′E) to Waterfall
Bluff 220 miles NE, and includes description of the port of
East London.
The chapter is divided into the following three sections:
Cape Padrone to East London (33°02′S 27°55′E)
(3.9).
East London to Mbashe Point (32°15′S 28°55′E)
(3.74).
Mbashe Point to Waterfall Bluff (31°26′S 29°49′E)
(3.103).
Routeing
3.2
1
By hugging the coast, vessels NE−bound may avoid the
full strength of the SW−going Agulhas Current (1.117) and
possibly gain benefit of a NE−going counter current, but
great care should be taken to guard against indraughts. A
good offing should be given to the salient points, and also
to the bays and mouths of rivers as most of them are foul
or have sandbanks which may have shifted or extended
seaward. At night or in poor visibility, vessels should keep
in depths of 75 m or more.
2
Vessels SW−bound normally keep farther offshore to
take advantage of the Agulhas Current, but if SW gales are
expected they are recommended to keep within 3 or 4 miles
of the coast as the calmer sea there will more than
compensate for the loss of the more favourable current.
3
Laden tankers are required to maintain a minimum
distance of 20 miles off Hood Point (33°02′S 27°54′E) and
Mbashe Point (32°15′S 28°55′E) when SW−bound, and
25 miles off the same points when NE−bound. Rules for
the navigation of laden tankers off the South African coast
are given at Appendix I.
Topography
3.3
1
The whole coastline lacks significant indentations or
bays and is devoid of shelter. Much of the foreshore along
the coast is fringed with rocky outcrops.
2
Numerous rivers enter the sea along this coast, but few
have a connection with the sea of use even by small craft.
Invariably the outflow at the river mouth is
disproportionately small to the size of the valley through
which it flows. Many rivers have their mouths closed by
the coastal sand or are only open to the sea at HW through
narrow channels usually positioned to one side or the other
of the river mouth. As an aid to identification, the general
aspect of most of the river mouths are described in the
relevant section of Directions.
Depths and sea conditions
3.4
1
From Cape Padrone NE to Waterfall Bluff the
continental shelf becomes progressively narrower; the
200 m depth contour lies 25 miles SE of Cape Padrone,
14 miles off East London and only 3½ miles off Cape
Hermes (31°38′S 29°33′E). Depths over the shelf are
moderately regular, but the edge is generally steep with
depths increasing by more than 200 m in less than 1 mile
in places. During W or SW gales the edge of the
continental shelf is usually well defined by the comparative
smoothness of the sea over the shelf, and there is
considerably less sea within 3 miles of the coast than
farther out in the full strength of the Agulhas Current
where heavy seas develop and where, under certain
conditions, abnormal waves (3.5) of exceptional height may
be encountered.
Abnormal waves
3.5
1
Abnormal waves may be encountered in the area
covered by this chapter. They may be up to 20 m high,
preceded by a deep trough and occur in the area between
the 200 m contour and about 20 miles to seaward of it. For
further details see 1.122.
Shark nets
3.6
1
See 1.5.
Marine reserves
3.7
1
Marine reserves are established at the following
locations along the coast, as shown on the charts:
Christmas Rock (33°11′⋅5S 27°38′⋅7E) to Gxulu River
(33°07′⋅1S 27°43′⋅9E).
Nahoon Point (32°59′⋅8S 27°57′⋅1E) to Gonubie Point
(32°56′⋅5S 28°02′⋅1E).
Nyara River (32°47′⋅1S 28°11′⋅0E) to Groot−Keirivier
(Great Kei River) (32°40′⋅5S 28°23′⋅2E).
About 6¼ miles SW of Mbashe Point (32°14′⋅5S
28°55′⋅4E) to about 2½ miles NE of Mbashe Point.
Certain restrictions apply within these areas. Further
information may be obtained from the Marine and Coastal
Branch of the South African Department of Environmental
Affairs.
Current
3.8
1
The Agulhas Current (1.117) is generally SW−going
parallel with the coast between Cape Padrone and Waterfall
Bluff. Its strength varies from about 1 kn near the coast to
3½, 4 or even 5 kn near the edge of the continental shelf
where the greatest rate may be expected. In calm weather,
the current has been observed running like a race or
overfall near the edge of the continental shelf to the SE of
Cape Padrone.
2
A weak NE−going counter−current may be experienced
occasionally near the coast, and has been known to extend
for 7 or 8 miles offshore; an indication of whether this
counter−current is running may be gained by observing the
flow of discoloured water from the various rivers on the
coast.
CHAPTER 3
112
3
A NE−going eddy current may often be found close
inshore near the edge of the breakers, but it seldom
exceeds a rate of ½ kn.
After S or SE gales, onshore sets of up to 1 kn may be
experienced, particularly between East London (33°02′S
27°55′E) and Cape Morgan 30 miles NE.
CAPE PADRONE TO EAST LONDON
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 4156, 4159
Area covered
3.9
1
This section describes the coastal passage from Cape
Padrone to East London, including the port of East London,
presented in three parts as follows:
Cape Padrone to Great Fish Point (3.12).
Great Fish Point to East London (3.27).
East London (3.41).
Abnormal waves
3.10
1
See 3.5.
Current
3.11
1
See 3.8
CAPE PADRONE TO GREAT FISH POINT
General information
Chart 4156
Route
3.12
1
From a position SSE of Cape Padrone (33°46′S 26°28′E)
the route leads ENE for about 35 miles to a position SE of
Great Fish Point (33°32′S 27°07′E).
Topography
3.13
1
The coast is generally sandy but fringed with occasional
rocky outcrops. Between Cape Padrone and Port Alfred,
24 miles ENE, coastal sand dunes covered with scrub lie
behind the beach, but they are small in extent and not very
high. Between Port Alfred and Great Fish Point the coastal
ridge is faced with sand in places and attains elevations of
100 to 120 m.
Farther inland there is good farming country backed
either by woody peaks or by rolling grassy downland.
Numerous rivers (3.3) flow through ravines and enter the
sea along this stretch of coast.
Mountains in the vicinity of Bathurst, 7 miles NNW of
Port Alfred, form a prominent background.
Depths
3.14
1
Depths greater than 50 m are to be found seaward of 2
to 3½ miles offshore for the full length of this part of the
coast. See also 3.4.
Directions
(continued from 2.194)
Principal marks
3.15
1
Landmarks:
Nankooskop (33°44′S 26°30′E), a wooded summit
which from S appears somewhat flat−topped, but
from E has a conical shape.
Two trees (33°41′S 26°40′E) at Kenton−on−Sea
(3.16), about 25 m in height although the E−most
has lost most of its top.
Beacon (stone pyramid, white base black top, 15 m in
height) (33°37′S 26°49′E) on Glendower Peak
(3.17).
2
Major lights:
Bird Island Light (33°51′S 26°17′E) (2.193).
Great Fish Point Light (white eight−sided tower, black
stripes, red cupola) (33°31′S 27°07′E).
Great Fish Point Light (3.15)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Cape Padrone to Kenton−on−Sea
3.16
1
From a position at least 3 miles SSE of Cape Padrone
(33°46′S 26°28′E) the track leads ENE, passing (with
positions from the cape):
SSE of foul rocky ground (for 2 miles E), extending
5 cables offshore, though there is a clear lead
about 3 cables wide in the middle of this area
where a boat might be able to land in very calm
weather. Thence:
2
SSE of a rocky ledge (5 miles ENE) with depths of
less than 10 m extending 2½ miles E of Cannon
Rocks, an outcrop of rocks 3 to 4 m high; the sea
breaks heavily over the ledge in bad weather,. Foul
CHAPTER 3
113
Nankooskop from ESE (3.15)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Stranded wreck
rocky ground extends along the coast for 1¼ miles
ENE of Cannon Rocks. Thence:
3
SSE of Boknesrivier (6½ miles ENE), the mouth of
which is generally closed, but may be identified by
white houses of the village of Boknes on its W
bank. Bokneskop, 2 miles farther NW, although
less prominent than Nankooskop (3.15),
nevertheless provides a useful mark for identifying
the locality; it is flat−topped, wooded and when
viewed from E appears slightly saddle−shaped as it
combines with another flat summit about ½ mile
NNW. Between Boknesrivier and Kwaaihoek,
2 miles ENE, a sandy beach is backed by a ridge
of bush−topped sandhills up to 30 m high. Thence:
4
SSE of Kwaaihoek (8½ miles ENE), a dark
grass−covered headland 28 m high which resembles
an islet when seen against the white sand
connecting it to the mainland. Dias Cross, 5 m in
height, on the summit, is a replica of that erected
by the Portuguese navigator Bartolomeu Dias in
Boknesrivier and Bokneskop from SE (3.16)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
Kwaaihoek from SE (3.16)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photographs − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 3
114
1488. Close S and E of Kwaaihoek there are
above−water and drying rocks which do not extend
far offshore. Between Kwaaihoek and
Boesmansrivier, 2½ miles NE, the coast is fringed
with rocks, awash and submerged, and there is
heavy surf up to 5 cables offshore. Thence:
5
SSE of a bush−covered sand dune (9½ miles ENE),
which in certain lights resembles Kwaaihoek; its
base is fringed with rocks, thence:
6
SSE of Boesmansrivier (11 miles ENE), the mouth of
which is always open and can only be seen from
SW; its position is most readily identified by a
distinctive headland, surmounted by three
bush−covered mounds, on the E side of the mouth.
The dark rock of the headland stands out
prominently against a neck of sand which connects
it to the main coastal ridge. Although the mouth of
the river is much encumbered with rocky ledges,
small high−powered craft with local knowledge can
enter for a short period either side of HW. Within
the entrance the river is navigable for 3 or 4 miles
from its mouth. Thence:
7
To a position SSE of rocks fronting the high
bush−covered coast at the holiday resort of
Kenton−on−Sea (11½ miles ENE). The resort itself
is not prominent, but two conspicuous pine trees
(3.15) standing in the grounds of an hotel at the
summit of the high ground form the best mark in
the vicinity; at night the lights of the hotel are
usually visible from 5 or 6 miles offshore.
Kenton−on−Sea to Port Alfred
3.17
1
From a position SSE of Kenton−on−Sea (33°41′S
26°40′E) the track continues ENE, passing (with positions
from the conspicuous trees at Kenton−on−Sea):
2
SSE of rocks, some above−water, extending up to
9 cables SE of the mouth of Kariega River
(5 cables ENE) which may be identified by houses
of Kenton−on−Sea on the W bank and by a road
bridge, visible from seaward, 6 cables upstream. To
enter the river there is only a narrow channel close
to the E bank which would be precarious even for
small craft. Boot Rock, 5 m in height, is the
largest of a group of black rocks on the E side of
the river mouth. Between Kariega River and
Kasouga River, 3 miles ENE, the coastal ridge,
bush−covered and partially faced with sand,
gradually rises from 55 to 70 m high. Thence:
3
SSE of Kasouga River (3½ miles ENE), the mouth of
which is generally closed. Some houses of the
settlement of Kasouga Road, at the crest of a hill
close N of the mouth of the river, are visible when
bearing between NNE and N. From Boot Rock to
within 5 cables of the river mouth there is a sandy
beach clear of offshore rocks. For 5 miles ENE of
Kasouga River the coast is generally sandy and
backed by a ridge of bush−covered sand dunes,
faced with bare sand patches in places, which rise
to 130 m high. Thence:
4
SSE of Kowie Point (10 miles ENE), a low rocky
projection. For 2 miles ENE of Mushroom Rocks
(3.18) the coast is sandy, but within 1¾ miles of
Kowie Point the coast is fringed with rocks.
Glendower Peak, 2 miles W of Kowie Point, is a
grassy hill moderately steep on both sides lying
within the coastal ridge. A beacon (3.15) on the
summit is prominent for up to 20 miles offshore.
From Kowie Point the coastal ridge declines in
height as the valley of Kowie River, 2 miles NE, is
approached. Thence:
5
SSE of Saltvlei Point (11½ miles ENE), low and
rocky. Saltvlei Bay, close SW of the point, has a
sandy beach at its head clear of rocks for a
distance of about 3 cables, but heavy surf normally
makes landing impracticable. Sharks Bay, a small
inlet between the rocks close N of the point, is
more sheltered and, when the sea is calm, provides
reasonable landing at HW at a beach fringed with
small boulders. Thence:
6
To a position SSE of the entrance to Kowie River
(12½ miles ENE) at Port Alfred (3.20); a bridge
suspended from a single arch spans the river
1½ miles from its mouth and is prominent from
seaward.
3.18
1
Useful marks:
Ship Rock (33°39′S 26°46′E), a 6 m high outcrop
surrounded by the sea at HW. At distances greater
than 3 miles the light−coloured rock can be
difficult to identify as it merges with the 15 m
high sandstone cliff close behind it.
2
Mushroom Rocks (33°39′S 26°48′E), the E−most of
two rocky outcrops 1 mile apart on the HW line;
Glendower Peak and Beacon from SE (3.17)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 3
115
Mushroom Rocks (3.18)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Radio mast, not charted
9 m high and prominent against the sandy
background.
3
Piano Rocks (33°37′S 26°53′E), flat topped and
named after some resemblance to a grand piano; a
large white house is close W.
Port Alfred to Great Fish Point
3.19
1
From a position SSE of the entrance to Kowie River at
Port Alfred (33°36′S 26°54′E) the track continues ENE,
passing (with positions from the river mouth):
SSE of Fountain Rocks (1 mile E), a group of drying
and submerged rocks; Jansen’s Rock lies awash
3 cables farther E, but its position may not be
apparent at HW as the sea does not always break
over it. Thence:
2
SSE of the shoals off Rietpunt (6 miles ENE),
keeping at least 4 miles off the low sandy point to
guard against the possibility of onshore sets. A
reef of submerged rocks, over which the sea
usually breaks heavily, extends 8 cables SE of the
point and there are depths of 8⋅6 m 1⋅1 miles
offshore. Beacon Hill, 1¼ miles WNW of Rietpunt,
is a wooded summit prominent from SW and E.
Between Rietpunt and Wes and Oos
Kleinemonderiviers, 2½ miles NE, the coastal ridge
decreases in height and gives way to grassland and
patches of bush. Thence:
3
SSE of foul rocky ground extending 4 cables offshore
from a point close E of Black Rocks (7 miles
ENE); the sea breaks for some distance outside
these dangers. Black Rocks are three dark rocks
which stand out prominently against a background
of white sand and resemble islets with precipitous
faces to seaward; the middle and highest rock is
15 m high. Thence:
4
SSE of a dangerous rock about 1 mile E of the
mouths of Wes and Oos Kleinemonderiviers (West
and East Kleinemonde Rivers) (8 miles ENE)
which enter the sea 2 cables apart. Except during
flash floods, both river mouths are only a slight
trickle. Between the Kleinemonderiviers and Great
Fish Point, 3½ miles ENE, the coastal ridge is
faced with sand almost to its bush−covered
summit. Palmietheuwel, 1¾ miles NE of the river
mouths, is a prominent bare sandhill which may be
identified from a considerable distance offshore
and serves to identify the locality. Thence:
Rietpunt, with Beacon Hill to left, from ESE (3.19)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 3
116
Black Rocks from SE (3.19)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
Great Fish Point from SE (3.19)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photographs − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Great Fish Point Light
5
To a position SE of rocks fronting Great Fish Point
(11½ miles ENE). Great Fish Point Light (3.15) is
exhibited close to the summit of a prominent hill
5 cables landward of the low sandy point.
(Directions continue at 3.32)
Port Alfred
Chart 4156 (see 1.19)
General information
3.20
1
Position. Port Alfred (33°36′S 26°54′E) is situated at the
mouth of the Kowie River which is navigable by small
craft for about 17 miles. The river flows out between two
training walls known locally as East Pier and West Pier;
the latter being the longer of the two.
2
Function. Although a regular port of call for
ocean−going vessels during the latter part of the 19th
century, Port Alfred is no longer a commercial port and is
only used by small craft. It is a popular holiday resort and
centre for small craft activities either at sea or on the river.
3
Topography. West beach, extending W from the root of
West Pier to Saltvei Point (3.17) is backed by a prominent
terrace of white−washed holiday cabins. A large house
resembling a castle, with a prominent flagstaff (not charted)
in its grounds, is situated at the summit of high ground
behind the beach.
Limiting conditions
3.21
1
Depths. A bar, about 1 cable wide and with its inner
edge extending N from the head of West Pier, lies across
the entrance to Kowie River. The depth over the bar varies
considerably, silting occurring during SW or W winds, and
deepening during SE winds or when the river is in spate.
Normally there are heavy breakers over the bar particularly
during the ebb.
2
Caution. The ebb tide at the river mouth is particularly
dangerous as there are normally heavy breakers over the
bar and the waves become short and steep. The NSRI
(3.24) reports three to four capsizes a year at the river
mouth often with fatal consequences.
3
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 1⋅4 m; mean neap
range about 0⋅4 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide
Tables.
4
Tidal stream and current. No appreciable tidal stream
or current is normally felt at the anchorage, but within
5 cables of the piers there is generally a weak ENE−going
counter−current which may occasionally set towards the
shore.
Arrival information
3.22
1
Outer anchorage. The berth recommended is in a depth
of 30 m with West Pier light (3.23) bearing 305° distant
CHAPTER 3
117
Port Alfred and Kowie River Mouth from SE (3.20)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
1⋅6 miles. The holding ground is poor and anchoring in less
water is not recommended. In bad weather a short breaking
sea occurs within 1 mile of the piers. Vessels at anchor
should be prepared to put to sea immediately on the
approach of bad weather.
2
Local knowledge is essential.
Directions for entering harbour
3.23
1
The approach leads NW, passing (with positions from
West Pier Light (33°36′S 26°54′E)):
SW of Fountain Rocks (7 cables E) (3.19), thence:
2
NE of two shoal patches close S of the harbour
entrance: Four Fathom Shoal (2 cables SE)
believed to have a least depth of 6⋅4 m, and
Johnson’s Reef (2 cables SW). Neither of these
shoals have been closely examined and it is
probable that considerable silting occurs
periodically over both, which are normally well
defined by breakers; vessels are advised to keep
well clear. Thence:
3
NW of the head of West Pier from which a light
(square lattice tower, 4 m in height) is exhibited,
and clear of the bar (3.21), thence:
SW of East Pier (close NE) from which a light (pole,
3 m in height) is exhibited, thence:
4
Into the river mouth, lined on both sides by stone
embankments for 1½ miles upstream. A directional
light, 100 m from West Pier Light, is reported as
difficult to see against background lights of the
town.
5
A boat passage, about 1 cable wide and with a least
known depth of 6 m, passes between Fountain Rocks and
the shore 2 cables NW. This passage should only be used
in the calmest of weather and with local knowledge as
breakers stretch from the rocks to the shore if there is any
swell running
Port services
3.24
1
Hospital, 3 km N of the town.
Rescue. The NSRI maintains two rescue craft at Port
Alfred. See 1.45 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 5 for further information on rescue.
Anchorages
Chart 4156
Off Kasouga River
3.25
1
Good anchorage may be obtained 1¾ miles S of Ship
Rock (33°39′S 26°46′E) (3.18) in a depth of 27 m, sand
and coral.
Boknes
3.26
Emergency anchorage during moderate SW winds may
be found N of the rocky ledge extending SE from Cannon
Rocks (33°45′S 26°35′E) (3.16) and clear of the coastal
foul ground in a depth of 14 to 15 m. However, if the wind
increases or backs, the anchorage should be vacated
immediately.
GREAT FISH POINT TO EAST LONDON
General information
Charts 4159, 4162
Route
3.27
1
From a position SE of Great Fish Point (33°32′S
27°07′E) the route leads NE for about 51 miles to a
position off the approaches to East London (33°02′S
27°55′E).
Topography
3.28
1
Numerous rivers reach the coast between Great Fish
Point and East London, but only the mouths of Great Fish
River (3.33) and Keiskamma River (3.36) are open to
regular flow; Mtati River (33°25′S 27°15′E) is generally
open, but the rest are either closed, generally closed or
only open at HW. In common with most of the rivers on
this part of the coast, their position may be identified by
the ravine, usually wooded, in which they flow through the
coastal ridge.
2
Between Great Fish Point and Great Fish River,
2¼ miles NE, the coast is sandy and the land close within
is a comparatively low grassy plain intersected by ravines.
Waterloo Bay, entered between Great Fish River and
Stalwart Point 4 miles ENE, is backed by a coastal ridge
which rises steeply to more than 80 m high and is faced
with bare sand almost to its bushy summits.
3
Between Stalwart Point and Keiskamma Point,
16½ miles NE, the coast is generally sandy but fringed in
CHAPTER 3
118
places with rocky ledges some of which extend seaward as
submerged reefs.
4
Between Keiskamma Point and East London, 26 miles
NE, the coast consists of sandy beaches fringed
intermittently with rocky ledges. The coastal ridges are
usually bush−covered except within 5 miles of Hood Point
(3.38) where considerable areas have been cleared. Within
the coast the terrain is predominantly high open grassland
intersected by the ravines of several rivers.
Depths
3.29
1
Depths greater than 50 m are to be found seaward of 1½
to 3½ miles offshore for the full length of this part of the
coast. See also 3.4.
Marine reserve
3.30
1
See 3.7.
Rescue
3.31
1
See 3.73.
Directions
(continued from 3.19)
Principal marks
3.32
1
Landmarks:
Great Fish Point (33°32′S 27°07′E) (3.19).
Hill (113 m high) (33°27′S 27°12′E) 1 mile NW of
Stalwart Point (3.33).
Hamburg North (33°17′S 27°25′E), a bare conical
hill.
2
Keiskamma Point (33°18′S 27°29′E) (3.34).
Chalumna Hill (33°14′S 27°33′E) (3.36).
Bisserton Hill (33°05′S 27°49′E) (3.37).
For landmarks in the vicinity of East London see 3.63.
3
Major lights:
Great Fish Point Light (33°31′S 27°07′E) (3.15).
Hood Point Light (white round tower, red lantern,
9 m in height) (33°02′S 27°54′E).
Hood Point Light (3.32)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
East London South Breakwater Light (white tower)
(33°02′S 27°56′E).
Great Fish Point to Keiskamma Point
3.33
1
From a position SE of rocks fronting Great Fish Point
(33°32′S 27°07′E) the track leads NE, passing (with
positions from Great Fish Point):
SE of a rock (1 mile NE) which dries 1⋅5 m and on
which the sea nearly always breaks, thence:
2
SE of rocks at the mouth of Great Fish River
(2¼ miles NE) which is always open. Rocky Point,
on the E side of the river mouth, has three dark
rocks 6 m high lying close off it and it is fringed
with smaller rocks and foul ground extending
2 cables offshore; the sea breaks heavily in the
vicinity. The wide ravine through which the river
flows makes a remarkable gap in the coastline and
a road bridge on the N side of the ravine, 8 cables
from the mouth, is visible when bearing NW. The
river water is reddish in colour and after rain the
sea may be discoloured as far as Kowie Point
16 miles SW; discoloured water is seldom observed
to NE of the river mouth because a NE−going
counter−current is not often experienced off this
part of the coast. There is generally a confused
and breaking sea across the entrance. The bar is
apparently free of rocks and it is possible for
high−powered boats of shallow draught to cross,
but this should not be attempted without local
knowledge. In favourable weather, landing by surf
boat may be effected between Rocky Point, the E
entrance point to Great Fish River, and the mouth
of Old Woman’s River, 7 cables NNE. Landing
here would be preferable to attempting to cross the
bar of Great Fish River. Thence:
3
SE of a dangerous rock (3¼ miles NE) with a depth
of 2⋅7 m over it, 5 cables offshore in Waterloo
Bay; in fine weather the sea seldom breaks over
this rock. The shore of the bay is generally sandy
and clear of rocks except for a patch of rocky
ledges at the closed mouth of Old Woman’s River
(3 miles NE) and another patch 1½ miles farther
NE. Thence:
4
SE of shoal rocky ground (6½ miles NE) which
extends up to 8 cables seaward of Stalwart Point, a
sandy point with bush−covered sand dunes behind
it. A conspicuous dark hill, 113 m high, 1 mile
NW helps to identify the point which should be
given a wide berth. Thence:
5
SE of a submerged reef (10 miles NE) extending
seaward about 5 cables; the sea breaks heavily
outside this reef for a considerable distance.
Hoggsback, a bush−covered hill, is 7 cables inland
from the reef between the mouths of the Mtati and
Mgwalana rivers. Between Mgwalana River and
Bira River, 3 miles NE, the coast is backed by a
heavily wooded ridge rising steadily to elevations
of more than 100 m close SW of Bira River.
Thence:
3.34
1
SE of Madagascar Reef (14 miles NE) which dries,
extends 5 cables from the shore and over which
the sea always breaks. The boiler of a wreck can
be seen inshore. The mouth of Bira River, 1 mile
farther WNW, is generally closed; a high bare sand
dune on its W side and a small holiday settlement
CHAPTER 3
119
Great Fish River Mouth from SE (3.33)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
Stalwart Point from NE (3.33)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photographs − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
on its E side, serve to identify the locality, but the
general aspect of the river mouth is similar to
others in the vicinity. Between Bira River and
Keiskamma Point, 9½ miles NE, the coastal ridge
is partially faced with sand and varies between 12
and 20 m high; the sea breaks heavily off the coast
in bad weather. Thence:
2
SE of a submerged reef (19 miles NE) extending
5 cables from the shore and over which the sea
always breaks; Porcupine Kop, 3 miles inland,
helps identify the locality, being heavily wooded
with dark vegetation unlike most of the other
summits at similar distances inland. Thence:
3
To a position SE of Keiskamma Point (23 miles NE),
low, sandy and fringed with rocks; near its
extremity is a prominent bush−covered sand dune,
28 m high, which resembles an islet when viewed
from SW. A sand spit with depths of less than
Madagascar Reef (3.34)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Radio mast, not charted
CHAPTER 3
120
Keiskamma Point from ESE (3.34)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
10 m extends for 6 cables SE of Keiskamma Point;
with a moderate swell the sea breaks heavily over
this spit.
3.35
1
Useful marks:
Maitland Hill (33°26′S 27°09′E), the higher of two
grassy hills visible from most directions.
Mount Wright (33°22′S 27°15′E), a prominent
round−topped grassy hill.
Pato’s Kop (33°14′S 27°17′E), a flat−topped grassy
hill.
Keiskamma Point to East London
3.36
1
From a position SE of Keiskamma Point (33°18′S
27°29′E) the track continues NE, passing (with positions
from Keiskamma Point):
2
SE of the entrance to Keiskamma River (1 mile NNE)
which is always open. There should be no
difficulty identifying the river which is the most
prominent on this part of the coast. The entrance
channel, about 50 m wide, lies close to steep
wooded banks on its NE side. Within the mouth,
the river opens out into a wide basin with
extensive marshy saltings to the S of which,
obscured from seaward, is the settlement of
Hamburg. Local knowledge is required to enter the
river. High powered boats of shallow draught may
enter the river in fine weather, preferably at LW
when the rocks are visible. In bad weather,
breakers extend more than 5 cables seaward of the
entrance. Thence:
3
SE of Chalumna Hill (5½ miles NE), the SW and
higher of two rounded summits of a conspicuous
grassy ridge about 7 cables inland behind a belt of
thickly wooded country between Kiwane River and
Tyolomnqa River, both generally open at HW. At
the mouth of Tyolomnqa River, a prominent streak
of sand extends from the beach almost to the
wooded summit of the E entrance point. Thence:
4
SE of Kayser’s Beach (8 miles NE), a holiday resort.
The houses along the summit of the coastal ridge
are visible from seaward, as is a water tower
5 cables inland on the W side of the resort. A
sandy beach is situated by the closed mouth of a
small creek, but otherwise the shore is generally
rocky. A concrete blockhouse stands on a sandy
promontory close SW of the resort; during bad
weather the sea breaks heavily over a reef which
extends 3½ cables seaward from this promontory.
Thence:
5
SE of Christmas Rock (10 miles NE) a prominent
outcrop of rock 9 m high on the HW line of a
Christmas Rock from ESE (3.36)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
78m conical hill
stream Christmas Rock
CHAPTER 3
121
Cove Rock, with Bisserton Hill in background, from SE (3.37)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
small sandy indentation at the head of which is the
closed mouth of a small stream. Bare sand dunes,
backed by a prominent bushy−topped conical hill
(78 m high), lie close to the W entrance point of
the stream. A radio mast (red and white, red
obstruction lights) stands on a hill about 2½ miles
NNW of Christmas Rock. Thence:
6
SE of submerged rocks (11½ miles NE) extending
7 cables from the shore; the sea breaks heavily in
the vicinity of this reef. The remains of a coaster
wrecked in 1957 lie close E. Thence:
7
SE of the mouth of Ncera River (12 miles NE),
always open, but normally just a trickle at LW.
The W side of the entrance is a sandy spit. Rocky
ledges extend SW from the E side of the entrance;
bush−covered dunes rise from these ledges to a
wooded summit 47 m high.
3.37
1
The track then continues NE, passing (with positions
from Cove Rock (33°05′S 27°50′E):
SE of Kidd’s Beach (7½ miles SW), a holiday and
fishing village on the S bank of Mcantsi River, the
mouth of which is closed. The village is only
visible from NE across a wide expanse of sand at
the mouth of the river; from other directions it is
obscured by high bush−covered sand dunes lying S
of it, and by the wooded banks. Thence:
2
SE of a rock awash (6 miles SW) about 3 cables
offshore midway between Mcantsi River and
Gxulu River, 2 miles NE. Except for the rock
awash, the sandy coast between the two rivers is
comparatively free of fringing reefs. The coastal
ridge, up to 60 m high, is densely wooded.
Thence:
3
SE of the mouth of Gxulu River (5 miles WSW),
normally only open at HW and with a submerged
reef 2½ cables seaward. Igulu Hill, 1 mile W of
the mouth, is covered with bush. The coast
2½ miles ENE to Goda River is fringed with rocky
ledges and the coastal ridge, bush−covered and
faced with sand, increases from 50 m to 100 m
high. Thence:
4
SE of rocks fronting a bluff headland (2½ miles
WSW) on the E side of the mouth of Goda River.
The headland rises to a rounded grassy summit
(113 m high), surmounted by a small beacon, with
two other summits (129 m and 138 m high)
6 cables and 1 mile respectively farther NNW;
these three summits are prominent from all
directions. From SW, a few buildings may be seen
on the W side of the 113 m summit. The W side
of the river mouth is a sandy spit backed by
bush−covered sand dunes. Thence:
5
SE of Cove Rock, a prominent wedge−shaped rock
(27 m high) with a notch in the middle, lying at
the extremity of a wide sandy spit which extends
from Bisserton Hill (6 cables NW), a conspicuous
dark bushy−topped sand dune. When seen from a
distance Cove Rock resembles an islet and, with
Bisserton Hill in the background, it provides an
unmistakable landmark. Thence:
3.38
1
If bound for East London, once the locality of Cove
Rock has been identified it is recommended to keep at least
2 miles offshore and in depths greater than 65 m until
abreast Hood Point, 4½ miles NE. The coast in between
has a few bare sand dunes, is fringed with rocks but there
are no off−lying dangers. Inland is comparatively low−lying
and in marked contrast to the terrain to the SW, most of
the bush has been cleared and there are occasional built−up
areas. The track then continues NE, passing:
2
SE of Hood Point (4½ miles NE), a round point with
low sandy cliffs fringed with rocky ledges. Hood
Point Light (3.32) is exhibited 2 cables within the
point. A white building, 1½ cables W of the light,
and a row of white terraced houses on the brow of
high ground close NE of the light, are prominent
in certain lights. Thence:
3
SE of a light−buoy (special) (5¾ miles ENE), moored
off Castle Point (3.65). Between Hood Point and
Castle Point the coast is low and rocky; depths of
10 m or less, over which the sea breaks heavily
especially after SW gales, extend 5 cables offshore
in places. Thence:
To a position SE of South Breakwater Light (6 miles
NE) (3.32) at East London.
3.39
1
Useful marks:
Mount Vale (33°10′S 27°26′E), a prominent dark
bluff.
Radio tower (red obstruction lights) (32°56′S
27°49′E).
(Directions continue for coastal passage at 3.84,
directions for East London are given at 3.63)
CHAPTER 3
122
Hood Point from SE (3.38)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Hood Point Light
Anchorage
3.40
1
Waterloo Bay (33°29′S 27°11′E) (3.33) cannot be
recommended as an anchorage, but should it be found
necessary, then vessels should not anchor in depths less
than 16 m. In 1938, while surveying in the area, HMSAS
Africana used to anchor in a depth of 16⋅5 m, fine sand,
with Great Fish Point Light (3.32) bearing 242° and
Maitland Hill (3.35) bearing 350°. The holding ground was
good, but the prevailing swell made it very uncomfortable.
Safe anchorage farther from the shore may be obtained in
depths of 25 m, coarse sand.
EAST LONDON
General information
Chart 4162
Position
3.41
1
East London (33°02′S 27°55′E) stands on both sides of
the mouth of Buffalo River which enters the sea 1 mile NE
of Hood Point.
Function
3.42
1
East London, in Eastern Cape Province, is one of the
seven main ports in South Africa. The city has a population
of about ½ million. Much of the port’s traffic is linked to
the motor vehicle industry, both the finished product and
related materials. Maize and fruit are also principal exports,
and container traffic is significant.
Topography
3.43
1
East London’s industrial area lies on a ridge between the
sea and the S bank of the Buffalo River. Numerous
distinctive buildings may be seen on the ridge when viewed
from S or SW. The larger part of the city, containing
numerous tall buildings, is N of the river on a wide plateau
about 60 m high.
2
Between Hood Point (33°02′⋅4S 27°54′⋅4E) (3.38) and
Castle Point, 1 mile NE, the coast is low and rocky; depths
of 10 m or less, over which the sea breaks heavily
especially after SW gales, extend 5 cables offshore in
places.
3
Between East Breakwater, on the opposite side of
Buffalo River to Castle Point, and the closed mouth of
Inkyanza River, 1¼ miles NNE, the coast is fringed with
rocks except for two sandy beaches: Orient Beach,
extending 1 cable N from the root of the breakwater, and
Eastern Beach at the mouth of Inkyanza River.
From Eastern Beach a prominent narrow patch of sand
extends almost to the summit of Sand Kop (33°00′⋅2S
27°56′⋅0E) lying near the SW end of a wooded ridge over
60 m high and 1 mile WSW of Nahoon Point (32°59′⋅8S
27°57′⋅1E) (3.85).
Port limits
3.44
1
The N and S limits are lines extending about 115°
distant 1 mile from Nahoon Point (32°59′⋅8S 27°57′⋅1E)
and about 115° distant 1½ miles from Hood Point,
3½ miles SW; the seaward limit joins the extremities of
these two lines, as shown on the chart. The landward limit
follows the coast between Hood Point and Nahoon Point
including the tidal area of the Buffalo River.
Approach and entry
3.45
1
Final approach is from ENE and entry to the port,
between two protective breakwaters, is guided by the
alignment of leading lights.
Traffic
3.46
1
In 2005, the port was used by 298 vessels with a total
of 5 986 720 dwt.
Port Authority
3.47
1
National Ports Authority of South Africa, PO Box 101,
East London 5200.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
3.48
1
The fairway, Charl Malan Basin close within the harbour
entrance, and the Buffalo River as far W as the turning
area off Princess Elizabeth Dock are all dredged to a
maintained depth of 10⋅7 m.
CHAPTER 3
123
Deepest and longest berths
3.49
1
Deepest. Berths in Charl Malan Basin (3.67), charted
depth 10⋅7 m.
Longest. West Quay (3.68), four berths with a combined
length of 555 m.
Tidal levels
3.50
1
Mean spring range about 1⋅6 m; mean neap range about
0⋅4 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled
3.51
1
Length 245 m, for safe turning in the larger turning area.
Draught 10⋅4 m, although vessels up to 10⋅7 m draught
may be accommodated, subject to favourable tide and
weather conditions and by prior arrangement with the Port
Captain.
Local weather and sea state
3.52
1
The port is rarely closed due to weather conditions.
Arrival information
Port operations
3.53
1
The port operates 0600 to 2200 Mondays to Fridays and
0600 to 1200 Saturdays; outside these hours is by
arrangement with the port. Loaded tankers are berthed
during daylight hours only.
Notice of ETA required
3.54
1
See 1.35. ETA should be sent 72, 48, 24 and 12 hours
prior to arrival. Vessels should also call the port on VHF
when 16 miles from the pilot boarding station. See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).
Outer anchorages
3.55
1
The anchorage off East London is very exposed and
vessels at anchor generally lie broadside on to the swell,
rolling and straining on their cables. A heavy swell is
frequent during the winter months when breakers often
extend out to depths of 15 m. During the summer months
rollers seldom occur, but there is usually a swell across the
harbour entrance.
2
The holding ground is not good and vessels have been
known to drag their anchor during a strong S set of the
Agulhas Current. See also 3.60.
Vessels should anchor clear of the approach channel
leading line (3.65). The recommended anchorage, shown on
the chart, is 8 cables E of the head of South Breakwater in
a depth of 30 m, fine sand.
3
In fine settled weather, temporary anchorage may be
obtained closer inshore E of the head of South Breakwater,
but on not within 5 cables of the breakwater or in depths of
less than 25 m.
In fine weather, small vessels may anchor 1 mile NE of
the head of South Breakwater, 3 cables clear of the
Approach Channel leading line, in a depth of 15 m.
Pilotage
3.56
1
Pilotage is compulsory. Vessels, except tankers, not
exceeding 70 m in length may obtain pilotage exemption.
The pilot boards 2¼ miles ENE of the head of South
Breakwater, as shown on the chart. See Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).
2
Pilot ladders must comply with SOLAS regulations. All
vessels with a freeboard greater than 9 m must have an
accommodation ladder rigged in conjunction with the pilot
ladder. Man ropes must be provided.
Tugs
3.57
1
Tugs are available.
Harbour
General layout
3.58
1
The harbour occupies both sides of the mouth of the
Buffalo River, the entrance of which is protected by two
breakwaters. Charl Malin Basin, close inside the
breakwaters, provides most of the main berths and also a
turning area of 365 m diameter. Other berths line the river
banks for about 1 mile upstream to where there is a smaller
turning area of 216 m diameter and a dry dock just before
the first of two bridges over the river. Beyond the bridges
the river is shallow and navigable only by small craft.
Traffic signals
3.59
1
All traffic and weather signals are communicated by
means of VHF radio. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (3).
Natural conditions
3.60
1
Tidal streams within the harbour are slight and do not
affect ship handling. A strong river flow is occasionally
experienced in the harbour due to the overflowing of fresh
water dams in the upper reaches of Buffalo River; a rate of
3 kn at the berths has been reported. Debris coming down
river can also affect ships’ intakes. The river is tidal for
about 3½ miles from its mouth.
3.61
1
Currents. (See also 3.8). At about 15 miles offshore
from East London the Agulhas Current is constantly
SW−going at rates between 2 and 4 kn, but exceptionally
strong onshore sets may be experienced in the vicinity of
East London after S or SE gales.
2
At the anchorage the current is generally SW−going at
rates between 1 and 2½ kn, but in calm weather or during
SW winds the surface drift is retarded and may even
become E−going at ½ kn or more.
Off South Breakwater there is usually a strong
SSW−going current, but after heavy SW gales a
NNE−going counter current may be experienced.
3.62
Climate information. See 1.170.
CHAPTER 3
124
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 3.39)
Principal marks
3.63
1
Landmarks:
Radio mast (red obstruction lights) (33°02′⋅0S
27°54′⋅1E)
Grain elevator (33°01′⋅9S 27°54′⋅8E); shows well on
radar and is also likely to be the first object
sighted.
Port Control Building (33°01′⋅5S 27°54′⋅7E) near the
summit of Signal Hill.
East London − Port Control Building from S (3.63)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Gerald Rayner)
2
Hotel (33°01′⋅0S 27°55′⋅2E), the most prominent of
several hotels on the seafront.
Radio tower (red and white, red obstruction lights)
(33°00′⋅7S 27°54′⋅0E).
Silo (33°00′⋅6S 27°54′⋅5E).
3
Major lights:
Hood Point Light (33°02′⋅4S 27°53′⋅9E) (3.32).
South Breakwater Light (33°01′⋅7S 27°55′⋅5E) (3.32).
Approach
3.64
1
For approach from SW see 3.38.
From NE, first identify the coast in the vicinity of Black
Beacon (32°51′S 28°07′E) (3.86) and thence keep at least
2½ miles offshore until abreast Nahoon Point (33°00′S
27°57′E) (3.85). Thence the line of bearing 270° of a
prominent seafront Hotel (33°01′⋅0S 27°55′⋅2E) (3.63)
provides a good mark for approaching the anchorage or the
pilot boarding station.
Entrance channel
3.65
1
From the pilot boarding place (33°01′⋅0S 27°58′⋅0E) the
track leads generally W then WSW on the entrance channel
leading lights.
Clearing marks. The alignment (309°) of the following
marks clears the shallow and disturbed water off the head
of South breakwater (33°01′⋅6S 27°55′⋅5E):
Front. Hotel (33°01′⋅0S 27°55′⋅2E) (3.63).
Rear. Silo (7
cables NW).
2
Leading lights:
Front (white triangle, point up, at base of framework
tower) (33°01′⋅7S 27°54′⋅9E).
Rear (yellow diamond on grain elevator gantry)
(273 m WSW of front light).
With the radio mast (3.63) 7½ cables WSW of the front
light as a useful guide, the alignment (249¾°) of the
leading lights leads through the approach channel, passing
(with positions given from the front light):
3
SSE of a foul area (6 cables NE), the dispersed
remains of a wreck, thence:
NNW of the head of South Breakwater (5 cables E),
from which a light (3.32) is exhibited, thence:
NNW of Castle Point (2¼ cables E), at the root of
South Breakwater, from which a light (obscured
from seaward between 224° and 044°) is exhibited,
and:
4
SSE of the head of East Breakwater (1½ cables NE),
from which a light (white tower) is exhibited,
thence:
Into Charl Malin Basin (close N) (3.67).
Caution. Silting occurs seasonally off the head of South
Breakwater and in the entrance between the South and East
Breakwaters.
Useful marks
3.66
1
Building, Goods yard (32°58′S 27°54′E) (3.84).
Radio tower (32°56′S 27°49′E) (Chart 4159) (3.39).
East London − Outer breakwater from ESE (3.63)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Gerald Rayner)
Radio Tower 97m
Grain Elevator
CHAPTER 3
125
East London from SE (3.63)
(Original dated 2004)
Radio Tower 97m
Silo
East London − Harbour entrance from ENE (3.63)
(Original dated 2004)
Grain ElevatorSouth Breakwater Light Port Control Building
East London − Leading Lights from ENE (3.65)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photographs − Gerald Rayner)
Radio mast 43m
CHAPTER 3
126
East London − Charl Malin Basin, N side (3.67)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Gerald Rayner)
Port Control Building
Berths
Charl Malin Basin
3.67
1
Charl Malin Basin, close within the harbour entrance,
contains most of the principal berths, all dredged to a
maintained depth of 10⋅7 m:
NE side, No 6 Quay also known as Charl Malin
Quay, is 506 m in length divided into two berths,
K and L, of equal length; containers.
2
SE side, the Oil Tanker Berth has a length of 259 m
and can accommodate tankers of 204 m length.
SW side, Maize bulk berths T and S have a
combined length of 388 m.
NW side, E of the river, No 5 Quay has a length of
84 m.
Buffalo River Berths
3.68
1
East Bank:
No 3 and No 4 Quays, general purpose and
containers, have a combined length of 492 m and
charted depths between 8⋅5 and 9⋅1 m.
C Berth, lay−ups, has a length of 205 m and charted
depth of 10⋅7 m.
Repair Quay, length 80 m, depth 9⋅1 m.
Latimers Landing, at the head of the harbour has a
length of 110 m and charted depth of 5⋅8 m.
2
West Bank:
West Quay Car Terminal, near the head of the
harbour and comprising general berths N, O, P and
R, has a combined length of 555 m and charted
depths between 8⋅5 m and 9⋅0 m.
Port services
Repairs
3.69
1
Large repairs to hull and engines can be undertaken.
Princess Elizabeth Graving Dock: length with caisson in
outer stop 209 m (extreme), 193⋅1 m (on blocks); breadth
26⋅5 m (at level of MHWS); sill 10⋅2 m below chart datum.
The dock can accommodate vessels of length overall
190⋅0 m, draught 8⋅0 m and breadth 25⋅0 m.
East London − Buffalo River mouth from Charl Malin Basin (3.67)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Gerald Rayner)
CHAPTER 3
127
East London − West Quay Car Terminal (3.68)
(Original dated prior to 2003)
(Photograph − East London Harbour Master)
Princess Elizabeth Dock
Other facilities
3.70
1
Hospitals. Deratting and Deratting Exemption
Certificates issued. There are no facilities for the reception
of oily waste.
Supplies
3.71
1
Fuel oil at T and S berths; fresh water at all wharves
and quays; provisions are plentiful.
Communications
3.72
1
Ben Schoeman Airport, 8 km W of the port.
Rescue
3.73
1
The NSRI maintains two rescue craft at East London,
from a station on the N side of the Buffalo River between
the two bridges at the W end of the harbour. See 1.45 and
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5 for further
information on rescue.
EAST LONDON TO MBASHE POINT
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 4159, 2086
Area covered
3.74
1
This section describes the coastal passage from East
London to Mbashe Point, presented in two parts as follows:
East London to Groot−Keirivier (3.78).
Groot−Keirivier to Mbashe Point (3.92).
Topography
3.75
1
Between East London and Mbashe Point 69 miles NE,
there are no harbours or places of refuge of any importance
and the coast is a succession of rocky points with sandy
beaches between them. The sea breaks heavily on these
beaches and few of them are suitable for landing even in
the finest weather.
Abnormal waves
3.76
1
See 3.5.
Current
3.77
1
See 3.8.
EAST LONDON TO GROOT−KEIRIVIER
General information
Charts 4162, 4159
Route
3.78
1
From a position SE of the approach channel to East
London (33°02′S 27°55′E) the route leads NE for about
31 miles to a position SE of the mouth of Groot−Keirivier
(32°41′S 28°23′E).
Topography
3.79
1
Between East London and Groot−Keirivier there is more
grassland than to the SW, but apart from the beaches of
East London itself and at the holiday resorts close to the
mouths of rivers, the coast is wilder and more rocky. There
CHAPTER 3
128
are high cliffs for 10 miles SW of Cape Morgan (32°42′S
28°22′E).
Depths
3.80
1
The 30 m depth contour almost parallels the coast at a
distance of about 1 to 1½ miles except in the vicinity of
Cape Morgan (32°42′S 28°22′E) where depths of 27 and
29 m are respectively 2 miles E and 3½ miles SE of the
cape. See also 3.4.
Marine reserves
3.81
1
See 3.7.
Tidal streams
3.82
1
For tidal streams in the vicinity of Groot−Keirivier see
3.90.
Current
3.83
1
For currents close inshore at the mouth of
Groot−Keirivier see 3.90.
Directions
(continued from 3.39)
Principal marks
3.84
1
Landmarks:
For landmarks in the vicinity of East London see
3.63.
Building (32°58′S 27°54′E), the aluminium buildings
of a railway goods yard which shine brightly in
the sun during the forenoon.
2
Sharp Peak (32°55′S 28°04′E) (3.86).
Two radio masts (32°55′S 28°05′E) (3.86).
Bolegha Hill (32°53′S 28°05′E) (3.86).
Black Beacon (32°51′S 28°07′E) (3.86).
Cape Morgan (32°42′S 28°22′E) (3.88).
3
Major lights:
Hood Point Light (33°02′S 27°54′E) (3.32), obscured
between bearings 233°−235°.
East London South Breakwater Light (33°02′S
27°56′E) (3.32).
Cape Morgan Light (square on framework tower,
black and yellow bands, 12 m in height) (32°42′S
28°22′E).
East London to Reef Point
3.85
1
From a position SE of South Breakwater Light (33°02′S
27°56′E) (3.65) at East London the track leads NE, passing
(with positions from the light):
2
SE of Nahoon Point (2¼ miles NE); foul ground,
over which the sea breaks heavily, extends about
4 cables E and S from the point which should be
given a wide berth. Within Nahoon Point the land
rises steeply to a bush covered summit 33 m high.
Nahoon Point Light (white tower, red band) stands
3½ cables W of the point; it is surrounded by
comparatively thick bush and is difficult to identify
by day. Thence:
3
SE of the entrance to Nahoon River (2¾ miles NNE),
which is tidal for about 3 miles and normally open.
The river enters the sea as a shallow stream
running through a wide expanse of sand. The
coastal ridge between Nahoon River and Danger
Point 2 miles NE, is steep, wooded and generally
faced with sand. Thence:
4
SE of Danger Point (4½ miles NE), low and sandy,
but close within the point the coastal ridge rises to
60 m high. A drying reef lies 3½ cables off the
point and a heavy surf occurs in the vicinity. At
Danger Point and 3 miles NE to Gonubie Point,
the coast is fringed with rocky ledges to seaward
of which the depths are irregular and in bad
weather heavy surf extends for more than 3 cables
offshore. Inland between the two points the land is
comparatively low with sparse bush for about
2 miles until the buildings of the town of Gonubie
are reached. Thence:
3.86
1
SE of Gonubie Point (7½ miles NE) on the S bank of
the mouth of Gqunube River. The point may be
identified by the buildings of the town of Gonubie;
a radio mast (red obstruction lights) stands 7 cables
W of the point. The river, tidal for about 3 miles,
is always open although at LW it is a mere trickle
running close to cliffs on the N bank. At other
times the entrance is extensively used by pleasure
craft, and when there is no heavy swell the
passage is comparatively safe. In calm weather,
landing may be possible on a sandy beach about
3 cables NNW of Gonubie Point. Thence:
2
SE of dangerous rocks extending up to 4 cables ESE
from Kwelera Point (10½ miles NE), low, grassy
and on the S side of the mouth of Kwelera River.
Sharp Peak, 8 cables W of the point, covered with
dark bush and inclining to the E, forms a
Nahoon Point and River from E (3.85)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Nahoon Point
Nahoon River
CHAPTER 3
129
Gonubie Point and Gqunube River from SE (3.86)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
Gonubie Point
Gqunube River
Kwelera Point from E (3.86)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
Sharp Peak
Bulura River Mouth from SE (3.86)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photographs − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Bolegha
conspicuous mark close to the coast. Kwelera
River is generally open and the stream runs along
the S bank close to the point. A wide expanse of
sand extends across the mouth from the wooded N
entrance point. Thence:
3
SE of the mouth of Bulura River (12 miles NE)
which is normally open. Bolegha, a conspicuous
dome−shaped wooded hill, partially faced with
sand, lies close within the W entrance point of the
river. Thence:
4
To a position SE of Reef Point (14½ miles NE), a
patch of dangerous rocks extending up to 4 cables
offshore, in the vicinity of which the sea breaks
heavily. Black Beacon (black tripod, ball topmark,
16 m in height) stands 4 cables within the point at
the grassy summit of a ridge faced with thick
bush. Close inland of Black Beacon stands a radio
mast (red and white bands, red obstruction lights),
not charted.
Reef Point to Groot−Keirivier
3.87
1
From a position SE of Reef Point (32°51′S 28°07′E) the
track continues NE, passing (with positions from Black
Beacon (32°51′S 28°07′E)):
CHAPTER 3
130
Reef Point from SE (3.86)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Black Beacon
Radio Mast
SE of a wide bay entered between Reef Point and
Cape Henderson (6½ miles NE) which has a sandy
beach generally free from off−lying rocky ledges,
but a continuous heavy surf extends up to 3 cables
offshore. The coastal ridge in the bay is high,
bushy, faced with sandy intrusions at intervals and
dissected by four rivers the mouths of which are
usually closed. Within the coastal ridge, grasslands
rise to elevations of more than 120 m. Vis Kop
(3½ miles NNE) is a round dome−shaped hill.
Close W of the entrance to Nyarha River a bushy
hill, 63 m high, not charted, is faced with sand
almost to its summit; this is a prominent feature as
there is no other sandhill of note for 25 miles NE.
Thence:
2
SE of Cape Henderson (6½ miles NE) which appears
as a conspicuous dark bluff rising steeply from a
rocky beach to a grassy summit, 149 m high,
5 cables inland. A sandy beach W of the cape is
free from off−lying rocks. For 3 miles ENE of the
cape the coast is rocky except for a small sandy
bay at the mouth of Imtwendwe River, not charted,
2 miles ENE. Thence:
3
SE of a patch of submerged rocks (8 miles NE), over
which the sea breaks heavily in bad weather,
extending about 3 cables offshore from the small
bay at the mouth of Imtwendwe River, which is an
insignificant stream. The headland on the W side
of the bay rises steeply to an elevation of 140 m.
Thence:
4
SE of the coast fringed with rocky ledges at
Haga−Haga (8½ miles NE) where there is a
prominent hotel behind cliffs about 5 m high. The
name ‘Haga−Haga’ formed of white stones on the
hillside behind the village is visible from close
seaward. Holiday bungalows extend E to the S
entrance point of Haga−Haga River, normally
closed by a wide expanse of hard sand; the N
entrance point is marked by bush−covered sand
dunes up to 55 m high, but these are only visible
from SE. Thence:
5
SE of Flat Point (10 miles NE), where a narrow belt
of bush backed by grassland rises gradually inland
to an elevation of 110 m. Mtendwe River,
1½ miles farther NE, has a narrow mouth normally
open but shallow. Three isolated tall pine trees on
the shore close within the mouth and a patch of
trees on the summit of a hill, 169 m high, on the
skyline NNW of the mouth, may help to identify
the locality. Thence:
3.88
1
SE of Black Rock Point (11¾ miles NE), named after
the black above−water rocks at its extremity which
are in prominent contrast to the light grassy slopes
within the point when viewed from S or E, thence:
2
SE of the mouth of Quko River (12½ miles NE)
which is tidal for about 1½ miles and generally
open. The wide mouth of the river, with high
grassy hills on each side, is prominent from S. The
E headland has a grassy domed summit, 63 m
high, with a valley separating it from high land
farther E. Between Quko River and Inchara River,
2 miles NE, the coast is rock−bound and backed
by rugged cliffs up to 56 m high. The village of
Morgan’s Bay, on the W side of the closed mouth
of Inchara River, is prominent. Thence:
3
SE of Cape Morgan (16 miles NE), broad, low and
fringed with rocky ledges. Within the cape a
wooded ridge, dark in colour and prominent, rises
steeply to a bluff and then slopes gradually to a
summit 5 cables inland. A light (3.84) is exhibited
at the summit of the bluff close within the cape.
Rocks, above−water and awash, extend 4 cables S
of the cape and there is foul ground with depths of
less than 10 m for 1 mile SW of the cape. The sea
seldom breaks over the outer shoals, except during
moderate or bad weather, and care must be taken
not to mistake the breakers over the rocks close
inshore for the outer shoals. Cape Morgan should
be given a wide berth, particularly at night. Vessels
NE−bound have little to gain by hugging the coast
as a NE−going counter−current is seldom
experienced in this vicinity. Thence:
4
To a position SE of Snag Rocks at the mouth of
Groot−Keirivier (Great Kei Rivier) (17½ miles NE)
(3.90). Snag Rocks, a group of rocks of which the
highest and farthest offshore is 3 m high, lie
between 4 and 7 cables SSE of the river mouth. A
chain of rocks, awash and submerged, extends for
3 cables NE of Snag Rocks. The sea breaks
heavily over all these rocks, and in bad weather
there is broken water for at least 3 cables to
seaward of them. The S entrance point to
Groot−Keirivier is marked by the sharply rising
ground of a conical bush−covered hill, 52 m high,
E of which lies the village of Kei Mouth,
CHAPTER 3
131
Cape Morgan from E (3.88)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Cape Morgan Light
prominent from S. The N entrance point is
low−lying at first before rising to a dark wooded
summit, 42 m high, about 3 cables NE.
3.89
1
Useful mark:
Keikop (32°38′S 28°20′E) a prominent round−topped
hill and the highest hill in the vicinity of
Groot−Keirivier, is visible from most directions.
(Directions continue at 3.96)
Groot−Keirivier
General information
3.90
1
Description. Local knowledge is essential for entering
Groot−Keirivier. The mouth is about ½ cable wide and is
always open, but the bar is unstable and the position of the
channel is liable to considerable change. The flow from the
river is strong, particularly during the ebb, and breakers
over the bar are such that crossing is seldom practicable
and always dangerous. There are wide stretches of sand on
each side of the mouth, but within the entrance the river is
deep and runs between steep wooded banks. The river is
tidal for about 6 miles from its mouth.
2
Tidal streams. In the vicinity of Groot−Keirivier tidal
streams are NE−going during the rising tide and SW−going
during the falling tide, but they are only felt close inshore.
Current. At a distance of 6 cables off the entrance to
Groot−Keirivier the current is normally SW−going with a
rate of 1½ kn. During light winds, discoloured water from
the river extends NE with a definite outer edge ½ mile
offshore.
Outer anchorage
3.91
1
In an emergency, temporary anchorage may be obtained
to the E of Snag Rocks (32°41′S 28°24′E) (3.88), at the
mouth of Groot−Keirivier, in depths from 20 to 30 m, sand
and mud. Due consideration should be given to the position
of the mobile outer sand bar at the river mouth (3.90).
2
Landing places. In calm weather, landing may be
effected on a small sandy beach clear of off−lying rocks
close NE of the closed mouth of Cwili River, midway
between Groot−Keirivier and Cape Morgan, 2 miles SSW; a
length of coast where otherwise the beach is fringed with
rocky ledges up to 1 cable offshore. Cwili River is
indicated by a prominent group of small white round
buildings in the holiday resort of Whispering Waves close
S and a few white buildings on its N bank. Due allowance
must be made for the tidal stream at this landing place.
Snag Rocks from SE (3.88)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Groot−Keirivier
Kei Mouth
CHAPTER 3
132
3
Landing from surf boats is sometimes practicable in a
sandy bay 1½ miles NE of Groot−Keirivier.
GROOT−KEIRIVIER TO MBASHE POINT
General information
Charts 4159, 2086, 3793
Route
3.92
1
From a position SE of Groot−Keirivier (32°41′S
28°23′E) the route leads NE for about 38 miles to a
position SE of Mbashe Point (32°15′S 28°55′E).
Topography
3.93
1
Between Groot−Keirivier and Mbashe Point rocky points
alternate with sandy beaches. Apart from several holiday
resorts, the general aspect has a rugged appearance and
forms part of what is appropriately known as the ‘wild
coast’.
2
From a position 1 mile SW of Qolora River (32°38′S
28°26′E) to 4 miles NE of the river, the coast is grassy and
strewn with small hillocks about 3 m high and covered
with stunted bush; these hillocks were formerly ant hills
and when seen from a distance of 4 or 5 miles they form a
characteristic feature of this stretch of the coast.
Depths
3.94
1
The 30 m depth contour almost parallels the coast at a
distance from between about 5 cables to 1½ miles except
for an isolated patch of 22 m, 2 miles E of Mazeppa Point
(32°29′S 28°39′E). See also 3.4.
Marine reserves
3.95
1
See 3.7.
Directions
(continued from 3.89)
Principal marks
3.96
1
Landmarks:
Cape Morgan (32°42′S 28°22′E) (3.88).
Bowker’s Bluff (32°34′S 28°33′E) (3.97).
Dark Hill (32°31′S 28°35′E) (3.98).
Mbashe Point Light−tower (white metal framework
tower, red dome, 14 m in height) (32°14′S
28°55′E).
2
Major lights:
Cape Morgan Light (32°42′S 28°22′E) (3.84).
Mbashe Point Light — as above.
Groot−Keirivier to Mazeppa Point
3.97
1
From a position SE of Snag Rocks at the mouth of
Groot−Keirivier (32°41′S 28°23′E) (3.88) the track leads
NE, passing (with positions from the river mouth):
SE of the mouth of Gxara River (1 mile NE), a small
river usually closed; patches of thick bush mark
the gorge through which the river flows. The coast
between Groot−Keirivier and Gxara River is a
beach fringed with rocks. Within the coast there is
grassland and numerous huts on the hillsides.
Thence:
2
SE of submerged rocks fronting the village of Qolora
Mouth (3 miles NE) for about 2 cables offshore.
The village is close S of the entrance to Qolora
River, usually open at HW. A sandspit extends
from the NE entrance point nearly across the river
mouth leaving a small channel close to the SW
entrance point. Landing is sometimes practicable
on a beach at the mouth of the river, in calm
weather and when the surf is low. Thence:
3
SE of Kobonqaba Point (7½ miles NE), high and
steep; several rocks which dry lie close off the
point. Khoboqaba River, always open and tidal for
3 miles, lies 8 cables WSW. A submerged rock,
over which the sea breaks, lies 2½ cables SE of
the entrance of the river, and a drying rock lies
close off the E entrance point. Thence:
4
SE of the mouth of Nxaxo River (9 miles NE),
generally open. Close to the low W entrance point
is an hotel and a cluster of whitewashed buildings.
About 1½ miles NW of the mouth is a prominent
small wood (not charted). A sandy spit extends
from the NE entrance point nearly to the W bank,
leaving only a narrow entrance channel. NE of the
spit the coastal hills rise steeply to form Bowker’s
Bluff, a ridge covered with dark bush and partially
faced with sand, extending over 1½ miles NE
parallel with the sandy beach, free of rocks, to
Sandy Point. The bluff has four distinct peaks; the
highest, third from SW, is 84 m high and
conspicuous. Thence:
5
SE of Sandy Point (10½ miles NE); at the point the
beach is fringed with rocks.
Sandy Point and Bowker’s Bluff from ENE (3.97)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 3
133
Dark Hill from SE (3.98)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Gqunqe River
Dark Hill
Cebe River
3.98
1
The track then continues NE, passing (with positions
from Sandy Point (32°34′S 28°33′E)):
SE of Bowker’s Bay (1 mile NNE) (3.101), thence:
2
SE of the mouth of Cebe River (3¼ miles NNE);
Gqunqe River enters the sea 5 cables NE of Cebe
River and both are open at HW. Within the rocky
point separating the two rivers lies Dark Hill, a
prominent bushy peak faced with sand for about
12 m above its base; from a distance the hill
appears to have a double summit. A dangerous
rock on which the sea breaks lies 2 cables SE of
the mouth of Cebe River. Between Gqunqe River
and Stony Point, 6 cables ENE, the coast is fringed
with rocks extending 1 cable offshore. Thence:
3
SE of a reef extending seaward from Stony Point
(4 miles NE); the reef, of submerged rocks on
which the sea breaks and on the N part of which
there is a detached rock 2 m high, extends for over
5 cables SE from the point. Between Stony Point
and Ngqwara River 1½ miles NNE, the coast is
low and rocky. Thence:
4
SE of the mouth of Ngqwara River (5½ miles NE)
which is open at HW; the E entrance point is
formed by the steep termination of the coastal
ridge and is low with a sandy spit extending from
it nearly across the entrance. Thence:
5
To a position SE of Mazeppa Point (7 miles NE), low
and grassy; in bad weather the sea breaks some
distance off the point. Clan Lindsay Rocks, a
grassy boulder strewn islet on which stands a
concrete blockhouse, lies close inshore 5 cables NE
of the point. Sihlontweni River, open at HW,
enters the sea close W of Mazeppa Point. The
white painted bungalows and hotel of the seaside
resort of Mazeppa Bay, close within the point, are
prominent from E.
Mazeppa Point to Mbashe Point
3.99
1
From a position SE of Mazeppa Point (32°29′S 28°39′E)
the track continues NE, passing (with positions from
Mazeppa Point):
2
SE of Mazeppa Bay (1¼ miles NNE). At the head of
the bay is a sandy beach within which is a sand
patch extending well up the seaward face of two
dark, bush−covered dunes 67 m high, producing
one of the most conspicuous features along this
coast. Landing is sometimes practicable on this
beach in fine weather, the best place being close S
of the sand patch at the closed mouth of Nebelele
River. In bad weather, rollers extend right across
the bay. Thence:
3
SE of the mouth of Qora River (2½ miles NNE)
which is always open. The river is tidal for about
5 miles and flows between steep high banks. From
the W entrance point, 43 m high and
bush−covered, a sandy spit extends to within a
short distance of the E entrance point which is
rocky and projects SW from the base of a wooded
hill 27 m high. A drying rock lies ½ cable off the
E entrance point, and a rocky spit extends 2 cables
to seaward of the entrance. An hotel and
whitewashed holiday bungalows of Qora Mouth
are prominent close E of the river mouth; the
Mazeppa Point from NE (3.98)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Mazeppa Point Clan Lindsay Rocks
CHAPTER 3
134
Mazeppa Sand Patch from SE (3.99)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
settlement is fronted by a ledge of rocks 1 m high
and several rocks which dry. Thence:
4
SE of the mouth of Jujura River (4 miles NE) which
is generally open and with a low and rocky W
entrance point. A short distance within its E
entrance point is a dark bush−covered headland,
27 m high, from the base of which a sandspit
extends nearly across the river leaving only a
narrow channel. Thence:
5
SE of the mouth of Ngadla River (5 miles NE), not
charted, which is generally open at HW. A green
hummock 5 m high lies on the extremity of the W
entrance point, and a submerged rock lies ½ cable
off the point. Thence:
6
SE of Shixini Point (7 miles NE), 15 m high and
connected to the coastal ridge by a bush−covered
neck of sand. When viewed from S, the point
resembles an islet. The mouth of Shixini River,
generally open, lies 1 mile WSW, with the channel
running close to the W entrance point. The E
entrance point is low and fronted by a sandy
beach. A black headland, within which the land
rises steeply to an elevation of 92 m, lies between
the river and Shixini Point. Between Shixini Point
and Nqabara River, 4 miles NE, there are several
small rivers.
3.100
1
Thence the track continues NE, passing (with positions
from Shixini Point (32°24′S 28°45′E)).
2
SE of the wide mouth of Nqabara River (4½ miles
NE) which is tidal for 5 miles. A bright green
summit, 68 m high, about 6 cables SW of the W
entrance point helps to identify the locality as do
prominent white buildings of the resort of Nqabara
on a bluff at the E entrance point. From the river
mouth to Nqabara Point, 1½ miles NE, the coast is
rocky and the land rises to between 60 and 90 m
at 3 cables inland, and is broken by several
ravines. Thence:
3
SE of Nqabara Point (5½ miles NE); between the
point and the mouth of Ngoma River, 2 miles NE,
the coast rises steeply to 60 m high at 3 cables
inland. From Ngoma River to Dwesa Point,
5 cables farther E, the coast is a sandy beach.
Thence:
4
SE of Dwesa Point (8½ miles NE), a grassy bluff
with cliffs 30 m high which rise to an elevation of
101 m at 4 cables inland. Between Dwesa Point
and Mendu Point, 2 miles NE, the coast is low and
fringed with rocks in places. Thence:
5
SE of Mendu Point (10 miles NE), low, rocky and
surmounted by a grassy hillock 8 m high. Several
detached rocks lie close off the point and a shoal
patch of 13⋅7 m lies 5 cables SE. Mendu River
enters the sea close W of the point, its mouth
being closed by a sandy spit extending from the E
entrance point. Between Mendu Point and Mbashe
River, 2 miles NE, the coastal hills are covered
with bush and about 18 m high. Thence:
6
SE of Mbashe River (12 miles NE) which enters the
sea through a deep wooded ravine very prominent
from SE. The river mouth is 2½ cables wide but a
sandy spit extending from the NE entrance point
leaves only a narrow channel close to the SW
Shinxini Point (3.99)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 3
135
Mendu Point from ESE (3.100)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Mbashe River mouth (3.100)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Gerald Rayner)
Mbashe Point from E (3.100)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Mbashe Point Light
bank. The sea breaks for at least 2 cables seaward
of the entrance. During favourable weather
conditions, occasionally it is possible for small
boats to cross the bar, over which the depth varies
considerably depending on the scouring effect of
flow following heavy rainfall, but local knowledge
is essential. Thence:
7
To a position SE of Mbashe Point (13 miles NE), low
and covered with dark bush. The point is fringed
with a drying reef, and submerged rocks extend
5 cables S. A sandy beach lies WNW of the point
and there are several bungalows between the point
and the mouth of Mbashe River, 1 mile WSW. A
light−tower (3.96), 3 cables W of the extremity of
Mbashe Point, stands out prominently against the
dark background.
(Directions continue at 3.112)
CHAPTER 3
136
Anchorages
Bowker’s Bay
3.101
1
Bowker’s Bay is entered between Sandy Point (32°34′S
28°33′E) and a rocky point 1½ miles NNE; the rocky point
being identified by the few buildings of the settlement of
Cebe close behind it. Good anchorage in a depth of 19 m,
sand, has been reported 1½ miles NE of Sandy Point
abreast Mcetyana River, not charted, the mouth of which is
closed by a sandbank and is heavily wooded. Except for a
drying rocky outcrop 2½ cables S of the river mouth, the
head of the bay is sandy and apparently clear of dangers.
2
Landing is reported to be practicable during spring and
late summer on the beach close N of the rocky outcrop.
Mouth of Mbashe River
3.102
1
Good anchorage in a depth of 20 m, sand, may be
obtained about 8 cables ESE off the entrance to Mbashe
River. Rollers set in after a strong SW breeze, breaking off
the mouth of the river in the vicinity of the 10 m depth
contour; occasionally, and without warning, the rollers
break heavily a considerable distance to seaward of their
usual line.
2
Landing is dangerous because of the heavy breakers and
the rocky ground off the coast, see 3.107.
MBASHE POINT TO WATERFALL BLUFF
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 2086, 3793, 3794
Area covered
3.103
1
This section describes the coastal passage from Mbashe
Point (32°15′S 28°55′E) to Waterfall Bluff, 67 miles NE,
presented in two parts as follows:
Mbashe Point to Rame Head (3.108).
Rame Head to Waterfall Bluff (3.121).
Topography
3.104
1
The coast is low for 8 miles NE of Mbashe Point, but
then becomes moderately high with steep cliffs until a
marked change develops 5 miles SW of Rame Head
(31°48′S 29°21′E), NE of which the coastal aspect becomes
mainly high and bold with many outstanding bluffs.
Abnormal waves
3.105
1
See 3.5.
Current
3.106
1
Between Mbashe Point and Waterfall Bluff, the Agulhas
Current (3.8) is SW−going along the coast but is generally
very much weaker close inshore than 2 or 3 miles to
seaward.
In the vicinity of Port Saint John’s (31°37′S 29°33′E)
however, the strength of the current is felt closer inshore
than off any other part of this coast; this is apparently due
to the reduced width of the continental shelf in this locality,
where depths of more than 200 m are found within
3½ miles of the coast.
Landing
3.107
1
Caution. Landing on this part of the coast is always
dangerous, even in the calmest conditions, and should only
be attempted in case of absolute necessity.
2
Winds from NE are almost invariably accompanied by E
or SE swells setting directly into all bays which, being
sheltered from the wind, might otherwise be considered
safe for landing. Landing during NE winds would therefore
be extremely dangerous and, more often than not,
impossible. To attempt to land by boat in these
circumstances cannot be recommended, even in an
emergency.
3
With SW winds, the swell usually comes from the same
direction as the wind, or from a more S direction than
during NE winds. Both sea and swell are much reduced
inshore, so that landing may be possible under the lee of
several of the projecting points. Although no attempt to
land was made from South African Surveying Ship Protea
in 1927, comparatively calm weather was observed at
several points along the coast.
4
In an emergency, landing may be possible at the
following places during SW winds:
Mbashe Point (32°15′S 28°55′E) (3.100), under the N
side of the point, at a sandy beach at the head of a
rock−fringed indentation between the point and
Mbanyana River. Behind the beach there are a few
houses.
5
Mbolompo Point (32°05′S 29°05′E) (3.114), to N of
the point.
Mdumbi River (31°56′S 29°13′E) (3.117), near the
mouth on the beach at the S entrance point.
Mpande Bay (31°48′S 29°21′E) (3.127), at the mouth
of Mtonga River, close N of Rame Head.
Brazen Head (31°44′S 29°24′E) (3.127), on a very
small beach by an inlet into the cliffs about
6 cables N of the head.
6
Mngazana River (31°41′S 29°25′E) (3.127), at the
sandy N entrance point of the river mouth.
Second Beach (31°39′S 29°31′E) (3.128).
Nkodusweni River (31°36′S 29°36′E) (3.130).
Mntafufu River (31°34′S 29°38′E) (3.131).
7
During NE winds landing might be possible at the
following two places between Port Saint John’s and
Waterfall Bluff, but both are dangerous:
Under Mgoma (31°31′S 29°41′E) (3.131) at the
mouth of Mzintlava River, which appears to be the
better place of the two.
Under the round green hill (31°26′S 29°46′E) (3.131)
at the W end of Waterfall Bluff.
CHAPTER 3
137
MBASHE POINT TO RAME HEAD
General information
Chart 3793
Route
3.108
1
From a position SE of Mbashe Point (32°15′S 28°55′E)
the route leads NE for about 34 miles to a position SE of
Rame Head (31°48′S 29°21′E).
Topography
3.109
1
The coast between Mbashe Point and Rame Head is a
hard rocky shore, with sandy patches in all the bays,
backed by three main ridges of hills and mountains.
2
The coast is low as far as Bulungula River, 8 miles NE
of Mbashe Point, but then becomes moderately high and
steep with cliffs as much as 90 m high in places. The
banks of most of the rivers are heavily wooded, but the
hills, except for Cwebe Forest (3.113) in the vicinity of
Mbashe Point, are grassy with patches of bush near the
kraals and trading stores; most of the latter being
surrounded by gum trees.
3
The coastal ridge rises to between 150 and 215 m high
at from 1 to 1½ miles within the coast, while the second
ridge, more than 300 m high, lies about 4 miles farther
inland. The third ridge or plateau, rising to an elevation of
over 600 m and between 10 and 11 miles inland, is
generally hidden by the second ridge when observed from
within 5 miles of the coast. The second and third ridges
appear mostly flat and bare with clumps of bushes in
places; the most prominent of these clumps is on the
second ridge at Crocodile Vlei (32°00′S 29°02′E).
4
About 5 miles S of Rame Head (31°48′S 29°21′E) the
general aspect of the coast changes completely, to mainly
high and bold with many outstanding bluffs. Similarly, the
land within changes, to appear broken into innumerable
hills and valleys.
Depths
3.110
1
The 30 m depth contour almost parallels the coast and is
generally within 1 to 1½ miles of the shore. See also 3.4.
Marine reserve
3.111
1
See 3.7.
Directions
(continued from 3.100)
Principal marks
3.112
1
Landmarks:
Mbashe Point Light−tower (32°14′S 28°55′E) (3.96).
Two peaks (32°05′S 29°02′E), 214 m and 200 m high,
within Mpame Forest. (3.114).
Ecingweni Hill (31°49′S 29°16′E) (3.118).
Major light:
Mbashe Point Light — as above.
Mbashe Point to Hole in the Wall
3.113
1
From a position SE of Mbashe Point (32°15′S 28°55′E)
the track leads NE, passing (with positions from Mbashe
Point):
SE of the closed mouth of Mbanyana River (9 cables
NNE); the ravine through which it flows has steep
wooded sides and is prominent from SE. Within,
Cwebe Forest covers the coastal hills from 3 cables
inland, between Mbashe River (1¼ miles WSW)
and the vicinity of Breezy Point (2¼ miles NE).
Thence:
2
SE of a small patch of submerged rocks (1½ miles
NE), close offshore, thence:
SE of the closed mouth of Ntlonyane River (3¼ miles
NE), fringed with submerged rocks. The S side of
the river mouth is high and grassy while the N
side is rocky and comparatively low. Thence:
3
SE of a submerged reef (4½ miles NE) over which
the sea nearly always breaks heavily, extending
5 cables off the closed mouth of the small Nkanya
River; the vicinity should be given a wide berth.
Thence:
4
SE of the mouth of Xora River (6¼ miles NE),
normally closed; its S bank ends in a low point on
which there are a number of bungalows, and its N
bank is steep and bush−covered. A small beacon,
prominent in the early morning, stands on the
summit of a light green grassy hill, 69 m high,
6 cables SW of the S entrance point. Thence:
3.114
1
SE of the closed mouth of Bulungula River (7½ miles
NE). A conspicuous white house, not charted,
stands half way up the E slope of a bare conical
hill, 47 m high, 7 cables SSW of the S entrance
point. The river banks are steep at ½ mile within
the entrance. A store, its position indicated by a
clump of gum trees, stands on a bare slope 187 m
high, 1½ miles NNW of the river mouth. Thence:
2
SE of Mpame Point (11½ miles NE), low, with an
above−water rocky ledge extending almost 2 cables
S. About 1 mile inland and extending between
Bulungula River and Mncwasa River, 5 miles
farther NE, is the dense Mpame Forest. Two peaks
within the forest form excellent landmarks; the SW
peak, 214 m high, is the more prominent from NE
and the NE peak, 200 m high, is more prominent
from SW. Thence:
3
SE of Mbolompo Point (13 miles NE) which projects
considerably from the adjacent coastline and
appears as a very distinct point when viewed from
NE or SW. Although the E extremity is low,
within 2 cables W it rises to 65 m high in the
vicinity of which some bare reddish−coloured
patches are prominent. A dark wooded ridge
extends 6 cables W from the point to the mouth of
Mncwasa River which enters the sea at the N end
of a bay with a sandy beach, Thence:
4
To a position SE of Hole in the Wall (15 miles NE),
one of two remarkable and prominent rocks close
to the mouth of Mpako River. Hole in the Wall,
the SW rock opposite the entrance, is connected to
the N bank of the river by a reef on which the sea
breaks; it is 44 m high, slightly saddle−shaped and
has a natural archway through its base. The NE
rock, 64 m high, is larger and has a deep
wedge−shaped cleft towards the SW end of its
summit; it is connected to the coast by a ridge 6 m
high. The coast close to these two rocks is fringed
by submerged rocks which extend as much as
2 cables offshore.
CHAPTER 3
138
Mbolompo Point from ENE (3.114)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Hole in the Wall (Mpako River) (3.114)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Gerald Rayner)
3.115
1
Useful mark:
Mpoleni Hill (32°08′S 28°56′E), has a specked
appearance and there are a few stunted trees on its
summit.
Hole in the Wall to Rame Head
3.116
1
From a position SE of Hole in the Wall (32°03′S
29°07′E) the track continues NE, passing (with positions
from Hole in the Wall):
SE of Black Rock (1 mile NE), a point with a dark
rocky extremity and submerged rocks extending
over 2 cables seaward, thence:
SE of a rock awash (3¼ miles NE), almost 4 cables
offshore, thence:
2
SE of Sugar Loaf (4 miles NE), a conical hill with
dark green vegetation, 50 m high, on a rocky
promontory on the S side of the closed mouth of
Nenga River. The holiday resort of Coffee Bay lies
on both sides of the Nenga River; most of its
white houses and hotels are partially obscured by
Sugar Loaf, but one very prominent large hotel
stands on the N side of the river mouth. Thence:
3
SE of Mapuzi Point (5¼ miles NE) a conical rock,
46 m high, close S of a sandy beach at the closed
mouth of Mapuzi River. From seaward the rock
resembles an island; a ridge of submerged rocks
extends 4 cables NE from its outer edge. Thence:
4
SE of the mouth of Mtata River (6½ miles NE)
which is usually closed. The S entrance point is
Coffee Bay (3.116)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Sugarloaf
Hotel
CHAPTER 3
139
rocky and formed of steep cliffs, which extend
from the mouth of Mapuzi River. The N entrance
point is low and sandy, with a patch of marsh
close within it, but then rises steeply and is
covered with thick bush. Mapuzi Hill, a
double−peaked grassy hill with bush on its SW
side, lies 2½ miles WNW of the river mouth.
Thence:
3.117
1
SE of Whale Rock Point (8 miles NE), low with a
sandy beach fringed with a reef; 1 mile W of its
extremity the land rises to an elevation of 92 m.
The sandy hills near the extremity of the point are
covered with bush, but those within the point, and
especially the slopes to the N bank of Mtata River,
are mostly grassy with patches of bush. Whale
Rock, about 3 m high, lies on the N part of a
submerged reef which extends 4 cables SE of the
point. In 1968 a depth of 23 m was reported to lie
7½ cables ESE of Whale Rock. Thence:
2
SE of the closed mouth of Mdumbi River (8½ miles
NE), both entrance points of which are low−lying,
A beach extends from the S entrance point at
which, in an emergency, landing (3.107) might be
possible. Between Mdumbi River and Rame Head,
10 miles NE, the coast is fringed with rocks near
the mouths of rivers. Thence:
3
SE of a rock awash (10 miles NE) 5 cables offshore,
thence:
4
SE of a submerged rocks fronting Ubombo Head
(12 miles NE), the summit of which is a rounded
hill, 72 m high, but it is not very prominent; a
similar hill, 70 m high lies 1¼ miles SW. The
closed mouths of Lwandilana River and Lwandile
River are between these two hills. The reef of
submerged rocks, over which the sea breaks
heavily, extends 4 cables SSE from Ubombo Head.
Thence:
3.118
1
SE of the mouth of Mtakatye River (13½ miles NE)
the E entrance point of which is sharply defined,
rising steeply from a rocky coast to a summit of
65 m about 1 cable from the point. NE of the
Mtakatye River the nature of the coast changes
markedly (3.109), becoming generally more rugged
and steep−to. Thence:
2
SE of a reef of submerged rocks (16 miles NE)
extending seaward about 4 cables from the
entrance to Hluleka Bay, entered between a
prominent, rounded and partially wooded hill at
the summit of a bluff to the SW, and grassy cliffs
to the NE. The reef should be given a wide berth.
Ecingweni Hill, a conspicuous speckled hill 2 miles
E of the bay, helps to identify the locality. Thence:
3
SE of the mouth of Mnenu River (18 miles NE). A
sand spit extends across the mouth from the low
wooded S entrance point, leaving a narrow channel
for the river to enter the sea close to the steep N
entrance point. Thence:
4
To a position SE of Rame Head (19 miles NE), a
bold and precipitous headland which stands out
prominently from both NE and SW; its
identification is made easy by the changes in the
formation of the coastal ranges (3.109) which
occur in the vicinity.
3.119
1
Useful marks:
Crocodile Vlei (32°00′S 29°02′E) (3.109).
Mpotshotosho (31°45′S 29°20′E) (3.126).
Kunkulu (31°45′S 29°17′E), a flat−topped mountain,
its summit broken by three or four hummocks.
(Directions continue at 3.126)
Anchorage
3.120
1
There is no sheltered anchorage between Mbashe Point
and Rame Head. However, whilst engaged on the survey of
this coast in 1927, the South African Surveying Ship
Protea (800 tons) on several occasions anchored for the
night off the mouth of Nenga River (31°59′S 29°09′E)
(3.116).
RAME HEAD TO WATERFALL BLUFF
General information
Charts 3793, 3794
Route
3.121
1
From a position SE of Rame Head (31°48′S 29°21′E)
the route leads NE for about 33 miles to a position SE of
Waterfall Bluff (31°26′S 29°49′E).
Topography
3.122
1
Between Rame head and Waterfall Bluff the coast is
mainly high and bold with many outstanding bluffs, and
the land within the coast appears to be broken into
innumerable hills and valleys. Several rivers flow through
these hills in deep ravines, the sides of which are densely
wooded. Except for these ravines, the country is not
generally thickly wooded until close to Port Saint John’s
(31°37′S 29°33′E). Here the slopes at the back of the
Rame Head from NE (3.118)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 3
140
coastal range, and parts of The Gates (3.133) are forest
reserves; these reserves extend NE for several miles, and to
the N of Mzintlava River (31°31′S 29°41′E) there are dense
forests as far as the beginning of Waterfall Bluff, though
some of the coastal hills are grassy.
2
The second range of mountains (3.109) is less prominent
between Rame Head and Waterfall Bluff, but the third
range can be seen from some distance off the coast. When
off the S part of this stretch of coast, undulating and grassy
country with bush in all the river valleys can be observed
extending many miles inland from the coastal ridge. To the
NE of Port Saint John’s, behind the dense forests, the
plateaux of Magwa (31°27′S 29°40′E), 436 m high, and
Intsoban (31°24′S 29°41′E), 531 m high (charted as 1748 ft
on Chart 2086), show up bare and outstanding with a few
clumps of trees on the skyline.
3
The coast to the NE of Rame Head is unmistakable and
made even more remarkable by the further change in the
general aspect which occurs at Waterfall Bluff (31°26′S
29°49′E) (3.131), itself a prominent feature.
Depths
3.123
1
The 30 m depth contour almost parallels the coast and is
generally within 1 mile of the shore; only in an isolated
area, close NE of Brazen Head (31°44′S 29°24′E), does it
extend as far as 2 miles offshore. See also 3.4.
Rescue
3.124
1
The NSRI maintains a rescue craft at Port Saint John’s
(31°37′S 29°33′E) (3.137). See 1.45 and Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 5 for further information on rescue.
Climate information
3.125
1
For Cape Hermes (31°38′S 29°33′E) see 1.171.
Directions
(continued from 3.119)
Principal marks
3.126
1
Landmarks:
Brazen Head (31°44′S 29°24′E) (3.127).
Mpotshotosho (31°45′S 29°20′E), a dome−shaped hill
with colour noticeably lighter than that of the
surrounding country; it is distinctive from S, but is
obscured from N.
Dome Bluff (31°35′S 29°37′E) (3.131).
Manthlonetchwa Hill (31°31′S 29°40′E) (3.131).
Two waterfalls at Waterfall Bluff (31°26′S 29°49′E)
(3.131).
Rame Head to Cape Hermes
3.127
1
From a position SE of Rame Head (31°48′S 29°21′E)
the track leads generally NE passing (with positions from
Rame Head):
SE of Mpande Bay entered between Rame Head and
Brazen Head (5 miles NE). A sandy beach extends
for 1 mile near the closed mouth of Mtonga River
(5 cables N), where it might be possible to attempt
landing (3.107), and there are patches of sand near
the mouths of Mpande River (2½ miles N) and
Sinangwana River (3½ miles NNE) which flow
into the head of the bay. Elsewhere the shore of
the bay is steep and rocky, and fringed with rocky
ledges. Apart from a patch of low marshy land at
the mouth of Mtonga River, the coast and river
valleys rise precipitously, especially near Brazen
Head. Thence:
2
SE of Brazen Head (5 miles NE), one of the most
conspicuous features of this part of the coast. The
cliffs rise vertically from the sea for as much as
150 m in places, then slope more gradually to the
summit of Ndluzula Hill, surmounted by a clump
of trees about 4 cables inland. The E and N
portions of the cliffs are bare, but close S of the
extremity of the head there is a thickly wooded
area which extends from the sea to near the top of
the cliffs where it breaks into two parts thus giving
the appearance of a double summit. Brazen Head
is the S entrance point of Mngazi Bay which
extends 5 miles farther NE to a point below Green
Peaks. Thence:
3
SE of the mouth of Mngazana River (7½ miles NE)
at the head of Mngazi Bay. Between Brazen Head
and the river mouth the coastal hills become lower
and terminate in Black Pudding Hill, a prominent
dome−shaped hill at the S entrance point of
Mngazana River. A remarkable sand patch on the
side of a bush−covered hill, 81 m high, lies about
7 cables SW of Black Pudding Hill. The sand
patch is prominent from S, but obscured when
bearing less than 274°. Thence:
3.128
1
SE of the mouth of Mngazi River (9½ miles NE)
which may be identified by some remarkable white
sand at its SW entrance point. A sandy beach
extends between the mouths of Mngazi River and
Brazen Head from ENE (3.127)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 3
141
Mngazana River Mouth from ESE (3.127)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Black Pudding Hill
Green Peaks from 3½ miles SE (3.128)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Gerald Rayner)
167m hill
Green Peaks 198m hill from ESE (3.128)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
198m
Sugarloaf Rock
Mngazana River, 2 miles WSW. A flat−topped
grassy hill, 115 m high, lies close within the coast
behind this beach; S of the hill the beach is
fringed with a reef which dries. Thence:
2
SE of Green Peaks (10 miles NE), two remarkable
peaks 5 cables apart. The SW peak, 167 m high, is
covered with grass; the NE peak, 198 m high, is
thickly covered with bushes on its SE side and has
a bare top which resembles a grassy knoll when
viewed from NE. Both peaks are more prominent
from NE. Thence:
3
SE of Sugarloaf Rock (10¾ miles NE), a conical
rock, 8 m high, connected to the coast by a
causeway of sand and rock; it is prominent when
seen from SW and NE close inshore, but merges
into the background when viewed from some
distance off the coast. Between Green Peaks and
Cape Hermes, 5 miles NE, the coast is high with
the hills rising steeply from a rocky beach.
However, two shallow bays lie, respectively,
1¼ and 2 miles NE of Sugarloaf Rock. Second
Beach, the NE bay, may be identified by the coast
at its entrance point where a portion of the cliff,
which appears to have broken away, stands out
prominently when seen from N close inshore.
Thence:
CHAPTER 3
142
Port Saint John’s and The Gates from 3 miles SE (3.130)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Gerald Rayner)
Cape Hermes Light
4
To a position SE of Cape Hermes (14½ miles NE), a
rocky point, off the extremity of which a few
small rocks, up to 2 m high, extend ¾ cable E.
Close inland the land rises to a round grassy
summit 134 m high. Cape Hermes Light (grey
octagonal stone tower, white lantern, 13 m in
height) is exhibited near the extremity of the cape.
3.129
1
Useful marks:
Kunkulu (31°45′S 29°17′E) (3.119).
Tyelimanzi (31°41′S 29°20′E), a mountain with two
summits. The flat−topped SW summit shows
prominently when not masked by Brazen Head; the
NE summit shows as a peak when viewed from E
but becomes indistinguishable from S of Rame
Head.
Cape Hermes to Waterfall Bluff
3.130
1
From a position SE of Cape Hermes (31°38′S 29°33′E)
the track continues NE, passing (with positions from Cape
Hermes):
2
SE of the mouth of Mzimvubu River (7 cables N)
(3.132). The terrain in the vicinity of the river
mouth is remarkable and easily identified. A
tableland about 365 m high has a cleft in the
middle, leaving a wedge−shaped gap through
which the river flows; the heights either side being
known as The Gates (3.133). The holiday resort of
Port Saint John’s (3.137) lies close within the W
bank of the river mouth. Thence:
3
SE of Gordon Bay entered between Cape Hermes and
Bluff Point (2½ miles NE). From the E entrance
point of Mzimvubu River at Porpoise Point, to
Bluff Point, the coast is rocky except for a sandy
beach 1¼ miles ENE of the entrance. The coast is
backed by a series of hills, 60 to 90 m high, close
within which the land rises steeply to East Gate.
Thence:
4
SE of Saint John’s Reef (2½ miles NE) which
extends 1 cable SE from Bluff Point, a bluff rising
steeply from the sea to an elevation of 113 m. The
reef consists of two rocks awash joined by a
submerged ledge. Although the sea generally
breaks on this reef, the breakers do not stand out
owing to the proximity of the surf on the beach
inshore. Thence:
5
SE of the mouth of Nkodusweni River (3½ miles NE)
which enters the sea close N of a low point, the
continuation of coastal hills gradually sloping from
Port Saint John’s from ESE (3.130)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Cape Hermes
The Gates
CHAPTER 3
143
Mzintlava River mouth (3.131)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Gerald Rayner)
Mgoma HillManthlonetchwa Hill
Bluff Point. During SW winds landing (3.107) may
be effected at the mouth of the river, generally
closed, but care must be taken not to skirt the S
entrance point. Thence:
3.131
1
SE of rocks fronting the bare rounded hill of Dome
Bluff (5 miles NE) which rises very steeply from
the sea and is most prominent from S, thence:
SE of the mouth of Mntafufu River (6 miles NE).
Both entrance points are low. Within the river the
N bank is marshy for 2 cables then the land rises
rapidly in heavily wooded slopes. Dakane is a
rounded hill close to the coast 2¼ miles farther
NE. Thence:
2
SE of the mouth of Mzintlava River (10 miles NE).
Mgoma, a prominent conical hill, 93 m high, lies
above the bluff N entrance point. The river flows
between very steep thickly wooded banks 1 mile
within the entrance; Manthlonetchwa Hill, on the S
side, is a conspicuous bare hill with two flat
summits. Thence:
3
SE of Montshe Point (13 miles NE), a rocky ledge
extending S from a grassy summit. Mzimpunzi
River and Mbotyi River enter the sea in sandy
bays about 5 cables SW and NE, respectively, of
the point. N of this vicinity the hills close within
the coast become much lower. Dense forests
extend up to steep cliffs above which is a bare
ridge, apparently parallel with the coast from 450
to 530 m high; a prominent group of trees stands
on the W extremity of this ridge. Thence:
4
To a position SE of Waterfall Bluff (18 miles NE), a
bold cliff, 75 m high, which extends for over
3 miles E from the vicinity of a round green hill,
222 m high. At the E end of the cliff the coast
slopes gradually to a low rounded point about
7 cables farther ENE. There are two conspicuous
waterfalls on the bluff: the W fall drops sheer to
the sea from the top of the bluff; the E fall, which
drops in terraces, is the larger and more prominent
of the two. During the dry season both falls are
much reduced in size.
Waterfall Bluff − Eastern Waterfall (3.131)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 3
144
5
Caution. Care must be taken to avoid being set into the
bight to SW of Waterfall Bluff. When in this vicinity at
night it is advisable to sound continuously and keep in
depths of 75 m or more.
(Directions continue at 4.16)
Mzimvubu River
General information
3.132
1
Description. Mzimvubu River (31°37′S 29°33′E) enters
the sea over a bar, 2 cables in width, lying 5 cables N of
Cape Hermes Light. The holiday resort of Port Saint John’s
lies on the W bank at the mouth of the river, inside the
bar. A bridge spans the river 2 miles from the entrance.
2
Heavy breakers occur on both sides of the channel and
at times the sea breaks across the entrance for four or five
days in succession, especially after SW gales when the
rollers are usually high. Under average conditions the sea
appears to break in depths of 5 m.
3.133
1
Topography. From Cape Hermes the coast is rocky for
3 cables NW to Paul’s Cove, from which a sandy beach,
named First Beach, stretches N for 7 cables, extending
3 cables within the entrance of Mzimvubu River and
constricting the entrance to a width of ½ cable.
2
Within 1½ miles of its mouth, the river flows through a
spectacular wedge−shaped gap in tableland up to 365 m
high on each side. The upper part of this tableland, known
as The Gates is bare stratified rock, but at 60 m below the
summit the cliffs are covered with dense forest which
extends to the banks of the river: West Gate, charted at
369 m high, is very steep; East Gate, 354 m high, has two
distinct terraces of grassy tableland.
3.134
1
Depths. The bar is quicksand and is constantly
changing. No attempt to enter the river should be made
without up−to−date information from the local authorities
concerning the state of the bar.
2
Within the entrance, Mzimvubu River is navigable for
vessels drawing up to 2⋅4 m for about 12 miles, and is tidal
for the same distance. From the entrance to The Gates,
1½ miles NW, the banks are so steep that small craft can
lie alongside them; above The Gates the river becomes
more open and the bottom is very irregular.
3.135
1
Freshets. In the rainy season, freshets may occur at any
time without warning; these can be a great danger to small
craft.
Anchorage
3.136
1
Anchorage. In Gordon bay, see 3.140.
Landing. Great caution is necessary when attempting to
land at Port Saint John’s as sharks are numerous in Gordon
Bay and within Mzimvubu River. When it is not possible
to enter the river, landing may sometimes be effected in
Paul’s Cove, 3 cables NNW of Cape Hermes Light, but
only at slack water or on the ebb in view of the S−going
current during the period of the in−going tidal stream
(3.140).
Port Saint John’s
3.137
1
General information. Port Saint John’s (31°37′S
29°33′E) is a holiday resort on the W bank of the
Mzimvubu River close within the entrance. A ferry links
the resort with the E bank. The last vessel of any size to
cross the bar into the river was in 1944, since then
considerable silting has taken place on the bar.
Berth. A wooden wharf, 50 m long, at Port Saint John’s
is in a poor state of repair. Depths alongside vary from 1⋅5
to 2⋅7 m, being dependent on scouring by freshets.
Anchorages
General
3.138
1
There is no sheltered anchorage between Rame Head
(31°48′S 29°21′E) and Waterfall Bluff, 33 miles NE, owing
to the swell which enters all the bays.
Mngazi Bay
3.139
1
In moderate SW winds some shelter may be obtained in
Mngazi Bay (31°43′S 29°26′E) (3.127). During the survey
of the coast in 1927, the South African Surveying Ship
Protea (800 tons) on several occasions anchored overnight
in the S part of Mngazi Bay, in depths from 24 to 29 m,
abreast a sand patch on a hill about 7 cables SW of Black
Pudding Hill, and with Rame Head well open of Brazen
Head. Fair shelter was obtained in moderate SW winds.
Gordon Bay
3.140
1
Fair anchorage may be obtained in the SW part of
Gordon Bay (3.130), entered between Cape Hermes
(31°38′S 29°33′E) and Bluff Point, 2½ miles NE, but the
bay is exposed to winds between NE and WSW. Caution is
necessary as depths in the bay are liable to constant
change. There is good holding ground 8 cables E of Cape
Hermes Light, in a depth of 18 m, fine brown sand. More
shelter may be obtained closer inshore, in a depth of 9 m
with Cape Hermes Light bearing about 248° distant
4 cables.
2
In these anchorages the current is NE−going but weak.
However, there is a considerable flow of water from
Mzimvubu River especially during freshets when there is
often a strong flow in a more E direction away from the
land.
During the period of the in−going tidal stream, which is
regular, a strong S−going counter−current forms close
inshore inside the breakers, setting along the sandy beach
and rocky shore towards Cape Hermes.
For landing at Port Saint John’s see 3.136.
Waterfall Bluff
3.141
1
During NE winds, less sea may be expected under
Waterfall Bluff (31°26′S 29°49′E) than elsewhere, and it is
reported that small coasters occasionally used to anchor
there when waiting to enter Mzimvubu River (3.132).
However, this practice cannot be recommended except in
an emergency. During S winds considerable swell sets into
the bight.
NOTES
145
4
.
1
1
4
.
2
3
4
.
9
0
4
.
1
0
4
4
.
1
5
9
4
.
1
7
0
4
.
1
8
0
4.117
4.46
MOZAMBI QUE
SWAZI L AND
REPUBL I C OF SOUTH AFRI CA
Ponta do Ouro
Jesser Point
Cape Vidal
Richards Bay
Durban
Tugela River
Waterfall Bluff
P
o
r
t
S
h
e
p
s
t
o
n
e
3794
3795
3797
2088
4170
643
4172
4173
4174
2930
0306
2087
29° 30° 31° 32° 33° 34°
29° 30° 33° 34°
Longitude 31° East from Greenwich
Chapter 4 - Waterfall Bluff to Ponta do Ouro
26°
27°
28°
29°
30°
31°
32°
26°
27°
28°
29°
30°
31°
32°
146
147
CHAPTER 4
WATERFALL BLUFF TO PONTA DO OURO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3300
Scope of the chapter
4.1
1
This chapter describes passage off the coast of South
Africa from Waterfall Bluff (31°26′S 29°49′E) to the
boundary with Mozambique at Ponta do Ouro, 318 miles
NNE, and includes description of the ports of Durban and
Richards Bay.
The chapter is divided into the following three sections:
Waterfall Bluff to Durban (29°52′S 31°02′E) (4.5).
Durban to Richards Bay (28°48′S 32°03′E) (4.84).
Richards Bay to Ponta do Ouro (26°51′S 32°54′E)
(4.152).
Abnormal waves
4.2
1
Abnormal waves may be encountered in the area
covered by this chapter S of latitude 29°00′S. They may be
up to 20 m high, preceded by a deep trough and occur in
the area between the 200 m depth contour and about
20 miles to seaward of it. For further details see 1.122.
Shark nets
4.3
1
See 1.5
Current
4.4
1
Between Ponta do Ouro (26°51′S 32°54′E) and Durban
(29°52′S 31°02′E) 206 miles SSW, the Agulhas Current
(1.117) is predominantly SW−going at rates of up to
3½ kn; the maximum rate may occur at all times of the
year, particularly between February and April. Off the N
part of the coast the axis of greatest strength is not exactly
known, but it draws nearer the coast with increasing
latitude and probably meets the edge of the continental
shelf, as defined by the 200 m (100 fm) depth contour, in
the vicinity of Cape Vidal (28°08′S 32°34′E) and Cape
Saint Lucia (28°31′S 32°24′E).
2
From Cape Saint Lucia the core of the SW−going
current tends to follow the alignment of the 200 m (100 fm)
depth contour to about latitude 29°30′S, but thereafter
diverges and does not approach the coast until the vicinity
of Port Shepstone (30°45′S 30°28′E).
WATERFALL BLUFF TO DURBAN
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 2087
Area covered
4.5
1
This section describes the coastal passage from Waterfall
Bluff to Durban including the port of Durban, presented in
three parts as follows:
Waterfall Bluff to Port Shepstone (4.11).
Port Shepstone to Durban (4.23).
Durban (4.46).
Routeing
4.6
1
No difficulty should be experienced navigating between
Waterfall Bluff and Durban, 115 miles NE. The soundings
form an excellent guide, and by keeping in depths of more
than 55 m vessels will pass at least 1 mile SE of Aliwal
Shoal (30°16′S 30°50′E) which is the only outlying danger
on this part of the coast.
By day, vessels may keep between 1 and 2 miles
offshore between Waterfall Bluff and Mzinto Bay (30°21′S
30°43′E) 80 miles NE, and 1 mile outside the breakers
when N of Mzinto Bay.
2
At night, unless with considerable local experience,
mariners should give the coast a wider berth and keep in
depths of more than 75 m when S of South Sand Bluff
Light (31°20′S 29°58′E). To the N of that light the offshore
depths increase more gradually, and vessels may with
safety keep in depths of 55 m or more between South Sand
Bluff Light and Durban.
Allowance should be made for the possibility of
sandbanks at river mouths having shifted or extended
seaward.
3
Laden tankers are required to maintain a minimum
distance off South Sand Bluff of 20 miles when SW−bound
and 25 miles when NE−bound. Rules for the navigation of
laden tankers off the South African coast are given at
Appendix I.
Topography
4.7
1
To the N of Waterfall Bluff the general landscape within
the coast changes completely from that to the S. The
mountain ranges inland (3.109, 3.122) can still be seen, but
close within the coast the land rises gradually to a ridge,
335 to 365 m (1099 to 1197 ft) high, lying 2 or 3 miles
inland. Except for the river valleys and a few of the coastal
hills, which are covered with bush, the landscape is mainly
bare with only a few scattered patches of bush. There are
few conspicuous natural features of use to mariners at some
distance offshore, but the mouths of rivers serve as marks
for vessels coasting.
2
The KwaZulu−Natal S coast between Port Edward
(31°03′S 30°13′E) and Durban, 85 miles NNE, has
numerous holiday townships and residential areas, many
beginning to merge into each other to produce long
stretches of uninterrupted urban development.
Abnormal waves
4.8
1
See 4.2.
Current
4.9
1
The core of the SW−going Agulhas Current (1.117)
diverges from the edge of the continental shelf SE of the
mouth of Tugela River (29°14′S 31°30′E) and does not
approach the coast until the vicinity of Port Shepstone
CHAPTER 4
148
(30°45′S 30°28′E). Within about 3 miles of the coast
between Port Shepstone and The Bluff at Durban, 60 miles
NE, there is therefore an area, the position of which is
variable, in which the current is weak and uncertain and in
which a NE−bound vessel would gradually lose the current
until, in the vicinity of Aliwal Shoal (30°16′S 30°50′E), it
became practically imperceptible.
Landing
4.10
1
See 4.22.
WATERFALL BLUFF TO PORT SHEPSTONE
General information
Chart 3794
Route
4.11
1
From a position SE of Waterfall Bluff (31°26′S 29°49′E)
the route leads NE, then NNE, for about 53 miles to a
position ESE of Port Shepstone (30°45′S 30°27′E).
Topography
4.12
1
From Waterfall Bluff to North Sand Bluff 31 miles NE,
the cliffs along the coast are generally low with open
grassland behind them. The positions of the river mouths
are apparent from the thicker vegetation lining the ravines
through which the rivers flow.
2
From Sikombe River (31°13′S 30°04′E) NE to North
Sand Bluff there is more sand on the coast, than SW
towards Waterfall Bluff, and there are numerous low
bush−covered sandhills; nearer North Sand Bluff the coast
is thickly covered with bushes in places. The coastal ridge
appears to extend N from near the mouth of Sikombe
River, rising gradually until it terminates in Siratschweni
(31°02′S 30°09′E), a prominent cliff overlooking the
Mtamvuna River 4½ miles NW of its mouth.
3
Between North Sand Bluff and Port Shepstone, 22 miles
NE, urban development becomes a feature of the coastal
strip. Several rivers enter the sea although their mouths are
generally closed except after heavy rains. Bridges close to
the mouths of the rivers provide a useful means of
identification, especially NE of Margate where a road
follows the coast.
Depths
4.13
1
Throughout the route the 30 m depth contour lies
1½ miles or less from the shore, and the 200 m depth
contour is between 5 and 7 miles offshore. Protea Banks
(30°50′S 30°29′E) is an isolated patch of 27 m, 4 miles
offshore between Margate and Port Shepstone.
Marine nature reserve
4.14
1
Trafalgar Marine Reserve extends from the LW line to
500 m offshore between the mouth of Mpenjati River
(30°58′S 30°17′E) and Boulder Rocks, light coloured and
about 3 m high, at Marina Beach, 2¼ miles NE. Within that
area the catching of gamefish only is allowed and the
catching of reef species is prohibited.
Rescue
4.15
1
The NSRI maintains rescue craft at Port Edward
(31°03′S 30°14′E) and at Shelly Beach (30°49′S 30°25′E).
See 1.45 and Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 5 for
further information on rescue.
Directions
(continued from 3.131)
Principal marks
4.16
1
Landmarks:
Two waterfalls at Waterfall Bluff (31°26′S 29°49′E)
(3.131).
South Sand Bluff (31°19′S 29°58′E) (4.17).
Quoin Hill (31°15′S 30°02′E) (4.18).
Bridge (31°05′S 30°12′E), at the mouth of Mtamvuna
River (4.19).
2
North Sand Bluff (31°03′S 30°14′E) (4.19).
Nkulu Tumuli (31°00′S 30°11′E), two light coloured
summits which lie on what appears to be the
highest point of the coastal ridge for many miles;
they are conspicuous from SW and NE.
Evango Cliff (30°49′S 30°15′E), a whale shaped
mountain with its NE end apparently terminating
in a bold cliff. It is conspicuous from S, but
becomes difficult to identify from N of E.
Radio Tower (30°44′S 30°17′E), red obstruction
lights, 204 m in height with an elevation of 698 m.
Convent (30°44′S 30°27′E) (4.21).
Msikaba River Mouth (4.17)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
South Sand Bluff Light
CHAPTER 4
149
South Sand Bluff (4.17)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Msikaba River Mouth
3
Major lights:
South Sand Bluff Light (white round concrete
structure, 10 m in height) (31°20′S 29°58′E).
North Sand Bluff Light (white round tower, red
lantern, 22 m in height) (31°03′S 30°14′E).
Port Shepstone Light (black and white chequered
metal tower, white lantern, 8 m in height) (30°45′S
30°28′E).
Waterfall Bluff to North Sand Bluff
4.17
1
From a position SE of Waterfall Bluff (31°26′S 29°49′E)
the track leads NE, passing (with positions from the E
waterfall):
SE of the mouth of Lupatana River (1½ miles ENE),
made prominent by a wooded ravine through
which the river flows farther inland. The low
rocky coast between Waterfall Bluff (3.131) and
Lupatana River is covered with numerous white
boulders giving it a speckled appearance. Thence:
2
SE of the mouth of Mkweni River (3 miles NE),
which forms a break in an otherwise featureless
low rocky coast that extends from Lupatana River.
The mouth of Mkweni River is marked by
vegetation darker in colour than that of the grassy
plains either side and a number of boulders lie
close to its SW entrance point. Thence:
3
SE of Lambasi Bay (5½ miles NE), a small bay
where the Tezana River, not charted, enters the
sea; the sides of the ravine through which the river
flows are covered with bush, as is the S entrance
point of the bay. On the N side of the river mouth
the houses of Port Grosvenor and a group of huts
close ENE are noticeable from seaward. Grosvenor
Hill, 3 miles NNW of the bay, is flat−topped, bare
and, being higher than the adjacent coastal ridge, it
is prominent. Between Lambasi Bay and Msikaba
River, 5 miles NE, the coast is rocky and
featureless. Thence:
4
SE of the mouth of Msikaba River (10 miles NE)
which forms a relatively significant indentation in
the coastline and the river itself is wider than most
of the rivers on this part of the coast. A reef of
above water rocks, about 3 m in height, lies close
off the SW entrance point. A bar, liable to
considerable change and over which the sea
breaks, extends from the reef across the river
mouth. South Sand Bluff Light (4.16) stands on
the summit of one of a series of grassy hills
extending S from the SW entrance point. South
Sand Bluff, a conspicuous dome−shaped hill
topped with dark vegetation, lies close within the
NE entrance point. Covering the bluff’s lower
slopes is a white sand patch which is not visible
when bearing less than 270°; viewed from N the
summit resembles a densely wooded pyramid.
Close W of the bluff the buildings and tall trees at
Mkambati Leper Reserve are prominent when
viewed from S.
Red Hill (4.18)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 4
150
Port Edward (4.19)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
North Sand Bluff Light
4.18
1
Thence the track continues NE, passing (with positions
from South Sand Bluff Light (31°20′S 29°58′E)):
SE of the mouth of Mkambati River (4¼ miles NE)
which enters the sea over several low waterfalls;
the falls are prominent in the wet season. The
gorge through which the river flows forms a
noticeable gap in the flat skyline when viewed
from E. Thence:
2
SE of a sandy coastal bank, offshore from Quoin Hill
(5¾ miles NE). The bank is reported to be
extending seaward. In recent years, during calm to
moderate conditions, heavy breakers and increased
swell have been observed up to 5 cables offshore
opposite Quoin Hill, a dark bush−covered sand hill
with a double summit, particularly prominent when
viewed from S. The coast here should be cleared
by a distance of at least 1½ miles. Thence:
3
SE of the mouth of Mtentu River (6½ miles NE),
which enters the sea through a deep ravine with
steep, dark, wooded sides. The mouth may be
identified by Quoin Hill which rises on its S side.
Between Mtentu River and Sikombe River, 2 miles
NE, the coast curves to form a rounded point
within which a line of trees is prominent from S.
Close within the point there is a bare hill, 77 m
high. Thence:
4
SE of the mouth of Sikombe River (8½ miles NE)
which has low−lying banks. The remains of a
wreck lie close to the S entrance point but they are
not prominent. A coastal ridge, about 2 cables
inland, extends between Sikombe River and
Kwanyana River, 2½ miles NE. The highest part of
the ridge is 86 m high, 5 cables NE of which lies
Red Hill comprising patches of bare red earth,
prominent against the surrounding dark bush.
Thence:
4.19
1
SE of Mnyameni River (14 miles NE), which flows
through a ravine, the steep sides of which may be
seen about a mile inland. Midway between
Mnyameni River and Mpahlanyana River, 2 miles
NE, a small beacon, not charted, stands on the
summit of a prominent grassy hill, 70 m high,
6 cables inland; the beacon is most visible in the
early morning sun. Thence:
2
SE of the mouth of Mzamba River (17 miles NE);
about 1 mile upstream the cliffs of the deep ravine
through which the river flows are prominent. A
small beacon, not charted and most visible in the
early morning sun, stands on a hill about 5 cables
NNE of the river mouth. Thence:
3
SE of the mouth of Mtamvuna River (19 miles NE)
which is spanned by a conspicuous bridge.
Buildings, not charted, of a large hotel and casino
are conspicuous close S of the river mouth. High
red−coloured cliffs of the river banks about 1 mile
inland are also prominent. The river is always
open but the bar across its mouth is not navigable
Mtamvuna River Mouth (4.19)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Conspicuous Bridge
CHAPTER 4
151
North Sand Bluff (4.19)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Conical hill, 72m
even for small craft; it forms the boundary
between the Provinces of Eastern Cape and
KwaZulu−Natal. Thence:
4
To a position SE of a low promontory (21 miles NE)
on which stands North Sand Bluff Light (4.16).
North Sand Bluff, 7 cables N of the light, is an
isolated conical hill, 72 m high, on the S side of
an inlet at the mouth of a small river; the hill is
covered with dark bush and is prominent especially
from E. The buildings of Port Edward lie between
the hill and the light and also extend SW along the
coast towards Mtamvuna River. N of Port Edward,
almost continuous urban development is a feature
of the coastal fringe.
North Sand Bluff to Port Shepstone
4.20
1
From a position SE of North Sand Bluff Light the track
leads NNE, passing (with positions from North Sand Bluff
Light (31°03′S 30°14′E)):
ESE of the mouth of Mpenjati River (6 miles NNE)
where shoaling is reported and depths less than
10 m extend 9 cables seaward. The banks on either
side of the river form part of a nature reserve
(4.14) and are free of building development. A
bare green hill, 106 m high, is prominent 1¼ miles
NNE of the river mouth; some tall trees are S of
it. Thence:
2
ESE of the generally rocky coast at Ramsgate
(11 miles NNE), a residential town within which a
bright green hill, 100 m high, has a small beacon
at its summit; the beacon is prominent in the
forenoon sun but appears wooded in the afternoon.
Thence:
3
ESE of the generally rocky coast at Margate (14 miles
NNE), a large seaside resort with a beach, 5 cables
in length between two rocky points, backed by
numerous blocks of flats and several large
buildings which are illuminated at night. Thence:
4.21
1
Clear of a 14⋅6 m patch (17½ miles NE), reported in
1974. The 27 m least depth on Protea Banks, a
2½ mile long sandy ridge parallel with the coast,
lies 2 miles farther ENE. Thence:
2
ESE of the mouth of Mhlanga River (17 miles NNE)
which enters the sea between the resorts of Saint
Michael’s−on−Sea and Shelly Beach. A low three
span road bridge, close within the mouth, is
prominent when the sun shines on it in the
forenoon; a group of white buildings is at the S
end of the bridge. Thence:
3
To a position ESE of Port Shepstone (22 miles NNE),
on the S bank of the Mzimkulu River and the
largest town on the Natal S coast. A light (4.16),
the tower of which is not prominent, is exhibited
at the S entrance point of the river mouth, usually
closed; a bridge spans the river at its mouth. A
large red brick convent building, 3½ cables W of
the light, is conspicuous from N and E but
obscured from S, although two trees which stand
nearby are prominent from this direction. A radio
tower (red obstruction lights, red and white bands,
Port Shepstone (4.21)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Road and Railway Bridge
CHAPTER 4
152
grey parabolic reflector, elevation 113 m) stands
close NW of the convent.
(Directions continue at 4.30)
Anchorage
4.22
1
Between Waterfall Bluff and Mtamvuna River, 29 miles
NE, there is no sheltered anchorage.
Landing on this stretch of coast is not possible during
NE winds. With a SW wind, provided there is not much
swell, landing might be possible at:
Lupatana River (4.17).
Mkweni River (4.17).
Lambasi Bay (4.17).
PORT SHEPSTONE TO DURBAN
General information
Charts 3795, 3797, 4170
Route
4.23
1
From a position ESE of Port Shepstone (30°45′S
30°28′E) the route leads NNE for about 65 miles to a
position ESE of the fairway light−buoy at Durban (29°52′S
31°02′E)
Topography
4.24
1
Between Port Shepstone and Durban numerous rivers
flow into the sea, but all except Mkomazi River (30°12′S
30°48′E) and Lovu River, 6 miles NNE, have their mouths
completely closed by sand. The river mouths may usually
be located by the presence of one or more bridges as both
a road and railway follow close to much of the shoreline.
2
The coast presents few conspicuous natural features,
although the various coastal towns and villages may be
readily identified. Urban development along the coastal
fringe has joined some towns into continuous strips with
little or no boundary between them. Large blocks of flats
and tall buildings are a feature of the coast at Warner
Beach, Doonside and Amanzimtoti, 10 to 15 miles S of
Durban.
3
Farther inland the country is generally rolling grassland
or sugar plantations; any distinguishing features are often
obscured by the heat haze peculiar to KwaZulu−Natal; in
the vicinity of Durban Bluff this effect is often intensified
by industrial smog.
Depths
4.25
1
Throughout the route the 30 m depth contour remains
within 1½ miles of the shore, and mostly within 1 mile,
except in the vicinity of Aliwal Shoal (30°16′S 30°50′E)
where it becomes 3½ miles offshore; the 200 m depth
contour lies between 5 and 8 miles offshore.
Prohibited anchorage
4.26
1
Off the mouth of Mkomazi River (30°12′S 30°48′E),
within 5 cables of a submarine pipeline extending 3¼ miles
seaward from the N bank.
Off the mouth of Mlazi Canal (29°58′S 30°59′E), within
3½ cables of a sewer outfall pipe extending 2¼ miles SE
from the shore.
Practice and exercise area
4.27
1
A naval weapons practice and exercise area is
established off Durban, extending seaward for about
15 miles between ENE and SSE from the vicinity of The
Bluff. For further details see Appendix II and South African
Annual Notice to Mariners.
Rescue
4.28
1
See 4.83.
Current
4.29
1
In the vicinity of Aliwal Shoal (30°16′S 30°50′E) the
current is generally weak and uncertain (4.9) and no
appreciable current is usually experienced. A weak current
setting SW across the shoal may be encountered.
Occasionally a NE−going counter−current may be
experienced, particularly between the shoal and the coast.
It is only in exceptional circumstances that any but weak
currents are experienced within 2 miles of this part of the
coast.
Directions
(continued from 4.21)
Principal marks
4.30
1
Landmarks:
Convent (30°44′S 30°27′E) (4.20).
Convent (30°38′S 30°32′E) (4.33).
Three chimneys (30°25′S 30°41′E) (4.35).
Two water towers (30°07′S 30°51′E) (4.38).
Hotel (30°04′S 30°52′E) (4.38).
Water tower (30°01′S 30°56′E) (4.38).
2
Water tower (30°00′S 30°57′E) (4.38).
Cutting (29°58′S 30°59′E) (4.39).
Water tower (white, truncated cone shape) (29°55′S
31°01′E).
Water tower (29°54′S 31°02′E); two radio masts (red
obstruction lights) stand 1½ cables NNE.
Durban Millennium Tower (29°53′S 31°03′E) (4.57).
For additional landmarks in the vicinity of Durban see
4.70.
4.31
1
Major lights:
Port Shepstone Light (30°45′S 30°28′E) (4.16).
Ifafa Beach Light (white triangle, point up, on metal
framework tower, 23 m in height) (30°28′S
30°39′E).
Green Point Light (red round metal tower, white
band, red dome, 21 m in height) (30°15′S
30°47′E).
Cooper Light (red round concrete tower, white band,
21 m in height) (29°56′S 31°00′E).
Durban South Breakwater Light (white round concrete
structure, 6 m in height) (29°52′S 31°04′E).
Durban (Anglo American Building) Light (29°51′S
31°01′E), occasional.
Other aids to navigation
4.32
1
Racons:
Scottburgh beacon (30°17′S 30°45′E).
Widenham beacon (30°13′S 30°48′E).
Durban Fairway Light−buoy (29°50′S 31°06′E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
CHAPTER 4
153
Mtentweni River Mouth (4.33)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Chart 3795
Port Shepstone to Green Point
4.33
1
From a position ESE of Port Shepstone (30°45′S
30°28′E) the track leads generally NNE, passing (with
positions from Port Shepstone Light):
ESE of the mouth of Mtentweni River (2¼ miles
NNE), uncharted, spanned by a conspicuous
railway bridge; 2 cables farther NNE, between the
railway and coastal road, a tall building (brown
and white) is prominent. Thence:
2
ESE of the prominent township of South Port
(4½ miles NNE), close N of which two bridges
span the mouth of Damba River; a low railway
bridge is nearest the mouth, but more prominent is
the higher, single arched, road bridge close inland.
Thence:
3
ESE of Kellerman Rocks (8¼ miles NNE), brown and
about 3 m high, at the extremity of a prominent
sandy point. At the summit of a hill, 61 m high,
3 cables W of the rocks and 5 cables S of the
village of Umzumbe, stands a conspicuous red
brick convent; the main buildings are obscured by
trees from S. The Mzumbe River enters the sea
1 mile N of the convent; at its mouth a low
11 span bridge is prominent from SE in the early
morning. Thence:
4.34
1
ESE of Splash Rock (10½ miles NNE), black and
15 m high, on the shore; a radio mast (red
obstruction lights, red and white bands, 35 m high)
stands near the summit of a hill, 115 m high,
5 cables WNW of Splash Rock. Two red hills
(105 m high, ridge−shaped, and 101 m high,
dome−shaped) lie respectively 2 and 3 miles N of
Splash Rock. Thence:
2
ESE of the mouth of Mtwalume River (18 miles
NNE), probably the most noticeable river on this
part of the coast, although it is obscured from S
close inshore. A long, low hotel with light green
roof stands at the S entrance point, which appears
as a wooded bluff; pine trees obscure the hotel
from S close inshore. At the river mouth is a long
low thirteen span railway bridge, conspicuous in
the forenoon sun, behind which is a low six span
road bridge. Inland the river banks become steep
and wooded; a ravine through which the river
flows, 2½ miles inland, is prominent above the
wooded lower reaches. Thence:
3
ESE of the mouth of Fafa River (19½ miles NNE),
where there is a prominent low nine span railway
bridge; Ifafa Beach Light (4.31) stands 6 cables S
of the bridge; the light−tower is not easy to see
during the day except in the early morning.
Kellerman Rocks and St Elmos Convent from E (4.33)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 4
154
Sezela Sugar Mill (4.35)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
4.35
1
The track then continues NNE, passing (with positions
from Ifafa Beach Light (30°28′S 30°39′E)):
ESE of the mouth of Sezela River (3¼ miles NNE)
where there is a low five span railway bridge
which is not prominent. Close N of the bridge
stands a sugar mill with three conspicuous
chimneys (4.30); during the crushing season,
between May and December, white smoke from
the chimneys by day and glare from the mill at
night provide a useful mark visible at a
considerable distance offshore. Botha House,
1½ miles NNE of the sugar mill, is prominent as it
is the only white house with a red gabled roof in
the vicinity. Thence:
2
ESE of the mouth of Mzinto River (6½ miles NNE),
where a six span railway bridge is not prominent,
but 2½ cables up stream a high nine span road
bridge is prominent. A water tower and two radio
masts, not charted, in close proximity on a hill
close S of the river mouth help identify the
locality. Mzinto Bay lies 1 mile farther NNE.
Thence:
3
ESE of The Ridge (12½ miles NNE) an area of
uneven ground with depths between 12⋅8 and
14⋅6 m extending E from the mouth of
Mpambanyoni River. On the S bank of the river,
the town of Scottburgh is conspicuous. On high
ground behind the town and 5 cables inland there
is a radio tower, elevation 150 m, red obstruction
lights, and a conspicuous uncharted Y−shaped
water tower; a golf course provides a prominent
green patch S of the town separating it from a
residential area which extends almost 2 miles SSW
along the coast. At night care should be taken to
avoid confusing the glare at Scottburgh with
Sezela Sugar Mill, 9 miles SSW. Thence:
4.36
1
To a position ESE of Green Point (15 miles NNE), a
low grassy promontory on which stands a single
white house. Aliwal Shoal, least depth 2⋅7 m, and
on which the sea breaks, lies 2½ miles offshore;
the shoal is indicated by the alignment (285°) of
Green Point Light (4.31) and a beacon (pyramid,
cask topmark), 2½ cables ESE. The shoal and a
wreck 5 cables NNW, least charted depth 2 m, are
both covered by the red sector (268°–298°) of
Green Point Auxiliary Light. In clear weather the
light−tower may be seen from a good distance, but
the burning of sugar cane, which occurs at times,
may cause a haze over the light−tower and the
adjacent coast.
2
By day, the passage inshore of Aliwal Shoal presents no
difficulty as a vessel’s position can be determined
accurately with the aid of three beacons established for this
purpose situated at:
Green Point (as described above).
2½ miles SSW of Green Point at an elevation of
49 m on a hill at Scottburgh (red disc topmark on
mast, 11 m in height, racon).
2 miles NNE of Green Point at an elevation of 52 m
at Widenham (white triangle point up on mast,
11 m in height, racon).
3
At night, it is advisable to pass at least 1 mile SE of
Aliwal Shoal and remain in depths of 50 m or more. The
inshore passage is not recommended at night, as the glare
from Green Point Light makes it difficult to judge the
distance from the breakers. Soundings are of little value as
a check on position inshore of the shoal.
Green Point (4.36)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Light
Charts 3795, 3797
Green Point to Durban
4.37
1
From a position ESE of Green Point (30°15′S 30°47′E)
the track continues NNE, passing (with positions from
Green Point Light):
2
ESE of the mouth of Mkomazi River (3¼ miles
NNE), close N of which a sewer pipeline extends
seaward for 3¼ miles and is marked by unlit
buoys. The mouth of Mkomazi River is open, but
due to the constant surf it cannot be entered even
by small craft. A low nine span road and railway
bridge is prominent at the mouth, and the holiday
resort of Umkomaas is situated on a slope rising
from the S bank. At times of heavy river flow,
large quantities of brown−coloured water enter the
sea and can be used as an indicator of the strength
and direction of the inshore current (4.29). Thence:
CHAPTER 4
155
Mlazi Cutting (4.39)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
3
ESE of the mouth of Mgababa River (6¼ miles
NNE); a shoal with a least depth of 5⋅5 m, on
which the sea breaks, lies 3 cables off the mouth.
A bridge at the river mouth is not prominent, but
the settlement of Mgababa, close N, has a
prominent pavilion, not charted, with a blue roof
that forms part of an amusement park complex
which in 1996 was in a state of disrepair. Thence:
4
ESE of the mouth of Msimbazi River (8 miles NNE),
which has a conspicuous hotel, not charted, close
N and a heavily wooded S entrance point. A three
arch railway bridge, seaward of a lower road
bridge, helps identify the locality. Thence:
4.38
1
ESE of the mouth of Lovu River (9 miles NNE)
which is seldom closed and has a prominent low
four span railway bridge. At the S entrance point
the town of Illovo is on rising wooded ground, at
the summit of which a water tower is prominent; a
second, Y−shaped, water tower is conspicuous
6 cables farther W. Illovo Spit, a bank with depths
from 12⋅8 to 17⋅3 m, extends 2½ miles S from the
river mouth. N from Lovu River the holiday
resorts of Warner Beach and Doonside and the
town of Amanzimtoti provide a distinctive
shoreline of tall buildings and apartment blocks; a
conspicuous hotel building stands on a hill, 96 m
high, 5 cables inland at Doonside. NE from
Amanzimtoti a high ridge forms the coast
terminating in False Bluff (16½ miles NNE), a
conspicuous bluff similar in appearance to The
Bluff at Durban (4.39) and on which stands a
conspicuous water tower.
2
Caution. A wreck containing cylinders of highly toxic
liquefied chlorine gas lies 4 miles ENE of the mouth of
Lovu River. Thence:
ESE of a prohibited area (4.42) (18 miles NNE) at
the Durban offshore oil terminal SBM. On the
shore at Isipingo Beach, 1½ miles NW of the
terminal, a hill, 65 m high, has a broad patch of
sand extending from its base nearly to its summit;
this patch is conspicuous and is the only elevated
sand visible to the N of Port Shepstone. A
conspicuous water tower stands on the summit of
the hill. The shore is low between the hill and
Reunion Rocks, 8 cables NE, thereafter a wooded
coastal ridge increases in height towards Mlazi
Canal Cutting, 1¼ miles farther NE; a prominent
radar antenna stands close SW of the 98 m high
peak above Reunion Rocks.
Charts 3797, 4170
4.39
1
Thence the track continues generally NNE, passing (with
positions from Durban Signal Station (29°53′S 31°03′E):
ESE of the canalised mouth of Mlazi River (7 miles
SW) which enters the sea through a conspicuous
V−shaped cutting in the coastal hills. Cooper Light
(4.31) is exhibited from the highest part of the
coastal ridge 2½ miles NE of Mlazi Canal at
Brighton Beach. A prominent white spherical water
tower, not charted, stands close N of Cooper Light;
two other conspicuous water towers (4.30) stand
respectively 1½ miles NNE and 3 miles NE of
Cooper LIght. Thence:
Cooper Light (4.39)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 4
156
2
ESE of the NE extremity of The Bluff (close NE) at
Durban, a high wooded peninsula terminating in a
remarkable bluff, formerly known as Cape Natal; it
is readily identified as the coast to N of it recedes
and is low for several miles. A conspicuous signal
station tower, the Millennium Tower (surmounted
by a distinctive framework structure) (4.57), stands
on The Bluff. Thence:
Brighton Beach, Durban (4.39)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Cooper Light
3
To the vicinity of Durban pilot boarding place 2½ miles
NE of The Bluff, or to the outer anchorage (4.60), passing
clear of:
The Dump (1½ miles ENE), a disused spoil ground,
least depth 15⋅8 m.
A rocky shoal (2¾ miles NE), least depth 19⋅8 m.
A patch of foul ground (3¼ miles NNE), least depth
18⋅2 m.
(Directions continue for coastal passage at 4.97,
directions for Durban are given at 4.70)
Durban offshore oil terminal
Chart 3797
General information
4.40
1
Position. 30°00′S 30°58′E, 9 miles SW of the entrance
to Durban.
Function. Transfer of petroleum products with the shore
close NW.
Limiting conditions
4.41
1
Controlling depth. 43 m charted close S of the SBM;
depths decrease towards the coast.
Maximum and minimum sizes of vessel handled.
Maximum 330 000 dwt, minimum normally 150 000 dwt.
Maximum draught 22⋅4 m.
Arrival information
4.42
1
Operations at the SBM. Vessels are normally berthed
in daylight, but may leave at any time.
Notice of ETA required, 48 and 24 hours prior to
arrival, and any subsequent changes greater than 2 hours. If
ETA is on a Saturday, Sunday or Monday, notice must be
given before 1300 on the previous Friday. See also 1.35.
2
Outer anchorage. Temporary anchorage while awaiting
berth may be obtained 2 to 3 miles S of the SBM.
Anchoring is prohibited within 1 mile of the SBM and
within 500 m of the pipeline to the shore.
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels securing to the SBM.
The pilot, who also acts as mooring master, and three
divers board 2 miles E of the terminal.
Tugs are not normally available at the terminal, but may
be obtained from Durban in emergency.
3
Vessel Traffic Service. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (3).
Prohibited area. Vessels are prohibited from entering
within 1 mile of the SBM when a vessel is moored to it, or
is manoeuvring to moor to it. Even when the SBM is
unoccupied, vessels are advised not to pass through the
prohibited area owing to the possible presence of other
buoys whose positions have not been promulgated.
Terminal
4.43
General layout. A single SBM, exhibiting a light, is
moored 1½ miles from the shore; floating hoses extend up
to 310 m from the SBM. A submarine pipeline runs from
the SBM, NNW to the shore in the vicinity of Reunion
Rocks. A mooring buoy for use by SBM tender vessels is
established 1 mile W of the SBM.
Directions for approach
4.44
The chart is sufficient guide. See 4.38 for useful marks
on the coast.
Services
4.45
1
Medical. A doctor will board at the terminal by
arrangement.
2
Supplies. No bunkers or water are available from the
terminal. Fresh provisions, stores and lubricants in drums
can be supplied from Durban in limited quantities.
Requirements should be ordered 72 hours prior to arrival.
Vessels embarking stores may only do so prior to berthing
or after leaving, at a distance of more than 2 miles from
the SBM
3
Communications. Offshore launch and helicopter
services, see 4.81.
DURBAN
General information
Charts 4170, 643
Position
4.46
1
29°52′S 31°02′E.
Function
4.47
1
Durban is the largest city in the Province of
KwaZulu−Natal and it is the principal port for general
cargo and containers in the Republic of South Africa.
Although originally developed to import cargo, exports are
now significant. A wide variety of commodities pass
through the port, primarily the bulk products of ores and
agricultural goods, steel and steel products, timber and
containers; the port’s container terminal is the largest in the
southern hemisphere.
Topography
4.48
1
The port of Durban has been constructed on a low area
at the combined mouth of the small Mhlatuzana River and
Umbilo River. On the SE side of the port coastal hills
terminate in the The Bluff (29°53′S 31°03′E) high, wooded
and forming one side of the entrance channel. On the other
side of the entrance the coast is low and flat as far as
Mgeni River, 4 miles NW. Within the coast N of the port,
CHAPTER 4
157
the land continues low and flat for about 1 mile inland then
it rises gradually to Berea Hills, from 120 to 160 m high,
which overlook the port and extend N to Mgeni River.
2
The industrial area is mainly SW of the port; the
business area is adjacent to the N side of the port and the
residential area extends NW and N to the S bank of the
Mgeni River. Recreation beaches extend N from the port
entrance, backed by high−rise buildings which provide a
distinctive coastline.
Port limits
4.49
1
The port limits are formed by the parallels of 29°48′⋅7S
and 29°54′⋅1S, and the meridian of 31°07′⋅5E, as shown on
the chart.
Approach and entry
4.50
1
Final approach is from NE. Entry is guided by the
alignment of leading lights through a dredged channel
between two protective piers close N of The Bluff.
Traffic
4.51
1
In 2005, the port was used by 3867 vessels with a total
of 105 324 888 dwt.
Port Authority
4.52
1
National Ports Authority of South Africa, PO Box 1027,
4000 Durban.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
4.53
1
The entrance channel is dredged to a depth of 12⋅8 m.
Attention is drawn to the notes on the chart concerning
dredged depths and chart datum.
Deepest and longest berth
4.54
1
Deepest and longest berths are at The Point and T Jetty
(4.76).
Tidal levels
4.55
1
Mean spring range about 1⋅8 m; mean neap range about
0.5 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled
4.56
1
Day. Length 243⋅8 m, beam 35⋅0 m, draught 11⋅9 m
(draught 12⋅2 m subject to Port Captain’s approval and tidal
restrictions).
Night. Length 200⋅0 m, beam 26⋅0 m, draught 11⋅6 m.
Larger vessels may be accommodated on request to the
Port Captain.
Large vessels can transfer stores or personnel by special
launch or helicopter service (4.81).
Arrival information
Port operations
4.57
1
Pilots, tugs and berthing services are available 24 hours
a day.
The Port Control Office and VTS Centre are established
in the Millennium Tower (29°52′⋅5S 31°03′⋅5E) at The
Bluff. The upper framework of the Millennium Tower is
designed to indicate the wind direction by means of a
motorised wind vane and the state of the tide by a moving
sleeve on the central mast.
Durban − The Millennium Tower from NW (4.57)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Gerald Rayner)
Vessel Traffic Service
4.58
1
The Durban VTS is mandatory for the following:
(1) Vessels of 15 m or more in length.
(2) Towing vessels, where the tow is 15 m or more in
length, or the overall length of vessel and tow is
of 30 m or more.
(3) Any passenger carrying vessels.
For details of procedures and reporting points see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).
Notice of ETA required
4.59
1
See 1.35. ETA should be sent 48 hours prior to arrival
and at the reporting points required by the Vessel Traffic
Service. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).
Outer anchorage
4.60
1
The recognised anchorage for vessels awaiting a pilot
lies NW of the approach channel leading line and E of the
red sector (010°–shore) of Umhlanga Rocks Light (4.97); it
is inadvisable to anchor with the light bearing more than
010°. Vessels should not anchor S of South Breakwater
(Pier). In fine weather the sea usually breaks in depths of
less than 10 m, but in bad weather breakers extend to
depths of 15 m; it is therefore advisable to anchor in depths
of at least 18 m.
2
As the depths decrease regularly, the anchorage may be
safely approached by continuous sounding. To S of the NE
extremity of The Bluff the bottom is mainly sand; to N of
The Bluff fine black sand is found.
There is no shelter during S and E winds when a heavy
swell sets in along the coast. During strong SW winds,
particularly in the winter months, a heavy swell sets in
CHAPTER 4
158
along the coast and, in the S part of the anchorage, a N
flow may cause vessels to lie beam on to the swell and roll
heavily.
3
Anchoring is prohibited:
Within 1 mile of the port entrance.
Within an area, shown on the chart, 7½ cables radius
from the fairway light−buoy and about 1½ cables
either side of the leading line.
Within 2½ cables of a sewer outfall pipe extending
1¼ miles SE from The Bluff.
Pilotage
4.61
1
Pilotage is compulsory and available 24 hours. The pilot
boards 2 miles NNE of South Breakwater (Pier) Light.
During daylight hours the pilot boards by helicopter unless
the vessel is advised otherwise. See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (3).
If boarding by pilot boat, pilot ladders must comply with
SOLAS regulations. All vessels with a freeboard greater
than 9 m must have an accommodation ladder rigged in
conjunction with the pilot ladder. Man ropes must be
provided.
Tugs
4.62
1
Tugs are available.
Traffic regulations
4.63
1
Prohibited areas. Landing is prohibited on the seaward
shore of The Bluff in the designated military area, as
shown on the chart. See 4.60 for prohibited anchorage
areas.
2
Port regulations. Vessels wishing to enter in a light
condition must be sufficiently ballasted to permit safe
navigation. In severe weather conditions, entry of vessels
insufficiently ballasted will be delayed. Only clean locally
loaded ballast water is permitted to be discharged in the
port.
Harbour
General layout
4.64
1
The port at Durban comprises an exposed outer
anchorage and an almost land−locked sheltered harbour
entered via a single channel. Within the entrance, the
harbour opens out into a series of basins and channels well
marked by light buoys and buoys. Facilities for
ocean−going vessels and alongside berths are extensive.
Practice and exercise area
4.65
1
See 4.27.
Measured distance
4.66
1
Close N of the mouth of Mgeni River (29°49′S 31°02′E)
there is a measured distance:
South Limit marks. Two beacons (triangle topmark
point−down) 1½ cables apart, in line bearing 295°.
North Limit marks. A beacon (triangle topmark
point−down) on the shore in line, bearing 295°,
with a lift tower on a building 6 cables inland.
Distance. 1852 m.
Running track. 025°–205°.
Traffic signals
4.67
1
The following signals are shown by day and night from
the Millennium Tower (29°52′⋅5S 31°03′⋅5E) at The Bluff.
Signal Meaning
Fixed green light Vessel entering harbour
Fixed red light Vessel leaving harbour
Flashing red light Port closed
Natural conditions
4.68
1
Tidal streams. Off the heads of the breakwaters an
eddy, S−going during the rising tide and N−going during
the falling tide, is often experienced; the position of the
dividing line between the two opposing streams varies and
may be met close to the breakwaters. Great care is
therefore necessary when approaching the harbour entrance
in a heavy ship.
In the entrance channel the in−going tidal stream has a
maximum rate of 1 kn at springs and ½ kn at neaps; the
out−going stream attains 2 kn at springs and ¾ kn at neaps.
2
Within the harbour there is a strong set across the NE
corner of Salisbury Island (4.76) at springs, the direction of
the set being about 270° on the in−going tide and 090° on
the out−going tide. Although this set does not extend for
more than about 90 m down the line of the main wharf of
Durban Harbour Entrance (4.70)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Gerald Rayner)
Leading Lights
Millennium Tower
CHAPTER 4
159
Durban Harbour Entrance (4.70)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Gerald Rayner)
Leading Lights
Silos
Salisbury Island, it does cause difficulty for ships
proceeding alongside the NE berth.
At T Jetty (4.76), due to eddies, there is a slight set on
to both the E side and the W side during the in−going and
out−going tides.
4.69
Climate information. See 1.172.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 4.39)
Principal marks
4.70
1
Landmarks. The following objects are conspicuous
from E:
Millennium Tower (29°52′⋅6S 31°03′⋅5E) (4.57); a
radar tower (red and white) stands 2 cables NE.
Howard College Tower (green obstruction light)
(29°52′⋅0S 30°58′⋅9E) near the S end of Berea
Hills.
Major lights:
Durban South Breakwater Light (29°51′⋅9S 31°03′⋅9E)
(4.31).
Durban (Anglo American Building) Light (29°51′⋅4S
31°01′⋅3E).
Umhlanga Rocks Light (29°43′⋅7S 31°05′⋅3E) (4.97).
Other aids to navigation
4.71
1
Racon:
Durban Fairway Light−buoy (29°50′S 31°06′E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Track
4.72
1
From the vicinity of the pilot boarding place (29°50′⋅1S
31°04′⋅9E) the track leads SW on the entrance channel
leading lights. The entrance is seldom impassable, but is
occasionally dangerous.
Leading lights:
Front (orange triangle, point up, on grey tower)
(29°53′⋅1S 31°02′⋅8E).
Rear (orange triangle, point down on grey tower)
(5½ cables SW of front light).
2
The alignment (215½°) of these lights leads through the
entrance channel, passing (with positions from the front
light):
NW of the head of South Breakwater (Pier) (1⋅5 miles
NE) from which a light (4.70) is exhibited, thence:
SE of the head of North Pier (1⋅3 miles NE) from
which a light (black metal column, 5 m in height)
is exhibited, thence:
3
Through the narrowest part of the dredged channel
which is marked by light−beacons and caissons.
Off The Point (8½ cables NE), a low tongue of
land, the navigable width between the inner two
caissons is about 125 m. Thence:
Into the harbour and as required for berthing.
4
Leading lights. The alignment (243½°) of the following
lights leads through the centre of Island View Channel
(4 cables NNW):
Front light (yellow triangle, point up, on black metal
tower) (29°53′⋅4S 31°01′⋅6E).
Rear light (yellow triangle, point down, on black
metal tower) (84 m WSW of the front light).
5
A Directional light. (2 cables NE) is used to facilitate
departure from the harbour.
4.73
1
Useful marks:
Silos (29°53′⋅1S 31°02′⋅5E), at Island View No 3
Berth are very prominent from NE; the individual
silos form a close group which, from a distance,
appears as a single structure. Another silo structure
(not charted), 5 cables WNW on the N side of
Salisbury Island, is also very prominent from NE.
Water tower (inverted cone on round tower)
(29°53′⋅0S 31°02′⋅2E) on Salisbury Island.
2
Anchorage Beacon (grey pole) (29°48′⋅8S 31°02′⋅3E);
a light is exhibited by day and night. The beacon
stands close S of the mouth of Mgeni River, which
has a low 14 span viaduct close within its mouth,
CHAPTER 4
160
Durban − Salisbury Island from NE (4.73)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Gerald Rayner)
Water tower
Silos
and a road bridge 3 cables W; the river is well
defined by the Berea Hills to the S and wooded
hills to the N, both of which are covered with
houses.
Berths
Durban offshore oil terminal
4.74
1
An offshore oil terminal lies outside the port limits, see
4.40.
Anchorages and moorings
4.75
1
The inner anchorage lies N of Salisbury Island
(29°53′⋅0S 31°02′⋅0E) and E of Pier No 1, as shown on the
chart. Two mooring buoys are moored inside the anchorage.
Alongside berths
4.76
1
Positions are given from the signal station (29°52′⋅5S
31°03′⋅5E) at The Bluff. Alongside depths are reported
depths. The port authorities should be contacted for the
latest information.
2
The Bluff (close W):
Coaling berths; 743 m of continuous frontage divided
into four berths; longest and deepest is Berth No 4,
length 238 m, depth 10⋅0 m (2000).
3
Island View (8 cables to 1⋅6 miles SW):
Berths No 1 to No 8 are on the S side of Island View
Channel, only Berth No 9 is on the N (Salisbury
Island) side; mainly oil berths, except Berths No 2,
No 3 and No 4 which comprise the Bulk Shipping
Terminal. The longest and deepest is Berth No 1,
length 230 m, depth 12⋅5 m (2000). A turning
basin at the W end the channel has a maximum
width of 425 m.
4
Salisbury Island (1 mile WSW):
A South African Navy Base is established on the
island, with 15 numbered berths on the NE side.
See 4.68 for tidal streams.
5
Point and T Jetty (2½ cables NW to 1⋅6 miles NW):
Berths designated by letters, A to G and M to R,
consecutively from SE to NW; T Jetty, containing
berths M to P, is a spur off The Point at its NW
end. The longest individual berth is Berth B at
520 m, but Berths D to G have a combined straight
length of 820 m and are also the deepest at 13⋅2 m
although their approach has a depth of 12⋅2 m.
6
Pier No 1 (1⋅4 miles W):
Eight designated berths numbered 100 to 107;
Longest and deepest is Berth No 104, length
351 m, depth (2000) 11⋅9 m.
Cross Berth (1⋅8 miles WSW):
Containers, Berths 108 and 109. Longest is Berth
No 108 at 273 m, which also serves as a Ro−Ro
berth; Deepest is Berth No 109 at 12⋅1 m (2000).
7
Pier No 2 (2 miles W):
Container terminal with six numbered berths, No 200
to No 205. Longest berths are No 203, No 204 and
No 205, each 305 m long, but together they form a
continuous straight frontage; deepest is No 202 at
12⋅3 m (2000).
4.77
1
At the N part of the harbour, Esplanade Channel
(2 miles WNW) marked by light−buoys, leads into Maydon
Wharf Channel and to the following berths:
Maydon Wharf (2⋅7 miles W).
Multi−purpose, grain, sugar, bulk soda ash and
manganese ore berths in 3 sections with a total of
15 numbered berths. Total length of Berths No 1 to
No 5, 810 m; No 6 to No 11, 1166 m; No 12 to
No 15, 833 m. Longest individual berth, No 12 at
275 m; deepest, No 11 at 9⋅9 m (2000).
2
A turning basin at the N end of Maydon Wharf, by
Berths No 1 to No 4, has a least depth of 9⋅1 m
(1996) and a diameter of 396 m.
3
Bayhead (3 miles WSW).
Ship repair facilities. Longest and deepest berth,
413 m long, depth 6⋅7 m (2000). See 4.78 for
graving dock and floating docks.
Port services
Repairs
4.78
1
All types of repair can be undertaken and a full diving
service is available.
Prince Edward Graving Dock: length with caisson in
outer stop 364 m (extreme), 352 m (floor); breadth 33⋅5 m
(at level of MHWS), 42 m (at coping); entrance sill 10⋅7 m,
inner sill 11⋅3 m, below chart datum. The dock can be
divided into two compartments, the outer 207 m and the
inner 139 m in length.
Two floating docks, of 4500 and 8500 tons lifting
capacity.
Other facilities
4.79
1
Hospitals; deratting and deratting exemption certificates
issued; compass adjustment; reception facilities for dirty
ballast water, slops and tank wash water.
Supplies
4.80
1
Fuel and diesel oil from pipelines at Pier No 1,
Container Terminal and Island View berths; gas oil only by
pipeline at Island View berths 4 to 8; blends at Island View
berths 2 to 8. Vessels at other berths are supplied from a
bunker barge. No bunkers are supplied outside of the port.
Fresh water by pipeline at all berths; vessels at moorings
or in the outer anchorage can be supplied by tug, subject to
availability.
Fresh provisions are plentiful.
Offshore launch and helicopter service
4.81
1
Large vessels may land or embark stores and personnel
off Durban, keeping outside the port limits, by launch or
helicopter service. Pratique must be obtained by radio prior
to the transfer. The rendezvous position is 4 miles E of The
CHAPTER 4
161
Bluff (29°53′S 31°03′E). Launch service, 24 hours;
helicopter service, daylight only.
Communications
4.82
1
Durban International Airport 11 km SW of the port.
Rescue
4.83
1
Durban has a regional headquarters of the National Sea
Rescue Institute (NSRI). A rescue craft is based at Durban
close W of North Pier. See 1.45 and Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 5 for further information on rescue.
DURBAN TO RICHARDS BAY
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 2088
Area covered
4.84
1
This section describes the passage from Durban to
Richards Bay, including the port of Richards Bay, presented
in three parts as follows:
Durban to Tugela River (4.90).
Tugela River to Richards Bay (4.104).
Richards Bay (4.117).
Depths
4.85
1
The 30 m depth contour is always within 10 miles of the
coast and for much of the route it is just 1 mile offshore.
The edge of the continental shelf, as defined by the 200 m
(100 fm) depth contour, moves markedly seaward N of
Durban, from being 5 miles off The Bluff at Durban to
25 miles offshore at Tugela River then gradually closes the
coast again to be 11 miles offshore at Richards Bay.
Practice and exercise area
4.86
1
Off Durban, see 4.27.
Natural conditions
4.87
1
Local magnetic anomaly. In 1961 abnormal variation
was reported to exist between Durnford Point (28°53′S
32°01′E) and Cape Vidal, 54 miles NE, particularly in Saint
Lucia Bay (28°23′S 32°26′E).
4.88
1
Current. Inshore between Durban and Tugela River
43 miles NE the current is weak, and in depths of less than
90 m (50 fm) it is generally influenced by the direction of
the wind; in depths of more than 90 m (50 fm) the current
is more regular and is SW−going at rates from ½ to 1 kn.
2
Off Durnford Point (28°53′S 32°01′E), in depths of more
than 200 m (100 fm), the current is SW−going at rates from
1 to 2 kn. In depths of less than 200 m (100 fm), a
NE−going counter−current with rates from ¼ to 1 kn will
generally be experienced in fine weather; this NE−going
current is influenced by the wind, and with fresh NE winds
it rapidly changes direction and flows SW at a rate
depending on the strength of the wind. During the survey
of the coast by HM Surveying Ship Mutine in 1911, the
maximum rate of this current when SW−going was found
to be ¾ kn.
3
A current setting N to NW with rates from ½ to 1 kn,
extending as much as 20 miles SE of Durnford Point, was
occasionally observed during the survey of 1911. This
onshore current is a serious danger to vessels in the
vicinity of Durnford Point.
4
Observations made during the months of May, June and
July provided the following information concerning currents
off the coast between Durnford Point and Cape Saint
Lucia:
5
Between Durnford Point and Cunge, 17½ miles NE,
the current was found to be generally SW−going,
with rates from ½ to 1 kn at 2 to 3 miles offshore
and 2 kn at 11 miles off Durnford Point. At 2 to
3 miles offshore, after a few hours of W winds,
the current became NE−going at a rate of ½ to
1 kn and on one occasion attained a rate of 1½ kn;
this NE−going current quickly disappeared with a
change of wind, and it was rarely that no current
was experienced.
6
Between Cunge (28°40′S 32°15′E) and Cape Saint
Lucia, 12½ miles NE, the current was always SW
to WSW−going; close to the 200 m (100 fm) depth
contour the rate was about 3½ kn, but at 1 to
2 miles offshore the rate was reduced to between 1
and 2 kn. The rate was increased by NE winds,
and reduced by SW winds.
7
With a smooth sea, a line of ripples was frequently
observed close to the edge of the continental shelf,
in depths of 200 m (100 fm), the current over the
shelf running with considerably reduced strength.
See also 4.4.
4.89
1
Sea conditions. During strong S winds, heavy seas may
be encountered near the edge of the continental shelf, in
depths of 200 m (100 fm), between Tugela River (29°13′S
31°30′E) and Durnford Point 35 miles NE.
Abnormal waves. See 4.2.
DURBAN TO TUGELA RIVER
General information
Charts 3797, 2088, 4172
Route
4.90
1
From a position ESE of the fairway light−buoy at
Durban (29°50′S 31°06′E) the route leads generally NE for
about 41 miles to a position SE of Tugela River.
Topography
4.91
1
Between Durban and Tugela River there are long
stretches of sandy beach with occasional cliffs and rocky
areas; the coast is backed by rounded and somewhat
featureless hills between 45 and 170 m high.
2
From Durban to Mdloti River, 13 miles NE, almost
continuous urban development characterises the coastal
strip. From Mdloti River to the vicinity of Mhlali River,
14 miles NE, development is less and there are larger gaps
between the various resorts and settlements. Thereafter, to
Tugela River, the residential areas are generally situated at
the mouths of rivers.
Behind the coastal strip, beyond the suburbs of Durban,
the landscape is of open rolling downs and farm land,
including extensive sugar plantations.
CHAPTER 4
162
Depths
4.92
1
Between Durban and Tugela River there are no off−lying
dangers. The coast is steep−to, with the 30 m depth contour
less than 1 mile offshore except in the vicinity of the
Durban anchorage and within 4 miles SW of Tugela River
where it moves out to 3 miles offshore.
Practice and exercise area
4.93
1
See 4.27.
Measured distance
4.94
1
There is a measured distance close N of the mouth of
Mgeni River at Durban, see 4.66.
Rescue
4.95
1
See 4.83.
Current
4.96
1
See 4.88.
Directions
(continued from 4.39)
Principal marks
4.97
1
Landmarks:
Water tower (29°46′S 31°03′E), concrete tower with
cylinder tank on top; a conspicuous radio mast
(red obstruction lights) stands 4 cables SW.
Water tower (29°45′S 31°03′E), a tall ribbed square
concrete structure.
Knob Hill (29°24′S 31°19′E) (4.101).
Tugela Bluff (29°14′S 31°28′E) (4.102).
2
Major lights:
Durban Anglo American Building Light (29°51′S
31°01′E).
South Breakwater Head Light (29°52′E, 31°04′E)
(4.31).
Umhlanga Rocks Light (white round concrete tower,
red top, 21 m in height) (29°44′S 31°05′E) (4.99).
Tugela Light (white square on metal framework
tower, red lantern) (29°13′S 31°30′E).
Other aids to navigation
4.98
1
Racon:
Durban Fairway Light−buoy (29°50′S 31°06′E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Track
4.99
1
From the vicinity of Durban pilot boarding place
(29°50′S 31°05′E), the track leads generally NE, passing
(with positions from Umhlanga Rocks Light (29°44′S
31°05′E)):
SE of Umhlanga Rocks, a rocky patch on an
otherwise sandy shore, where a light (4.97) is
exhibited; a wreck, least depth 11 m lies 1 mile
SSE of the light. The light−tower is not easy to
identify as it is backed by several large white
buildings of the resort of Umhlanga Rocks, the
farthest N of the continuous urban development
spreading out from Durban; thereafter the shore
becomes more wooded. Thence:
2
SE of the mouth of Mdloti River (5 miles NNE),
readily identified by a steep wooded bluff, 61 m
high, of dark appearance near its S entrance point,
and by the comparatively gradual slope of the hills
on its N bank. Water towers stand close to the
coast, 5 cables S (white concrete tower) and 1 mile
N (lattice−tower) of the entrance. A coastal hill,
2½ miles NNE of the river mouth and 153 m high,
has at its summit a small beacon and a cellular
telephone mast which are prominant in the sunlight
against a group of trees; on the shore beneath the
hill are red brick buildings and pine trees of
Genezzano Priory (not charted). Thence:
4.100
1
SE of the mouth of Tongati River (10½ miles NNE),
which is seldom closed, spanned by a bridge and
enters the sea through a well defined valley. At the
S entrance point to the river is Tongaat Bluff, a
dark whale−backed hill, 64 m high, partially
covered with trees. Thence:
Umhlanga Rocks and Light (4.97)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 4
163
2
SE of a dangerous wreck (13 miles NNE) close
offshore at Ballitoville, a coastal resort where large
white apartment blocks line the foreshore and one
tall building is particularly prominent. Dark brown
cliffs (red cliffs on chart 2088) about 15 m high
are prominent on the coast 8 cables NNE of the
tall building at Shaka’s Rock; 2 miles NE of
Shaka’s Rock the resort of Sheffield Beach marks
the end of the built−up area extending from
Ballitoville. At Sheffield Beach a distinctive large
white apartment building (not charted) on the
foreshore cliffs is prominent. Thence:
Chart 2088 (see 1.19)
4.101
1
SE of the mouth of Mhlali River (19 miles NNE),
usually closed. On low ground within the sand bar
close N of the river there is a group of small pink
buildings with red roofs. Tinley Manor is a group
of brightly coloured houses at the head of a small
sandy bay 1¼ miles NE of the river mouth. Close
N of Tinley Manor a small beacon, prominent in
the early morning sun, stands on a hill, 64 m high;
1½ miles NNW of the beacon a lattice tower (red
and white, red obstruction lights) stands on a hill
104 m high. Between Mhlali River and Mvoti
River, 5 miles NE, the coast is alternately rocky
and sandy with a few submerged rocks close
offshore. The coastal hills, from 60 to 105 m high,
have a few patches of trees on their seaward
slopes and there are some red scars in the valleys
between them. Thence:
2
The track continues NE, passing (with positions from
Tugela Light (29°13′S 31°30′E)):
3
SE of the mouth of Mvoti River (13½ miles SW)
which may be recognised by a bluff wooded
headland at its S entrance point and a beach
5 cables long enclosing the mouth which is seldom
closed. The E extremity of the S entrance point is
rocky and fringed with submerged rocks extending
as much as 5 cables offshore. Knob Hill, 5 cables
within the S entrance point is 107 m (351 ft) high
and conspicuous; it has several large scars and is
surmounted by a peculiar spherical knob. Thence:
Chart 4172
4.102
1
SE of the mouth of Mdlotane River (10½ miles SW),
where the valley through which the small river
flows is a useful mark. The S entrance point is
heavily wooded and a group of white buildings
stand behind the sand spit at the N entrance point.
A conspicuous sand patch lies 1½ miles NE of the
river mouth; 1 mile farther NE a rounded grassy
hill, 99 m high, is surmounted by a small beacon,
prominent in the early morning. Thence:
2
SE of the mouth of Zinkwasi River (4¾ miles SW)
which has the low buildings of the resort of
Zinkwasi Beach at its S entrance point. Two radio
masts (red and white, red obstruction lights) stand
7 cables SW of the river mouth. Thence:
3
To a position SE of the mouth of Tugela River (close
SW), easily identified by Tugela Bluff, a
conspicuous black headland, 111 m high, covered
with trees, 1½ miles SW of the S entrance point.
A low spit forms the S entrance point. Tugela
Light (4.97) is exhibited from the N entrance
point; by day the light−tower is often extremely
difficult to see as there are a number of dark
casuarina trees on the ridge behind it. Red Hill, on
the N bank nearly 1 mile within the entrance, is
86 m high and prominent; it is scarred with red
and has a peculiar knob on its summit. Houses of
the settlement of Tugela Mouth lie between the
light and Red Hill. A bar across the river mouth is
impassable and the river is not navigable.
(Directions continue at 4.110)
Tugela Bluff (4.102)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Tugela Light
Anchorage
4.103
1
Anchoring off this part of the coast is not recommended,
but in case of necessity the best holding ground will be
found in depths of 45 m; the bottom is chiefly sand or
mud, but there are some patches of rocky ground a few
miles SE of the mouth of Tugela River.
TUGELA RIVER TO RICHARDS BAY
General information
Chart 4172
Route
4.104
1
From a position SE of the mouth of Tugela River
(29°13′S 31°30′E) the route leads NE for about 40 miles to
a position SE of the entrance to the port of Richards Bay.
Caution. Vessels passing Richards Bay should keep
clear of the port limits (4.120), as deep−draught vessels
departing the port are restricted in their ability to
manoeuvre for up to 4 miles from the entrance.
Topography
4.105
1
Between Tugela River and Matigulu River, 9 miles NE,
the coast is sandy and the coastal ridge consists of rounded
and grassy hills from 75 to 140 m high with red scars in
places. Nyoni River emerges from a valley which forms a
break in the coastal ridge 3 miles NE of Tugela River, and
then flows NE close within the coast for 5 miles until it
joins the Matigulu River near its mouth.
2
Between Matigulu River and Mlalazi River, 13 miles
NE, the coast consists of innumerable shifting sand ridges
formed close within the beach. Long grassy ridges of hills,
on which several farms and sugar plantations may be seen,
lie behind the sand ridges; these hills are noticeably lower
than those to the S of Matigulu River. The railway from
Durban approaches the coast 4 miles NE of Matigulu River
and thence runs close to the coast on the seaward side of
the coastal ridge for about 6 miles NE.
CHAPTER 4
164
3
Between Mlalazi River and Durnford Point, 11 miles
ENE, the coastal hills are generally low, few being over
60 m high; with the exception of Mainhluyami Hill (4.116)
they are sandy and covered with bush. From Durnford
Point to Umhlatuze Lagoon, 2½ miles NE and close SW of
Richards Bay, the coastal hills are wooded and over 60 m
high.
In contrast to the coast S of Tugela River, and except
for the resort of Tugela Mouth, there are no large
settlements close to the shore.
Depths
4.106
1
Between Tugela River and Richards Bay, reefs and
shoals extend 2½ miles offshore in places. The 30 m depth
contour moves father offshore towards the NE, from
3 miles at Tugela River to a maximum of about 9 miles at
Durnford Light, 29 miles NE, before returning to 3 miles
offshore at Richards Bay.
Prohibited anchorage
4.107
1
Anchoring is prohibited within 1 mile either side of a
submarine cable extending SSE from the shore close NE of
the mouth of Siyai River (28°58′S 31°46′E).
Rescue
4.108
1
See 4.151.
Natural conditions
4.109
1
Inshore sets with rates of ½ to 1 kn may occasionally
be experienced up to 20 miles offshore in the vicinity of
Durnford Point (28°53′S 32°01′E) and Tenedos Shoal,
10 miles WSW usually, but not always, after prolonged S
gales. See also 4.88.
Local magnetic anomaly. See 4.87.
Current. See 4.88.
Directions
(continued from 4.102)
Principal marks
4.110
1
Major lights:
Tugela Light (29°13′S 31°30′E) (4.97).
Durnford Light (white square on white metal
framework tower, red top, 12 m in height)
(28°55′S 31°55′E); the light−tower has a
background of tall casuarina trees, making it
prominent by day, unlike other similar light−towers
on this coast.
2
Richards Bay South Breakwater Light (red tower,
white bands) (28°49′S 32°06′E).
Richards Bay Light (white square concrete tower,
round top, 11 m in height) (28°47′S 32°08′E).
Other aids to navigation
4.111
1
Racons:
Port Durnford (28°55′S 31°55′E).
Richards Bay South Breakwater Light (28°49′S
32°06′E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Track
4.112
1
From a position SE of the mouth of Tugela River
(29°13′S 31°30′E), the track leads generally NE, passing
(with positions from Tugela Light):
SE of a reef (close NE) on which the sea breaks
heavily extending 3 cables offshore for 2 miles NE
of the mouth of Tugela River. Seaward of the reef
the bottom is very irregular and depths of less than
11 m may be found as much as 1 mile offshore
between Tugela River and Matigulu River
8½ miles NE. Thence:
2
SE of Matigulu Bluff (8½ miles NE), a conspicuous,
dark, wooded hill, 99 m high, and the most
remarkable headland in the locality. Wangu Hill, a
bare hill surmounted by a small beacon stands
1¼ miles SW of Matigulu Bluff. Matigulu River
almost reaches the sea close E of Matigulu Bluff,
but the river, joined by Nyoni River, then flows
NE parallel to the coast, entering the sea at a
variable location; in 1996 the combined mouth was
5 cables E of the bluff. Thence:
3
At least 3½ miles SE of Glenton Reef (14 to 20 miles
NE); the reef has not been closely examined but
depths over it are generally less than 4 m and the
sea breaks heavily over it in moderate weather.
Vessels should remain in depths greater than 25 m
in the vicinity. The reef terminates abruptly at its
NE end close to the mouth of Siyai River. On a
ridge close N of the river mouth the village of
Mtunzini is not easily seen through the trees, but S
of the village a Y−shaped water tower, not charted,
is prominent.
Durnford Light (4.110)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 4
165
Pudding Hill (4.113)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
4.113
1
Caution. Inshore sets, see 4.107.
Thence the track continues generally NE, passing (with
positions from Durnford Light (28°55′S 31°55′E)):
SE of Tenedos Shoal (4 miles WSW), over which the
sea breaks heavily in all but the calmest weather
and which has a least depth of 2⋅0 m. A narrow
channel with depths from 4⋅6 to 7⋅0 m lies between
the shoal and the coast and is suitable for small
craft in fine weather, but local knowledge is
essential. Thence:
2
Clear of a wreck (7 miles ESE) marked by
light−buoys (E and W cardinal), thence:
3
At least 5 miles SE of Durnford Point (5 miles ENE),
which may be identified by Pudding Hill (4 miles
ENE), a wooded hill with red coloured stripes
close on its W side. Patches of red sand cliff
extend about 7 cables W from Pudding Hill and E
almost to Durnford Point. The coast for 2½ miles
either side of Durnford Point is fringed with reefs,
with depths from 4⋅5 to 9⋅0 m extending 2½ miles
offshore in places and on which the sea breaks in
bad weather. SW of the point the sea also breaks
heavily during bad weather in depths from 12 to
15 m. Thence:
4
To a position SE of the entrance to Richards Bay
(10½ miles NE). Vessels passing Richards Bay
should keep outside the port limits (4.104).
4.114
1
Useful mark:
South Breakwater Head Light (4.144) (28°49′S
32°06′E).
(Directions continue at 4.162, directions for
Richards Bay are given at 4.143)
Anchorages
Tenedos Shoal
4.115
1
During the course of work in the area in 1975 and 1976,
Research Vessel Meiring Naude often used to anchor in
about 13 m close W of, and under the lee of, Tenedos
Shoal (4.113) (28°57′S 31°51′E) during strong E winds.
The holding ground was good and the vessel rode
comfortably.
A series of rocky patches forming a ridge, least depth
6⋅4 m, lie farther W. The ridge is about 1¾ miles long,
3 cables wide and lies about 1 mile off and parallel with
the coast E of the mouth of Siyai River (4.112).
Port Durnford
4.116
1
Anchorage SW of Durnford Light (28°55′S 31°55′E)
(4.110), as shown on the chart. A good anchorage for small
vessels, 5 cables offshore in 11 to 12 m, sand and mud,
with the white lookout tower on the E side of the summit
of Mainhluyami Hill, 2¼ miles WSW of the light, bearing
323° distant 8 cables. Mainhluyami Hill, which appears
flat−topped from E, is the only natural feature of
prominence on this heavily wooded stretch of the coastal
range.
2
Troops and supplies were landed here during the Zulu
War of 1879 and the roadstead became known as Port
Durnford after Colonel Durnford, later killed at the Battle
of Isandhlawana. The name now refers to a settlement
3½ miles WNW.
With NE winds this is a good anchorage, but with SW
winds rollers soon set in and make it untenable. In
December 1980 the Research Vessel Meiring Naude
experienced an E set of about ½ to ¾ kn while running
into this anchorage position.
RICHARDS BAY
General information
Charts 4173, 4174
Position
4.117
1
28°48′S 32°03′E.
Function
4.118
1
Opened in 1976, Richards Bay is a deep−water port for
bulk carriers and is the world’s largest bulk−coal terminal.
It is the closest port to the Witwatersrand, the main
industrial area of the Republic of South Africa, and is
connected by railway to the coalfields of Transvaal. Besides
coal, other exports include phosphoric acid, minerals and
ores. The main imports are bauxite, for an aluminium
smelting plant at the port, and crude oil.
Topography
4.119
1
The port has been constructed in the NE part of what
was the Umhlatuze Lagoon, a generally low area at the
mouth of Umhlatuze River. The remaining SW part of the
lagoon has become a biological sanctuary.
2
The coast between the harbour entrance and the tidal
channel to Umhlatuze (Mhlatuze) Lagoon, 3 miles SW,
consists of low sandhills with dense bush in places. To NE
CHAPTER 4
166
Richards Bay from ESE (4.118)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Charles Corbett Photography)
of the harbour entrance a sandy beach is backed by low
bush covered sand dunes which gives way to a heavily
wooded coastal range of gradually increasing height
towards the NE.
Port limits
4.120
1
The S limit extends about 6 miles SE from a position
3¼ miles SW of the root of South Breakwater (28°48′⋅8S
32°05′⋅3E); the N limit extends about 6½ miles ESE from a
position 2 miles NE of the root of South Breakwater, as
shown on the chart.
Approach and entry
4.121
1
The approach is from ESE through a straight dredged
channel which passes between two protective breakwaters,
North Breakwater and South Breakwater, at the coast and
continues to the berthing area guided by the alignment of
leading lights.
Traffic
4.122
1
In 2005, the port was used by 1416 vessels with a total
of 91 170 384 dwt.
Port Authority
4.123
1
National Ports Authority of South Africa, PO Box 181,
3900 Richards Bay.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
4.124
1
A depth of 18⋅7 m in the harbour, maintained by
dredging.
Deepest and longest berth
4.125
1
Bulk Coal Quay (4.146), Berth No 301 to Berth No 304,
each 350 m long with a depth of 18⋅7 m.
Tidal levels
4.126
1
Mean spring range about 1⋅7 m; mean neap range about
0⋅5 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled
4.127
1
Length, 314 m; draught, 17⋅5 m. Vessels with deeper
draught may be handled at the discretion of the port
authorities.
Local weather and sea state
4.128
1
The prevailing winds are SW or NE and the current is
from NE. As the swell is usually from SE, vessels at
anchor are likely to lie beam on to the swell. Under these
conditions many vessels weigh anchor and stand off the
coast while awaiting entry to the port.
Entry may be delayed by strong winds, strong cross
currents in the approach channel, or by heavy rain affecting
visibility (4.161). Vessels at anchor should exercise caution
in high SW or NE winds.
CHAPTER 4
167
Arrival information
Port operations
4.129
1
The port operates 24 hours a day throughout the year
except Christmas Day.
Vessel Traffic Service
4.130
1
The Richards Bay VTS is mandatory for the following:
(1) Vessels of 15 m or more in length.
(2) Towing vessels, where the tow is 15 m or more in
length, or the overall length of vessel and tow is
of 30 m or more.
(3) Any passenger carrying vessels.
For details of procedures and reporting points see
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).
Notice of ETA required
4.131
1
See 1.35. ETA should be sent 48 and 24 hours prior to
arrival and confirmed when about 20 miles off the port
entrance. If the ETA falls on a Saturday, Sunday or
Monday, notice must be given before 1200 hours on the
previous Friday. See Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (3).
Outer anchorages
4.132
1
The suggested anchorage is 3 to 5 miles SE of South
Breakwater, bottom sand. Caution, abandoned anchors and
cable are reported in the vicinity. See also 4.128.
An anchorage for vessels with hazardous cargo is
designated 3 to 7 miles S of South Breakwater, as shown
on the chart.
2
Anchorage is prohibited in the prohibited areas described
in 4.136 and in the deep−water route at the seaward end of
the dredged approach channel, as shown on the chart. In E
winds, vessels should avoid anchoring close E of the
prohibited area surrounding the submarine pipeline (4.133).
Submarine pipeline
4.133
1
The submarine pipeline of a sewer outfall, marked on
the shore by a tower, extends about 3 miles seaward,
parallel to and 5½ cables NNE of the dredged approach
channel.
Pilotage
4.134
1
Pilotage is compulsory and the pilot boards by
helicopter; the rendezvous position being given by radio
from Port Control. Masters are to comply with The
International Chamber of Shipping Guide to Helicopter
Operations (ISBN 0906270 02 2).
A pilot boat is on standby in case the helicopter is not
available; the boarding place is about 3 miles SE of South
Breakwater, as shown on the chart. See Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).
2
Pilot ladders must comply with SOLAS regulations. All
vessels with a freeboard greater than 9 m must have an
accommodation ladder rigged in conjunction with the pilot
ladder. Man ropes must be provided. Pilot hoists are not
acceptable.
Tugs
4.135
1
Tugs are available.
Traffic regulations
4.136
1
Prohibited areas. Entry is prohibited in two areas close
to the approach channel, as shown on the chart:
An area surrounding a submarine pipeline (4.133),
between the N port limit (4.120) and a line from
the head of North Breakwater extending 3½ miles
ESE.
An area of 500 m radius centred 8 cables SE of the
head of South Breakwater, within which are
moored light−buoys (special).
Regulations concerning entry
4.137
1
Vessels wishing to enter in a light condition must
comply with the following ballast requirements. Vessels
unable to comply should contact Port Control in good time.
Length Draught − fore Draught − aft
Up to 250 m 2% of length 3% of length
Above 250 m 2⋅5% of length 3⋅5% of length
2
In severe weather conditions, entry of vessels
insufficiently ballasted will be delayed.
Harbour
General layout
4.138
1
A single dredged entrance channel cuts through the low
straight coastline to two main berthing areas situated 2 to
3 miles inshore; a bulk coal quay is on the S side of the
harbour and a dry bulk terminal and a general cargo quay
are on the N side. The town of Richards Bay lies close
within the coastline on the N side of the entrance. Between
the town and the entrance channel there is a small craft
harbour and facilities for pleasure craft.
Development
4.139
1
Development has been on−going since the port was
opened in 1976. In 2006, works were in progress extending
the Bulk Coal Quay 300 m SSW to create a new berth,
No 306.
Traffic signals
4.140
1
The following traffic signals are shown by day and night
by means of a bank of lights exhibited from the Port
Control Building, 4½ cables NNE of the root of North
Breakwater.
Signal Meaning
Green lights Vessel entering harbour
Red lights Vessel leaving harbour
Flashing red lights Port closed
When the entrance to the harbour is considered
dangerous, this information will be passed by VHF in
addition to exhibiting the port closed light−signal.
Natural conditions
4.141
1
Local magnetic anomaly. See 4.87.
Current. See 4.88.
Local weather. Rainfall, see 4.161.
CHAPTER 4
168
Other aids to navigation
4.142
1
Racon:
South Breakwater Light (28°48′⋅9S 32°05′⋅9E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Directions for entering harbour
Principal marks
4.143
1
Landmarks:
Port Control Building (28°47′⋅8S 32°05′⋅9E).
Chimney (top of red and white bands, red obstruction
lights, 100 m in height) (28°46′⋅3S 32°02′⋅1E), the
highest of many and conspicuous from seaward
when bearing 295° or more.
Port Control Building from S (4.143)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − D. Given, MV Doulos)
Major lights:
Durnford Light (28°55′⋅0S 31°55′⋅0E) (4.110).
South Breakwater Light (28°48′⋅9S 32°05′⋅9E)
(4.110).
Richards Bay Light (28°46′⋅5S 32°07′⋅7E) (4.110).
Track
4.144
1
Caution. Care must be taken to allow for cross currents
which may be experienced in the approach channel.
Track. From a position about 6 miles ESE of the the
harbour entrance (28°48′⋅7S 32°05′⋅9E) the track leads
WNW on the entrance channel leading lights.
Leading lights:
Front (framework tower) (28°47′⋅5S 32°02′⋅2E).
Rear (framework tower) (8 cables WNW of the front
light).
2
The alignment (290¼°) of the leading lights leads
through the deep−water approach and in mid−channel
through the dredged approach channel, passing (with
positions from South Breakwater Head Light (28°48′⋅9S
32°05′⋅9E)):
Richards Bay Leading Lights from SE (4.144)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − S. Turner, MV Saga Rose)
Front
Light
Rear
Light
NNE of the head of South Breakwater where a light
(4.110) is exhibited, thence:
South Breakwater Light (4.144)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − D. Given, MV Doulos)
3
SSW of the head of North Breakwater (5 cables N)
where a light (black tower, white bands) is
exhibited, thence:
North Breakwater Light (4.144)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − D. Given, MV Doulos)
SSW of a dangerous wreck (4½ cables NW) close to
the edge of the dredged channel and marked on its
S side by a light−buoy (isolated danger); North
Headland, where a light (brick tower) is exhibited,
is 1 cable NNW of the wreck. Thence:
4
On the same alignment of the leading lights, the track
continues WNW in mid−channel through a channel marked
by light−buoys and dredged to 19⋅2 m over a width of
300 m, then into a basin dredged to 18⋅7 m which contains
a turning area with a diameter of 800 m.
CHAPTER 4
169
Leading lights to assist berthing are situated to the NE
and SW of Bulk Coal Quay, and indicate bearings parallel
to the quay face.
4.145
1
Useful marks:
Umhlatuzi Bluff (28°47′⋅4S 32°06′⋅4E), a steep hill,
56 m high, which appears well defined from E.
Radio mast (red and white bands, red obstruction
lights, 148 m high) (28°42′⋅7S 32°11′⋅8E).
Berths
4.146
1
Bulk Coal Quay (28°48′⋅8S 32°03′⋅1E) is for bulk
carriers loading coal. Vessels turn in the basin and
berth starboard side to. The quay is 1584 m long
divided into five berths; Berths No 301 to No 304
are each 350 m long, permissible draught 17⋅5 m.
2
Bunker Quay, at NE end of Bulk Coal Quay, is Berth
No 209, used for chemicals and bunkers; it can
receive vessels up to 225 m LOA, 12⋅5 m draught
and 63 000 dwt.
General Cargo Quay (28°47′⋅6S 32°02′⋅0E), total
length 644 m divided into three berths; Berths
No 606 and No 607 are each 220 m long,
permissible draught 13⋅5 m.
3
Bulk Metal Terminal, Berth No 609 at SE end of
General Cargo Quay; length 300 m, permissible
draught 14⋅0 m.
Dry Bulk Terminal (28°47′⋅5S 32°02′⋅6E), total length
1240 m divided into five berths; longest, Berth
No 701 at 300 m; deepest, Berths No 702 to
No 705 each with a permissible draught of 17⋅5 m.
4
Dry Bulk Jetty, at E extremity of Dry Bulk Terminal;
one berth on each side of the jetty, each 260 m
long, permissible draught 17⋅5 m.
Combi Terminal (28°47′⋅4S 32°03′⋅1E), used for
multi−purpose bulk handling; total length of 600 m
divided into three equal length berths No 706 to
No 708, permissible draught 13⋅5 m.
Port services
Repairs
4.147
1
Facilities for minor ship repairs and divers are available.
Other facilities
4.148
1
Hospital; deratting and deratting exemption certificates
issued; facilities are available for discharging oily water
residue by barge.
Supplies
4.149
1
Furnace fuel oil and marine diesel oil (light and heavy)
are available at Bunker Quay Berth No 209 and Bulk Coal
Quay Berths No 301 and No 302. Bunkers can also be
provided by barge to any berth in the port.
2
Fresh water is available at all berths. Stores and
provisions can be supplied by chandlers at Richards Bay.
Communications
4.150
1
There is an airport about 5 km N of the town of
Richards Bay.
Rescue
4.151
1
The NSRI maintains a rescue craft at Richards Bay from
a station at Newark on the E side of Mzingazi Canal
(28°47′⋅5S 32°05′⋅0E). See 1.45 and Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 5 for further information on rescue.
RICHARDS BAY TO PONTA DO OURO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 4172
Area covered
4.152
1
This section describes the passage from Richards Bay to
Ponta do Ouro presented in three parts as follows:
Richards Bay to Cape Vidal (4.159).
Cape Vidal to Jesser Point (4.170).
Jesser Point to Ponta do Ouro (4.180).
Depths
4.153
1
Between Richards Bay (28°48′S 32°03′E) and Cape
Vidal, 50 miles NNE, the 30 m depth contour is always
within 3 miles of the coast, thereafter to Ponta do Ouro
(26°51′S 32°54′E) it remains within about 1½ miles of the
coast.
2
The edge of continental shelf, as defined by the 200 m
depth contour, closes the coast from about 11 miles
offshore at Richards Bay to 3 miles offshore at Cape Vidal;
thereafter it remains at 3 miles, or less, until within
15 miles of Ponta do Ouro where it gradually moves out to
become 5 miles offshore at Ponta do Ouro.
3
Caution. When sounding off the coast N of Cape Vidal
at night or in reduced visibility, care is necessary owing to
the existence of four remarkable gullies in the sea bed,
with depths of more than 200 m intruding to within about
1 mile of the shore, which may give a misleading
indication of the distance offshore. These gullies, or
canyons, are:
4
Leven Canyon (27°55′S 32°37′E).
Diepgat Canyon (27°37′S 32°40′E).
Wright Canyon (27°29′S 32°43′E).
White Sands Canyon (27°27′S 32°43′E).
Marine protected area
4.154
1
In order to protect marine reserves, the South African
Government has designated the coastal waters between
beacon N7 (26°51′⋅3S 32°53′⋅3E), close S of Ponta do
Ouro, and beacon N4 (28°08′⋅3S 32°33′⋅5E), close S of
Cape Vidal, as a marine protected area.
2
Within this area which extends 3 miles seaward from the
high−water mark, the disturbing, catching or killing of any
dolphin, whale or great white shark, or any recreational or
commercial fishing, or the collection or removal of aquatic
plants or shells is prohibited except with the necessary
permit.
For further details see South African Annual Notices to
Mariners.
Shark nets
4.155
1
See 1.5.
CHAPTER 4
170
International boundary
4.156
1
The international boundary between the Republic of
South Africa and Mozambique is maked by Beacon N7 on
the summit of Monte do Ouro (4.187).
Natural conditions
4.157
1
Local magnetic anomaly. See 4.87.
Current. See 4.4 and 4.88.
Landing
4.158
1
The coast between Richards Bay (28°48′S 32°03′E) and
Cape Saint Lucia, 24 miles NE, is a sandy beach lined with
breakers, making landing practically impossible.
Between Cape Saint Lucia and Ponta do Ouro, 103 miles
NNE, there are few landing places. In suitable conditions
landing may be possible at the following locations:
Saint Lucia Bay (28°23′S 32°26′E) (4.169).
Cape Vidal (28°08′S 32°34′E) (4.165).
Boteler Point (27°01′S 32°52′E) (4.186).
RICHARDS BAY TO CAPE VIDAL
General information
Chart 4172
Route
4.159
1
From a position SE of the entrance to Richards Bay
(28°48′S 32°03′E) the route leads NE then NNE for about
50 miles to a position ESE of Cape Vidal (28°08′S
32°34′E).
Topography
4.160
1
Between Richards Bay and Cape Saint Lucia, 24 miles
NE, the coastal hills gradually rise to more than 150 m
high and are bush−covered with ridges of sand extending to
the beach on their seaward slopes.
For 7 miles N from Cape Saint Lucia the coastal ridge
consists of hills, heavily wooded, which rise to elevations
of 180 m before terminating in a bluff, 90 m high, at Saint
Lucia Bay.
2
For 2 miles NNE of Saint Lucia Bay the coast is a
narrow sandy beach with occasional rocky ledges, backed
by grassy bush−topped hills, 30 to 45 m high. Thence a
ridge of forest−covered hills from 60 to 75 m high extends
4½ miles farther N, where the hills become more open and
grassy and elevations rise to 130 m at Mount Tabor
(28°15′S 32°30′E). The open grassy nature of the hills
extends 2 miles NNE from Mount Tabor, after which they
become faced with bush for the remaining 6 miles to Cape
Vidal, the bush becoming denser as the cape is approached.
Natural conditions
4.161
1
Local weather. One of the highest rainfall areas on the
KwaZulu−Natal coast lies between Richards Bay and Cape
Saint Lucia.
Climate information, for Cape Saint Lucia see 1.173.
Directions
(continued from 4.114)
Principal marks
4.162
1
Landmarks:
Port Control Building (28°48′S 32°06′E), chart 4173.
Radio mast (28°43′S 32°12′E) (4.145).
Water tower (framework tower) (28°33′S 32°22′E).
Lookout tower (28°16′S 32°29′E).
2
Major lights:
Richards Bay South Breakwater Light (28°49′S
32°06′E) (4.110).
Richards Bay Light (28°47′S 32°08′E) (4.110).
Cape Saint Lucia Light (black tower, white bands)
(28°31′S 32°24′E).
Cape Vidal Light (yellow round tower, red top, 23 m
in height) (28°09′S 32°33′E).
Other aids to navigation
4.163
1
Racon:
Richards Bay South Breakwater Light (28°49′S
32°06′E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Track
4.164
1
Between Richards Bay and Cone Point, 15 miles NE, the
coast should be given a wide berth, especially in fine
weather when the sea is not breaking over the dangers. A
rocky and uneven bottom with depths less than 5 m in
places extends up to 1 mile offshore.
From a position SE of the entrance to Richards Bay
(28°48′S 32°03′E), the track leads NE passing (with
positions from Cape Saint Lucia Light (28°31′S 32°24′E)):
2
SE of Nhlabane Rock (12 miles SW), depth 5⋅2 m,
which lies 1¼ miles off the radar conspicuous
Cape Vidal Light (4.162)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 4
171
entrance to Nhlabane River; the river mouth may
be recognised by the low ground in the vicinity
and by Cunge, 7 cables W of the river mouth, a
conical and thickly wooded summit forming the
most prominent landmark in the locality. Thence:
3
SE of Cone Point (9 miles SW), surmounted by a
small conical hill, 31 m high, within which the
hills are dark and thickly wooded, thence:
4
SE of Cape Saint Lucia (5 cables S), low and sandy.
A hill, 156 m high (charted 168 m), lies close
within the cape. Close N there are some light
brown rocks, fringed with rocks awash, extending
2 cables offshore. The light−tower at Cape Saint
Lucia Light (4.162), is not easy to identify from a
distance; a lattice tower (not charted) close N is
more prominent. The heavily wooded hills around
the cape appear as a group of islands when seen at
a distance from E or NE; the most prominent is
Mjakaja (2 miles N), a sharp−pointed peak
surmounted by a small beacon (periodically
overgrown).
4.165
1
Thence the track leads NNE, passing (with positions
from Cape Saint Lucia Light):
ESE of Saint Lucia Bay (4.167) (8 miles NNE),
formed from a slight indentation in the coastline
where the Mfolozi River and Saint Lucia Estuary
enter the sea. Between Saint Lucia Bay and and
Cape Vidal, 17 miles NNE, there are no off−lying
dangers except in the vicinity of Cape Vidal.
Thence:
2
To a position ESE of Cape Vidal (25 miles NNE),
where the sea usually breaks as much as 2 cables
offshore about 1 mile S from the cape. The cape
itself is low and sandy, but the immediate vicinity
may be recognised from all directions by the
prominent wooded peak of Bhangazi, about
4 cables within the cape; a number of green−grey
patches extend to the summit on the N face of
Bhangazi and are visible when the peak bears less
than 270°. Prince of Wales Hill, of similar height
and also heavily wooded, stands about 5 cables N
of Bhangazi. Cape Vidal Light (4.162) stands
1¼ miles SSW of the cape. In fine weather,
landing may be possible within a natural
breakwater formed by submerged rocks extending
3 cables N from the outer extremity of the cape.
4.166
1
Useful marks:
Ntongande Hill (28°43′S 32°11′E), not as prominent
when viewed from S as a hill, 120 m high,
7 cables S. Both hills are heavily wooded but
when viewed from E or NE, Ntongande becomes a
better mark.
Mount Tabor (28°15′S 32°30′E), a round grass
covered hill; on its summit are several disused
concrete structures and a small beacon, but none
of them are prominent.
Hill (2½ miles NNE of Mount Tabor), 134 m high,
dark, bush−covered and rising steeply from the
beach, is prominent from S and N.
Beacon N4 (28°08′S 32°34′E), comprising two small
white pillars, the lower having a white disc
topmark marked N4, positioned near the foot of
the coastal hills to produce a transit marking the S
limit of the marine protected area (4.154). The
beacons are not visible from a great distance and
are primarily for the use of ski−boat fishermen.
(Directions continue at 4.175)
Anchorage
Saint Lucia Bay
4.167
1
General information. Saint Lucia Bay (28°23′S
32°26′E) is a small bay 8 miles N of Cape Saint Lucia at
the head of which the Mfolozi River and Saint Lucia
Estuary enter the sea. In 1961 a local magnetic anomaly
was reported in the bay.
2
The mouth of Mfolozi River is usually open except
during drought years, but its position is variable. Attempts
have been made to stabilise the mouth of Saint Lucia
Estuary in a fixed channel, with the result that tidal streams
ran strongly in the entrance, which was always open. The
combination of strong flow and the sea breaking heavily on
the bar across the entrance has meant that entry has never
been practicable. To N of the entrance, breakers extend a
considerable distance offshore.
3
The township of Saint Lucia lies close NW of the mouth
of Saint Lucia Estuary. Except for a prominent white water
tower visible over the tops of the trees, the township is
hidden from seaward; a prominent mast (red and white
bands, red obstruction lights), not charted, stands close S of
the water tower.
4.168
1
Anchorage. In Saint Lucia Bay depths decrease
gradually towards the shore. Temporary anchorage may be
obtained about 1 mile off the mouth of Saint Lucia Estuary,
with Mjakaja (4.164) bearing 200° distant about 5 miles,
sand, good holding. To S of this position the bottom is
foul, and to N of it the swell from S is heavier.
2
The bay is exposed to winds between NE and SSW.
During 1937 the South African Surveying Ship Africana on
several occasions rode comfortably at anchor in this
position with strong SW winds. With winds from S it
would be necessary to leave the anchorage.
4.169
1
Landing. Around the shores of the bay the surf extends
from 1 to 2½ cables from the beach, even in fine weather.
The only landing place is close S of the entrance to
Mfolozi River where a reef extends for over 2 cables N
parallel with the sandy beach; the sea breaks heavily on
this reef, but its end is sharply defined and there is
comparatively smooth water inshore of it.
2
Caution. Great care is necessary due to the presence of
sharks, and landing should not be attempted with fresh NE
or N winds which raise a heavy surf on the beach.
CAPE VIDAL TO JESSER POINT
General information
Chart 4172
Route
4.170
1
From a position ESE of Cape Vidal (28°08′S 32°34′E)
the route leads N for about 37 miles to a position E of
Jesser Point (27°33′S 32°41′E).
Topography
4.171
1
For the first 6 miles N of Cape Vidal the coastal range
is thickly wooded and presents a series of prominent
summits, in order from S to N:
Bhangazi (28°08′S 32°33′E) (4.165)
CHAPTER 4
172
Ntabende Hill (4.175)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Prince of Wales Hill (28°07′S 32°33′E) (4.165)
Nyathikazi (28°06′S 32°33′E)
Mahlonze (28°05′S 32°33′E)
King Oscar’s Hill (28°03′S 32°34′E)
Hill, 143 m high (28°02′S 32°34′E)
2
A small indentation in the coast 5 cables SE of the hill,
143 m high, is hardly discernible by eye, but shows
prominently on the radar screen.
From the hill, 143 m high, almost to Leven Point 6 miles
N, there are lower and less prominent summits, and sand
extends more than half way up the seaward face on the
coastal range.
3
Between Leven Point and Red Sand Cliff, 12½ miles N,
the coast continues to be backed by wooded hills faced
with sand and the only distinctive peak is Gipsy Hill
(27°48′S 32°36′E). From Red Sand Cliff to Jesser Point,
11 miles N, the wooded coastal range has three distinctive
summits: Nkonyane (4.178), Mbumba (4.178) and Ntabende
(4.175).
From Ntabende the coastal hills become lower and
terminate in a prominent dark bluff 37 m high, covered
with trees and bush, lying close within Jesser Point, 2 miles
NNE.
Depths
4.172
1
The coast is steep−to with the 30 m depth contour within
1½ miles of the shore and the 200 m depth contour 3 miles
or less offshore, see caution at 4.153.
Exercise areas
4.173
1
A naval weapons practice and exercise area is
established from close N of Cape Vidal to about 5 miles S
of Jesser Point, extending seaward for about 13 miles. For
further details see Appendix II and South African Annual
Notice to Mariners.
Marine protected area
4.174
1
The entire area between Cape Vidal and Jesser Point lies
within a protected area which extends 3 miles seaward from
the high−water mark, see 4.154.
Directions
(continued from 4.166)
Principal marks
4.175
1
Landmark:
Ntabende (27°34′S 32°40′E), from E has the
appearance of a flat−topped cone; sand intrusions
are both to N and S of the hill.
Major lights:
Cape Vidal Light (28°09′S 32°33′E) (4.162).
Jesser Point Light (white round concrete tower, red
top, 11 m in height) (27°33′S 32°41′E).
Track
4.176
1
From a position ESE of Cape Vidal (28°08′S 32°34′E),
the track leads N, passing (with positions from Beacon N6
at Leven Point (27°55′S 32°36′E)):
2
E of Leven Point (see caution at 4.153) which
appears flat and sandy when viewed from S close
inshore and is not easily identified from other
directions. However, Saint Mary’s Hill, close
within the point, is flat−topped and conspicuous.
Between the summit of Saint Mary’s Hill and that
of a prominent rounded hill, 138 m high, 8 cables
N, two sand patches visible when bearing less than
270°, serve to identify Leven Point from N.
Red Sand Cliff (4.177)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 4
173
Jesser Point (4.177)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Jesser Point Light
Fisheries Beacon N6 at Leven Point is similar in
aspect to that close S of Cape Vidal (4.166).
Thence:
4.177
1
Caution. Between Leven Point and Red Sand Cliff,
12½ miles N, it is advisable to keep in depths of more than
50 m as the following three shoals are all steep−to and the
sea seldom breaks over them:
2
E of Leven Shoal (3 miles N), a narrow ridge of rock
and coral connected at its S end to the coast
2 miles N of Leven Point and extending 1¼ miles
NNE to 6 cables offshore. The ridge is steep−to on
both sides and has a least charted depth of 3⋅3 m
near its N extremity. The wreckage of a freighter
which ran aground in 1941 can be seen at LW
close inshore. Thence:
3
E of Leadsman Shoal (6 miles N), least charted depth
5⋅1 m, lies parallel with the coast 7 cables offshore,
thence:
E of Red Sands Reef (10 miles N), 1¼ miles in
length, parallel with the coast and up to 1 mile off
it with a least depth of 6⋅4 m (7⋅9 m charted),
thence:
4
E of Red Sand Cliff (12 miles N), 81 m high,
conspicuous and forms the seaward face of Ochre
Hill; the sea in the vicinity is sometimes very
discoloured by red soil eroded from the base of
the cliff. Fisheries Beacon N5, of similar aspect to
those at Cape Vidal (4.166) and Leven Point
stands close N of the red sand patch. Thence:
5
To a position E of Jesser Point (23 miles N), low and
fringed with rocks extending 4 cables N on which
the sea breaks heavily. Jesser Point Light (4.175)
stands 5 cables S of the point. See caution at
4.153.
4.178
1
Useful marks:
Nkonyane (27°38′S 32°39′E), has a nipple−shaped
summit and a prominent strip of sand on its NE
slope.
Mbumba (27°36′S 32°39′E), has three indistinct
summits of which the SW summit is 130 m high;
sand intrusions are both to N and S of the hill.
(Directions continue at 4.184)
Anchorage
Sodwana Bay
4.179
1
General information. Sodwana Bay (27°32′S 32°41′E)
lies abreast a slight indentation in the coast close N of
Jesser Point. The roadstead is exposed and the shelter is no
better than that of any other open anchorage on this coast;
there is considerable swell. The holding ground, partly
rock, is everywhere poor but worse inshore than farther
out. Strong onshore winds make the anchorage untenable.
2
Anchorage. There is a precarious emergency anchorage
for smaller vessels 5 cables offshore in a depth of 12⋅8 m
with the extremity of Jesser Point bearing 203° distant
6 cables. A shoal patch, with a charted depth of 8⋅8 m, lies
on the same line of bearing from Jesser Point but
3½ cables farther NE. This anchorage would be untenable
in all but the calmest weather.
Landing. Owing to heavy surf and rollers which usually
prevail in Sodwana Bay, landing is generally dangerous and
at times impracticable, even for surf boats. On no account
Mbumba Hill (4.178)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photograph − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
CHAPTER 4
174
Gobey’s Point (4.185)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
Island Rock (4.185)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
Black Rock Point (4.185)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
Dog Point (4.186)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photographs − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Fisheries beacons N9
CHAPTER 4
175
should landing be attempted by ship’s boats, even in the
finest weather.
JESSER POINT TO PONTA DO OURO
General information
Chart 4172
Route
4.180
1
From a position E of Jesser Point (27°33′S 32°41′E) the
route leads NNE for about 44 miles to a position E of
Ponta do Ouro (26°51′S 32°54′E).
Topography
4.181
1
Between Jesser Point and Ponta do Ouro the mountain
range of Lebomboberge, 40 miles inland, stretches N
parallel with the coast. The terrain between the mountain
range and the coastal hills is low and flat.
From Jesser Point to Hully Point, 13 miles NNE, the
coast is backed by a range of high, thickly wooded hills
the seaward slopes of which are partially faced with sand.
2
From Island Rock (27°17′S 32°47′E) the coast for
9 miles NNE to Black Rock Point is less wooded and the
coastal hills are lower, with elevations from 60 to 90 m,
and are backed by grassy hills the summits of which are
visible from seaward. Thence, as far as Boteler Point,
7½ miles farther NNE, the coast consists of a series of
sandy beaches with intervening rocky points and the coastal
hills are generally grassy with occasional patches of bush.
3
Close N of Boteler Point there is a low neck of land
which separates Kosimeer from the sea. Thence the coastal
hills rise gradually to a flat−topped ridge about 75 m high
which extends to within 1 mile of Kosi River. This ridge
rises steeply from the sea and its seaward face is thickly
covered with bush, but its summit is cultivated. Near the S
end of the ridge there is a remarkable sandhill 94 m high
(4.188).
4
Within its entrance, the Kosi River opens into Kosi Bay,
a tidal and shallow lagoon which is connected with a series
of lakes, the largest of which is Kosimeer, extending for
9 miles SSW.
Between Kosi River and Ponta do Ouro, 3 miles NNE,
the coast consists of a sandy beach backed by bush−topped
hills, faced with sand, from 75 to 100 m high.
Depths
4.182
1
The coast is steep−to with the 30 m depth contour within
about 1 mile of the shore and the 200 m depth contour
between 3 and 5 miles offshore, see caution at 4.153.
Marine protected area
4.183
1
The entire area between Jesser Point and Ponta do Ouro
lies within a protected area which extends 3 miles seaward
from the high−water mark, see 4.154.
Directions
(continued from 4.178)
Principal marks
4.184
1
Major lights:
Jesser Point Light (27°33′S 32°41′E) (4.175).
Ponta do Ouro Light (white concrete tower on white
building, 5 m in height) (26°51′S 32°53′E).
Track
4.185
1
From a position E of Jesser Point (27°33′S 32°41′E), the
track leads NNE, passing (with positions from Jesser Point
Light):
ESE of Gobey’s Point (7 miles NNE), sandy and
backed by a heavily wooded bluff. The locality
may be identified by Dumile Hill, 9 cables N of
Gobey’s Point; the hill is dome−shaped and
prominent from all directions. A submerged reef,
on which the sea usually breaks, lies 2 cables
offshore abreast Dumile Hill. A similar reef, also
2 cables offshore, lies 1½ miles NNE. Fisheries
Beacon N3, similar in aspect to that close S of
Cape Vidal (4.166) is on the beach 1¼ miles SSW
of Gobey’s Point. Thence:
2
ESE of Hully Point (13 miles NNE), fringed with
drying rocks and a low area in the coastal hills.
Ntambama, 1 mile SW of the point, helps identify
the locality, being the N extremity of the flat
wooded ridge extending from Dumile Hill. The
coast is low N of Hully Point before the coastal
range begins again in the vicinity of Nkundwini,
2 miles N; a house stands midway between the
point and Nkundwini. Thence:
3
ESE of Island Rock (17 miles NNE), one of several
detached rocks, over which the sea usually breaks
heavily, lying close off a sandy point; the spray
can be seen for some distance. Thence:
4
ESE of Rocktail Bay, (23 miles NNE), also known as
De Wets Bay, which forms a slight indentation in
the coast close N of a rocky ledge, a combination
of features common on this part of the coast.
Mhlongonde, 1¾ miles SW of Rocktail Bay, is the
highest point of a range of less densely wooded
hills W of, and parallel with, the coastal range; a
white fire−watch tower stands on its summit.
Thence:
5
ESE of Black Rock Point (26 miles NNE), a flat
dark−coloured rock 15 m high, with a steep
seaward face; seen from a distance it resembles a
vessel close inshore. Thence:
4.186
1
The track continues NNE, passing (with positions from
Beacon N9 at Dog Point (27°07S 32°51′E)):
ESE of Dog Point, a sandy point fringed with drying
black rocks. Fisheries Beacons N9, of similar
aspect to that at Cape Vidal (4.166) stands at the
point, close S of the beacon a prominent sand
intrusion on the lower face of the coastal range
helps identify the locality. Thence:
2
ESE of Black Rocks (1¾ miles NNE), also known as
Rabbit Rock, which comprises some remarkable
rocks situated on the beach; a red sand patch on
the summit of a hill 1 mile WNW is distinctive.
Thence:
3
ESE of Boteler Point (6 miles NNE), fringed with
rocks, and with Bongo Peak close within. An
isolated patch with a depth of 21⋅5 m lies 2½ miles
ENE of the point. S of Bongo Peak the coastal
range is faced with extensive sand intrusions, but
at the point and close N where there is a small
bay they are absent; landing at the head of the bay
may be possible in calm weather under the lee of
rocks at the point. There are two buildings, not
prominent, at the back of the beach on the point.
CHAPTER 4
176
Black Rocks (4.186)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
Boteler (4.186)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
Fisheries beacons N8
Kosi River Mouth (4.187)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
Hill, 84m
Monte do Ouro (4.187)
(Original dated prior to 2004)
(Photographs − Hydrographer, S A Navy)
Ponta do Ouro Light
CHAPTER 4
177
Fisheries Beacons N8, similar in aspect to that at
Cape Vidal (4.166) is close N of the point.
Thence:
4.187
1
ESE of a dangerous reef (11 miles NNE), on which
the sea does not always break, with its N end as
much as 5 cables offshore. A hill, 75 m high, in
the wooded coastal range is not prominent but it is
useful for indicating the position of the reef which
should be given a wide berth. Thence:
2
ESE of the mouth of Kosi River (13 miles NNE)
which may be identified, particularly from NE, by
low−lying land either side and Kosi Mission
Station, on a hill 1 mile W of the entrance. Two
summits, 84 m and 102 m high, respectively
5 cables and 1 mile S of the entrance, form the N
extremity of the otherwise generally featureless
coastal range fronting Kosimeer (4.181). Tidal
streams run strongly through the entrance,
generally open throughout the year, and with a
variable width. There is a sandy beach on each
side of the entrance and a sandy and rocky bar;
the sea breaks heavily on the bar and for about
2 cables seaward. Thence:
3
To a position E of Ponta do Ouro (16 miles NNE), a
dark low cliff fronted by a rocky reef extending
about ½ cable N of the point; a sandy shore lies
W of the reef forming a small bay, at the head of
which are white houses of the settlement of Ponta
do Ouro, prominent from E. About 8 cables SSW
of the point, Beacon N7 stands at the summit of
Monte do Ouro which marks the international
boundary between the Republic of South Africa
and Mozambique. Close N of the summit there is
a group of white houses; on the roof of one stands
Ponta do Ouro Light (4.184).
4.188
1
Useful marks:
Sandhill, 94 m high (26°59′S 32°52′E), conical and
prominent in an area of generally flat appearance.
(Directions continue at 5.10)
Anchorage
Off Kosi River
4.189
1
Anchorage may be obtained 6 cables off the mouth of
Kosi River (26°54′S 32°53′E) in a depth of 18 m with Kosi
Mission Station, 1 mile W, bearing about 270° in line with
the entrance. The shelter here is no better than at other
exposed roadsteads on this coast.
2
Landing at Kosi river is always difficult and generally
dangerous. Although it has been found practicable from
surf boats with trained crews, landing should never be
attempted from ordinary ship’s boats. The best place to
attempt landing is about 3 cables N of the entrance to Kosi
River; landing to S of the entrance should never be
attempted.
Beira
Maputo
Ponta Namalungo
NP 39
SOUTH INDIAN
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.
3
1
5
5.34
5.110
5.156
5.234
5.210
15°
31° 32° 33° 34° 35° 36° 37° 38° 39° 40° 41°
31° 32° 33° 35 37° 38° 39° 40° 41°
16°
17°
18°
19°
20°
21°
22°
23°
24°
25°
26°
27°
15°
16°
17°
18°
19°
20°
21°
22°
23°
24°
25°
26°
27°
Longitude 35° E from Greenwich
Chapter 5 - Ponta do Ouro to Ponta Namalungo
178
179
CHAPTER 5
PONTA DO OURO TO PONTA NAMALUNGO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 4701
Scope of the chapter
5.1
1
This chapter describes passage off the coast of
Mozambique from Ponta do Ouro (26°51′S 32°54′E) to
Ponta Namalungo, about 795 NNE, and includes description
of the ports of Maputo and Beira.
The chapter is divided into the following three sections:
Ponta do Ouro to Ponta da Barra (23°47′S 35°32′E)
(5.3).
Ponta da Barra to Beira (19°50′S 34°50′E) (5.99).
Beira to Ponta Namalungo (15°38′S 40°25′E) (5.190).
2
For details of offshore routes through the Mozambique
Channel, see South Indian Ocean Pilot.
Current
5.2
1
For general details of the Mozambique Current
see 1.116.
PONTA DO OURO TO PONTA DA BARRA
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 3300, 648
Area covered
5.3
1
This section describes the coastal passage from Ponta do
Ouro to Ponta da Barra including the port of Maputo,
presented in six parts as follows:
Ponta do Ouro to Baía de Maputo (5.6).
Baía de Maputo (5.17).
Maputo (5.34).
Baía de Maputo to Rio Limpopo (5.71).
Rio Limpopo to Ponta Závora (5.81).
Ponta Závora to Ponta da Barra (5.90).
Current
5.4
1
Between Cabo Inhaca (25°58′S 33°00′E), in the
approaches to Baía de Maputo, and Ponta da Barra
(23°47′S 35°32′E), the Mozambique Current (1.116) is
generally SW−going. To S of Ponta Závora (24°31′S
35°12′E) the current apparently diverges from the coast and
is relatively weak inshore. In the vicinity of Baía de
Maputo inshore counter−currents are common, and during S
gales onshore sets must be expected. Observations of
currents off this stretch of coast are given in the following
paragraphs.
5.5
1
The Portuguese gunboat Pembane, when cruising
between Rio Limpopo (25°13′S 33°31′E) and Ponta Závora,
100 miles ENE, over a period of 10 months, observed that
within about 10 miles of the coast there was little or no
current. Farther out the SW−going current was felt,
becoming stronger as the distance from the coast was
increased. It was noticed that this current conformed in
direction with that off Cabo das Correntes (24°06′S
35°30′E); thus if the current off Cabo das Correntes was
setting parallel with the coast it was certain to be setting
parallel with the coast along the edge of the offshore bank
between Aguada da Boa Paz (24°53′S 34°25′E) and Ponta
Závora, and if it was found to be setting towards the coast
off Cabo das Correntes then it was certain to be setting
towards the coast along the edge of the above−mentioned
offshore bank.
2
In 1914, HMS Astraea experienced a slight indraught
between Baía de Maputo and Ponta Závora. In the same
year, when S of Ponta Závora on passage to Durban in a
heavy gale, she experienced a set of 17 miles in a 240°
direction, towards the coast, in a run of 23 hours; this was
probably caused by the gale.
3
When surveying the coast between Ponta Závora and
Ponta da Barra in 1884, HMS Sylvia reported that the
prevailing winds apparently have a great effect on the
current, certainly within a few miles of the coast, and as
the wind generally blows along the coast so the current
varies with it, either N−going or S−going. Except in the
vicinity of mouths of rivers, no current was observed
setting either onshore or offshore during the survey. The
strongest current observed was off Cabo das Correntes
where, during the short stay of HMS Sylvia in December
1884, a constant S−going current with a velocity of about
3 kn was observed in a position 1½ miles offshore abreast
the cape. Within 1 mile of the coast, 6 miles S of Cabo das
Correntes, there was no current. At 1½ miles offshore,
14 miles S of the cape, a N−going current with a velocity
of about 1 kn was observed. Between Cabo das Correntes
and Ponta da Barra the current was sometimes strong, even
within 1 mile of the coast. The S−going current appeared to
be deflected after passing Cabo das Correntes as it was
found to be considerably weaker off Ponta Závora.
PONTA DO OURO TO BAÍA DE MAPUTO
General information
Chart 2930, 644
Route
5.6
1
From a position E of Ponta do Ouro (26°51′S 32°54′E)
the route leads N for about 72 miles to a position E of the
N approach to Baía de Maputo (25°38′S 32°53′E).
Topography
5.7
1
Between Ponta do Ouro and Cabo de Santa Maria,
46 miles N, the coast has few irregularities. The coastal
hills are from 60 to 120 m high, and close to Cabo de
Santa Maria they are thickly wooded. A similar coastal
CHAPTER 5
180
aspect is presented on the seaward side of Ilha da Inhaca,
which lies close N of Cabo de Santa Maria.
For topography at the N approach to Baía de Maputo
see 5.36.
Depths
5.8
1
Between Ponta do Ouro and the S entrance point of
Baía de Maputo at Cabo Inhaca, 52 miles N, the coast is
steep−to with depths greater than 30 m at a distance
varying between 1 and 3 miles from the shore and the
200 m depth contour almost parallel to the coast at about
6 miles offshore.
Natural conditions
5.9
1
Local magnetic anomaly in Baía de Maputo, see 5.21.
Tidal streams. To seaward of the line of shoals
extending N from Ilha da Inhaca and fronting the
approaches to Baía de Maputo, the N−going, or in−going,
tidal stream has a maximum spring rate of about 2 kn with
a strong indraught towards Canal do Sul; the out−going
tidal stream flows in the opposite direction at about the
same rate.
2
Current. A current, varying between 1½ and 2½ kn, is
reported to set on to Baixo Danae (25°54′S 33°03′E) (5.13)
from SE at all states of the tide and especially after strong
SW or SE winds. See also 5.4.
Directions
(continued from 4.188)
Principal marks
5.10
1
Major lights:
Ponta do Ouro Light (26°51′S 32°53′E) (4.184).
Cabo Inhaca Light (white six−sided tower, 31 m in
height) (25°59′S 32°59′E).
Other aids to navigation
5.11
1
Racon:
Monte Cutfield, Lacerda Light (25°34′S 32°51′E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Track
5.12
1
From a position E of Ponta do Ouro (26°51′S 32°54′E)
(4.187) the track leads N, passing (with positions from
Ponta do Ouro):
E of Ponta Malongane (3 miles N). Madejanine (Pico
Florenço), a prominent peak in the coastal hills,
stands 3 miles N of Ponta Malongane and is
surmounted by Madejanine Beacon (white tripod
6 m in height, inverted triangle topmark). Thence:
2
E of Ponta Techobanine (10 miles N). Matonde
beacon (metal structure, 5 m in height) stands on a
sandhill, 107 m high, 4½ miles N of Ponta
Techobanine; in 1961 the beacon was reported to
be difficult to identify. Thence:
E of Ponta Dobela (20 miles N), marked by a
prominent beacon (white), thence:
3
E of Ponta Chemucane (30 miles N); Tane Beacon,
which is small, stands on a summit close SW, and:
Clear of Baixo de São João (30 miles N), a rocky
shoal 2 miles offshore; a 19⋅5 m patch lies
2½ miles SSW of Baixo de São João.
Thence the track continues N, passing (with positions
from Cabo Inhaca (25°58′S 33°00′E)):
4
E of Ponta Mucombo (17½ miles S). Rocha Ulué, a
dark rock, 5 m in height, 52 m long and from a
distance resembling a vessel, lies close to the HW
mark at the point. Thence:
E of Ponta Abril (8½ miles S), easily identified by a
rock, 6 m high, at its extremity, thence:
Clear of Baixo de Santa Maria (7½ miles S), a rocky
shoal, thence:
5
E of Cabo de Santa Maria (7 miles SSW) the N
extremity of Península de Santa Maria; Monte
Colato, a round−topped hill, stands 6 cables SSW
of the cape. Ponta Torres, the S extremity of Ilha
da Inhaca, lies 5 cables NW of Cabo de Santa
Maria; the inlet between has a bar across it, the
channel being on the S side close to Cabo de
Santa Maria. The sea frequently breaks across the
entrance, in which there are dangerous rocks.
Thence:
6
E of Cabo Inhaca, a sandy cape forming the N
extremity of Ilha da Inhaca; a 21 m patch lies
2½ miles E of the cape. Close within Cabo Inhaca
the land rises to a remarkable square−topped sandy
hummock which contrasts with the darker land
behind it. Monte Inhaca (1¾ miles SSW),
dome−shaped and wooded, has a beacon (white
masonry pyramid, cylindrical topmark; 5 m in
height) at its summit. A light (5.10) is exhibited
from Cabo Inhaca and a signal station is
established nearby; communication with the signal
station should be by radio and not by flashing
lamp.
5.13
1
Thence the track leads NNW, passing:
Either side of Baixo Danae (5 miles NE), a shoal
over which the sea sometimes breaks heavily in
calm weather and with little or no swell; the shoal
is covered by the red sector (212°–224°) of Cabo
Inhaca Light (5.10). See 5.14 for clearing bearings
and 5.9 for current in the vicinity of Baixo Danae.
Thence:
2
ENE of shoal ground (extending 20 miles NNW)
keeping at least 1½ miles E of all shoals. Strong
cross−setting tidal streams (5.9) may be
experienced and position should be checked
frequently. The sea breaks at LW springs in the
vicinity of Baixo Domette and Baixo Paiva Manso
at the N end of this shoal ground. Thence:
3
Clear of a 12 m coral patch (19 miles N), thence:
To a position E of No 1N Light−buoy (N cardinal)
(21 miles NNW), at the N approach to Baía de
Maputo, and marking the N extremity of Baixo
Cutfield on which the sea breaks at LW springs.
An 11⋅9 m patch lies 2 miles NNE of the N
extremity of Baixo Cutfield.
5.14
1
Clearing marks:
The alignment (240°) of the following marks passes
1 mile S of Baixo Danae:
Front. Barra Sul front light (25°58′S 32°59′E) (5.29).
Rear. Barracks building, not charted, at Ponta Black
Bluff (4¼ miles SW).
The alignment (208°) of the following marks passes
5 cables NW of Baixo Danae:
Front. Cabo Inhaca Light (25°59′S 32°59′E) (5.10).
Rear. Monte Inhaca Beacon (1¼ miles SSW) (5.12).
CHAPTER 5
181
5.15
1
Useful marks:
Lacerda Light (25°34′S 32°51′E) (5.28).
Macomana Light (25°41′S 32°46′E) (5.28).
(Directions continue for coastal passage at 5.75
and for Baía de Maputo at 5.22)
Anchorage
Cabo Inhaca
5.16
1
Anchorage may be obtained NW of Cabo Inhaca
(25°58′S 33°00′E), as indicated on the chart, in depths
from about 15 to 18 m, good holding, with Cabo Inhaca
Light (5.10) bearing 158°, distant 3 miles.
In 1935, HMS Daffodil (1200 tons) rode out a force 9
SE gale when anchored on the alignment of Barra Sul
Leading Lights (5.29), 3½ miles from Cabo Inhaca Light.
2
Directions. From S, round Cabo Inhaca at a distance of
about 2 miles, having due regard for the shoal of Baixo
Danae (25°54′S 33°03′E). When Cabo Inhaca Light bears
240°, make course for the anchorage.
From N, keep in depths of more than 200 m until the
vessel’s position relative to Cabo Inhaca has been
determined. Then pass well clear to E and S of
Baixo Danae (25°54′S 33°03′E) before making
course for the anchorage.
BAÍA DE MAPUTO
General information
Charts 644
Description
5.17
1
Baía de Maputo is entered between Cabo Inhaca
(25°58′S 33°00′E) and Ponta da Macaneta, 15 miles WNW.
Rio Espírito Santo, on the N bank of which stands the port
of Maputo, enters the bay 22 miles W of Cabo Inhaca.
The N part of the bay provides the deep water approach
to Maputo whereas the S part, between Ponta dos Elefantes
(25°58′S 32°54′E) and Ponta Maone, 16½ miles WSW, is
encumbered by extensive shoals which almost entirely
block its approach.
2
Extensive shoals, extending 20 miles NNW from Cabo
Inhaca, greatly encumber the approach to Baía de Maputo.
Though there are several channels between these shoals,
only Canal do Norte and Canal do Sul are marked.
The principal approach is from NE via Canal do Norte
(25°38′S 32°52′E) (5.25). Local knowledge is required for
the more direct approach from E via Canal do Sul (25°55′S
32°57′E) (5.29).
Topography
5.18
1
Between Ponta da Macaneta, a low sandy point at the
mouth of Rio Incomati, and Monte Cutfield, 19 miles NNE,
the coast consists of sandhills partially covered with bush
rising to a height of over 40 m in the vicinity of Monte
Cutfield.
Monte Cutfield, 53 m high, is the highest of the
sandhills on this stretch of coast, and from NE it may be
identified at a distance of 20 miles in clear weather; a strip
of whitish sand on its NE slope is prominent in the
morning.
Depths
5.19
1
The controlling depths in the approach to Baía de
Maputo via Canal do Norte are found in the vicinity of
Barra Norte, where depths of less than 10 m are charted; a
least depth of 8⋅8 m lies close S of No 2N Light−buoy
(25°46′S 32°50′E).
Vessels of suitable draught for approach via Canal do
Sul will find no difficulty with the depths in the main part
of Baía de Maputo leading to the port Maputo.
For depths in the W part of Baía de Maputo leading to
the port of Maputo see 5.41.
Pilotage
5.20
1
The pilot boarding place for Maputo is 2 cables ENE of
No 6 Light−buoy (25°56′S 32°45′E). For further details see
5.49.
Natural conditions
5.21
1
Local magnetic anomaly. A magnetic anomaly in Baía
de Maputo causes the variation to change rapidly, giving
deflections from −2° to +3° from the normal. Positions
obtained from the magnetic compass should not be relied
on; the use of angles or ranges being preferable.
2
Tidal streams. Within the line of shoals extending N
from Cabo Inhaca and fronting the approaches to Baía de
Maputo, the in−going tidal stream sets SW over Parcel da
Xefina (25°53′S 32°45′E) and enters Rio Espírito Santo
with a maximum rate of 1 kn at neaps and 3 kn at springs;
the out−going tidal stream sets in the opposite direction at
about the same rate.
3
At the entrance to Rio Maputo (26°11′S 32°41′E) the
out−going tidal stream runs strongly, at times with rates
from 2½ to 5 kn.
Climate information, for Maputo see 1.174.
Directions
(continued from 5.15)
Principal marks
5.22
1
Landmark:
Building (25°57′S 32°37′E).
Major lights:
Cabo Inhaca Light (25°59′S 32°59′E) (5.10).
Esparcelado da Polana Light (25°58′S 32°38′E)
(5.58).
Miradouro Light (25°59′S 32°36′E) (5.58).
Other aids to navigation
5.23
1
Racons:
Monte Cutfield, Lacerda Light (25°34′S 32°51′E).
Esparcelado da Polana Light (25°58′S 32°38′E).
Miradouro Light (25°59′S 32°36′E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Caution
5.24
1
The positions of the entrance channels are subject to
change and depths may be less than charted. Buoys
marking the channels may be moved accordingly and the
Harbour Master, Maputo, should be consulted for the latest
information.
Approach via Canal do Norte
5.25
1
From a position E of No 1N Light−buoy (N cardinal)
(25°38′S 32°53′E), marking the N extremity of Baixo
CHAPTER 5
182
Cutfield, the track through Canal do Norte leads initially W
then generally S, passing (with positions from Ponta da
Macaneta (25°52′S 32°45′E)):
N of No 1N Light−buoy (15½ miles NNE), at a safe
distance bearing in mind that it is in an exposed
place and may have dragged from its charted
position, thence:
2
WNW of No 1W Buoy (port hand) (14½ miles NNE),
marking the W extremity of Baixo Cutfield,
thence:
Close W of No 2N Light−buoy (port hand) (7 miles
NE) at Barra Norte; a charted depth of 8⋅8 m lies
close S of the buoy. Strong S sets may be
experienced in the vicinity of Barra Norte. Thence:
Close WSW of No 3N Light−buoy (port hand)
(6 miles ENE), and:
3
ENE of shoals extending E from Ponta da Macaneta,
a low sandy point with a conspicuous (1987)
stranded wreck close by. A beacon (tripod, white
triangle topmark, 12 m in height) stands close
within the point; two other beacons stand on the
coast, respectively 2¾ and 5½ miles N, the latter
being of similar appearance to that at Ponta da
Macaneta. Thence:
5.26
1
E of No 4 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (6 miles E),
moored 1 mile ENE of Baixo Fawn at the entrance
to Baía de Maputo, thence:
W of shoal ground (8 miles ESE) forming the W
extremity of Baixos da Inhaca (5.29), an extensive
area of shoals extending N from Ilha da Inhaca; an
obstruction, the remains of a former light−structure,
lies close within the shoals 3 miles E of Baixo
Fawn. Thence:
2
Close E of No 5 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (7 miles
SE), thence:
NW of Ponta dos Elefantes (10 miles SE), the
steep−to W extremity of Ilha dos Portugueses, a
sandy island 7 m high, covered with bushes and
with a leper establishment on its W side, thence:
5.27
1
The track leads W, passing:
S of Baixo Ribeiro (4 miles SE); a light−beacon
(white round concrete structure) is established on
its S extremity. Depths of 7⋅4 m and 8⋅8 m lie
respectively 2 miles ESE and 8 cables SSW from
the light−beacon. Thence:
S of a dangerous wreck (3¼ miles SSE), thence:
To the pilot boarding place or anchorage, as charted,
close E of No 6 Light−buoy at the E entrance to
Canal da Xefina.
5.28
1
Useful marks
Lacerda Light (white square on metal framework
tower, 10 m in height) (25°34′S 32°51′E) at Monte
Cutfield (5.18).
Macomana Light (tripod on white building) (25°41′S
32°46′E).
Radio Mast (red obstruction lights) (25°52′S 32°36′E).
(Directions continue for Maputo at 5.56)
Approach via Canal do Sul
5.29
1
Canal do Sul lies between Baixos da Inhaca (25°54′S
32°55′E) and Baixo do Meio, about 1½ miles NE.
2
Caution. Local knowledge is required. The channel is a
changeable feature and buoys marking it are changed
accordingly. Sandwaves exist in the vicinity of Baixos da
Inhaca and depths shoaler than those charted may be
encountered; allowance should be made for the effect of a
SE or E swell which may cause considerable motion to a
vessel in the channel. The charted leading light from Barra
Sul front light (concrete tripod, 23 m in height) (25°58′S
32°59′E) does not mark the line of the channel as found
during a survey in 1993.
3
From the vicinity of the anchorage about 2¾ miles NW
of Cabo Inhaca (25°58′S 33°00′E) (5.16) the track leads
NW, passing (with positions from Cabo Inhaca):
NE of No 1S Light−buoy (port hand) (4¾ miles NW),
thence:
NE of No 2S Light−buoy (port hand) (6¼ miles NW),
thence:
4
When 3 cables S of No 3S Light−buoy (charted as port
hand) (8 miles NW) the track leads SW, passing:
SE of No 4 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (9¼ miles
NW).
(Directions continue for Maputo at 5.26)
Minor channels within Baía de Maputo
Passagem da Xefina Grande
5.30
1
Passagem da Xefina Grande lies between Baixo Ribeiro
(25°54′S 32°49′E) and the shoals off Ponta da Macaneta,
4½ miles WNW. The channel is unmarked and there is a
least depth of 5⋅4 m at its W end which is less than
5 cables wide; a dangerous wreck also lies at the W end of
the channel.
Rio Maputo
5.31
1
Canal do Rio Maputo, entered about 6 miles E of Ponta
Maone (26°02′S 32°36′E) (5.61) and unmarked, forms the
approach to Rio Maputo which flows into the SW corner
of Baía de Maputo. For tidal streams at the entrance to Rio
Maputo see 5.21.
Baía de Machangulo
5.32
1
Baía de Machangulo (26°10′S 32°48′E) lies in the SE
corner of Baía de Maputo. The approach is much
encumbered by shoals through which there are three
unmarked channels:
Canal da Inhaca, the E channel, entered from
Portinho da Inhaca (26°00′S 32°54′E) (5.33).
Canal Direito, the middle channel, entered 2¼ miles
W of Ponta Black Bluff (26°00′S 32°55′E).
2
Canal Grande do Machangulo, the W channel, entered
3 miles W of Ponta Black Bluff. About 5 miles
SW of its entrance the channel divides into two
branches.
All the channels terminate in a shoal bar before entering
the deeper water of Canal Pequeno do Machangulo
(26°10′S 32°48′E) near the head of the bay.
Anchorages
5.33
1
In the approaches to and within Baía de Maputo,
anchorage, as shown on the chart, may be obtained as
follows:
Within Canal do Norte, in depths from 12 to 13 m
with Macomana Light (25°41′S 32°46′E) (5.28)
bearing 313° distant 4 miles.
In the vicinity of the pilot boarding place (25°56′S
32°45′E) at the E entrance to Canal da Xefina, in
depths of about 11 m.
CHAPTER 5
183
At the E entrance to Canal do Sul (25°56′S 32°58′E),
see 5.16.
2
Portinho da Inhaca (26°00′S 32°54′E). Local
knowledge is required owing to the shifting nature
of the shoals in the vicinity. The anchorage, in a
depth of about 10 m, lies between the drying bank
fronting the NW coast of Ilha da Inhaca and Baixo
Chaimite, a narrow shoal which extends S from a
position close S of Ponta dos Elefantes (5.26).
Anchorage may also be obtained S of Baixo
Chaimite, in a depth of about 11 m, 1 mile NW of
a Marine Biological Station (26°02′S 32°54′E); a
beacon stands 1 mile N of the Station, close to the
top of a prominent broad streak of red sand
extending from the base to the summit of the
coastal ridge.
MAPUTO
General information
Chart 646
Position
5.34
1
Maputo, 25°58′S 32°34′E, stands on the N bank of Rio
Espírito Santo, where it enters Baía de Maputo.
Function
5.35
1
Maputo, formerly known as Lourenço Marques, is the
capital of Mozambique and the country’s largest city with a
population estimated (1999) at just under 3 million; it is the
country’s largest port and serves not only southern
Mozambique, but also Swaziland and parts of South Africa
and Zimbabwe.
2
Main exports are steel and ferro−alloys, aluminium, coal,
forest products, granite, sugar, molasses, fruit and
containers.
Main imports are grain, rice, alumina, fertilizer,
petroleum, vehicles, general cargo and containers.
Topography
5.36
1
The commercial part of the city of Maputo is on
reclaimed land behind the quays, and the residential areas
lie on a semi−circle of hills.
Port limits
5.37
1
Port limits are defined by latitude 26°00′S and by
longitude 32°36′E.
Approach and entry
5.38
1
Maputo is approached through Canal do Norte (25°38′S
32°52′E) or Canal do Sul (25°55′S 32°57′E), both of which
lead into Baía de Maputo (5.17). The port is entered via a
dredged channel in the NW part of Baía de Maputo,
marked by light−buoys and guided by the alignment of
leading lights.
Traffic
5.39
1
In 2005, the port was used by 517 vessels with a total
of 11 040 797 dwt.
Port Authority
5.40
1
Maputo Port Development Co SARL, Port Director’s
Building, PO Box 2841, Maputo, Mozambique.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
5.41
1
Vessels able to transit the entrance channel of Canal da
Polana, dredged (2006) to a depth of 9⋅4 m, will be able to
berth at Maputo.
Deepest and longest berth
5.42
1
Deepest. Mozal Jetty at Matola Aluminium Terminal
(5.65), 11⋅5 m (2003).
Longest. Citrus Terminal, 380 m; part of 3275 m of
continuous wharfage at Maputo Cargo Terminals (5.64).
Tidal levels
5.43
1
Mean spring range about 3⋅0 m; mean neap range about
0⋅8 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide Tables.
Density of water
5.44
1
At Matola (25°58′S 32°30′E), 1⋅018 g/cm during the
wet season, 1⋅025 g/cm during the dry season.
Maximum size of vessel handled
5.45
1
Maximum LOA, 230 m; maximum draught, 12⋅1 m.
Arrival information
Port operations
5.46
1
The port operates 24 hours a day throughout the year.
Port Control is at the root of Harbour Office Pier
(25°58′⋅6S 32°34′⋅2E).
At Matola Bulk Terminals (5.65), tankers arriving to
discharge normally berth starboard side to, stemming the
out−going tidal stream, and sail on the in−going tidal
stream. Vessels arriving to load normally berth port side to,
on the in−going tidal stream and sail on the in−going tidal
stream.
Notice of ETA required
5.47
1
ETA should be sent 48, 24, 12 and 2 hours prior to
arrival at the pilot boarding place (5.49), see Admiralty List
of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).
Outer anchorages
5.48
1
For anchorage in the approaches to and within Baía de
Maputo see 5.33.
Rio Espírito Santo anchorage, not charted, in the vicinity
of No 15 Light−buoy (25°59′⋅4S 32°35′⋅6E) and SE of
Canal da Polana leading line; good holding in depths from
about 5 to 6 m.
Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring is prohibited in Rio
Espírito Santo, as indicated on the chart, NW of a line
passing through the Cathedral (25°58′⋅1S 32°34′⋅5E) and a
tide gauge 5½ cables SSW, except as instructed by a pilot.
Pilotage
5.49
1
Pilotage is compulsory and available 24 hours a day.
The pilot boards 2 cables ENE of No 6 Light−buoy
CHAPTER 5
184
(25°56′S 32°45′E) at the E entrance to Canal da Xefina.
Pilotage may be suspended if winds exceed 24 kn. For
further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (3).
2
When embarking or disembarking a pilot, a pilot ladder
fitted with manropes should be used in conjunction with
the accommodation ladder; the foot of the accommodation
ladder should be 3 m above the water.
Tugs
5.50
1
Tugs are available and compulsory for all vessels except
coasters and fishing boats.
Quarantine
5.51
1
Vessels requiring pratique should, at night, exhibit
one green light when passing Cabo Inhaca signal station
(25°58′S 33°00′E), and again when passing Ponta Vermelha
signal station (25°59S 32°36′E).
It is reported (1983) that pilots can give pratique, except
if there is a disease on board, then the authorities at
Maputo should be contacted.
The Health Officer boards mail and passenger vessels at
all hours of the day and night, and other vessels during the
day until 2200.
Harbour
General layout
5.52
1
The port of Maputo provides berths for ocean−going
vessels centred on two locations:
Maputo Cargo Terminals (5.64), which has a
waterfront over 3 km long on the N bank of Rio
Espírito Santo adjacent to the city of Maputo.
Matola Bulk Terminals (5.65), also on the N bank of
the river 4 miles farther upstream, which provides
a facility for bulk carriers and oil tankers.
Development
5.53
1
In 2004, a long term programme to repair and upgrade
the wharves at Maputo Cargo Terminals (5.64) continues,
with completion due in 5 to 7 years.
Storm signals
5.54
1
Notwithstanding 1.44, storm signals are not displayed at
Maputo.
Natural conditions
5.55
1
Local magnetic anomaly. See 5.21.
Tidal streams. In the channel of Rio Espírito Santo off
Ponta Chaluquene (25°58′⋅5S 32°33′⋅4E), the maximum
spring rates of the in−going and out−going tidal streams
observed during the dry season are 2½ and 2¾ kn
respectively.
Climate information. See 1.174.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 5.28)
Principal marks
5.56
1
Landmarks:
Building (25°56′⋅9S 32°36′⋅9E).
Water tower (26°00′⋅5, 32°33′⋅8E).
Major lights:
Esparcelado da Polana Light (25°58′⋅0S 32°37′⋅5E)
(5.59).
Miradouro Light (25°58′⋅5S 32°35′⋅7E) (5.59).
Other aids to navigation
5.57
1
Racons:
Esparcelado da Polana Light (25°58′⋅0S 32°37′⋅5E).
Miradouro Light (25°58′⋅5S 32°35′⋅7E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Track
5.58
1
From the vicinity of the pilot boarding place (25°56′S
32°45′E) the track leads generally WSW through 10 miles
of dredged channel comprising Canal da Xefina and Canal
da Polana.
Canal da Xefina
5.59
1
Leading lights:
Front. Esparcelado da Polana Light (red square,
yellow stripe, on framework tower on dolphin;
12 m in height) (25°58′⋅0S 32°37′⋅5E).
Rear. Miradouro Light (red square, yellow stripe)
(1⋅62 miles WSW of front light).
2
The alignment (252½°) of these lights leads through
Canal da Xefina, marked by buoys and light−buoys (lateral)
and dredged over a minimum width of 100 m to a depth of
9⋅4 m (2006), passing (with positions from the front light):
Approach to Maputo from ENE (5.58)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Copyright Granted)
Ponta
Vermelha
Canal da Xefina
Leading Lights
CHAPTER 5
185
NNW of Baixo Serra (6 miles E), thence:
3
SSE of Restinga da Xefina (3½ miles ENE), a shoal
patch extending S from Ponta Garapão, the S
extremity of Ilha Xefina Grande, and marked by
No 8 Light−buoy (starboard hand). The lower part
of Ilha Xefina Grande consists of white sand and
is difficult to distinguish from the mainland
behind, but there are some hummocks on the
island and parts of it are covered with dense bush.
A beacon stands 9 cables NNE of Ponta Garapão.
Thence:
Canal da Xefina Leading Lights (5.59)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Copyright Granted)
4
To a position close NW of No 11 Light−buoy (port
hand) (1½ miles ENE) at the entrance to Canal da
Polana.
Canal da Polana
5.60
1
Leading lights:
Front. Esparcelado da Catembe Light (red square,
yellow stripe, on dolphin; 11 m in height)
(25°59′⋅9S 32°34′⋅7E).
Rear. Catembe Light (red square, yellow stripe; 12 m
in height) (1⋅05 miles SW of front light).
2
The alignment (239°) of these leading lights leads across
Baixo da Polana, which has a bottom of soft mud, via
Canal da Polana marked by buoys and light−buoys (lateral)
and dredged over a minimum width of 100 m to a depth of
9⋅4 m (2006), passing (with positions from the front light):
SE of Esparcelado da Polana Light (3 miles NE)
(5.59), thence:
3
SE of Ponta Vermelha (1¼ miles NE), a bold red
bluff 31 m high which forms the N entrance point
of Rio Espírito Santo; a signal station stands on
the point. Thence:
NE of foul ground (8 cables ESE) in which there are
three dangerous wrecks; the E−most stranded
wreck (9 cables ESE) is conspicuous on radar.
Thence the track leads NW to the berths at Maputo.
5.61
1
Useful marks:
Beacon (white pyramid, 12 m in height) (26°01′⋅6S
32°36′⋅1E) at Ponta Maone, a bold point forming
the S entrance point to Rio Espírito Santo.
Cais Maputo Light (white round building, gallery and
mast; 7 m in height) (25°58′⋅7S 32°34′⋅2E)
exhibited from the head of Harbour Office Pier.
2
Cais da Catembe Light (white column, 3 m in height)
(25°58′⋅8S 32°33′⋅7E) exhibited at the head of a
small T−headed pier.
Cupola (25°58′⋅3S 32°33′⋅9E), green dome at the
railway station.
Tower (25°58′⋅5S 32°34′⋅1E).
Harbour
Office
Station
Cupola
Tower 25°58′⋅5S 3234′⋅1E
Cais Maputo from SE (5.61)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Copyright Granted)
Canal da Matola
5.62
1
Canal da Matola is the deep water channel in Rio
Espírito Santo between the berths at Maputo and those at
Matola.
Leading lights. The alignment (296°) of the following
light beacons leads from the vicinity of the NW extremity
Canal da Polana Leading Lights (5.60)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − D. Given, MV Doulos)
CHAPTER 5
186
of Maputo Cargo Terminals (25°57′⋅5S 32°32′⋅5) to a
position off the head of Water Intake Jetty, 8 cable WNW,
marked by red lights spaced at 90 m intervals:
2
Front light (red rectangle, yellow stripe, on
framework tower) (25°56′⋅7S 32°30′⋅2E).
Rear light (red rectangle, yellow stripe, on framework
tower) (4½ cables WNW of front light).
Additional beacons in the vicinity of the front light,
close either side and 1¼ cables WNW, formerly marked the
limits of the channel when it was dredged to a greater
depth than presently (2003) charted.
3
Leading lights. The alignment (070°) astern of the
following lights leads from a position off the head of Water
Intake Jetty WSW to the berths at Matola Bulk Terminal,
about 1½ miles WSW:
Front light (roof of pumphouse) (25°57′⋅2S 32°31′⋅7E)
at the head of Water Intake Jetty.
Rear light (red rectangle, yellow stripe, on framework
tower) (8½ cables ENE of front light) at São José
Mission.
4
Two beacons stand on the leading line; the rear beacon
is close to São José Mission and the front beacon is near
the shore 2 cables WSW of the rear beacon.
Charts 646, 2930
Channel south of Matola
5.63
1
The head of Rio Espírito Santo lies about 1½ miles SW
of Matola where it is formed by the confluence of Rio
Tembe, Rio Umbeluzi and Rio Matola. Depths in Rio
Espírito Santo decrease from about 11 m off Matola to
about 4⋅3 m off the mouth of Rio Matola.
2
Leading lights. The alignment (022°) astern of the
following lights leads SSW to the mouth of Rio Matola:
Front light (white diamond on metal column, red
lantern) (25°57′⋅7S 32°29′⋅7E).
Rear light (white diamond on metal column, green
lantern) (2½ cables NNE of front light).
Useful mark:
Matola Cement Factory Light (red lantern on gallery
on column) (25°57′⋅5S 32°29′⋅3E).
Berths
Chart 646
Maputo Cargo Terminals
5.64
1
Just over 3 km of continuous wharfage on the N side of
Rio Espírito Santo, adjacent to the city of Maputo, forms
Maputo Cargo Terminals. Cargo−specific terminals, listed
from NW to SE, are as follows:
Berth Length Depth (2003)
Container Terminal 300 m 10⋅3 m
Bagged Sugar Terminal 200 m 10⋅5 m
Bulk Sugar Terminal 170 m 10⋅5 m
Molasses Terminal 179 m 10⋅5 m
Citrus Terminal 380 m 11⋅0 m
Coastal Terminal (Ro−Ro
facility close N)
300 m 8⋅0 m
Matola Bulk Terminals
5.65
1
Cargo−specific berths at Matola Bulk Terminals
(25°57′⋅7S 32°30′⋅0E), 2 miles W of the W end of Maputo
Cargo Terminals, are as follows:
Berth Length Depth (2003)
Coal Terminal 205 m 10⋅5 m
Tanker Jetty (Petroleum) 230 m 10⋅5 m
Mozal Jetty (Aluminium) 210 m 11⋅5 m
Grain Jetty 210 m 9⋅5 m
Other berths
5.66
1
Ponta Chaluquene (25°58′⋅5S 32°33′⋅4E), on S side of
Rio Espírito Santo has a quay, length 183 m, depth
alongside 5⋅5 m. The wreck of a floating dock lies close
NE; at HW a central mast remains visible.
Port services
Repairs
5.67
1
There is a small dry dock within the camber close NW
of the Harbour Office, length 80 m, width 12 m, sill 3⋅6 m
below chart datum. There are facilities for carrying out
most normal repairs. Divers are available.
Other facilities
5.68
1
Hospital; deratting and deratting exemption certificates
issued; no oily waste reception facilities.
Supplies
5.69
1
Diesel oil is available; fresh water is available at most
berths; stores are available and fresh provisions are fairly
plentiful.
Maputo Cargo Terminals − Container Terminal (left) to Berth No. 3 (right) (5.64)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − D. Given, MV Doulos)
CHAPTER 5
187
Matola − Mozal Jetty and silos from E (5.65)
(Original dated 2003)
(Photographs − Captain V R Bali)
Matola − Mozal Jetty from E (5.65)
(Original dated 2003)
Communications
5.70
1
Maputo International Airport is 3 miles N of the port.
BAÍA DE MAPUTO TO RIO LIMPOPO
General information
Chart 2930
Route
5.71
1
From a position E of No 1N Light−buoy (25°38′S
32°53′E) in the N approach to Baía de Maputo, the route
leads ENE to a position off the entrance to Rio Limpopo,
43 miles ENE.
Topography
5.72
1
Between Monte Cutfield (25°34′S 32°51′E), on which
stands Lacerda Light (5.28), and Ponta Pabjini, 26 miles
ENE, the coast consists of sandhills and ridges within
which may be seen some grassy hills with trees and bushes
on them. In the vicinity of Ponta Pabjini the sand has a
more reddish colour than that visible near Baía de Maputo.
2
Mabamba is a conspicuous sand dune, 85 m high,
7 miles WSW of Ponta Pabjini. In its central part there are
four small sand cones which resemble bell tents; similar
sand cones may be seen within 2 miles of Mabamba and
they are a peculiarity of this part of the coast.
3
Between Ponta Pabjini and Rio Limpopo, 16 miles ENE,
the coastal hills are moderately bare; for the first 10 miles
they are a light colour, but then become darker and higher.
There are a number of lagoons about 1 mile within the
coast between 17 miles SW and 7 miles NE of Ponta
Pabjini.
Depths
5.73
1
Shoal patches with depths less than 10 m extend up to
7 miles offshore in the vicinity E of Monte Cutfield, but
are contained within about 3 miles of the shore between
Ponta Pabjini and Rio Limpopo.
Natural conditions
5.74
1
Local magnetic anomaly in Baía de Maputo, see 5.21.
Current. See 5.4.
Directions
(continued from 5.15)
Principal marks
5.75
1
Major light:
Monte Belo Light (white masonry tower on dwelling,
14 m in height) (25°11′S 33°30′E) standing on a
hill 1½ miles NNW of the entrance to Rio
Limpopo.
Other aids to navigation
5.76
1
Racon:
Monte Cutfield, Lacerda Light (25°34′S 32°51′E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Track
5.77
1
From a position E of No 1 Light−buoy (N cardinal)
(25°38′S 32°53′E), marking the N extremity of Baixo
Cutfield at the N approach to Baía de Maputo, the track
leads ENE passing (with positions from Lacerda Light at
Monte Cutfield (25°34′S 32°51′E):
2
SSE of shoal patches of 9⋅6 m and 9⋅8 m (10 and
12 miles E). These are the most seaward of several
shoals with depths less than 10 m along this part
of the coastal fringe. The bottom is generally sand
with occasional rock; heavy tide−rips, possibly
caused by the irregular depths, have been
observed. If approaching the N entrance to Baía de
Maputo from NE it is recommended to keep at
least 10 miles offshore in this vicinity until
Lacerda Light (5.28) bears 315° before altering
course to that bearing. Thence:
3
SSE of Baixo da Lagoa (19½ miles ENE), a narrow
ridge of rock and sand 4 miles offshore At the
coast, Mabamba (5.72) is a conspicuous sand dune
85 high. Thence:
SSE of Ponta Pabjini (26 miles ENE), a dark rocky
bluff about 75 m high which projects from a bare
sandhill and has a ledge of dark rocks at its base.
From close inshore it has a very irregular and
broken appearance; there are several other similar
small cliffs in the vicinity. A conspicuous sand
dune, not charted, lies 5 cables N of Ponta Pabjini.
Thence:
5.78
1
SSE of a rocky shoal (28½ miles ENE) 2¾ miles
offshore with a least depth 5⋅7 m; two other
CHAPTER 5
188
detached rocky shoals with depths of 10⋅5 and
9⋅5 m lie either side, respectively 1¼ miles WSW
and 2 miles ENE. Thence:
SSE of Ponta Chiluela (31½ miles ENE), which is
rocky and projects from the base of the sandhills
close to the HW mark to form a small cliff 4 m
high, thence:
2
To a position SSE of a narrow rocky shoal (42 miles
ENE) lying parallel with the coast; least depth
6⋅1 m at its E extremity 1½ miles S of the mouth
of Rio Limpopo (5.79). Discoloured water from
the river may extend 3 or 4 miles offshore and
breakers extend 3 miles seaward of the entrance.
(Directions continue at 5.85)
Rio Limpopo
General information
5.79
1
Description. Rio Limpopo (25°13′S 33°31′E) rises in
the mountains NW of Pretoria, 1000 miles from its mouth,
and flows between Transvaal and Zimbabwe into
Mozambique before entering the sea 55 miles NE of Baía
de Maputo. Xia−Xia (João Belo) (25°03′S 33°38′E), the
principal town of the district, is situated 20 miles by river
above the mouth.
2
At Ponta Maquitane, the W entrance point, the coast
appears to curve round the point into the river. Banco do
Sul extends nearly 5 cables E from Ponta Maquitaine.
The E entrance point, Ponta Chai−Chai, is a low sand
spit on which there are a few bushes. Banco do Norte
fringes the S side of Ponta Chai−Chai extending nearly
5 cables S, and a bank which partially dries extends W
from the point. Other banks which partially dry lie close N
and 5 cables NE of Ponta Chai−Chai.
3
The entrance channel has a navigable width of about
1 cable between Banco do Sul and Banco do Norte, but
this is reduced to little more than ½ cable close N of Ponta
Maquitaine.
4
Topography. The entrance to the river is well defined;
the land W of it appears fertile and is cultivated, whereas
to E of it the coast is bare and sandy with occasional
bushy sandhills, among which may be seen a wooded
round−topped hill. A prominent red−topped hill 1 mile
inland, not charted, may be seen over the entrance.
Txibona−Tinaletxe is a sandhill 3¾ miles NW of the
entrance.
5
Depths. Depths over the bar, between the E extremity of
Banco do Sul and the S side of Banco do Norte, are
subject to considerable changes and are reported to vary
from year to year as well as during the different seasons.
As little as 0⋅6 m on the bar has been reported, but in 1945
there was a depth of 2⋅4 m.
6
Within the bar, Rio Limpopo is reported to be navigable
for a considerable distance by small draught power vessels,
even in the dry season.
Tidal stream. The out−going tidal stream at times
attains a rate of 4 kn, and may exceed this rate after rains.
Directions
5.80
1
Major light. Monte Belo Light (25°11′S 33°30′E)
(5.75).
Leading beacons indicate the channel across the bar.
Within the entrance the channel is marked by No 1 and
No 2 Buoys.
RIO LIMPOPO TO PONTA ZÁVORA
General information
Charts 2930, 2939
Route
5.81
1
From a position off the entrance to Rio Limpopo
(25°13′S 33°31′E) the route leads ENE to a position SE of
Ponta Závora, 101 miles ENE.
Topography
5.82
1
Between Rio Limpopo and Ponta Závora the coast
consists of a line of sandy hills covered with vegetation
which gives the hills a dark appearance. In places the hills
are bare, forming gaps in the dark line of vegetation which
can be seen from a considerable distance.
A chain of lakes and lagoons, close within the coast,
extends from a position 30 miles ENE of Rio Limpopo to
Lagoa Poelela, 65 miles farther ENE.
For local topography in the immediate vicinity of
Aguada da Boa Paz (24°53′S 34°25′E) see 5.87. A hill, not
charted, 48 m high and somewhat higher than the
surrounding country, stands 4½ miles ENE of Aguada da
Boa Paz; the upper part of the hill resembles a round
plateau and is covered with vegetation, except for a bare
patch on its SW side. There is a ridge of rocks on the
summit. The bare patch is very distinctive in certain lights
and may be seen from a distance of as much as 12 miles.
From close inshore, the coast abreast the hill has the
appearance of being the entrance to a small bay.
Depths
5.83
1
The edge of the continental shelf, as indicated by the
200 m depth contour, lies about 10 miles from the shore
between Rio Limpopo and Boa Paz 39 miles ENE, then
moves seaward to about 40 miles from the shore S of
Quissico Light (24°45′S 34°48′E) before returning to
15 miles off at Ponta Závora. Two isolated shoals have
been reported (5.87) seaward of the 200 m depth contour,
32 miles S and 35 miles SE of Ponta Závora.
2
Between Aguada da Boa Paz (24°53′S 34°25′E) and
Ponta Závora, 48 miles ENE, a few rocks fringe the coast
in places, mostly abreast the points, but nowhere extend
more than 1½ cables offshore.
Current
5.84
1
See 5.4.
Directions
(continued from 5.78)
Principal marks
5.85
1
Major lights:
Boa Paz Light (white round tower, 8 m in height)
(24°58′S 34°10′E).
Ponta Závora Light (white masonry tower, 16 m in
height) (24°31′S 35°12′E).
Other aids to navigation
5.86
1
Racon:
Ponta Závora Light (24°31′S 35°12′E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
CHAPTER 5
189
Track
5.87
1
From a position SSE of the mouth of Rio Limpopo
(25°13′S 33°31′E) the track leads ENE, passing (with
positions from Boa Paz Light (24°58′S 34°10′E)):
2
SSE of Baixos de Inhampura (30 miles WSW) which
parallels the coast for 10 miles. The line of shoals
comprising Baixos de Inhampura is steep−to on its
seaward side and especially so on its inshore side;
the sea breaks over the shoals in places during S
and SE winds. Ingumaulo is a conspicuous sand
dune, considerably higher than the surrounding
country, situated on the coast in the vicinity of the
W extremity of Baixos de Inhampura. Thence:
3
SSE of Praia Chonguene (20 miles WSW) where
there is a broad band of white sand with a small
dark hill in its centre. Between the band of sand
and the beach there are small sand dunes covered
with vegetation. Close SW of the band of sand,
two streaks of sand extend right down to the
beach. Thence:
4
SSE of Baixos da Boa Paz (11 miles ENE), a bank of
stones with depths of less than 5 m which extends
along the coast from the vicinity of Boa Paz Light
to Aguada da Boa Paz (15 miles ENE). The sea
breaks on a 2⋅7 m patch (8 miles ENE), 8 cables
offshore. A 1⋅7 m patch (11 miles ENE) is very
dangerous as the sea does not break on it.
Detached patches (12½ and 15 miles ENE), with
depths of 16 and 17 m respectively, lie 3 miles
offshore. Thence:
5
SSE of Aguada da Boa Paz (15 miles ENE), an outlet
to the sea of a lagoon close inland. From 6 miles
offshore the entrance may be readily identified by
a chain of small hills to W of it; these terminate in
a hill 22 m high which dips to the river mouth in
a steep reddish slope. At this distance the break in
the coastline can be seen and, at LW, an unbroken
bank of sand appears to extend across the
entrance, the outfall being invisible. The gap in the
coastline is backed by the dark line of vegetation
on the high ground inland. To NE of the entrance
the land near the coast is level. A chain of rocks,
on which the sea always breaks, fronts a bar
across the mouth and renders entry impracticable
to all vessels. For details of a distinctive hill, not
charted, 4½ miles ENE of Aguada da Boa Paz see
5.82. Thence:
6
Clear of an isolated shoal with a depth 8⋅9 m
(36 miles ENE); charted depths of 22 m and 21 m
lie, respectively, 2 miles WSW and 2½ miles SSE
of the shoal. Quissico Light (white framework
tower, 6 m in height) stands on the shore 4 miles
N of the shoal. Thence:
Clear of a 33 m patch (61 miles E) reported in 1980,
position approximate; a 29 m patch, reported in
1969, existence doubtful, lies 28 miles ENE of the
33 m patch. Thence:
7
To a position SE of Ponta Závora (63 miles ENE),
fringed with above−water rocks. Close within the
point a ridge of sandhills rises to elevations of 60
to 90 m. The point itself is not prominent, but
1¾ miles N of it there is a remarkable sand cliff
nearly 5 cables in length. Close N of Ponta Závora
there is a slight indentation in the coast in which
shelter from SW winds might be obtained. Ponta
Závora Light (5.85) stands near the point. There is
a signal station at the lighthouse.
5.88
1
Useful mark:
Inhatumungue (24°28′S 35°12′E), see 5.97.
(Directions continue at 5.94)
Anchorage
5.89
1
Shelter may be obtained in the vicinity of Ponta Závora
(5.87), but note rocky patches NE of the point which are
described at 5.96.
PONTA ZÁVORA TO PONTA DA BARRA
General information
Chart 2939
Route
5.90
1
From a position SE of Ponta Závora (24°31′S 35°12′E)
the route leads NE then NNE to a position E of Ponta da
Barra 47 miles NNE.
Topography
5.91
1
Between Ponta Závora and Cabo das Correntes, 30 miles
NE, the hills rise to an elevation of over 180 m from 2 to
4 miles inland and are partially cultivated. Heavy breakers
have been seen along this part of the coast at a distance of
3 miles offshore.
Between Cabo das Correntes and Cabo Inhambane,
14½ miles N, the coast consists of a sandy beach backed
by high sandhills which from a distance resemble chalky
cliffs.
Depths
5.92
1
The edge of the continental shelf, as indicated by the
200 m depth contour closes the coast from 15 miles
offshore at Ponta Závora to 6½ miles off at Cabo das
Correntes where it then parallels the coast N to Ponta
Barra.
Current
5.93
1
See 5.4.
Directions
(continued from 5.88)
Principal marks
5.94
1
Landmarks:
White House (24°17′S 35°23′E). A prominent dark
group of trees resembling firs, the only such group
in the vicinity, stands on the coastal sandhills
3 miles SW of the white house.
Major lights:
Ponta Závora Light (24°31′S 35°12′E) (5.85).
Ponta da Barra Light (white round tower, 13 m in
height) (23°48′S 35°32′E).
Other aids to navigation
5.95
1
Racon:
Ponta Závora Light (24°31′S 35°12′E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
CHAPTER 5
190
Track
5.96
1
From a position SE of Ponta Závora (24°31′S 35°12′E),
the track leads NE, passing (with positions from Ponta
Závora Light):
SE of rocky patches (up to 8½ miles NE); in
particular an 8⋅2 m patch 1¼ miles offshore
(3½ miles NE) and a 3⋅8 m patch 1 mile offshore
(6¼ miles NE). Thence:
SE of Ponta Dungalungo (22 miles NE), fronted by a
reef extending nearly 5 cables offshore, thence:
2
SE of Cabo das Correntes (30 miles NE), a rounded
sandy point, partially covered with bushes and
slightly lower than the bold coast on either side.
The cape may be identified by a few detached
black rocks that fringe it, and by an islet, 5 m
high, 2¾ miles SSW of the cape and connected to
the coast by a rock reef. Cabo das Correntes Light
(white square tower, 5 m in height) is exhibited
close within the cape.
3
Thence the track leads generally N, passing (with
positions from Cabo das Correntes Light (24°06′S
35°30′E)):
E of Ponta Gumula (5 miles N), a small projection of
the coast which, being fringed with rocks, makes a
break in the sandy beach. Gumula, a hill 1 mile W
of the point, is surmounted by a surveying beacon.
A round−topped hill, not charted, on which there is
the only sign of cultivation on this part of the
coast, lies 2 miles N of Ponta Gumula and a short
distance inland. Thence:
4
E of Cabo Inhambane (14½ miles NNE), a small
rocky point close within which lies a conical hill,
64 m high, grassy and nearly free of bush, thence:
E of Ponta Tofo (15½ miles NNE), a small rocky
point fringed by a reef extending 3 cables offshore.
A prominent beacon (triangular framework) stands
on a hill, not charted, 1¾ miles WSW of the point.
Thence:
5
To a position E of Ponta da Barra (19 miles NNE),
low and fringed by a reef extending nearly
5 cables NE. Condejane, a hill 1 mile SW, has a
sharp summit with a group of trees on it and can
be readily identified from N. Ponta da Barra Light
(5.94) is exhibited from a hill close within Ponta
da Barra. A signal station is near the light−tower.
5.97
1
Useful marks:
Inhatumungue (24°28′S 35°12′E), a hill 3¼ miles N
of Ponta Závora Light. An isolated group of trees,
which may be seen from a distance of over
20 miles in clear weather, stands on another hill
close NE and serves to identify Inhatumungue.
(Directions continue at 5.106)
Anchorage
5.98
1
Anchorage may be obtained in depths from 27 to 35 m
at nearly 1 mile offshore between Cabo das Correntes
(24°06′S 35°30′E) and Cabo Inhambane, 14½ miles NNE.
PONTA DA BARRA TO BEIRA
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 2931, 2932
Area covered
5.99
1
This section describes the coastal passage from Ponta da
Barra to Beira, including details of the port of Beira,
presented in four parts as follows:
Ponta da Barra to Cabo São Sebastião (5.101).
Cabo São Sebastião to Cabo Bazaruto (5.119).
Cabo Bazaruto to Beira (5.131).
Beira (5.156).
Current
5.100
1
For general details on the Mozambique Current see
1.116.
PONTA DA BARRA TO CABO SÃO
SEBASTIÃO
General information
Chart 2931
Route
5.101
1
From a position E of Ponta da Barra (23°47′S 35°32′E)
the route leads N for 102 miles to a position E of Cabo
São Sebastião (22°06′S 35°29′E).
Topography
5.102
1
Drying banks of Baía de Inhambane lie between Ponta
da Barra (23°47′S 35°32′E) and Ponta Algoa, 10½ miles
NW. For further details see 5.110.
Between Ponta Algoa and Ponta da Barra Falsa,
45 miles NNE, the coast is backed by hills from 130 to
190 m high. The only remarkable feature on this part of the
coast is a prominent ridge of bare reddish−coloured sand
with a fringe of green bushes at its base, which lies close
to the sea about 10 miles S of Ponta da Barra Falsa
(5.106).
2
Between some remarkable red cliffs (5.107) 12 miles
NNW of Ponta da Barra Falsa, and Maxecane 12 miles
farther N, there is a sandy beach within which is a
continuous line of small sand dunes partially covered with
brush. On the S part of this stretch of coast, the hills
within the sand dunes are lower and more wooded than
those S of the red cliffs. At a position 5½ miles N of the
red cliffs the coast is very low and has the appearance of
being the entrance to a river, but the sand dunes are
continuous.
3
In the vicinity of Maxecane the coastal hills rise again
to an elevation of about 100 m where there are some
remarkable red sandhills (5.107). Between Maxecane and a
position 14 miles N, the coastal hills are a little over 60 m
high and are fronted with small white sandhills, more or
less wooded; for 6 miles N of the latter position, the coast
has no remarkable features and the land gradually decreases
in elevation until the coastal hills cease altogether 7 miles S
of Cabo São Sebastião (5.108).
CHAPTER 5
191
Depths
5.103
1
Patches with depths less than 30 m lie close along the
inshore edge of the 50 m depth contour which extends in a
direct line between 1½ miles off Ponta da Barra and 1 mile
off Ponta da Barra Falsa, 52 miles N.
2
A bank over which there are depths of 50 m or less
extends between 3 and 5 miles offshore from Ponta Barra
Falsa to Maxecane, about 25 miles N, where it gradually
approaches the coast to within 2 miles E of São Sebastião
Light, 15 miles farther N. The outer edge of the bank is
often clearly defined by a line of ripples which stretches,
nearly parallel with the coast, between Ponta da Barra Falsa
and Cabo São Sebastião.
Natural conditions
5.104
1
Current. A strong S−going current is often experienced
within 1 mile of Ponta da Barra Falsa (22°56′S 35°36′E).
When N of the point, N−bound vessels may avoid this
current to a great extent by keeping inside the edge of the
50 m bank, where a N−going current is sometimes found.
For further details on the Mozambique Current see 1.116.
Climate information, for Inhambane see 1.175.
Directions
(continued from 5.97)
Principal marks
5.105
1
Major lights:
Ponta da Barra Light (23°48′S 35°32′E) (5.94).
Barra Falsa Light (white square tower, 14 m in
height) (22°57′S 35°36′E).
Ponta da Barra to Ponta da Barra Falsa
5.106
1
From a position E of Ponta da Barra (23°47′S 35°32′E)
the track leads N, passing (with positions from Ponta da
Barra):
Clear of an 18 m patch (5 miles NNE); a 20 m patch
lies 2¾ miles farther NNE and depths of less than
30 m continue up to 10½ miles NNE of Ponta da
Barra. Thence:
E of A Light−buoy (safe water) (8 miles NNW) at the
entrance of the approach channel to Inhambane.
(Directions for Inhambane are given at 5.114)
2
Thence the track continues N, passing (with positions
from Ponta da Barra Falsa (22°56′S 35°36′E)):
Clear of a 21⋅5 m patch (28 miles S); a 29 m patch
lies 1¼ miles farther S. Thence:
Clear of a 16 m patch, reported (1995), (18 miles
SSE), position approximate, thence:
3
Clear of a 26 m patch (16 miles S); a 23 m patch lies
4 miles N of the 26 m patch. Thence:
E of Baixo Sílvia (11 miles S), a narrow strip of coral
3½ miles offshore and extending parallel with the
coast for about 3 miles; patches of less than 15 m
extend up to 5 miles SSW and NNE of Baixo
Silvia. Thence:
4
To a position E of Ponta da Barra Falsa, which is
low, but the land close within it rises to two small
conical sandhills 29 m high and thence to a peak
110 m high, on which stands Ponta da Barra Light
(5.105), and around which is a considerable
amount of sand making the peak noticeable from
N. Good shelter may be obtained under Ponta da
Barra Falsa during W winds. Landing might be
effected at times close NW of the point.
Ponta da Barra Falsa to São Sebastião
5.107
1
From a position E of Ponta da Barra Falsa (22°56′S
35°36′E) the track continues N, passing (with positions
from Ponta da Barra Falsa):
E of Baixo Zambia (10 miles N), a bank of coral
3¾ miles offshore; it is steep−to, especially on its
E side. See 5.109 for passage inshore of Baixo
Zambia. Some remarkable red cliffs line the shore
NW of the bank; they extend for about 3½ miles,
reach an elevation of 37 m and are prominent,
especially during the forenoon. Thence:
2
E of Baixo África (24 miles N), a patch of sand and
rock 2½ miles offshore. On the shore W of the
bank the coastal hills rise above 100 m in the
vicinity of Maxecane. Here there are some
remarkable red sandhills, with cliffs of a deeper
colour in many places on their seaward slopes;
these cliffs are generally about one third of the
way up the slope of the hills, but occasionally they
come down to sea level. Although the upper edge
of the cliffs is perfectly even, their faces are cut
into pyramids which somewhat resemble a camp of
bell tents. Thence:
5.108
1
E of a rocky shoal (38 miles N) with a depth of
5⋅1 m, charted as position doubtful, which is
apparently part of a reef extending from the coast.
The coast in this vicinity should not be approached
within 2 miles. São Sebastião Light (red tower,
white band on white dwelling; 8 m in height)
stands on the shore 2 miles NW. Thence:
2
E of Ponta Chambure (45 miles N), the N extremity
of a remarkable sand spit, partially covered with
scraggy trees and bushes, extending about 6 miles
N and 2 miles S of São Sebastião Light. The spit
is nowhere more than 5 cables wide and is
separated by a narrow and very shallow inlet from
the high land behind, which terminates in Cabo
São Sebastião. Thence:
3
To a position E of the drying banks extending up to
2¾ miles seaward from Cabo São Sebastião
(50 miles N), a steep bluff 70 m high and the N
extremity of a range of hills which extend S for
2 miles at the same elevation as the bluff, after
which they dip for a short distance and then rise to
a range of wooded hills at Chiguebeguebe. From
S, a small white sand patch may be seen near the
upper part of the bluff; from N, a considerable
amount of red sand is visible extending up the
entire face of the cliff.
5.109
1
Inshore passage. When N of Ponta da Barra Falsa
(22°56′S 35°36′E), N−bound vessels of suitable draught
may avoid the strong S−going current (5.104) by passing
inshore of Baixo Zambia, 10 miles N, in depths from 13 to
15 m. Care is necessary to avoid Baixo África 14 miles
farther N.
Thence the track continues as at 5.108.
(Directions continue at 5.124)
CHAPTER 5
192
Inhambane
General information
5.110
1
Position. Inhambane (23°52′S 35°23′E) is situated in the
SW part of Baía de Inhambane.
Function. Inhambane was one of the earliest Portuguese
settlements in Mozambique and is now the capital of the
province of Inhambane. In 1997 the town had a population
of about 52 000. Agriculture is the principal industry of the
surrounding district; significant exports are sugar and
coconut products.
2
Topography. Baía de Inhambane, entered between Ponta
da Barra (23°47′S 35°32′E) (5.96) and Ponta Algoa
10½ miles NW, is almost completely obstructed by banks
and breaking reefs which dry in places.
Between Ponta da Barra and Barrow Point, a low sandy
projection 2½ miles W, the coast is very low and covered
with mangroves in places.
3
The area between Barrow Point and Ilha Mocucuni,
name not charted, a low sandy and partly wooded island
7 miles SW, is completely filled with a bank which dries in
places and through which there are boat channels. From the
head of the bay, this bank extends N for about 11½ miles.
Ilha dos Ratos and Ilha dos Porcos, both low, flat and
covered with coconut palms, lie on this bank 2½ and
3½ miles, respectively, NE of Ilha Mocucuni.
4
On the shore on the W side of the channel leading to
Inhambane, two patches of red cliff are conspicuous; one
lies close N of No 7 Beacon at Ponta Chicuque (23°48′S
35°21′E) and the other about 1 mile S of the first.
Ponta da Linga−Linga (23°44′S 35°24′E), is the S
extremity of a peninsula on the NW side of the bay; the
intervening land, 5½ miles N to Ponta Algoa, is flat and
thickly wooded.
5
Approach and entry. Inhambane is approached by a
channel, about 15 miles in length, which lies close to the
W shore of Baía de Inhambane. There are two bars in the
channel and both are subject to constant change. The outer
bar lies about 3 miles ESE of Ponta Algoa, and the inner
bar lies about half way along the channel, SE and SSE of
Ponta Linga−Linga.
Much of the channel, and final entry to Inhambane, is
marked by light−buoys and guided by pairs of leading
marks; see caution at 5.114.
6
Time of entry. There is nearly always a heavy swell on
the outer bar. With winds of more than force 3 between N
and SE, vessels, especially small craft, should cross the bar
on the in−going tide as near as possible to HW. In daylight
it is advisable to enter during the afternoon when the
leading beacons can be seen more readily.
In order to cross the inner bar at the most favourable
time, vessels should arrive off Ponta da Linga−Linga about
15 minutes before local HW.
7
Port Authority. Inhambane Port Authority, Direcção
Nacional dos Portos e Caminhos de Ferro, Avenida da
Independência, Inhambane.
Limiting conditions
5.111
1
Controlling depth. In 1988, vessels with a maximum
draught of 4⋅6 m were able to reach Inhambane.
Deepest and longest berth. Inhambane Pier (5.115).
Tidal levels. At Inhambane, mean spring range is about
2⋅7 m, mean neap range about 0⋅8 m.
At the outer bar, off Ponta Algoa, HW occurs about
75 minutes before HW Inhambane; at the inner bar, off
Ponta Linga−Linga, it occurs about 30 minutes before that
at Inhambane.
2
Winds from N raise the sea level and advance the time
of HW; winds from S have the opposite effect.
For further details see Admiralty Tide Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled. In 1988, vessels up
to 150 m in length were able to reach the berth at
Inhambane.
Arrival information
5.112
1
Outer anchorage. See 5.117.
Prohibited anchorage. Anchorage is prohibited S of a
line 270° from the head of the pier at Inhambane (5.115).
2
Pilotage There is no official pilot for Inhambane, but if
the Port Captain is given at least 6 hours notice of the ETA
at the landfall buoy, a person with local knowledge can be
made available to assist a vessel entering.
3
Local knowledge, is required.
Harbour
5.113
1
General layout. Anchorage off the town, and a pier
(5.115) 3 cables S of Ponta Belan, the NW extremity of the
peninsula on which Inhambane stands. The town is
surrounded by coconut palms and is not easily seen until
close to Ponta Belan.
2
Tidal streams run at rates from 2 to 4 kn on the outer
bar, and from 1½ to 2 kn at the anchorage abreast
Inhambane.
Climate information, see 1.175.
Directions for entering harbour
5.114
1
Major light:
Ponta da Barra Light (23°48′S 35°32′E) (5.94).
Caution. The channel leading to Inhambane is subject to
frequent change. Although the channel is marked by
light−buoys (lateral), which are moved periodically, no
information concerning depths has been received since
1974 and so detailed directions cannot be given. Extreme
caution is advised when navigating in these waters.
2
Track. In 1988, six pairs of beacons, the positions of
which are best seen on the chart, provided leads through
different sections of the channel.
The alignment (292° and 238½°) of the two N−most
pairs of beacons, reported missing in 1995, which have
front marks charted on the coast at Ponta Algoa (23°39′S
35°26′E) and 3 miles farther S, no longer (2004) conform
with light−buoys moored to mark the channel within the
outer bar.
3
Similarly, the alignment (202½°) of Beacons No 5 and
No 6, respectively 10½ and 9 miles SSW of Ponta Algoa,
no longer (2004) conforms with light−buoys marking the
inner bar SE and SSE of Ponta da Linga−Linga (23°44′S
35°24′E).
4
The inner bar, subject to constant change and over
which the navigable channel is very narrow, is formed by
Baixos do Linga−Linga and comprises a number of shoal
patches with depths less than 3 m lying about 1 mile SE
and 1¾ miles SSE of Ponta da Ling−Linga.
Berths
5.115
1
Anchorage, may be obtained in the channel off
Inhambane in an area:
S of a line drawn E from No 3 Beacon (23°51′S
35°21′E).
CHAPTER 5
193
N of a line drawn W from Inhambane Church
(23°52′S 35°23′E).
WSW of the leading line marking the approach to the
berth.
2
Anchorage may also be obtained, by vessels up to 60 m
long and 3⋅7 m draught, off Maxixe, a small village
1½ miles W of Inhambane.
Alongside. A T−shaped pier projects into the river from
Inhambane. Vessels berth at the head of the pier which is
115 m long and has a depth of more than 6⋅1 m alongside.
During the out−going tidal stream there is a set on to the
head of the pier.
Port services
5.116
1
Facilities. There is a hospital at Inhambane.
Supplies. Fresh provisions are readily available. Water is
available at the pier.
Communications. An airport is 1½ miles SE of the
town.
Anchorages
Baía de Inhambane
5.117
1
During strong S winds good shelter will be found about
1½ miles NW of Ponta da Barra (23°47′S 35°32′E) (5.96).
Good anchorage, over sand, may also be obtained farther
NW keeping 1 mile off the E edge of the drying bank
extending NW from Barrow Point, 2½ miles W of Ponta da
Barra. There is nearly always a swell at these anchorages,
and vessels should be prepared to leave on any change of
wind to E.
Ponta da Barra Falsa
5.118
1
For shelter in the vicinity of Ponta da Barra Falsa see
5.106.
CABO SÃO SEBASTIÃO TO CABO
BAZARUTO
General information
Chart 2932
Route
5.119
1
From a position E of Cabo São Sebastião (22°06′S
35°29′E) the route leads N for 35 miles to a position E of
Cabo Bazaruto (21°31′S 35°29′E).
Topography
5.120
1
Ilhas dos Bazarutos are a group of islands and small
sandy islets lying up to 14 miles offshore between Cabo
São Sebastião (22°06′S 35°29′E) and Ponta Inhassoro
33 miles NNW. The islands are known for their great
beauty and for the excellent fishing available; the area is
the site of a pearl fishery. The principal islands are, from S
to N, Ilha de Santa Isabel (Ilha Magaruque), Ilha de Santo
António (Ilha Benguerra) and Ilha do Bazaruto with Ilha de
Santa Carolina to W of it.
2
Ilha do Bazaruto is the largest island of the group and
from S appears bare, sandy and whale backed. Ponta
Dundo, the S extremity of the island, rises to a prominent
bare hill about 90 m high. Thereafter for 4 miles N the
island is low, before rising to a bare ridge which extends N
for 12 miles at an elevation of about 90 m before sloping
down for 1 mile N to Cabo Bazaruto at the NE extremity
of the island.
3
Drying banks almost completely fill the S part of the
area, which has not been fully examined, and extends some
miles seaward of the islands.
The coast of the mainland is low, and being about
12 miles within the line of breakers at the edge of the
drying banks, is indistinct from seaward.
The S islands of the group are not readily accessible
from seaward due to the drying banks and breakers;
communication between the mainland and the islands is by
boat from within Baía do Bazaruto (5.126).
Depths
5.121
1
Drying banks extend up to 3 or 4 miles seaward from
the coast, particularly between Cabo São Sebastião
(22°06′S 35°29′E) and the S extremity of Ilha do Bazaruto
18 miles N. Depths greater than 50 m are found generally
between 1 and 2 miles offshore from the seaward edge of
the drying banks.
Tidal levels
5.122
1
For W side of Ilha do Bazaruto see 5.126.
Current
5.123
1
The currents run very strongly about Ilhas dos
Bazarutos, especially in the deep water outside the E edge
of the drying banks. For information on the Mozambique
Current see 1.116.
Directions
(continued from 5.109)
Principal marks
5.124
1
Major light:
Bazaruto Light (white round tower, and dwellings;
26 m in height) (21°32′S 35°29′E).
Track
5.125
1
From a position E of the drying banks extending
seaward from Cabo São Sebastião (22°06′S 35°29′E) the
track leads N, passing (with positions from Cabo São
Sebastião):
E of the drying bank fronting Ilha Bangue (3½ miles
N), a low sandy islet with a prominent group of
dark trees near its centre; the S−most of Ilhas dos
Bazarutos. Thence:
2
E of the drying bank fronting Ilha de Santa Isabel
(8½ miles NNW). Except for some red cliffs on its
S part, the island is covered with trees to the HW
mark. On the mainland, 6 miles W, Ponta Duvini is
a red cliff which is noticeable from seaward under
some conditions, especially during the forenoon.
Thence:
3
E of the drying bank fronting Ilha de Santo António
(13 miles N). The island is sandy and partially
wooded; near its SE extremity is a reddish sandy
bluff, and about 2½ miles N are two well−defined
and partially wooded peaks, the S of which is
49 m high; to N of these peaks the land is much
lower. There are several villages on the island. See
5.129 for boat channel from seaward. Thence:
CHAPTER 5
194
4
E of a drying bank extending 2½ miles seaward from
Ponta Dundo (18 miles N) the S extremity of Ilha
do Bazaruto (5.120). Thence:
E of Ponta Chilola (24 miles N), a drying reef at the
extremity of a shoal extending 1 mile from the
shore; there are breakers on both the reef and the
shoal. Another drying reef lies 1 mile S of Ponta
Chilola. Thence:
5
To a position E of Cabo Bazaruto (35 miles N), the
NE extremity of Ilha do Bazaruto. A reef fringes
the coast between 2 and 3 miles SE of Cabo
Bazaruto, extending 5 cables offshore in places.
Ponta D. Carlos, a narrow sandspit with some
hummocks on it, projects 2 miles WNW from the
cape. A light (5.124) is exhibited from the summit
of a ridge 1 mile S of the Cabo Bazaruto.
(Directions continue for coastal passage at 5.134
and for Baía do Bazaruto at 5.127)
Baía do Bazaruto
General information
5.126
1
Description. Baía do Bazaruto is entered between Ponta
D. Carlos (21°30′S 35°27′E) and Ponta Inhassoro, 12 miles
WSW, on the mainland. Numerous drying banks encumber
a considerable part of the bay.
Ilha de Santa Carolina (21°37′S 35°20′E), 9 miles SW of
Ponta D. Carlos, has a settlement and an hotel; at one time
the island was the principal Portuguese establishment in the
area and a small garrison was stationed there.
2
Topography. Ilha de Santa Carolina is low, but being
well wooded and with a sandhill on the NE side, it may be
readily identified. Ponta Duvini (21°56′S 35°19′E) (5.125)
is a red cliff on the mainland at the S end of the bay.
Tidal levels. Off Ponta Gengareme (21°39′S 35°26′E) on
the W coast of Ilha do Bazaruto, mean spring range about
3⋅8 m; mean neap range about 0.8 m. For further
information see Admiralty Tide Tables.
3
Pilotage. A pilot is available to take vessels to the
anchorage off Ilha de Santa Carolina.
Local knowledge is required.
Directions
(continued from 5.125)
5.127
1
Major light:
Bazaruto Light (21°32′S 35°29′E) (5.124).
Caution. The channel to the anchorages off Ilha de
Santa Carolina (21°37′S 35°20′E) from close N of Ilha do
Bazaruto, 10 miles NE, is not buoyed. Depths in the
channel are generally greater than 10 m, but in 1974 there
was a least depth of 8⋅2 m in mid−channel 5 miles NE of
Ilha de Santa Carolina Light (square tower).
2
Track. From a position E of Cabo Bazaruto (21°31′S
35°29′E) the track leads generally W, passing (with
positions from Bazaruto Light (5.124)):
N of Cabo Bazaruto (1 mile N) (5.125), thence:
N of Ponta D. Carlos (3 miles NW) (5.125).
3
Thence the track leads SW, passing:
NW of the drying bank extending SW from Ponta
D. Carlos, thence:
Between two shoals charted 2⋅9 m at their NW
extremity (5 miles WSW and 7 miles W); both
shoals extend SW either side of the channel.
Thence as required for the anchorage.
Anchorages and harbours
5.128
1
Anchorages:
In depths of more than 20 m with Bazaruto Light
(21°32′S 35°29′E) (5.124) bearing 100°, distant
4¾ miles.
In depths of more than 20 m with Santa Carolina
Light (21°37′S 35°20′E) (5.127) bearing 209°,
distant 2½ miles.
In depths from about 5 to 9 m, about 2½ cables NE
of Ilha de Santa Carolina (21°37′S 35°20′E)
(5.126).
2
Mucoque (21°59′S 35°19′E) is a small fishing harbour;
a light (white square tower, 4 m in height) is exhibited
from Ponta Chué at Mucoque.
Vilanculos, close S of Mucoque, is a small resort with
an hotel, post office and general store. In 1987 a total of
four general cargo vessels, averaging 730 dwt, were
reported to have entered Baía do Bazaruto, three of which
proceeded S to Mucoque.
Channel between Ilha de Santo António and Ilha
do Bazaruto
5.129
1
A drying reef lies 2¼ miles ENE of Ponta Chissangune
(21°49′S 35°28′E), the N extremity of Ilha de Santo
António. Between the N extremity of this reef and a drying
bank 1 mile NNW there is a boat channel through an
opening in the line of breakers which leads S of Ilha do
Bazaruto to the NW side of Ilha de Santo António.
Anchorage
Cabo Bazaruto
5.130
1
Sheltered anchorage from S winds was obtained by
HMS Sylvia (865 tons) to N of the spit between Cabo
Bazaruto (21°31′S 35°29′E) and Ponta D. Carlos, 2 miles
WNW.
CABO BAZARUTO TO BEIRA
General information
Chart 2932
Route
5.131
1
From a position E of Cabo Bazaruto (21°31′S 35°29′E)
the route leads generally N for about 82 miles to the
vicinity of Macúti Approach Light−buoy (20°09′S 35°20′E),
in the outer approaches to the port of Beira.
Depths
5.132
1
The 200 m depth contour diverges from about 3 miles
off Cabo Bazaruto to more than 70 miles offshore at Beira.
Within the 200 m depth contour the bottom is very
irregular. Numerous isolated shoal patches with depths of
less than 20 m may be encountered up to 45 miles offshore,
and depths of less than 9 m about 25 miles offshore.
2
Banco de Sofala, extending 70 miles E of Baía de Sofala
(20°12′S 34°44′E), is an extensive bank on which depths
are less than 75 m; its E edge has not been completely
examined. Near the E edge of the bank the bottom consists
of very coarse sand; as the coast is approached the sand
becomes progressively finer until near the coast mud is
found.
3
Ridges of sand are present in the outer approaches to
Beira and as charted depths are taken from surveys made
CHAPTER 5
195
prior to 1975, attention is drawn to the possibility that
actual depths may be different to those charted; see source
data diagram on the chart.
Natural conditions
5.133
1
Currents. For information on the Mozambique Current
see 1.116.
Local weather. See 5.166.
Directions
(continued from 5.125)
Principal marks
5.134
1
Major light:
Bazaruto Light (21°32′S 35°29′E) (5.124).
Other aids to navigation
5.135
1
Racon:
Macúti Approach Light−buoy (20°09′S 35°20′E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Track
5.136
1
Caution. The area between the latitudes of Cabo
Bazaruto (21°31′S 35°29′E) and Ponta Macovane (21°10′S
35°07′E) should be navigated with great caution on account
of the numerous detached shoals which lie within depths of
less than 50 m. The outermost of these are two 8⋅0 m
patches, 9½ miles N and 16 miles NNE of Cabo Bazaruto.
From a position E of Cabo Bazaruto, the track leads N,
passing (with positions from Cabo Bazaruto):
2
E of an 8⋅2 m patch (4½ miles NNW); depths less
than 11 m lie close within the 20 m depth contour
1½ miles E of the 8⋅2 m patch. Thence:
E of an 8⋅0 m patch (9½ miles N), position
approximate, in general depths of about 20 m,
thence:
E of an 8⋅0 m patch (16 miles NNE), reported 1972,
in general depths of about 30 m; an 18 m patch
lies 3½ miles farther NNE. Thence:
(Directions continue for inshore passage to
Porto de Chiloane at 5.148)
3
Caution. The track continues generally N across the S
part of Banco de Sofala (5.132), where the bottom is very
irregular and there are numerous shoals, passing (with
positions from Inhanduge (20°56′S 35°08′E), the most
seaward of the islands at the mouth of Rio Save):
E of a 9⋅0 m patch (12 miles ENE); a 10⋅9 m patch
lies close NNE. Thence:
E of a 7⋅3 m patch (23 miles NE), thence:
Clear of a 10⋅9 m patch (32 miles NE); an 11⋅1 m
patch lies 5 miles WSW of the 10⋅9 m patch.
Thence:
To a position SE of Macúti Approach Light−buoy
(safe water) (49 miles NNE).
(Directions continue at 5.175)
Rio Búzi
Chart 1003
Description
5.137
1
Rio Búzi, the mouth of which lies close S of Ponta
Macique (19°52′S 34°47′E) (5.181), is reported to be
navigable for 25 miles by vessels drawing 2⋅7 m. The
entrance to the river is marked by Búzi Light−buoy (black
and white, conical), moored 1¼ miles SE of Ponta
Macique, and by Ponta Macique Light−buoy (port hand)
moored 6 cables SE of Ponta Macique.
Porto de Bartolomeu Dias
Charts 2932, 642 plan of Porto de Bartolomeu Dias
General information
5.138
1
Position. 21°10′S 35°07′E, on the W side of Ilha
Bartolomeu Dias at the mouth of Rio Govuro.
Function. A small harbour; at one time, coasting vessels
called occasionally.
Approach and entry. Approach is from NE and entry is
through a narrow channel between a spit extending NNE
from Ponta Macovane (21°10′S 35°07′E) and a drying bank
extending ESE from Ponta Nhadumba, 5 miles NNW.
Limiting conditions
5.139
1
Controlling depth. 4⋅6 m (15 ft) over the tail of the spit
extending NNE from Ponta Macovane; similar depths are
charted over the bar about 1 mile NNW of the anchorage
berth.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 3⋅6 m; mean neap
range about 1⋅0 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide
Tables.
Arrival information
5.140
1
Outer anchorage. In a depth of about 11 m (36 ft)
6 miles NNE of Ponta Macovane, as shown on the chart.
Pilotage. If available, pilots are obtained at Beira
(5.170).
Local knowledge, is required.
Harbour
5.141
1
General layout. An anchorage (5.143) in a harbour
mostly encumbered with drying banks.
Storm signals. See 1.44.
Tidal stream. On the falling tide, a strong SE−going
tidal stream sets across the N part of the entrance channel.
Chart 642 plan of Porto de Bartolomeu Dias
Directions for entering harbour
5.142
1
Caution. In 1979, the navigational aids existing were
considered inadequate for a vessel to enter with safety,
unless with local knowledge.
From a position about 5½ miles NNE of Ponta
Macovane (21°09′⋅6S 35°07′⋅3E) the line of bearing 215°
of Beacon No 2 (metal tower, white diamond topmark,
17 m (56 ft) in height) (21°10′⋅8S 35°04′⋅1E) leads through
the approach channel, passing (with positions from Ponta
Macovane):
2
Over the tail of the spit (4½ miles NNE) extending
NNE from Ponta Macovane, in a least charted
depth of 4⋅6 m (15 ft), thence:
SE of shoal ground (4 miles N) off the drying bank
extending ESE from Ponta Nhadumba, the SE
point of Ilha Chidica, thence:
Clear of a 4⋅0 m (13 ft) patch (3¼ miles N) charted
on the leading line; deeper water is charted close
NW. Thence:
Close NW of No 2 Buoy (port hand) (2 miles NNW).
3
Thence the track leads S until close W of No 4 Buoy
(port hand) (1¼ miles NW) where the line of bearing 153°
of the SW part of settlement of Bartolomeu Dias leads over
CHAPTER 5
196
the bar and through a channel (5 cables W), of least width
2 cables between 5 m (18 ft) depth contours, to the
anchorage.
Berth
5.143
1
Anchorage, 4 cables WSW of Ponta Macovane as
shown on the chart, in a depth of about 10 m (33 ft), sand,
1½ cables clear of the 5 m (18 ft) depth contour.
Porto de Chiloane
Charts 2932, 642 plan of Porto de Chiloane
General information
5.144
1
Position. Ilha de Chiloane (20°40′S 34°55′E) is at the
mouth of Rio Dura.
Function. An anchorage off Ilha de Chiloane, where a
trading settlement exports rubber, ground nuts and gum.
Topography. Ilha de Chiloane is the largest of three
islands; Ilha de Chigogoro and Ilha de Inhanguaia, lie
respectively close E and close SE.
2
Ilha de Chiloane is low−lying, being in many places
only a mangrove swamp intersected by creeks. There are
no features which can be identified from SE when offshore.
From N, near Ponta Chinguno the NW extremity of the
island, a few coconut palms and a conspicuous group of
trees S of them, may be seen at a distance of about
5 miles. From NE, the SE extremity of the island appears
as a low bluff. A conspicuous casuarina tree stands near an
official residence on the S side of the island.
3
Approach and entry. Shoals encumber the approach to
Porto de Chiloane. From N, the approach is direct. From S,
the coast should be closed in the vicinity of Rio Save,
about 25 miles SE, and approach made from SE between
the mainland and Misadjuana Shoal (20°40′S 35°09′E).
The preferred entry to the anchorage on the NW side of
Ilha de Chiloane is via North Channel, even though the
banks either side are liable to change. South Channel lies S
of the island group, and is connected to North Channel, but
its direct entry from seaward is narrow and encumbered by
drying banks.
Limiting conditions
5.145
1
Controlling depth. North Channel, 2⋅4 m (8 ft) on the
bar 2 miles NE of Ponta Chinguno, the NW extremity of
Ilha de Chiloane. South Channel, 1⋅8 m (6 ft) on the bar
2½ miles NNE of Ponta Ingomaímo Light (20°42′⋅7S
34°59′⋅7E).
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 5⋅2 m; mean neap
range about 1⋅6 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide
Tables.
Arrival information
5.146
1
Outer anchorage. As shown on the chart, 4¾ miles
ENE of Ponta Chinguno, in depths from 11 to 13 m (36 to
43 ft).
Pilotage. It is not advisable to enter either North
Channel or South Channel without a pilot. Vessels from S
have been known to embark a pilot at Inhambane (5.112).
Local knowledge, is essential for entering South
Channel.
Harbour
5.147
1
General layout. Anchorage in either North Channel or
South Channel, the two channels formed as Rio Dura
divides either side of Ilha Chiloane.
Tidal stream. The tidal stream, which at times attains
rates of 3 to 4 kn, sets strongly across North Breakwater
(20°33′S 34°56′E) and North Channel.
Directions for approach from south
(continued from 5.136)
5.148
1
Make landfall at about latitude 20°56′S, in the vicinity
of the mouth of Rio Save (5.154), but do not approach the
coast closer than 4 miles.
Caution. Between the mouth of Rio Save (20°58′S
35°03′E) and Ponta Ingomaímo 15 miles NNW, shoal
ridges with depths less than 5 m extend as much as
10 miles offshore. As the coast is barely visible from the
vicinity of the outer shoals, caution and continuous
sounding are necessary when navigating in the area.
2
From a position at least 4 miles E of Inhanduge
(20°56′S 35°08′E) the track leads generally N, passing
(with positions from Inhanduge):
E of a 4⋅6 m patch (9½ miles N), thence:
W of a 7⋅5 m patch (15 miles NE).
3
When within 3 miles of Misadjuana Shoal (16 miles N),
marked by breakers in all but the calmest weather, the
track leads NW, passing (with positions from Ponta
Ingomaímo Light (20°42′⋅7S 34°59′⋅7E)):
SW of Misadjuana Shoal (9 miles ENE) which is
steep−to on its SW and NE sides. Except for Ponta
Ingomaímo Light−tower, no landmark is visible
from the vicinity; Ponta Ingomaímo is low and
sandy and, having no mangroves, differs from
other points in the locality. Thence:
4
NE of South Breakwater (4 miles ENE), with a least
depth at Richardson Knoll on the N part of the
shoal, thence:
To a position on a line of bearing 230° of Ponta
Ingomaímo Light (white 6−sided tower, black
band, 40 m in height), distant about 5 miles, and
on a line of bearing 261° of the SE tangent of Ilha
de Inhanguaia (3 miles NW).
5
The track then leads WNW, passing:
NNE of a 4⋅9 m (16 ft) shoal (4¼ miles NE), an
isolated patch N of Richardson Knoll, thence:
NNE of extensive drying banks (3 miles N) extending
E from Ilha de Inhanguaia, thence:
6
To the vicinity a buoy (conical) (8 miles NNW)
marking the bar of North Channel and moored
4 miles ENE of Ponta Chinguno; Chinguno Light
(metal column, white masonry base, 12 m in
height) is exhibited 3 cables S of the point.
(Directions continue at 5.150)
Directions for approach from north
5.149
1
From a position N of Ponta Ingomaímo Light (20°42′⋅7S
34°59′⋅7E) (5.148), and making due allowance for the tidal
stream (5.147), the track leads S to a position on a line of
bearing 239° of Chinguno Light (20°37′⋅2S 34°53′⋅3E). The
track then leads on that bearing, passing (with positions
from Chinguno Light):
SE of North Breakwater (5 miles NE) a sandbank,
and a continuation of the extensive bank which
fringes the coast N of Ilha de Chiloane, thence:
CHAPTER 5
197
To the vicinity a buoy (conical) (4 miles ENE)
marking the bar of North Channel.
(Directions continue at 5.150)
Directions for North Channel
(continued from 5.148 and 5.149)
5.150
1
North Channel. From the vicinity of a buoy (conical)
(20°35′⋅2,S 34°57′⋅1E) the track leads W, passing (with
positions from Chinguno Light (20°37′⋅2S 34°53′⋅3E)):
S of North Breakwater (5 miles NE), thence:
N of a buoy (spherical) (2¼ miles NE) marking the N
side of of a 1⋅5 m (5 ft) patch on the bar, thence:
2
The track leads SW into deeper water and the anchorage
off Ponta Chinguno (5.151).
With local knowledge, passage may continue into South
Channel via the SW extremity of Ilha de Chiloane where
the channel has a least charted depth of 0⋅9 m (3 ft). At
HW, vessels with a draught of 4⋅3 m may be taken through.
Anchorage
5.151
1
In North Channel, off Ponta Chinguno in depths of
about 8 m (26 ft) Chinguno Light (20°37′⋅2S 34°53′⋅3E)
bearing 122°, distant 4½ cables.
In South Channel, off the S side of Ilha Chiloane in
depths of about 8 m (26 ft).
Supplies
5.152
1
Small quantities of fresh provisions are obtainable.
Anchorage
Charts 2932, 642 plan of Porto de Sofala
Porto de Sofala
5.153
1
General information. Baía de Sofala is entered between
Ilha de Como (20°13′S 34°44′E) and a low point 2½ miles
NNE. A conspicuous house stands 2¼ miles NNE of the N
entrance point and the ruins of a fort, built in 1505, are
2½ cables S of the same point.
The land is low with scarcely any trees, but near the
head of the bay it rises and becomes irregular with tall and
scattered trees on it. For topography N of Baía de Sofala
see 5.158.
2
The town of Nova Sofala, 1½ miles NW of the N
entrance point of the bay, though having a long history
(1.66) has declined in population and trade is now
insignificant.
Porto de Sofala lies at the entrance to Rio Donda which
flows out through Baía de Sofala; the approach is much
obstructed by drying banks. The bar, 3½ miles SE of the
NE extremity of Ilha de Como, had a depth of 2⋅1 m (7 ft)
on it in 1962.
3
Anchorage, 6 miles ESE of the NE extremity of Ilha de
Como, as shown on the chart, in a depth of 8⋅0 m (26 ft).
Rivers
Chart 2932
Rio Save
5.154
1
Rio Save (20°58′S 35°03′E) reaches the sea at an
extensive delta spread over about 7 miles of coastline and
through which there are several shallow mouths flowing
between numerous islands, the outermost being Inhanduge
(20°56′S 35°08′E); close W is Ilha de Macau, the largest
island, which has some sandhills on its N part.
2
Rio Save is not navigable, but has been ascended by
boats for 30 miles, at which point it ceased to be tidal. On
that occasion the river was entered by its N mouth,
5 cables wide, which passes W of Ilha de Macau. In 2000
it was reported that depths over the bar, both N and S of
Ilha de Macau, were less than 1⋅2 m.
Rio Púngoè
5.155
1
See 5.189.
BEIRA
General information
Charts 2932, 1003, 642 plan of Porto da Beira
Position
5.156
1
Beira, 19°50′S 34°50′E, stands on the E bank of the
mouth of Rio Púngoè.
Function
5.157
1
Beira is the second principal port in Mozambique, but
being the main port for the inland countries of Zimbabwe,
Zambia and Malawi it has developed primarily as a transit
port handling a wide variety of agricultural, industrial, bulk
and containerised goods.
Topography
5.158
1
On the W side of Rio Púngoè, between Ponta Macique
(19°52′S 34°47′E) and Baía de Sofala 20 miles S, the coast
is low and there are no natural landmarks. Two beacons,
Barada Beacon and Dingue−dingue Beacon, stand on the
coast 4 miles and 7½ miles respectively S of Ponta
Macique. Bush and grass fires frequently occur during July,
August and September and the coastline is often obscured
by smoke.
2
Ponta Macúti, about 3 miles E of the mouth of Rio
Púngoè, is low and lined with trees. Farther NE the coast
rises slightly and is backed by a line of low sandhills.
Approach and entry
5.159
1
The approaches to Beira from both S and NE converge
at Light−buoy A about 13 miles ESE of the port, or at
Macúti Approach Light−buoy 20 miles farther SE; thence
the approach is NW to the pilot boarding place at the E
end of Canal do Macúti.
2
Entry is via a narrow channel marked by light−buoys
leading W through Canal do Macúti thence into Canal
Rambler which leads N to the berths on the E side of Rio
Púngoè.
Canal Portela (19°57′S 34°53′E) formerly led from
seaward to Canal Rambler and thence into Rio Púngoé, but
this route has silted and is no longer marked or used.
Traffic
5.160
1
In 2005, the port was used by 300 vessels with a total of
5 824 777 dwt.
Port Authority
5.161
1
Caminhos de Ferro de Mozambique, 657 Avenida
Trabalho, P.O. Box 36, Beira.
CHAPTER 5
198
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
5.162
1
In the vicinity of No 3A Light−buoy (19°53′⋅5S
34°50′⋅9E), where Canal do Macúti meets Canal Rambler,
the channel is narrow and depths from 2 to 3 m (7 to 10 ft)
lie close E and S of the light−buoy. See caution at 5.177.
Deepest and longest berth
5.163
1
Deepest. Púngoè Wharf Berth No 2, 11⋅0 m (36 ft).
Longest. Púngoè Wharf Berths No 2 to No 5 have a
combined straight length of 600 m.
Tidal levels
5.164
1
Mean spring range about 5⋅7 m (19 ft); mean neap range
about 1⋅6 m (5 ft). For further details see Admiralty Tide
Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled
5.165
1
Maximum draught. Pilots normally require a minimum
clearance of 1 m (3 ft) under the keel in the channel. As
depths are liable to change in the entrance channel, the port
authorities should be contacted for up to date information
on draught limitations.
Maximum LOA, 195 m.
Local weather and sea state
5.166
1
Throughout the year, winds are mainly S or SE in the
early morning but become E or SE in the afternoon.
Between September and April strong S winds sometimes
cause heavy seas on Banco de Sofala and in the entrance
channels.
Arrival information
Port operations
5.167
1
The harbour should not be entered after HW at the bar
and vessels should therefore arrive at the bar at least 1 hour
before HW.
Vessels should not leave the harbour during the period
of the out−going tidal stream.
Berthing at night is accepted for some medium sized
vessels; the port authorities should be contacted for further
details.
Notice of ETA required
5.168
1
ETA should be sent 72, 48 hours and 1 hour prior to
arrival at A Light−buoy at the seaward end of the entrance
channel (19°56′S 35°03′E). See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (3).
Outer anchorage
5.169
1
Waiting anchorage. Vessels waiting to enter Beira
should anchor, clear of the entrance channel, between
A Light−buoy (19°56′S 35°03′E) and P Light−buoy,
5¾ miles NW, and as near to the latter as their draught
permits; holding ground is reported to be firm. In 1981, it
was reported that many vessels preferred to anchor about
8 miles ESE of P Light−buoy in depths of about 13 m
(42 ft) with good holding ground.
Prohibited anchorage. It is prohibited to anchor within
the entrance channel between A Light−buoy and No 3
Light−buoy, as shown on the chart.
Pilotage
5.170
1
Pilotage is compulsory and available 24 hours a day
including Sundays. The pilot boards in the vicinity of No 2
Light−buoy (19°52′⋅7S 34°55′⋅4E). See Admiralty List of
Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).
Vessels preparing to embark a pilot should lower a pilot
ladder to 0⋅3 m from the water line.
Vessels at anchor waiting the tide are informed when
sufficient rise has occurred to provide the necessary under
keel clearance. In rough weather, whenever possible, the
pilot will sound the bar ahead of a vessel entering and
signal the depth ascertained.
Tugs
5.171
1
Tugs are available and join off Ponta Gea (19°51′S
34°50′E). Several hours notice is necessary if a tug is
required to join at the bar.
Harbour
General layout
5.172
1
To NW of the town of Beira, Púngoè Wharf provides
berths along a continuous waterfront on the E bank of Rio
Púngoè; an oil terminal jetty lies 5 cables N of Púngoè
Wharf.
Storm signals
5.173
1
See 1.44
Natural conditions
5.174
1
Local magnetic anomaly in the approaches to Beira,
see 5.195.
Tidal streams. Due allowance should be made for the
effect of tidal streams when entering or leaving, as they set
across the channels in places. Neglect of this precaution
often leads to vessels grounding, but as the bottom is soft
they usually get off without damage.
At springs the out−going stream runs for 7 to 8 hours,
and the in−going stream for 4 to 5 hours, with hardly any
period of slack water.
“High river” (January to April)
Stream Remarks
Out−going Up to 6 kn at springs.
From 2 to 3 kn at neaps.
In−going From 1 to 3 kn.
“Low river” (July to October)
Stream Remarks
Out−going Up to 4 kn at springs.
From 1½ to 2 kn at neaps.
2
Local weather. The wet season (October to April or
May) is the more uncomfortable, the worst months being
April and May, but in the four following months the
weather becomes more pleasant.
CHAPTER 5
199
Beira − Macúti Light (5.175)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − D. Given, MV Doulos)
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 5.136)
Principal marks
5.175
1
Landmarks:
Grande Hotel (19°50′⋅7S 34°50′⋅4E).
Cathedral (19°50′⋅3S 34°50′⋅5E), floodlit at night; the
white spire of a church 7 cables N is marked by a
red obstruction light.
Macúti Light−tower (white round tower, red bands;
28 m in height) (19°50′⋅5S 34°54′⋅0E); a signal
station is situated near the light−tower.
Major light:
Macúti Light — as above.
Other aids to navigation
5.176
1
Racons:
Macúti Approach Light−buoy (20°09′S 35°20′E).
Beira A Light−buoy (19°56′S 35°03′E).
Macúti Light (19°51′S 34°54′E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Caution
5.177
1
Within 50 miles of Beira the bottom is very irregular
and numerous shoals lie in the approach from both S and
E; within 30 miles many shoals have depths less than 10 m.
Caution is necessary when navigating in the whole of this
area.
2
The mouth of Rio Púngoè is obstructed by numerous
banks and shoals which partly dry and are constantly
changing. During the dry season (June to September) silting
may occur in the channels through the banks but this is
normally flushed out during the wet season (November to
April). Depths are liable to change throughout the entrance
channel and buoys may be moved accordingly.
Approaches
5.178
1
Approaching from the vicinity of Macúti Approach
Light−buoy (safe water) (20°09′S 35°20′E) the track leads
NW, passing:
NE of a 4⋅4 m (14 ft) patch (20°03′S 35°10′E), giving
it a berth of at least 3 miles; a patch of similar
depths lies close W. As these patches are not
marked, it is recommended that the vicinity is not
approached until after half the in−going tide.
Thence:
2
NE of a dangerous wreck (19°58′⋅7S 35°01′⋅8E),
thence:
To the vicinity of A Light−buoy (safe water) (19°56′S
35°03′E).
(Directions continue for coastal passage NE at 5.198)
5.179
1
Deeper draught vessels approaching Beira from S may
consider making for a position about 35 miles ESE of
Macúti Light (5.175), thence following a track WNW to
A Light−buoy.
Approaching from NE, a vessel with a draught less than
9 m should make direct for A Light−buoy. Thence as at
5.180.
5.180
1
From the vicinity of A light−buoy (safe water) (19°56′S
35°03′E) the track then leads either to the appropriate
waiting anchorage (5.169), or continues NW to the pilot
boarding station, passing (with positions from Macúti Light
(19°51′S 34°54′E)):
NE of 4⋅9 m (16 ft) patch (9½ miles SE), with similar
depths continuing up to 2½ miles NW of the 4⋅9 m
patch, thence:
2
NE of depths extending up to 7 cables N of a beacon
(black, metal) (4¾ miles SE) position approximate,
thence:
NE of P Light−buoy (port hand) (4 miles ESE),
thence:
To the pilot boarding station (3 miles SE); a beacon
(2¼ miles ESE) stands on the N side of the
channel in the vicinity.
3
Useful mark:
Beacon (truncated wooden pyramid, staff and double
cone topmark; 22 m in height) (19°48′⋅2S
34°57′⋅0E).
Canal do Macúti
5.181
1
From the vicinity of the pilot boarding station (19°52′⋅0S
34°56′⋅5E) the track leads generally WSW through Canal
CHAPTER 5
200
do Macúti, marked by light−buoys (lateral), the positions of
which may change to conform with changes in the channel,
passing (with positions from Ponta Gea (19°50′⋅8S
34°50′⋅2E)):
2
SSE of a beacon (3¾ miles ESE), thence:
SSE of Ponta Macúti (2¾ miles E) (5.158); Macúti
Light (5.175) is exhibited 1 mile ENE of the point.
Thence:
Between drying banks (2½ miles SSE), the positions
of which are best seen on the chart, where Canal
do Macúti narrows considerably, thence:
To a position at the S end of Canal Rambler
(2½ miles S).
Canal Rambler
5.182
1
Thence the track leads generally N through Canal
Rambler, marked by light−buoys (lateral) the positions of
which may change to conform with changes in the channel,
passing:
N and NE of Baixo dos Pelicanos (3 miles SSW),
thence:
W of drying banks extending up to 2¾ miles S from
Ponta Gea, the E entrance point of Rio Púngoè
(5.189), thence:
2
E of Ponta Macique (3½ miles WSW), the N entrance
point of Rio Buzi (5.137) and the W entrance
point of Rio Púngoè. Mangroves on the point rise
to about 12 m (40 ft) high and give it the
appearance of a dark bluff. Thence:
W of drying banks extending 6 cables WNW of Ponta
Gea. Cabadelo Light (metal mast, 4 m in height) is
exhibited 9 cables NNW of the point. Thence:
3
E of the dangerous wreck (1¼ miles NNW) of the
dredger Pungoe (1159 gross tons) marked on its S
side by W Light−buoy (port hand), thence:
W of Ponta Chiveve (1¼ miles N), surrounded by a
seawall; Rio Chiveve enters Rio Púngoè close N
through a small tug and pilot boat basin.
Thence as required for berthing.
Berths
Anchorage berths
5.183
1
There is anchorage in Rio Púngoè abreast Beira for up
to four vessels; holding ground reported to be poor. Owing
to the large number of vessels using the port, it is nearly
always necessary to moor. Merchant vessels anchor in the
fairway N of Ponta Chiveve (19°49′⋅5S 34°49′⋅9E).
Alongside berths
5.184
1
Púngoè Wharf extends 2000 m N from the mouth of Rio
Chiveve and has 11 berths, numbered from S to N.
An oil terminal forms Berth No 12, 5 cables N of
Púngoè Wharf, comprising a T–headed jetty suitable for
handling tankers in the range of 500 to 50 000 dwt.
Berth Function Depth*
1 Fishing vessels 8 m (28 ft)
2 to 5 Containers 5 to 11 m (17 to 36 ft)
6 to 10 General cargo 5 to 7 m (17 to 23 ft)
12 Oil terminal 9 m (30 ft)
*Depths are approximate. The port authorities should be
contacted for the latest information.
Port services
Repairs
5.185
1
Facilities for most types of deck and engine repairs, but
major repairs cannot be undertaken.
There is a small dry dock close E of Ponta Chiveve
(19°49′⋅5S 34°49′⋅9E), length 115 m, breadth 17 m, sill
1⋅0 m below chart datum.
Other facilities
5.186
1
Hospital; deratting and deratting exemption certificates
issued; no oily waste reception facilities.
Supplies
5.187
1
Fuel oil and fresh water are available.
Beira − Púngoè Wharf Berth Nos. 2 and 3 (5.184)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − D. Given, MV Doulos)
CHAPTER 5
201
Oil Terminal
Beira − Púngoè Wharf − Berths No. 5 (right) to No. 11 (centre) (5.184)
(Original dated 2002)
(Photograph − MV Doulos)
Communications
5.188
1
An international airport is 4½ miles ENE of the port.
Rio Púngoè
5.189
1
Rio Púngoè is navigable for 12 miles above Beira for
vessels drawing 2⋅7 m; beyond this point the navigable
channel is winding and the banks and channels are
continually changing. It is not advisable to ascend farther
without local knowledge or the assistance of a pilot
although the river is navigable for small craft drawing
1⋅2 m for 100 miles during the season of “high river”, and
for about 50 miles during ordinary “low river”.
2
At times, with a very low river and at neap tides, Rio
Púngoè is only navigable for boats as far as Ponta
Nhamacade, a few miles above the railway bridge which
spans the river at Fontesvilla, 35 miles NW of Beira.
At the height of the dry season, about mid−July, the
in−going tidal stream at Mapanda, 43 miles above Beira,
only flows for about 1 hour each tide, the rise being 0⋅5 m
at springs and 0⋅2 m at neaps; no records are available for
the rise during the rainy season.
3
The seasonal rise of the river, which closely resembles
that of Rio Zambeze (5.223), begins in December or
January and attains its maximum height about March. It
then falls, reaches its minimum level about the end of
August, and remains low until October or November.
BEIRA TO PONTA NAMALUNGO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 1810, 2933
Area covered
5.190
1
This section describes the coastal passage from Beira to
Ponta Namalungo, presented in seven parts as follows:
Beira to Rio Zambeze (5.192).
Delta of Rio Zambeze (5.210).
Rio Zambeze (5.218).
Rio Zambeze to Quelimane (5.228).
Quelimane to Ponta Macalonga (5.249).
Ponta Macalonga to Angoche (5.286).
Angoche to Ponta Namalungo (5.315).
Current
5.191
1
For details of the Mozambique Current see 1.116.
BEIRA TO RIO ZAMBEZE
General information
Chart 2934
Route
5.192
1
From the vicinity of A Light−buoy (19°56′S 35°03′E), in
the approaches to Beira, the route leads NE for about
117 miles NE to a position SE of Rio Chinde (18°35′S
36°29′E), the E−most of the many mouths of Rio Zambeze.
Topography
5.193
1
Between Beira and Baía Mauendeni, 38 miles NE, the
coast is backed by a line of low sandhills, except in the
vicinity of Savane, about 19 miles NE of Beira, where the
sandhills are 60 m high, bare and shaped like pyramids;
CHAPTER 5
202
they stand out prominently against the surrounding
countryside, which is densely wooded.
2
Between Baía Mauendeni and Rio Luáua, 45 miles NE,
numerous small rivers enter the sea, and the coast is lower
than that to the SE.
To NE of Rio Luáua are the various islands and mouths
of the Rio Zambeze delta (5.211). The islands separating
the mouths are low, the tops of their trees being from 15 to
25 m high, and their similarity makes them difficult to
identify. The mouth of Rio Cuama (5.199) is perhaps the
most easily identified.
Depths
5.194
1
The 10 m depth contour lies generally about 3 miles
from the coast between Beira and the delta of Rio
Zambeze, except within 15 miles of Beira and on the E
side of the Zambeze delta where it extends, respectively,
out to 8½ and 5 miles offshore.
Isolated patches of less than 10 m are charted from 15
to 25 miles offshore between Beira and Savane, 20 miles
NE.
2
Sandwaves are present in the outer approaches to Beira
and depths may be less than charted. Attention is also
drawn to the source data diagram on the chart.
For details of Banco de Sofala, see 5.132.
Natural conditions
5.195
1
Local magnetic anomaly. A magnetic anomaly has been
reported in the vicinity of 20°00′S 35°30′E, as shown on
the chart.
Currents. For information on the Mozambique Current
see 1.116.
Local weather. For Beira see 5.166 and 5.174; for Rio
Zambeze see 5.211.
Directions
(continued from 5.178)
Principal marks
5.196
1
Landmarks:
For landmarks in the vicinity of Beira see 5.175.
2
Major light:
Macúti Light (19°51′S 34°54′E), (5.175).
Other aids to navigation
5.197
1
Racons:
Macúti Approach Light−buoy (20°09′S 35°20′E).
Beira Light−buoy A (19°56′S 35°03′E).
Macúti Light (19°51′S 34°54′E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Track
5.198
1
From the vicinity of A Light−buoy (19°56′S 35°03′E), in
the approaches to Beira, the track leads NE, passing (with
positions from Savane Light (white framework tower, black
band, 40 m in height) (19°39′S 35°10′E)):
SE of a 7⋅3 m patch (11 miles SSW), thence:
Clear of a 9⋅8 m patch (16 miles SE), thence:
SE of a 6⋅0 m patch (7 miles ESE); a 9⋅5 m patch lies
2 miles NE of the 6⋅0 m patch.
2
Thence the track continues NE, passing (with positions
from Machesse Light (aluminium framework tower, red
bands, 40 m in height) (19°17′S 35°33′E)):
SE of an 8⋅7 m patch (11 miles S), thence:
SE of a 7⋅5 m patch (14½ miles NE), 4 miles off the
coast of Ilha Nhamatarara, thence:
Either side of a dangerous wreck (27½ miles ENE),
position approximate; two isolated patches of 9⋅7 m
lie 5½ miles NW of the wreck. Thence:
3
SE of the Barra Luáua (32 miles NE) a drying reef
extending 2 miles seaward at the mouth of Rio
Luáua (5.200); the land SW of Kirk Point, the W
entrance point, is low, but Ord Point, the E
entrance point, is thickly wooded and has a range
of hummocks near its E bank which may assist its
identification. Thence:
5.199
1
Between Rio Mitambe (18°55′S 36°04′E) and Ponta
Mitaone 33 miles NE, several islands and channels form the
delta of Rio Zambeze (5.211). Bars, constantly changing
and of variable depth, extend seaward from most of the
channels; see caution at 5.211 regarding entry from
seaward.
2
The track continues NE, passing (with positions from
Ilha Timbué Light (18°50′S 36°21′E)):
SE of Barra Mitambe (17 miles WSW) the bar at the
mouth of Rio Mitambe, the W mouth of Rio
Zambeze. There are breakers on the bar at the
entrance to the river and depths of less than 5⋅5 m
extend 1¼ miles seaward. Thence:
3
SE of Barra Inhamissengo (14 miles WSW) which
lies across the mouth of Rio Mucelo (5.213). Both
entrance points of the river are fringed with
sandbanks and breakers which extend 1½ miles
seaward. Thence:
4
SE of Barra Cuama (4 miles SSW) at the mouth of
Rio Cuama (5.214) where shallow depths extend
3 miles seaward; at LW, a large portion of the bar
dries and the sea breaks right across the entrance.
The river has a well−defined entrance 1 mile wide:
Ponta Leste, the W entrance point, has some
mangroves and is the E extremity of Ilha
Inhangurué; Ponta Caúse, the E entrance point is
the S extremity of Ilha Timbué. These
comparatively high and densely wooded features,
seen in conjunction with the wide and straight
river entrance between, are sufficiently noticeable
to be readily identified. Thence:
5
SE of Barra Catarina (2½ miles NE) at the entrance
to Rio Catarina (5.215). The river mouth lies
between Ponta Timbué, the NE extremity of Ilha
Timbué, and a mangrove point forming the SE
extremity of Ilha Inhacamba, 2 miles NE; within
the entrance the banks are thickly wooded. A
disused lighthouse (hexagonal concrete tower, red
and white bands; 40 m in height) stands 7 cables
SW of Ponta Timbué; Ilha Timbué Light (red
metal framework tower, white bands) is exhibited
5 cables farther SW. Thence:
6
To a position SE of a landfall buoy (black and white
stripes) (16½ miles NNE) moored off the entrance
to Rio Chinde (5.216), the only entrance to Rio
Zambeze in general use. The river is entered
between Ponta Liberal and Ponta Mitaone 2 miles
NE. Ponta Liberal is low, as is the adjacent land
which is similar to that of the other river mouths
on the Zambeze delta; the settlement of Chinde,
and its port (5.202) are situated at the point. Praia
do Chinde Light (white framework tower, 11 m in
height, and dwelling) is exhibited 7 cables SW of
CHAPTER 5
203
Ponta Liberal; a conspicuous house stands
12 cables farther SW.
7
Useful mark:
Inhamiara Light (18°31′S 36°32′E) (5.232)
(Directions continue at 5.232)
Rivers
Rio Luáua
5.200
1
Description. Rio Luáua is entered between Kirk Point
(18°57′S 35°58′E) and Ord Point, 2 miles ENE. Although
the river flows within 3 miles of the delta of Rio Zambeze,
they are not joined by any waterway.
It is reported that there are depths from 0⋅9 m to 1⋅8 m
on the bar, which extends 2 miles from the coast, but it is
subject to considerable changes.
2
Within the entrance of Rio Luáua there are depths of
3⋅7 m for about 20 miles, where it is joined by Rio
Mungari from W; above this point no examination has been
made.
Tidal streams in the river, both in−going and out−going,
run regularly at rates of 1½ to 2 kn.
Rio Zambeze
5.201
1
For Rio Zambeze and channels at the delta of Rio
Zambeze see 5.210.
Chinde
General information
5.202
1
Position. Chinde (18°35′S 36°28′E), at the mouth of Rio
Chinde, is the port for Rio Zambeze.
Function. The port is used for export of sugar, molasses
and copra, and the import of aid cargoes and consumer
goods.
2
Approach and entry. There is a channel in the bar near
the outer edge of numerous drying sandbanks which extend
2½ miles seaward at the entrance to Rio Chinde and over
which the sea breaks heavily.
Port Authority. As for Quelimane (5.234).
Limiting conditions
5.203
1
Controlling depth. The position of the channel and
depths over the bar are subject to frequent changes. In
1977 there were depths from 4⋅3 to 5⋅8 m over the bar at
HW.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 3⋅7 m; mean neap
range about 1⋅0 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide
Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled. The largest vessel to
enter the port was 2700 tons with a draught of 4⋅3 m.
Arrival information
5.204
1
Outer anchorages. Vessels may anchor SW of the
landfall buoy, in depths from about 7 to 8 m, about 4 miles
SE of Ponta Liberal (18°35′S 36°28′E), as shown on the
chart. The anchorage is not recommended as it is open to
the prevailing S winds.
Pilotage is compulsory; pilots should be arranged in
advance through Beira (5.170), as should lighters (5.205).
Tugs are available.
Harbour
5.205
1
General layout. There is no pier at Chinde. Goods are
taken ashore by lighter, ordered in advance from Beira, and
unloaded on the beach by local labour.
Storm signals. See 1.44.
2
Tidal streams. Rio Chinde is tidal throughout its length.
The in−going and out−going tidal streams turn at about
1 hour after HW and LW at the bar. At springs, the tidal
stream attains a rate of 3½ kn out−going and 2½ kn
in−going; during neaps there is occasionally no perceptible
in−going tidal stream and the out−going tidal stream is only
1 to 2 kn.
3
Climate. Chinde has a comparatively healthy climate,
mainly owing to sea breezes.
Directions for entering harbour
5.206
1
Landmark:
House (18°36′S 36°27′E), 1¼ miles SW of Praia do
Chinde Light (5.199).
2
Track. The channel across the bar at the entrance to Rio
Chinde is subject to frequent change and no up to date
information is available.
In 1964 the bar lay 2 miles S of Ponta Liberal, thence
the channel led NE and N to pass 6 cables E of Ponta
Liberal; within the bar, the channel had depths from 3⋅0 to
7⋅0 m.
3
The channel across the bar and to the anchorage (5.207)
is marked by buoys and beacons, the positions of which
are changed to conform to changes in the channel.
Useful mark: Inhamiara Light (18°31′S 36°32′E)
(5.232).
Berths
5.207
1
Anchorage. Good anchorage may be obtained in Rio
Chinde, 1¼ miles NW of Ponta Liberal, in depths from 4⋅5
to 7⋅5 m, good holding ground. Vessels should moor.
Strong E winds render anchorage close within Ponta
Liberal untenable for small craft, but in such conditions
they may anchor in the W part of the harbour.
Anchor berths are allotted to vessels by the Port
Captain.
2
Prohibited anchorage. Anchoring is prohibited in the
vicinity of a mooring buoy, allotted to the Port Captain,
which is in the inner part of the port on the N side of the
harbour.
Port services
5.208
1
Other facilities: Hospital.
Supplies: Fresh provisions are fairly plentiful.
Anchorage
Rio Mucelo
5.209
1
For details of anchorage off Barra Inhamissengo
(18°55′S 36°07′E) at the mouth of Rio Mucelo, see 5.213.
DELTA OF RIO ZAMBEZE
General information
Chart 4701
Description
5.210
1
Rio Zambeze, known as Zambezi River above its entry
into Mozambique, rises in the NW corner of Zambia, close
CHAPTER 5
204
to the border between that country and Zaire and within
5 cables of one of the sources of River Congo (Africa Pilot
Volume II). After a course of about 2000 miles it enters the
sea through an extensive delta between Rio Mitambe and
Ponta Mitaone.
2
From its source, Zambezi River flows SW into Angola
before re−entering Zambia and flowing S for nearly
300 miles to the border with Namibia, where it turns ESE.
The confluence with Chobe River (17°47′S 25°13′E),
one of the main tributaries of Zambezi River, is the
meeting point of four countries: Zambia, Namibia,
Botswana and Zimbabwe. It was close to here that the
explorer David Livingstone first sighted Zambezi River in
1855.
3
Thence Zambezi River flows in a general ENE direction
and forms the boundary between Zambia and Zimbabwe
before entering Mozambique at Zumbo (15°35′S 30°35′E).
On this part of its course the river runs over Victoria Falls,
one of the natural wonders of the world; through Lake
Kariba, which extends for 170 miles and is the largest
artificial lake in the world; and over Kariba Dam at the E
end of Lake Kariba.
4
From Kariba Dam, the river is navigable as far as
Chicoa, situated a short distance upstream of Quebrabasa
Rapids (5.220).
Rivers on the delta of Rio Zambeze
Chart 2934
General information
5.211
1
Description. The several mouths of Rio Zambeze which,
with the islands separating them, form its delta, extend
from Rio Mitambe (18°55′S 36°04′E) to Ponta Mitaone
33 miles NE. From W, these mouths are Rio Mitambe
(5.212), Rio Mucelo (5.213), Rio Cuama (5.214), Rio
Catarina (5.215) and Rio Chinde (5.216). All these
entrances have bars on which the depths are constantly
changing; Rio Chinde, although one of the narrowest and
most tortuous, is the deepest of the entrances and the only
one in general use.
2
Caution. The large volume of water which flows out of
the various mouths of Rio Zambeze during the rainy
season, combined with the continuous heavy swell, so
alters the positions of the several bars that the entrances are
never alike for two seasons.
3
The bars probably have their maximum depth during the
time that the river is in flood, from the end of February to
the end of March, and their minimum depth from
September to the beginning of November, especially the
latter period which is the end of the dry season. No attempt
to cross the bars should be made without the assistance of
a pilot or previous examination.
4
During the rainy season, the level of the river rises in
floods from 4⋅5 to 6⋅0 m and sweeps down to the sea with
great velocity causing very considerable variation in depths
within the entrances. After March the level of the river
falls rapidly, and at the middle of the dry season the river
is reduced to narrow channels, winding between dry
sandbanks, in places too shallow even to permit the
passage of a craft drawing 0⋅5 m. There is, therefore, no
permanence in either the direction or the depth of the
navigational passages.
5
Tidal stream. The tidal rise and fall is felt for about
25 miles within the mouths of the delta, and the effect of
the in−going tidal stream in checking the current of the
river is felt for many miles farther up river.
Apart from tidal influence, the rate of flow of Rio
Zambeze varies from 1½ to 3½ kn according to season.
6
Climate and conditions. In the delta of Rio Zambeze
and lower reaches of Rio Shiré (5.221), the living
conditions can feel oppressive for those not used to such a
climate. The worst periods are: February to March, the
height of the rainy season; April to May, when the rains
have ceased and the sun is actively drying the decaying
vegetation; and November, which is the hottest month.
Early morning mists can be relatively very cold.
Mosquitoes are numerous.
Rio Mitambe
5.212
1
Rio Mitambe (18°55′S 36°04′E) forms the W mouth of
Rio Zambeze. For details of the bar at the river mouth see
5.199.
Rio Mucelo
5.213
1
Description. Rio Mucelo (18°54′S 36°07′E) was the
principal entrance to Rio Zambeze until 1891, when it was
abandoned in favour of Rio Chinde; it is now seldom used.
Depths. Barra Inhamissengo (5.199) lies across the
mouth. Both entrance points of the river are fringed with
sandbanks and breakers which extend 1½ miles seaward
where they are connected by a narrow sand bar on which
there are depths from 0⋅5 to 1⋅5 m; the greater depth is
found in March at the height of the rainy season.
2
The bar should be examined before any attempt is made
to cross it. A vessel drawing 3⋅7 m has crossed the bar, and
it has been reported that there is a depth of 5⋅8 m on it at
HW springs. At LW, however, the surf breaks right across
the bar and the channel cannot be distinguished.
3
Within the bar, there are depths of 3⋅5 to 9⋅0 m in the
channel for about 12 miles N, where it forks. The NW
branch, which is shallow and little used, joins the main
channel of Rio Zambeze about 23 miles N of the bar; in
October 1893, HMS Mosquito, a stern−wheel vessel,
draught 0⋅9 m, length 23⋅5 m and beam 5⋅5 m, anchored in
this branch of the river about 5 miles above the fork. The
E branch is reported to have a depth of 3⋅7 m, but the
channel is tortuous and difficult and is only 9 m wide in
places; it was by this channel that the explorer David
Livingstone entered Rio Zambeze, and in 1893 HMS
Mosquito passed through it with some difficulty.
4
Tidal stream. In the entrance to the river, the out−going
tidal stream attains rates of 4 to 5 kn at springs.
Rio Inhangurué, entered close within the E entrance
point of Rio Mucelo, is a narrow channel which passes N
of Ilha Inhangurué and communicates with Rio Cuama; in
November 1894, during the period of LW, HMS Mosquito
passed through this channel in a least depth of 1⋅5 m.
5
Anchorage. In fine weather, anchorage may be obtained
off Barra Inhamissengo in depths of 8⋅0 m, sand, but in
other conditions vessels should anchor farther out. The
current is generally W−going, causing vessels at anchor to
lie beam on to the prevailing SE winds and to roll
considerably.
6
Unless certain of their position, vessels should make
Timbué Light (18°50′S 36°21′E) (5.199) or the entrance to
Rio Cuama (5.214), 4 miles SW, before proceeding to the
anchorage off Barra Inhamissengo. Having ascertained the
position, vessels should proceed SW along the coast in
CHAPTER 5
205
depths greater than 8 m until the entrance to Rio Mucelo is
identified, when anchorage may be made.
Rio Cuama
5.214
1
Barra Cuama (18°53′S 36°18′E) (5.199), the bar at the
mouth of Rio Cuama, is reported to be impassable during
the dry season. In the rainy season the river banks are
frequently inundated at springs for three or four days at a
time and, during the period of the out−going tidal stream,
the water is fresh as far as the bar.
Rio Catarina
5.215
1
Bassa Catarina (18°49′S 36°23′E) (5.199), the bar which
extends 1½ miles seaward of the mouth of Rio Catarina, is
reported to be impracticable even for boats in fine weather,
there being a heavy surf in the only place where there
appears to be a channel.
The channel within the bar was examined by HMS
Mosquito during the dry season in October 1894; a depth
of only 0.9 m was found in one place.
Rio Chinde
5.216
1
Description. Rio Chinde (18°34′S 36°28′E), entered
between Ponta Liberal and Ponta Mitaone 2 miles NE, is
the only entrance to Rio Zambeze in general use. From
Chinde (5.202), at its mouth, to the junction with Rio
Zambeze, Rio Chinde is about 20 miles long and very
tortuous.
2
The banks of Rio Chinde, for most of its length, are
fringed with dense mangroves rising from black, viscous
mud. Near the junction with Rio Zambeze, however, the
mangroves cease and the banks become higher and sandy
and are composed of clay in places.
3
From Ponta Luabo (18°35′S 36°25′E), 2½ miles W of
Ponta Liberal (5.199), for about 10 miles to a position
1 mile above Sombo, the river is about 1 cable wide;
thence, to the old village of Chinde, which stands on the S
bank at the junction with Rio Zambeze, it is much
narrower. Snags (5.218) are numerous.
4
At the junction with Rio Zambeze, a sharp turn round a
spit fringing the N entrance point is necessary and the
channel here is very narrow, being only about 27 m
between the spit and a bank in mid−channel of Rio
Zambeze. In 1890, HMS Redbreast, 50 m in length,
anchored just above the junction in 7⋅3 m but had to
shorten−in cable when swinging to the tidal stream.
5
Depths. Between the anchorage at Chinde and the point
where the river narrows about 1 mile above Sombo, depths
in the river at all states of the tide are sufficient for vessels
that can enter the river at Chinde; above this point the river
is so narrow that a vessel of about 45 m in length cannot
anchor and must proceed into Rio Zambeze to turn, and the
time of arrival at Sombo should therefore be about 1 hour
before HW. In 1925, there was a least depth of 2⋅4 m on
the bar abreast the old village of Chinde.
6
Pilotage. Local pilots for Rio Chinde are numerous and
skilful.
Tidal streams. See 5.205.
Rivers off Rio Chinde
5.217
1
Rio Maria enters Rio Chinde (5.216) on the N bank
close E of Ponta Sullimane (18°34′S 36°25′E). The
entrance is over 5 cables wide but is encumbered with two
islets and some drying banks. In 1893, HMS Mosquito
passed through Rio Maria during the season of “low river”
and without difficulty reached Rio Zambeze at a position a
few miles NW of the junction with Rio Chinde. This route
was reported to be about 1½ hours shorter than by Rio
Chinde, but the depths were little more than 1 m in places.
A telegraph wire, with a vertical clearance of 4⋅3 m above
HW springs, spans the river 2 miles N of the entrance.
2
Rio Inhaombe, not charted, a tributary of Rio Maria, has
been ascended for about 10 miles, at which point it nearly
dries.
Rio Maucane, not charted, is entered nearly 1 mile SW
of Ponta Luaba (18°35′S 36°25′E) and leads from Rio
Chinde to Rio Maria. HMS Mosquito passed through this
branch which is about 3½ miles in length.
RIO ZAMBEZE
General information
Charts 2934, 1810
Description
5.218
1
For about 140 miles above its delta, Rio Zambeze varies
from 5 cables to over 3 miles in width and is studded with
islands in places. The navigable channel is subject to
constant and rapid changes, and in the dry season is small
in relation to the width of the river.
2
The banks of Rio Zambeze offer little resistance to
erosion; as a result, the general character of the river in the
dry season consists of comparatively deep reaches separated
by shallow bars, the positions and depth over which vary
greatly from year to year depending on the lowness of the
river and the effects of the previous flood.
3
Large masses of earth which continually fall from the
banks are carried away by the stream and may be deposited
in formerly clear channels; such obstructions can only be
detected with experience.
Snags are numerous and a constant hazard as fresh ones
are brought down river by each year’s flood; if more than
about 0⋅5 m below the surface there is no indication of
their presence.
5.219
1
Rio Chinde to Rio Shiré. Between the delta and the
entrance to Rio Shiré, about 70 miles above Rio Chinde,
numerous villages and trading stations are situated on the
banks of Rio Zambeze, and a large amount of sugar is
cultivated.
Luabo (18°23′S 36°05′E) is situated on the E bank of
Rio Zambeze, about 17 miles above the junction with Rio
Chinde.
2
Marromeu, a village on the W bank about 13 miles up
river from Luabo, is the terminus of a light railway which
connects with the Trans−Zambesia Railway at Murraça.
Mazaro is a village on the E bank of Rio Zambeze,
18 miles above Marromeu. During “high river”, about
February or March, it is connected to Quelimane by a boat
passage which joins Rio Cuácua and Rio dos Bons Sinais
(5.245).
3
Murraça is on the W bank, nearly opposite the entrance
to Rio Shiré, about 35 miles above Mazaro. Here the
Trans−Zambesia Railway crosses the river to join the
Central African Railway.
Chindio is on the E bank, opposite Murraça.
5.220
1
Rio Shiré to Massangano. Ilha Inyangoma is a large
island at the junction (5.219) of Rio Shiré.
In the reach of Rio Zambeze for about 20 miles above
the junction with Rio Shiré there are shallow flats which
CHAPTER 5
206
are more or less permanent. At the end of the dry season,
between August and early November, this reach is hardly
navigable for vessels drawing more than 0⋅3 m; vessels
usually avoid it by taking the route round Ilha Inyangoma.
2
Sena, a town on the S bank of Rio Zambeze about
30 miles above the entrance to Rio Shiré, is the centre of a
large sugar industry.
In the reach of about 90 miles between Sena and Lupata
Gorge, the river is again shallow in parts and, at the end of
the dry season, hardly navigable for vessels drawing more
than 0⋅3 m.
3
Lupata Gorge is a natural cutting about 17 miles in
length. Care is necessary when the river is in flood, as the
current in the gorge then exceeds 4½ kn; during “low
river”, the current runs at 3 kn.
Tete (16°09′S 33°38′E) is a town on the W bank of Rio
Zambeze, 45 miles above Lupata Gorge.
4
During the navigation season, there is a regular service
by power vessels between Tete, Chindio and Vila Bocage
(5.221).
Massangano, 45 miles above Tete, is at the lower end of
Quebrabasa Rapids which form an impassable barrier for
about 40 miles and constitute the limit of navigation on Rio
Zambeze without portage.
5.221
1
Rio Shiré. Shiré River flows out of the S end of Lake
Malawi and enters Mozambique close below Port Herald,
where it is known as Rio Shiré; it enters Rio Zambeze by
two channels, passing each side of Ilha Inyangoma, the W
channel being known as Rio Ziu Ziu.
2
Rio Shiré is not navigable by power vessels above Port
Herald, and as the greatest rise in the river is reported to
be seldom more than 0⋅6 m above the level of “low river”,
navigation is confined to vessels of very shallow draught.
Snags (see 5.218) are numerous, particularly in the upper
part of the river.
3
Vila Bocage is a town on the E bank, 20 miles above
the junction with Rio Zambeze. During the navigation
season there is a regular river service between the town
and Tete (5.220).
Port Herald, about 30 miles above Vila Bocage, is
connected to the Trans−Zambesia−Malawi railway system.
Rio Ruo joins Shiré River 25 miles above Port Herald
and for some distance forms the W boundary of
Mozambique; this tributary is navigable by canoes for
about 12 miles.
Depths
5.222
1
At any season, Rio Zambeze is only navigable by power
vessels of very shallow draught, and during “low river”
vessels drawing more than 0⋅5 m may ground in places.
Paddle vessels of the sugar estates ply between Chinde
(5.202) and Laubo (5.219), and the river is usually
navigable as far as the junction of Rio Shiré, about
100 miles from the sea.
2
Depths in the navigable channel vary so much from
season to season that no reliable information can be given.
There are, however, some more or less permanent shallow
places; these are mostly found between the junction of Rio
Shiré and Tete (16°09′S 33°38′E).
“High river” and “low river”
5.223
1
The first rise after “low river” begins in November and
attains its maximum about the end of December or the
beginning of January, a maximum height of 4⋅1 m having
been recorded at Tete (5.220). The river then falls slightly
until the interior country has been inundated when the great
rise occurs, this being at its highest at Tete in March and
usually amounting to 6⋅0 m above “low river”. After
March, the river falls very rapidly and does not start to rise
again until November.
2
In Rio Shiré (5.221), the rise generally occurs at about
the same time as that in Rio Zambeze but the rains in the
district from which it flows may cause the times of its rise
to differ.
Current
5.224
The rise in the river is sudden and the current at first
runs at 4 to 5 kn, but in a very few days it resumes its
usual rate of about 2 kn at Tete; below Tete, the maximum
rate is 3½ kn.
1
During the dry season, the current in Rio Zambeze runs
from 1½ to 2 kn, and in the lower part of Rio Shiré form
¾ to 1½ kn.
Pilotage
5.225
1
River pilots are numerous and skilful.
Directions
5.226
1
Owing to the constant and rapid changes which occur in
the channels, no permanent directions of any value can be
given.
The channel crosses and re−crosses from bank to bank,
greatly increasing the distance which has to be traversed; in
these crossings, the channel is always shallower than when
it follows the banks, but the shallowest portions are usually
well defined by ripples over them and at their edges. These
ripples are almost the only guide available to the pilot.
2
The general rule, as in all river navigation, is to keep on
the outer side of the bends and away from all points. At
crossings, particularly when descending the river, it is
important to keep well up towards the upper bank as
grounding on the lower bank means hours lost in laying
out anchors and hauling off.
Anchorage
5.227
1
It is recommended usually to anchor in mid−stream, in
preference to near the banks. In early May, however,
especially in the lower part of Rio Shiré (5.221), it is
advisable to anchor under the lee of a bend as large masses
of grass, resembling floating islands, are brought down by
the current and are liable to trip the anchor if they foul the
cable.
When the river is in flood, the anchor should be sighted
about every 10 days.
RIO ZAMBEZE TO QUELIMANE
General information
Chart 2935
Route
5.228
1
From a position SE of the entrance to Rio Chinde
(18°34′S 36°28′E), the route leads NE for about 43 miles to
a position SE of the entrance to Rio dos Bons Sinais, the
river for Quelimane (17°53′S 36°53′E).
CHAPTER 5
207
Topography
5.229
1
Between Ponta Inhamiara (18°32′S 36°30′E) and Rio
Bazar 12 miles NE, the coast is low and seldom visible
from about 7 miles offshore, but between Rio Bazar and
Ponta Deia at the mouth of Rio Linde, 15 miles farther NE,
it is slightly higher and more visible. There are some
groups of trees near Ponta Deia, and some sandy cliffs,
fronted by a long lagoon, are situated a short distance SW
of the point, a little within the coast; the cliffs are
prominent during the forenoon.
2
Between Rio Linde and Ponta Olinda, 10 miles NE, the
coast is low and covered with vegetation; there are several
sandhills and reddish patches.
A low but prominent bluff is situated 2½ miles NE of
Ponta Linde, the NE entrance point to Rio Linde.
Depths
5.230
1
The 10 m depth contour virtually parallels the coast at a
distance of about 2½ to 4½ miles offshore; the greater
distance being in the vicinity of the larger river mouths.
Currents
5.231
1
In the vicinity of the entrance to Rio dos Bons Sinais
(18°04′S 37°01′E) and outside the bar, the current is
generally SW−going at a rate from 1 to 2 kn. For further
information on the Mozambique Current see 1.116.
Directions
(continued from 5.199)
5.232
1
From a position SE of a landfall buoy (18°37′S 35°32′E)
moored off the entrance to Rio Chinde, the track leads NE,
passing (with positions from Inhamiara Light (18°31′S
36°32′E)):
SE of Ponta Inhamiara. Some sand hills, 17 m high,
1 mile N of the extremity of Ponta Inhamiara, are
prominent and serve to identify the vicinity from a
short distance. Inhamiara Light (white square
framework tower, 9 m in height, and hut) is
exhibited from the point. Thence:
2
SE of the mouth of Rio Bazar (12 miles NE), thence:
SE of shoal ground (27 miles NE) extending up to
3 miles seaward from the mouth of Rio Linde
(5.246) which enters the sea through a broad
estuary. Ponta Deia, the SW entrance point of the
river, is sandy and covered with low vegetation;
Ponta Linde, the NE entrance point 1½ miles ENE
of Ponta Deia, and has coconut palms on it.
Thence:
3
To the vicinity of the pilot boarding place (39 miles
NE) off the entrance to Rio dos Bons Sinais
(5.245).
5.233
1
Useful mark:
Vilhena Light (red metal framework tower, white
stripes, 27 m in height) (18°06′S 36°55′E).
(Directions continue at 5.253)
Quelimane
Chart 650
General information
5.234
1
Position. The port of Quelimane (17°53′S 36°53′E)
stands on the E bank of Rio dos Bons Sinais, 10 miles
from the coast, but longer via the meandering channel of
the river.
2
Function. Quelimane is the capital of Zambézia
province, with a population (1989) of about 78 000. Fishing
is important. Exports are primarily agricultural: sisal, tea
and those based on palm products. Imports include
consumer goods, petroleum products, cement, fertilizers and
machinery.
3
Topography. The land on both sides of the river
entrance is low, sandy and covered with jungle; that near
Ponta Olinda, on the SW side, being slightly higher. The
town of Quelimane, surrounded by coconut palms, is the
site of one of the world’s largest coconut plantations. The
barracks, in the SE part of the town, are prominent. The
church is a stone building painted yellow and has two
spires.
4
Approach and entry. Approach is made over a bar at
the mouth of Rio dos Bons Sinais, marked by light−buoys.
Thence entry is via a 15½ mile passage of Rio dos Bons
Sinais using Canal das Moscas, initially the E−most
channel, but then meandering between a series of islands,
and marked by single light−buoys moored at 1 to 3 mile
intervals.
5
Traffic. In 2005, the port was used by 58 vessels with a
total of 196 613 dwt.
Port Authority. Caminhos de Ferro de Mozambique
Zambezia, CP 73, Quelimane.
Limiting conditions
5.235
1
Controlling depths. About 2⋅1 m on the bar 2¾ miles
seaward of the entrance to Rio dos Bons Sinais, but see
caution at 5.238.
Mid way between the entrance and Quelimane, the
narrow buoyed channel N of the Ilha Mojobo (5.240) has a
least depth (2001) of about 2⋅5 m close E of the island; the
wider unmarked channel S of Ilha Mojobo has a least
depth (2001) of about 2⋅1 m 5 cables ESE of the island.
2
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 4⋅2 m; mean neap
range about 1⋅1 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide
Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Vessels with a
draught up to 5⋅0 m may cross the bar at HW springs, and
up to 3⋅5 m at HW neaps. With permission of the Port
Authority, the port accommodates vessels up to 150 m in
length and 5⋅0 m draught. The largest vessel to have
entered the port was 7551 tons.
3
Local weather and sea state. The sea is generally
smooth on the bar at HW, but the bar is reported to be
impassable if there is a high sea in the offing.
Arrival information
5.236
1
Port operations. Entry and departure are only permitted
at HW during the port working hours of 0700 to 2300; at
other times by prior arrangement.
Notice of ETA required. ETA should be sent 7 days in
advance and then 72, 48 24 and 12 hours prior to arrival.
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).
2
Outer anchorages. Anchorage may be obtained outside
the bar in depths of 9 m. A good temporary berth is with
Vilhena Light (5.233) bearing 286° distant 5 miles. The
SW−going current (5.231) causes vessels at anchor off the
bar to lie beam on to the swell and to roll considerably.
For longer stays, better anchorage may be obtained to the
NE where the sea, tidal stream and current are reported to
be less.
CHAPTER 5
208
3
Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels entering Rio dos
Bons Sinais and is available in daylight hours only. Pilots
board close E of P Light−buoy (18°04′⋅8S 37°01′⋅6E). For
further details see Admiralty List of Radio Signals
Volume 6 (3).
Tugs, are not available.
Harbour
5.237
1
General layout. The town, on the E bank of the river,
has an alongside berth at a wharf and an anchorage in the
river (5.242).
Storm signals. See 1.44.
Tidal stream. In the river, the tidal stream attains rates
of about 3 kn.
Current. See 5.231.
Directions for entering harbour
5.238
1
Caution. Both the bar and the banks either side of the
entrance are subject to constant change, the bar more
especially after SW gales, and no reliance should be placed
on the charted depths. The positions of the buoys are
adjusted to meet the frequent changes both at the bar and
in the channel to Quelimane.
2
Great care is necessary when crossing the bar in a boat.
The breakers are treacherous, and sometimes a solitary
wave will break heavily on the bar where the sea was
smooth immediately before; several lives have been lost
through this cause.
3
Track. From the vicinity of the pilot boarding place
close E of P Light−buoy (white and green stripes) (charted
at 18°04′⋅8S 37°01′⋅6E) the track leads WNW, passing
(with positions from Ponta Olinda (18°03′⋅0S 36°58′⋅0E)):
Between light−buoys (lateral), the positions of which
are liable to change, marking the bar off the mouth
of Rio dos Bons Sinais, thence:
4
NNE of Banco dos Cavalos Marinhos (2 miles SE),
name not charted, a bank which dries in places
extending seaward from Ponta Olinda, thence:
SSW of Banco de Tangalane (1 mile NE), name not
charted, a drying bank extending SSE from Ponta
Tangalane, thence:
NE of No 2 Light−buoy (port hand) (6 cables ESE).
5.239
1
Thence the track leads NNW, passing:
ENE of Ponta Olinda (5.234), thence:
ENE of the entrance to Canal da Olinda (1¾ miles
NNW), a secondary and unmarked channel leading
round the S extremity of Ilha Lambué (3 miles
NW) and into Canal do Oeste which passes the E
side of Ilha dos Cavalos Marinhos (4½ miles NW)
before rejoining the main channel, thence:
2
WSW of No 5 Light−buoy (starboard hand) (2¼ miles
N) marking the river bank W of Ponta Tangalane.
Care is necessary when nearing Ponta Tangalane as
the in−going tidal stream here sets directly towards
the banks on the W side of the channel. Thence:
3
ENE of an extensive drying bank of sand and mud
(3 miles NNW) marking the W side of Canal das
Moscas, and which extends E from Ilha dos
Cavalos Marinhos (4½ miles NW) and Ilha
Lambué (3 miles NW), two low islands covered
with mangroves.
5.240
1
Thence the track curves through NW to lead WNW,
passing:
Close N of Ilha Mojobo (6 miles NNW), where the
channel is at its shallowest and narrowest. In 2001
the channel was about ½ cable wide between the E
end of Ilha Mojobo and the drying bank close N.
Thence the track continues generally N, passing:
W of Ilha Rambe (7 miles NNW), thence:
E of Ilha do Governador (10 miles NNW), low and
covered with mangroves, thence:
To the berth or anchorage off Quelimane.
5.241
1
Useful marks:
Recamba Light (red column, 5 m in height)
(17°53′⋅4S 36°52′⋅8E).
Capitania Light (red column, 3 m in height)
(17°52′⋅7S 36°52′⋅9E) exhibited near the Port
Office at the NW end of the waterfront.
Berths
5.242
1
Alongside. A wharf 210 m in length.
Anchorage. In the river abreast the town, as shown on
the chart. It is also usually possible to anchor in almost any
navigable part of the river.
Port services
5.243
1
Repairs: minor repairs to small vessels can be carried
out.
Other facilities: hospital.
Supplies: fresh water, and limited quantities of fuel oil,
with advanced notice, are available.
Communications: airport, for internal flights within
Mozambique, 3 km WNW of the port.
Small craft
5.244
1
Caution. Great care is necessary when crossing the bar
in small craft. The breakers are treacherous, and sometimes
a solitary wave will break heavily on the bar where the sea
was smooth immediately before; several lives have been
lost through this cause.
Rivers
Charts 650, 1810
Rio dos Bons Sinais
5.245
1
For details of Rio dos Bons Sinais from the bar at its
mouth (18°04′S 37°01′E) to Quelimane, see 5.234.
Above Quelimane the river trends W for 30 miles to
Nandoa where it divides into two branches, Rio Cuácua
and Rio Lua−lua. Rio Cuácua is connected at HW with
Mazaro (5.219) on Rio Zambeze.
Rio Licuare, which joins Rio dos Bons Sinais from N
about 6 miles above Quelimane, connects with Rio Macuze
(5.260) via Rio Mucelo (5.213) and Rio Muanange; this
route is reported to be navigable by vessels drawing 1⋅8 m.
Chart 2935
Rio Linde
5.246
1
Description. Rio Linde is entered between Ponta Deia
(18°12′S 36°50′E) (5.232) and Ponta Linde, 1½ miles ENE.
Both entrance points are fringed with banks which extend
as much as 3 miles seaward, the outer edges being
connected by a narrow bar which is subject to change.
Numerous islands lie within the entrance points.
2
Depths. Depths of 1⋅8 m have been found on the bar. It
has been reported that Rio Linde has depths from 3⋅7 m to
18⋅0 m for about 50 miles within the entrance.
CHAPTER 5
209
Pilotage. A pilot for Rio Linde may be obtained from
Quelimane and will board at the anchorage (5.236) off Rio
dos Bons Sinais.
Tributaries
5.247
1
Canal da Chica, entered 1½ miles NW of Ponta Linde,
connects at high tide with Rio dos Bons Sinais (5.245).
Rio Inhalinde, which enters Rio Linde 2½ miles WNW
of Ponta Linde, has been ascended by boat for 12 miles
and had then depths from 9⋅0 to 18⋅0 m.
Anchorage
5.248
1
Anchorage may be obtained SE of Ponta Deia in depths
of 7⋅0 m.
QUELIMANE TO PONTA MACALONGA
General information
Charts 2935, 2933
Route
5.249
1
From a position off the entrance to Rio dos Bons Sinais,
the river for Quelimane (17°53′S 36°53′E), the route leads
ENE passing either offshore or inshore of Ilhas Primeiras
(5.250), to a position E of Ponta Macalonga (17°01′S
39°04′E) about 135 miles ENE.
Topography
5.250
1
Several rivers flow into the sea along this stretch of
coast which is low, sandy and backed by jungle. Within
15 miles of Ponta Macalonga, at Rio Molóquè, the coastal
aspect gradually changes to sandy hummocks covered with
thick clumps of bushes, and within 11 miles of Ponta
Macalonga there are bare sandhills with a few scattered
trees.
Ilhas Primeiras are a chain of islets and reefs 5 to
12 miles offshore on the outer edge of a coral bank
fronting the coast WSW from Ponta Macalonga.
Depths
5.251
1
The 10 m depth contour lies generally between 2 and
5 miles from the coast. Depths increase regularly and very
gradually from the shore as far as the edge of the
continental shelf, as represented by the 200 m depth
contour. Off Quelimane the shelf edge is about 30 miles
offshore, closing to just 8 miles offshore at Ponta
Macalonga. From Baixos Pantaloon, about 60 miles E of
Quelimane, to Ponta Macalonga and beyond, the shelf edge
is marked by a series of shoals and the drying reefs of
Ilhas Primeiras.
Currents
5.252
1
In Casuarina Road, between Ilha Casuarina (17°07′S
39°04′E) and the mainland, a SW−going current is usually
experienced, but a NE−going current occurs occasionally.
For further information on the Mozambique Current
see 1.116.
Directions
(continued from 5.233)
Principal marks
5.253
1
Landmark:
Ilha Epidendron (17°05′S 39°07′E) can be seen from
a distance of about 15 miles.
Other aids to navigation
5.254
1
Racon:
Ilha Epidendron Light (17°05′S 39°07′E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Offshore route
5.255
1
From a position SE of the entrance to Rio dos Bons
Sinais (18°05′S 37°02′E) the track leads ENE, outside Ilhas
Primeiras (5.250), passing (with positions from Ponta
Matirre Light (17°17′S 38°11′E)):
SSE of a 7⋅8 m shoal patch (31 miles SSW), the
W−most of two rocky shoals forming Baixos
Pantaloon; the second shoal, least depth 8⋅3 m, lies
about 7 miles ENE of the 7⋅8 m shoal. Thence:
2
SSE of Baixo Acorn (21 miles S), least depth 7⋅7 m,
and named after HMS Acorn, a brig of 485 tons,
which touched on the shoal in 1840. Twelve years
later another vessel obtained a sounding of 10⋅1 m
close by and observed breakers on the patch.
Thence:
3
SSE of a 9⋅8 m shoal patch (20 miles SE), the
W−most of two steep−to rocky shoals forming
Baixos Davide; the least depth of the second shoal,
also 9⋅8 m, lies about 4 miles ENE of the first.
Thence:
SSE of Baixo Lacerda (22 miles ESE), a rocky shoal
with a least depth of 8⋅2 m.
5.256
1
Thence the track continues ENE, seaward of Ilhas
Primeiras, passing (with positions from Ilha do Fogo Light
(17°14′S 38°53′E)):
2
SSE of Ilha Silva (5½ miles WSW), a rock and coral
reef nearly circular in shape and about 1 mile in
diameter, on the N part of which there is a
hummock of sand and broken shells; the hummock
is covered at HW springs and its position changes
slightly during storms. The wreck of MV Tartus,
about 6500 tons, stranded on the reef in 1982, is
conspicuous on radar. Thence:
3
SSE of the reefs surrounding Ilha do Fogo which dry
in patches and extend up to 1 mile S. The island is
3 m high and composed of sand; a few trees about
20 m high stand on the N part, the remaining part
being covered with scrub. Ilha do Fogo Light
(white square concrete framework tower, 34 m in
height) is exhibited on the E side of the island.
Thence:
4
SSE of the reef surrounding Ilha Coroa (4½ miles
NE), an island 6 m high, sandy and sparsely
covered with grass. The reef extends 1 mile S of
the island, where in 1983 there was a conspicuous
wreck. Thence:
SSE of Baixo Tanibi (12 miles ENE), a reef close SW
of Ilha Casuarina which is surrounded by reefs
except on its NW side. Ilha Casuarina is covered
with casuarina trees about 25 m high and can be
identified from a considerable distance. Thence:
CHAPTER 5
210
5
SSE of reefs surrounding Ilha Epidendron (5.253)
(16 miles ENE) on all but its NW side, where a
wreck is conspicuous. A light (white square
framework tower, red bands; 24 m in height) is
exhibited from the island. Between the reefs
around Ilha Epidendron and those around Ilha
Casuarina there is a clear passage 5 cables wide
with a least known depth of 11⋅0 m. Thence:
6
SSE of Baixo Barraco (19 miles ENE) a dangerous
reef of rock and coral with a detached rocky patch
of least depth 8⋅7 m, 1 mile SE, over which the sea
breaks during S gales; another rocky patch, least
depth 12⋅6 m, lies 5 miles NE of Baixo Barraco.
Thence:
To a position E of Ponta Macalonga (17 miles NE), a
low sandy point.
(Directions continue at 5.290)
Inshore route
5.257
1
From the vicinity of the pilot boarding place (18°05′S
37°02′E) off the entrance to Rio dos Bons Sinais, the track
leads generally ENE, inshore of Ilhas Primeiras (5.250),
passing (with positions from Macuse Light (white square
concrete framework tower, 20 m in height) (17°47′S
37°11′E)):
SSE of the landfall buoy (safe water) (3¾ miles SE)
at the entrance to Rio Macuse (5.260), thence:
2
SSE of the mouth of Rio Licungo (12 miles NE), a
narrow river of little importance; in 1958 there
was a depth of 1⋅8 m on the bar across the
entrance. Thence:
SSE of the mouth of Rio Mabala (27 miles ENE), a
river about which little is known, thence:
3
Clear of a 5⋅5 m patch (40 miles ENE) 4½ miles
offshore and with depths less than 10 m extending
for 4 miles SW of it. The mouth Rio Raraga,
another river about which little is known, lies
6½ miles WNW of the 5⋅5 m patch Thence:
NNW of Baixos Pantaloon (45 miles E) (5.255),
thence:
NNW of Baixo Acorn (60 miles ENE) (5.255).
5.258
1
Thence the track continues ENE passing (with positions
from Ponta Matirre Light (17°17′S 38°11′E)):
2
SSE of foul ground (7 miles SW) extending up to
2 miles seaward from Ilha Idugo, the coast of
which is irregular and somewhat higher than the
coast on each side. Rio Mazenma (Mazemba), on
the W side of the island, enters the sea through a
narrow channel across a bar, depth (1954) 1⋅2 m,
between drying banks on either side. Within the
bar there are depths from 6 to 9 m for about
4 miles. Thence:
3
SSE of P Buoy (pillar) (4 miles SW) at the entrance
to Rio Moniga, the river for Pebane (5.268),
thence:
SSE of Ponta Matirre, a remarkable bluff of yellow
earthy cliffs fringed with scattered rocks, and one
of the most distinctive features on this part of the
coast; Ponta Matirre Light (white metal framework
tower, red bands; 13 m in height) and a signal
station are both situated at the point. Thence:
4
SSE of the mouth of Rio Melai (5 miles ENE) which
is easily identified; Cabo Tocorro, the E entrance
point is a distinctive bluff of red earth cliffs with a
sandy beach at its foot on which there are a few
rocks. Thence:
NNW of Baixos Davide (20 miles SE) (5.255),
thence:
5
NNW of Baixo Lacerda (22 miles ESE) (5.255),
thence:
SSE of the entrance to Rio Namane (21 miles ENE)
(5.284), the W−most mouth of the delta of Rio
Malela (5.285), 3½ miles farther ENE.
5.259
1
Thence the track continues ENE, passing (with positions
from Ilha do Fogo Light (17°14′S 38°53′E)):
NNW of the chain of islets and reefs forming Ilha
Primeiras (5½ miles WSW to 19 miles ENE); for
details see 5.256. Thence:
SSE of the entrance to Rio Moebase (14 miles NW)
(5.276), thence:
2
SSE of the mouth of Rio Molóquè (10½ miles
NNW); the mouth of Rio Moarenha lies 6½ miles
ENE of Rio Molóquè. Little is known of these
rivers, the mouths of both being closed by bars
which nearly dry. Near the mouth of Rio
Moarenha there is a very distinct red cliff. Thence:
3
SSE of Ponta Macalonga (17 miles NE), a low sandy
point fronted by a bank on which the depths are
irregular, between 5⋅5 and 9⋅0 m, and which
extends 4½ miles SW through to 3 miles SE of the
point, thence:
To a position E of Ponta Macalonga.
(Directions continue at 5.290)
Macuse
General information
5.260
1
Position. The port of Macuse (17°43′S 37°11′E) lies
within the estuary of Rio Macuse.
Function. Transhipment of copra from the surrounding
area.
2
Approach and entry. Approach is over a bar marked by
buoys, and entry into Rio Macuse lies between drying
banks extending seaward from Ponta Namerruma (17°47′S
37°11′E) and Ponta da Barra, a slight bluff 2 miles NE.
Port Authority. Caminhos de Ferro de Mozambique
Zambezia, CP 73, Quelimane.
Limiting conditions
5.261
1
Controlling depth. The bar across the entrance to Rio
Macuse has depths that are subject to frequent change; in
1974 the depth was 1⋅2 m, and in 1982 it was 2⋅1 m.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 3⋅6 m; mean neap
range about 0⋅9 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide
Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled. In 1974 the
maximum permissible draught for crossing the bar was
5⋅0 m at HW springs and 3⋅5 m at HW neaps.
Arrival information
5.262
1
Pilotage is compulsory for ocean−going vessels entering
Rio Macuse; requests should be made to the Port Authority
at Quelimane (5.234) 24 hours before arrival.
Local knowledge is required.
CHAPTER 5
211
Harbour
5.263
1
General layout. Anchorage in the estuary of Rio
Macuse. A small jetty is reported to be in a poor state of
repair at Macuse on the E bank of the river.
Storm signals. See 1.44.
Tidal streams. The in−going tidal stream sets W on the
rising tide, and the out−going tidal stream sets E on the
falling tide; caution is necessary when crossing the bar to
guard against the effect of the tidal streams
Within the harbour, the out−going tidal stream attains
rates of 2 to 3 kn; the in−going stream runs less strongly.
Directions for entering harbour
5.264
1
Caution. The navigational marks are moved as
necessary to meet the frequent changes in the channel.
From the vicinity of the landfall buoy (safe water)
moored 3¾ miles ESE of Macuse Light (17°47′S 37°11′E)
(5.257) in a depth of 5 m, the track leads generally WNW,
passing (with positions from Macuse Light):
Close NNE of No 2 Buoy (2⋅1 miles ESE), thence:
2
The track leads NNW with the palm trees on the point
(4 miles N) on the W bank of the river, ahead, and keeping
in mid channel between the banks, passing:
WSW of No 1 Buoy (2 miles E), thence:
ENE of Ponta Namerruma, from which Macuse Light
is exhibited, and:
WSW of Ponta da Barra (2 miles NE), a slight bluff,
thence:
The track continues NNW in mid−river to the anchorage.
Berth
5.265
1
Anchorage in depths of about 12 m opposite a wharf
near Macuse.
Port services
5.266
1
Facilities: hospital.
Communications: airfield 3 km NW of Macuse.
River above Macuse
5.267
1
Above Macuse, the banks of the river are low, covered
with palms and mangroves, and contain many settlements.
Depths of about 9⋅0 m continue for the 9 miles to Maquival
on the S bank of Rio Namacurra, one of the principal
settlements on the river network. Above Maquival the
depths decrease.
Rio Macuse is connected to Rio dos Bons Sinais (5.245)
by tributaries.
Pebane
General information
5.268
1
Position. The port of Pebane (17°18′S 38°08′E) lies
within the estuary of Rio Moniga.
Function. Transhipment of copra from the surrounding
area.
2
Topography. The entrance to Rio Moniga is easily
distinguished from that of Rio Mazenma, 5 miles WSW, by
the appearance of Ilha Idugo, between the two rivers, and
the boldness of Ponta Matirre (5.258). Both entrance points
are covered with trees, though the appearance of the coast
in this vicinity is subject to change. Within the coast there
is fine open country. A military establishment on the W
bank of Rio Moniga, and N of Ilha Idugo, is easily
identified.
3
Approach and entry. The approach is over a bar
marked by buoys. Entry into Rio Moniga, between drying
banks extending SE and E from Ponta Monaepa (17°18′S
38°07′E) and S from Ponta Maverani, 1½ miles E, is
(1992) marked by a pair of leading beacons.
Traffic. In 1997, the port was used by 3 vessels with a
total of 13 612 dwt.
Port Authority. Caminhos de Ferro de Mozambique
Zambezia, CP 73, Quelimane.
Limiting conditions
5.269
1
Controlling depth. On the bar across the entrance to
Rio Moniga, but depths are subject to frequent change; in
1974 the least depth was 1⋅7 m.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 3⋅7 m; mean neap
range about 1⋅1 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide
Tables.
Arrival information
5.270
1
Pilotage is compulsory for ocean−going vessels; requests
should be made to the Port Authority at Quelimane (5.234)
24 hours before arrival.
Local knowledge is required.
Tugs. A small tug is available.
Harbour
5.271
1
General layout. The town of Pebane stands on the E
bank of the Rio Moniga estuary; anchorage may be
obtained abreast the town. There is a small floating
pontoon.
Storm signals. See 1.44.
Directions for entering harbour
5.272
1
Caution. Buoys, not necessarily conforming to any
buoyage system, and leading marks are moved frequently
to meet changes in the channel over the bar.
2
From the vicinity of P Buoy (pillar), charted as moored
about 3 miles SE of Ponta Monaepa (17°18′S 38°07′E), the
track leads generally N, passing (with positions from Ponta
Monaepa):
Between two buoys (spar, port and starboard hand),
the positions of which are liable to change,
marking the channel over the bar off the mouth of
Rio Moniga; the sea breaks continually on the bar
when the swell is from S.
3
Within the bar, depths increase in the fairway of the
channel which leads NW on the alignment of a pair of
leading beacons, not charted, (1½ miles N), passing:
SW of drying banks extending S from Ponta
Maverani (1½ miles E); a stranded wreck lies
7 cables E of the point. Thence:
NE of drying banks extending E from Ponta
Monaepa, thence:
The track leads N in mid−river to the anchorage.
4
Useful marks:
Ponta Matirre Light (17°17′S 38°11′E) (5.258); a pair
if disused leading beacons stand 1 mile W of the
light.
Berths
5.273
1
Anchorage in depths of about 13 m abreast the town of
Pebane.
CHAPTER 5
212
Port services
5.274
1
Facilities: hospital 4 km ESE of Pebane.
Communications: an airfield lies 4 km ESE of Pebane.
Rivers
5.275
1
Rio Moniga. Above the anchorage off Pebane, the
depths in Rio Moniga decrease considerably, but the river
has been reported to be navigable by small craft for
20 miles.
Rio (Canal) Tejungo, is entered close N of Ponta
Monaepa (17°18′S 38°07′E) and leads N of Ilha Idugo to
connect Rio Moniga with Rio Mazenma. In 1964 there was
a least depth of 2⋅7 m in the narrow channel leading to it
from Rio Moniga.
Rio Moebase
General information
5.276
1
Position and function. The estuary of Rio Moebase,
entered between Ponta M’sulo (17°05′S 38°41′E) and Ponta
Almandia, 1 mile ESE, provides an anchorage.
2
Topography. The W bank of the river is low and
marshy and intersected by numerous mangrove−bordered
creeks, but the E bank is high and the country to N of the
entrance is covered with dense jungle. The entrance may be
identified by some avenues of casuarina trees which stand
on the E bank of the river near the village of Moebase,
1 mile NW of Ponta Almandia. A beacon (white triangle)
stands on the beach E of Ponta Almandia.
Arrival information
5.277
1
Pilotage is compulsory. The latest information should be
obtained from the Port Authority at Quelimane (5.234).
Local knowledge is essential.
Limiting conditions
5.278
1
Controlling depth. There is a bar across the entrance,
but its position and the depths over it are subject to
frequent changes; in 1958, the depth was 1⋅5 m.
Harbour
5.279
1
General layout. Anchorage in Rio Moebase. Moebase
lies on the E bank of the river about 1 mile N of the
entrance.
2
Tidal streams. In the entrance and in Rio Moebase the
tidal streams are, at times, violent and set in various
directions, not along the axis of the channel, especially at
spring tides with strong S winds.
Directions for entering harbour
5.280
1
Caution. The position and depth over the bar are subject
to frequent changes.
In 1958, from the vicinity of a landfall buoy moored
2½ miles SE of Ponta Almandia (5.276), the alignment of
leading beacons at Ponta Almandia lead WNW across the
bar. Thence the edge of Banco M’sulo, always visible, was
followed until the whole E bank of the river opened up and
track could be made for the entrance.
Wthin the entrance, the E bank should be followed at a
distance of ¾ cable until the anchorage is reached.
Berth
5.281
1
Anchorage. May be obtained off the village of Moebase
in depths from about 5 to 8 m.
Anchorages and harbours
Ilha do Fogo
5.282
1
Anchorage, in depths from 9 to 11 m, 5 cables off the W
side of Ilha do Fogo (17°14′S 38°53′E) (5.256); or, in
depths from 18 m at 3 or 4 cables offshore, with the centre
of the island bearing from 156° to 178°.
When approaching the anchorage from N, the depths
suddenly increase from 18 m to 36 m at about 1½ miles
offshore, and rapidly decrease again to 18 m at about
5 cables offshore.
Casuarina Road
5.283
1
General information. Casuarina Road, between Ilha
Casuarina (17°07′S 39°04′E) (5.256) and the mainland, is
sheltered from SE by Ilha Casuarina and Ilha Epidendron
and affords the best anchorage on this part of the coast.
Current. See 5.252.
2
Directions. Approaching from NE, keep Ilha Casuarina
bearing about 220° and open N of Ilha Epidendron Light in
order to pass N of Baixo Barraco (5.256); the depths are
regular.
Anchorage, at Casuarina Road, in depths of 20 m with
Ilha Casuarina bearing about 135° distant 8 cables.
Off the NW side of Ilha Epidendron (17°05′S 39°07′E)
(5.256) in depths from 7 to 20 m about 3 cables offshore;
the depths decrease to 5 m or less at 2 cables offshore.
Rivers
Rio Namane
5.284
1
General information. Rio Namane (17°08′S 38°31′E) is
the W mouth of the delta of Rio Malela. In 1958, there
was a depth of 1⋅2 m on the bar across its entrance. A few
small coasting vessels visit Rio Namane, but no vessel
should attempt to cross the bar without local knowledge or
previous examination.
2
Tidal streams attain rates from 4 to 5 kn in the river
entrance during springs. The sea over the bar is reported to
be smoother during the period of the in−going tidal stream.
Anchorage. Within the entrance there is anchorage for a
small vessel in depths of 4⋅3 m, mud, off a village which
may be identified by a white house.
Rio Malela
5.285
1
General information. Rio Malela (17°07′S 38°34′E) has
a bar which extends 4½ cables seaward from the entrance.
The channel across the bar is narrow and tortuous; in 1958
there were depths of 2⋅1 m on the bar.
Little is known of Rio Malela except that it is connected
by inland waterways, navigable by boats, to Rio Moebase
(5.276) and also to Rio Moma (5.295).
Anchorage off the river is not recommended.
CHAPTER 5
213
PONTA MACALONGA TO ANGOCHE
General information
Chart 2933
Route
5.286
1
From a position E of Ponta Macalonga (17°01′S
39°04′E), and clear of the shoals extending NE from Ilhas
Primeiras, the route leads NE to a position off the
approaches to Angoche, 68 miles NE of Ponta Macalonga.
Topography
5.287
1
Between Ponta Macalonga and the entrance to Angoche
the coast is moderately low, covered with grass and
detached groups of casuarina trees, and is fringed by sandy
beaches.
Muligudje (Mount Cockburn) is a distinctive conical
mountain 28 miles NNW of Ponta Macalonga and is the
only mountain visible off this part of the coast.
2
Ponta Caldeira (16°40′S 39°31′E) where a light (5.290)
is exhibited, is somewhat higher than the adjacent coast.
Monte Pilipi, a prominent hill 9 miles NE and 2 miles
inland at the E extremity of the Serra de Matadane chain
of hills, may be seen from a considerable distance seaward;
it is reported (1984) to be radar conspicuous at a range of
25 miles.
3
From 28 miles NE of Ponta Macalonga to Angoche the
coast is fronted by Ilhas de Angoche, a chain of islets and
drying reefs which lie at distances varying between 4 and
9 miles offshore. The trees on these islets are very useful
marks when approaching from seaward; for this reason it is
important that they should not be cut down or otherwise
damaged.
Depths
5.288
1
A line of shoals and drying reefs marks the edge of the
continental shelf, as represented by the 200 m depth
contour 12 to 5 miles offshore, being closest to the shore
near Ilha de Angoche (16°21′S 39°52′E) where the channel
is narrow. Depths greater than 10 m lie between the shoals
and close to the coast, with only a few isolated patches of
lesser depths. Seaward of the line of shoals, depths increase
rapidly.
Current
5.289
1
For details on the Mozambique Current see 1.116.
Directions
(continued from 5.256 and 5.259)
Principal marks
5.290
1
Major light:
Ponta Caldeira Light (white 8−sided tower, 27 m in
height) (16°40′S 39°31′E); keepers’ dwellings, also
white, stand each side of the light−tower.
Other navigational aid
5.291
1
Racon:
Ilha Epidendron Light (17°05′S 39°07′E).
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 2.
Track
5.292
1
From a position E of Ponta Macalonga (17°01′S
39°04′E), the track leads NE, passing (with positions from
Ilha Caldeira (16°39′S 39°43′E)):
SE of the entrance to Porto de Moma (26 miles
WSW) (5.295), thence:
Clear of a 10⋅6 m rocky patch (22 miles SW); two
other rocky patches of 13⋅9 m and 13⋅7 m lie,
respectively, 5½ and 9 miles farther SW, thence:
For information on the track inshore of the reefs and
islets forming Ilhas de Angoche (5.287) see 5.294.
5.293
1
The track offshore of Ilhas de Angoche continues NE
passing:
SE of Ilha de Moma (16 miles SW), the SW islet of
Ilhas de Angoche; the islet is 5 m high, sandy and
reported (1984) to show well on radar at a
distance of 12 miles. Except on its NW side, the
islet is surrounded by reefs extending as much as
1¼ miles SE. Thence:
2
SE of a 6⋅0 m patch (3¼ miles SW). Between Ilha de
Moma and Ilha Caldeira the depths are very
irregular. Thence:
SE of Ilha Caldeira, sandy and with a few casuarina
trees on it. Except on its N side, the island is
surrounded by reefs which extend as much as
1 mile NE and S. The island is reported (1986) to
be easily identifiable on radar at a range of
15 miles. Thence:
3
SE of Ilha Nejovo (N’jovo) (6½ miles NE), low
sandy and covered with trees. Except on its N
side, the island is surrounded by reefs which
extend as much as 1½ miles S. The island is
reported (1986) to be easily identifiable on radar at
a range of 15 miles. Thence:
SE of Baixo Miguel (12 miles NE), a dangerous
drying reef which should be given a wide berth,
thence:
4
SE of Ilha Puga−Puga (17½ miles NE), a small sandy
islet 2 m high. Except on its NW side, the islet is
surrounded by reefs which extend as much as
1½ miles SE. Thence:
As required for the pilot boarding place NW of Ilha
de Mafamede (25 miles NE), noting the 6⋅0 m
patch 1½ miles NNW of the island, or:
5
SE of Ilha de Mafamede (25 miles NE), low and
sandy, but a group of casuarina trees on it may be
seen from a considerable distance. Except on its N
side, where the coast is moderately steep−to and
the landing is good, the island is surrounded by
reefs which extend as much as 1½ miles NE and
S. The island is reported (1984) to be prominent
on radar at a range of 13½ miles. Ilha de
Mafamede Light (white 6−sided tower, 25 m in
height) is exhibited from the island. Thence:
6
To a position SE of the Fairway Light−buoy (32 miles
NE), at the N approach channel to Angoche.
Inshore of Ilhas de Angoche
5.294
1
Caution is necessary, especially at night, when using the
channel between Ilha Puga−Puga (16°27′S 39°57′E) and
Ponta Masiuane, 3 miles NW, which is low, white and
sandy; the bank extending SE of Ponta Masiuane and the
breakers off the bar of Rio Quilua, close SW, limit the
CHAPTER 5
214
width of the navigable channel to little over 1½ miles. An
isolated patch of 9⋅4 m lies in mid−channel.
A shoal of 3⋅3 m lies 7 cables N of Baixo Miguel,
5 miles SW of Ilha Puga−Puga.
(Directions continue at 5.319)
Porto de Moma
General information
5.295
1
Position. Porto de Moma (16°46′S 39°15′E) is situated
within the estuary at the confluence of Rio Merrupi and the
lower reaches of Rio Moma, known as Rio Cocola.
Function. The port was re−opened to cargo vessels in
1983 after a period of use by fishing vessels only.
Topography. Ilha Mutirrane (16°48′S 39°15′E) is fronted
by a narrow tongue of land which forms the S entrance
point. Ponta Nicota, the N entrance point, is the SW
extremity of another similar tongue of land which lies
parallel with the coast 8 cables N of Ilha Mutirrane.
2
Banco de Mutirrane and Banco de Nicota extend,
respectively nearly 2 miles E of Ilha Mutirrane and Ponta
Nicota; at their outer edges the banks are connected by a
broad bar. Within the bar, a large part of the wide estuary
is encumbered with banks which partly dry.
Rio Merrupi flows into the W part of the estuary, but its
entrance is almost completely obstructed by an extensive
bank which dries in place, leaving only a narrow and shoal
channel.
3
Rio Moma flows into the E part of the estuary and may
be approached by a comparatively deep channel.
Approach and entry. Approach is from a fairway buoy
(black and white stripes) moored seaward of the bar, and
entry is over the bar which is subject to frequent changes
of position and depth.
Limiting conditions
5.296
1
Controlling depth. In 1985 there was a depth of 1 m in
the channel across the bar. A vessel wishing to enter the
estuary should make the entrance two or three days before
spring tides and should allow a clearance below the keel of
at least 1 m.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 2⋅8 m; mean neap
range about 0.6 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide
Tables.
Arrival information
5.297
1
Outer anchorage. In August 1878, HMS Thetis
(1860 tons) anchored about 3½ miles SE of the entrance to
Porto de Moma in a depth of about 16 m, sand and mud.
At that time of year the current always sets SW along the
coast at varying strengths and, as there was a heavy rolling
sea from S which at times resembled rollers on a bar, the
ship lay broadside to the swell and rolled heavily.
Pilotage is compulsory for vessels entering Porto de
Moma.
Local knowledge is essential.
Harbour
5.298
1
General layout. The town of Moma (16°46′S 39°13′E)
stands near the extremity of a tongue of land which
separates Rio Merrupi from Rio Moma; it was formerly a
Portuguese military station.
Tidal streams. The tidal streams run very strongly in
the entrance channel.
Directions for entering harbour
5.299
1
Caution. No recent information concerning the port and
its approaches is available, but the coastline and bars are
known to have changed extensively. The bar is practicable
only in good conditions of sea and visibility, and is
dangerous in S winds. Due to the instability of the bar, no
directions can be given and no attempt to enter should be
made without a pilot.
Anchorage
5.300
1
Off Moma, which is approached through a tortuous
channel between drying banks.
In Rio Moma abreast Nacalaua a village, not charted, on
the E bank 2½ miles N of Ilha Mutirrane (5.295).
Port services
5.301
1
Other facilities: hospital.
Communications: airfield close N of the town.
Porto de Angoche
Chart 2933 (see 1.19)
General information
5.302
1
Position and function. Angoche (16°14′S 39°54′E),
formerly António Enes the principal Portuguese settlement
in the district, is situated on the N side of an estuary
between Ilha de Angoche and the mainland; the estuary
forms Porto de Angoche.
2
Topography. The N part of Ilha de Angoche is covered
with large trees, among which several villages are visible.
The island is intersected by numerous creeks and fronted
by partly drying banks and islets. There are casuarina trees
on Ilha do Buzio and adjacent islets, on the N edge of the
island. At the W end of Ilha do Buzio there is a sheltered
area with smooth water where boats can lie alongside a
steep sandy beach in a depth of 5⋅5 m.
3
On the N side of the entrance to Porto de Angoche, the
coast is somewhat higher than that of Ilha de Angoche to
the S and consists of a low sandy cliff, the top of which is
fringed with trees.
The town of Angoche is built on the slope of a hill
which, from seaward, appears to be the end of a high ridge
extending NE for 20 miles to the mouth of Rio Sangage. A
fort and barracks stand on the slopes of the hill NE of the
town.
4
Approach and entry. Approach is from P Boía de
espera light−buoy moored about 4½ miles E of Ponta
Namacoto (16°13′S 39°59′E); entry, across the bar, is via
the only practicable access channel, Canal do Norte,
marked by buoys.
Canal do Sul is an unmarked channel leading NNW
between the sandbanks 3½ miles E of Ilha do Buzio.
Entry over the bar is only practicable in normal sea and
weather conditions by day, and in very good weather at
night.
CHAPTER 5
215
Limiting conditions
5.303
1
Controlling depth. A clearance below the keel of at
least 1⋅2 m is required before attempting to cross the bar. If
it is considered necessary to examine the bar before entry,
caution is required as the bar can be dangerous at times. In
1974, the bar had a least known depth of 2⋅0 m.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 3⋅8 m; mean neap
range about 1⋅0 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide
Tables.
2
Maximum size of vessel handled. The port
accommodates vessels with a draught up to 5 m, but large
vessels can enter and leave only at HW.
Local weather and sea state. The channel over the bar
is exposed to S winds, the effect being felt mainly in the
first 4 miles of the channel.
Arrival information
5.304
1
Outer anchorage. Close W of Ilha de Mafamede, see
5.311.
Pilotage is compulsory for merchant vessels. Pilot
boards close W of Ilha de Mafamede (16°21′S 40°02′E).
Local knowledge is required.
Harbour
5.305
1
General layout. Anchorage abreast the town as shown
on the chart; landing is at a pier which dries alongside at
LW.
Storm signals. See 1.44.
Tidal streams in the anchorage attain a maximum rate
of 4 kn.
Directions for entering harbour
5.306
1
Caution. The approach to Angoche is obstructed by
numerous banks and shoals which extend up to 4 miles
from the shore. The channel over the bar is subject to
frequent change and the buoys marking the channel are
moved accordingly.
2
Canal do Norte. From the vicinity of P Boía de espera
light−buoy (red) (16°14′S 40°03′E) the track, marked by
buoys (lateral), leads generally NW across the bar.
Thence the track leads WSW, passing:
NNW of the inner edge of the bar, marked by three
buoys (port hand), thence:
To a position N of a drying bank extending 1¾ miles
ENE from Ilha do Buzio (5.302).
3
Thence the track leads W into Porto de Angoche and
thence N to the anchorage abreast the town, passing:
E of Baixo Monico (16°14′⋅5S 39°53′⋅7E), a drying
rocky patch marked by a light−beacon (white, red
bands) on the W side of the channel leading to the
anchorage; another drying rock lies 1 cable S of
Baixo Monico.
4
Canal de Quilua (16°16′S 39°52′E) is entered 1 mile
NW of Ilha do Buzio and leads along the NW side of Ilha
de Angoche. It has a least depth of 6⋅4 m for 4 miles above
Ilha do Buzio, where it then connects with Rio Quilua
(5.314). The channel is reported to be suitable for vessels
drawing 2⋅1 m.
5
Useful marks:
Parapato Light (white truncated conical tower on
building, 8 m in height) (16°13′⋅7S 39°54′⋅7E),
exhibited on the hill close NE of Angoche. A
signal station is situated at Parapato Lighthouse.
Port Office Light (small white masonry tower on
building, 8 m in height) (16°14′⋅0S 39°54′⋅2E).
Berths
5.307
1
Anchorage, in a depth of 7⋅5 m, sand and mud, with the
signal station or Parapato Light in line with the Port Office
Light (5.306) bearing 057°. Deeper draught vessels should
anchor farther N with Parapato Light bearing 100°.
Port services
5.308
1
Supplies: fresh provisions are available.
Communications: airport 6 km NE of Angoche.
Anchorages
Chart 2933
Ilha Caldeira
5.309
1
Moderately good anchorage may be obtained in depths
of 15 m, coral, sand and mud, at 7 to 8 cables NW of Ilha
Caldeira (16°39′S 39°43′E) (5.293).
Ilha Nejovo
5.310
1
Anchorage, sheltered from S and SE winds, may be
obtained in depths from 12 to 15 m at 2 cables NW of Ilha
Nejovo (16°34′S 39°48′E) (5.293).
Ilha de Mafamede
5.311
1
Anchorage, in a depth of 11 m may be obtained with
Ilha de Mafamede Light (16°21′S 40°02′E) (5.293) bearing
150° distant 4 cables.
Rio Nabúri
5.312
1
Rio Nabúri (16°56′S 39°07′E) formerly afforded
anchorage to small vessels, but in 1960 there was a depth
of only 0⋅3 m on the bar at its entrance. A conspicuous
group of casuarina trees stands 4 miles NW of the entrance
to the river.
Rio Ligonha enters the sea 2½ miles NNE of the mouth
of Rio Nabúri; in 1960 the entrance nearly dried.
Rio Larde
5.313
1
Rio Larde lies close NE of Ponta Namessucule (16°32′S
39°43′E). Within the mouth of the river there is a narrow
basin in which small vessels may obtain shelter; in 1960
there was a least depth of 0⋅3 m on the bar across its
entrance.
Rio Larde is the W−most of several rivers that enter the
sea through a marshy lagoon lying close within the coast
between Ponta Namessucule and Ponta Masiuane, about
13 miles ENE. Boat channels lead through the lagoon.
Rio Quilua
5.314
1
Rio Quilua enters the sea between Ponta Menuca
(16°26′S 39°52′E) and the S extremity of Ilha de Angoche,
2 miles ENE. Within the entrance there is good sheltered
anchorage off Ponta Menuca. In 1960 there was a least
depth of 0⋅9 m in the channel across the bar, but the
channel is narrow and vessels are recommended to enter at
LW when the edges of the shoals are visible. The river is
connected to Angoche by Canal de Quilua (5.306).
CHAPTER 5
216
ANGOCHE TO PONTA NAMALUNGO
General information
Chart 2933
Route
5.315
1
From a position SE of the approaches to Angoche
(16°14′S 39°54′E), the route leads NE to a position SE of
Ponta Namalungo, 47 miles NE.
Topography
5.316
1
Between Ponta Namacoto, 3½ miles E of Angoche, and
Rio Sangage 17½ miles farther NE, the coast is backed by
a ridge of high land which gradually increases in elevation,
being from 90 to 120 m high in the vicinity of the river
mouth; on the ridge there are several patches of red sand,
and the vegetation becomes less dense as the entrance to
Rio Sangage is approached.
2
Between Rio Sangage and Rio Murrioze 8½ miles NE,
the coast is low, partly covered with trees, and fringed by a
sandy beach which continues for 10 miles farther NE.
Thereafter the coast is fringed with rocks as far as Ponta
Namalungo.
Depths
5.317
1
The edge of the continental shelf, as represented by the
200 m depth contour, lies 10 to 12 miles offshore, seaward
of which depths increase rapidly; on the shelf, towards the
shore, there are several isolated patches of less than 10 m.
Current
5.318
1
For details on the Mozambique Current see 1.116.
Directions
(continued from 5.294)
Principal marks
5.319
1
Major light:
Sangage Light (red 6−sided tower, white bands, 26 m
in height, and dwellings) (16°00′S 40°08′E).
Track
5.320
1
From a position SE of Fairway Light−buoy, in the
approaches to Angoche (16°14′S 39°54′E), the track leads
NE, passing (with positions from Sangage Light (16°00′S
40°08′E)):
SE of Baixo de Santo Antonio (12 miles S), a
steep−to and dangerous reef which dries in parts,
thence:
2
SE of Baixo Namuali (9 miles S) near the S end of a
sand spit, with depths of less than 10 m over it,
which extends S from Ponta Congoléne (5 miles
SSW). The rocky point of Ponta Congoléne may
be identified by a conspicuous yellow sand dune
situated on it; at 15 to 20 miles offshore it is the
only land visible except for the hill on which
Sangage Lighthouse stands. Thence:
3
SE of Baixo Sangage (9½ miles ESE); Baixo Nantapa
lies 5 miles W of Baixo Sangage. Thence:
SE of Baixo Quinga (13 miles ENE); Baixo
Mussibarinde lies 4 miles farther NW. Thence:
SE of Baixo Mecade (18½ miles NE), thence:
SE of Baixo Namaete (25 miles NE), thence:
4
To a position SE of Ponta Namalungo (28 miles NE),
a well−wooded sandy bluff backed by moderately
high land, the adjacent coast being low, sandy and
covered with casuarina trees. Ponta Namalungo
Light (white square concrete framework tower,
19 m in height) is exhibited 5 cables SW of the
point.
5
Useful mark:
Ilha de Mafamede Light (16°21′S 40°02′E) (5.293).
(Directions continue at 6.9)
Rio Sangage
5.321
1
General information. Rio Sangage, the mouth of which
is known as Baía de Sangage, is entered between Ponta
Dejuma (15°59′S 40°08′E) and Ponta Selela 1¾ miles
NNW. The entrance may be identified by Ponta Selela
which, being low, sandy and backed by sandhills partly
covered by vegetation, forms a striking contrast to Ponta
Congoléne and another rocky point situated, respectively,
6½ and 5 miles S of the entrance. Both entrance points are
fronted by drying banks extending as much as 2½ miles E
and which are connected by a bar.
2
Depths. The position of the bar, and the depths over it,
are probably subject to considerable change. In 1960 there
was a least depth of 1⋅8 m in the channel over the bar
which passed close to the bank fronting Ponta Selela, and
thence close to the S bank for almost 3 miles within the
entrance.
NOTES
217
Nacala
Ponta Metacáua
Baía de Fernão Veloso
Porto de Mozambique
Ponta Namalungo
Pemba
Porto do Ibo
Saint
Lazarus
Bank
TANZANI A
Cabo Delgado
Mocímboa da Praia
Ilha Tambuzi
MOZAMBIQUE
P
o
n
t
a
d
o
D
i
a
b
o
2933
2926
649
649
647
2927
690
2927
2926
0306
6
.
5
6
.
3
0
6
.
8
0
6
.
9
2
6
.
1
1
3
6
.
1
23
6
.
1
5
2
6.16
6.50
6.97
6.145
10°
40° 41° 42°
40° Longitude 41° E from Greenwich 42°
11°
12°
13°
14°
15°
16°
10°
11°
12°
13°
14°
15°
16°
39°
39°
Chapter 6 - Ponta Namalungo to Cabo Delgado
218
219
CHAPTER 6
PONTA NAMALUNGO TO CABO DELGADO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3877
Scope of the chapter
6.1
1
This chapter describes passage off the coast of
Mozambique from Ponta Namalungo (15°38′S 40°25′E) to
Cabo Delgado, about 297 miles N, and includes description
of the ports of Nacala and Pemba.
The chapter is divided into the following two sections:
Ponta Namalungo to Ponta do Diabo (12°45′S
40°38′E) (6.3).
Ponta do Diabo to Cabo Delgado (10°41′S 40°38′E)
(6.107).
Current
6.2
1
The W−going South Equatorial Current divides in the
general vicinity of Cabo Delgado; the S−going part, which
influences the coastal passage covered by this chapter,
becomes the Mozambique Current. For further details see
1.116.
PONTA NAMALUNGO TO PONTA DO DIABO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 2926
Area covered
6.3
1
This section describes the coastal passage from Ponta
Namalungo to Ponta do Diabo, presented in six parts as
follows:
Ponta Namalungo to Porto de Mozambique (6.5).
Porto de Mozambique to Baía de Fernão Veloso
(6.30).
Baía de Fernão Veloso (6.42).
Nacala (6.50).
Baía de Fernão Veloso to Ponta Metacáua (6.80).
Ponta Metacáua to Ponta do Diabo (6.92).
Depths
6.4
1
The edge of the continental shelf, as represented by the
200 m depth contour, lies about 10 miles offshore at Ponta
Namalungo, but closes to within 5 miles of the coast at
Ponta Bajone, 27 miles NE. Thereafter, to Ponta do Diabo,
it remains within 5 miles of the general trend of the coast
and is often as little as a mile offshore. Several large
submarine canyons dissect the continental shelf, most of
which, but not all, align with significant indentations in the
coastline.
PONTA NAMALUNGO TO
PORTO DE MOZAMBIQUE
General information
Chart 2926
Route
6.5
1
From a position SE of Ponta Namalungo (15°38′S
40°25′E) the route leads NNE for about 46 miles to a
position E of the approaches to Porto de Mozambique.
Topography
6.6
1
Between Ponta Namalungo and Ponta Bajone, 27 miles
NE, the coast is fronted by a mangrove swamp on the
outer edge of which lies a chain of islands and islets on a
drying bank. Several of the islets are covered with
casuarina trees.
2
Rio Mogincual flows into the SW corner of the swamp
through moderately high banks. It may be identified by the
military station of Santa Barbara, not charted, which stands
in a clearing on the N bank of the river 5 miles N of Ponta
Namalungo and appears as a prominent reddish patch.
Within 10 miles of Porto de Mozambique the coast is
low. For further details in the vicinity of Porto de
Mozambique see 6.16.
Depths
6.7
1
Within 4 miles of the chain of coastal islets (6.6), the
offshore depths are most irregular and the bottom is rocky
with several dangerous shoals. The sea generally breaks
heavily on some of the shoals.
Natural conditions
6.8
1
Tidal streams. Close seaward of Baixo Infusse (6.10)
(15°32′S 40°37′E) the tidal stream is N−going on the rising
tide and S−going on the falling tide.
2
Currents. The SW−going Mozambique Current (1.116)
is usually experienced along the coast off Porto de
Mozambique (15°01′S 40°45′E), its outer limit being from
50 to 80 miles offshore. The velocity of this current varies
with the monsoons, but it attains a rate of 4 kn during the
strength of the NE Monsoon; it is weakest in June and
July, and at this time the current off Porto de Mozambique
may sometimes be inappreciable, and close inshore a
counter−current may be experienced.
3
Climate information. For Porto de Mozambique
(Lumbo) (15°02′S 40°40′E) see 1.176.
CHAPTER 6
220
Porto de Mozambique − Ilha de Goa Light from ESE (6.9)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Gerald Rayner)
Front Leading Light
Ilha de Mozambique Fort
Ilha de Goa Light
Directions
(continued from 5.320)
Principal marks
6.9
1
Landmark:
Ilha de Goa Lighthouse (white square masonry tower
red bands, 31 m in height, on dwelling) (15°03′S
40°47′E).
Major light:
Ilha de Goa Light — as above.
Track
6.10
1
From a position SE of Ponta Namalungo (15°38′S
40°25′E), the track leads NNE, passing (with positions
from Ponta Namalungo Light):
ESE of Baixo Mucalanga (7 miles ENE), a rocky
patch near the edge of a 10 m bank which extends
2½ miles off the chain of coastal islets; Baixo
Chapaputa, a similar feature, lies 2 miles NE of
Baixo Mucalanga. The sea generally breaks on
these shoals. Thence:
2
ESE of Baixo Infusse (13½ miles ENE), a rocky
shoal 3½ miles offshore; rocky patches of 9⋅8 m
and 10⋅6 m lie, respectively, 3 and 5 miles NNE of
Baixo Infusse. Thence:
ESE of Baixos do Brugi (19 miles NE), which are
several shoal patches near the edge of a 10 m bank
extending up to 3 miles offshore; Ponta Brugi lies
on the coast 4 miles W. Two pinnacle rocks with
depths of 4⋅6 and 3⋅8 m lie, respectively, 1 mile
NW and 2 miles NE of Baixos do Brugi. Thence:
3
ESE of Baixo Namezaco (22 miles NE), a drying
sandy patch on which the sea breaks heavily at the
extremity of a spit, with depths from 2⋅7 to 4⋅3 m
over it, extending 2 miles E of Ponta Mnafeta,
thence:
ESE of Baixos Quanzi (25 miles NE), comprising
several detached shoal patches up to 2 miles
offshore on which the sea generally breaks, thence:
6.11
1
ESE of Ponta Bajone (27 miles NE), the E extremity
of a low sandy island, bow−shaped and covered
with trees, which lies at the NE end of the coastal
mangrove swamp (6.6). A small reddish−coloured
cliff, 3 miles NNW of Ponta Bajone, stands out
prominently from the surrounding dark green
vegetation. Thence:
ESE of the approaches to Baía de Mocambo
(33 miles NE) (6.12), thence:
2
ESE of Ilha de Sena (39 miles NE), a small wooded
island 3¾ miles E of Ponta Sancul, which has
several casuarina trees on it and is the N entrance
point of the approaches to Baía de Mocambo,
thence:
To a position ENE of Ilha de Goa (41 miles NE) at
the approaches to Porto de Mozambique (6.16).
Ilha de Goa is a bare flat coral island on which
stands a lighthouse (6.9).
(Directions continue at 6.33; directions for
Baía de Mocambo are given at 6.14, and for
Porto de Mozambique at 6.23)
Baía de Mocambo
General information
6.12
1
Description. Baía de Mocambo is entered between Ponta
Quichundulo (15°09′S 40°37′E) and Ponta Fugo 2 miles
WNW and affords a large area of sheltered anchorage.
2
Topography. Within the entrance, the N side of the bay
is moderately high and the shore is fringed with mangroves
in places. Monte de Muchelia (Muchella), a hill 42 m high
with three peaks and the most prominent landmark in the
vicinity, is situated 1½ miles NW of Ponta Fugo on the W
bank of Rio Namarrimela, the W mouth of Rio Monapo.
The village of Muchelia is on the slopes of the hill.
Ponta Muacula, 2½ miles W of Ponta Fugo, is the
extremity of a rocky spit extending 5 cables S from the
shore.
3
At the head of the bay, 4¼ miles SW of Ponta Fugo, an
estuary 4 cables wide is formed by the confluence of Rio
Motomonho and Rio Mitiquite which together enter the bay
between Ponta Lopo, on the N side, and Ponta Mutaboa,
the extremity of a narrow peninsula on the S side and on
which stands the village of Lunga.
The S side of the bay, which is somewhat lower than
the N side, is extensively cultivated with coconut
plantations and there are numerous settlements, the most
important of which are Lunga and Kivolani, 4 miles ESE.
6.13
1
Depths are generally between 11 and 29 m, but the W
part of the bay is encumbered with numerous shoals.
CHAPTER 6
221
The bay between Ponta Fugo and Ponta Muacula is free
from dangers at its centre, but within 5 cables of the latter
point it is foul and a dangerous detached rock lies 8 cables
ENE of Ponta Muacula.
2
The NW shore of the bay, between Ponta Muacula and
Ponta Lopo, is fringed with rocks and shoals and the
depths are irregular. A coral reef, which dries in places,
extends 1¾ miles ENE of Ponta Lopo; Puanculo, Mecirro
and Nacherenga are the shallowest parts of this reef.
In the SW part of the bay, S of Ponta Lopo, a shoal
bank fronts the coast and extends 1½ miles offshore.
Namelungue, a shoal patch with a depth of 2⋅6 m lies at
the outer edge of this bank.
Directions
6.14
1
Major light:
Ilha de Goa Light (15°03′S 40°47′E) (6.9).
2
Track. From the vicinity of 15°10′S 40°45′E, in the
outer approaches to Baía de Mocambo, the track leads
generally WNW, passing (with positions from Ponta Fugo
(15°08′S 40°35′E):
NNE of Ponta Bajone (9 miles SE) (6.11), thence:
SSW of drying reefs (7 miles ENE) extending up to
1½ miles seaward from the coast at Ponta Sancul;
the sea generally breaks heavily on the edge of
this reef between the point and Ilha de Sena
3¾ miles E.
3
When clear of the reefs off Ponta Sancul the track is W,
with Monte de Muchella (6.12) (1½ miles NW) ahead.
Thence, when a prominent white building, not charted,
at Lunga (4½ miles SW) bears about 243° the track leads
WSW, passing:
NNW of Baixo Nanzaco (2¼ miles E), a coral spit
with steep−to N and W edges and a depth of
4⋅3 m at its NE extremity. It is reported that the
spit is readily distinguished by the colour of the
water over it. Thence:
4
NNW of Ponta Quichundulo (2 miles ESE) the N
extremity of a sandy island on which there are a
few casuarina trees; the island and the adjacent
coast are fronted with drying sandy banks which
extend 3 cables offshore and within which a
mangrove swamp extends 2½ miles WSW to Ponta
Calajulo, the W extremity of a drying coral spit
projecting 5 cables W of the coast,. Thence:
5
SSE of Ponta Fugo, steep−to and the S extremity of a
low sandy island lying on the edge of a mangrove
swamp at the mouth of Rio Monapo; Ponta Fugo
should be passed at a distance of about 2 cables.
Thence:
NNW of a dangerous steep−to detached coral patch,
(9 cables SSW), thence:
As required for anchorage.
Anchorage
6.15
1
Anchorage may be obtained in any part of Baía de
Mocambo which is clear of danger. Berths charted are:
In S of the bay, in depths of 18 m with the drying
extremity of Ponta Calajulo (6.14) bearing 031°
distant 2 miles.
In N of the bay, in depths from 12 to 15 m with
Ponta Fugo (6.14) bearing 120° distant 1½ miles.
Porto de Mozambique
Chart 2926 (see 1.19)
General information
6.16
1
Position. Porto de Mozambique lies within Ilha de
Mozambique (15°02′S 40°44′E).
Function. The harbour provides anchorage for a large
number of vessels N of Ilha de Mozambique. The town of
Mozambique covers the greater part of Ilha de Mozambique
and between 1500 and 1898 it was the capital of
Portuguese East Africa. In 1991 Ilha de Mozambique was
declared a World Heritage Site.
6.17
1
Topography. The coast is low for 10 miles each side of
Porto de Mozambique, but in clear weather the harbour
may be identified by two hills, Monte Mesa (6.33) and
Mutipa, situated several miles inland.
Mutipa (14°50′S 40°25′E), not charted, 22 miles NW of
Ilha de Mozambique, is 302 m high and resembles a small
round−topped hill surmounting a larger one; it is, however,
not often visible from seaward.
2
Between Ponta Sancul (15°05′S 40°43′E) and Ponta
Quisumba, 2½ miles NNW, the coast is sandy and low,
being only 4 to 5 m high, and inland is covered with palms
and mango trees.
3
About 5 cables S of Ponta Quisumba a bridge, almost
2 miles in length, spans the shallow channel off Banco de
Sancul and joins the low island of Ilha de Mozambique
(15°02′S 40°44′E) to the mainland; Ilhéu de São Lourenço,
on which there is a fort, is an islet 2 cables S of the SW
extremity of Ilha de Mozambique on the edge of the
surrounding coral reef.
4
On the NE shore of the harbour between Ponta da
Cabaceira (15°01′S 40°46′E) and Ponta Mapeta, 5½ miles
WNW, the harbour is bordered by mangroves and fronted
by a vast drying sandbank. The sands are generally free
from stones and white in colour.
5
The head of the harbour, 5 miles NW of Ilha de
Mozambique, divides into three creeks the shores of which
are covered with mangroves. Calombo Creek, the middle
branch, extends W from the head of the harbour. Lumbo
Creek and Mossuril Creek lie, respectively S and N of
Calombo Creek; all three dry at LW.
6.18
1
Approach and entry. The harbour is entered through
Canal do Norte on the N side of Ilha de Goa (15°03′S
40°47′E), and thence through Canal da Fortaleza de São
Sebastião which passes NE of Ilha de Mozambique,
2¾ miles WNW. The channels are marked by leading
lights.
Canal do Sul, entered between Ilha de Goa and Ilha de
Sena (6.11) 1½ miles SW, is only suitable for small vessels
with local knowledge. There are depths of 20 m or more in
the middle of the fairway, but it is narrow and tortuous; in
the narrowest part, between Banco do Sul (15°03′S
40°46′E) on the E side of the channel and Banco de São
Lourenço, close SW, there is a width of only 2¾ cables
between the 10 m depth contours.
6.19
1
Traffic. In 2002, the port was used by six vessels with a
total of 26 351 dwt.
2
Port Authority. Ilha de Mozambique Port Authority,
Capitania do Porto, Harbour Office, Ilha de Mozambique.
The Harbour Office (Port Office) stands on the NW side of
Ilha de Mozambique 5 cables from its NE extremity.
CHAPTER 6
222
Limiting conditions
6.20
1
Controlling depth. On the bar 1 mile NW of Ilha de
Goa, charted as 8⋅5 m.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 3⋅7 m; mean neap
range about 1⋅1 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide
Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Draught 9 m or less.
Arrival information
6.21
1
Port operations. Vessels may enter by day or night.
Outer anchorage. Vessels waiting to embark a pilot or
to cross the bar may obtain anchorage 1½ miles NE of Ilha
de Goa in depths from 18 to 27 m, sand and broken coral.
Pilotage is compulsory. Pilots are available at all times
and board in Canal do Norte N of Ilha de Goa.
Tugs. are not available.
Harbour
6.22
1
General layout. Anchorage for a large number of
vessels N of Ilha de Mozambique in depths from 5 to
28 m.
Storm signals. See 1.44. A signal station is adjacent to
the Port Office (6.19). It is not known if storm signals are
displayed at Porto de Mozambique.
Tidal streams. The rising tide is W−going and the
falling tide is E−going; the tidal streams are very strong at
springs.
Climate information. See 1.176.
Directions for entering harbour
6.23
1
Landmarks:
Monte Mesa (14°45′S 40°39′E) (6.33).
Ilha de Goa Lighthouse (15°03′S 40°47′E) (6.9).
Fortaleza de São Sebastião (15°02′S 40°44′E), at the
NE extremity of Ilha de Mozambique; the walls of
the fort are prominent.
Cabo Condúcia (14°56′S 40°45′E) (6.33).
Major light:
Ilha de Goa Light — as above.
2
Track. Approaching from N, make a landfall well N of
the harbour, especially during the NE Monsoon. From S,
guard against an indraught into the mouth of Baía de
Mocambo (15°08′S 40°40′E).
3
Leading lights:
Front. Ilhéu de São Lourenço Light (white triangle,
point−up, on hut; 2 m in height) (15°03′S
40°44′E), close S of the fort on Ilhéu de São
Lourenço.
Rear. Sancul Light (tower on pyramid; 16 m in
height) (2 miles W of front light).
4
The alignment (259½°) of these lights leads through
Canal do Norte, which has a navigable channel over
7 cables wide, passing (with positions from Ilha de Goa
Light (15°03′S 40°47′E):
Clear of a 9⋅3 m patch (1 mile NE), reported (1995)
as 9⋅1 m, close to the leading line, thence:
5
S of a reef of rocks and coral (1½ miles N) which
dries in parts and extends 1½ miles ESE from
Ponta da Cabaceira (2½ miles NNW), covered with
trees; Ilha Injaca Pequena (3 miles NNE) is the
S−most of three small islands (6.34) on the
seaward edge of this reef. Thence:
6
N of Ilha de Goa (6.11) on which stands a lighthouse
(6.9). The only landing place on the island is at a
steep sandy beach on the NW side; landing is not
possible during fresh NE winds. Thence:
6.24
1
Leading lights:
Front. (white tower on pyramid, 14 m in height)
(15°03′S 40°47′E), not charted, on N side of Ilha
de Goa.
Rear. Ilha de Goa Light (6.9) (2 cables SE of front
light).
2
The alignment (127°), astern, of these lights leads over
the bar, charted with a least depth of 8⋅5 m on the leading
line, and through Canal da Fortaleza de São Sebastião
where there are depths greater than 20 m in the channel,
passing (with positions from the NE extremity of Ilha de
Mozambique (15°02′S 40°44′E)):
3
NE of Banco do Sul (1¾ miles SE), thence:
SW of Banco do Norte (1½ miles E), thence:
SW of a drying coral reef (5 cables NE) which
extends nearly 1 mile SSW from Ponta da
Cabaceira and terminates in three spits which show
clearly at LW and may sometimes be distinguished
at HW, thence:
Porto de Mozambique − Fort at N end of Ilha de Mozambique (6.23)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Gerald Rayner)
CHAPTER 6
223
Porto de Mozambique − Ilha de Goa Leading Lights from NE (6.24)
(Original dated 2004)
(Photograph − Gerald Rayner)
Front LightIlha de Goa Light
4
NE of Ilha de Mozambique, a low coral island on
which stands the town of Mozambique; the
prominent walls of Fortaleza de São Sebastião are
at its NE extremity. The island is fringed on its SE
side by drying coral reefs extending nearly
5 cables offshore.
Thence as required for anchoring (6.26).
6.25
1
Useful marks:
Capitania Light (white hut on piles, 15 m in height)
(15°02′S 40°44′E) exhibited at the Port Office
(6.19).
São Paulo Church (white spire) (15°02′S 40°44′E),
not charted, stands 3 cables WSW of the NE
extremity of Ilha de Mozambique.
Lights at Custom House Pier (6.27).
Cabaceira Chapel (14°59′S 40°44′E) stands on the
shore 1½ miles NW of Ponta São João.
Berths
6.26
1
Alongside berths. There are no alongside berths, except
for small craft. Vessels anchor and discharge into lighters
and barges.
2
Anchorage for vessels of light draught may be obtained
close NW of Ilha de Mozambique in depths from 6 to 8 m
between the N part of the island and Banco Leven, a bank
3 cables offshore with depths less than 5 m. Caution is
necessary when approaching this anchorage from N of
Fortaleza de São Sebastião during the in−going tidal stream
as it sets towards the bank.
3
Vessels of greater draught should anchor in the channel,
between the NE extremity of Ilha de Mozambique and the
NE side of Banco Leven. The anchorage, as shown on the
chart, in depths of about 25 m, sand and broken shell, is on
the alignment of the second leading lights (6.24), with the
light on the centre part of Custom House Pier (6.27) in line
with Capitania Light (6.25).
6.27
1
Landing. Custom House Pier, the usual landing place,
projects ¾ cable from the NW shore of Ilha de
Mozambique close to São Paulo Church (6.25) and has a
least depth of 1⋅2 m alongside at its head. Two lights are
exhibited at the pier, one at the head (white tide gauge hut,
2 m in height) and the other about half way along its
length (white hut, 4 m in height).
At Lumbo (15°01′S 40°40′E) there is a least depth of
1⋅8 m alongside a pontoon at the head of an old wooden
jetty abreast the village.
Port services
6.28
1
Repairs. Light repairs can be undertaken.
Other facilities. Hospital.
Supplies. Fresh water is available, supplied by barge.
Fresh provisions may be available in small quantities.
Diesel oil is available in small quantities.
Communications: Airport at Lumbo on the mainland
6 km W of Ilha de Mozambique.
Anchorage
Chart 2926
Off Baixo Infusse
6.29
1
In 1875, HMS Thetis (1860 tons) anchored 1 mile E of
Baixo Infusse (6.10) (15°32′S 40°37′E) in a depth of 27 m,
hard sand; the ship swung regularly to the tidal
stream (6.8).
PORTO DE MOZAMBIQUE TO
BAÍA DE FERNÃO VELOSO
General information
Charts 2926, 649 plan of Approaches to Nacala
Route
6.30
1
From a position E of the approaches to Porto de
Mozambique (15°01′S 40°45′E) the route leads N for about
42 miles to a position NE of Cabo Columulomo (14°25′S
40°48′E) at the mouth of Baía de Fernão Veloso.
Topography
6.31
1
Close N of Porto de Mozambique lies the wide mouth
of Baía da Condúcia. On the S side of the bay, from Cabo
da Cabaceira (15°00′S 40°47′E) 4 miles NNW to Cabo
Condúcia (6.33), 60 m high, the coast is low, sandy and
covered with trees. For 3 miles W of Cabo Condúcia,
drying banks are partly covered with mangroves.
2
On the N side of the bay an extensive drying coral reef
fronts the coast for 5½ miles WSW from Ilha Jamáli
(14°52′S 40°50′E); for the remaining 5 miles WSW to the
head of the bay at Ponta Uiuia the shore is fringed with
mangroves and is fronted by a drying sandbank which
extends from 1 to 6 cables offshore.
3
Between Ilha Jamáli and the entrance to Enseada de
Quissimajulo, 20 miles N, the coast is backed by ranges of
hills lying about 2 miles inland. The isolated peak of Monte
Mesa (6.33), 12 miles NW of Ilha Jamáli, is prominent
from seaward.
CHAPTER 6
224
Between the entrance to Enseada de Quissimajulo and
Cabo Columulomo, 7 miles N, the coast is about 90 m high
and fronted by a drying reef.
Depths
6.32
1
Outside the occasional shoreline drying reefs the coast is
steep−to. See also 6.4.
Directions
(continued from 6.11)
Principal marks
6.33
1
Landmarks:
Ilha de Goa Lighthouse (15°03′S 40°47′E) (6.9).
Cabo Condúcia (14°56′S 40°44′E), may be identified
by its cliffs, 60 m high with reddish patches, which
stand out clearly from the surrounding dark green
vegetation.
Monte Mesa (14°45′S 40°39′E), an isolated peak with
a flat summit which rises from a longer
flat−topped ridge; at some distance only the upper
part is visible, giving the appearance of a flat
island.
2
Major lights:
Ilha de Goa Light — as above.
Pinda Light (14°13′S 40°43′E) (6.83).
Track
6.34
1
From a position ENE of Ilha de Goa (15°03′S 40°47′E)
the track leads N, passing (with positions from Ilha de Goa
Light):
2
E of a drying reef of rock and coral fronting Ponta
da Cabaceira (2½ miles NNW), the tree covered
S−most point of a narrow neck of land; Cabo da
Cabaceira is a low wooded bluff 1¼ miles NNE of
the point. The seaward edge of the reef is lined
with three small islands, from S to N: Ilha Injaca
Pequena (3 miles N), Ilha Injaca (3½ miles N) and
Ilha Sete Paus (4½ miles N) which has a group of
casuarina trees at its N end. Thence:
3
E of Baía da Condúcia (6.36) (7 miles N). Ilha
Sombreiro, a rocky islet about 3 m high with a
few baobab trees on it, is near the S edge of an
extensive drying coral reef on the N side of the
bay. Thence:
4
E of Ilha Jamáli (11 miles NNE), a narrow coral
island 6 m high, with steep and overhanging
extremities, which is covered with grass and
shrubs and ringed with mangroves on its W side.
Ponta Chicoma is a rocky projection 3 miles W of
Ilha Jamáli; the prominent military station of
Matibane is 5 cables W of the point. Thence:
5
E of Ponta Napenja (13 miles NNE), where the sea
nearly always breaks heavily. The bay of Enseada
Velhaco lies between Ponta Napenja and Ponta
Prata, the N extremity of Ilha Jamáli 1 mile SSW;
the whole bay is obstructed by rocks with depths
of less than 2 m except for a small area close
within the entrance in which there are depths of
6⋅7 m. Between Ponta Napenja and Ilha Crusse,
3 miles N, the coast is fringed with a series of
rocks with holes in them resembling arches.
Thence:
6
E of Ilha Crusse (16 miles NNE), a small island lying
between the entrance points of a bay which is
almost completely filled with a drying sandbank; it
is reported that coasting vessels obtain shelter
lying aground on this bank near the village of
Crusse, situated in the NW corner of the bay.
6.35
1
Thence the track continues N, passing (with position
from Janga Light (14°41′S 40°50′E)):
E of Ponta Onlugune from which is exhibited Janga
Light (white square concrete framework tower,
black band, 12 m in height); Ponta Maxilone lies
1 mile NNW of the light. Thence:
E of Enseada de Janga (3 miles N); in the N part of
the bay there are depths of 500 m within 1 mile of
the shore. Thence:
2
E of Ilha Ancuaze (8 miles N) the N−most and largest
of a group of islands which forms the S entrance
point of Enseada de Quissimajulo (6.39); the island
may be identified by a conspicuous group of
casuarina trees near its N extremity. Thence:
3
E of drying reefs of rocks and coral (9½ miles N)
extending 1 mile seaward from Ponta Compadji
(Cumpadji), the N entrance point of Enseada de
Quissimajulo; the reefs maintain a similar distance
offshore for 4 miles N to Ponta Relanzapo.
Thence:
4
E of a drying reef fronting Ponta Relanzapo
(13½ miles N), a prominent white sandy projection
marked by casuarina trees; from the point,
2½ miles N to Cabo Columulomo, the shore is
fringed with a sandy beach. Thence:
5
To a position NE of Cabo Columulomo (16 miles N),
a low rocky point forming the S entrance point to
Baía de Fernão Veloso, and from which is
exhibited Cabo Columulomo Light (white
framework tower on square tower, 6 m in height).
(Directions continue for coastal passage at 6.83 and
for Baía de Fernão Veloso at 6.45)
Anchorages
Baía da Condúcia
6.36
1
General information. Baía da Condúcia is entered
between Cabo da Cabaceira (6.34) (15°00′S 40°47′E) and
Ponta Quifinga, the S extremity of Ilha Jamáli (6.34)
8 miles NNE. Depths in the entrance are irregular.
Rio Sanhute enters the head of the bay close W of
Ponta Uiuia (14°54′S 40°39′E), a narrow sandspit sparsely
covered with shrubs. A bar, on which there is a least depth
of 3⋅7 m, lies about 5 cables within the entrance of Rio
Sanhute.
6.37
1
Directions for approach from south. Pass at least
5 cables E of Ilha Sete Paus (6.34) (14°59′S 40°48′E),
thence when NE of that island, distant about 8 cables, the
track leads NW to a position 1½ miles S of Ilha Sombreiro
(6.34) (14°54′S 40°46′E).
2
Directions for approach from north. Keep 1¾ miles
off Ponta Quifinga (6.36), thence when SSE of that point
the track leads WSW to a position 1½ miles S of Ilha
Sombreiro (6.34) (14°54′S 40°46′E).
From a position 1½ miles S of Ilha Sombreiro, a track
of about 286° leads to the first, or outer, anchorage
position, as shown on the chart.
6.38
1
Anchorage, in depths from 11 to 16 m, mud, on the
alignment (072°) of Ponta Quifinga and the N extremity of
Ilha Sombreiro, distant 2½ to 4½ miles from the islet.
CHAPTER 6
225
Outer and inner anchorage positions are, respectively,
marked by:
The alignment (150°) of Cabo Condúcia (6.33)
(14°56′S 40°44′E) with Cabo da Cabaceira, 5 miles
SSE.
2
The alignment (125°) of Cabo Condúcia with the N
extremity of Ilha Sete Paus (6.34), 4 miles SE.
Within the bar of Rio Sanhute, vessels of moderate
draught may anchor in depths from 6 to 14 m anywhere in
mid−river up to 5 cables N of the bar.
Enseada de Quissimajulo
6.39
1
General information. Enseada de Quissimajulo is
entered close N of Ilha Ancuaze (6.35) (14°32′S 40°51′E)
through a channel 1 cable wide between drying coral reefs
and with depths from 9 to 27 m (30 to 90 ft). The
anchorage within the entrance is used by vessels engaged
in the timber trade, but being very narrow it can only be
entered by small vessels.
It is recommended to enter at LW, as the dangers on
each side of the channel are then visible.
6.40
1
Directions. Keep 1½ miles from the coast until near the
line of a pair of leading beacons, not charted, when a
distinctive patch of sand will be seen near the front beacon.
Leading beacons:
Front beacon (wooden pyramid) standing on rising
ground 2 cables WSW of Ponta Compadji
(Cumpadji) (14°31′S 40°50′E).
Rear beacon (wooden triangle on prominent isolated
tree) stands (1954) close NW of the front beacon.
2
The alignment (309°) of these beacons leads through the
entrance channel, passing (with positions from Ponta
Compadji):
NE of shoal ground extending up to 3½ cables NE
from Ilha Ancuaze (6.35) (1½ miles SSE), thence:
SW of the reef extending up to 1 mile SE from Ponta
Compadji, thence:
3
Clear of a 5⋅2 m (17 ft) patch (6 cables SE), thence:
Close NE of a buoy (red cask, triangle topmark)
(3 cables SSE) which marks the N extremity of the
coral reef fronting the S entrance point.
After passing close round the buoy, the track leads
generally W, in about mid channel, to the selected
anchorage.
6.41
1
Anchorage. Small vessels may obtain anchorage, in
depths of 16 m (53 ft), 7 cables WSW of Ponta Compadji;
or, in depths from 12 to 14 m (39 to 46 ft), nearly
1½ miles W of Ponta Compadji.
BAÍA DE FERNÃO VELOSO
General information
Chart 649 plan of Approaches to Nacala
Description
6.42
1
Baía de Fernão Veloso, entered between Cabo
Columulomo (14°24′S 40°48′E) and Ilha Gomene, 6½ miles
NW, forms the approach to the port of Nacala (6.50) and to
Enseada de Belmore (6.48).
Topography
6.43
1
The shores of the bay are fringed by drying banks of
sand and coral which extend about 5 cables offshore except
in the NW corner where some drying rocks lie 8 cables
offshore at the extremity of a drying bank.
The S shore, between Cabo Columulomo and Ponta
Naarenque 8 miles WSW, rises steeply to high land.
At the head of the bay, between Ponta Sacamulo
(14°28′S 40°40′E) and the W entrance point to Enseada de
Belmore 5 miles N, the land is moderately high and
irregular.
2
On the N side of the bay, between Ilha Gomene
(14°20′S 40°44′E) and Ponta Utuco 5 miles SW, there is a
moderately flat−topped hill about 90 m high, not charted,
which rises steeply from the surrounding level land; when
seen from about 15 miles N it resembles a vessel under
sail, but on closer approach or when seen on a different
bearing it loses that appearance.
Natural conditions
6.44
1
Tidal streams. For the NW part of Baía de Fernão
Veloso at the entrance to Enseada de Belmore, see 6.48.
Currents. See 6.82.
Directions
(continued from 6.35)
Principal marks
6.45
1
Landmark:
Monte Dedo (14°21′S 40°34′E) (6.83).
Major light:
Pinda Light (14°13′S 40°43′E) (6.83).
Track
6.46
1
From a position NE of Cabo Columulomo (14°24′S
40°48′E), the track leads SW in the white sector
(233°−241°) of Nacala Light (white framework tower on
square tower, 6 m in height), passing (with positions from
Nacala Light (14°27′S 40°39′E)):
SE of Baixo do Pinda (16 miles NE), a drying coral
reef (6.84), thence:
NE of Cabo Columulomo (6.35) (9½ miles ENE)
where a light is exhibited, thence:
2
SE of Ilha Gomene (9 miles NE), 4 m high and on
which the ruins of an old fort may be seen; shoal
ground extends 5 cables SE from the islet. Thence:
NE of Ponta Dejiedjie (7 miles ENE) which may be
identified by a prominent projecting rock and a
few casuarina trees on each side of it, thence:
3
SE of Ponta Utuco (4¼ miles NNE), the E entrance
point of Enseada de Belmore (6.48), thence:
To the pilot boarding place (2½ miles NE) for the
port of Nacala.
6.47
1
Useful marks:
Fernão Veloso Light (white framework tower on
square tower, 5 m in height) (14°27′S 40°41′E)
exhibited from Ponta Naarenque. At Fernão
Veloso, 6 cables ESE of the Ponta Naarenque, an
old military post consisting of a red−roofed house,
now the pilot station for Nacala, is visible from
the entrance to the bay.
CHAPTER 6
226
Baía de Fernão Veloso − Nacala Light (6.46)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − D. Given, MV Doulos)
Nacala Light
2
Ponta Sacamulo Light (white framework tower on
square tower, 5 m in height) (14°28′S 40°40′E).
(Directions continue for Nacala at 6.71)
Anchorages
Enseada de Belmore
6.48
1
General information. Enseada de Belmore, entered
between Ponta Utuco (14°23′S 40°41′E) and a point
1½ miles W, affords excellent shelter during the cyclone
season.
2
Both entrance points are fronted with drying banks and
reefs which narrow the width of the navigable channel to
less than 5 cables. Within the entrance, the E side of
Enseada de Belmore is mostly rocky with sandy patches for
3½ miles, and thence is fronted by a mangrove swamp
which extends across its head and fringes the W side of the
inlet to close within the W entrance point.
3
Tidal streams. In the entrance to Enseada de Belmore
the tidal streams are strong. The water is much discoloured
during the rainy season, and the edges of the reefs are then
difficult to distinguish.
Anchorage. As shown on the chart; off Nhiendji, about
7 cables NW of Ponta Utuco, in depths of 18 m (60 ft); or
off the W side of the inlet, 2½ miles within the entrance, in
depths of 13 m (43 ft).
Ponta Dejiedjie
6.49
1
Anchorage in depths from 11 to 16 m, 2 to 4 miles W
of Ponta Dejiedjie (6.46) (14°25′S 40°45′E) on a bank
which extends about 7 cables offshore.
Caution is necessary when anchoring on this bank as
the depths increase very rapidly off its edge.
NACALA
General information
Chart 649 plan of Nacala
Position
6.50
1
The port of Nacala (14°32′S 40°40′E) lies on the E side
of the fine natural harbour of Baía de Nacala which
extends S from Baía de Fernão Veloso (6.42).
Function
6.51
1
The port provides alongside berths for ocean−going
vessels, and the deep water of Baía de Nacala provides
sheltered anchorage for most sizes of vessel. Nacala is the
third principal port of Mozambique, serving the rich
agricultural district in the N of the country as well as much
of the foreign trade of landlocked Malawi.
Topography
6.52
1
On the E side of Baía de Nacala, between Ponta
Naarenque (14°27′⋅4S 40°40′⋅5E) and Nacala 5 miles S, the
shore is free from mangrove swamps and rises in steep
well wooded slopes to elevations of 30 or 45 m.
The W and S sides of the bay are formed into three
bays: respectively from N to S, Baía de Namelala; Baía de
Muananculo and, at the head of the bay, Baía de Bengo.
Approach and entry
6.53
1
Nacala is approached through Baía de Fernão Veloso
(6.42) (14°23′S 40°45′E) and entered via Baía de Nacala,
between Ponta Naarenque (14°27′⋅4S 40°40′⋅5E) and Ponta
Sacamulo, 7 cables SW; the entrance presents no difficulty.
Traffic
6.54
1
In 2005, the port was used by 204 vessels with a total
of 2 447 372 dwt.
CHAPTER 6
227
Port Authority
6.55
1
Nacala Port Authority, CP 70, Caminhos de Ferro de
Mozambique, Nacala.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
6.56
1
The deep water approach means the least depths are to
be found at the individual berths (6.75).
Deepest and longest berth
6.57
1
Deepest. Cais Sul, container terminal (6.75).
Longest. Cais Norte, general cargo berths (6.75).
Tidal levels
6.58
1
Mean spring range about 3⋅3 m; mean neap range about
1⋅1 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide Tables.
Density of water
6.59
1
The density of the water is 1⋅025 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled
6.60
1
About 130 000 dwt, 18 m draught, in Baía de Nacala
outer anchorage.
Local weather and sea state
6.61
1
Between May and September, early morning fog is usual
and there is a strong W breeze in the afternoons.
Arrival information
Port operations
6.62
1
The port operates 24 hours a day.
Notice of ETA required
6.63
1
ETA should be sent 48 hours prior to arrival and then
4 hours prior to entering Baía de Fernão Veloso. See
Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).
Outer anchorages
6.64
1
For anchorage in Baía de Fernão Veloso, see 6.49.
Pilotage
6.65
1
Pilotage is compulsory and available 24 hours a day. The
pilot boards about 2 miles N of Ponta Naarenque
(14°27′⋅4S 40°40′⋅5E), except during periods of strong
winds when boarding takes place between Ponta Naarenque
and Ponta Sacamulo (6.53). See Admiralty List of Radio
Signals Volume 6 (3)
Tugs
6.66
1
A Tug is available.
Harbour
General layout
6.67
1
Sheltered deep water anchorage in Baía de Nacala, the
largest natural deep−water harbour on the East African
coast, and two alongside terminals at Nacala for containers
and general cargo.
Development
6.68
1
Improvements are in hand (2003) to upgrade the port
and establish an integrated port and railway system, known
as the Nacala Corridor, linking port of Nacala with Malawi
and Zambia.
Storm signals
6.69
1
See 1.44.
Natural conditions
6.70
1
Tidal streams, are strong in the entrance to Baía de
Nacala and also in the anchorage close S of Ponta
Naarenque, but not within Baía de Bengo.
Local weather. Cyclones which occur in Mozambique
Channel between January and March rarely reach Nacala.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 6.47)
6.71
1
From the pilot boarding place (14°25′⋅0S 40°40′⋅6E) the
track leads SW to a position about 1½ miles NE of Nacala
Light (14°26′⋅8S 40°38′⋅8E).
Thence, with Ponta Sacamulo Light (6.47) (14°28′⋅0S
40°40′⋅1E) just open W of Ponta Zuani Light (white pile
structure, 5 m in height) 2 miles S, the track leads S for
about 1 mile on the line of bearing 177° of Ponta Zuani
Light−beacon.
Imade Chali Leading Lights (6.71)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − D. Given, MV Doulos)
2
Imade Chali Leading Lights:
Front light (red square, yellow stripe) (14°28′⋅8S
40°41′⋅0E).
CHAPTER 6
228
Entrance to Baía de Nacala from N (6.71)
(Original dated 2005)
Ponta Naarenque Nacala Ponta Sacamulo
Ponta Naarenque from N (6.71)
(Original dated 2005)
Imade Chali Leading Lights Light
Ponta Sacamulo from N (6.71)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photographs − D. Given, MV Doulos)
Light
Rear light (red square, yellow stripe) (3 cables SSE of
front light).
3
Thence from a position about 9 cables N of Ponta
Sacamulo the alignment (155½°) of Imade Chali Leading
Lights leads through the entrance to Baía de Nacala,
passing (with positions from Sacamulo Light):
WSW of Ponta Naarenque (7 cables NW) from which
Fernão Veloso Light (6.47) is exhibited, thence:
ENE of shoal ground, marked by a light−buoy
(starboard hand), extending 1½ cables NE from
Ponta Sacamulo, a sandy spit projecting from low
land; a light is exhibited at the point.
6.72
1
When Ponta Sacamulo Light is abeam to starboard, the
track leads SSW on the line of bearing, about 197°, of
Ponta Namuáxi Light (white pile structure, 5 m in height)
(3½ miles SSW), passing:
ESE of a drying bank (7 cables SW) extending
2 cables E from Ponta Oquero, the E extremity of
a tongue of land which divides Baía de Namelala
from Baía de Muananculo, thence:
2
WNW of Ponta Zuani Light (6.71) (2 miles S),
exhibited 1 cable WNW of Ponta Zuani; in 2005, a
buoy (port hand) was moored close W of the light.
Ponta Zuani from NW (6.72)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − D. Given, MV Doulos)
Light−beacon
CHAPTER 6
229
When Ponta Zuani Light is abeam to port the track leads
S on the line of bearing 180° of Ponta Maiaia (4¼ miles
S), the W extremity of the alongside berths at Nacala,
passing:
3
W of Ponta Nacuxa (2¼ miles S), a bold promontory;
Onziuani Cliff, close S of the point, is reddish−
coloured and prominent. Thence:
E of Ponta Namuáxi Light (3½ miles SSW), exhibited
at the E extremity of a drying bank extending
6 cables E from Ponta Namuáxi, which is the
divide between Baía de Muananculo and Baía de
Bengo thence:
Ponta Namuaxi Light (6.72)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − D. Given, MV Doulos)
4
W of a light−buoy (port hand) (4 miles S) marking
shoal ground close N of the berths at Nacala,
thence:
As required for anchorage in Baía de Bengo (6.74),
or alongside berth at Nacala, see caution at 6.75.
Marigariga Cliff, close N of Nacala, is
reddish−coloured and prominent.
6.73
1
Useful mark:
Chimney (14°31′⋅0S 40°40′⋅7E) at cement factory.
Cement factory 1¼ miles N of Nacala (6.73)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − D. Given, MV Doulos)
Berths
Anchorage berths
6.74
1
Baía de Nacala. Good anchorage may be obtained
anywhere within Baía de Nacala.
Close S of Ponta Naarenque (14°27′⋅4S 40°40′⋅5E),
anchorage may be obtained in a small bay abreast the
landing place for the old military post, in a depth of 22 m
(72 ft).
Baía de Bengo (14°33′⋅0S 40°39′⋅0E) is very sheltered
with excellent holding ground. Anchorages recommended
and shown on the chart are:
2
In depths of about 15 m (50 ft), 3 cables SSW of
Ponta Maiaia; two buoys close E of the anchorage
mark a shoal patch extending from the shore.
In depths of about 11 m (36 ft), 1⋅2 miles SW of
Ponta Maiaia.
Small vessels may anchor in depths from 5⋅5 to 7⋅5 m
(18 to 25 ft), about 2 cables SE of the town of
Nacala Velha (14°32′⋅5S 40°37′⋅5E).
Alongside berths
6.75
1
Caution is necessary when approaching or leaving Cais
Norte or Cais Sul which extend, respectively, NE and SE
from Ponta Maiaia (14°32′⋅3S 40°39′⋅9E), on account of a
shoal area close off the point.
Cais Norte, the general cargo terminal, four berths in a
total length of 675 m; depth 7 to 9 m (23 to 30 ft), charted
6⋅4 to 8⋅8 m (21 to 29 ft).
Cais Sul, the container terminal, two berths in a total
length of 372 m; depth 12 to 14 m (40 to 46 ft), charted
13⋅1 m (43 ft).
Nacala − Cais Norte (6.75)
(Original dated 2005)
(Photograph − D. Given, MV Doulos)
CHAPTER 6
230
Port services
Repairs
6.76
1
There are no repair facilities.
Other facilities
6.77
1
Hospital; deratting exemption certificates issued; no oily
waste reception facilities.
Supplies
6.78
1
Marine diesel is available by road tanker; fresh water is
available in limited quantities; stores and fresh provisions
are not readily available.
Communications
6.79
1
There is a military airbase 7 km NE of Nacala which
may be used by civil aircraft; the nearest civil airport is
Nampula, 193 km distant.
BAÍA DE FERNÃO VELOSO TO
PONTA METACÁUA
General information
Charts 2926, 649 plan of Approaches to Nacala
Route
6.80
1
From a position NE of Cabo Columulomo (14°25′S
40°48′E) at the mouth of Baía de Fernão Veloso, the route
leads generally N for about 48 miles to a position E of
Ponta Metacáua (13°34′S 40°36′E).
Topography
6.81
1
Between Ilha Gomene (14°20′S 40°44′E), on the N side
of Baía de Fernão Veloso, and Ponta Cogume 7½ miles N,
the coast is covered with a regular line of trees, all
apparently of equal height, and there are several small
headlands with occasional patches of sand and
reddish−coloured earth. From Ponta Cogume to Ponta
Nangata 2 miles NW, the coast consists of 25 m high
perpendicular cliffs the tops of which appear level.
2
Between Ponta Lulo (14°08′S 40°37′E), on the N side of
Baía de Memba, and Ponta Metacáua 35 miles N, the coast
is very distinctive; the coast itself is low, but the land close
within it rises to a tableland about 60 m high.
3
Monte Fragosos rise steeply from the above mentioned
tableland at from 5 to 15 miles inland, their peaks assuming
every variety of sugar−loaf, cone and round or
square−topped pillars, in some cases appearing to overhang,
and somewhat resembling a mass of ruins. Monte Mutúcua
(Pilar) (13°44′S 40°20′E), 503 m high (506 m, Chart 3877),
a conical mountain with a pyramidal peak, is the highest
and most prominent peak of the range and presents the
same appearance from all directions.
Currents
6.82
1
In the vicinity of Baixo do Pinda (14°14′S 40°47′E) the
S−going current (1.116) at times runs at 5 kn and, owing to
the effect of the tides in the adjacent large bays and of
eddies formed off headlands and near the reefs, its direction
varies considerably.
Directions
(continued from 6.35)
Principal marks
6.83
1
Landmark:
Monte Dedo (14°21′S 40°34′E) is the most distinctive
landmark in the vicinity.
Major light:
Pinda Light (black conical stone tower on dwelling,
white bands, red top; 31 m in height) (14°13′S
40°43′E).
Track
6.84
1
From a position NE of Cabo Columulomo (14°24′S
40°48′E) at the entrance to Baía de Fernão Veloso, the
track leads generally NNW, passing (with positions from
Pinda Light (14°13′S 40°43′E)):
ENE of Baixo do Pinda (5 miles ESE), a drying coral
reef which fronts the coast between Ilha Gomene
(6.46) (7¼ miles SSE) and Ponta Nangata
(1½ miles NNW). The reef extends as much as
5 miles offshore and should be given a wide berth;
its outer edge is steep−to and the sea breaks on it
in many places. A stranded wreck (5¼ miles ESE),
prominent in 1953, was still visible in 1993;
another stranded wreck (4 miles E), of similar age,
may no longer be easily visible. An emerald green
lagoon lies between the reef and the shore; a
channel, used by small local craft, leads into the
lagoon through the reefs 1 mile SE of Ponta Fica
(4¼ miles SSE). Thence:
2
ENE of Ponta Nangata (1½ miles NNW), the S
entrance point of Baía de Memba (6.87), thence:
ENE of Ponta Lulo (7 miles NW), low, flat, thickly
wooded and terminating in an inconspicuous point;
the N entrance point of Baía de Memba.
6.85
1
Thence the track leads N, passing:
E of Angra do Semedo (9 miles NW), entered
between Ponta Mancome (7¾ miles NW) and Ilhéu
Tebo 2¼ miles NNE; the shores of the inlet are
fronted by drying rocky banks. Ilhéu Qussirua lies
on the coastal reef 8 cables NNW of Ponta
Mancome. Thence:
2
E of Ponta Nacololo (9¼ miles NNW), a steep
projection of reddish−coloured rock, 33 m high, the
prominence of which is enhanced by the trees on
its summit. Ilhéu Tebo, 7 m high and covered with
vegetation, lies on the outer edge of the coastal
reef 4 cables S of Ponta Nacololo. Thence:
3
E of Ponta Metampia (12 miles NNW); the entrance
to Enseada do Simuco (6.89) lies 2 miles farther
NNW. Monte Sofia (21 miles NNW), 61 m high,
not charted, lies close within the coast; some red
patches on its N side make it somewhat prominent.
6.86
1
Thence the track continues N, passing (with positions
from Chaonde Light (13°42′S 40°33′E)):
E of Ponta Mituasi (6½ miles SSE), consisting of five
projections; several villages may be seen on the
coast near the point. Thence:
2
E of Ponta Maria Luiza (2 miles ESE), the S entrance
point to Baía Almeida (6.90). Chaonde is a
military station situated at an elevation of 53 m on
a prominent bluff 1 mile NW of the point; a light
CHAPTER 6
231
(white square hut, 2 m in height) is exhibited at
Chaonde. Thence:
3
E of Baixo Indujo (4 miles NE), a detached drying
patch. An isolated patch of 10⋅4 m lies 2 miles SE
of Baixo Indujo. Thence:
E of Restinga Mancabale (6 miles NNE), a drying
reef of sand and coral which extends 3½ miles S
from, and fronts, Ponta Serissa (8 miles NNE) a
low peninsula separating Baía Almeida from Baía
do Lurio, thence:
4
To a position E of Ponta Metacáua (9 miles NNE),
the N extremity of the low peninsula at Ponta
Serissa. The point is fringed with mangroves and,
in 1939, a clump of trees which stood close within
the point gave the appearance of an island when
seen against the higher land in the background.
(Directions continue at 6.95)
Anchorages and harbours
Baía de Memba
6.87
1
General information. Baía de Memba is entered
between Ponta Nangata (14°11′S 40°42′E) and Ponta Lulo
5¾ miles WNW and is free from dangers. Rio Mecubúri
discharges into the head of the bay; during the rainy season
the large volume of water flowing out of the river
discolours the bay for some distance offshore, but at other
seasons the river nearly dries.
2
Monte Roges, 261 m (857 ft) high (207 m Chart 2926)
(14°14′S 40°27′E) is a distinctive landmark and maintains
much the same appearance from all directions.
Memba (14°11′S 40°32′E) is a village close S of the
mouth of Rio Mecubúri. The houses of the village, which
stand on the NE slopes of Monte Mezela, are prominent
from the entrance to the bay.
Ponta Mecontene (14°12′S 40°35′E), is the N extremity
of a peninsula which separates Enseada do Bocage (6.88)
from Enseada de Duarte Pedroso (6.91).
3
Anchorage, in depths from 36 to 55 m, E of the village
of Memba, 6½ cables offshore.
Caution. Great care is necessary when anchoring in this
position as the depths increase very rapidly to seaward.
Enseada do Bocage
6.88
1
General information. Enseada do Bocage, on the S side
of Baía de Memba, is entered between Ponta Opopuro
(14°13′S 40°37′E), a rocky point, and Ponta Sahaja, a
similar point 1½ miles W; the shape of both entrance points
is most remarkable as they resemble the clipper bows of a
vessel.
A coral reef, which nearly dries and on which there are
several above−water rocks, lies 2 miles within the mouth of
the inlet, nearly 5 cables from the E shore.
2
Caution. Vessels without local knowledge are advised to
enter Enseada do Bocage at LW.
Anchorage, in depths of about 18 m (59 ft), as shown
on the chart 2 miles within the entrance to Enseada do
Bocage between the detached coral reef and the edge of the
rocky bank fringing the W shore of the inlet.
Enseada do Simuco
6.89
1
General information. Enseada do Simuco is entered
between Ponta Miási (14°00′S 40°38′E) and Ponta
Quissiquixi, 1 mile N. Ponta Quissiquixi is low but there is
a noticeable detached rock, shaped like the stern of a ship,
on the beach 1 cable S of the point. Both entrance points
are fronted by drying rocky banks.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Within the entrance, a spit on which the depths are less
than 4⋅5 m extends N from the S shore leaving a narrow
channel with a sharp turn between it and the N shore. The
least depth in the fairway of the entrance channel is
13⋅7 m.
The shores of the bay are fringed with mangroves and
fronted with drying sandy and rocky banks. The bay
contains a few detached drying reefs, but it affords
sheltered anchorage for several vessels. It is advisable to
enter at low water.
3
Directions. From a position SE of the entrance, the
track leads NW on a bearing (309°), ahead, of a reddish
patch close to the N shore about 7 cables WNW of Ponta
Quissiquixi, passing:
NE of Ponta Miási (14°00′S 40°38′E), a moderately
high bluff fronted by a drying rocky bank, thence:
When Ilhéu Quissindja, an island in the S part of the
bay 1¼ miles W of Ponta Miási, is abeam bearing 219°,
the track alters sharply SW, which leads to the anchorage.
4
Useful mark. Monte Upué (13°53′S 40°24′E) elevation
366 m.
Anchorage, in depths from 10 to 17 m in an extensive
area in the centre of the bay. The recommended berth lies
5 cables N of Ilhéu Quissindja.
Baía Almeida
6.90
1
General information. Baía Almeida is entered between
Ponta Maria Luiza (13°43′S 40°35′E) and Ponta Serissa
8 miles N. Rio Missangage enters the bay through the NW
corner of a mangrove−covered lagoon which extends for
1 mile N of Chaonde (6.86). The shores of the bay are
steep−to.
Two coral spits project 5 cables offshore in the N part of
the bay.
2
Restinga Mancabale, the drying reef extending 3½ miles
S from Ponta Serissa, and the detached drying patch of
Baixo Indujo, 1 mile farther S, obstruct direct approach
from NE and E; there is a depth of 4⋅9 m in the channel
between, but it should not be attempted as the edges of the
reefs cannot be distinguished in all weathers.
3
Directions. Approach should be made from SE, passing
1 mile off Ponta Maria Luiza; a drying reef of stones and
boulders extends about 3 cables offshore for 1½ miles NW
of the point.
Clearing bearing. Monte Mutúcua (6.81) bearing more
than 256° clears the S extremity of Baixo Indujo
4
Anchorage. In the S part of the bay, in depths of about
14⋅5 m, sand, 7 to 8 cables offshore with Chaonde Light
(6.86) (13°42′S 40°33′E) bearing about 206°.
In the N of the bay about 1 mile offshore, as shown on
the chart, in depths of 12⋅5 m. This anchorage is sheltered
from N and NE winds at low water, but is exposed to S
winds.
Enseada de Duarte Pedroso
6.91
1
General information. Enseada de Duarte Pedroso, at the
SW corner of Baía de Memba, is entered 1¾ miles WSW
of Ponta Mecontene (14°12′S 40°35′E). The entrance points
are fringed with drying banks of coral and stones which
narrow the channel to a width of about 1 cable.
Ponta Metupa, 5 cables within the entrance and fringed
by a drying reef extending 3 cables NE, is the N extremity
of a tongue of land which divides the bay into two creeks.
CHAPTER 6
232
2
Access to the bay is not difficult as the reefs on each
side can usually be seen at low water and the mid−channel
is free from dangers; it is advisable to enter at LW.
Anchorage. Sheltered anchorage for small vessels in
either of the creeks in depths from 7 to 16 m (23 to 52 ft),
mud and good holding.
PONTA METACÁUA TO PONTA DO DIABO
General information
Chart 2926
Route
6.92
1
From a position E of Ponta Metacáua (13°34′S 40°36′E)
the route leads N for about 49 miles to a position E of
Ponta do Diabo (12°45′S 40°38′E).
Topography
6.93
1
The land within Baía do Lúrio, which lies between
Ponta Metacáua and Ponta Uifundo 9½ miles N, is low, but
high craggy peaks at some distance inland may be seen;
the intervening country is dense jungle.
Between Ponta Uifundo and Ponta Maunhane, 26 miles
N, the coast is fairly high, fringed with a sandy beach and
fronted by a coral reef.
2
Between the N entrance point to Baía de Pemba, 5 miles
WNW of Ponta Maunhane, and Ponta do Diabo 13 miles
NE, the coast is thickly wooded. For the first 8 miles to the
mouth of Rio Tari the coast is moderately high, it then
becomes low and consists of level black rocks with
occasional deep caves, until it rises again close to Ponta do
Diabo.
Climate information
6.94
1
For Pemba (12°58′S 40°29′E) see 1.177.
Directions
(continued from 6.86)
Principal marks
6.95
1
Landmark:
Iocola (13°13′S 40°08′E), a prominent conical
mountain, 694 m high.
2
Major light:
Ponta Maunhane Light (black tower white band,
white square masonry base, 12 m in height)
(12°58′S 40°35′E) with white dwelling adjacent.
Track
6.96
1
From a position E of Ponta Metacáua (13°34′S 40°36′E),
which forms the N entrance point of Baía do Lúrio (6.105),
the track leads N, passing (with positions from Ponta
Metacáua):
E of the N extremity of Restinga Mancabale (6.86)
(1½ miles N), thence:
E of Ponta Uifundo (9½ miles N) where a light (red
square framework tower, 21 m in height) is
exhibited, thence:
2
E of Ponta Mesaolane (25 miles N). From this point
to Ponta Maunhane, 11 miles farther N, the coastal
coral reef dries and extends 1½ miles offshore in
places; it is advisable to keep in depths greater
than 20 m along this stretch of coast. Thence:
E of Ponta Maunhane (36 miles N), a moderately
bluff point from which a light (6.95) is exhibited.
Imbo bank, with a least depth of 13⋅6 m at its
outer extremity, extends 2¾ miles NNE from the
point. Thence:
3
E of the entrance to Baía de Pemba (6.97) (38 miles
N), thence:
To a position E of Ponta do Diabo (49 miles N)
where a light (white square masonry tower, 4 m in
height) is exhibited. Pedra Mumunuana, a
remarkable rock with a tapering base, stands close
S of the point, and a drying bay, filled with rocks
and sand, is entered between Ponta do Diabo and
Ponta Monamoera (Manampera), 1½ miles NNW.
(Directions continue at 6.114)
Pemba
Chart 647
General information
6.97
1
Position. Pemba (12°58′S 40°29′E), formerly known as
Porto Amélia, lies close within the S entrance point of Baía
de Pemba.
Function. Baía de Pemba is a fine natural harbour with
easy access by day and night, and which affords sheltered
anchorage for the largest vessels. Berthing alongside is at
Pemba, population (2004) about 100 000. Exports include:
cotton, sisal, cashew nuts, kapok and timber. Imports:
general goods.
2
Topography. A range of hills surrounds Baía de Pemba.
Monte Londo lies 4 miles N of the entrance to the bay. For
further details of the coast either side of the entrance to
Baía de Pemba see 6.93.
Enseada de Jimpia forms the N part of Baía de Pemba;
its shores are fronted with mangroves, mud flats and foul
ground. Baixos Jimpia, at the head of Enseada de Jimpia,
Ponta Maunhane (6.95)
(Original dated 2006)
(Photograph − Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine)
CHAPTER 6
233
consists of a rocky shoal with two patches which almost
dry, the positions of which are best seen on the chart.
3
In the W part of the bay, Baixos de Mueve, consisting
of three rocky shoals on the shore bank, extends up to
1½ miles offshore; the outer−most shoal has a least depth
of 1⋅9 m. Rio Meridi enters the bay to N of Baixos de
Mueve.
Rio Mehire and Rio Namadoro flow into the SW part of
the bay.
4
Approach and entry. Pemba is approached through
Baía de Pemba which is entered between Ponta Romero
(12°57′⋅0S 40°30′⋅3E) and Ponta Saide Ali 1¼ miles NNE.
Traffic. In 2005, the port was used by 33 vessels with a
total of 179 071 dwt.
Port Authority. Caminhos de Ferro de Mozambique,
Pemba, Mozambique.
Limiting conditions
6.98
1
Controlling depth. With depths greater than 20 m in the
approach to, and within much of, Baía de Pemba, the
controlling depth is at the chosen anchorage or alongside
the pier at Pemba (6.103).
Deepest and longest berth. Deepest, anchorage (6.103)
in Baía de Pemba. Longest, alongside (6.103) at Pemba.
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 3⋅6 m; mean neap
range about 1⋅1 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide
Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled. Sheltered anchorage
for the largest vessels; draught limitations at the alongside
berth at Pemba (6.103).
Arrival information
6.99
1
Port operations. The port operates 24 hours a day.
Port radio. The harbour office is equipped with VHF
and SSB radios; vessels are usually called on 2182 kHz; a
listening watch should be maintained at all times on this
channel.
2
Notice of ETA required. Send ETA 7 days prior to
arrival if possible, then 72, 48, 24 and 18 hours prior to
arrival.
Outer anchorage. On Imbo Bank (12°56′S 40°36′E),
see 6.106.
3
Pilotage is compulsory for all ocean−going vessels. No
pilots are stationed at Pemba. Pilots should be ordered
72 hours in advance from Nacala (6.65).
Pilots board vessels from S, and disembark from vessels
departing S, at Nacala. The pilot remains at Pemba until
the vessel departs.
Vessels from N should order their pilot from Nacala. For
these vessels the pilot boards within the bay from a small
motor boat (grey) which does not display a pilot flag.
4
Tugs are not available.
Harbour
6.100
1
General layout. Anchorage in Baía de Pemba and a
single T−headed pier on the S side of the town of Pemba,
close within the entrance of the bay.
Storm signals. See 1.44.
Tidal streams, are generally weak within Baía de
Pemba, although they are felt close to the pier at Pemba.
Climate information. See 1.177.
Directions for entering harbour
6.101
1
Major light:
Ponta Maunhane Light (12°58′⋅3S 40°35′⋅2E) (6.95).
2
Track. The alignment (234°) of Iocola, Chart 2926,
(13°13′S 40°08′E) (6.95) with the entrance to Baía de
Pemba, forms a useful mark for approaching the bay.
From a position NE of Ponta Maunhane (12°58′⋅3S
40°35′⋅2E) the track leads generally W, passing (with
positions from Ponta Romero Light (12°57′⋅0S 40°30′⋅3E)):
3
Clear of Imbo Bank (6.96) (6 miles ENE) which
extends NNE from Ponta Maunhane, thence:
Clear of a 17 m patch (3½ miles E), thence:
N of Ponta Manhanha (1½ miles ESE), the W
entrance point to Enseada do Imbo, thence:
4
S of Ponta Saide Ali (1¼ miles NNE), a moderately
high bluff covered with trees and jungle; Ponta
Saide Ali Light (short red tower on white cubic
base, 9 m in height) is exhibited at the point which
is steep−to. Thence:
N of Ponta Romero, a low point; Ponta Romero Light
(small white conical beacon, 5 m in height) is
exhibited at the point.
6.102
1
Thence the track leads SW, passing:
NW of a coral reef and discoloured water extending
2 cables offshore along the coast between Ponta
Romero and Ponta Mepira (1½ miles SW); a
distance of 5 cables offshore should be maintained.
Thence:
SE of Baixo Pinguim (2 miles W), marked by a
light−buoy (starboard hand), and:
2
NW of Ponta Mepira (1½ miles SW), which is
steep−to; Ponta Mepira Light (dark red round
tower, 6 m in height) is exhibited at the point.
Thence the track leads S, rounding Ponta Mepira at a
distance of about 3 cables, passing (with positions from
Ponta Mepira (12°57′⋅8S 40°28′⋅9E)):
E of Baixos da Paquissanga (2 miles WSW), a drying
group of rocks. An isolated patch of 2⋅3 m lies
1 mile SE of Baixos da Paquissanga.
3
Thence the track is generally E and as required for
anchorage or berthing, passing:
N of an isolated 7⋅8 m patch (1½ miles S), thence
Ponta Saide Ali (6.101)
(Original dated 2006)
(Photograph − Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine)
CHAPTER 6
234
Pier at Pemba (6.103)
(Original dated 2006)
(Photograph − Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine)
N of Baixo de Nacole (1½ miles SE), a rocky shoal
extending nearly 1 mile offshore from the village
of Chibobar (2 miles ESE); the shoal is steep−to
on its NW side.
Berths
6.103
1
Alongside. A T−headed pier projects S from the town of
Pemba, 3 cables SE of Ponta Mepira Light. The berthing
face, aligned 100°/280° and 182 m in length has a depth
alongside reported (1994) to be 6⋅3 m.
2
Anchorage. Sheltered anchorage off the town of Pemba,
as shown on the chart, in a depth of 26 m, 2 cables S of
the pierhead. The approach within 1¼ cables of the pier
must be kept clear for vessels berthing.
In the N part of the bay, anchorage in depths from 16 to
29 m, taking care to avoid the shoals in Enseada de Jimpia
(12°54′⋅2S 40°28′⋅4E) and shoal patches of 8⋅1 and 2⋅1 m,
about 8 cables, respectively, NE and SE from Baixo Mutine
(12°56′⋅1S 40°27′⋅0E).
Port services
6.104
1
Repairs: minor repairs only.
Other facilities: hospital; no oily waste reception
facilities.
Supplies: fresh water is available.
Communications: airport, for internal flights within
Mozambique, about 4 km SE of Pemba.
Anchorages and harbours
Chart 2926
Baía do Lúrio
6.105
1
General information. Baía do Lúrio is entered between
Ponta Metacáua (13°34′S 40°36′E) and Ponta Uifundo,
9½ miles N. For topography see 6.93.
Rio Lúrio enters the bay 5 miles NW of Ponta
Metacáua; at times its waters discolour the sea for some
miles offshore. A bar across the entrance can be crossed
only by small craft. Some whitewashed houses which stand
on slightly rising ground on the N bank of the river are
prominent. The ruins of a military station stand on the N
bank 1½ miles within the entrance.
2
Anchorage, as shown on the chart, in depths of about
13 m, SE of the mouth of Rio Lúrio, 1¼ miles offshore and
1 mile from the W edge of the N part of Restinga
Mancabale. The anchorage is sheltered during the SE
Monsoon, but is exposed to N winds.
Charts 647, 2926
Imbo Bank
6.106
1
Good anchorage may be obtained on Imbo Bank
(12°56′S 40°36′E), in depths of about 15 m, with Ponta
Maunhane Light (12°58′S 40°35′E) (6.95) bearing 203°
distant 2½ miles.
PONTA DO DIABO TO CABO DELGADO
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 2927
Area covered
6.107
1
This section describes the coastal passage off
Arquipélago das Quirimbas (Querimbas), a chain of islands
and reefs which fronts the coast between Ponta do Diabo
(12°45′S 40°38′) and Cabo Delgado (10°41′S 40°38′E); it
is presented in three parts as follows:
Ponta do Diabo to Porto do Ibo (6.113).
Porto do Ibo to Ilha Tambúzi (6.123).
Ilha Tambúzi to Cabo Delgado (6.152).
Route
6.108
1
Vessels navigating along this coast will gain nothing by
using the passages between the islands of Arquipélago das
Quirimbas to the N of Cabo Pequeve (11°51′S 40°31′E),
but should it be necessary to do so, the most favourable
conditions for making the passages are at LW with the sun
astern; continuous sounding is necessary.
Topography
6.109
1
In the S part of Arquipélago das Quirimbas, from Ilha
Quisiva (12°36′S 40°37′E) to Ilha Macalóe 36 miles N, the
islands and reefs do not extend beyond 8 miles from the
CHAPTER 6
235
coast, but N of Ilha Macalóe the outermost reefs and
islands are generally found from 10 to 13 miles from the
mainland.
2
The islands are mostly low, well wooded and often
undulating, and are easily seen from seaward; a large
number are mere coral islets, and the numerous passages
between the outer islands and reefs lead to even more
numerous inlets and channels where small craft may obtain
sheltered anchorage.
The islands to N of Cabo Pequeve (11°51′S 40°31′E) do
not have any fresh water, and for this reason remain
uninhabited.
3
Caution. The coast of the mainland abreast the islands
is generally low and can rarely be distinguished when
passing outside the outer reefs; as the seaward edges of the
latter are steep−to, caution is necessary even by day when
navigating in this vicinity.
Depths
6.110
1
The edge of the continental shelf, as represented by the
200 m depth contour, lies within 1 to 3 miles of the
seaward side of the reefs and islands forming Arquipélago
das Quirimbas. Numerous submarine canyons dissect the
continental shelf, most being aligned with gaps between the
reefs.
Tidal streams
6.111
1
Tidal streams are weak within the outer islands of
Arquipélago das Quirimbas (6.109) and are greatly
influenced by the winds; the W−going tidal stream, or that
of the rising tide, is usually the stronger and enters the
archipelago by the various openings between the reefs.
Current
6.112
1
The normal S−going current (1.116) is experienced about
10 miles outside the outer reefs of Arquipélago das
Quirimbas (6.109) when S of latitude 11°S.
PONTA DO DIABO TO PORTO DO IBO
General information
Chart 2927
Route
6.113
1
From a position E of Ponta do Diabo (12°45′S 40°38′E)
the route leads N for about 31 miles to a position E of Ilha
Matemo (12°14′S 40°36′E), close N of the approaches to
Porto do Ibo.
Directions
(continued from 6.96)
6.114
1
From a position E of Ponta do Diabo (12°45′S 40°38′E)
the track leads N, passing (with positions from Ponta do
Diabo Light):
E of Ilha Quipaco (4 miles NNW) which lies on the
S edge of a reef fronting an unnamed point about
1 mile N; the island forms the N entrance point to
Baía do Quipaco (6.120). On Ilha Quipaco there
are some bare hills with sand patches on them;
Pedra Camelo, a detached rock close N of the
island, is so called because of its resemblance to a
camel. Thence:
2
E of Ilha Quisiva (9 miles N) which lies in the centre
of an extensive drying reef fronting Enseada da
Arimba (6.121). Ilha Quisiva is low, undulating
and covered with scrub; there are some ruins on
its E side and a fort stands near its W extremity.
Thence:
3
E of Ilha Mefunvo (12 miles N), the highest of all the
islands in the vicinity and covered with thick green
scrub, lies at the extremity of a drying bank which
forms the N side of Enseada da Arimba, thence:
E of Ilha Sencar (16 miles N) which has some low
hills on which there are a few trees; Baía de
Montepuez (6.122) is entered S of the drying reef
off Ilha Sencar. Thence:
4
E of an extensive drying reef fronting Ilha Quirimba
(19 miles N), the most fertile of the islands of
Arquipélago das Quirimbas; the island is low,
wooded, fringed with a sandy beach and has the
ruins of a village on it. Rochas Macula
(Massundji−Macula), a group of above−water
rocks, lie about 1 mile E of the island on the
drying reef which extends about 5 cables farther E.
Thence:
6.115
1
E of Ilha do Ibo (24 miles N), low, flat and separated
from Ilha Quirimba by a mangrove swamp.
Coconut palms in the town of Ibo, on the
landward side of the island, are distinctive as is
Forte de São João close by. Ibo Light (white
masonry tower, 16 m in height, with dwelling
adjacent) is exhibited on Ilha Mujaca, 5 cables off
the NE extremity of Ilha do Ibo, to which it is
connected by a mangrove swamp. The lighthouse
shows well against the dark green vegetation.
There is a signal station at the light. Thence:
2
W of Saint Lazarus Bank (57 miles NE) where there
are general depths from 14 to 28 m over an area
about 9 miles N to S by 5 miles E to W; at its N
end there is a shoal area with a least depth of
6⋅4 m.
3
To a position E of Ilha Matemo (31 miles N), on the
N side of the approaches to Porto do Ibo. The
island is low and covered with straggling trees; it
has some very distinctive red and white patches,
there are several villages and there is a beach of
white sand on the SE shore. Ilha Manuel da Silva
is a small islet on the drying reef off the SE side
of Ilha Matemo.
(Directions continue at 6.126)
Anchorages and harbours
Porto do Ibo
6.116
1
General information. Porto do Ibo is entered between
Ilha do Ibo (12°20′S 40°36′E) and Ilha Matemo (6.115)
5 miles N. Baixo de São Gonçalo, a drying reef between
the two islands, divides the entrance into two channels,
Canal do Sul and Canal do Norte passing, respectively, S
and N of the reef. Canal do Sul is the entrance channel
generally used.
2
The land within the harbour is moderately high and
backed by a range of hills which are visible at 20 miles;
the S end of the range terminates in a bluff with a conical
hill close S of it.
CHAPTER 6
236
Ibo, a town built partly of stone, lies on the W
extremity of Ilha do Ibo near the head of Canal do Ibo in
which, in 1940, there were depths from 0⋅3 to 1⋅2 m. The
climate is reported to be unhealthy from the middle of
January to the middle of March.
3
Tidal streams run strongly in Canal do Sul, the in−going
stream setting towards Baixo de São Gonçalo on the N side
of the entrance, and the out−going stream setting towards
Mujaca Shoal on the S side.
There are no pilots. Vessels without local knowledge
should enter in daylight.
6.117
1
Directions for Canal do Sul. In the approach, care
should be taken to avoid the discoloured water which may
be seen SE of Ilha Matemo. No difficulty should be
experienced in entering the harbour if the buoys are in
position, but if not it is advisable to enter at or near LW as
the drying edges of both Mujaca Shoal and Baixo de São
Gonçalo are clearly defined from two hours before LW to
two hours after.
2
From a position about 2 miles N of Ibo Light (6.115)
(12°20′S 40°37′E) the track leads generally W, passing
(with positions from Ibo Light):
N of No 2 Light−buoy (red conical) (2 miles NNW),
marking the N extremity of Mujaca Shoal which
dries and extends 1 mile N from Ilha do Ibo,
thence:
3
S of No.1 Buoy (black can) (2¼ miles NNW),
marking the SE extremity of Baixo de São
Gonçalo When covered, Baixo de São Gonçalo is
marked by breakers or by the discoloration of the
water over it. The engine of a stranded wreck was
reported in 1961 to be clearly visible at about half
tide on the E side of Baixo de São Gonçalo.
Thence:
S of a beacon (3½ miles NW) close to the W
extremity of Baixo de São Gonçalo.
4
Thence the track leads SW, passing:
NW of a 3⋅2 m patch (3½ miles WNW); a dangerous
rock lies 7 cables S of the 3⋅2 m patch on the W
side of a bar at the entrance to Canal do Ibo, the
narrow channel leading to the town of Ibo where
Forte de São João is white and presents a long
front when seen from NE. A light (white tower,
black band, 6 m in height) is exhibited from the
pier at Ibo, 4 cables S of the fort. Thence:
5
To the anchorage in the S part of Porto do Ibo
(6.119).
6.118
1
Canal do Norte, leads into the harbour between Baixo
de São Gonçalo and the reef extending S from Ilha
Matemo. The channel is not marked, and at its W end
there is a dangerous rock 1½ miles SW of the S extremity
of Ilha Matemo.
6.119
1
Anchorage, is available in depths from 10 to 24 m, but
large areas of the harbour are encumbered by banks and
shoals which restrict the space available.
In the S part of the harbour, fair anchorage exposed to E
winds in depths from 11 to 24 m as shown on the chart,
2¾ miles NW of the fort at Ibo; the drying reefs of Baixo
Muitune and Baixo Maquinze lie, respectively, 5 cables W
and 1¼ miles SW of the anchorage.
In the N part of the harbour, in a depth of 10 m as
shown on the chart, 5 cables SW of Ponta Ucáia, a wooded
point at the NW extremity of Ilha Matemo. A channel with
depths greater than 5 m leads between the drying reef off
the W coast of Ilha Matemo and Baixo Envie which
extends E from the mainland coast between Ponta Quirimísi
(12°12′S 40°31′E) and a river estuary, name not charted,
4½ miles SSW.
Baía do Quipaco
6.120
1
General information. Baía do Quipaco is entered
between Ponta Sito (12°42′S 40°36′E) and Ilha Quipaco
(6.114) 1 mile NNE.
Directions. It is advisable to enter at low water, passing
close to the S side of Ilha Quipaco.
Anchorage, almost immediately after passing Ilha
Quipaco.
Enseada da Arimba
6.121
1
General information. Enseada da Arimba is entered
between Ponta Nangamba (12°38′S 40°37′E) and an
extensive drying reef fronting Ilha Quisiva (6.114) 1¾ miles
N. The W shore of the bay, between Ponta Nangamba and
an unnamed point 7 miles NNW, is low and covered with
palm trees; Arimba village is at the SW corner of the bay,
2½ miles W of Ponta Nangamba.
2
Access to the bay, between Ponta Nangamba and Ilha
Quisiva, is by a narrow channel with depths of 3⋅7 m.
There is also a very narrow passage, with a least depth of
5⋅6 m, between Ilha Quisiva and Ilha Mefunvo (6.114)
3 miles NNW. It is advisable to enter Enseada da Arimba
at low water.
Anchorage, for small vessels, may be obtained in depths
of 5 m in a narrow area between the W edge of the reefs
surrounding Ilha Quisiva and Ilha Mefuno and the E edge
of the bank which fringes the W shore of Enseada da
Arimba.
Baía de Montepuez
6.122
1
General information. Baía de Montepuez is entered
between the N extremity of Ilha Mefunvo (6.114) (12°33′S
40°36′E) and Ilha Sencar (6.114) 3 miles NNE.
Access to the bay is much restricted by reefs extending
from the entrance points, but there is a narrow channel
which leads close S of Ilha Quilaluia (12°30′S 40°36′E),
small and wooded, suitable for small coasting vessels.
2
A channel, which dries, leads from the N part of the bay
into Porto do Ibo (6.116) through Canal da Quissanga
which lies between Ponta Quissanga (12°24′S 40°34′E) and
mangroves surrounding Ilha Quirambo 2½ miles N.
Anchorage. Temporary anchorage may be obtained in
depths of 24 m, coral, 8 cables SE of the S extremity of
Ilha Quilaluia, 3 cables from the edge of the reef.
PORTO DO IBO TO ILHA TAMBÚZI
General information
Chart 2927
Route
6.123
1
From a position E of Ilha Matemo (12°14′S 40°36′E),
close N of the approaches to Porto do Ibo, the route leads
N for about 49 miles to a position SE of Ilha Tambúzi
(11°22′S 40°39′E) at the entrance to Passagem de Tambúzi,
the principal channel for approaching Baía de Mocímboa
da Praia.
CHAPTER 6
237
Topography
6.124
1
On the mainland, between Ponta Quirimísi (12°12′S
40°31′E) and Ponta Pangane 12 miles N, there are two
bays, the coasts of which are low. Ponta Pabula, 7 miles N
of Ponta Quirimísi and fronted by a reef extending 2 miles
E, separates the two bays.
2
Ponta Pangane is fronted by an extensive drying reef on
which stands the islet of Ilha Quifula, 1¼ miles SSW of
the point. Ilha Mogundula, fringed by a reef which dries,
lies on the edge of the coastal bank 2¾ miles S of Ponta
Pangane.
6.125
1
Between Ponta Pangane and Cabo Pequeve 9 miles N,
the coast forms a large, unnamed, bay which affords shelter
in S winds. The shore of the bay is low, sandy and covered
with mangroves; it is fronted by a sandy bank, the inner
part of which dries. Bangue, a reef which dries, lies on the
coastal bank 2 miles NNW of Ponta Pangane. Two other
dangers within the bay: Baixo Pangane, a drying reef and
Baixo Ingoane, a patch of dangerous rocks, lie, respectively
4½ miles and 6 miles NNW of Ponta Pangane.
2
Between Cabo Pequeve and Cabo Nenhumba 7 miles
NNW, a range of wooded hills, 60 to 90 m high are
parallel with the coast about 2 to 3 miles inland. Thereafter
to Ponta Ulú, 20 miles farther N, the coast is low, wooded,
fringed with mangroves and seldom visible from seaward
of the outer reefs.
Directions
(continued from 6.115)
Principal marks
6.126
1
Major light:
Ilha Tambúzi Light (white round masonry tower,
black bands; 26 m in height) (11°22′S 40°39′E).
Track
6.127
1
From a position E of Ilha Matemo (12°14′S 40°36′E)
the track leads N, passing (with positions from Ibo Light
(12°20′S 40°38′E)):
E of Ilha das Rolas (11½ miles NNW), low, covered
with brushwood and surrounded by reefs extending
8 cables E. Some casuarina trees on the SW part
of the island are conspicuous. The NW extremity
is sandy and affords the best landing. Thence:
2
E of Baixo Zala (14 miles N), a drying reef at the
SW end of a rocky bank which has depths of 5 m
or less over it; a depth of 8⋅2 m lies 2 miles NE.
Thence:
E of Ilha Macaloé (21 miles N), surrounded by an
extensive drying reef; an isolated patch of 9⋅4 m
lies 3 miles SE of the island. Thence:
3
E of Baixo Pantalon (26 miles N) a coral shoal;
together with Baixo Techantia, a drying reef
2 miles SW, these two dangers lie in the approach
to an unnamed bay (6.125) between Ponta Pangane
(20 miles NNW) and Cabo Pequeve 9 miles farther
N. Thence:
4
E of Ilha Medjumbe (31 miles N), low and thickly
wooded; two tall trees stand on its S side. A reef,
on which there are drying sandy patches, surrounds
the island and extends seaward up to 1½ miles E
and 2½ miles NE; the reef forms the S entrance
point of Passagem de Medjumbe (6.129). Ilha
Medjumbe Light (white truncated conical masonry
tower and gallery, 26 m in height) is exhibited on
the E extremity of the island.
6.128
1
Thence the track continues N, passing (with positions
from Ilha Medjumbe Light (11°49′S 40°37′E)):
2
E of Baixo Vadiazi (7 miles N), an extensive reef, of
coral and sandbanks, which dries from 1 to 2 m
and forms the N entrance point of Passagem de
Medjumbe (6.129) and the S entrance point of
Passagem de Quero Niuni (6.134). The reef is
steep−to except on its W side where a bank
connects it to Cabo Iancumbi (15 miles NW); the
SW part is broken into innumerable rocks and
coral patches with intervening depths from 3⋅5 to
4⋅5 m. Ilha Quero Niuni Light (white square tower)
is exhibited from an islet 6 m high and covered
with bushes on the NW extremity of Baixo
Vadiazi. Thence:
3
E of Baixo Nameguo (18 miles N), an extensive coral
reef which dries 2 m. The N−most sandbank on the
reef dries 4 m but is covered at HW springs, when
the sea breaks heavily on it. The seaward edge of
the reef is steep−to and when there is any wind a
cross sea is generally experienced off it. Thence:
4
To a position SE of Ilha Tambúzi (27 miles N) at the
entrance to Passagem de Tambúzi (24 miles N); the
island has an elevation of 25 m, is higher than the
adjacent islands. Ilha Tambúzi light (6.126) is
exhibited from the E point of the island.
(Directions continue at 6.154)
Baía de Medjumbe
General information
6.129
1
Description. Baía de Medjumbe is entered through
Passagem de Medjumbe which leads between a reef
extending from Ilha Medjumbe (11°49′S 40°37′E) and the
reef of Baixo Vadiazi 5 miles N.
6.130
1
Topography. When approaching from seaward, the
mainland is indistinct but the high trees on Ilha Medjumbe
may be clearly seen and the sides of the channel are
marked by heavy surf on the edges of the reefs.
Cabo Pequeve (11°51′S 40°31′E), at the S extremity of
the bay, is low, sandy and bordered by a drying bank
which extends 2 miles E; a bushy islet, 5 m high, stands on
the reef 5 cables E of the cape.
2
Between Cabo Pequeve and Cabo Nenhumba 7 miles
NNW, a sandy beach extends for the first 4 miles and then
gives way to mangroves intersected by creeks. A range of
wooded hills, 60 to 90 m high, runs parallel with the coast
at from 2 to 3 miles inland, and numerous villages may be
seen within the sandy beach.
3
Between Cabo Nenhumba and Cabo Iancumbi 7½ miles
N, the coast is low, swampy and fringed with mangroves
intersected by creeks. The most prominent feature on this
stretch of coast is a gap caused by a sudden break in the
range of hills inland.
Directions
6.131
1
From a position about 7 miles NE of Ilha Medjumbe
Light (11°49′S 40°37′E) the track leads W, passing (with
positions from the light):
S of Baixo Vadiazi (7½ miles NNE) (6.128), and:
N of the drying reef surrounding Ilha Medjumbe
(6.127) (2½ miles NE); passage between this reef
CHAPTER 6
238
and Baixo Vadiazi is clear of dangers over a width
of 4 miles. Thence:
2
N of Rocha Gray (2½ miles NNW), a pinnacle rock
with a depth of 0⋅5 m over it, thence:
Clear of a 10⋅3 m patch (5½ miles NW), position
approximate, reported 1998, thence:
N of Ilha Quissanga (2½ miles W), an islet 6 m high,
sandy and covered with brushwood, which lies on
the W side of a drying reef; an 8⋅2 m patch lies
1¾ miles NW of Ilha Quissanga. Thence:
3
Either side of Baixo Mecholi (9 miles NW), a drying
coral reef, thence:
As required for anchorage.
Channels in south of Baía de Medjumbe
6.132
1
A clear channel, over 1 mile wide and used by coasting
vessels, passes between the drying reef extending E from
Cabo Pequeve (11°51′S 40°31′E) and Ilha Quissanga
3½ miles ENE.
A narrow channel, used by coasting vessels, lies
between the drying reef surrounding Ilha Quissanga and the
dangers extending W from Ilha Medjumbe, 2½ miles ENE.
Anchorage
6.133
1
Anchorage may be obtained in depths from 9 to 27 m,
sand and coral, anywhere within Baía de Medjumbe.
Good anchorage W of Ilha Quissanga (11°49′S 40°34′E)
in depths of 15 m, sand and shells, about 5 cables off the
edge of the reef with Ilha Quissanga in alignment (about
079°) with the tall trees on Ilha Medjumbe, 2½ miles ENE.
This anchorage may be safely approached either through
Passagem de Medjumbe (6.131) or the channel between
Cabo Pequeve and Ilha Quissanga (6.132).
Passagem de Quero Niuni
General information
6.134
1
Route. Passagem de Quero Niuni is entered between the
NE extremity of Baixo Vadiazi (11°38′S 40°39′E) and
Baixo Varuni 4 miles NNW, and approaches the coast
between Cabo Iancumbi (11°37′S 40°28′E) and Cabo
Mepandagi 5½ miles N.
Topography. The mainland coast between Cabo
Iancumbi and Cabo Mepandagi is low, wooded, fringed
with mangroves and seldom visible from seaward of the
outer reefs.
A coral reef which fronts the coast extends from about
5 cables to 2½ miles offshore; the inner part of the reef
dries, exposing mudbanks at the entrances to the numerous
creeks.
Depths. The outer part of the channel is clear of
dangers, but the depths decrease rapidly from 200 m or
more, to less than 45 m when about 1 mile E of Baixo
Quisinguite (6.135) (11°35′S 40°33′E).
Directions
6.135
1
From a position NE of the NE extremity of Baixo
Vadiazi (11°38′S 40°39′E) the track leads W, passing (with
positions from Ilha Quero Niuni Light (11°38′S 40°34′E)):
N of Baixo Vadiazi (6.128), thence:
S of Baixo Varuni (5 miles NNE), a reef which dries
3 m, thence:
2
Either side of Baixo Quisinguite (3 miles N), a drying
coral patch, generally marked by breakers even
when covered. When about 1 mile E of Baixo
Quisinguite, Ilha Quero Niuni is plainly visible, as
is Rochas Sili−Sili (4 miles WNW) comprising
several flat−topped coral rocks about 3 m high near
the edge of the reef which extends 2½ miles E of
Cabo Iancumbi. Thence:
As required for anchorage.
Anchorage
6.136
1
During the SE Monsoon, good anchorage may be
obtained in depths of 11 m, sand and coral, 1 mile NW of
Ilha Quero Niuni (11°38′S 40°34′E) as shown on the chart.
During the NE Monsoon, small vessels may obtain
anchorage 5 cables SW of Ilha Quero Niuni.
Anchorage may also be obtained close S of Baixo
Varuni (11°33′S 40°35′E).
Passagem de Nameguo
General information
6.137
1
Route. Passagem de Nameguo is entered between Baixo
Nameguo (11°30′S 40°38′E) and Baixo Varuni, 1¾ miles
SW, and provides an approach from S to Baía de
Mocímboa da Praia, although the principal approach is
through Passagem de Tambúzi (6.140).
2
Topography. The mainland coast in the vicinity is low,
wooded, fringed with mangroves and is seldom visible
from seaward of the outer reefs. A coral reef fronts the
coast with Baixos Crawford, comprising several coral
patches which dry 1 to 2 m, extending up to 2½ miles
offshore on the outer edge of the reef.
Directions
6.138
1
From a position NE of the NE extremity of Baixo
Vadiazi (11°38′S 40°39′E) the track leads WNW, passing
(with positions from Ponta Ulú (11°24′S 40°29′E)):
NNE of Baixo Varuni (11 miles SE), a reef which
dries 3 m, and:
SSW of Baixo Nameguo (11 miles ESE) (6.128).
2
When clear of the SW extremity of Baixo Nameguo the
track leads generally N, passing:
E of Baixo Magive Cobua (8 miles SSE), on which a
sandbank dries 3 m, thence:
E of Baixo Lacunama (6½ miles SE), a coral reef
with a sandbank at its W end which dries 1 m,
thence:
3
E of Baixo Chapman (5 miles SE), a drying coral
reef, steep−to, with a sandbank at its W end,
thence:
E of a drying reef extending 1¾ miles SE from Ilha
Mionge (3 miles ESE) (6.144), thence:
W of Baixo Bower (9½ miles E) (6.141), thence:
To a position S of Pedra Massassari (5½ miles ENE)
(6.141).
(Directions continue for Passagem de Mionge at 6.144)
Anchorage
6.139
1
There is good anchorage in Passagem de Nameguo in
depths from 9 to 22 m, sand and coral, the suitability of
berths depending on the monsoon; the prevailing strong
winds are from NE and SE. A good berth, in depths from
13 to 17 m, is off the W side of Baixo Nameguo (11°30′S
40°38′E). Anchorage, in similar depths, may also be
obtained E of the SE extremity of Baixo Magive Cobua
(11°31′S 40°32′E).
CHAPTER 6
239
Passagem de Tambúzi
General information
6.140
1
Route. Passagem de Tambúzi, entered between the Ilha
Tambúzi (11°22′S 40°39′E) and Baixo Nameguo, 5 miles S,
is the principal channel through the outer line of reefs
which lie in the approaches to Baía de Mocímboa da Praia.
Topography. The nearest mainland coast, in the vicinity
of Ponta Ulú (11°24′S 40°29′E), is low, wooded, fringed
with mangroves and is seldom visible from seaward of the
outer reefs.
Directions
6.141
1
Caution. Due allowance must be made for the tidal
streams and it is advisable to sound continuously. Buoyage
should not be relied upon.
2
From a position SE of Ilha Tambúzi (11°22′S 40°39′E)
the track leads W, passing (with positions from Ilha
Tambúzi Light):
S of the drying reef extending S from Ilha Tambúzi
(2 miles S) (6.128), and:
N of Baixo Nameguo (5 miles S) (6.128), thence:
N of Baixo Bower (3½ miles SSW), a shoal with a
rocky patch at its E extremity; noting an 8⋅3 m
patch (2¾ miles SSW) on the N side of the shoal,
thence:
To a position S of Pedra Massassari (5 miles WSW),
a very dark and almost square rock 1 m high
which is prominent; a drying reef extends 3 cables
from the rock in places.
(Directions continue for Passagem de Mionge at 6.144)
Anchorage
6.142
1
A good anchorage, as shown on the chart, lies 1½ miles
W of Ilha Tambúzi in a depth of 17 m, sand and shell.
Passagem de Mionge
General information
6.143
1
Route. Passagem de Mionge, the only deep channel into
Baía de Mocímboa da Praia, leads NW from the vicinity of
Pedra Massassari (11°23′S 40°34′E) at the confluence of a
number of channels through the outer reefs, namely
Passegem de Nameguo (6.137), Passegem de Tambúzi
(6.140), and Passegem de Suna (6.157) with Passagem de
Niuni (6.161).
Topography. See 6.140.
Directions
(continued from 6.138, 6.141 and 6.158)
6.144
1
From a position about 7 cables S of the reef surrounding
Pedra Massassari (11°23′S 40°34′E), the track initially leads
W until on the alignment (015°) of Pedra Massassari with
the E extremity of Ilha Suna, 4½ miles NNE) when the
track alters NW, passing (with positions from Pedra
Massassari):
NE of a drying reef (2¼ miles WSW) surrounding
Ilha Mionge, 20 m high and thickly wooded,
thence:
2
NE of dangerous rocks (2¾ miles W) extending up to
1½ miles N from the W extremity of Ilha Mionge,
thence:
SW of a drying reef (2½ miles NW) surrounding Ilha
Mechanga, a wooded coral island, 16 m high,
thence:
To a position NE of a drying bank of mud and sand
(5½ miles W) fronting Ponta Ulú, at the entrance
to Baía de Mocímboa da Praia (6.145).
(Directions continue at 6.146)
Baía de Mocímboa da Praia
Chart 2927 (see 1.19)
General information.
6.145
1
Description. Baía de Mocímboa da Praia is entered
between Ponta Ulú (11°24′S 40°28′E) and Cabo Messangi
13 miles N. Porto de Mocímboa da Praia, in the W part of
the bay, is an anchorage off the small town of Mocímboa
da Praia situated at the mouth of Rio Mocímboa.
2
Topography. The SW side of the bay between Ponta
Ulú and Ponta Rovura 6 miles NW, is fringed with
mangroves within which the land rises in wooded slopes to
an elevation of about 60 m. Ponta Rovura is low and flat.
Ponta Vermelha, 1½ miles NNW of Ponta Rovura and
on the opposite side of the mouth of Rio Mocímboa, is a
bold bluff and the highest point in the vicinity; it forms the
S end of a range of thickly wooded hills which extends N
for about 40 miles, at between 1 and 8 miles inland.
3
The NW side of the bay, for about 7 cables NE of Ponta
Vermela, is formed by cliffs 25 m high; thence, for 9 miles
NE to Cabo Messangi, the shore is low, sandy and fringed
with mangroves in places. Cabo Messangi is low and
covered with mangroves; some casuarina trees stand 2 miles
NW of the cape.
Fronting the seaward side of the bay for 10 miles S
from Cabo Messangi to Ilha Mechanga, on the N side of
Passagem de Mionge, there are extensive coral reefs with
numerous sandbanks and detached rocks.
4
Tidal streams. Within the harbour, the W−going tidal
stream on the rising tide is scarcely appreciable, but the
E−going stream on the falling tide attains rates of 2 to 3 kn
at springs.
Directions
(continued from 6.144)
6.146
1
Caution. In 1995 it was reported that all navigational
aids in Baía de Mocímboa da Praia were unreliable, with
the possibility of marks being unlit, out of position or
missing.
From a position about 2½ miles NE of Ponta Ulú
(11°25′S 40°28′E) the track leads NW, passing (with
positions from Ponta Ulú):
2
SW of a small detached drying reef (3 miles NE); an
8⋅5 m patch lies 6 cables WSW of the reef.
Thence:
NE of Baixo Mesaro (2½ miles NNW), a very foul
rocky spit, thence:
Clear of a 7⋅8 m patch (4 miles NNW), thence:
CHAPTER 6
240
NE of an isolated shoal (4¼ miles NNW), charted as
a dangerous rock, over which there is a depth of
about 1⋅8 m.
3
Thence the track leads W in a buoyed channel, passing:
N of the isolated 1⋅8 m shoal (4¼ miles NNW),
charted as a dangerous rock, and:
S of a shoal patch (5 miles NNW) with a least
charted depth of 2⋅4 m, thence:
To the anchorage.
6.147
1
Useful marks:
Comangano Light (white metal tower, white masonry
base; 5 m in height) (11°19′S 40°24′E); a
conspicuous tree stands about 1 mile N of the
light.
Rovura Light (white truncated pyramidal masonry
tower) (11°21′S 40°23′E), exhibited on Restinga
Kiwanda, an extension of the coastal bank 5 cables
NNW of Ponta Rovura.
2
Lipulula Light (white metal tower, white square base;
5 m in height) (11°20′S 40°22′E) exhibited on the
E extremity of Ilha Lipulula.
Channel between Cabo Messangi and Rochas Jeffreys
6.148
1
Description. A channel lies between the mainland
coastal bank on the N side of Baía de Mocímboa da Praia
and the reefs enclosing the seaward approach to the bay.
The channel is unmarked and has a least depth of 2⋅7 m.
Local knowledge is required.
2
Directions. From a position SE of Cabo Messangi
(11°12′S 40°31′E) the track leads generally W, passing
(with positions from Cabo Messangi (11°12′S 40°31′E)):
S of shoals fronting Cabo Messangi, thence:
N of Rochas Jeffreys (4 miles WSW), a reef on
which there is a large drying sandbank surrounded
by foul ground; Ilha Congo, 11 m high, lies close
SE.
3
Thence the track leads generally S, passing:
Close NW and W of Rochas Jeffreys, thence:
E of Baixo Quisoca (6½ miles SSW), a drying reef
extending almost 4 miles off the mainland shore,
and:
W of Pedra Quiué (7 miles S).
Thence into Baía de Mocímboa da Praia.
Porto de Mocímboa da Praia
6.149
1
Description. Porto de Mocímboa da Praia (11°20′S
40°25′E) is a capacious and sheltered harbour affording
anchorage in depths from 6 to 15 m within Baía de
Mocímboa da Praia.
2
Rio Mocímboa enters Baía de Mocímboa da Praia
between Ponta Rovura (11°21′S 40°23′E) and Ponta
Vermelha 1½ miles NNW. The river mouth is fringed with
sand and mud flats and the entrance is obstructed by Ilha
Lipulula, a small island 1¼ miles NW of Ponta Rovura,
where a light (6.147) is exhibited and from which rocks
extend in all directionsa.
3
A narrow and tortuous channel, suitable only for small
craft at HW, leads S of Ilha Lipulula to the small town of
Mocímboa da Praia; main exports from the town are
cashew nuts and timber.
4
Anchorage. Large vessels should anchor, in depths from
11 to 13 m, with Lipulula Light (6.147) bearing 270°
distant 3¼ miles.
Small vessels can obtain anchorage farther W, in a least
depth of 6 m, to NE of Rovura Light (6.147).
Other facilities. Small hospital; airport 1 mile S of the
town.
Anchorages and harbours
Chart 2927
Ilha das Rolas
6.150
1
Anchorage, in depths from 9 to 14 m, between about
8 cables and 1¾ miles SSW of the SW extremity of Ilha
das Rolas (6.127) (12°09′S 40°34′E).
Baixo Pantalon
6.151
1
There is good anchorage on the N side of Baixo
Pantalon (6.127) (11°54′S 40°36′E).
ILHA TAMBÚZI TO CABO DELGADO
General information
Chart 2927
Route
6.152
1
From a position SE of Ilha Tambúzi (11°22′S 40°39′E),
at the entrance to Passagem de Tambúzi, the route leads
generally N for 45 miles to a position ENE of Cabo
Delgado (10°41′S 40°38′E).
Topography
6.153
1
The coast of the mainland is generally low and provides
few distinguishing features when passing outside the outer
reefs. Any further description of the coast is therefore
contained within the details of the individual bays and
passages between the reefs.
Directions
(continued from 6.128)
Principal marks
6.154
1
Major lights:
Ilha Tambúzi Light (11°22′S 40°39′E) (6.126).
Cabo Delgado Light (white 6−sided concrete tower
and dwelling, 36 m in height) (10°41′S 40°38′E).
Track
6.155
1
From a position SE of Ilha Tambúzi (11°22′S 40°39′E),
at the entrance to Passagem de Tambúzi, the track leads N,
passing (with positions from Ilha Tambúzi Light):
E of Ilha Tambúzi (6.128), the S entrance point of
Passagem de Suna (6.157), thence:
2
E of Baixo Tambula (4 miles N), a coral reef on
which there are sandbanks and boulders which dry
1⋅5 to 3 m; the N and E sides of the reef are
steep−to and clearly defined by breakers. Ilha
Niuni, 5 m high, flat and covered with grass, lies
at the NW extremity of the reef; at a distance it
resembles a bare sandbank. Baixo Tambula is the
S entrance point of Passagem de Niuni (6.161).
Thence:
3
E of Ilha Metundo (12 miles N), 24 m high and
surrounded by a drying reef. Two islets, Ilhéu
Sand Cay and Ilhéu Macunga, lie on the E edge of
the reef close off the NE side of Ilha Metundo;
CHAPTER 6
241
each is about 2 m high and inconspicuous, but a
5 m high boulder which stands on the reef between
them is prominent. Thence:
4
E of Baixo Macunga (16 miles NNE), a shoal patch
extending NW from Ilha Metundo and forming the
outermost danger in the approach to Passagem de
Metundo (6.166). The sea breaks heavily on the
shoal at LW in the swell which is generally
running. Thence:
5
E of Ilha Vamizi (21 miles NNE) which forms the S
entrance point of Passagem de Vamizi (6.175). Ilha
Vamizi is wooded, 28 m high at its E end but
slightly lower at its W end; Ilha Vamizi Light
(white round tower) is exhibited at its E extremity.
6.156
1
Thence the track leads NNW, passing (with positions
from Ilha Vamizi Light (11°01′S 40°43′E)):
ENE of Baixo Pollard (6½ miles N), a steep−to spit
extending for 3½ miles SSE from the E extremity
of Ilha Rongui, with a least depth near seaward
extremity of the spit, thence:
2
ENE of Ilha Rongui (10 miles NNW), flat and
densely wooded, with trees 30 m high on its NE
part; the island is surrounded by an extensive coral
reef. Thence:
3
ENE of Ilha Tecomagi (14 miles NNW), low, flat,
densely wooded and surrounded by an extensive
drying reef which joins that surrounding Ilha
Rongui. With any swell the sea breaks across the
reef joining the two islands. Off Ilha Tecomagi the
outer edge of the reef is steep−to and usually
marked by surf. Thence:
4
To a position ENE of Cabo Delgado (20 miles NNW)
where a light (6.154) is exhibited; the cape is low,
but close N there is a hill with an elevation of
26 m. A drying reef which fringes the cape
extends over 1 mile SE, is steep−to and usually
marked by surf.
(Directions continue at 7.11)
Passagem de Suna
General information
6.157
1
Route. Passagem de Suna is entered between Ilha
Tambúzi (11°22′S 40°39′E) and Baixo Tambula, 4 miles N,
and provides an approach from N into Baía de Mocímboa
da Praia via Passagem de Mionge, although the principal
approach is through Passagem Tambúzi (6.140).
Topography. See 6.140 and 6.145.
Directions
6.158
1
From a position NE of Ilha Tambúzi (11°22′S 40°39′E)
and with Ilha Suna, 5 miles NW, a coral island 18 m high
with trees on its summit, on a suitable heading, the track
leads W, passing (with positions from Ilha Tambúzi Light):
N of the drying reef extending N from Ilha Tambúzi
(1¼ miles N) (6.128), and:
S of Baixo Tambula (4 miles N) (6.155), thence:
Clear of the 8⋅0 m patch (2¾ miles N) lying in
mid−channel.
6.159
1
When clear of the NW extremity of Ilha Tambúzi, and
Pedra Massassari (5 miles WSW) bears about 225°, the
track leads SSW, passing:
ESE of Ilha Suna (5 miles NW), fronted by a drying
reef, and noting Baixo Quissanga, a coral reef
which dries 3 m, 1 mile SW of Ilha Suna, thence:
ESE of Pedra Luvinza (5¾ miles WNW), a 2 m high
rock surrounded by a drying reef, thence:
2
ESE of the drying reef fronting Ilha Mechanga
(7 miles W) (6.144), thence:
Either side of Pedra Massassari (5 miles WSW)
(6.141).
(Directions continue for Passagem de Mionge at 6.144)
Anchorage
6.160
1
See 6.142.
Passagem de Niuni
General information
6.161
1
Route. Passagem de Niuni is entered between Baixo
Tambula (11°17′S 40°40°E) and a drying reef, which fronts
the SE side of Ilha Metundo, 6 miles N. The channel
provides access NW to Passagem de Quifuqui (6.164) and
S to Passagem de Suna (6.157).
Topography. See 6.145 and 6.164.
Directions
6.162
1
From a position NE of Baixo Tambula (11°17′S
40°40°E) the track leads generally W, passing (with
positions from Ilha Niuni (6.155) at the NW extremity of
Baixo Tambula):
S of drying reef (7 miles NNE) which fronts the SE
side of Ilha Metundo (6.155) and:
N of Baixo Tambula (6.155).
2
Thence, with Cabo Messangi (6.145) ahead, bearing
288°, the track leads WNW, passing:
NNE of Baixos Gray (2 miles NW) with patches of
less than 5⋅5 m, but even less water has been
reported (1998), and:
SSW of a 6⋅5 m patch (3 miles N) close off the
drying reef fronting the S side of Ilha Quifuqui,
24 m high, thence:
3
When W of Baixos Gray, as indicated by the W
extremity of Ilha Suna (6.158) in line with the E extremity
of Ilha Mionge (6.144), the track leads generally S with the
W extremity of Ilha Tambúzi ahead, bearing 167°, passing:
W of Baixos Gray, and:
Clear of an 8⋅2 m patch (3 miles WNW), thence:
To a position E of Ilha Suna, fronted by a drying
reef.
(Directions continue S at 6.159)
Anchorage
6.163
1
In Passagem de Quifuqui, see 6.165.
Passagem de Quifuqui
General information
6.164
1
Route. Passagem de Quifuqui, which leads NW from
Passagem de Niuni (6.161), is a 2½ mile wide channel
between the edge of the reef extending E from Cabo
Messangi (11°12′S 40°31′E) and the W extremity of Ilha
Quifuqui 5 miles ENE. A detached rock, awash, lies on the
inshore side of the channel 2¼ miles NE of Cabo Messangi
and an isolated drying patch lies 1 mile farther NE.
For details of minor channels N of Passagem de
Quifuqui see 6.169.
CHAPTER 6
242
2
Topography. Between Cabo Messangi (6.145) (11°12′S
40°31′E) and Cabo Nondo 10 miles NNE, the coast is low
and wooded with occasional small villages surrounded by
coconut groves; a group of tall casuarina trees may be
readily identified from S. A sandbank fronts the coast, and
landing is impracticable except at HW.
Tidal stream. The N−going tidal stream in Passagem de
Quifuqui attains rates of 2 to 3 kn at springs, but is
scarcely perceptible at neaps.
Anchorage
6.165
1
Good anchorage, depending on the monsoon prevailing,
1¾ miles SSW of the W extremity of Ilha Quifuqui, as
shown on the chart, depth 15 m, sand, mud and coral; or
1¼ miles N of the same point, depth 9 m, sand and shell.
Passagem de Metundo
General information
6.166
1
Route. Passagem de Metundo is entered between Ilha
Metundo (11°10′S 40°41′E) and Ilha Vamizi 7 miles N. The
main channel then divides into several minor channels
through drying reefs between the landward side of the two
islands and the mainland.
2
Topography. See 6.164.
Depths. There is deep water in the outer part of the
channel, but the depths decrease very rapidly as the
numerous reefs and shoals which lie close within the
entrance are approached.
The best time to enter is at LW when the reefs are
clearly defined.
Directions for anchorage
6.167
1
From a position SE of Ilha Vamizi Light (6.155)
(11°01′S 40°43′E) the track leads generally W, passing
(with positions from the light):
S of the drying reef (1¼ miles SSE) fronting the E
extremity of Ilha Vamizi, and:
N of Baixo Macunga (6.155) (5 miles S), thence:
2
N of shoal ground surrounding Baixo Pinguim
(6 miles SW) a small drying reef; dangerous rocks
lie up to 1 mile NE and 5 cables N of the reef.
Thence:
S of a 1⋅9 m patch (5¼ miles WSW) extending
beyond the drying reef off the S side of Ilha
Vamizi.
Thence the track leads SW to the anchorage (6.174),
passing NW of the shoals surrounding Baixo Pinguim.
6.168
1
Useful marks:
Ilha Quisungura (11°10′S 40°37′E), 13 m high,
wooded, lies on the NW side of a drying coral
reef and resembles Ilha Vumba.
Ilha Vumba (11°08′S 40°36′E), 20 m high, surrounded
by a coral reef and resembles Ilha Quisungura.
From a position at the entrance to Passagem de
Metundo, N of Baixo Macunga 8 miles ENE, Ilha
Vumba has the appearance of two small distinct
black lumps.
2
Pedra Vumba (11°07′S 40°37′E), a small
mushroom−shaped rock, 1 m high, in the centre of
a coral reef.
Minor channels
6.169
1
Between Baixo Metundo (11°07′S 40°40′E) and Baixo
Gulnare, 5 cables NW, the channel has a least depth of
4⋅6 m. It is inadvisable to to attempt this channel as violent
tide−rips are experienced close N of Baixo Metundo and
within the channel.
6.170
1
The channel between Baixo Gulnare (11°07′S 40°39′E)
and Baixo Pinguim, 1 mile N, has a least depth of 4⋅5 m.
6.171
1
Between Ilha Quisungura (6.168) (11°10′S 40°37′E) and
Ilha Vumba 1½ miles NNW, there are depths of 6⋅4 m; a
small vessel might use this channel but it is not
recommended.
6.172
1
The passage W of Ilha Vumba (6.168) (11°08′S
40°36′E) has a least depth of 3⋅7 m and is only practicable
for small vessels.
6.173
1
Passagem do Cabo Nondo is a narrow channel 2½ miles
in length, marked by beacons, between Cabo Nondo
(11°02′S 40°34′E) and Ilha Vamizi. It is only suitable for
small vessels, there being a bar with depths of about 1 m
across each end of the channel.
Anchorage
6.174
1
In depths of 13 m, W of the shoals surrounding Baixo
Pinguim (11°05′S 40°39′E), and SE of Cabo Nondo distant
about 4½ miles.
Passagem de Vamizi
General information
6.175
1
Route. Passagem de Vamizi, entered between Ilha
Vamizi (11°01′S 40°43′E) and Ilha Rongui 10 miles N,
provides an anchorage and forms the approach to Baía de
Maiapa.
Topography. See 6.178.
Directions for anchorage
6.176
1
From a position about 5 miles NE of Ilha Vamizi (6.155)
(11°01′S 40°43′E) the track leads WSW passing (with
positions from Ilha Vamizi Light):
SSE of Baixo Pollard (6.156) (6½ miles N), thence:
About 2 miles NNW of Ilha Antares (Mkunga)
(1 mile NNW), a small islet, 9 m high, situated on
a drying reef at the NE extremity of Ilha Vamizi.
2
Thence when WNW of Ilha Antares the track alters
WNW on the alignment 113° of Ilha Antares, astern,
passing:
NNE of Baixo Mepanga−Panga (6 miles WNW), a
reef of coral and sand which dries in places, is
steep−to on all sides and on which the sea
generally breaks below half tide; No 7 Beacon
stands on the SW extremity of the reef. Thence:
3
SSW of a drying reef (6¼ miles NW) extending S
from Ilha Queramimbi, 12 m high and thickly
wooded, thence:
To the anchorage (6½ miles WNW), as shown on the
chart.
CHAPTER 6
243
Anchorage
6.177
1
In depths of 16 m, sand and coral, 1½ miles N of Baixo
Mepanga−Panga (10°59′S 40°37′E), as shown on the chart,
with Ilha Antares bearing 113° and the E extremity of Ilha
Queramimbi bearing 012°.
Also, in depths of 11 m, sand and coral, 5 cables SW of
Baixo Mepanga−Panga with the W extremity of Ilha Vamizi
bearing 195° distant 2 miles. In 1875, HMS Nassau
(877 tons) rode out a strong SE gale in smooth water in
this position, which would be equally well sheltered during
the NE Monsoon as the swell is not felt here.
Baía de Maiapa
General information
6.178
1
Description. Baía de Maiapa lies between Cabo Nondo
(11°02′S 40°34′E) and Cabo Afungi 12 miles NNE and is
approached through Passagem de Vamizi (6.175).
On the N side of the bay, Passagem do Cabo Afungi, a
channel with a least depth of 1⋅3 m, leads between Cabo
Afungi and Ilha Rongui into Baía de Tungue (6.181);
although marked by beacons, this channel is so obstructed
by reefs and shoals that local knowledge is essential.
2
Topography. A few coconut trees stand on the S shore
of the bay 1½ miles W of Cabo Nondo and, except in the
SW corner of the bay where there are mangroves, the
shores are sandy. On the N shore, there are several villages
among coconut groves.
3
Rio Mluli and Rio Quigode are two creeks which flow
into the SW part of the bay; the village of Olumbe is on
the N entrance point of Rio Quigode, the mouth of which
is reached by a narrow channel between drying sandbanks.
Rio Mecumbi enters the sea 1 mile SW of Cabo Afungi,
which is bold and sandy.
4
Tidal streams, are SW−going on the rising tide, and
NE−going on the falling tide; rates are from 1 to 2 kn at
springs.
Directions
6.179
1
From a position within Passagem de Vamizi (6.175) the
track leads either N or S of Baixo Mepanga−Panga (6.176)
(10°59′S 40°37′E). The N channel is recommended as the
depths in it decrease more gradually. The shoals on both
sides of the S channel are steep−to.
Anchorage
6.180
1
An extensive sandbank fronts the shores of the bay and
considerably restricts the space available for anchoring.
Within the bay the bottom is sand and coral, except off
the entrance to the channel at the head of the bay where it
is mud.
Good anchorage, although rather exposed to the swell,
may be obtained in depths of about 14 m with the S
extremity of Ilha Queramimbi (10°55′S 40°38′E) bearing
080° and the E extremity of Ilha Vamizi, 7 miles SE,
bearing 113°.
2
Also, in depths from 13 to 18 m, black sticky mud,
within the channel leading to Olumbe (6.178) at the head
of the bay. The entrance channel is narrow and tortuous,
and is only suitable for small vessels.
Baía de Tungue
General information
6.181
1
Description. Baía de Tungue lies between Cabo Afungi
(6.178) (10°50′S 40°37′E) and Cabo Delgado 8 miles N.
Entry to the bay is between Cabo Delgado and Ilha
Tecomagi, 5 miles SSE.
Palma, a village containing some European−style houses,
a barracks and a flagstaff, is at the head of the bay. The
village of Tungue, not charted, is on the N shore of the
bay 3 miles W of Cabo Delgado; it is hidden by a dense
belt of mangroves, but its position may be identified by a
thick grove of coconuts.
2
Topography. The land within the S shore of the bay is
low and flat, but the head of the bay is backed by a
wooded ridge which forms the highest ground in the
vicinity. The land adjoining the N shore rises to elevations
of 25 to 60 m.
If entering during the morning, the ridge within the head
of the bay may be identified. During the afternoon
difficulty may be experienced identifying the ridge as a
haze generally covers the mainland, but the extremities of
Ilha Tecomagi and Cabo Delgado will be visible.
3
A sandy beach forms the shore of the bay between Cabo
Afungi and Tungue village; thence to Cabo Delgado the
shore is rocky. The shores are fronted by extensive banks
on which there are numerous drying reefs and submerged
rocks.
Rio Nambulala flows into the head of the bay E of
Palma. The river mouth is approached by a narrow channel
between drying sandbanks to a position between Palma and
Ponta Negage, 1 mile E, above which the bar across the
entrance dries.
4
Depths of at least 12⋅5 m may be found in the buoyed
channel within the bay as far as a hulk moored on the N
side of the channel 2 miles ENE of Palma flagstaff
(10°47′S 40°28′E); farther W the fairway is narrow and
tortuous, and local knowledge is essential.
Tidal streams. In Baía de Tungue the tidal stream is
SSW−going during the rising tide, and N to NNE−going
during the falling tide. Rates are from 1 to 2 kn.
Directions
6.182
1
From a position about 4 miles ESE of Cabo Delgado
Light (6.154) (10°41′S 40°38′E) the track leads WSW,
passing (with positions from Cabo Delgado Light):
SSE of a drying reef (1½ miles S) fronting Cabo
Delgado (6.156); the reef is steep−to, usually
marked by surf and has an isolated rock, 0⋅9 m in
height, at its edge (2 miles SSW). Thence:
2
NNW of a drying reef (3¾ miles S) fronting Ilha
Tecomagi (6.156), thence:
NNW of a buoy (conical) (6 miles SW) marking a
2⋅9 m patch situated on the edge of the bank
extending from the S shore of the bay.
3
Thence the track leads generally W, passing:
S of a light−buoy (green can) (7½ miles WSW),
marking the S extremity of a spit extending from
the N shore of the bay, thence:
N of a light−buoy (red can) (8 miles WSW), marking
the N extremity of a spit extending from the S
shore of the bay.
4
Thence the channel continues SW and W, being marked
on its N side by buoys and on its S side by beacons.
CHAPTER 6
244
Anchorage
6.183
1
Off Ilha Tecomagi (10°47′S 40°39′E). Anchorage W of
Ilha Tecomagi, as shown on the chart, provides shelter
from NE and SE and is out of the swell. The recommended
berth, in a depth of 7 m, is with the NW extremity of the
island bearing 080° distant 1⋅1 miles. Large vessels should
anchor about 5 cables farther NW in a depth of 11 m, with
the NW extremity of the island bearing 106° and with
Cabo Afungi bearing 173°.
2
Off Palma (10°47′S 40°28′E). Good anchorage in regular
depths of about 18 m with Palma flagstaff bearing 260°,
distant 3½ miles; also, in depths of 16 m, mud, with the
flagstaff bearing 269°, distant about 5 miles. However, the
bay is exposed to the swell and, during either monsoon,
better shelter may be obtained in the lee of Ilha Tecomagi.
NOTES
245
M O Z A M B I Q U E
T A N Z A N I A
Mafia
Island
Zanzibar Island
Ras Ndege
Ras Mkumbi
Kilwa Kivinje
Kilwa Kisiwani Harbour
Ras Ngumbe Sukani
Kiswere Harbour
Lindi
Mtwara
Mto Rufiji
Cabo Delgado
Dar es Salaam
Mchinga B.
Mtwara & Mikindani Hrs.
C
h
a
n
n
e
l
&
A
n
c
h
.
o
f
M
s
i
m
b
a
t
i
Fungu Kizimkazi
2929
690
693
674
3310
1032
661
687
2929
865
681
681
684
681
691
684
690
0306
2927
7.120
7.105
7.95
7.77
7.42
7
.
9
9
7
.
1
4
0
7
.
1
3
2
7
.
8
6
7
.
6
9
7
.
8
7
.
1
7
9
7
.
1
5
2
7.117
7
.
1
2
6
40° 41°39°
41°39°
11°
10°
9°
8°
7°
11°
10°
9°
8°
7°
Chapter 7 - Cabo Delgado to Ras Ndege
Longitude 40° East from Greenwich
246
247
CHAPTER 7
CABO DELGADO TO RAS NDEGE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 2949
Scope of the chapter
7.1
1
This chapter describes passage off the coast of
Mozambique and Tanzania from Cabo Delgado (10°41′S
40°38′E) to Ras Ndege (6°52′S 39°28′E), about 238 miles
NNW, and includes description of the port of Mtwara.
The chapter is divided into the following two sections:
Cabo Delgado to Kilwa Main Pass (7.6).
Kilwa Main Pass to Ras Ndege (7.114).
Route
7.2
1
For choice of route in the vicinity of Mafia Island
(7°51′S 39°47′E) see 7.115.
Fishing
7.3
1
Fish Aggregation Devices (FAD) may be moored in
deep water off the coast of Tanzania. For further
information see 1.10.
Current
7.4
1
The N−going East African Coast Current (1.115) is the
main influence in the area covered by this chapter, but for
additional influences in the S part see 7.7.
International boundary
7.5
1
The mouth of Rio Rovuma (Mto Ruvúma) (7.21) forms
the boundary between Mozambique and Tanzania.
CABO DELGADO TO KILWA MAIN PASS
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 2927, 2929
Area covered
7.6
1
This section describes the coastal passage from Cabo
Delgado (10°41′S 40°38′E) to Kilwa Main Pass (8°40′S
39°33′E), arranged as follows:
Cabo Delgado to Mikindani Bay (7.8).
Mikindani Bay (7.29).
Mtwara (7.42).
Mikindani Bay to Lindi Bay (7.69).
Lindi Bay to Ras Ngumbe Sukani (7.86).
Ras Ngumbe Sukani to Kilwa Main Pass (7.99).
Current
7.7
1
The W−going South Equatorial Current divides in the
general vicinity of Cabo Delgado to form the N−going East
African Coast Current (1.115) and the S−going
Mozambique Current (1.116), and variable sets may be
experienced. Strong N or S sets are possible with rates up
to 3 kn, and onshore currents of up to 2 kn may be
experienced.
CABO DELGADO TO MIKINDANI BAY
General information
Charts 2927, 690
Route
7.8
1
From a position ENE of Cabo Delgado (10°41′S
40°38′E), the route leads NNW then NW to a position NE
of Cape Parman (Paman) (10°11S 40°08′E), about 42 miles
NW, the W entrance point of Mikindani Bay.
Topography
7.9
1
Between Cabo Delgado and Cabo Suafo 14 miles NNW,
the coast is low, thickly wooded and fronted by reefs which
in places extend 2 miles offshore. See view C on Chart
690. The sea generally breaks heavily on the reefs making
them visible from some distance to seaward.
2
The shores of Ruvúma Bay, see view B on Chart 690,
between Cabo Suafo and Ras Matunda 9½ miles NNW, are
fringed with mangroves to within 2½ miles SSW of Ras
Matunda, and at HW they form an almost continuous
mangrove swamp. Inland, about 7 miles W of Ruvúma Bay,
is a flat−topped range of higher ground; its SE extremity,
Kilima Macheriuka, may be identified (1.21) by a group of
very large trees near the summit of its E face.
3
Between Ras Matunda and Ras Ruwura (Ruvura), the N
extremity of Msimbati Island, 4 miles NW, the coast is
fronted by a drying reef extending 7 cables offshore. Except
for the opening of Msimbati Channel, the coast between
Ras Ruwura and Ras Msangamkuu 11 miles NW, is fronted
by a broad coral reef which mostly dries and which
encloses Mnazi (Mnasi) Bay. See view A on Chart 690.
Tidal streams
7.10
1
In Ruvúma Bay (10°25′S 40°29′E) (7.18) the tidal
stream is SW−going on the rising tide and NE−going on
the falling tide.
Outside the entrance to Mnazi Bay (10°17′S 40°24′E)
(7.25) the tidal streams generally follow the direction of the
reefs and are SE−going on the rising tide and NW−going
on the falling tide. At springs the rate is 2 to 3 kn, being
strongest near the edges of the reef.
CHAPTER 7
248
Directions
(continued from 6.156)
Principal marks
7.11
1
Major light:
Cabo Delgado Light (10°41′S 40°38′E) (6.154).
Track
7.12
1
From a position ENE of Cabo Delgado (10°41′S
40°38′E), the track leads NNW, passing (with positions
from Cabo Delgado Light):
2
ENE of Baía de Mebuisi (3 miles NNW), at the head
of which there is a long white sandy beach fronted
by reefs extending up to 1½ miles offshore; the sea
breaks on the outer edges of these reefs, on which
there are boulders, but within which there may be
comparatively smooth water. The villages of
Mebuisi and Querinde lie, respectively, in the SW
and NW corners of the bay. Landing is seldom
possible and the bay provides no anchorage.
Thence:
3
ENE of Cabo Nasunga (6 miles NNW), which forms
the S entrance point of Baía de Quionga (7.15);
the cape is low and may be identified by its
numerous fringing rocks. Thence:
4
ENE of Cabo Samadudo (10 miles NNW); a detached
drying reef lies 1½ miles E of the cape. The coast
of Ilha Suafo, between Cabo Samadudo and Cabo
Suafo 4 miles NNW, is fronted by mangroves and
by an extensive drying reef which extends 1 mile
offshore, with dangerous rocks up to 7 cables
farther seaward. Thence:
5
ENE of Cabo Suafo (14 miles NNW) fronted by a
drying reef and shoal ground extending up to
1½ miles offshore. Tidal streams are strong in the
vicinity Cabo Suafo, which should be given a wide
berth. The cape forms the S entrance point of
Ruvúma Bay (7.18) at the head of which lies the
mouth of Rio Rovuma (Mto Ruvúma). For tidal
streams in Ruvúma Bay see 7.10.
7.13
1
The track then leads NW, passing (with positions from
Ras Matunda (10°21′S 40°27′E)):
NE of Ras Matunda, fronted by a drying reef
extending almost 1 mile from the shore, and
identified by a series of white sandhills, 28 m high,
25 m (83 ft) high on chart 690, which extend along
the coast for 1 mile S of the cape. A single tall
tree standing at the N end of the sandhills is
noticeable (1.21) from both N and S. Thence:
2
NE of Ras Ruwura (Ruvura) (4 miles NW), fronted
by an extensive drying reef which forms the E
entrance point to Mnazi (Mnasi) Bay (7.25),
thence:
NE of Mana Hawanja Island (5½ miles NW) fronted
by a drying reef extending up to 7 cables from the
shore, thence:
3
NE of Mongo Island (8 miles NW) fronted by a
drying reef extending about 5 cables from the
shore. Nakitumbi is an islet 7½ cables SW of Ras
Nambera, the NW extremity of Mongo Island, to
which it is connected by a drying sandbank.
Thence:
4
NW of Ras Msangamkuu (Ras M’Samgamkuu)
(15 miles NW), fronted by an extensive drying reef
extending up to 1¾ miles offshore and forming the
E entrance point of Mikindani Bay. Ras
Msangamkuu Light (white metal framework tower,
21 m in height) is exhibited at the point. Thence:
5
To a position NE of Cape Parman (Paman) (21 miles
WNW), fronted by a drying reef which extends
almost 1 mile from the shore. The E side of the
cape is fringed by Hull Rocks (Chart 684), a dense
cluster of coral rocks covered with brushwood,
which are easily identified.
7.14
1
Useful marks:
In the vicinity of Ruvúma Bay see 7.18.
(Directions continue at 7.72)
(Directions for Mikindani Bay are given at 7.33)
Baía de Quionga
General information
7.15
1
Baía de Quionga is entered between Cabo Nasunga
(10°36′S 40°36′E) (7.12) and Cabo Samadudo 4 miles
NNW. The S shore of the bay is fringed with sand, and a
drying reef extends 1 mile SE of Cabo Samadudo. At the
head of the bay there is a shallow estuary, formed by the
confluence of three creeks (7.16), in which there are
several drying sandbanks. A fairway buoy (black conical) is
moored 2¾ miles NW of Cabo Nasunga.
Creeks
7.16
1
Mto Quionga, the S−most creek, is used by trading
dhows but the channel is narrow and tortuous; boats should
enter on a rising tide. The village of Quionga is on a small
ridge, 21 m high, on the S bank of the creek 2 miles within
the entrance.
Mto Letonda, the centre creek, may be identified by
some tall casuarina trees on its N bank. The channel into
the creek is buoyed and small craft may use this channel,
but local assistance should be obtained. It is reported that
vessels must keep close to the S bank.
2
Mto Mwambi, the N−most creek, is reported to be
connected at spring tides to Mto Decomba (7.19) by a
passage suitable for canoes.
Anchorage
7.17
1
In a depth of 14 m (46 ft), sand, with Cabo Nasunga
(10°36′S 40°36′E) bearing 192° distant 1⋅4 miles and the S
bank of Mto Quionga bearing 274°. Vessels should
approach the anchorage with Cabo Nasunga bearing 192°
and may anchor immediately a depth of 18 m (60 ft) is
reached.
Ruvúma Bay
General information
7.18
1
Description. Ruvúma Bay is entered between Cabo
Suafo (10°29′S 40°32′E) and Ras Matunda (7.13) 9½ miles
NNW. At the head of the bay, Rio Rovuma (Mto Ruvúma)
forms the international boundary between Mozambique and
Tanzania.
Topography. See 7.9.
Depths, greater than 200 m (110 fm) are found within
the bay and depths greater than 50 m (27 fm) lie close to
the shore at the mouth of Rio Rovuma.
CHAPTER 7
249
2
Flow in the entrance to Rio Rovuma is very strong
during the falling tide.
Tidal streams. See 7.10.
Overfalls. The sudden increase in depth outside the
mouth of Rio Rovuma causes dangerous overfalls,
especially during E winds. At such times the sea breaks
across the river entrance and there is no safe passage for
boats.
3
Useful marks:
Kilima Mundo (10°33′S 40°24′E), a moderately sharp
and well wooded peak; the highest hill in the
vicinity.
A square clump of trees (10°25′S 40°26′E) near the
shore.
A remarkable group of three tall trees (10°24′S
40°26′E) near the shore.
See also view B on Chart 690 and caution at 1.21.
Rivers
7.19
1
Mto Decomba enters Ruvúma Bay 7 cables W of Cabo
Suafo (10°29′S 40°32′E). The sea generally breaks heavily
on the bar at its entrance, but it is sometimes possible for a
boat to cross the bar at half tide. Within the bar there are
depths from 3⋅5 to 5⋅5 m (12 to 18 ft) for 1 mile; the creek
is reported to be connected to Mto Mwambi (7.16).
7.20
1
Mto Mquango, a small creek, is entered 3½ miles W of
Cabo Suafo (10°29′S 40°32′E). The sea generally breaks
heavily across its mouth, but it is reported that boats are
able to enter at HW springs. The creek is said to be
navigable for only a short distance, even for boats.
7.21
1
Rio Rovuma (Mto Ruvúma) enters Ruvúma Bay
5 miles W of Cabo Suafo (10°29′S 40°32′E). The entrance,
between Ras Ruvúma (Rovúma) (10°28′S 40°27′E) and Ras
Mwambo (Cabo Mwamba on Chart 2927) 1¼ miles NW, is
not easily identified until abreast of it; muddy water from
the river extends some distance seaward of the entrance,
terminating in a clearly defined line. There is no bar at the
mouth, but its width is restricted by sandbanks to about
4 cables.
2
The river is at its highest in March and at its lowest
about October. During March there is a period about the
middle of the month when the river subsides rapidly before
rising again, nearly to its former height, at the end of the
month. When the river is high, the current overcomes the
in−going tidal stream and is out−going constantly. See 7.18
for tidal streams and overfalls at the mouth.
3
The navigation of Rio Rovuma depends greatly on the
season. It is reported that at “low river” the channel is
obstructed about 2 miles within the entrance by sandbanks
which nearly dry; above this point the channel, which has
depths of only 1 m (3 ft) or so in places, is narrow,
intricate and with abrupt and frequent crossings between
the river banks.
4
HMS Pioneer, which in 1861 ascended the river for
36 miles during the period of subsidence in March, reported
depths of not more than 1⋅5 m (5 ft) in places and a river
current of about 3 kn.
7.22
1
Mto Letokoto enters the N part of Ruvúma Bay close S
of Ras Matunda (10°21′S 40°27′E). Within the bar, which
dries, the river is reported to be navigable by boats for
about 15 miles, at which point it joins Rio Rovuma (7.21).
Anchorage
7.23
1
Good anchorage in the S part of Ruvúma Bay, as shown
on the chart, about 3¾ miles E of Ras Mwambo (10°27′⋅5S
40°26′⋅4E) in depths of about 18 m (60 ft), mud; less swell
is experienced here than in other parts of the bay.
Good anchorage may also be obtained in the N part of
the bay, as shown on the chart, in a depth of 18 m (60 ft),
mud, with the remarkable group of three tall trees (10°24′S
40°26′E) bearing 268° distant 1⋅4 miles.
2
Owing to the great depths off the mouth of Rio
Rovuma, there is no anchorage close off its entrance.
Convenient depths for anchoring, from 11 to 15 m (36 to
49 ft), exist about 1¾ miles E of the entrance, as shown on
the chart.
Landing
7.24
1
Landing is occasionally possible on a long flat sandy
beach on the S shore of Ruvúma Bay, between 2 and
4 miles E of the entrance to Rio Rovuma (10°28′S
40°27′E).
Landing is seldom possible on the W shore of the bay,
between the mouth of Rio Rovuma and Ras Matunda
7 miles N, owing to the swell and heavy breakers.
Mnazi Bay and approaches
General information
7.25
1
Description. Mnazi Bay (Mnasi Bay), which is almost
completely enclosed, is entered through Msimbati Channel
(10°17′S 40°24′E). The shores of the bay are fringed with
foul ground extending nearly 2 miles offshore in places,
making landing difficult except at HW, but the central part
of the bay is clear, sand and coral.
2
In 1982, in support of drilling operations, Msimbati
Channel and the fairway to the anchorage off Ras Msimbati
were marked by unlit buoys.
Depths from about 16 to 55 m (9 to 30 fm) are found in
the narrowest part of Msimbati Channel fairway, where it is
about 1½ cables wide.
3
Tidal streams. See 7.10 for tidal streams outside the
entrance to Mnazi Bay. In Msimbati Channel the tidal
stream attains a rate of 4 or 5 kn at springs with heavy
overfalls near the edge of the reef SE of Mana Hawanja
Island. Within Mnazi Bay very little tidal stream is felt.
Directions
7.26
1
Cautions. The plan of Msimbati Channel on Chart 690
must be used with caution due to the imperfect nature of
the survey on which it is based.
It is recommended to enter and leave Mnazi Bay at LW,
or when the altitude of the sun is high, at which times the
edges of the shoals are easily distinguished.
2
Track. From a position about 1½ miles N of Ras
Ruwura (Ruvura) (10°17′⋅6S 40°24′⋅7E), the track leads on
the line of bearing 198° of Ras Msimbati, 2 miles SSW,
passing (with positions from Ras Ruwura):
ESE of No 1 Buoy (red and green vertical striped
can, radar reflector) (1½ miles NNW) marking a
drying reef extending E from Mana Hawanja
Island, thence:
CHAPTER 7
250
3
WNW of a drying reef extending N from Ras
Ruwura and marked by No 4 Buoy (red can, radar
reflector) (about 4 cables NW). Caution is
necessary passing this reef as it has been reported
that the 198° line of bearing, above, leads too
close to discoloured water off Ras Ruwura and it
is possible that the drying reef extends farther W
than is shown on the chart.
7.27
1
Thence the fairway to the anchorage off Ras Msimbati is
marked by buoys with radar reflectors, odd−numbered
buoys (red and green stripes) on the W side and
even−numbered buoys (red can) on the E side, passing:
ESE of the drying reef (7 cables W) extending SE
from Mana Hawanja Island; at springs there are
heavy overfalls near the edge of the reef.
2
When the S extremity of Mana Hawanja Island bears
about 305°, the track leads SW, passing (with positions
from Ras Msimbati):
WNW of a coral shoal (5 cables NNE), with depths
of 5 m (18 ft) or less over it, extending from the
shore, thence:
ESE of a shoal patch (6 cables NW) with depths of
3⋅1 m over it and with a small drying patch near
its SW extremity.
3
Thence, when Ras Msimbati bears 170° the track leads
S to the anchorage off that point, noting a patch of
dangerous rocks 7 cables W of Ras Msimbati and, 3 cables
farther W, the extensive drying coral reef of Fungu
Achumbu.
Anchorage
7.28
1
Anchorage may be obtained in depths from 18 to 27 m
(60 to 90 ft), sand, NW of Ras Msimbati (10°19′⋅4S
40°23′⋅6E), as shown on the chart.
During fresh N winds, better anchorage will be found S
of Mana Hawanja Island (10°17′⋅0S 40°23′⋅0E) in depths
from 18 to 24 m (60 to 80 ft).
MIKINDANI BAY
General information
Chart 684
Description
7.29
1
Mikindani Bay, entered between Ras Msangamkuu
(10°12′S 40°14′E) and Cape Parman 6 miles W, forms the
approach to Mtwara Harbour (7.42) situated in the SE part
of the bay. Mikindani Harbour (7.36) and Misete Creek
(7.41) are in the SW corner of the bay. Most of the bay
lies within the port limits (7.45) of Mtwara.
Topography
7.30
1
See view A on Chart 684. Both sides of Mikindani Bay
are low and thickly wooded. The head of the bay, in the
vicinity of Mikindani Harbour, is backed by hills 90 to
180 m high. Mayanga (Mlima Mjoho), a conical wooded
hill lying 2½ miles WSW of Mikindani Harbour, is
distinctive and serves to identify Mikindani Bay from
seaward.
The shores of the bay are fringed with drying coral reefs
extending as much as 1½ miles offshore in places and
broken only by the channels leading into Mtwara Harbour,
Misete Creek and Mikindani Harbour.
Pilotage
7.31
1
Pilotage is compulsory S of a line drawn 270° from Ras
Msangamkuu (10°12′S 40°14′E) to the W shore of
Mikindani Bay, and is undertaken between 0600 and 1800.
Pilots are stationed at Dar es Salaam (8.47) and travel to
Mtwara when required. Requests for pilots, stating ETA,
should be made to the Harbour Master, Dar es Salaam,
giving as much notice as possible.
2
Vessels from N may be requested to embark a pilot at
Dar es Salaam, but otherwise the pilot boards 2 miles N of
Shangani Shoal.
See Admiralty List of Radio Signals Volume 6 (3).
Currents
7.32
1
Currents are strong and set onshore.Vessels arriving off
Mikindani Bay during darkness and waiting to enter are
advised to keep a good offing.
Directions
7.33
1
From the pilot boarding place (10°11′⋅0S 40°11′⋅3E), the
track leads SSW, passing (with positions from Ras
Msangamkuu Light (10°12′S 40°14′E)):
W of Mwamba Aveu (1½ miles NW), part of the
drying reef which fringes Ras Msangamkuu,
thence:
E of Cape Parman (6 miles WNW) (7.13), thence:
2
W of a shoal (1½ miles W), with depths of 10 m
(33 ft) or less over it, which extends 3½ cables
seaward from the drying reef W of Ras
Msangamkuu, thence:
To a position W of Shangani Shoal (3 miles WSW),
with a depth of 4 m (13 ft) near its NW extremity
which is marked by a buoy (port hand).
7.34
1
Useful mark:
In 1947, a high tree (1.21) (10°13′⋅8S 40°13′⋅3E) was
prominent.
(Directions continue, for Mtwara at 7.61 and for
Mikindani Harbour at 7.37)
Anchorages and harbours
Anchorage
7.35
1
There is no safe anchorage in Mikindani Bay. The only
area where the general depths are suitable for anchoring is
that between Shangani Shoal (10°13′⋅1S 40°11′⋅3E) (7.33)
and Mwamba Ribunda 1 mile SE, but clear of patches of
foul ground (7.61) between them.
Mikindani Harbour
7.36
1
Description. Mikindani Harbour (10°16′⋅0S 40°07′⋅5E)
affords sheltered anchorage in depths of about 13 m, but as
a port it has been abandoned in favour of Mtwara.
CHAPTER 7
251
The harbour is approached through a channel which lies
between the edges of two drying reefs; Mwamba Dadi on
the SE side and that fringing the W shore of Mikindani
Bay on the NW side. There are depths from 10 to 22 m
(33 to 72 ft) in the channel which is only ½ cable wide in
places.
2
The shores of the harbour are fringed with a bank on
which depths are less than 4 m.
Tidal streams in the harbour are negligible.
7.37
1
Directions (continued from 7.34).
Landmark:
Official’s House (10°16′⋅7S 40°07′⋅3E), a conspicuous
white house with a tower (see sketch on the chart)
standing on the slope of Bismark Hill close within
the head of the harbour.
2
Track. From a position in Mikindani Bay W of
Shangani Shoal (10°13′⋅1S 40°11′⋅3E) the track leads
generally SW, passing (with positions from Gunia Point
(10°15′⋅6S 40°07′⋅9E)):
NW of a shoal (3 miles NE), with depths of 6⋅4 m
(21 ft) or less over it, which extends 1½ cables
seaward from the NW extremity of Mwamba
Shangani, thence:
3
To a position about 1 mile E of Ras Managumba
(2¾ miles N), a sharp rocky point with two
villages close N; a drying reef extends 4 cables
offshore from the point.
Caution is necessary approaching the entrance channel
on account of the heavy swell which sets into the channel.
7.38
1
The track then leads SSW into the entrance channel,
passing:
WNW of a rock which dries 1 m (2 ft) (1½ miles
NNE) lying ½ cable within the N edge of foul
ground extending from Mwamba Dadi.
2
No exact marks for passing between the reefs either side
of the entrance channel can be given and the chart is the
best guide, noting a patch with a depth of 9⋅1 m (30 ft)
over it in the fairway (8 cables NNE); a buoy (black
conical) is moored on the W side of the channel about
¾ cable N of this patch.
3
The track then leads SW into Mikindani Harbour,
passing:
SE of Pemba Point (2½ cables NNW), thence:
NE of Gunia Point (see view on chart), noting a
depth of 9 m (30 ft) 1 cable SW, thence:
SE of a dangerous rock (2½ cables WNW), thence:
4
As required for anchoring, noting a depth of 9 m
(30 ft) (4¾ cables SW) and a dangerous rock
(6 cables SW). A beacon (black tripod, white
triangle topmark; 6 m in height) marks a rock
awash (9 cables SW).
Useful mark:
Custom House (10°16′⋅6S 40°07′⋅1E), a low white
house flanked by two small towers.
7.39
1
Anchorage. As shown on the chart, in a depth of 12 m,
mud, with Custom House (10°16′⋅6S 40°07′⋅1E) at
Mikindani bearing 215° distant 8 cables.
Small craft should anchor in the local vessels’ anchorage
which lies SW of a line drawn from a position 1½ cables
NNW of the head of the pier at Mikindani (7.40) to the
head of the pier at Mirumbo.
7.40
1
Berths. A pier, 213 m in length and with depths up to
0⋅9 m alongside, projects from the shore at Mikindani, close
W of Custom House; another pier, 152 m in length, which
dries, lies 2 cables E of Custom House. A third pier, which
dries, is at Mirumbo, 5 cables NW of Custom House.
Regulations. “The Tanzania Harbours Regulations,
1991” (1.38) are in force at Mikindani.
Misete Creek
7.41
1
Misete Creek (10°16′S 40°09′E) is approached through a
narrow channel leading between the drying coral reefs of
Mwamba Shangani and Mwamba Dadi. The creek affords
shelter in a basin at its head in depths from 3⋅7 to 5⋅5 m,
sand and pebbles.
MTWARA
General information
Chart 691
Position
7.42
1
Mtwara Harbour (10°15′⋅5S 40°12′⋅0) lies in the SE
corner of Mikindani Bay.
Function
7.43
1
The port handles general cargo and serves its immediate
hinterland. Principal imports are foodstuffs and general
cargo; principal exports are cashew nuts, cassava roots,
simsin and sisal.
Topography
7.44
1
See 7.30. A large church (10°15′⋅6S 40°11′⋅4E) position
approximate, with a prominent white cross which is
occasionally illuminated at night, stands close within the
entrance to Mtwara.
Port limits
7.45
1
All the tidal waters S of a line 270° from the N
extremity of Ras Msangamkuu (10°12′S 40°14′E) to the W
shore of Mikindani Bay.
Approach and entry
7.46
1
The port is approached through Mikandani Bay, and
entered between Ras Lichamelelo (10°15′⋅0S 40°11′⋅5E)
and Msemo Spit, 3½ cables SSE, guided by the alignment
of leading lights.
Traffic
7.47
1
In 2005, the port was used by 10 vessels with a total of
67 187 dwt.
Port Authority
7.48
1
Tanzania Harbours Authority, Bandari Street, PO Box
9184, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Website. www.tanzaniaports.com.
E−mail. pmmtwara@tanzaniaports.com.
Limiting conditions
Controlling depth
7.49
1
Least depth in the entrance channel and approach to the
alongside berth is 20 m (66 ft).
Deepest and longest berth
7.50
1
Deep water quay (7.64).
CHAPTER 7
252
Tidal levels
7.51
1
Mean spring range about 3⋅2 m; mean neap range about
1⋅2 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide Tables.
Density of water
7.52
1
The density of the water is 1⋅025 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled
7.53
1
Maximum length 175 m.
Arrival information
Port operations
7.54
1
There is no night berthing.
Notice of ETA required
7.55
1
See pilotage requirements at 7.31.
Outer anchorages
7.56
1
For anchorage in Mikindani Bay see 7.35.
Pilotage
7.57
1
See 7.31.
Tugs
7.58
1
A tug is available to join in the entrance channel off
Ras Lichamelelo (10°15′⋅0S 40°11′⋅5E), and vessels of
more than 9 000 tons are advised to obtain its assistance for
rounding Msemo Spit (7.62), 3 cables SE.
Harbour
General layout
7.59
1
The entrance channel lies between extensive drying
reefs, but is deep, free from dangers, and has a least width
of about 1½ cables. Vessels entering with the sun astern
should experience no difficulty as the channel is then
clearly defined by the colour of the water.
A deep water quay lies on the S side of the harbour
close within the entrance. Numerous shoal patches, some
marked by buoys, lie within the harbour.
2
Mto Mtepwezi enters the harbour about 1 mile ESE of
the deep water quay, and has depths from 5⋅8 to 11⋅0 m (19
to 36 ft) for 1 mile S of the entrance before terminating in
a mangrove swamp 1 mile farther S.
Tidal streams
7.60
1
In the entrance, about 2½ cables E of Ras Lichamelelo
(10°15′⋅0S 40°11′⋅5E), the tidal streams follow the direction
of the channel and attain a rate of about ¾ kn at springs.
Slack water occurs at about 6 hours before, and at about
the time of, HW Zanzibar.
At a position about 1 cable S of the SW extremity of
Msemo Spit (10°15′⋅4S 40°11′⋅6E) the tidal streams are
similar to those off Ras Lichamelelo, but attain rates of
about 1¼ kn at springs.
Directions for entering harbour
(continued from 7.34)
7.61
1
Caution. Moderately large vessels are able to enter
without difficulty at slack water, but the sharp turn round
Msemo Spit (10°15′⋅3S 40°11′⋅7E) requires careful handling
of large ships.
2
Leading lights:
Front light (white framework tower, 9 m in height)
(10°14′⋅7S 40°12′⋅0E).
Rear light (white framework tower, 9 m in height)
(1¼ cables SSE of front light); a high tree (1.21)
stands ½ cable SSW of the light.
From a position W of Shangani Shoal (10°13′⋅1S
40°11′⋅3E), the alignment (154°) of these lights leads into
the entrance channel, passing (with positions from the front
light):
3
WSW of Shangani Shoal, noting that depths of 6⋅4 m
(21 ft) lie within ½ cable of the leading line in the
vicinity of the shoal, thence:
WSW of Lulu Shoal (2½ cables SE); foul ground,
with a least known depth of 4⋅6 m (15 ft) in its
central part, extends E then SE from Lulu Shoal to
the extensive drying coastal reef of Mwamba
Ribunda (1 mile SE). Thence:
4
ENE of No 1 Buoy (starboard hand) (9 cables NNW),
marking the NE extremity of shoals fronting
Mwamba Shangani, an extensive drying reef on
the W side of the harbour entrance, thence:
WSW of shoal ground (8 cables NNW) fronting
Mwamba Ribunda, on the E side of the harbour
entrance, thence:
To a position E of No 3 Buoy (starboard hand)
(5 cables NNW) marking the E extremity of
Mwamba Shangani.
7.62
1
Leading lights:
Front light (white tower) (10°15′⋅3S 40°11′⋅7E)
exhibited on Msemo Spit, a low sandspit.
Rear light (white tower) (4 cables SSW of front light)
exhibited at Ras Jandoni.
2
The alignment (189°) of these lights leads through the
inner part of the entrance channel (with positions from the
front light on Msemo Spit):
To a position ESE of No 5 Buoy (starboard hand)
(3½ cables N) marking the extremity of the reef
extending from Ras Lichamelelo (3½ cables NW);
a signal station (white rectangular building
surmounted by a flagstaff) stands on Ras
Lichamelelo.
3
The track then rounds Msemo Spit, the SW extremity of
which is marked by a light−buoy (port hand), and for
which the chart provides the best guide. Due allowance
must be made for the tidal streams (7.60) which are strong
in the vicinity. If entering with the in−going stream, keep
to the E side of the channel and round the spit close−to;
during the out−going stream keep close to the Mtwara side
to allow for turning into the harbour. For tug assistance see
7.58.
4
From a position S of Msemo Spit the track then leads
ESE, passing:
NNE of shoal water (4 cables SSE), marked by two
mooring buoys, at the NW end of the deep water
quay. A similar buoy (8 cables SE) marks the outer
edge of foul ground extending from a drying reef
which fringes Canoe Point.
Thence, as required for berthing.
CHAPTER 7
253
Berths
Anchorage berths
7.63
1
Mtwara Harbour provides sheltered anchorage in all
winds in general depths from 13 to 33 m (42 ft to 18 fm),
mud bottom for the most part, but swinging room is
considerably restricted by numerous shoals. Up to six
vesels of 175 m length can be accommodated.
The best temporary berth is 2½ cables NNE of the deep
water quay in a depth of 26 m (14 fm), sand.
A better anchorage is in the N part of the harbour, in
depths from 13 to 18 m (42 to 60 ft), mud.
2
Local vessels and small trading craft anchor between
Shangani Jetty, near a factory close S of Ras Lichamelelo
(10°15′⋅0S 40°11′⋅5E), and a pier, only suitable for boats,
2½ cables SW; the offshore limit of the anchorage is
defined by a line joining two buoys (white barrel) moored
off the jetty and off the pier.
Alongside berths
7.64
1
There are two berths at the deep water quay, which is of
masonry construction, length 385 m and with a dredged
depth of 9⋅8 m. The quay is used principally for general
cargo, but tankers also discharge at the quay. Vessels
normally berth starboard side to.
Port services
Facilities
7.65
1
There are no facilities for the reception of oily waste.
Supplies
7.66
1
Fresh water is available in moderate quantities.
Communications
7.67
1
There is an airport 6 km S of Mtwara.
Harbour regulations
7.68
1
“The Tanzania Harbours Regulations, 1991” (1.38) are in
force at Mtwara.
MIKINDANI BAY TO LINDI BAY
General information
Chart 2929
Route
7.69
1
From a position NE of Cape Parman (Paman) (10°11S
40°08′E), the route leads WNW to a position NE of Ras
Shuka, about 23 miles WNW, the S entrance point of Lindi
Bay.
Topography
7.70
1
Between Cape Parman and Ras Shuka the coast is low
and fringed with a reef extending 1½ miles offshore in
places.
When abreast Sudi Bay (Mto Sudi) (10°07′S 39°59′E),
Mayanga (10°16′S 40°04′E) (7.30) appears as the S end of
the range of hills backing the coast.
Tidal streams
7.71
1
Outside the entrance to Sudi Bay (10°07′S 39°59′E) the
tidal stream is N−going on the rising tide and SE−going on
the falling tide. During the SE Monsoon, the N−going tidal
stream sets more strongly than the SE−going stream.
Directions
(continued from 7.14)
Principal marks
7.72
1
Landmark:
Tomb (10°08′S 39°59′E).
Track
7.73
1
From a position NE of Cape Parman (10°11′S 40°08′E)
(7.33), the track leads WNW, passing (with positions from
the Cape Parman):
NNE of a shoal with depths of 2⋅7 m (9 miles
WNW), close off the drying coral reef which
extends up to 1½ miles seaward from Ras Mkya
(Mkiya). A conspicuous tomb stands on the shore
7 cables W of Ras Mkya. Thence:
2
NNE of Nymphe Shoal (10 miles WNW) in the outer
approaches to Sudi Bay (7.74). Close to the coast,
4 miles NW of the entrance to Sudi Bay, an islet
covered with dark trees (not charted) is
conspicuous. Thence:
3
NNE of Ras Nambira (19 miles WNW), thence:
To a position NE of Ras Shuka (23 miles WNW), the
S entrance point to Lindi Bay; Ras Shuka light
(white tower, 6 m in height) is exhibited on the N
side of the point.
(Directions continue at 7.88)
(Directions for Lindi are given at 7.81)
Sudi Bay
Chart 865 plan of Mto Sudi
General information
7.74
1
Description. Sudi Bay (Mto Sudi) is a narrow creek
entered between Ras Mkya (10°07′⋅3S 40°00′⋅4E) and Ras
Wambi 1½ miles WNW. Both entrance points are fringed
with reefs which reduce the width of the channel to less
than 2 cables in places.
Topography. The land is low and thickly wooded either
side of the entrance to Sudi Bay. From NE, the entrance
may be readily identified by a gap in the hills and by
Madjovi Rocks (10°06′⋅7S 39°59′⋅2E) (7.75).
2
Depths. Within the entrance there are depths from 9 to
27 m (5 to 15 fm) for about 3 miles.
Tidal streams. See 7.71, and as shown on the chart.
Directions
7.75
Landmarks:
Tomb (10°07′⋅4S 39°59′⋅7E).
White Custom House (10°09′⋅2S 39°58′⋅5E), fronted
by a small white sandy beach, both of which stand
out well from NE.
CHAPTER 7
254
1
Caution. The coast should not be approached within
2½ miles until the White Custom House at Sudi (Ndumbwe
on Chart 2929) (10°09′⋅2S 39°58′⋅5E) is in line with the
gap in the distant hills bearing 201°.
2
During the SE Monsoon, in the afternoon with an ESE
wind, and also when the NE Monsoon is strong, the sea
appears to break nearly across the entrance to Sudi Bay.
Great caution is necessary in the narrow channel, but the
reefs on each side can be clearly seen; with a good lookout
and the sun astern, vessels can enter at slack water without
difficulty.
3
Track. From a position about 2¾ miles N of Ras Mkya
(10°07′⋅3S 40°00′⋅4E) the alignment 201° of the White
Custom House (10°09′⋅2S 39°58′⋅5E) with the gap in the
distant hills leads SSW, passing (with positions from Ras
Mkya):
WNW of Nymphe Shoal (2 miles N), thence:
4
ESE of a bank (2 miles NNW) with depths less than
4 m (13 ft), and on which there are several drying
patches; the bank extends up to 6 cables seaward
from the drying coral reef of Fungu Gomani which
fronts the coast on the W side of the entrance.
Thence:
WNW of a bank (1¼ miles N) with depths less than
4 m (13 ft) which fringes Fungu Chosen, an
extensive drying coral reef on the E side of the
entrance.
5
When the highest of Madjovi Rocks, a group of rocks
the highest of which is 5 m high (1¼ miles WNW), bears
224° distant about 5½ cables, the track leads S until the
White Custom House bears 204°.
Thence the line of bearing 204° leads between the
drying reefs of Fungu Gomani and Fungu Chosen, passing
a beacon (triangular, black and white bands; 6 m in height)
(1¼ miles W) in Dodongi village, on the W side of the
entrance.
6
Thence the track leads in mid−channel to the anchorage
off Mwania (9 cables WSW).
If proceeding to the anchorage above Ras Swa−swa
(1¾ miles SW), continue in mid−channel edging towards
the W bank as the point is approached.
7
When abreast the mouth of a small creek 4 cables NW
of Ras Swa−swa, the track gradually alters S and as
necessary to round Ras Swa−swa for the selected
anchorage. A sandspit, the inner part of which dries,
extends 3 cables W into the creek from Ras Swa−swa; its
position is indicated by discoloured water even at HW, and
a small buoy is moored off its N side 2 cables WNW of
the point.
8
The W shore of the creek, S of a position opposite Ras
Swa−swa, is fringed by a bank where there are detached
drying patches from 2 to 3 cables offshore.
Anchorage
7.76
1
In mid−channel, as shown on the chart, abreast the
village of Mwania, in a depth of 16⋅5 m (54 ft) with the
beacon (7.75) in Dodongi Village (10°07′⋅4S 39°59′⋅1E)
bearing 332° distant 2¾ cables.
Between Ras Swa−swa (10°08′⋅5S 39°59′⋅0E) and the
village of Sudi, 8 cables SSW, in depths from 11⋅0 to
14⋅5 m (36 to 48 ft), mud.
2
Temporary anchorage, as shown on chart, may be
obtained SW of Nymphe Shoal, in a depth of 16⋅5 m
(54 ft), sand and coral, with the highest of Madjovi Rocks
(10°06′⋅7S 39°59′⋅2E) bearing 215° distant about 1 mile.
Lindi
Chart 681
General information
7.77
1
Position. Lindi harbour (10°00′S 39°43′E) lies at the
mouth of Mto Lukuledi which flows into the SW corner of
Lindi Bay.
Function. Lindi is the principal town of the province of
the same name. The port mainly serves coastal traffic.
2
Topography. In Lindi Bay, the N shore, and the S shore
between Ras Shuka (9°59′S 39°49′E) and Ras Rungi
4¼ miles W, are both low and fringed with drying reefs.
The head of the bay is backed by hills which at 2 miles
inland rise to elevations of nearly 300 m and which are
well wooded and cultivated in patches; they include Kitula
Hill, Mlima Ngeke and Mlima Mdemba, see 7.81. On the
shore at the head of the bay, 2 miles W of Ras Rungi,
there is a red cliff (charted white cliff) 14 m high.
3
Port limits. All the tidal waters, to the HW mark, SW
of a line between Ras Nongerungo (9°58′⋅3S 39°45′⋅9E)
and Ras Mongo 2½ miles NW.
Approach and entry. Lindi is approached through Lindi
Bay on the alignment of leading lights, and entered via the
mouth of Mto Lukuledi on the alignment of leading
beacons.
Port Authority. Tanzania Harbours Authority, PO
Box 9184, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Website. www.tanzaniaports.com.
Limiting conditions
7.78
1
Controlling depths:
When proceeding to the anchorage berth off Lindi,
there is a charted depth of 4⋅0 m on the leading
line at the bar off Ras Rungi (9°58′⋅6S 39°44′⋅5E).
When proceeding to the alongside berth at Lindi there
is a least charted depth of 2⋅4 m on the shoal ridge
extending N from Fungu Mbachiwonaki (10°00′⋅4S
39°43′⋅2E).
Deepest and longest berth. Lindi Jetty (7.83).
2
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 3⋅2 m; mean neap
range about 1⋅1 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide
Tables.
Density of water, 1⋅025 g/cm
3
.
Maximum size of vessel handled. At Lindi jetty:
Maximum length, 51⋅8 m.
Maximum draught, 3⋅85 m.
Arrival information
7.79
1
Outer anchorages. During the NE Monsoon, fair
anchorage may be obtained about 6 cables WSW of Ras
Ekapapa (9°56′⋅0S 39°46′⋅0E), in a depth of 14⋅5 m.
Temporary anchorage may be obtained SE of Umtamar
Shoal in a depth of 9 m, mud, with Ras Rungi (9°58′⋅6S
39°44′⋅5E) bearing about 190° distant 6 cables.
2
Pilotage is not compulsory, but vessels drawing 5 m or
more should not attempt to enter without previous
examination or the assistance of a pilot.
Tugs, are avaliable.
Harbour
7.80
1
General layout. Small jetty at Lindi and anchorage
berth in Mto Lukuledi off the town.
Tidal streams. In depths of more than 20 m in Lindi
Bay the tidal streams are not strong, but on the bar and
within Mto Lukuledi they attain rates from 2 to 3 kn.
CHAPTER 7
255
In the dry season, at springs, the out−going stream
begins about ½ hour after HW.
In the rainy season, the out−going stream begins earlier
and is considerably increased, but the in−going stream is
hardly perceptible.
Directions for entering harbour
7.81
1
Landmarks:
Ras Rungi (9°58′⋅6,S 39°44′⋅5E), a cliff−like point.
Kasa Island (9°56′⋅5S 39°43′⋅8E).
Beacon (10°00′⋅5S 39°41′⋅1E), on the summit of
Kitula Hill.
Mlima Ngeke (9°59′⋅4S 39°41′⋅1E).
Mlima Mdemba (9°56′⋅1S 39°40′⋅2E); a coconut
grove is on the summit.
2
Major light:
Lindi rear leading light (9°59′⋅6S 39°42′⋅3E) (7.81).
Leading lights:
Front light (grey concrete obelisk, 4 m in height)
(9°59′⋅3S 39°42′⋅8E).
Rear light (grey wooden beacon, 9 m in height)
(5½ cables WSW of front light).
The alignment (240°) of these lights leads through Lindi
Bay, passing (with positions from the front light):
3
NNW of Fungu Myangi (6 miles E), a reef of dead
coral and boulders, which fringes Ras Shuka; at
times the sea breaks heavily on the reef. Thence:
SSE of Ras Mbanura (6 miles NE), a low cliff−like
point, thence:
SSE of Ras Ekapapa (4¾ miles NE), fringed by a
drying reef and with the village of Ekapapa close
NE, thence:
4
NNW of Ras Nongerungo (3¼ miles ENE), with a
tomb close SE, thence:
SSE of Umtamar Shoal (2 miles NE), the N extremity
of a bank with depths less than 5 m which fronts
the head of the bay, and:
NNW of Ras Rungi (1¾ miles ENE) (7.81), and
passing over a shoal where the controlling depth
(7.78) exists. With E winds there is a steep swell
in this area during the period of the out−going
tidal stream. Thence:
On to the alignment of Fungu Mbachiwonaki leading
beacons (7.82).
7.82
1
Leading beacons:
Front beacon. (tripod, lower part black, upper part red
and white) (10°00′⋅4S 39°43′⋅2E), reported (2004)
missing.
Rear beacon. (tripod, lower part black, upper part
white) (2½ cables SSW of front beacon), reported
(2004) missing.
2
The alignment (201°) of these beacons with the E slope
of Mlima Atu (10°04′⋅0S 39°41′⋅7E) leads in mid channel
through the entrance to Mto Lukuledi, passing (with
positions from the front beacon):
ESE of a drying sandbank which extends 5 cables NE
from Ras Nando (8 cables N), thence:
ESE of a drying shoal (6 cables N) off Lindi, thence:
As required for anchorage.
3
If proceeding to Lindi Jetty, the track continues SSW,
passing:
WNW of Oil Pier (5 cables NE), 61 m in length and
conspicuous, but reported (1982) as in ruins.
Thence the track leads W over the shoal ground
(3 cables N) extending N of Fungu Mbachiwonaki, a drying
bank of sand and coral, before turning N to the jetty at
Lindi.
4
Useful marks:
Beacons. On the E side of the channel, 4 pairs of
beacons stand close to the shore at intervals of
about 2½ cables, the N−most being at 9°59′⋅2S
39°44′⋅0E.
Mlima Nuni (10°04′⋅3S 39°41′⋅9E) and Mlima Atu,
3½ cables NNW, are both readily identified from
the mouth of Mto Lukuledi.
Berths
7.83
1
Alongside. A concrete jetty projects from the shore at
Lindi, with a depth of 4⋅2 m at its head, and
accommodating coasters up to 51⋅8 m in length.
Anchorage may be obtained for vessels of moderate
size about 1½ cables NW of the head of Oil Pier in a
depth of 16⋅5 m, sand and mud, with good holding, as
shown on the chart.
2
In 1938, HMS Emerald, length 174 m, moored in
mid−channel NE of Ras Nando with Lindi front leading
light bearing 262° distant 8½ cables. Vessels of similar
length should use this anchorage with caution as the
swinging room, although greater than at the anchorage
abreast the town, is restricted.
Small craft should anchor in the traditional vessels’
anchorage which is the area between Fungu Mbachiwonaki
and the W shore, from 4 to 7 cables S of the jetty at Lindi.
Port services
7.84
1
Facilities: small hospital; in general there are no
facilities at Lindi for ocean−going vessels.
Supplies. No recent (2004) information is available, but
it is understood that water is scarce and only sufficient for
local needs; limited supplies of fresh provisions may be
obtained occasionally, and small quantities of fuel oil in
drums is available.
2
Communications. Airport 16 km NNE of Lindi.
Harbour regulations. “The Tanzania Harbours
Regulations, 1991” (1.38) are in force at Lindi.
Mto Lukuledi above Lindi
7.85
1
Above Lindi, Mto Lukuledi extends SW for about
5 miles, where it divides into several branches. The
principal branch extends SE for about 3 miles, and then
SW for 10 miles where it terminates; it is navigable by
boats for this distance.
The N branch is stated to be navigable at half tide by
vessels drawing 1⋅8 m as far as the village of Mingoyo, a
few miles above the fork.
LINDI BAY TO RAS NGUMBE SUKANI
General information
Chart 2929
Route
7.86
1
From a position NE of Ras Shuka (9°59′S 39°49′E) the
route leads generally N for about 45 miles to a position E
of Ras Ngumbe Sukani (9°11′S 39°38′E).
Topography
7.87
1
Almost the entire coast is fringed with reefs on which
there are numerous mangrove−covered islets; the outer
CHAPTER 7
256
edges of the reefs are steep−to except within the various
bays and inlets.
Between Ras Fugio (9°23′S 39°39′E) and Ras Ngumbe
Sukani 12 miles N, in addition to the reefs, the coast is
rocky with sandy beaches and is backed by low hills,
nearly all of equal height.
Directions
(continued from 7.73)
7.88
1
From a position NE of Ras Shuka (9°59′S 39°49′E) the
track leads NNW, passing (with positions from Ras Shuka
Light):
ENE of Ras Mbanura (3¾ miles NNW) (7.81), the N
entrance point of Lindi Bay, thence:
2
ENE of the mouth of Mto Mbanja (5½ miles NNW),
identified by a large gap in the coastal hills. There
is no anchorage off the river, and within its
entrance there are depths of 0⋅9 m. Dhows are
reported to enter at all states of the tide. Thence:
ENE of Ras Kibungwe (7 miles N), a wooded point
with an islet closely resembling it 5 cables farther
N, thence:
3
ENE of Ras Kera (11 miles N), a bold point fringed
with mangroves, and the only noticeable feature on
the the coast between Ras Kibungwe and Ras
Mzinga (14½ miles NNW). Mto Kera, a small
river, enters the sea close S of Ras Kera through a
narrow channel between the reefs which fringe the
coast close to the point; although there are depths
of 7⋅3 m in this channel, the surf breaks right
across its mouth and renders entry dangerous, even
for boats. Thence:
4
ENE of Mchinga Bay (16 miles NNW) (7.91),
identified from seaward by the gap at the head of
the bay formed by Mto Nangaru, and by the
numerous mangrove−covered islets on the reefs
fringing the entrance points, thence:
5
ENE of Ras Kedududu (19½ miles NNW); Nondo
Bay and Ruvu Bay, respectively 1 mile S and
2 miles N of the point, are indentations in the
coast where the depths close to the fringing reefs
are too great to afford anchorage. Thence:
6
ENE of Ras Mawedi (30 miles NNW), the S entrance
point of Msungu Bay (7.94); the chimney of a
sisal factory is prominent on the seaward slope of
a hill 3½ miles SSW of the point.
7.89
1
The track then leads generally N, passing (with positions
from Ras Mawedi (9°30′S 39°41′E)):
E of the approach to Kiswere Harbour (7.95), entered
between Ras Mbemkuru (3 miles NW) and Ras
Fugio, 4¾ miles farther N, thence:
2
E of Ras Mambi (13½ miles N), the S entrance point
of Runango Bay which forms a wide indentation
in the coast, but is not distinguishable as a bay
from a distance of more than 3 miles and affords
no anchorage. The village of Runango, close
within the head of the bay, can be approached by
boat only at HW. A narrow channel, with depths
of 1 m, in the reef at the head of the bay leads to
a creek which affords shelter to dhows. Thence:
3
To a position E of Ras Ngumbe Sukani (19 miles N),
the highest point in the vicinity and also identified
by two islets, each 6 m high, on the reefs 5 and
7 cables N of the point; a white patch on the upper
part of the point is visible during the morning.
7.90
1
Useful marks, within individual bays, see:
Lindi Bay 7.81.
Kiswere Harbour 7.95.
(Directions continue at 7.103)
Anchorages and harbours
Chart 865 plan of Mchinga Bay
Mchinga Bay
7.91
1
General information. Mchinga Bay is entered between
Ras Mzinga (9°44′⋅7S 39°45′⋅9E) and Ras Rokumbi (Ras
Rocumbi on Chart 2929) 2¾ miles N; both points are
fringed with reefs on which there are numerous
mangrove−covered islets.
2
Mto Nangaru (Namgaru) enters the head of the bay, but
its mouth is blocked by Fungu Namtamwa, a drying
sandbank fringing the head of the bay, which is only
passable by boats at HW. The river has not been examined,
but it is reported to be tidal for some distance and
navigable by boats.
The town of Mchinga stands in the NW corner of the
bay N of the entrance to Mto Nangaru.
7.92
1
Directions. Approach with the entrance to Mto Nangaru
(9°44′⋅0S 39°43′⋅8E) bearing between 250° and 260°,
passing (with positions from the entrance):
SSE of Fungu Rokumbi (2¾ miles ENE) a reef, on
which there are several mangrove−covered islets,
fronting the N shore of the bay between Ras
Rokumbi and the town of Mchinga, thence:
2
NNW of Mwamba Mahamazu (1½ miles E) a reef
fronting Ras Mzinga and the S shore of the bay.
After depths have decreased suddenly from about 90 to
18 m, and when some tall mangroves on the S shore
(1 mile WNW) are on the line of bearing about 180°,
anchor as convenient.
7.93
1
Anchorage. A swell sets into Mchinga Bay at all
seasons. Small vessels may obtain anchorage, partly
sheltered from the swell by Mwamba Mahazamu, in a
depth of 5⋅5 m, sand, with Ras Mzinga bearing 118° distant
1½ miles, as shown on the chart; greater depths but less
shelter will be found to NE of this position.
Chart 2929
Msungu Bay
7.94
1
General information. Msungu Bay is entered between
Ras Mawedi (9°30′S 39°41′E) and Ras Mbemkuru 3 miles
NW.
Mto Mbwemburu flows into the bay about 5 cables S of
Ras Mbemkuru, but its mouth is blocked by a sandbank
which dries at LW; during the rainy season discoloured
water from the river extends 1 mile seaward and there are
heavy overfalls during the rising tide.
2
Anchorage. Although exposed to N and E winds,
moderate anchorage may be obtained in the S part of
Msungu Bay in a depth of 16⋅5 m, sand and coral, with
CHAPTER 7
257
Ras Mbemkuru bearing 331° and the centre of a village in
the SW corner of the bay bearing 211°.
Chart 687
Kiswere Harbour
7.95
1
General information. Kiswere Harbour is entered
between Ras Bobare (9°25′⋅2S 39°37′⋅1E) and Ras Berikiti
8 cables N; both points are fronted by coral reefs which
dry at half tide.
From a short distance seaward of the entrance, the hills
backing the harbour appear to be moderately high, with a
tableland from 60 to 90 m high to the N. The most
distinctive features from the approach are:
2
Mlima Mamba (9°24′⋅2S 39°33′⋅1E), a conical
wooded hill.
Mlima Ruhaha (9°22′⋅0S 39°33′⋅8E).
Pandawi Cliff (9°25′⋅1S 39°34′⋅5E), a square cliff at
the head of the harbour, conspicuous on closer
approach. (See view on chart.)
3
Mto Nanga (7.98) enters the NW corner of the harbour;
at its mouth, the E bank is well wooded and partly
cultivated, but the W bank is marshy and at HW springs is
inundated for about 1 mile inland.
Mto Kiswere is a small stream flowing into the SW
corner of the harbour; the village of Kiswere is on its N
bank and can be reached by boat at half tide.
7.96
1
Directions. From a position about 2¾ miles N of Ras
Mbemkuru (Bwamkuro) (9°27′⋅2S 39°40′⋅1E) the line of
bearing 264° of Pandawi Cliff (9°25′⋅1S 39°34′⋅5E) leads
into the bay, passing (with positions from Pandawi Cliff):
S of Ras Fugio (Fughio) (5½ miles ENE), thence:
N of Grant Point (4 miles E), thence:
2
S of Harbour Rocks (2¾ miles ENE) on the steep−to
edge of the coral reef fronting Ras Berikiti. If
entering near the time of LW, breakers will
probably be seen on the reef, and also on the bank
at the head of the harbour.
Thence the track leads WSW to the anchorage WNW of
Ras Bobare (2½ miles E).
7.97
1
Anchorage, may be obtained in a depth of 7 m (24 ft),
stiff mud and good holding, 5 cables WNW of Ras Bobare
and S of a remarkable sand patch 5 cables W of Ras
Berikiti, as shown on the chart. At the anchorage, Mlima
Ruhaha is visible between the entrance points to Mto
Nanga. This is probably the best anchorage during either
monsoon.
2
Deep draught vessels may obtain anchorage 5 cables SE
of Ras Berikiti, in a depth of about 22 m (36 ft), as shown
on the chart.
Light draught vessels, able to cross the bar and enter
Mto Nanga (7.98), may obtain anchorage in a depth of 7 m
(24 ft) off Mtumba (Mtumbo village), close within the
entrance on the E bank.
3
Berth. A jetty for lighters, about 150 m in length,
1½ cables SW of Ras Bobare.
7.98
1
Mto Nanga, enters the NW corner of Kiswere Harbour.
A bar on which there are depths from 1 to 2 m (3 to 6 ft)
extends about 7 cables S of the entrance. A shoal awash on
the E part of the bar may be dangerous under certain
conditions.
Within the entrance there are depths of 5 m in the
fairway for about 4½ miles where it forks and becomes
shallow. A branch 2 miles above the entrance extends W,
but the depths are shallow.
RAS NGUMBE SUKANI TO
KILWA MAIN PASS
General information
Charts 2929, 661, 1032
Route
7.99
1
From a position E of Ras Ngumbe Sukani (9°11′S
39°38′E) the route leads N for about 30 miles to a position
ENE of Ras Miramba (8°44′S 39°26′E) at the entrance to
Kilwa Main Pass.
Topography
7.100
1
Between Ras Ngumbe Sukani and Ras Matuso 16 miles
NNW, the coast is fronted by the islands of Songo Mnara
(Manara) Island and Kilwa Kisiwani Island.
2
The coast between Ras Ngumbe Sukani and the S coast
of Songo Mnara Island, 4 miles NNW, consists of a
mangrove swamp with several creeks, the entrances of
which cannot be identified. A channel, suitable for boats at
HW and in calm weather, leads S of Songo Mnara Island
into Pawi Creek, which separates the island from the
mainland, but its entrance is overhung with mangroves and
is not apparent from seaward.
3
Songo Mnara Island is low with numerous coconut
groves and several villages; Sanji Ya Majoma, on the W
shore of the island, is the principal village. The seaward
coast is rocky and indented, and is fringed with reefs
which in places dry from 1 to 3 m and extend nearly
1 mile offshore.
4
Kilwa Kisiwani Island (8°59′S 39°31′E) lies between
Sangarungu Harbour and Kilwa Kisiwani Harbour. The S
part is swampy and covered with jungle, but the N part is
a coral plateau 15 m high, on which there are numerous
large baobab trees.
For topography in the vicinity of Kilwa Kisiwani
Harbour see 7.105.
5
Between Kilwa Kisiwani Harbour and Ras Tikwiri
(Kilwa Point) 8 miles N, the coast is flat and sandy and
there are several villages; the land within is covered with
dense jungle.
Between Ras Tikwiri and Ras Miramba, a low mangrove
point 6 miles NW, the coast is bordered by a thin belt of
mangroves and is fronted by a drying bank of sand and
mud.
6
Singino Hill, 2 miles SW of Ras Miramba, is a flat
cultivated plateau with a moderately steep edge on all
sides; on its W side it is connected by a low spur to
Nunguruku, a small conical hill. Farther W, the country is
generally flat and without distinctive features.
Tidal streams
7.101
1
For tidal streams in the entrance channels N and S of
Kilwa Kisiwani Island (8°59′S 39°31′E) see, respectively,
7.108 and 7.112.
Current
7.102
1
Off this part of the coast the current is N−going
continuously, frequently setting towards the coast. It is
strongest and most regular during the SE Monsoon when it
attains a rate of 4 kn at times.
CHAPTER 7
258
Directions
(continued from 7.90)
Ras Ngumbe Sukani to Ras Matuso
7.103
1
From a position E of Ras Ngumbe Sukani (9°11′S
39°38′E) (7.89), the track leads N, passing (with positions
from Ras Ngumbe Sukani):
2
E of the S extremity of Songo Mnara Island (4 miles
NNW) (7.100), identified by a distinctive break in
one of the projecting cliffs which, from S, appears
as an island; with a heavy swell the sea breaks
through this cleft with great violence, throwing
spray to a considerable height and giving the
appearance of white smoke rising from the land.
Thence:
3
E of a dangerous rocky patch (6½ miles N), the
charted position of which is approximate, reported
(1954) to lie 1½ miles ESE of Ras Kivurugu, the
NE extremity of Songo Mnara Island. Ras
Kivurugu may be identified by a particularly tall
group of coconut palms on it, and by several low
bushy islets which lie on the reef E and N of the
point. Thence:
4
E of Ras Sangarungu (10 miles NNW), the NW
extremity of Songo Mnara Island and the S
entrance point to Sangarungu Harbour (7.112). A
fringing reef extends 1 mile NE of Ras Sangarungu
which is sandy, crowned with coconut palms and
fringed with mangroves. Thence:
5
E of Ras Mchangamra (11½ miles NNW), the SE
extremity of Kilwa Kisiwani Island (7.100); the
point is fringed with mangroves and the land
within is low and swampy. The entire seaward side
of Kilwa Kisiwani Island is fronted by a drying
reef which is steep−to. Thence:
6
To a position ESE of Ras Matuso (16 miles NNW),
the SE extremity of Cape Kilwa on the N side of
the entrance to Kilwa Kisiwani Harbour (7.105).
Ras Matuso is low and sandy with a few scattered
trees, and is moderately prominent from N and S.
(Directions for Kilwa Kisiwani Harbour
are given at 7.109)
Ras Matuso to Kilwa Main Pass
7.104
1
From a position ESE of Ras Matuso (8°55′S 39°33′E)
the track continues N, passing (with positions from Ras
Tikwiri (8°49′S 39°30′E)):
2
E of Albemarle Spit (8½ miles SE) the SE extremity
of Mwamba Rukyira, a large tongue of drying reef
which extends E and N of Ras Matuso; the reef
dries completely at LW springs and the sea always
breaks on its outer edge which is very steep.
Whether dry or breaking, the reef will be seen
from a distance of 3 miles. There are several
sandbanks and small mangrove bushes on the E
part of Mwamba Rukyira. Two wooded islets
(7½ miles SE) which lie close together near the E
edge of the reef are reported to make a very useful
mark for vessels approaching from N. Thence:
3
E of Rukyira Spit (7 miles ESE), the NE extremity of
Mwamba Rukyira, thence:
4
E of Rukyira Bar (4½ miles E), a chain of shoals
with depths from 5 to 2 m, or less, which extends
N from Rukyira Spit for 9 miles to within 1 mile
of the reefs on the S side of Kilwa Main Pass.
Depths on the bar are are very irregular, and
although there are probably channels across it
through which vessels can at all times enter
Rukyira Bay (7.113), the attempt should not be
made without good cause; there is usually a heavy
swell on the bar, and it is possible that uncharted
shoals may exist. Thence:
5
To a position at the entrance to Kilwa Main Pass,
ENE of Ras Miramba.
(Directions continue, for coastal passage at 7.128 and
for Kilwa Main Pass at 7.119)
Kilwa Kisiwani Harbour
Chart 661
General information
7.105
1
Position. Kilwa Kisiwani Harbour is the outer part of an
extensive inlet between Kilwa Masoko (8°56′S 39°31′E)
and Kilwa Kisiwani Island close S.
Function. Deep water anchorage, and outlet for local
produce from the interior destined for export.
Topography. The hills of Mchinga range (Chart 2929),
which lie about 22 miles WSW of Kilwa Masoko and rise
to elevations of 400 m, will be seen from the approaches to
Kilwa Kisiwani Harbour in very clear weather, though their
summits are not remarkable.
2
Flat topped Mpara Hill, 6½ miles NW of Kilwa Masoko,
should be seen from 20 miles N or S in clear weather,
although it was reported in 1959 that it could not be
identified. It is, however, the only hill in the immediate
vicinity, the nearest to it being Singino Hill (7.100)
4½ miles farther NW. Other hills, somewhat similar to
Mpara Hill, lie S of Songo Mnara Island, but they are
continuous whereas a low plain extends for 20 miles S of
Mpara Hill.
3
On the N side of the entrance to the harbour, between
Ras Matuso (8°55′⋅4S 39°33′⋅3E) and Ras Mso, a 3 m high
cliff 1¾ miles WSW, the coast is alternately sandy and low
cliffs, and the drying coastal reef extends 6½ cables
offshore in places.
4
The N shore of Kilwa Kisiwani Island consists of a low
cliff fringed with a narrow belt of mangroves, which also
extends along the W edge of Balozi spit at the NE
extremity of the island. The reef fringing the coast is
steep−to. Between Kilwa Kisiwani village and Ras Ruvura,
at the NW extremity of the island, there are extensive ruins
of the ancient settlement of Quiloa.
5
Port limits. All the waters, to the HW mark, W of a
line drawn between the islet on Rukyira Spit (8°54′S
39°36′E) and Ras Mchangamra about 8 miles SSW.
Approach and entry, is between Ras Kipakoni (8°57′S
39°32′E) the NE corner of Kilwa Kisiwani Island, and Ras
Matuso 2 miles NE.
Port Authority. Tanzania Harbours Authority, PO
Box 9184, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Limiting conditions
7.106
1
Controlling depth. 29 m, 4 cables SW of Ras Rongozi
(8°56′⋅6S 39°30′⋅7E).
Tidal levels. Mean spring range about 3⋅3 m; mean neap
range about 1⋅1 m. For further details see Admiralty Tide
Tables.
Maximum size of vessel handled. The depth of water
enables most size of vessel to obtain anchorage.
Local weather and sea state. Winds from E produce a
considerable swell outside the harbour.
CHAPTER 7
259
Arrival information
7.107
1
Outer anchorage. During the NE Monsoon, temporary
anchorage may be obtained in a depth of 18 m, sand,
9 cables S of Ras Matuso and 2 cables from the edge of
the reef, as shown on the chart. Less tidal stream will be
experienced in the E part of the anchorage.
2
Pilotage is not compulsory, but a pilot is available by
request.
Local knowledge is required if entering the harbour
when the sun is ahead and the in−going tidal stream is at
full strength.
Harbour
7.108
1
General layout. Deep water anchorage and a small pier
on the SW side of Rongozi peninsula (8°56′S 39°31′E), on
which stands Kilwa Masoko. Additional anchorage for large
vessels extends NNW into the spacious inlet of Port
Beaver.
2
Tidal streams and overfalls. The tidal streams are
strong and due allowance must be made for them. During
the period of the out−going tidal stream there are, at times,
heavy overfalls between the outer points of the reefs in the
entrance, but there are depths of 55 m or more where they
occur. At springs the overfalls are dangerous for boats.
Directions for entering harbour
7.109
1
Landmarks:
Two islets (8°54′S 39°36′E) (7.104).
Water tower (8°55′⋅9S 39°30′⋅7E), and the buildings
of Kilwa Masoko are visible from many miles
seaward in the morning.
2
Castle ruins (8°57′⋅3S 39°30′⋅0E) and Castle Islet
2½ cables NW. The ruins are the high keep−like
tower of an old Arab castle; the islet is thickly
covered with mangroves. In the morning, both the
ruins and the islet are good marks and may be
seen at about 10 miles.
3
Caution. No reliance should be placed on positions
obtained by bearings of points formed by mangrove bushes,
as their growth may have considerably altered the point.
At LW the eye is sufficient guide for entering Kilwa
Kisiwani Harbour, but at HW the sea only breaks over the
outer dangers; the light green colour of the water which is
common over coral reefs is entirely absent here.
4
Approach. From S, approach with Ras Matuso (7.103)
(8°55′⋅4S 39°33′⋅3E) on the line of bearing of about 296°
until on the alignment of Ras Rongozi leading beacons.
From N, follow the SE edge of Mwamba Rukyira
(7.104), keeping at least 5 cables from the edge of the reef
until on the alignment of Ras Rongozi leading beacons.
5
Ras Rongozi Leading Beacons:
Front beacon (white concrete column, conical
topmark) (8°56′⋅2S 39°30′⋅9E), on yellow cliffs.
Rear beacon (pole, black diamond topmark) (2 cables
WNW of front mark).
The alignment (286°) of these beacons, reported (1998)
as difficult to identify amongst numerous buildings,
especially in the afternoon, leads through the entrance,
passing (with positions from the front mark):
6
SSW of a drying reef fringing the N side of the
channel up to 8 cables offshore between Ras
Matuso (2½ miles ENE) through to Ras Mso
(7.105) (7 cables ENE), and:
NNE of Mwamba Kipakoni (1¾ miles ESE), a drying
reef fronting Ras Kipakoni, the low NE extremity
of Kilwa Kisiwani Island, thence:
7
NNE of Balozi Spit (9 cables ESE), charted as
marked by a small beacon, but reported (1998) as
marked by a buoy (starboard hand); the spit does
not break except near LW, and at HW it is not
even marked by ripples.
The track then gradually alters SW keeping in
mid−channel, passing:
8
SE of Rongozi peninsula which projects from the N
side of the harbour. In the vicinity of the front
leading beacon, the sandy beach at the head of
Mso Bay terminates abruptly in some low rocky
cliffs, yellow faced in part, which may be seen at
7 miles. The S part of the peninsula is fringed with
mangroves. Thence:
9
Round Ras Rongozi (5 cables SSW), the S extremity
of Rongozi peninsula; a buoy (black conical)
(8 cables SSW) marks the outer edge of a drying
bank of sand and mud S of the point, off which
there are tidal eddies. A dangerous rock lies close
SW of the outer edge of the bank. Thence:
When past the point, as required for anchorage.
Berths
7.110
1
Alongside. A pier on the SW side of Rongozi peninsula,
with a depth 6 m at its head, takes small vessels alongside.
Anchorage, open to the sea breeze but completely
sheltered from the swell, may be obtained from 3 to
5 cables N of Kilwa Kisiwani village, in depths from 16 to
27 m, as shown on the chart. A good berth is about
2 cables from the edge of the reef abreast Kilwa Kisiwani
village in a depth of 22 m, with Castle Islet bearing 241°
distant 3 cables.
2
Vessels loading or unloading cargo anchor at a safe
distance off the pier in depths in depths from 27 to 37 m,
mud and good holding ground.
There is often an eddy at the anchorage within the
harbour, but as the holding ground is stiff mud vessels may
ride safely to a short scope of cable and so keep the
anchor clear.
Port services
7.111
Facilities: hospital; no oily waste reception facilities.
Supplies: fresh water is available at Kilwa Masoko;
fresh provisions are fairly plentiful; excellent net fishing
may be obtained in the harbour.
Communications. An airstrip, for internal flights within
Tanzania, is about 1 km N of Kilwa Masoko.
Harbour regulations. “The Tanzania Harbours
Regulations, 1991” (1.38) are in force at Kilwa Kisiwani
Harbour.
Anchorages
Sangarungu Harbour
7.112
1
General information. Sangarungu Harbour is entered
between Ras Sangarungu (9°02′S 39°33′E) and Ras
Mchangamra, about 1 mile NW (7.103). Large parts of the
harbour are encumbered with shoals and reefs, and the
shores are indented by numerous creeks fringed with
mangroves; the water is thick and muddy, and submerged
dangers cannot be seen.
2
In the entrance, 8 cables wide between the fringing reefs,
the depths are great and the tidal streams are strong. The
CHAPTER 7
260
swell runs far into the harbour, making it necessary to
proceed some distance within the entrance to gain shelter.
Sanji Ya Kati (9°03′S 39°32′E) is a mangrove covered
island in the middle of the harbour between Songo Mnara
Island and the mainland. A drying reef projects nearly
1 mile N of Sanji Ya Kati Island and a sandspit, with
depths generally less than 5 m, extends 8 cables farther N.
3
Anchorage, may be obtained either N or S of Sanji Ya
Kati Island, above.
Port Pactolus, the anchorage N of Sanji Ya Kati Island,
is approached by a very narrow channel between the
extremity of the sandspit N of the island and the edge of
the reef fringing Ras Mchangamra. Although exposed to
the swell, good anchorage may be obtained, as shown on
the chart, in depths from 11 to 20 m, mud.
4
Mlango Mugongo, a wide channel navigable by boats at
all states of the tide, leads N from the anchorage, between
Kilwa Kisiwani Island (7.100) and the mainland, to Kilwa
Kisiwani Harbour (7.105).
5
Port Nisus forms the S part of Sangarungu Harbour and
is approached through a channel between Sanji Ya Kati
Island and Songo Mnara Island. Anchorage, as shown on
the chart, may be obtained SE of ruins on Sanji Ya Kati
Island, in depths from 7 to 20 m, mud.
Charts 661, 1032
Rukyira Bay
7.113
1
Rukyira Bay (8°52′S 39°34′E) lies N of the drying reef
of Mwamba Rukyira (7.104). The anchorage in the bay, as
shown on the chart, is sheltered from the swell by Rukyira
Spit, but it is not recommended as the approach is over
Rukyira Bar, see 7.104.
KILWA MAIN PASS TO RAS NEDGE
GENERAL INFORMATION
Charts 2929, 3310
Area covered
7.114
1
This section describes the coastal passage, and inshore
passage, between Kilwa Main Pass (8°40′S 39°33′E) and
Ras Ndege (6°52′S 39°28′E), including description of the
delta of Mto Rufiji, arranged as follows:
Kilwa Main Pass (7.117).
Kilwa Main Pass to South Mafia Channel, passing E
of Songo Songo Island (7.126).
South Mafia Channel to Ras Mkumba, E of Mafia
Island (7.132).
Ras Mkumba to Ras Ndege (7.140).
North Mafia Channel to South Mafia Channel passing
W of Mafia Island (7.152).
South Mafia Channel to Kilwa Main Pass, passing W
of Songo Songo Island (7.179).
Mto Rufiji (7.191).
Routeing
7.115
1
Within Mafia Island (7°51′S 39°47′E) and the other
outer islands and reefs which front the coast between Kilwa
Kivinje (8°45′S 39°25′E) and Kwale Island 80 miles N,
there is a deep navigable channel. Vessels N−bound will
gain nothing by using this inner channel as the current
outside the outer reefs is favourable to them, but for
S−bound vessels of moderate draught and low power the
inner channel may be of considerable advantage; therefore
in the following text the inner route has been described in
the direction from N to S.
Current
7.116
1
For general details of the East African Coast Current,
see 1.115. Over the area covered by this section, the
current sets predominantly N with rates of up to about 4 kn
during the SE Monsoon and 3 kn during the NE Monsoon.
Onshore sets may be encountered towards E−facing coasts.
KILWA MAIN PASS
General information
Charts 2929, 1032
Description
7.117
1
Kilwa Main Pass (8°40′S 39°33′E) is a deep channel
through a break in the reefs which front the coast for
40 miles N of Kilwa Kisiwani Harbour (8°57′S 39°30′E); it
provides access from the open sea to Kilwa Kivinje (8°45′S
39°25′E) (7.120) and to a channel (7.179) inshore of the
reefs.
Topography
7.118
1
When approaching Kilwa Main Pass from seaward,
Singino Hill (8°48′S 39°23′E) (7.100) and Mpara Hill
(7.105) 4½ miles SE (Chart 661), should be seen from
some distance but no land will be visible to S of Mpara
Hill except in very clear weather when the hills of
Mchinga range (7.105) may be seen.
To N of the pass, Fanjove Island (8°34′S 39°34′E)
(7.129) and Songo Songo Island (7.185), 4 miles WNW,
should be seen at a considerable distance.
Directions
(continued from 7.104)
7.119
1
From the vicinity of 8°40′S 39°40′E, the track leads W,
passing (with positions from Ras Tikwiri (8°49′S 39°30′E)):
S of a drying reef (12 miles NNE) extending S from
Fanjove Island (7.129); a bank with depths of 5 m
extending WSW from the S extremity of this reef
should be passed at a distance of at least 5 cables.
Thence:
2
S of Luala (12 miles N), a reef with a sandbank on
its NW side which dries. A beacon (white
concrete) stands on the SW side of the reef.
Thence:
3
N of Mwanamkaya (6 miles N) a reef, the main part
of which dries about 1 m; its S end is about 1 mile
W of the shoals forming the N extremity of
Rukyira Bar (7.104). A sandbank on the SW side
of the reef dries 4 m. Mpovi is a detached drying
reef, 2 miles SW of Mwanamkaya, on the S part
of an irregular shaped bank which has a least
CHAPTER 7
261
known depth of 2 m at its outer extremities. Near
the E side of Mpovi there are a few mangrove
bushes Thence:
4
S of Jewe (11 miles NNW) a reef with a long narrow
strip of sand which dries, near its NW edge. A
beacon (iron tripod) stands near the W end of the
sand strip. Thence:
N of Amana (7 miles NNW) a reef with a sandbank
on its W side which dries. A beacon (iron tripod
with topmark) stands on the N edge of the reef.
Thence the track leads either S to the anchorage off
Kilwa Kivinje, or N for passage of the inner channel.
(Directions for Kilwa Kivinje are given at 7.123
and for the inner channel passing W
of Songo Songo Island at 7.183)
Kilwa Kivinje
General information
7.120
1
Position and function. Kilwa Kivinje (8°45′S 39°25′E)
provides an open roadstead in a bay close W of Ras
Miramba.
Topography. For the general aspect see 7.100. At Kilwa
Kivinje, the station house, a white stone building with a
high red roof resembling a tower, and a large white house
are both prominent on the beach in front of the town.
2
Mto Matandu enters the sea 3½ miles WNW of Ras
Miramba, but its entrance is difficult to identify even from
close to the anchorage off Kilwa Kivinje. The bar of Mto
Matandu dries, but the river is navigable by boats for about
9 miles.
Port limits. All the tidal waters enclosed by a line
drawn E from Ras Miramba to the meridian of 39°30′E,
thence N to the parallel of 8°40′S, thence W to the
mainland, and the shore at HW ordinary spring tide
between these points.
3
Approach, from seaward is by Kilwa Main Pass (7.117)
or from N by the inner channel (7.179) between the
off−lying chains of reefs.
Port Authority. Tanzania Harbours Authority, PO Box
9184, Dar es Salaam.
Arrival information
7.121
1
Port operations. Loading and discharge of cargo is by
dhow.
Harbour
7.122
1
General layout. Anchorage in the roadstead off the
town. The roadstead is sheltered by reefs, but there is a
slight swell when the monsoon is strong.
Tidal streams in the roadstead are negligible.
Directions for entering harbour
7.123
1
Caution. A bank of sand and mud, on which the depths
are 5 m or less, extends as much as 1¾ miles offshore in
places between Ras Miramba and the entrance to Mto
Matandu; in 1910 this bank was reported to be extending
seaward. When approaching the anchorage off Kilwa
Kivinje, keep in depths of 9 m or more.
2
Track. From a position about 2 miles NW of the beacon
on the drying reef of Amana (8°42′S 39°27′E) the track
leads SSW, passing (with positions from the beacon):
WNW of the W extremity of Amana (1¼ miles
WSW) (7.119), thence:
ESE of two dangerous rocks (reported 1910)
(2¾ miles WSW), thence:
As required for anchoring.
Anchorage
7.124
1
A good berth is in a depth of 8 m with the station house
at Kilwa Kivinje bearing 198° distant about 1½ miles, as
shown on the chart.
Port services
7.125
1
Facilities. There are no oily waste reception facilities.
Supplies. Fresh provisions, other than meat and
vegetables, are plentiful.
Communications. An airfield is 3 km S of the town.
Harbour regulations. “The Tanzania Harbours
Regulations, 1991” (1.38) are in force at Kilwa Kivinje
KILWA MAIN PASS TO SOUTH MAFIA
CHANNEL, PASSING EAST OF
SONGO SONGO ISLAND
General information
Chart 1032
Route
7.126
1
From a position off the entrance to Kilwa Main Pass
ENE of Ras Miramba (8°44′S 39°26′E), the route leads N
for about 27 miles, in deep water and outside the coastal
reefs, to a position NE of Okuza Island (8°17′S 39°36′E) at
the entrance to South Mafia Channel.
Topography
7.127
1
Between Mto Matandu (8°43′S 39°23′E) and Ras
Pombwe (Pombwa) 25 miles N, the coast is fronted by a
mass of reefs and low islands which extends as much as
18 miles offshore in places, the outer group of which form
a more or less continuous line. For details of the mainland
topography along this part of the coast see 7.180.
Directions
(continued from 7.104)
Principal marks
7.128
1
Landmarks:
Fanjove Island (8°34′S 39°34′E), tree covered. A
disused lighthouse (white square tower and
dwelling, 17 m in height) stands on Fanjove Island.
Songo Songo Island (7.185) 3½ miles NW.
Both islands should be seen at a considerable distance.
Track
7.129
1
From a position at the entrance to Kilwa Main Pass
ENE of Ras Miramba (8°44′S 39°26′E), the track leads N,
passing (with positions from Fanjove Island Lighthouse
(8°34′S 39°34′E)):
E of Fanjove Island (7.128), lying on the NW part of
an extensive drying reef. The sea always breaks on
the outer edge of the reef which is steep−to.
Thence:
2
E of Imbi (6 miles N), a reef on which a sandbank
dries 2 m; a bank with a least depth of 3 m
extends 3 miles S of the reef. Msuaji, a reef which
also dries, lies 3 miles W of Imbi at the end of a
CHAPTER 7
262
bank with a least depth of 2 m which joins the two
reefs. Thence:
3
E of Nyuni Islet (11 miles N) on the W side of a
drying reef, the seaward face of which is steep−to;
the islet is formed of coral and sand, and covered
with bushes and a few casuarina trees. Kimbore, a
drying reef, lies 1 mile W of Nyuni Islet. Thence:
4
E of Mombawaka (14 miles N), reef awash in places
at LW; the sea generally breaks over the whole of
this reef. Thence:
E of Okuza Island (17½ miles N), sandy and covered
with casuarina trees, the highest of which are at
the E end of the island and are visible from a
considerable distance. The island stands on an
extensive drying reef. Thence:
5
To a position NE of Okuza Island, at the E entrance
to South Mafia Channel (22 miles NNE), which
forms an 8 mile gap in the outer islands and reefs
between Okuza Island and the S−most danger off
Mafia Island (27 miles NNE).
(Directions continue passing E of
Mafia Island at 7.136)
(Directions for passage W of Mafia Island
are given at 7.161)
Nyuni Pass
7.130
1
Nyuni Pass (8°26′S 39°35′E), entered between Imbi
(7.129) and the reef 3 miles NNE which surrounds Nyuni
Islet (7.129), gives access to the inner channel.
Caution. The passage is not recommended as there are
no leading marks and there is generally a heavy swell in
the pass.
Depths decrease very rapidly close within the entrance;
there are depths of 5 m on the N side of the pass, 2 miles
N of Imbi, and in the centre of the pass, 2¾ miles NW of
Imbi.
Anchorage
Okuza Island
7.131
1
Anchorage may be obtained W of the reef surrounding
Okuza Island (8°17′S 39°36′E), in depths from 13 to 22 m,
as shown on the chart. During the NE Monsoon, in order
to avoid the swell, vessels should anchor W of the S part
of the reef.
SOUTH MAFIA CHANNEL TO RAS MKUMBI
PASSING EAST OF MAFIA ISLAND
General information
Chart 1032
Route
7.132
1
From a position NE of Okuza Island (8°17′S 39°36′E) at
the entrance to South Mafia Channel, the route leads NE
and NNE on the E side of Mafia Island for about 40 miles
to a position E of Ras Mkumbi (7°38′S 39°54′E), at the N
extremity of the island.
Topography
7.133
1
Mafia Island (7°51′S 39°47′E) is a large coral island
separated from the N part of Mto Rufiji delta, on the
mainland, by North Mafia Channel. The coasts of the
island are fringed with reefs and are generally low with no
remarkable features, but there is a central plateau 20 to
30 m high on which the trees in places rise to more than
60 m high.
2
The S coast of the island, between prominent red cliffs
18 m high at Kitoni (7°59′S 39°37′E) and Utende 8 miles
E, is low, fringed by mangroves in places and backed by
coconut groves.
Okuto, extending 3½ miles offshore from the vicinity of
Kitoni, is the largest projection of an extensive reef which
fronts the coast and which mostly dries. Between the
seaward extremity of Okuto and Kinasi Pass 11 miles ENE,
the coast is fronted by an extensive detached reef on which
there are several low islands and small islets.
3
The E coast, between Kinasi Pass and Ras Mkumbi
19 miles NNE, consists of cliffs from 3 to 5 m high, and is
fringed with a narrow steep−to coral reef.
Marine park
7.134
1
Mafia Island Marine Park covers part of the coastal
waters on the E coast of Mafia Island, out to about 1 mile
from the most seaward drying reef and extending from
about 10 miles S of the N extremity of the island to Tutia,
a drying reef 8 miles S of the S extremity of the island.
Within the park limits, as shown on the chart, numerous
restrictions and prohibitions apply. Further information
should be obtained from the local authorities.
Tidal streams
7.135
For tidal streams in the vicinity of Kinasi Pass (7°57′S
39°49′E) see 7.138.
Directions
(continued from 7.129)
Principal marks
7.136
1
Major light:
Ras Mkumbi Light (white square tower, red bands,
30 m in height) (7°38′S 39°54′E).
Track
7.137
1
From a position NE of Okuza Island (8°17′S 39°36′E),
at the E entrance to South Mafia Channel, the track leads
NE, passing (with positions from the E extremity of Tutia
(8°08′S 39°40′E)):
SE of Tutia, a detached reef and the S−most danger
off Mafia Island; a sandbank on the NW part of
Tutia dries. The sea always breaks heavily on the
S edge of this reef. Thence:
2
SE of Jibondo (Kibondo) Island (5 miles NE), which
lies on a detached and extensive reef, which dries
in places, 12½ miles long close off the SE side of
Mafia Island, thence:
SE of Juani Island (8 miles NE) which lies close to
the seaward edge of the same detached reef as
Jibondo Island, thence:
3
SE of Kinasi Pass (14 miles NE), the E entrance to
Chole Bay (7.138), thence:
The track then leads NNE, passing (with positions from
the N extremity of Juani Island (7°58′S 39°48′E)):
ESE of Jina Island (1½ miles N), thence:
ESE of Ras Kilcapani (6½ miles NNE), at the S end
of Forbes Bay, thence:
4
To a position E of Ras Mkumbi (20½ miles NNE),
the NE extremity of Mafia Island, where a light
(7.136) is exhibited. The point, which should be
CHAPTER 7
263
passed at a distance of at least 2 miles, is formed
by a 5 m high coral cliff within which the land
rises to an elevation of about 25 m and is covered
with small bushes and trees. The sea nearly always
breaks on the fringing reef which extends about
8 cables N of the point; a patch with a depth of
3 m over it lies about 4 cables NE of the reef
edge.
(Directions continue at 7.144)
Chole Bay
7.138
1
General information. Chole Bay (7°57′S 39°47′E), at
the SE corner of Mafia Island, has not been completely
examined, but there are depths from 7 to 14 m in the
deeper parts. Entrances to the bay are from SW and E.
2
Approach. The SW entrance lies between Utende
(7°58′S 39°45′E) and Chole Island 5 cables E, and is
approached from Jibondo Anchorage (7.139) 9 miles SW of
Utende. The channel passes NW of an extensive detached
reef surrounding Jibondo, Juani and Chole Islands. Vessels
drawing up to 3 m are able to enter at HW, and boats may
use the channel at all times except at LW springs.
3
Approach from E is through Kinasi Pass (7°57′S
39°49′E) which lies between the edges of reefs extending
from Juani Island and Jina Island. There are depths from
11 to 20 m in this entrance.
4
Tidal streams. Caution, tidal streams set through Kinasi
Pass at rates up to 5kn and it would be unsafe for any
vessel to attempt to enter unless the channel were well
marked. During the period of the out−going tidal stream the
sea breaks right across the entrance and would swamp a
small boat.
Within Chole Bay, the tidal stream is S−going at rates of
up to 2 kn on the rising tide, and N−going at about 1½ kn
on the falling tide.
Anchorage
Jibondo Anchorage
7.139
1
Caution. Jibondo Anchorage (8°05′S 39°39′E) lies
within the Mafia Island Marine Park (7.134).
The anchorage, between the off−lying reefs S of Mafia
Island, affords good shelter. A recommended berth, as
shown on the chart, is 2 miles N of the NW end of the
sandbank on Tutia (8°08′S 39°39′E) (7.137), depth 11 m,
sand and mud.
When approaching the anchorage from S, it should be
borne in mind that the sandbank is on the inner side of
Tutia, and that the current sets towards the reef.
RAS MKUMBI TO RAS NDEGE
General information
Charts 1032, 3310
Route
7.140
1
From a position E of Ras Mkumbi (7°38′S 39°54′E), at
the N extremity of Mafia Island, the route leads NNW for
about 53 miles to a position ENE of Ras Ndege (6°52′S
39°28′E).
Topography
7.141
1
For details of the coast S of Ras Pembamnasi (7°11′S
39°30′E) see 7.153.
Between Ras Buyuni (7°08′S 39°33′E) and Ras Kanzi
7 miles N, the coast is low and swampy for the first
3 miles but rises to cliffs 25 m high at Puna Point, 1 mile
farther N. Puna Hill, a small, isolated, rounded hill lies
6½ miles NW of Ras Buyuni; it is more prominent from S.
2
Close to Ras Kimbiji, 2 miles N of Ras Kanzi, the coast
is the highest land in the vicinity.
Between Ras Kimbiji and Ras Ndege 8 miles NNW, the
coast consists of white sandy beaches varied by reddish
cliffs at Ras Kutani, 3 miles NNW of Ras Kimbiji, where
the cliffs are 20 m high, and at Ras Manamku 3 miles
farther NNW. Reefs extend up to 7 cables offshore in
places.
Depths
7.142
1
The depths for about 5 miles N of Ras Mkumbi are very
irregular, and vessels should navigate in this vicinity with
caution. The shallowest depth found in the area is a 16 m
5 miles NW of the point. Disturbed water, as though caused
by shoals, is created by the current and can be seen in
places where the depths are more than 35 m.
Natural conditions
7.143
1
Tidal streams. Within depths of 200 m, between the NE
extremity of Mafia Island and the mainland to the NW, the
movement of the water is tidal; SW−going on the rising
tide, and NE−going on the falling tide.
2
Current. To N of Mafia Island, the W limit of the
N−going current does not at times extend closer inshore
than midway between Latham Island or Fungu Kizimkazi
(6°54′S 39°56′E) and the mainland; at such times, even
during the SE Monsoon, a S−going current may be
experienced near Ras Kimbiji (6°59′S 39°33′E). The
N−going current usually strikes the coast in the vicinity of
Ras Kimbiji, thence running N along the coast and
increasing in strength.
3
The current on Latham Bank, surrounding Latham
Island, is variable, but in the deep water on each side of it
the current is constantly N−going with varying strength; at
5 miles W of the bank the current becomes much weaker.
Directions
(continued from 7.137)
Principal marks
7.144
1
Major light:
Ras Mkumbi Light (7°38′S 39°54′E) (7.136).
Ras Mkumbi to North Mafia Channel
7.145
1
From a position at least 2 miles E of Ras Mkumbi
(7°38′S 39°54′E), the track leads NNW, passing (with
positions from Ras Mkumbi Light):
Clear of a depth of 16 m (5 miles NW), thence:
Clear of a depth of 16 m (9 miles NW), noting
another depth of 16 m, 1½ miles farther NW, and:
2
ENE of Vulture Bank (11½ miles WNW), noting a
depth of 7 m reported (1917) 1 mile N of the bank
and a depth of 5 m, 3 miles SSE of the bank,
thence:
CHAPTER 7
264
ENE of 7 to 13 m depths reported (1915) (15 miles
NW), thence:
To a position E of Field Patch (24 miles NW), a
small coral head, and the N entrance point for
North Mafia Channel.
(Directions continue for
North Mafia Channel at 7.158)
North Mafia Channel to Ras Ndege
7.146
1
From a position E of Field Patch (7°21′S 39°38′E) the
track continues NNW, passing (with positions from Ras
Kanzi Light (7°01′S 39°33′E)):
ENE of Sukuti (15 miles SSW), an extensive group of
reefs on the outer edges of which the sea always
breaks heavily. On the W side of the group it is
reported (1998) that a sandbank covers at HW
leaving just a few trees visible. The group is the
N−most of the Kwale Reefs (7.167).
2
ENE of Ras Pembamnasi (10½ miles SSW), low,
fringed with mangroves and backed by higher
trees. A rock awash lies 1 mile SW of Ras
Pembamnasi, and a short distance E of the point
there is a detached reef which breaks. Thence:
ENE of Ras Buyuni (7 miles S), a high mangrove
point, and the E entrance point for Buyuni Bay
(7.149). A drying reef extends 1 mile S from the
point. Thence:
3
WSW of Latham Bank (24 miles ENE), an extensive
bank of sand and coral, with depths on the greater
part being from 9 to 18 m. So clear is the water
that the bottom has been seen by moonlight when
in a depth of 18 m. Latham Island, or Fungu
Kizimkazi, on the W edge of the bank, is a low
coral island where the sandy surface has been
flattened by the constant treading of seabirds into a
soft sandstone which shines very white in the sun;
in bad weather or at night, however, the island is
very difficult to identify. A drying reef surrounds
the island, extending 1 cable offshore. Except from
W, Latham Island may be approached at night with
safety with continuous sounding See 7.151 for
anchoring and landing.
7.147
1
ENE of Ras Kanzi, identified by a large number of
Palmyra palms close by, there being none
elsewhere on this coast. Ras Kanzi Light (grey
square tower, 12 m in height) is exhibited from the
point. Thence:
ENE of Ras Kimbiji (2 miles N), a low cliff−like
projection, identified by a rounded hill, 46 m high,
2 miles W of the point and which is remarkable
due to its isolation. The coast near Ras Kimbiji is
the highest land in the vicinity. Thence:
2
ENE of Fungu Miza (5½ miles NNW), a reef awash,
1½ miles offshore; it lies on the S end of a narrow
coral bank on which there are depths from about 5
to 7 m, and on the N part of which is a dangerous
rock on which the sea generally breaks. In the
channel between Fungu Miza and the coast there
are depths of 11 m. And:
3
Clear of patches with depths from 16⋅8 to 18⋅8 m
over them (19 miles NE), thence:
To a position ENE of Ras Ndege (10 miles NNW),
formed of cliffs 3 m high, close within which the
land rises steeply to 9 m high and is backed by
some low rounded hills. Ras Ndege is steep−to and
is prominent from both N and S.
(Directions continue, for Zanzibar Channel at 8.16,
and for passage E of Zanzibar Island at 8.173)
Anchorages
Monitor Anchorage
7.148
1
General information. Monitor Anchorage lies off the N
extremity of Mafia Island, from 1½ to 3 miles offshore
between Ras Mkumbi (7°38′S 39°54′E) and Ras Murundo
12 miles SW; it affords good anchorage during the SE
Monsoon when the wind is not too strong, in depths from
15 to 25 m, sand and mud.
The coast near the anchorage is fringed by reefs the
outer edge of which, although not steep−to, can be clearly
seen at LW. After half tide, boats may land anywhere, but
at or near LW the best landing place is at Ras Bweni,
3½ miles SW of Ras Mkumbi.
2
Anchorage. A good berth, and convenient for landing,
is with Ras Bweni bearing 117° distant 11½ cables, in a
depth of 16 m, sand and mud.
Buyuni Bay
7.149
1
General information. Buyuni Bay is entered between
Ras Pembamnasi (7°11′S 39°30′E) and Ras Buyuni (7.146)
4 miles NE. A drying reef extends 1 mile S of Ras Buyuni,
and a spit projects 2 miles SW of the reef, with a 3 m
depth at its SW extremity.
2
Directions. Approach on the line of bearing 330° of the
highest trees on Ras Pembamnasi (7.146), thence, when
SSW of the E extremity of Ras Buyuni, the track leads on
the line of bearing 023° of that point, in a depth of 8⋅2 m,
between the breaking reef close E of Ras Pembamnasi and
the SW extremity of the spit with a least depth of 3⋅0 m
over it, to the anchorage.
3
Anchorage. During the NE Monsoon, anchorage may be
obtained in a depth of 10 m, sand and mud, with Ras
Buyuni bearing 020° and the S extremity of its bordering
ref bearing 082°, as shown on the chart. The swinging
room is rather restricted.
Ras Kimbiji to Ras Ndege
7.150
1
Except near Fungu Miza (7.147), anchorage may be
obtained about 1 mile offshore between Ras Kimbiji
(6°59′S 39°33′E) and Ras Ndege 8 miles NNW, in depths
of about 26 m. Caution is necessary as, on approaching the
coast, the depths decrease rapidly.
Latham Bank
7.151
1
Anchorage may be obtained either N or S of Latham
Island or Fungu Kizimkazi (6°54′S 39°56′E) (7.146),
depending on the monsoon prevailing, but the cross swell
on the bank renders the anchorage uneasy.
Landing is practicable in moderate weather on a
sandbank which shifts from one side of the island to the
other according to which monsoon is blowing; the
sandbank being always on the lee side of the island.
CHAPTER 7
265
NORTH MAFIA CHANNEL TO SOUTH
MAFIA CHANNEL PASSING WEST OF
MAFIA ISLAND
General information
Charts 1032, 3310
Description and route
7.152
1
North Mafia Channel is entered about mid−way between
the N extremity of Mafia Island (7°51′S 39°47′E) and Ras
Buyuni, 37 miles NNW. The route consists of two separate
channels which pass through an area of shoals extending
between 7 miles N and 8 miles S of Ras Kisimani (7°56′S
39°35′E): Kisimani Channel, lies E of Boydu Island
(7°56′S 39°31′E), and Msala Channel, lies to W of that
island.
For advice on the use of this route see 7.115.
2
Although much encumbered by reefs, the passage is
easily navigable by day. Recommended tracks are shown
on the chart, but as they are taken from old surveys they
should be used with caution.
The best time for passing through this area is at LW
when the reefs are most easily seen, though close to and N
of Mto Rufiji delta the water is frequently muddy,
rendering submerged dangers indistinguishable. A number
of the reefs are marked by beacons, but the positions of
buoys should not be relied upon.
Topography
7.153
1
Mainland. Between Ras Pembamnasi (7°11′S 39°30E)
and Kikunya Mouth, the N−most mouth of the delta of Mto
Rufiji 32 miles SSW, the coast is mainly sandy with no
marked projections and is fronted by a drying mudbank
which extends as much as 1 mile offshore in places; several
rivers with wide mouths flow into the sea along this coast
and, although all the mouths dry, the rivers are accessible
to small craft at HW.
2
The land within the coast is well cultivated. Kisiju, at
the mouth of Mto Luhute (7°25′S 39°20′E) is the most
important of the numerous villages along this thickly
populated stretch of coast.
Binga, an isolated flat−topped hill 16 miles WSW of Ras
Pembamnasi, is the most prominent feature of the N part of
the coast.
3
About 8 miles S of Binga, the S part of this stretch of
coast is backed by Mtoti Hills, a flat−topped range lying
parallel to the coast at about 6 miles inland. Kanoge
(7°42′S 39°10′E), a hill with a conspicuous group of trees
on its summit, lies at the S end of the range. Thence the
range decreases in elevation to about 90 m at its N end
16 miles N.
For details of the Mto Rufiji delta see 7.191.
7.154
1
Mafia Island. For general details of Mafia Island, and
details of the coast S and E of Ras Kisimani (7°56′S
39°35′E) see 7.133.
On the NW side of Mafia Island, the land within the
shores of Tirene Bay, between Ras Kisimani and Ras Mbisi
10 miles NE, is about 30 m high.
2
Kirongwe Bay, entered between Ras Mbisi and Ras
Murundo 4½ miles ENE, is shallow and encumbered with
banks of sand and mud. Ras Murundo is a sandy point
with some high trees on its extremity, on the seaward side
of which lies Mwamba Mkuu, a reef which dries 2 m at its
outer edge and extends 2½ miles NNW of the point.
Between Ras Murundo and Ras Mkumbi (7.137)
11½ miles NE, the coast is mainly sandy with occasional
low coral cliffs and some mangrove creeks.
Depths
7.155
1
There are depths of 13 m on the charted recommended
route in Kisimani channel, but isolated depths of 9 m lie
close by. Attention is drawn to the source data diagrams on
the charts.
Marine park
7.156
1
Mafia Island Marine Park covers part of the channel
between the S part of Mafia Island and the mainland.
Within the park limits, as shown on Chart 1032, numerous
restrictions and prohibitions apply. Further information
should be obtained from the local authorities.
Flow
7.157
1
The constant N−going current in the area frequently
overcomes the tidal streams, especially at neaps. The
direction of the tidal streams depends considerably on the
wind, and during strong SE winds, except at springs, it is
almost certain that there will be a strong N−going current
in the main channels W of Mafia Island.
2
In Kisimani Channel, between Mange (8°04′S 39°36′E)
and Sefo 18 miles N, the tidal streams or current generally
follow the direction of the channel, but a NE set may be
experienced on passing Al Hadjiri, 3 miles SSE of Sefo,
with a falling tide.
To S of Ras Kisimani, the W extremity of Mafia Island,
the tidal stream is NW−going on the rising tide and
SE−going on the falling tide.
3
To N of Ras Kisimani, the stream is S−going on the
rising tide and NE−going on the falling tide.
To NW of Ras Mkumbi, the N extremity of Mafia
Island, within depths of 200 m, the movement of the water
is tidal; SW−going on the rising tide, and NE−going on the
falling tide.
For tidal streams in the vicinity of Tirene Bay (7°53′S
39°39′E) see 7.173, and for Shungu−mbili Pass (7°40′S
39°44′E) see 7.166.
Directions
(continued from 7.145)
Principal marks
7.158
1
Landmarks:
Tree (7°37′S 39°41′) on Niororo Island which, seen
from some distance N, resembles a plume of
smoke; note the caution at 1.21. As well as the
tree, the island is covered with bushes, and a
beacon (about 14 m high) stands on its N
extremity.
2
Government building (7°55′S 39°40′E); a flagstaff
stands 1½ cables W of the building.
Major light:
Ras Mkumbi Light (7°38′S 39°54′E) (7.136).
North Mafia Channel
7.159
1
From a position about 1½ miles E of Field Patch
(7°21′S 39°38′E), the track leads S passing (with positions
from Niororo Island Beacon (7°37′S 39°41′E)):
E of Muni Patches (13 miles NNW), three small coral
heads which are steep−to and their positions are
only indicated by tide rips. Thence:
CHAPTER 7
266
2
When the single conspicuous tree on Niororo Island
(7.158) is sighted, which should be at a distance of about
11 miles, the line of bearing 178° of the tree leads S until
Shungu−mbili Island (7.160) (5¼ miles S) comes into sight,
thence the line of bearing 178° of Shungu−mbili Island just
open W of Niororo Island leads S, passing:
3
Clear of Fawn Bank (6½ miles N), lying across the
channel; depths of 9 m lie 4 cables E of the track.
Note that depths from 7 to 13 m have been
reported (1915) in the vicinity 3½ miles farther
NE. Thence:
W of a reported (1916) depth of 7 m (5 miles NNE),
thence:
W of Gordon Reef (3 miles NNE), a below−water
reef, thence:
4
When 2¾ miles N of Niororo Island, the track leads
SSW for about 1¾ miles, thence generally S, passing:
E of Dira (7 miles WNW), a reef which can generally
be seen and on which the sea always breaks; a
sandbank which dries lies on the W side of the
reef. Thence:
5
W, distant about 8 cables, of the NW extremity of the
extensive reef, parts of which dry, surrounding
Niororo Island (7.158). On the NW extremity of
the reef is a sandbank which dries; this part of the
reef deflects the tidal stream NW, causing tide−rips
which often make the reef appear to extend farther
NW than is actually so. Thence:
7.160
1
When NW of Shungu−mbili Island (5¼ miles S), distant
about 2¼ miles, the track leads SSW, passing:
ESE of Fili (4¾ miles SW), a reef which dries, but as
there is no sand on it, the reef is not easily
identified at HW, and:
2
WNW of a light−buoy (port hand) (5¼ miles SSW),
marking the extremity of a bank extending W from
a drying reef on the S edge of which lies
Shungu−mbili Island, a sandy island with some
trees on it. A rocky bank, with shoal patches,
extends in a narrow tongue 3½ miles SSW from
Shungu−mbili Island, terminating in an isolated
reef awash; Fly Rock lies on the bank about 1 mile
SSW of Shungu−mbili Island. Thence:
3
ESE of Wumi (9 miles SSW), a drying reef; as there
is no sand on the reef it is not easily identified at
HW. A depth of 3 m lies 1 mile W of Wumi.
Thence:
WNW of an isolated reef (11½ miles S) which dries
1⋅2 m, thence:
To a position about 3 miles NE of Sefo (7.161)
(15 miles SSW), at the entrance to Msala Channel
(7.165) and Kisimani Channel (7.161).
(Directions for Tirene Bay are given at 7.174)
Kisimani Channel
7.161
1
Kisimani Channel may be entered by passing either E or
W of Sefo (7°50′S 39°34′E), a reef on which there is a
drying sandbank which is usually visible and is marked on
its W side by a beacon (white tripod, ball topmark; 3 m in
height).
At LW, when the edges of the banks can be seen, the
deeper channel to E of Sefo is the more suitable. At HW
the channel W of Sefo, in which there are depths from 7 to
9 m, is reported to be preferable.
2
East of Sefo, the track leads SSW, passing (with
positions from Sefo Beacon):
WNW of Salim Bank (2 miles E), an extensive shoal
of sand and coral marked by a light−buoy
(N cardinal), but noting that depths of 5 m are
charted about 5 cables NW of the light−buoy.
Thence:
WNW of a patch with a depth of 9 m over it (2 miles
SSE), thence:
To a position about 7 cables NW of Al Hadjiri
(3 miles SSE).
3
West of Sefo. After passing Sefo, the track leads SSE,
passing (with positions from Sefo Beacon):
SSW of a bank with a depth of 5 m over it (7 cables
S) extending from Sefo, thence:
ENE of a bank with depths of 5 m over it (1 mile
SSW), thence:
To a position about 7 cables NW of Al Hadjiri
(3 miles SSE).
7.162
1
From a position about 7 cables NW of Al Hadjiri
(7°53′S 39°35′E), the track leads SSE, passing (with
positions from Ras Kisimani (7°57′S 39°35′E)):
WSW of Al Hadjiri, a reef with sandbank which dries
and when covered is generally indicated by
discoloured water. A beacon (white concrete, cage
topmark; 6 m in height) stands on the W side of
the reef. A shoal with a depth of 5 m extends
5 cables SW of the sandbank towards the channel.
And:
2
ENE of a light−buoy (starboard hand) (3¾ miles
NNW) marking the E side of a narrow spit with a
least charted depth of 3 m which extends 4 miles
N from Maduvi (2½ miles NW); the edge of the
spit is steep−to and generally indicated by a line of
discoloured water. Thence:
ENE of Maduvi (2½ miles NW), a small sandbank
which dries, thence:
3
ENE of a ridge with depths of 9 m over it (1½ miles
NW), which extends N from Belami (2 miles SW);
about 1 mile W of the ridge an extensive reef
surrounds Boydu Island, which is sandy and
covered with casuarina trees. Thence:
WSW of Ras Kisimani, the low, sandy and steep−to
SW extremity of Mafia Island; a fan−shaped group
of coconut palms stands near its extremity. Red
cliffs, 18 m high, in the vicinity of Kitoni
(2½ miles SE) are prominent. Thence:
4
ENE of Belami (2 miles SW), a reef awash, marked
by a beacon (white concrete, cylinder topmark;
6 m in height); a patch of dangerous rocks lies
1 mile SSE of Belami, Thence:
WSW a light−buoy (port hand) (2 miles S), moored
close to the NW extremity of Okuto, a reef which
mostly dries and fronts the coast S of Ras
Kisimani.
7.163
1
The track then leads S, passing:
E of a dangerous reef (4 miles SSW) reported 1940;
Kauri, a more extensive reef which dries in places,
lies 8 cables W of the reported reef. Thence:
2
W of Mange (6½ miles S), a detached reef which
dries, and noting a depth of 9 m 1 mile W of the
reef. A drying sandbank lies on the N part of
Mange and is marked by a beacon (ball topmark)
9 m in height. Thence:
3
When clear of Mange, the track leads either SSW for
the inner channel W of Songo Songo Island (8°31′S
39°30′E), or SSE for South Mafia Channel.
CHAPTER 7
267
7.164
1
Useful mark:
Palm Hill (7°54′S 39°40′E), has a conical summit
covered with coconut palms, noticeable from some
distance.
(Directions continue, for the inner channel at 7.183)
(Directions for coastal passage from
South Mafia Channel, S−bound are given
at 7.128, and N−bound at 7.136)
Side channels
Msala Channel
7.165
1
Msala Channel lies W of Boydu Island (7°56′S 39°31′E)
and its surrounding shoals. The channel is not buoyed and
is encumbered by numerous shoals and reefs, especially in
its S part about 5 miles S of Boydu Island, where it is
almost filled with shoals, including the drying reef of
Fungu Marima.
Shungu−mbili Pass
7.166
1
Shungu−mbili Pass lies between the reefs surrounding
Niororo Island (7°37′S 39°41′E) (7.158) and a number of
dangerous reefs which lie up to 3 miles NNW and 2 miles
NW of Barakuni Island (7°43′S 39°45′E); on some of the
reefs the sea breaks heavily and the tidal streams set
strongly in the narrow channels between them.
2
Barakuni Island, sandy and covered with casuarina trees,
stands on the S edge of a drying reef from which a
shallow spit extends 1¾ miles SW leaving a narrow but
deep channel between it and the coastal reef of Mwamba
Mkuu (7.154).
Inshore channel, Mto Rufiji to Ras Pembamnasi
7.167
1
General information. The depths increase very
gradually offshore along the coast between Kikunya Mouth
(7°42′S 39°20′E), the N−most mouth of the delta of Mto
Rufiji, and Ras Pembamnasi 32 miles NNE, but there is a
navigable channel, with a soft muddy bottom, inshore of
the islands lying off the coast. This inshore channel is
invariably used by dhows.
2
The islands and reefs fronting the coast give protection
against the swell, except at places abreast the channels
between them; landing on the coast may be effected
without difficulty in ordinary weather.
Beyond these main islands, both farther along the coast
and up to 15 miles offshore, there are a number of reefs
known collectively as Kwale Reefs; owing to the
muddiness of the water most of them are only visible
at LW.
7.168
1
Directions. From a position about 5 miles N of Kikunya
Mouth (7°42′S 39°20′E) the track leads N, passing (with
positions from Koma Island (7°33′S 39°24′E)):
W of Koma Island, in depths of about 5 m. The
island, composed of coral, has two large villages at
its centre; there are trees on the island, and its N
and E sides are fringed with mangroves. On the
outer part of the surrounding reef are several small
bush−covered islets, the N−most being Pemba Juu
Island on which there are some trees. Thence:
2
W of Hatambura Island (3 miles N), a rocky islet
with trees on it.
Thence the track leads NNE, passing:
Close WNW of a buoy (black conical) (7 miles N)
marking the edge of a bank off Kwale Island
which is composed of coral and lying on an
extensive reef. Kwale Island is covered with trees
rising to 30 m high. Chokaa Island, comprising
three bushy islets, lies on the E side of the reef.
Thence:
3
ESE of an isolated rock awash (10 miles N) on the
coastal bank, thence:
ESE of the mouth of Mto Dendeni (13 miles N),
thence:
WNW of North Fanjove Island (13 miles NNE),
wooded and surrounded by a drying reef; several
small reefs lie between North Fanjove Island and
Kwale Island. Thence:
4
WNW of Vyumbani (15 miles NNE) a group of reefs,
awash, lying close W of the SW corner of Sukuti
(7.146) the N−most of Kwale Reefs. In the channel
between the mainland and the reefs of Vyumbani
and Sukuti there is a least charted depth of 3 m.
Thence:
When NW of Sukuti the track leads E, passing N of
Sukuti to a position SE of Ras Pembamnasi (22 miles
NNE).
7.169
1
Side channel. There is a channel between the S edge of
the reefs of Sukuti and North Fanjove Island. Passage W
through the channel leads on the line of bearing 269° of a
distinctive high group of trees (1.21) on the N entrance
point of Mto Dendeni (7°19′S 39°22′E). At the outer
approach, 5½ miles ENE of North Fanjove Island, this
track passes over a depth of 10⋅4 m, reported in 1916.
Strong tide−rips were observed over this position, and it is
possible that there are less depths in the vicinity.
7.170
1
Anchorage. Good anchorage, in either monsoon, may be
obtained N of Koma Island (7°33′S 39°24′E) in a depth of
11 m, mud, with Pemba Juu Island bearing about 094°
distant 7 or 8 cables, as shown on the chart. Good landing
is on a sandy spit on the W side of Koma Island.
Also in either monsoon, small craft may obtain
anchorage W of Sukuti (7°16′S 39°29′E) in depths from
about 5 to 7 m. This anchorage is more easily approached
from Shungu Bay, N of Sukuti.
Tirene Bay
General information
7.171
1
Position and function. Tirene Bay (7°53′S 39°39′E)
provides anchorage for Kilindoni, the main town on Mafia
Island, where there is a government station. The village of
Tirene is 2 miles NE of Kilindoni.
Topography. See 7.154.
Port limits. All tidal waters within a 3 mile radius of
Kilindoni Customs House.
2
Approach and entry. Approach, including vessels from
S, is N of Salim Bank (7°51′S 39°36′E), and entry is E of
Tirene Reef (7°52′S 39°39′E).
Port Authority. Tanzania Harbours Authority, PO Box
9184, Dar es Salaam.
Limiting conditions
7.172
1
Controlling depth. At the anchorage (7.175), 11 m.
CHAPTER 7
268
Harbour
7.173
1
General layout. Anchorage off Kilindoni.
Tidal streams. The tidal stream of the rising tide sets
fairly strongly into Tirene Bay from the NW extremity of
Salim Bank. At the anchorage in the bay, the tidal stream
has been observed to be N−going at ½ kn at 3 hours after
HW, and S−going at a similar rate at 3 hours before HW.
Directions for entering harbour
7.174
Landmark:
Government building (7°55′S 39°40′E) (7.158).
1
Track. From a position about 2 miles N of the
light−buoy (N cardinal) marking the NW extremity of Salim
Bank (7°50′S 39°36′E) the track leads SE, passing (with
positions from Ras Mbisi (7°49′S 39°42′E)):
NE of Salim Bank (7.161) (6½ miles W), thence:
SW of a reef which dries 1⋅2 m (3¼ miles WNW).
2
The track then leads on the line of bearing 164° of Palm
Hill (7.164) (5 miles SSW), passing:
WSW of the coastal bank (3¼ miles SW), and:
ENE of Tirene Reef (4 miles SW) which lies awash
on the S part of a coral bank; the bank extends
8 cables N of the reef. Thence:
When Ras Mbisi bears about 040° the track leads SW to
the selected anchorage (7.175).
3
Useful mark:
Ngombeni Shamba (7°57′S 39°38′E), a group of
mangoes which is more prominent than lower
groups.
Anchorage
7.175
1
Good anchorage in depths of about 11 m with Ras Mbisi
(7°49′S 39°42′E) bearing 040°, either abreast Tirene village
or, as shown on the chart, with the Government Building at
Kilindoni bearing about 140°.
Port services
7.176
1
Communications. Airport for internal services within
Tanzania, 1 km E of Kilindoni.
Harbour regulations. “The Tanzania Harbour
Regulations, 1991” (1.38) are in force in Tirene Bay.
Anchorages
Niororo Island
7.177
1
Anchorage, in a depth of 16⋅5 m, sand, may be obtained
5 cables NW of Niororo Island (7°37′S 39°41′E) (7.158).
Landing on the island is difficult at LW, the best place
being on the SW side. There is a well of brackish water,
and the island is frequented by turtles between January and
June.
Ras Kisimani
7.178
1
Good anchorage may be obtained W of Ras Kisimani
(7°56′S 39°35′E) (7.162), the SW extremity of Mafia
Island. Due consideration should be given to the proximity
of the route through Kisimani Channel.
During the NE Monsoon there is good landing close S
of the point.
SOUTH MAFIA CHANNEL TO
KILWA MAIN PASS, PASSING WEST OF
SONGO SONGO ISLAND
General information
Chart 1032
Route and description
7.179
1
From the S entrance to Kisimani Channel (8°05′S
39°34′E), the route passes inshore of the mass of reefs and
islands which front the coast for about 30 miles between
South Mafia Channel (8°12′S 39°37′E) and Kilwa Main
Pass (8°40′S 39°33′E), and leads to the roadstead at Kilwa
Kivinje (8°45′S 39°25′E) and to Kilwa Main Pass.
Recommended tracks are shown on the chart, but as they
are taken from old surveys they should be used with
caution.
2
This inner channel is best navigated when the sun is in
a favourable position for seeing the reefs, and with a good
lookout from an elevated vantage point. For advice on the
use of this route see 7.115.
Topography
7.180
1
For details S of Mto Matandu (8°43′S 39°23′E) see
7.100 and 7.120.
The coast between Mto Matandu and Ras Ndumbo
21 miles N is backed by a flat plain, the NW part of which
rises gradually to a number of low wooded ridges lying
parallel with he coast; within the ridges the land rises to
elevations from 520 to 670 m at Matumbi range 17 miles
inland (Chart 2929).
2
At the coast, for 7 miles N of Mto Matandu there is a
sandy beach, except for a rocky shelf extending 6 cables
offshore at the mid−point of the beach. Farther N the coast
is fringed with mangroves, and N of Ras Ndumbo the
extensive deltas of Mto Mohoro (7.189) and Mto Rufiji
(7.191) are low lying and of uniform outline.
Offshore, a drying bank of sand and mud extends
between Mto Matandu and Ras Ndumbo.
3
Mohoro Bay, at the head of which is the mangrove
covered delta of Mto Mohoro, is entered between Ras
Ndumbo and Ras Pombwe (Pombwa) a mangrove covered
point 5 miles NNE; the head of the bay is fronted by
drying banks which extend 3 miles offshore.
There are several villages along this coast but they are
mostly concealed by mangroves, as is Somanga (8°23′S
39°17′E), the largest village between Kilwa Kivinje and
Ras Ndumbo, which stands on the N side of a creek
between Ras Somanga Funga and Ras Ndumbo.
Depths
7.181
1
Charted depths from 9 to 13 m lie in the charted
recommended route (7.179) between Simaya Island (8°19′S
39°26′E) and Machangi, 7 miles S. Attention is drawn to
the source data diagram on the chart.
Marine exploitation
7.182
1
The Songo Songo Gas Field is (2004) being developed
NW of Songo Songo Island (8°31′S 39°30′E). This
involves the installation of platforms, pipelines, a gas
processing plant and a pipeline between Songo Songo
Island and Somanga Funga 12 miles WNW.
CHAPTER 7
269
Directions
(continued from 7.164)
Principal marks
7.183
1
Landmark:
Kitope Hill (8°20′S 39°10′E), a thickly wooded
flat−topped hill; to N of its summit is a lower spur
with a small conical top.
Kisiwani Channel to Chocha
7.184
1
From a position clear of Mange (8°04′S 39°36′E) at the
S entrance to Kisimani Channel, the track leads SSW,
passing (with positions from Membeuso Beacon (8°22′S
39°25′E)):
WNW of Okuza Island (12 miles ENE) (7.129),
thence:
ESE of two small isolated drying reefs (8 and 9 miles
N), thence:
2
ESE of Simaya Islet (4 miles NNE) distant about
1¼ miles; the islet, on a drying reef, is sandy and
covered with high trees which are visible at a
considerable distance. Mwamba Mkuu, a detached
drying reef, and Okambara a drying reef of sand
and coral connected to Ras Pombwe (Pombwa)
(7.127) by a drying sandbank, lie respectively, 1½
and 2½ miles W of Simaya Islet. Thence:
3
WNW of Bawara (4 miles ENE), a group of several
small drying reefs, thence:
ESE of Membeuso, a reef with a drying sandbank on
it; a beacon (black tripod, white cylinder topmark)
stands on the E edge of the reef. A detached reef,
which dries, lies 5 cables S of Membeuso. Thence:
4
WNW of Banda (2 miles ESE), a reef with a
sandbank on it which dries; foul ground extends
3 cables from the NW and SE extremities of the
reef. Thence:
WNW of Machangi (2½ miles SSE), a group of
drying reefs. A sandbank, which dries, lies near
the W edge of the NW reef and is a good mark
for indicating the channel, except when covered.
The SW reef is steep−to and dries at half tide, but
is not easily seen. Thence:
5
ESE of Chocha (2¾ miles SSW), a reef not easily
seen as the higher part, a drying sandbank, lies at
the NW end. The SE extremity of Chocha is
marked by a beacon (iron tripod, black ball
topmark); an obstruction which dries 2 m lies
about ¼ cable E, and a shoal spit, generally
indicated by the green colour of the water over it,
extends about 2 cables SE of the beacon. Miza,
two drying reefs, lie respectively about 1 and
1½ miles N of the NW extremity of Chocha.
Thence the track passes either E or W of Poiasi
(8 miles S).
(Directions continue, for passage E of Poiasi at 7.185
and for passage W of Poiasi at 7.187)
Passage east of Poiasi
7.185
1
From a position about 1½ miles SSE of the beacon on
Chocha (8°25′S 39°25′E) the track leads SSE, passing (with
positions from the beacon):
WSW of Baniani (4 miles ESE) a reef which dries
and is fringed with foul ground, thence:
WSW of Sanders Rock (6 miles SE), noting the
submerged well about 7 cables WNW of the rock;
thence:
ENE of Poiasi (5 miles S), a steep−to drying reef
with a narrow ridge of sand on it, thence:
2
WSW of Songo Songo Island (7 miles SE), a coral
island covered with trees on a broad drying reef
off which there are many submerged rocks. A
group of high trees (1.21) on the NW end of the
island is remarkable when seen from the inner
channel. Pumbavu Islet, sandy and with a few
trees on it, is on the NW extremity of the reef
surrounding the island, and is connected to it by a
drying ridge of sand. Thence:
3
ENE of Pwajuu (7¼ miles S) a steep−to drying reef
with a narrow ridge of sand on it, and a beacon
(white concrete) at its SE extremity, thence:
WSW of Val Rock (8½ miles SSE); the sea does not
break over this rock and it should be given a wide
berth. A patch with a depth of 9 m over it lies
8 cables SSW of Val Rock.
(Directions continue, for passage E of Jewe at 7.188)
7.186
1
The track continues SSE until SSW of the high trees on
Songo Songo Island. Thence the line of bearing 028°,
astern, of the trees leads SSW, passing (with positions from
the beacon on Jewe (8°39′S 39°26′E)):
WNW of a small patch of reef (1¾ miles NNE)
reported in 1950, thence:
2
WNW of the W extremity of Jewe (7.119) (5 cables
W).
Thence the line of bearing about 176° of the E edge of
Singino Hill (8°48′S 39°23′E) (7.100) leads towards the
anchorage at Kilwa Kivinje.
(Directions for Kilwa Kivinje are given at 7.123)
Passage west of Poiasi
7.187
1
From a position about 1 mile ESE of the SE extremity
of Chocha (8°25′S 39°25′E) the track leads generally SSW,
passing (with positions from the beacon):
ESE of an isolated drying reef (1¼ miles WSW),
thence:
WNW of Poiasi (5 miles S) (7.185).
2
The track then leads SSE, passing (with positions from
Ras Wango (8°33′S 39°20′E)):
WSW of Poiasi (4 miles NE) (7.185), thence:
ENE of Kiswasi (2 miles NE), a detached reef which
dries, thence:
ENE of Fungu Wango which dries 2 m, and extends
2¼ miles E from the shore at Ras Wango, a point
covered with mangroves, thence:
3
WSW of Pwajuu (5 miles E) (7.185), thence:
ENE of a detached drying reef (2 miles SE), thence:
When W of Jewe (8 miles SE) (7.119), the line of
bearing, about 176°, of the E edge of Singino Hill (7.100)
leads towards the anchorage at Kilwa Kivinje.
(Directions for Kilwa Kivinje are given at 7.123)
Passage east of Jewe to Kilwa Main Pass
7.188
1
If passing direct to Kilwa Main Pass (8°40′S 39°33′E)
the track continues generally SSE, passing (with positions
from the NE extremity of Jewe (8°38′S 39°28′E)):
Clear of a depth of 9 m (1¾ miles N), and:
WSW of Pweza (3 miles NE), a reef on which there
is a sandbank which dries, thence:
ENE of Jewe (7.119), thence:
CHAPTER 7
270
WSW of Luala (7.119), thence:
Into Kilwa Main Pass.
(Directions for Kilwa Main Pass are given at 7.119)
Mto Mohoro
7.189
1
Mto Mohoro (8°13′S 39°15′E) enters the sea through
two mouths at the head of Mohoro Bay (7.180): Utagite
Mouth, the principal one, lies close W of Ras Pombwe
(Pombwa) (8°18′S 39°20′E) and Lokotonazi Mouth lies
2 miles farther W. There are depths from 1⋅5 to 8⋅8 m
within Utagite Mouth but Lokotonazi Mouth is believed to
dry; the two mouths are connected about 4 miles NW of
Ras Pombwe.
2
There is an outer bar and an inner bar across Utagite
Mouth, the former being 2¼ miles S of Ras Pombwe; the
last reported depth on the outer bar was 0⋅9 m. There is no
swell on the bar, but with any wind the sea breaks on the
sandbanks on each side at half tide; the channel into the
river is narrow and the bars are said to shift.
3
A vessel 52 m in length and with a draught of 2⋅7 m,
and another vessel with a draught of 3⋅5 m, are known to
have successfully navigated several times as far as Bongwe
(8°14′S 39°16′E), a small village about 9 miles within the
outer bar. The latter was generally crossed 1 hour before
HW, enabling advantage to be taken of the in−going stream
as far as Bongwe where HW occurs 1 hour later than on
the outer bar, the rise being about 3⋅4 m
4
The river is 180 m wide at Bongwe, but higher up it
narrows considerably. Above Ndunda−Tawa, a village
2½ miles NW of Bongwe, the river is difficult to navigate
and during January is only navigable by small craft at HW;
the estimated rise of the tide during that month at Mohoro
(8°08′S 39°11′E), a village about 5 miles NW of
Ndunda−Tawa, is about 1⋅8 m.
5
During floods, the river level rises, the current flows at
about 4 kn, and the in−going tidal stream is then not felt
above Bongwe.
The river banks are low and covered with mangroves as
far as Ndunda−Tawa, where they become steep, and the
country on each side of the river is cultivated as far as
Mohoro.
Anchorage
Songo Songo Island
7.190
1
General information. For general details of Songo
Songo Island (8°31′S 39°30′E) see 7.185. There is a village
on the island, and there are wells with moderately good
water in the centre of the island, but the latter are difficult
to access and are best approached from the W side.
Caution. In 2004, a gas field (7.182) was being
developed close off the NW extremity of Songo Songo
Island; such development may affect anchorages in the
vicinity of the island.
2
Anchorage, may be obtained in a depth of 11 m from 3
to 5 cables W of Pumbavu Islet, off the NW extremity of
Songo Songo Island.
During the SE Monsoon, vessels of moderate draught
may obtain sheltered anchorage off the NE side of Songo
Songo Island, in depths of 13 m, with the N extremity of
the island bearing 285° and the S extremity bearing 202°.
3
Small craft may may obtain more sheltered anchorage,
in a depth of 7 m, in a pocket between Songo Songo Island
and the reefs extending S of Pumbavu Islet which is
approached over a sandbank with a least depth of 3⋅7 m
close S of the islet.
MTO RUFIJI
Chart 1032
Delta of Mto Rufiji
7.191
1
Between Ras Pombwe (Pombwa) (8°18′S 39°21′E) and
the NW entrance point to Kikunya Mouth 36 miles N, the
coast is a maze of low swampy mangrove−covered islands,
intersected by creeks, comprising the delta of Mto Rufiji.
Some of these creeks do not communicate with either Mto
Rufiji or Mto Mohoro (7.189), and at ordinary times these
two rivers never join, but during the rainy season in the
interior (December to February) the whole of the delta is
frequently inundated.
2
The coast of the delta projects E of the general coastline
and is about 50 miles in length, low and of uniform outline
when seen from seaward; in nearly all places it is fringed
with mangroves.
Within the swampy mangrove belt there is a broad flat
plain, about 35 miles in length, covered with long grass and
with a few trees; there is some cultivation in the vicinity of
villages on the plain.
3
The N part of the delta is fronted by Mafia Island and
the numerous islets and reefs which lie in the intervening
channel.
4
The coast of the delta is broken by ten large mouths,
eight of which are connected at all times with Mto Rufiji,
the other two being salt water creeks. However, such a
small amount of fresh water finds its way into the N part
of the delta that it produces little effect, and in the mouths
and creeks N of Msala Mouth (7°55′S 39°26′E) the water
is salt. All the mouths are connected close within the coast
by a series of small creeks which, at HW, serve as canoe
channels between the villages and so avoid having to cross
the bars. The two N−most mouths, Simba Uranga Mouth
(7.199) and Kikunya Mouth (7.200) have no bar and are
consequently the best entrances to Mto Rufiji.
7.192
1
Jaja Mouth (8°13′S 39°21′E), 5 miles NNE of Ras
Pombwe, is the entrance to Mto Kipale which is connected
to Mto Rufiji, but in the dry season its upper part is too
shallow even for boats.
The village of Jaja stands in a group of high trees on
the N entrance point of Jaja Mouth. Within the entrance, on
the S bank, Maringo branch leads into Utagite Mouth of
Mto Mohoro and, on the N bank, Simbandona and
Kiongoroni branches connect with Ngedu Mouth.
2
There is a bar 1½ miles E of Jaja Mouth; it is never
quite dry but thee is usually a swell on it.
Three small detached reefs, awash at LW, and a rock
awash on a patch of foul ground, lie between 1½ and
3½ miles ESE of the bar off Jaja Mouth.
7.193
1
Ngedu Mouth (8°09′S 39°23′E) is entered 4 miles N of
Jaja Mouth; it is of no importance to shipping. A depth of
7⋅0 m lies 3 miles ENE of Ngedu Mouth.
7.194
1
Ndahi Mouth (8°05′S 39°25′E), entered 4 miles NNE of
Ngedu Mouth, may be identified by a grove of high
casuarina trees on its N entrance point. The entrance is
exposed to the swell which sets in through South Mafia
Channel, causing a heavy sea on the bar at all times.
CHAPTER 7
271
2
Uginga branch connects Ndahi Mouth to Ngedu Mouth.
Mto Usimbe, which branches from Mto Rufiji near the
village of Usimbe (8°01′S 39°17′E), enters Ndahi Mouth
2½ miles within its entrance. During the dry season, Mto
Usimbe is only navigable by boats at spring tides.
7.195
1
Kiassi Mouth (7°59′S 39°27′E), at the S end of Msala
Channel (7.165), is entered 5½ miles NE of Ndahi Mouth
and joins the latter at its confluence with Mto Usimbe.
Ras Dima, the S entrance point of Kiassi Mouth, has
two high casuarina trees on it.
7.196
1
Msala Mouth (7°55′S 39°26′E) is approached through
Msala Channel and its entrance is fronted by drying banks
of sand and mud which extend 3 miles offshore. With a
fresh breeze there is a considerable swell on the bar, and at
LW springs entry is impracticable. Although the entrance is
small Msala Mouth may be considered to be the true
mouth of Mto Rufiji as firm ground and fresh water are
reached much sooner than through the larger
mangrove−covered creeks.
2
The village of Msala stands on the shore of a large
creek which leads S from close within Msala Mouth.
Bumba branch, the main channel of Msala Mouth, is
from 73 to 137 m wide and had depths from 1⋅8 to 3⋅7 m.
The mangroves cease about 5 miles within the entrance,
and for 7 miles there is a dense forest which gives place to
open country at the junction of Bumba branch with Mto
Rufiji.
7.197
1
Ras Twana (7°49′S 39°27′E), the NE extremity of the
delta, is low, mangrove−covered and fronted by a drying
bank of mud and sand which extends 3½ miles E; the outer
edge of this bank is moderately steep−to and is generally
only visible when the sea is breaking on it.
Twana Creek is entered close W of Ras Twana and
leads to the coast close within the N entrance point of
Msala Mouth (7.196), 5½ miles SSW.
7.198
1
Kiomboni Mouth (7°47′S 39°25′E), entered 2 miles
WNW of Ras Twana, is one of the larger mouths of Mto
Rufiji. For 12 miles within the entrance it has a width of
about 2 cables, with depths from 0⋅9 to 5⋅5 m, and flows
through dense mangroves. Close above this point it is
joined by Simba Uranga branch, the two branches together
joining Mto Rufiji 5 cables above their confluence.
7.199
1
Simba Uranga Mouth (7°46′S 39°22′E), entered
5½ miles WNW of Ras Twana, is used by coasting vessels
engaged in the timber trade. There is no definable bar at
the entrance, but a bank with depths of less than 5 m over
it extends 6 or 7 miles offshore. Depths on the bank
decrease as the entrance is approached and several
mudbanks which nearly dry lie between 2 and 4 miles NE
of the E entrance point. It is reported that a least depth of
2⋅4 m has been found over the bank, but the depths
probably vary from year to year.
2
Landmarks. Some casuarina trees (1.21) near the W
entrance point are usually the first objects sighted, at about
6 miles. The E entrance point, and a group of coconut
palms 1¼ miles SSW on Suninga, may next be identified,
at about 3 miles.
3
Within the entrance, Simba Uranga Mouth extends
generally SW for about 10 miles and has numerous
branches leading SE to Suninga arm and NW to Kikunya
arm. Except close within the entrance, where there are
depths of about 14 m for a short distance, Simba Uranga
arm is shallow with depths from 0⋅5 to 2⋅1 m, although
between 1½ and 2 cables in width.
4
Suninga arm, which forms the principal approach to Mto
Rufiji, is entered close within the E entrance point to
Simba Uranga Mouth, from which it is separated by
Suninga Island. The arm runs E for 1 mile and then runs
nearly parallel with Simba Uranga arm, with depths from
4⋅5 to 9⋅0 m, as far as Salale (7°51′S 39°19′E) which is the
largest of the many villages on this arm and off which
anchorage may be obtained. A passage, 1½ miles above
Salale and 5 cables in length, connects Suninga and Simba
Uranga arms.
5
Directions for Simba Uranga Mouth. It is not advisable
to attempt the entrance during the period of the out−going
tidal stream, which is reported to set E across the banks
outside the entrance and, at times, to raise a considerable
sea near LW. The in−going tidal stream is reported to set
NW and W, but less strongly than the out−going tidal
stream.
6
The W extremity of the E entrance point in line with the
W edge of the group of coconut palms (1.21) on Suninga
Island leads to the entrance.
Having passed an old Custom House on the W entrance
point, enter Suninga arm and proceed to the anchorage off
Salale, keeping closer to the side which has the steeper and
high bank; care is necessary when rounding the very sharp
bend S of the S side of Suninga Island.
7.200
1
Kikunya Mouth (7°42′S 39°20′E), the N−most and
largest of the mouths forming the delta of Mto Rufiji, is
entered between Ras Simba Uranga, 3 miles NNW of
Simba Uranga Mouth, and a point 3 miles NW on which is
situated the village of Kikunguni.
A buoy (black conical) is moored 6 miles NE of
Kikunguni village. There is no bar, and by approaching
with the centre of the entrance on the line of bearing 223°,
a least depth of 1⋅8 m will be obtained.
2
The passage of Kikunguni Mouth to within about
2 miles of the village of Kikunya (7°50′S 39°15′E) situated
8 miles SW of Ras Simba Uranga, presents no difficulties,
but the branch then becomes narrow with sharp bends and
has depths of only about 1 m at half tide.
Kikunya Mouth is only connected to Mto Rufiji by
branches leading to Simba Uranga arm.
Mto Rufiji above the delta
7.201
1
Mto Rufiji, above the delta, is not nearly as large as
might be expected from the number and width of its
mouths; by the time that the flooding caused by rains in
the interior has subsided, and the current has become
sufficiently reduced in strength to permit the passage of
boats, the navigable channel is very limited and is
obstructed by many shoals and banks.
2
The banks of the river are continuously lined with
mangroves as far as Batja (7°56′S 39°18′E) at the junction
of Bumba branch; above this point the country becomes
more open and villages are numerous, dwellings being built
on poles owing to the floods which cover vast areas.
The holding ground in the river is bad and except in a
few places it is unsafe to anchor, securing to trees on the
banks being more satisfactory. Floating islands of grass and
weed are common.
7.202
1
Bars. There are several bars in the river, the positions
and depths of which are constantly varying. One of the
CHAPTER 7
272
worst lies close above the village of Usimbe (8°01′S
39°18′E), about 20 miles above Salale (7.199); here the
navigable channel is often very narrow and subject to
frequent changes.
7.203
1
Current. The river flows at a rate of 3 to 5 kn, and even
exceeds 5 kn in places. The greater volume of the water
from Mto Rufiji appears to flow out through Mto Usimbe
(7.194), and in consequence the current in the main river is
not felt so strongly below Usimbe.
The river is tidal as far as Msomene (8°03′S 39°15′E),
26 miles above Salale, but during floods the flood tidal
stream is not felt for more than 1 mile above Batja.
7.204
1
Boats work up and down the river in spite of the
extremely strong current, but dhows do not ascend above
Msomene. HMS Mersey, a vessel of 81 m length, 15 m
beam and 1⋅9 m draught, was navigated as far as Msomene
in March 1917 at which time the river had risen
considerably above the level of “low river”.
2
Mto Rufiji has been ascended by a power boat, with a
draught of 1⋅7 m, as far as Kunglio which is over 70 miles
W of Msomene in a direct line. Pagani Falls, a short
distance above Kunglio, make further progress
impracticable.
7.205
1
“High river” and “low river”. The level of Mto Rufiji is
low from August to December; between December to
March there is some rise in level, but the lower part of the
river is not wholly navigable before April.
When making a sketch survey of Mto Rufiji in 1917,
HMS Mersey observed that the river had already risen
2⋅1 m by February of that year and that it reached its
highest level, 5⋅0 m above normal “low river” level, on
about 20th April; these floods were said to have been the
highest for 9 years.
2
At Kunglio, near the head of navigation, it has been
estimated that the difference in level between “high river”
and “low river” is about 4⋅5 m, the highest level occurring
in March and the lowest in November.
NOTES
273
Chapter 8 - Ras Ndege to Pangani
Fungu Kizimkazi
Leven
Bank
ZANZI BAR
I SL AND
PEMBA
I SL AND T
A
N
Z
A
N
I
A
Zanzibar
Pangani
Ras Machuisi
Bagamoyo
Dar es Salaam
R
a
s
N
d
e
g
e
3310
3211
665
674
693
0306
8
.
1
4
6
8
.
1
0
0
8
.
7
2
8
.
1
2
8
.
1
6
9
8.29
8.84
8.155
8.109
40°
30´
30´
39°
40°
30´30´
6°
7°
30´
30´
6°
7°
30´
30´
Longitude 39°
East from Greenwich
274
275
CHAPTER 8
RAS NDEGE TO PANGANI
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3310
Scope of the chapter
8.1
1
This chapter describes passage off the coast of Tanzania
from Ras Ndege (6°52′S 39°28′E) to Pangani (5°26′S
38°59′E) about 90 miles NNW, passing both W and E of
Zanzibar Island, and includes description of the ports of
Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar.
The chapter is divided into the following sections:
Zanzibar Channel (8.2).
Passage E of Zanzibar Island (8.169).
ZANZIBAR CHANNEL
GENERAL INFORMATION
Chart 3310
Area covered
8.2
1
This section describes passage in Zanzibar Channel from
Ras Ndege (6°52′S 39°28′E) to Pangani (5°26′S 38°59′E)
about 90 miles NNW, including description of the ports of
Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar; it is arranged as follows:
Ras Ndege to Dar es Salaam (8.12).
Dar es Salaam (8.29).
Dar es Salaam to Bagamoyo (8.72).
Bagamoyo to Ras Machuisi (8.100).
Zanzibar Harbour and Approaches (8.109).
Ras Machuisi to Pangani (8.146).
Description
8.3
1
Zanzibar Channel separates the island of Zanzibar from
the mainland of Africa. The S entrance lies between Ras
Ndege (6°52′S 39°28′E) and Ras Kizimkazi 23 miles N, the
S extremity of Zanzibar Island. The N entrance lies
between Ras Kikogwe (5°27′S 39°00′E) and Ras Nungwi
24 miles SE, the N extremity of Zanzibar Island. The
channel is about 20 miles wide, but throughout its length it
is encumbered on both sides with numerous coral reefs.
2
On the W, or mainland, side of Zanzibar Channel the
reefs are not easily distinguished at times due to the
discoloration caused by muddy water from the river