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П
РАКТИКУМ
ПО
ЗАКРЕПЛЕНИЮ
ЛЕКСИЧЕСКОГО
МАТЕРИАЛА
УЧЕБНИКА
«NEW INSIGHTS INTO BUSINESS»
(by Graham Tullis and Tonya Trappe)
Для студентов экономического факультета
1
Москва
Институт международного права и экономики имени А. С. Грибоедова
2007
2
УТВЕРЖДЕНО
кафедрой иностранных языков
С о с т а в и т е л ь – А. В. Киселева
Практикум
по закреплению лексического материала учебника «New
Insights Into Business». – М.: ИМПЭ им.
А.
С.
Грибоедова, 2007. – 110
с.
Подготовлен на кафедре иностранных языков.
© Киселева А. В., 2007
3
Данное пособие является методической разработкой к учебнику «New
Insights into Business» (авт. Graham
Tullis
; Tonya
Trappe
) и предназначено для
студентов экономических специальностей, а также факультетов менеджмента и
делового администрирования, владеющих английским языком на уровне Inter
-
mediate
(средний) и Upper
-
Intermediate
(выше среднего).
Целью пособия является закрепление лексики данного учебника и
выработка навыков перевода текстов, содержащих экономическую и деловую
терминологию, с английского на русский и с русского языка на английский.
Особое внимание уделяется таким сложностям изучения английского языка,
как фразовые глаголы и идиоматика в текстах специальной литературы, их
адекватное понимание и правильное толкование на родном языке. Опыт работы
с английскими учебниками показывает, что студенты, справляясь с переводом
текстов и лексических единиц на русский язык, испытывают очевидные
трудности при попытке адекватно сформулировать мысли на английском,
используя активную лексику урока.
Данное пособие реализует принцип сопоставительного изучения языков
русского и английского, который способствует созданию у студентов
правильного понимания и умения правильно употреблять изучаемый языковой
материал в общении и переводе с родного языка. Поэтому использование
родного языка (русского) имеет основную цель обучения коммуникации на
иностранном языке.
Помимо этого, пособие ставит цель расширения лингвострановедческих
знаний, способствующих развитию навыков общения с носителями другого
языка и культуры, усвоение которых способствует становлению современного,
высококультурного специалиста.
Unit I. Company Structures (SB, p. 4–13)
Vocabulary Notes
shareholders n. – акционеры
Chief Executive Officer (CEO) – первое
лицо
компании
; главный
руководитель
; Chairperson
– председатель Совета директоров; Board
of
Directors
– Совет директоров; workforce
– состав работающих; рабочая сила; Human
Resources
– отдел кадров; человеческие ресурсы; персонал; syn. Personnel
to lay the foundations – заложить
фундамент
; основать
; to
found
(
founded
) – основывать; учреждать (дело, компанию);
syn. to set up to establish
to
concentrate
on
, v
. – сосредоточиться (на); сконцентрировать усилия; manufacturer
, producer
– производитель; to
fuel
, v
.- дать толчок; стимулировать; to
fuel
a
steady
programme
of
expansion
– способствовать стабильной программе
4
развития; to
stimulate
product
innovation
– стимулировать постоянное обновление
продукции; to
protect
innovations
with
patents
– защитить инновационные продукты
посредством патентов; to
mark
, v
. – ознаменовать; a
landmark
, n
. – веха; товарный пункт; объект на местности; to
diversify
, v
. – диверсифицировать; разнообразить; diversification
– диверсификация; процесс расширения бизнеса за счет новых не
родственных видов деятельности; the diversification of the product range – расширение
ассортимента
продукция
; to
launch
a
product
– выпустить на рынок новый продукт; service
outlets
– бюро технического обслуживания; мастерские по обслуживанию;
to
employ
, v
. – нанимать; брать на работу; to
staff
, v
. – укомплектовать штатами; набирать сотрудников; to
list
shares
(
on
stock
exchanges
) – регистрировать акции на фондовых биржах; to
turn
out
– выпускать; производить; integrated
circuits
– сборные схемы; микросхемы для сборки; a
total
of
… – в общей сложности; a
long
-
term
strategy
– долгосрочная перспектива развития; to
look
after
, v
. – зд. отвечать за; осуществлять; to supervise the policies of… – контролировать
действия
…
to
implement
, v
. – внедрять; осуществлять; The
Group
Management
Committee
also
serves
to
ensure
that
business
is
-
sues
and
practices
are
shared
across
the
various
activities
in
the
group
–
Комитет Коллективного Управления служит гарантией того, что проблемы
бизнеса и методы их решения являются общими для всех подразделений
корпорации.
to
be
committed
to
– быть приверженным чему-либо…; выполнять обязательства; to
contribute
to
– вносить вклад; способствовать чему-либо; to
witness
, v
. – явиться свидетелем чего-либо; наблюдать; Task 1. Read the text on p. 6, translate it and answer the following questions:
When were the foundations of the company laid?
What did they manufacture initially?
What innovations fuelled expansion of the company?
Why was a research laboratory established?
What event marked the beginning of the diversification progress?
What exciting product ideas made the landmarks in the company’s development?
How many people does the company employ thorough out the world?
What are the most important lines of business?
How is management carried out?
What is the company committed to?
Where can people witness the products of the company?
5
Sum up the information from the text about the Philips Company. Task 2. Translate from Russian using the vocabulary from the text:
1.
Основы этой крупнейшей в мире компании были заложены в начале
прошлого века.
2.
В начале компания сосредоточилась на выпуске электроламп.
3.
Совсем недавно она выпустила на рынок новую линию продукции.
4.
Компания защищает свои инновации посредством патентов.
5.
Это изобретение ознаменовало начало диверсификации всего
ассортимента продукции.
6.
Знаменательные вехи развития компании происходили тогда, когда
она принимала стратегию быстрого роста.
7.
Развитие индустрии электротоваров дало толчок стабильной
программе развития.
8.
Политические решения проводятся в жизнь высшим руководством
компании, которое также контролирует общее состояние дел в
компании.
9.
Каждый день предприятия компании выпускают в общей сложности
до 50-ти миллионов микросхем.
10.
Комитет коллективного руководства является гарантом того, что
важные вопросы и методы работы являются общими для всех
подразделений компании.
Task 3. Do the company profile exercise on p. 9 (the Colgate – Palmolive Company)
Use the appropriate tense forms and answer the questions:
When was the company founded?
What was its initial business?
When did the company begin to expand?
What did the expansion lead to?
Where does the company have operations now?
Why is it a truly global consumer products company?
What are its five main sectors of business?
What was the result of the company’s heavy investment in research and technology?
Why did it buy the Ora Pharm Company?
What educational programme has the company carried out?
What is the attitude of the company to environmental issues?
Now say what you remember about the Colgate – Palmolive Company.
Task 4. Give English equivalents for:
-
учредить компанию; -
проводить агрессивную компанию роста; -
что привело к открытию филиалов во всем мире; -
действительно глобальная компания по производству потребительских
товаров; 6
-
в результате значительных инвестиций в исследования; -
чтобы закрепить свое присутствие на рынках профессиональной
продукции; -
поддерживать тесное сотрудничество с международным сообществом
стоматологов; -
уделять пристальное внимание защите окружающей среды; -
использовать упаковочные материалы, которые можно переработать.
Task 5
.
Present perfect and past simple
Complete the following company profile with either the present perfect or
past simple tense of the verb in brackets.
Procter & Gamble 1
has been (be) in the soap business since William Procter and
James Gamble 2
_________________ (form) their partnership in 1837. In order to
raise capital for expansion, the partners 3
___________________(set up) a corporate
structure in 1890, with an appointed president at the helm of the company.
It
4
__________________(undergo) further restructuring in 1955, with the creation of
individual operating divisions to better manage their growing lines of products. John
E. Pepper 5
___________________(lead) the company since 1995, when he was elec
-
ted Procter & Gamble's ninth Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. The same year,
the company 6
_____________________(move) from managing the business under
two geographic areas, US and International, to four regions – North America, Latin
America, Asia, and Europe/Middle East/Africa. Ivory soap, which
7
_______________________(become) a common household name,
8
_______________________(come) onto the market in 1879. With the introduction
and instant success of Tide laundry detergent in 1946, Procter & Gamble
9
______________________ (embark) on a strategy of rapid growth into new product
lines as well as new markets around the world. The firm's commitment to innovation
in technology 10
___________________(help) Tide to remain their single brand over
the years. Perhaps the product that 11
___________________(have) the greatest impact,
however, is Pampers, the disposable nappy which they 2
__________________(launch)
in 1961.
As a result of their aggressive expansion policy, Procter & Gamble sales
13
___________________(reach) $10 billion in 1980. Since then the company
14
_________________(quadruple) the number of consumers it can serve with its
brands – to about five billion people around the world. In 1998 sales
15
___________________(rise) to $37.2 billion.
Read the story about Procter & Gamble again and answer the questions:
How was the company formed? When?
Why did the partners set up a corporate structure?
When did the company undergo further restructuring?
What did the restructuring result in?
Who has led the company since 1995?
How did the managing system change?
7
What are the main landmarks of the company development?
What is the company policy?
What enabled the company to embark on a strategy of rapid growth?
What product has had the greatest impact?
What did their aggressive expansion policy result in?
How many consumers do they have worldwide?
Task 6. Give Russian equivalents for these phrases:
to form a partnership
to raise capital for expansion
to be at the helm of the company
to lead the company
to elect / to be elected
to become a common household name
to come onto the market
to embark on a strategy of rapid growth new product lines
the firm’s commitment to innovation in technology
to have a great impact
to launch onto the market
to launch into production
the aggressive expansion policy
to serve consumers with its brands
to quadruple the number
Task 7. Translate from English into Russian without using a dictionary:
1.
The owners of companies often set up corporate structures in order to raise
capital for expansion.
2.
This company underwent restructuring last year and now it has a young and
energetic leader at the helm.
3.
When the company first moved into the international market, it became in
-
stant success.
4.
The company achieved immediate / instant success because it embarked on a
strategy of rapid growth into new product lines.
5.
As a result of their aggressive policy the company’s sales increased by 60%.
6.
When the company launched a new product line onto the market, it became
an instant success.
7.
The company’s commitment to innovation in technology and high quality of
products made it the market leader.
Task 8. Translate from Russian into English:
1.
Владельцы компаний часто образовывают корпоративные структуры
для того, чтобы собрать капитал, необходимый для расширения
бизнеса.
2.
Агрессивная политика роста привела к тому, что объем продаж резко
8
увеличился.
3.
Компания добилась успеха, потому что приняла стратегию быстрого
роста и развития новых направлений.
4.
Когда компания впервые вышла на международный рынок, она сразу
же стала успешной.
5.
Во главе компании стоит опытный руководитель, поэтому она
успешно развивается.
6.
Эта компания претерпела реструктуризацию в прошлом году, и сейчас
у руля власти находится молодой и энергичный руководитель.
7.
Когда компания выпустила на рынок новую линию товаров, к ней
сразу же пришел успех.
8.
Трудно добиться успеха при такой жесткой конкуренции, если не
принимать стратегию быстрого роста.
9.
Диверсификация ассортимента продукции дала толчок быстрому
росту компании и ее выходу на международные рынки.
10.
Компания обслуживает огромное количество потребителей, поэтому
ее сеть сервисных центров постоянно растет. Unit 2. Recruitment
(SB, p. 14–24)
Vocabulary Notes
to
recruit
, v
. – брать на работу; проводить набор сотрудников; a
recruit
, BrE
n
. – вновь принятый на работу; новичок; AmE – a hire; to hire, v. – брать
на
работу
; recruitment
agency
– бюро по найму; агентство по трудоустройству; AmE
– a
search
firm
to
apply
for
a
job
– подать заявление о приеме на работу; направить письмо с
просьбой о приеме на работу; a
letter
of
application
– письмо-заявление о приеме на работу; syn. a covering letter; AmE – a cover letter
a
curriculum
vitae
(
a
CV
) – автобиографическая справка; анкета; AmE
– a
resume
an
application
form
– анкета для заполнения при поступлении на работу; to complete (to fill in) an application form
an
applicant
, n
. – претендент на должность; соискатель; кандидат на вакансию; syn
. a
candidate
; a
short
list
– список отобранных для собеседования кандидатов; to
be
short
listed
– войти в список кандидатов для собеседования; to
interview
, v
. – проводить собеседования; a
job
interview
, n
. – собеседование при приеме на работу; an
interviewer
, n
. – человек проводящий собеседование; интервьюер; a
record
of
accomplishment
– послужной список; список личных достижений и
продвижение по службе; a corporate ladder – служебная
лестница
; 9
a
white
-
collar
job
– должность служащего в офисе / чиновника «белые воротнички»;
ср. a
blue
-
collar
job
– работа на производстве; в цеху «синие воротнички»
;
to submit to a series of tests – подвергаться
тестированию
(неоднократно); to
simulate
, v
. – моделировать; simulated
decision
-
making
exercises
– смоделированные упражнения по
принятию решений; to
put
through
, v
. –подвергнуть; провести через (испытания); to
evaluate
, v
. – оценивать; давать оценку; intangible
qualities
– скрытые качества; нематериальные свойства; a
sense
of
urgency
– чувство неотложности дела; to
function
under
pressure
– работать в стрессовых ситуациях; to
fit
the
corporate
culture
– соответствовать корпоративной культуре; быть
совместимым с нормами, существующими в организации; to
get
things
done
– добиваться выполнения поставленных задач; so
that
patterns
of
behavior
emerge
– с тем, чтобы выявить модели поведения; to
reveal
,
v
. – вскрыть, обнаружить; creative
, adj
. – творческий; entrepreneurial
, adj
. – предприимчивый; предпринимательский; to
work
out
badly
– зд. оказаться плохим работником; corporate
downsizing
– сокращение размеров компании; сокращение кадров и
упрощение структуры компании; to accelerate the pace of change – ускорить
темпы
перемен
; in
a
different
environment
– в другой обстановке; зд. в иных условиях
to
shift
to
this
practice
– перейти на эти методы; принять эту практику; to be worth the cost – стоить
подобных
затрат
; anecdotal
evidence
suggests
– зд. как показывает практический опыт; to base a decision on – основывать
решение
на
…
to size up. v. – оценивать
; syn. to evaluate
to land up a better job – заполучить
работу
получше
; to
toughen
the
hiring
practices
– ужесточить методы приема на работу; to
do
background
checks
– проводить проверку предыдущего опыта соискателя;
исследовать прошлое кандидата; sexual
harassment
– сексуальные домогательства; неэтичное поведение по
отношению к противоположному полу; comprehensive
testing
– всеобъемлющее тестирование; всестороннее испытание; personality
traits
– черты характера; to
measure
skills
– определить уровень подготовки; оценивать навыки; to
predict
performance
– прогнозировать результаты работы.
Task 1. Read the text on p.16, translate it and answer the following questions:
What qualities were required of young managers to propel them up the corporate ladder?
Why is it not necessarily true any longer?
How have the recruitment practices changed?
What do applicants have to undergo nowadays? 10
What intangible qualities do employers want to evaluate?
What tests do applicants have to face now?
What are the reasons for the new ways of hiring?
How has the approach to experience of the applicants changed? Why?
What do human resources specialists say about these new practices?
What has research shown?
How have the companies toughened hiring practices?
What is the aim of such comprehensive testing?
Sum up the information from the texts about new approaches to recruitment.
Task 2. Translate from Russian using the vocabulary from the texts:
1.
Его послужной список явно не соответствует должности, на которую
он претендует.
2.
Молодые сотрудники проходят целый ряд тестов, которые
способствуют их быстрому продвижению по служебной лестнице.
3.
Труднее всего оценить соискателей по их скрытым качествам,
например, их обучаемость и способность обучать других.
4.
Смоделированные упражнения по принятию решений помогают
оценить способность соискателя руководить и брать на себя
ответственность.
5.
Иногда вновь принятые сотрудники не показывают ожидаемых
результатов из-за того, что не могут влиться в корпоративную
культуру.
6.
Достижения в продвижении по службе зависят от способности
руководителя добиваться выполнения поставленных задач.
7.
Соискатели должны подробно рассказать о своих достижениях с тем,
чтобы выявить модели поведения.
8.
Во время собеседования кандидаты сталкиваются с абсолютно
неожиданными вопросами, ответы на которые помогают многое
раскрыть в личности кандидата.
9.
Большой процент вновь принятых руководителей не оправдывают
ожиданий и по оценкам проваливают работу.
10.
Затраты на поиск и обучение нужных людей огромны, поэтому
компаниям важно знать, как руководитель будет работать.
11.
Сокращение управленческого аппарата и темпы перемен на рынках,
которые все время увеличиваются, потенциально увеличивают ущерб
от неправильно принятого решения при найме нового руководителя. 12.
Специалисты по кадрам не всегда переходят на новые методы поиска
сотрудников, потому что считают, что затраты того не стоят.
13.
Компании вынуждены ужесточать методы набора, потому что им
важно оценить степень подготовленности соискателя.
14.
Решение о приеме соискателя принимаются, как правило, в течении
первых минут собеседования, а потом они думают о том, как обосновать
свой выбор.
11
Do the exercise on p. 20 (Interview Assessment)
Task 3. Use the appropriate tense forms and answer the questions:
What makes Paul Sutherland an excellent candidate for the post?
Why is he willing to leave his present employer?
What is he looking for in his new job?
Why did he choose this particular company?
What does he know about the company?
What is he doing at the moment?
What is he prepared to do? What traveling experience does he have?
Speak about the candidate and say what you think of his prospects to get the job.
Task 4. Give English equivalents for:
- представительный и умеющий четко выражать свои мысли; - в полной мере использовать свои знания; - искать более увлекательную и сложную работу; -
использовать знания в своей сфере специализации; -
в более стимулирующей обстановке; -
вносить вклад в развитие компании; -
ознакомиться с существующим ассортиментом продукции; -
периодически выезжает в командировки; -
с целью совершенствования немецкого языка.
Task 5. Present simple and present continuous
Read the following interview with Margi Bogart, Product Marketing Manager at
Mindsteps, Inc. Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple or present continu
-
ous tense.
MINDSTEPS™
«I 1
work (work) for Mindsteps, Inc., a. start-up firm located in Silicon Valley
that
2
_____________(develop) human resources management software for large cor
-
porations that
3________________________
(have) at least 2, 500 employees. Currently,
we
4
___________________
(market) our main product called CareerSteps, which is a
software program that
5
___________________ (help) employees to assess their in
-
terests, values, and skills in order to create a career development plan. More and
more corporations
6
___________________(buy) CareerSteps as a cost-
effective
solution to the issues that human resources departments
7
________________
(face) such as staff turnover, motivating workers, and increasing employee pro
-
ductivity. Thanks to the success of an initial pilot, this year Hewlett-
Pack
-
ard
8
_________________(make) CareerSteps available to 125, 000, of their employ
-
ees around the world. As the Product Marketing Manager,
I
9
___________________(coordinate) the planning and
10
___________________
(manage) the business and marketing efforts for the product. An important aspect
of my job
11
_________________(involve) making sure the pro
-
duct
12
____________________(meet) the marketing requirements once it is completed.
At the moment, I
13
___________________(contact) potential clients an
-
12
d
14
_____________________(work) on the marketing requirements
for the next ver
-
sion of our product. On Tuesday, we
15
__________________ (present) the innovat
-
ive features of the new
version of Career Steps to our main customers.»
Read the story about the company MINDSTEPS again and answer the ques
-
tions:
Where does Margi Bogart work?
What kind of a company is it?
What is the workforce in the company?
What are they doing currently?
Why is the programme Career Steps in demand?
Why is Hewlett – Packard increasing their demand for the program?
What are the areas of responsibility for Margi?
What does an important aspect of her job involve?
What is she currently working on?
What are they presenting on Tuesday?
Sum up the information given in the interview.
Task 6. Give Russian equivalents for these phrases: start-up firm
human resources management
currently
to market the main product to assess the interests of the employees
to create a career development plan
a cost-effective solution
to face important issues
staff turnover
to increase employee productivity the success of an initial pilot
to make available to
to make sure the product meets the marketing requirements to coordinate the planning
to manage the business and marketing efforts
to present the innovative features
the marketing requirements for the next version
Task 7. Translate from English into Russian without using a dictionary: 1.
A start-up firm has always to look for cost-effective solutions to the ur
-
gent issues it faces.
2.
Currently the HR department is creating a career development plan for
every employee to make sure they exploit their skills and expertise to the
full.
3.
The success of human resources management depends on the ability to as
-
sess the employees interests, values and ambition.
13
4.
We need a programme that would help us to manage and coordinate our
business and marketing efforts.
5.
The staff turnover in this start-up company is low because they have
found effective ways of motivating their employees and increasing their
productivity.
6.
The main aim of the seminar was to present the innovative features of
their new product and work out the marketing requirements for the next
version.
7.
The success of an initial pilot was due to the fact that it was made avail
-
able to all potential customers.
8.
They are currently working on the initial pilot which will represent all the
innovative features of the product. That will make sure the product meets
the marketing requirements for this particular region.
9.
Human resources departments face the issues that require cost-effective
solutions but at the same time aim to increase employee productivity.
10.
This programme failed to coordinate the planning efforts of our branches
around the world.
Task 8. Translate from Russian into English: 1.
В настоящее время проблема управления человеческими ресурсами
становится особенно важной, поскольку существует потребность в
высококвалифицированных и эффективных работниках.
2.
Компании стараются / стремятся создавать программы
профессионального роста своих работников, чтобы они
использовали свои знания и навыки в более стимулирующей
обстановке.
3.
Очень часто талантливые специалисты ищут более сложную и
увлекательную работу, чтобы полностью использовать свой
потенциал.
4.
Для того, чтобы успешно пройти собеседование, нужно солидно
выглядеть и четко изъясняться. Недостаточно рассказать о своих
достижениях, нужно суметь показать свои устремления и скрытые
возможности.
5.
На собеседовании нужно дать понять, что вы знакомы с
существующим ассортиментом продукции компании и готовы
внести вклад в ее дальнейшее развитие.
6.
Малозатратные способы решения проблем позволяют компаниям
полностью реализовать потенциал и добиться успеха в короткие
сроки. Это стимулирует работников и ведет к росту
производительности труда.
7.
На презентации были представлены все инновационные
характеристики нового продукта и разработаны маркетинговые
приемы. 8.
Руководитель, стоящий у руля компании, должен уметь добиться
выполнения поставленных задач. Он должен правильно оценивать
14
интересы, ценности и умения своих подчиненных, чтобы полностью
использовать их в достижении целей.
9.
Создание более стимулирующей обстановки требует от
руководителя больших творческих и организационных усилий.
Результатом такой работы станет низкий уровень текучести кадров.
10.
Набор сотрудников на руководящие посты является дорогостоящим
и трудным процессом, и многие кадровики считают, что затраты не
окупаются. Но если вновь принятые на работу люди не справляются
и не могут влиться в корпоративную культуру, то компания понесет
еще большие убытки.
11.
Важной стороной деятельности любой компании является
обеспечение соответствия продукции требованиям рынка.
Unit
3. Retailing
(
SB
, p
. 25–33)
Vocabulary
Notes
retailing
, n
. – розничная торговля; торговля в розницу; retailer
, n
. – предприятие розничной торговли; магазин (торгующий в розницу);
продавец, занимающийся розничной торговлей; retail
chain
, n
. – сеть розничных магазинов; торговая сеть; outlet
, n
. – торговая точка; место продаж; shopping center, n. – BrE – торговый
центр
; a mall – AmE – торговый
центр
; a retail park – торговый
комплекс
; a department store – универмаг
; a
shop
, n
. – специализированный магазин (
BrE
);
a store, n. – магазин
(AmE);
a hypermarket – гипермаркет
; syn. a superstore
a
single
outlet
retailer
– предприятие розничной торговли, состоящее из одной
торговой точки; to
handle
small
numbers
of
items
– продавать небольшое количество наименований;
the
busiest
retailer
– самый оживленный / загруженный магазин в системе
розничной торговли; a
little
-
known
, privately
owned
, cut
-
price
retailer
– малоизвестный, частный
магазин, торгующий по сниженным ценам; to
warrant
an
entry
(
for
) – гарантировать попадание в списки (самых высоких продаж);
to take an average – взять
среднюю
величину; принять за среднее значение; to
make
profits
– заработать; получить прибыль; a
likeable
bloke
– симпатичный парень; to go into business – заняться
бизнесом
; to catch on – стать
модным
; to
turn
to
(
smth
. or
smb
.) – обратиться к чему-либо; к кому-либо; in simple terms – попросту
говоря
; 15
to
do
smth
. up
– подремонтировать что-либо; подправить;
with
low
overheads
– с низкими затратами; rapid
stock
turnover
– быстрый товарооборот; to
give
flexibility
– придать гибкость чему-либо; сделать гибким; operating
margin
– оборотная прибыль;
to
take
advantage
of
– воспользоваться преимуществом; end
-
of
-
line
ranges
– ассортимент, сходящий (или сошедший) с производства; to
stock
the
mass
market
– обеспечивать массовый рынок; to
volume
sell
– продавать большими объемами; to
off
-
load
– разгрузиться; зд. освободить складские помещения; a
tuner
, n
. – механизм настройки; тюнер; an
amplifier
, n
. усилитель; to
secure
a
lucrative
niche
– обеспечить себе доходное местечко; прибыльную нишу; poor
stock
management
– плохое управление запасами готовой продукции; to sell at a reduced price – продавать
по
сниженной
цене
; to buy at a discount – купить
со
скидкой
; to
improve
stock
control
– усовершенствовать контроль за наличием товара; to
be
keen
to
do
business
– стремиться торговать с кем-либо; to
be
worth
while
– стоить того, чтобы…
to
put
into
distribution
system
– запустить в продажу; в сеть распространения; to
do
a
deal
on
30 – заключить сделку на 30 единиц; to
tout
special
offers
– навязывать товар; зазывать клиентов; to push the
latest
offers
– усиленно продвигать новые предложения; The
shops
are
like
walk
– in
warehouses
.
– Магазины похожи на складские
помещения со свободным доступом.
to be stacked – быть
заваленным
; customer receipts – чеки
покупателей
; to be trained not to be pushy – обучать
, как
не
быть
навязчивым
; to plug in correctly – правильно
подключить
; the
emphasis
is
on
fun
– упор делается на развлекательные придумки.
Task 1. Read the text on p. 27, translate it and answer the following questions:
What sort of a company is Richer Sounds?
What makes it so profitable?
How different is it from other companies on the market?
What is the key weapon of the company?
What are their marketing techniques?
Why is good service another priority?
How are the staff trained?
What is the company’s philosophy?
Sum up the information from the text about the busiest retailer in Britain.
Task 2. Translate from Russian using the vocabulary from the text:
1.
Компания добилась такого успеха в розничной торговле, благодаря
простым и эффективным методам маркетинга.
16
2.
Эта малоизвестная частная компания сумела обеспечить себе
прибыльную нишу на рынке уцененной продукции.
3.
Основатель компании – симпатичный парень, который занялся
бизнесом еще в школе.
4.
Попросту говоря, они продают аппаратуру по сниженным ценам из
крошечных, примитивных магазинчиков, похожих на складские
помещения со свободным доступом.
5.
Оборотная прибыль резко возросла после того, как он начал
продавать малые партии продукции из ассортимента, сходящего с
производства.
6.
Ему пришлось заняться аппаратурой, поскольку он был
недостаточно взрослым, чтобы подписывать контракты.
7.
Быстрый товарооборот придает компании гибкость и позволяет
воспользоваться преимуществом малых заказов.
8.
Они закупают либо оборудование, сходящее с производства, либо
избыточные модели, от которых производители хотят избавиться,
чтобы освободить складские помещения.
9.
Низкие затраты позволили магазину увеличить закупки запчастей и
запустить их в сеть распространения по сниженным ценам.
10.
Все магазины забиты товаром до потолка, а снаружи
привлекательная реклама зазывает посетителей выгодными
предложениями.
Task 3. Do exercises 2 and 3 on p. 28 and answer the questions:
What companies are described here?
What makes them well – known in the market?
What stores do they operate?
How are they expanding?
What ambitious plans do they have?
Which of the companies may face problems in the new markets?
Why is it important for them to establish a niche abroad?
Speak about Sephora company and Wal – Mart.
Describe their similar features and the differences.
Task 4. Give English equivalents for:
- работать на рынке, традиционно принадлежащем малым эксклюзивным
компаниям; - управлять магазином, вдвое большими, чем Европейские подразделения; - коренным образом изменить метод продаж духов и парфюмерии; - оказалось так же трудно, как и завоевать новые рынки; - сеть магазинов по продаже дорогих товаров; / предметов роскоши; заключить сделку; - высокие затраты; - убедить поставщиков работать с ними так же, как и в США; 17
- контролировать все аспекты бизнеса; - ограниченное пространство для строительства новых торговых
площадей; - обратиться к кому-либо с предложением; - обеспечить себе нишу на рынок Европы; - удалось добиться поддержки многих брэндов; - иметь далеко идущие планы на будущее; - предпринимать шаги; маневрировать; - донести свое представление о розничной торговле до потребителя; - иметь в ассортименте широкий выбор лучших товаров; - первоначальный учредитель; - повторить успех на старом континенте; - добиться тех же прибылей; - огромный выбор качественных товаров по сниженным ценам; - разместить
крупные
заказы.
Task 5. Read the text about a controversial customer service programme at
Safeway, a major American supermarket chain
Choose the best sentence (A – I) from the box to complete each gap.
A
.
Safeway officials said they were not aware of any employee who had resigned be
-
cause of the program.
В
. The majority of customers seem to be very happy with the improved service. C
. Some cynical workers call it smile school; others call it clown school. D
. Some shoppers seem to enjoy directing workers around the store.
E
. The sampling policy is being abused by some shoppers. F
. They believe the program has resulted in increased sales. G
. They grade workers on a 19-point scorecard, and the results affect the performance
evaluations of the worker and his/her managers.
H
. There have been debates on the Internet and among customers about false and genu
-
ine friendliness.
I
. It also includes thanking shoppers by name at the checkout by using information
from their credit, debit or Safeway card.
A US Grocer’s Embrace of Customer Service
Safeway launched its Superior Service Program about five years ago. Among its
rules: Make eye contact with the customer, smile, greet him or her, offer samples of
products, make suggestions about other possible purchases that could go with the items
being bought, and accompany them to locate items they cannot find. 1
_________.
To encourage staff to follow the rules, S
afeway employs an undiscl
osed
number of «mystery shoppers
» whose job is to act like regular customers.
2
__________. Workers w
ho do well earn a chance at winning $500 worth of com
-
pany stock, and managers whose workers are extrem
ely friendly can receive addi
-
tional
bonuses.
Those who are graded as having poor customer service skills are sent to a
training program to learn how to be friendlier. 3________.
18
Corporate efforts to brighten shopping experience – such as yellow happy-face
stickers and «have-a-nice- day» slogans – have typically drawn mixed reactions. But
few have caused as much angst* among the sales staff as Safeway's has. It has also
had some unexpected side effects. 4
________.
There have been complaints by female workers in California who say that male
customers have misinterpreted their friendliness and, according to some Safeway
workers, the whole program is со
ntributing to growing morale problems among the
staff. In recent interviews, half a dozen Safeway workers said the rigid implement
-
ation of the Superior Service Program has left some workers feeling so over
-
stressed that they quit. 5
__________.
Some workers said they had been penalized for not smiling even though they
felt they could not. One woman said she was marked down by mystery shoppers
when she was going through a painful divorce.
The policy of leading customers to a product they cannot find also causes some
problems, workers said. 6
__________. Lonely elderly people in particular, they
said, sometimes seek to be accompanied for an extended period, even through
their entire shopping list.
International Herald Tribune (adapted)
BrE programme
* angst = anxiety, unhappiness
AmE program
Read the story again and answer the following questions:
When did Safeway launch its Superior Service Program?
What are the key rules of the program?
How does the company encourage staff to follow the rules?
What is the job of «mystery shoppers»?
How are those who do well rewarded?
What happens it the results of the performance evaluation are low?
How do the sales people react?
What side effects are described in the article?
What morale problems among the staff have resulted from the implementation
of the programme?
What other things may cause problems? Why?
Sum up the information about the ways Safeway tries to improve their customer
service and how people react to them.
Task 6. Give Russian equivalents for the following phrases:
to make eye contact with the customer;
to offer samples; to make suggestions about other possible purchases; to accompany customers to locate items they cannot find; at the checkout; to encourage staff to follow the rules; an undisclosed number; 19
to earn a chance at winning $500 worth of company stock; to receive additional bonuses; to affect the performance evaluations; to brighten the shopping experience; to draw mixed reactions; to have some unexpected side effects; to misinterpret friendliness; the whole program is contributing to growing morale problems among the staff; to feel overstressed; to mark down; to go through a painful divorce; to cause problems; customers seek to be accompanied for an extended period.
Task 7. Vocabulary
Combine a word from A with one from B to match each of the definition below.
A
B
1 __________________ a persuasive argument to sell a product
2 __________________ the rate at which goods are sold
3_________________ sales promotions to attract customers 4 ________________shops with outlets in many locations 5 ________________customers who seek the lowest prices 6 ________________large shops, usually located in city centres, which sell a wide
variety of products 7 ________________ retail facilities where customers have access to a variety of dif
-
ferent stores in the same location
Department
Shopping
Sales
Stock
Retail
Special
bargain
Hunters
Pitch
Stores
Chains
Offers
Centres
turnover
20
Task 8. Translate from English into Russian without using a dictionary:
1.
Retailers often seek to secure a niche in a new market and bring their vis
-
ion of retailing to a global consumer.
2.
Corporate efforts to brighten the shopping experience may lead to grow
-
ing morale problems among the staff.
3.
This privately owned retailer operates in a market that has traditionally
been served by department stores or superstores.
4.
European market with its limited space available for building new stores and its
high overheads may prove too difficult for an American company to duplicate
its success.
5.
Julian Richer managed to secure the support of many manufacturers who
want to off-load end-of-line or surplus equipment.
6.
This cut-price retailer has revolutionized the way Hi-Fi equipment is sold
and the technique has enabled the company to secure itself a lucrative
niche in the market dominated by independents.
7.
Conquering new markets may prove more problematic than producing
high profits at home but many retailers are prepared to take risks and es
-
tablish a niche in the markets with low overheads and rapid growth poten
-
tial.
8.
Hypermarkets usually stock a selection of quality products and try to per
-
suade their suppliers to take advantage of deals offered by manufacturers
on end-of-line or surplus equipment.
9.
Customer service is an important aspect of any retailers business but dif
-
ferent programmes of improving it have typically drawn mixed reactions.
10.
Daniel Richard, the new president at the helm of the company, was ap
-
proached with an offer to expand the business and support the corporate ef
-
forts to diversify.
Task 9. Translate from Russian into English: 1.
Предприятия розничной торговли вынуждены прибегать
(обращаться) к разным методам усовершенствования контроля за
наличием товара на складах.
2.
Продавцы сталкиваются с необходимостью активно проталкивать
новые предложения и при этом не быть слишком навязчивыми.
3.
Крупные магазины, как правило, обеспечивают массовый рынок и
продают большими партиями, в то время как производители
стремятся заключать малые сделки на товары, которые уже сняты с
производства.
4.
Быстрый товарооборот и низкие затраты дают малым магазинам
гибкость, которой они могут воспользоваться.
5.
Торговые точки, расположенные в оживленных районах, приносят
больше прибыли, чем те, которые находятся на тихих улицах.
Попросту говоря, расположение магазина влияет на его оборотную
прибыль.
21
6.
Маркетинг является ключевым аспектом успеха. То, что хорошо
продается в одном месте, может не пользоваться спросом в другом.
Магазины розничной торговли должны постоянно заниматься
изучением спроса.
7.
То, как организованы торговые точки, оказывает влияние на объемы
продаж. Многие маленькие, простые магазинчики буквально
завалены товаром и они похожи на складские помещения со
свободным доступом. Покупатели с удовольствием покупают там
товары, потому что благодаря низким затратам, вся продукция
продается со скидкой.
8.
Американские продавцы очень агрессивны, их покупатели охотятся
за скидками и вся отрасль находится в постоянном режиме развития.
9.
Чтобы обеспечить себе прибыльную нишу на рынке, компания
должна быть гибкой и творческой. Нужно постоянно навязывать
потребителям новые, увлекательные предложения и заручиться
поддержкой надежных поставщиков.
10.
Многим компаниям не удается повторить успех их изначальной
маркетинговой стратегии, и они вынуждены завоевывать новые
рынки, придумывая новые методы продаж. 22
Unit
4. Franchising
(
SB
, p
. 34–43)
Vocabulary
Notes
franchise
– франчайз; франшиза; франчайзинг. Организация дел, при которой
собственник; торговой марки, торгового имени или авторского права – franchisor
(франчайзор) – позволяет другой фирме – franchisee
(франчази) – их
использование при выполнении согласованных условий, касающихся платы за
такое право, прекращения договора и путей разрешения споров, которые могут
возникнуть.
Обе фирмы после подписания договора ведут дела самостоятельно, но при
этом франчайзор обычно обеспечивает франчази рекламой, продает товары и
сырье, необходимые для ведения дел.
Franchise
agreement
– соглашение / контракт франчайзинга; a
franchise
fee
– плата за использование патента или лицензии; syn
. royalty
advertising
fee
– рекламные взносы; долевая оплата рекламы; management
services
fee
– оплата консультационных услуг по управлению; front
end
fee
– предоплата; a
master
franchise
– главный контракт франчайзинга; a
master
franchisee
– главный пользователь франшизы; operations
manual
– руководство по эксплуатации; to
contribute
to
marketing
costs
– участвовать в затратах на маркетинг; to
take
up
the
challenge
– взяться за трудное дело; to
make
some
mental
lists
– составлять в уме список дел; to master the computerized accounts – освоить
компьютерные
системы
бухучета
; to get involved in other areas of business – заниматься
другими
областями
/
сферами
бизнеса
; to
keep
things
organized
– вести дела упорядоченно; все организовывать; to conform to the standards of quality, service, cleanliness and value –
соответствовать
стандартам
качества
, обслуживания
, гигиены
и
цен
; to order and pay for supplies – заказывать
и
оплачивать
поставки
; invoices from suppliers – счета
от
поставщиков
; to run the training courses – проводить
обучение
/ подготовку
; to tackle problems – заниматься
проблемами
; to update computer records – обновлять
компьютерные
данные
; staff turnover – текучесть
кадров
; to be short – staffed – испытывать
нехватку
людей
; to pay off – окупиться
; to assess all aspects – оценить
все
аспекты
(
бизнеса
); staff are often commended by name – персонал
хвалят
поименно
; a
field
consultant
– закрепленный за предприятием консультант; tax
office
queries
– запросы налоговых служб; casual
workers
– временные работники; payroll
, n
. – ведомость зарплаты; to
muck
in
, v
. – зд. подключиться (в работу); помочь; 23
to
focus
your
energies
where
they
are
most
effective
– сосредоточить энергию на
том, что приносит успех / дает эффект; behind
the
scenes
admin
work
– административная работа в офисе; работа с бумагами; to tackle problems in priority order – заниматься
делами
по
мере
их
важности
; to do the end – of – month figures – готовить
отчет
в
конце
месяца
; to have smth on the go – иметь
что
-
либо
в
работе
; Task 1. Read the text on p. 36, translate it and answer the following questions: How did the life of Vanessa change 3 years ago?
Why does she live by lists now?
How does her working day start?
What new skills did she have to master?
What standards do they have to conform to?
What are their responsibilities in business?
How did they prepare for this move?
What are Mystery Diners? What do they do?
How does McDonalds supervise their activities?
What does she have to do during the lunchtime rush?
How often are they short staffed?
Why does she have to take work home?
What does she focus her energies on? Why?
When does she have to work into the early hours?
Sum up the information from the text about the way a franchise is operated.
Task 2. Translate from Russian using the vocabulary from the text.
1.
Франчайзинг – это система ведения бизнеса, при которой лицо или
компания продает другому лицу или компании право
организовывать и вести бизнес, используя отработанную методику и
систему, а также товарный знак и сеть поставщиков.
2.
Франчайзи оплачивают консультационные услуги и право
использования лицензии. Они также делают взносы на рекламу и
участвуют в затратах на продвижение товаров и услуг.
3.
Франчайзор может представить пользователю главную франшизу,
дающую право контролировать работу всей сети франчайзинга.
4.
Покупателю франшизы приходится осваивать новые навыки ведения
документации, в частности, компьютеризованные системы ведения
бухучета.
5.
Для оценки качества работы франчайзы, продавец использует так
называемых «подставных клиентов», которые оценивают качество
еды, ее внешний вид, чистоту, быстроту обслуживания. Если
возникают какие-либо проблемы, консультант помогает с ними
справиться.
6.
Предприятия быстрого питания сталкиваются с проблемой текучести
кадров. Временный персонал часто меняется, и их нужно обучать.
24
Если предприятие недоукомплектовано кадрами, владельцам
приходится самим подключаться, особенно в часы пик.
7.
Административная работа, которую посетители не видят, занимает
очень важную часть времени. Кипы бумаг нужно разобрать и
заниматься ими по мере их важности.
8.
Когда Ванесса готовит месячный отчет, ей обычно приходится
работать далеко за полночь. Она стремится соответствовать высоким
стандартам франчайзора и расширять свой бизнес.
9.
Франчайзи заказывают и оплачивают поставки, занимаются
проблемами техобслуживания и меблировки / переоборудования,
организуют маркетинг на своей территории и нанимают местный
персонал.
10.
В соглашении франчайзинга обе стороны несут ответственность за
успешность бизнеса. Они должны заниматься проблемами бизнеса в
соответствии с условиями соглашения.
Task 3. Read these replies to some questions about The Sport Shoe franchising
program, and complete the gaps with the phrases from the box.
training course
start-up cost franchise
agreement opening in
-
ventory
store design gross sales direct financing royalty fee
1. The average ____________ ranges between $250
, OOO and $400,000 depend
-
ing on the size of the store. This figure includes the franchise fee of $25, 000 for a
neighborhood store or $100,000 for an Expo location (over 10,000sq.ft.). Also in
-
cluded in the fees are estimated costs for: real estate/rent; utility deposit; leasehold
improvements; initial inventory; insurance; Grand Opening advertising; signage; work
-
ing capital.
2.
No. The Sport Shoe
®
does not provide ____________ for you. We do have
business relationships with various financial 'institutions. These institutions
have a working knowledge of our franchise program and can assist you with
your financing needs. 3. The continuing services, or ____________, equals 4% of the gross sales de
-
rived from the franchise business. This fee entitles you to the continued use of The
Sport Shoe
®
name and trademark, and all the benefits that come with being part of the
The Sport Shoe® organization.
4.
You buy your ____________ directly from vendors such as Nike, Ree
-
bok, Adidas, etc. The Sport Shoe
®
will assist you in opening your vendor
accounts and our buyers will assist you in making your buying decisions. 5. Once a site has been selected, The Sport Shoe
®
will provide you with a
___________ consistent with The Sport Shoe
®
concept and a fixture inventory sheet.
You will purchase these items directly from the appropriate supplier.
25
6. Building name recognition of The Sport Shoe
®
will be an important part of
your franchise business. You will be required to spend $10,000 on Grand Opening ad
-
vertising during your first 60 days of operation. After the Grand Opening you are re
-
quired to spend a minimum of 4%
a month of the ___________ on such advertising
as print, radio, TV, direct mail, etc. 7. You and your designated employee will participate in an initial ___________
that will include classroom and in-store training. The classes will provide instruction
on store operations, personnel policies, merchandising, and accounting. During your
first week of business a trained representative of The Sport Shoe
®
will provide addi
-
tional on site training with your employees.
8. Once your application is approved, the ____________ signed, and the franchise
fee is paid, you can expect it to take as long as six to eight months to be ready to open.
The Sport Shoe
®
will do whatever is necessary to help you expedite the process.
Br E
programme
neighbourhood
property
Am E
program
neighborhood
R real estate
Now read the questions and match them with the replies.
a
How much is the fee for continuing support services? b
What about store design and fixtures? с
How long does it take to open a The Sport Shoe® franchise? d
Does The Sport Shoe® offer financial assistance? e
How much training will I receive? f
What about advertising? g
How do I get my opening inventory? h
What is the anticipated start-up cost for a The Sport Shoe® store?
Task 4. Decide if the following statements refer to the franchiser (FR), the
franchisee (FE) or the information is not given in the text (NG).
1.
Receives a small percentage of total sales.
____________
_______
2.
Pays an initial fee of $25, 000.
____________
_______
3.
Provides marketing assistance.
____________
_______
4.
Seeks individuals with business qualifications.
____________
_______
5.
Buys inventory directly from suppliers.
____________
_______
6.
Offers assistance in opening vendor accounts.
____________
_______
7.
Runs training courses for store employees. ____________
_______
8.
Has a minimum of $250,000 cash to invest.
____________
_______
9.
Must cover monthly advertising expenses.
____________
_______
10. Does not charge for renewing the franchising agreement. ____________
_______
Task 5. Vocabulary. Make nouns by adding a suffix (
-ity, -ness, -ment, -tion
)
to
the words below.
You should also make any necessary spelling changes.
a) flexible
____________ e) invest ____________
b) dedicate ___________ f) communicate ____________
26
с
) popular ____________ g) agree _____________
d) fit ____________ h) aware _____________
Complete the sentences below with the nouns from the exercise above:
1. The increasing ___________of home entertainment amongst
consumers is fuelling the expansion of the home video rental industry.
2. We are meeting next week to sign the lease ___________ f
or the
shop.
3. Growing ____________
of the stress-reducing benefits of regular
exercise has led to an increase in gym franchises.
4. Franchisers will only consider candidates who can make an initial
___________of at least $85, 000.
5.
Employees who take initiative and constantly seek ways to improve ser
-
vice are rewarded for their ____________.
6.
Some companies have on-site exercise facilities as they believe that phys
-
ical ______________ plays an important role in the well-being of the
employees.
7. Running your own business requires a lot of
________________
as you
often have to do whatever is needed to be successful.
8. E-mail makes ______________ with franchising associates around the
world faster, more convenient and less expensive.
Task 6. Give Russian equivalents for the following phrases:
the average start – up costs; utility deposit; lease hold improvements: initial inventory; signage; working capital; to provide direct financing; to have a working knowledge of the franchise program; to assist with financing needs; the continuing services; royalty fee; the fee entitles you to the continued use of the trademark; opening inventory; to make buying decisions; vendor accounts; to select a site; a fixture inventory sheet; to build name recognition; to be consistent with; directly from the appropriate supplies; a designated employee; to participate in an initial training course; instructions on store operations, personnel policies; merchandising and accounting; to provide additional onsite training; to expedite the process
.
27
Task 7. Read and translate without using a dictionary:
Let’s have a look at the roles of the franchisor and the franchisee. In most cases
the franchisor usually supplies seven things.
Firstly, an established product or service and a well-known brand image. And then
he’ll supply an operating manual, showing how the business should be set up and run. He’ll also supply help, advice and training in setting up the business. He’ll nor
-
mally give continuing advice and training during the life of the franchise. And then
he’ll normally supply all the equipment that’s required to set up the business.
Then he’ll continue to supply a stock of the product, which he’ll be able to ob
-
tain cheaply in bulk. This may result in savings, or depending on the franchisor’s
mark up, commit the franchisee to buying at above market price.
And lastly, he’ll be responsible for local, national and even international advertising.
It’s important to emphasize that the on-going support may vary a lot from fran
-
chise to franchise. The brand image of the product and the level of help you get at
start-up are visible. But what is likely to happen after, say, twelve months of operat
-
ing the franchise is much harder to forsee.
If things go wrong and your profits are low, you need to know what kind of help
you’re likely to get.
Do the franchisor’s advisers or trouble-shooters visit regularly?
Do they have a mobile back-up team to take over in an emergency?
There are many other aspects of continuing support.
You need to know if there will continue to be refresher courses to retrain staff –
and if there are, will these courses be good and how much will they cost?
You’ll also want to know if the franchisor is devoting part of his profits to on-
going research and development of the product. And you also want to be sure that, if
he’s charging you a levy for advertising, that this money is actually being spent on
advertising. Now, if we look briefly at the other side of the operation:
What the franchisee brings to the business.
The first thing he brings is capital: he has to pay a capital sum to buy the fran
-
chise for a particular territory. He also has to pay a monthly fee to the franchisor, this
is usually based on percentage of sales – not profits.
There may also be an advertising levy.
He also has various commitments under the terms of his contract, some of which
have a good side and a bad side. For instance, he is committed to following the fran
-
chisor’s methods. Also he can’t sell the franchise without the franchisor’s agreement.
He is also obliged to show the franchisor all his documents and sales figures.
Answer the following questions:
What things does the franchisor usually supply?
What comes first in the business relations?
What kind of continuing advice is expected during the life of the franchise?
On what terms does the franchisor supply a stock of the product?
What else is he responsible for?
28
Does the on-going support follow a set pattern?
What might happen if things go wrong?
What things should franchisees find out about other aspects of continuing support?
What does the franchisee bring to business?
What commitments does the franchisee have under his contract?
Task 8. Translate into English:
Франчайзор – это собственник торговой марки, торгового имени или
авторского права, позволяющий на определенных условиях использование
своего имени, прав и марки другой фирме.
Предоставление своего имени или торговой марки для использования
другой компанией имеет свои преимущества и недостатки.
Преимущества:
1. Рост собственного капитала за счет платежей, поступающих от
франчайзи, а также за счет перекладывания на него операционных издержек.
2. Экономия за счет масштаба производства. (
Economy
of
scale
).
Франчайзор имеет возможность расширить производство, поскольку нет
необходимости вкладывать капитал в открытие филиалов.
3. Большая мотивация и ответственность франчайзи за состояние дел.
4. Отсутствие трудовых конфликтов, поскольку для франчайзора
франчайзи не является наемным рабочим.
Недостатки:
1.
Необходимость в некоторых случаях кредитовать франчайзи, что
может несколько снизить возможности увеличения собственного
капитала.
2.
Издержки по контролю качества, связанные с обучением франчайзи
и содержанием проверяющих.
Франчайзи – это собственник, использующий на определенных условиях
чужую торговую марку, имя, авторское право для ведения собственного дела.
Как правило, таким собственником мелкое предприятие, находящееся в
единоличной собственности (
sole
proprietorship
) или в собственности
товарищества (
partnership
).
Использование чужого торгового имени и торговой марки имеет свои
преимущества и недостатки.
Преимущества: 1.
Помощь в управлении. Основной причиной банкротств малых
предприятий является плохое управление, поэтому для франчайзи
важно, что они используют уже проверенную предпринимательскую
идею.
Во-вторых, франчайзи часто получают специальную подготовку и
франчайзор предоставляет детальные руководства и поддержку в повседневной
деятельности.
2. Готовый маркетинг. Франчайзор предоставляет не только советы, но и
исследование рынка, а также разработанные им новые продукты.
3. Финансовая помощь. Многие франчайзоры финансируют стартовые
29
издержки своих франчайзи, предоставляют краткосрочные кредиты.
Недостатки:
1.
Необходимость делиться прибылью. Платежи франчайзору
принимают форму либо процента от продаж, либо включаются в
цену поставляемых от франчайзора товаров.
2.
Снижение независимости. Франчайзор обычно настаивает на четком
соблюдении стандартов и неодобрительно относится к сокращению
издержек за счет упрощения операций. Task 9. Translate into Russian. Use a dictionary if necessary.
FRANCHISING
Much of trademark licensing has evolved into the complex agreements known
as franchises. A franchise agreement generally involves the license of both trademark
and know-how. Additional features of the franchise agreement may provide for em
-
ployee training, quality control standards, and joint promotional activities.
There are three different kinds of franchise arrangements. Production franchises
grant the rights to manufacture and sell trademarked products. Fast food industry
franchises are a good example. Service franchises give franchisees the right to use the
franchiser's trademark and know-how to provide services. One example of a service
franchise would be Servicemaster, which licenses its trademark and its special expert
-
ise at office cleaning. Finally, there are distribution franchises, where a franchisee
sells products from premises using the franchiser's trade name.
Franchising has been a popular method of expanding businesses both domestic
-
ally and internationally. Franchises are particularly widespread in Europe, North
America, and Japan, but are increasingly part of the economies of LDCs as well.
Food-related businesses like McDonalds, KFC, and Dunkin' Donuts have led the way
for US businesses franchising around the world. Other businesses, such as Holiday
Inn, budget and Dollar Rent a Car, franchise extensively. These companies derive a
substantial portion of their overall revenue from international franchises. More re
-
cently, foreign-owned franchisers have entered the US market, e.g. The Body Shop, a
chain of natural cosmetics stores.
For the franchiser, a franchise agreement offers the opportunity to enter new
markets without making large, long-term capital investments. Franchising also allows
the franchiser to use local managers and workers, familiar with the new market and
its customs and preferences. For the franchisee, the franchise offers an opportunity to
start a business with the concept, image, and products already developed. The fran
-
chisee gets the advantage of the reputation of the entire franchise, and joint advert
-
ising and promotion campaigns often make marketing activities more effective than a
single small business could manage on its own.
A MNE choosing to use franchising to enter new markets uses three different
strategies for its agreements. It may choose to contract with individual franchises for
individual locations. Here, the franchiser exerts maximum control over each location
and its business practices. Alternatively, the franchiser may use area development
agreements. These agreements allow one franchisee to exploit a particular geographic
area, operating many franchise outlets. The area development agreement allows the
30
franchiser to deal with larger, usually more sophisticated franchisees, and allows each
franchise to develop a particular market fully. A final kind of franchise agreement of
-
ten used internationally is the master franchise agreement. Like an area development
agreement, the master franchise agreement gives one franchisee the right to develop
the market in a particular territory. Unlike the area development agreement, however,
the master franchise allows the franchisee to choose either to develop outlets itself or
to subfranchise. A franchiser will use this agreement when it does not wish to exer
-
cise tight control over its individual locations.
The worldwide regulatory environment for franchising is quite complex. As a
starting point, franchises involve licensing intellectual property rights and techno
-
logy, so all of the considerations applying to such licenses also apply to franchise
agreements. Additionally, there is an extensive body of antitrust law that applies to
franchise agreements.
The most significant area of regulation pertaining to.franchising contracts relates
to rules in various countries mandating financial and operational disclosure prior to
beginning the franchise relationship. The US regulates franchising more extensively
than most other countries. The Federal Trade Commission requires extensive disclos
-
ure of financial and other information to prospective franchisees, and limits the fran
-
chiser's predictions of future earnings. In Canada, the Province of Alberta requires re
-
gistration of all franchise plans and the filing of a prospectus before a franchiser may
solicit franchisees in the province. France enacted a law requiring the delivery of ex
-
tensive disclosure documents, in French, to prospective franchisees at least 20 days
before the parties sign a contract or before the franchisee pays any money to obtain
trademark rights.
Like any licensing agreement, the franchise is a business relationship, based on
contract but relying on flexibility, good faith, and mutual efforts toward success. The
holder of trademark rights invests a lot of money and effort in making the product a
success, and the franchiser relies on the franchisee's efforts to achieve success in the
foreign market. One of the difficult intersections of business and legal interests oc
-
curs when a franchisee is not meeting the contractual terms of the franchise contract.
If the franchiser
allows the deviation, it may lose the legal right to rely on the contract
terms in the future. However, if the franchiser insists on the observance of the letter
of the contract, it may lose a valuable relationship with the franchisee and, perhaps,
the opportunity to enter a particular market.
31
Unit 5. International Business Styles
(SB, p. 44–45)
Vocabulary Notes
national culture – национальная
культура
; corporate
culture
– корпоративная культура (нормы поведения и традиции
сформировавшиеся в компании или организации); hierarchy
[‘
hai
ə a
:
ki
] – иерархия; вертикаль подчинения; subordinates
– подчиненные; authority
– власть, полномочия; авторитет; to
delegate
authority
– делегировать полномочия; делиться властью; to
use
initiative
– действовать инициативно; проявлять инициативу; have
a
strong
sense
of
authority
– полностью осознавать свои полномочия; свою
власть; to
expect
subordinates
to
obey
– ожидать послушания от подчиненных; ожидать,
что подчиненные будут следовать их указаниям; to take a practical approach to management – быть
практичным
в
вопросах
управления
; to have relatively formal relationships at work – иметь
относительно
официальные
отношения
на
работе
; to consider social qualities to be as important as education – считать
умение
общаться
таким
же
важным
качеством
, как
и
образование
; to
encourage
employees
– стимулировать; поощрять своих сотрудников; to
appreciate
low
-
level
decision
making
– ценить решения, принятые рядовыми
работниками; to
admire
the
qualities
of
a
leader
– восхищаться качествами руководителя; to
measure
individual
performance
– оценивать (измерять) результаты труда каждого; to
have
competitive
and
aggressive
attitudes
to
work
– формировать конкурентное
и напористое отношение к работе; to
accept
innovation
and
change
– быть готовым к инновациям и переменам; state
– owned
enterprises
– государственные предприятия; competitive
self
–
starters
– конкурентоспособные единоличные предприятия; to gain experience – набраться
опыта
; to
be
innovative
and
determined
– быть прогрессивно настроенным и
целеустремленным; market
techniques
– методы работы на рынке; to
cope
with
– справиться с чем-либо; corporate
culture
clashes
– столкновение / конфликт корпоративных культур; the
dos
and
don
’
ts
of
traveling
abroad
– правила поведения во время путешествия
за рубеж; (что нужно делать и чего нельзя делать); to end up in prison – попасть
в
тюрьму
; the
wary
traveler
– осторожный путешественник; a covert operation – тайная
операция
; encounters – встречи
; encounters with new social and business customs – столкновения
с
незнакомыми
32
социальными
и
деловыми
обычаями
; pitfalls – ловушки
; two broad tracks to training programs – два
широких
направления
обучающих
программ
; to be involved in decision – making – участвовать
в
принятии
решений
; one
covers
business
needs
– одно из них занимается образованием деловых людей; we are familiar with the short firm handshake – у
нас
принято
короткое
и
твердое
рукопожатие
; to empower – наделять
полномочиями
; syn. to delegate authority; to
believe
in
empowering
people
– считать правильным наделять людей
полномочиями; other
cultures
operate
on
the
basic
of
obeying
direct
orders
– в других культурах
принято полагаться на подчинение непосредственным указаниям; the person doing most of the talking – человек
который
говорит
больше
всех
; condensed into a narrow strip of land – сконцентрирован
на
узкой
полоске
земли
; is
virtually
non
-
existent
– практически не существует; virtually
– фактически; в сущности; поистине; to
be
sensitive
– быть чувствительным; чутким; чутко реагировать; familiarise with – ознакомиться
с
…; try not to confuse – попытайтесь
не
путать
; as a starting point – для
начала
; assume
– полагать; предполагать; to
infer
– прийти к заключению; don
’
t
appear
too
reserved
– не кажитесь слишком сдержанным; to equate reserve with lack of enthusiasm – принять
сдержанность
за
недостаток
энтузиазма
; to
meet
communication
problems
– столкнуться с проблемами в общении; all
potential
hazards
abroad
– все потенциальные риски пребывания за рубежом; you
can
easily
talk
yourself
into
trouble
– вы можете легко попасть в неловкую
ситуацию, сказав что-то не так.
Task 1. Read the text on p. 46, translate it and answer the following questions:
Why are rules of behaviour abroad (dos and don’ts) a potential minefield?
What organization can prepare a traveler for such pitfalls?
What encounters should a traveler be aware of?
How is the training programme structured?
What things should a business traveler know?
How can differences in social etiquette affect business?
What differences in decision – making process are important?
What are the basic recommendations for successful business abroad?
What should you start with?
What things should you avoid while dealing with people from other cultures?
Sum up the information from the text about corporate culture clashes and the ways to
avoid them.
33
Task 2. Translate from Russian using the vocabulary from the text.
1.
В разных странах груз ответственности каждого человека в
компании может сильно варьироваться. В некоторых
странах руководство никогда не делегирует свои
полномочия подчиненным.
2.
Нормы поведения (
the
dos
and
don
’
ts
) в деловой среде
иногда определяют успешность бизнеса. Поэтому многие
корпорации организуют специальное обучение, чтобы
обеспечить свои потребности в сфере делового этикета.
3.
Очень важно понимать механизмы принятия решений в
разных культурах. В Японии на деловых встречах больше
всех говорят те люди, которые ничего не решают.
4.
Во многих Европейских странах принято короткое и твердое
рукопожатие для приветствия, в то время как на Ближнем
Востоке руку не сжимают, но держат дольше.
5.
Отношения с подчиненными тоже являются важным
аспектом корпоративной культуры. В Европе можно
наблюдать как очень официальные отношения, так и более
раскованное общение.
6.
В Польше руководители работают очень много и ожидают,
что их подчиненные будут делать то же самое. Работа
каждого оценивается и инициатива поощряется.
7.
Некоторые руководители считают, что умение общаться
является таким же важным качеством, как и образование,
поэтому они поощряют своих подчиненных к выработке
необходимых навыков.
8.
Глобальные компании, работающие на разных рынках,
должны быть чуткими к различиям в культурах и учитывать
все потенциальные риски работы за рубежом.
9.
Вы можете легко попасть в неловкую ситуацию на
переговорах, если не ознакомитесь с основными правилами
общения в данной стране.
10.
Столкновения с незнакомыми социальными и деловыми
обычаями бывают иногда опасными ловушками, и
осторожный путешественник всегда постарается изучить
культуру страны, где ему придется работать.
Task 3. Do exercise 2 on p. 48 (Gift giving).
Use the correct forms of the verbs and answer the following questions:
In what countries can people spend their entire working lives without receiving a
corporate gift?
Why is it important to learn about the etiquette of gift giving in different countries?
What examples show how different are gift giving customs in different national
cultures?
Why is giving flowers also potential minefield?
34
What is your attitude to gift giving customs?
Speak about different traditions of gift giving.
Task 4. Read the following passage and choose the correct word from A, B or C
to fill each gap.
Recent research at business schools in the USA has shown that traditional man
-
agement styles are rapidly becoming obsolete. In the traditional model, senior man
-
agement exercises its 1)______ to ensure that decisions are carried out by 2)_____ at
lower levels of the company 3)______ .
However, in today’s rapidly evolving business environment, it has become clear
that 4)_____ is something that all managers will have to live with and adapt to. In the
modern digital organization 5)_______ is no longer restricted to senior managers, and
employees are not expected to blindly 6)______ orders from above.
Because of the increasing complexity of business, managers have had to
7)______ tasks to people at lower levels and to 8)_______ them to take the necessary
decisions. It has become a system where what you achieve, in other words your
9)_________, is what determines not only the respect that other people in the organ
-
ization have for you but also how you are 10)______ for the work that you accom
-
plish. As one puts it, «Today you have to be very careful about what you say to
someone who works for you because tomorrow that same person could be your boss!
A
B
C
1
Custom
Gesture
Authority
2
Bosses
Subordinates
Partners
3
Culture
Hierarchy
Headquarters
4
Initiative
Change
Etiquette
5
Knowledge
Communication
Decision-making
6
Obey
Operate
Value
7
Reward
Signal
Delegate
8
Empower
Infer
Familiarize
9
Relationship
Education
Performance
10
Rewarded
Scheduled
measured
Read the text again and answer the questions:
What has recent research of management styles shown?
How does senior management exercise its authority in the traditional model?
How is business environment evolving?
What do managers have to adapt to today?
How is the process of decision-making changing? Why?
What does the performance of individuals determine in modern organizations?
What is your understanding of the quotation at the end?
Task 5. Find English equivalents in the text for:
быстро устаревают;
35
последние исследования показали;
пользоваться своей властью;
обеспечить выполнение принятых решений; быстро изменяющаяся деловая среда; то, с чем приходиться жить и к чему приходиться приспосабливаться; слепо выполнять приказы; наделять полномочиями для принятия решений; делегировать задачи на более низкий уровень; все более усложняющийся бизнес; выполнить работу (с хорошим результатом); определить степень вознаграждения; то, чего вы достигли; больше не ограничивается высшим органом руководства; результаты труда определяют степень уважения в коллективе.
Task 6. Language Focus The imperative
Ingrid Kloren is the Human Resources Director of major multinational group.
She has just completed a pilot on electronic or remote teamworking and has written
the following memo to other human resources managers within the group. Complete
the memo using the imperative forms of the verbs in the box. In some cases you will
need to use the negative.
set
use
keep
encourage
contact
give
make sure
punish
let
expect
pay
organise
create
restrict
take
schedule
To: The managers of all HR departments
From: Ingrid Kloren, Human Resources Director
Date: 23 March
Subject: Guidelines for remote teamworking
As you are all aware, we have been conducting an international pilot project us
-
ing electronic media for teamworking. Although I will shortly be forwarding a com
-
plete report on this project, I have laid out below some general guidelines, based on
this experience, for managers who may already be involved in similar projects.
1.
Make sure that you arrange for face to face meetings to place be
-
fore the start of the project in order to establish relationships.
2.
______clear objectives for the team to achieve.
3.
______in constant contact with your team by e-mail, voicemail and
telephone conferencing.
4.
______video conferencing more than is necessary as experience
shows that some team members may find this intimidating.
5.
______time to talk to people individually to find out if they have
any problems. They may not otherwise volunteer this information.
36
6.
______virtual meetings at times that are inconvenient for parti
-
cipants living in different time zones.
7.
______your approach to be automatically superior to that of other
team members who are often experts in their national markets.
8.
______people for failing to achieve objectives as this can discourage
creativity.
9.
_______as much support and advice as you can.
10.
_______particular attention to relationships and to different na
-
tional styles of conducting business.
11.
_______team members to accept individual responsibility within the group.
12.
_______the flow of information only to certain people as others will feel
excluded.
13.
_______training courses so that everyone is familiar with the different com
-
munication systems.
14.
_______a feeling of community and common identity. I hope that these
guidelines will prove useful and will enhance performance in virtual teams.
15.
_______me here at HQ if you have any queries concerning this project.
16.
_______me know if you would like to take part in the virtual teamworking
forum that we will be organizing in June.
Read the memo again and translate it into Russian.
Task 7
. Give Russian equivalents for:
a pilot project on electronic or «remote» teamworking; I will shortly be forwarding a complete report on this project; to lay out some general guidelines; to arrange for face to face meetings to take place; in order to establish relationships; to find smth intimidating; to volunteer information; this can discourage creativity; don’t expect your approach to be automatically superior; encourage team members to accept individual responsibility; to feel excluded; to be familiar with the different communication systems; these guidelines will prove useful; to enhance performance in virtual teams; to take part in the virtual team working forum; to create a feeling of community and common identity; to have queries concerning the project.
Task 8
. Translate into English using the vocabulary from the previous exercise
1.
Руководитель должен изложить рекомендации по работе в
команде прежде, чем начинать работу над важным проектом.
Умение четко ставить цели, которые команда должна достичь
является одним из важнейших аспектов деятельности
37
руководителя.
2.
Не назначайте виртуальные совещания на время, которое
может быть неудобным для участников. Это особенно важно
для глобальных корпораций с филиалами в разных временных
зонах.
3.
Нужно избегать методов, которые действуют угнетающе на
людей. Создавайте атмосферу сотрудничества, чувство
коллектива и общности целей. В этом случае никто не будет
чувствовать себя исключенным из жизни коллектива.
4.
Не полагайте, что ваши подходы автоматически будут лучше,
чем у других. Не отбивайте у своих сотрудников желания
творить (не расхолаживайте своих сотрудников).
5.
Чтобы активизировать работу в коллективе и улучшить
показатели, вам нужно устанавливать творческие и
благожелательные взаимоотношения внутри коллектива
(команды).
6.
Если вы будете ограничивать поток информации, люди не
станут добровольно делиться ею, и это повредит всему
процессу работы над проектом.
7.
Некоторые специалисты уже привлекались к аналогичным
проектам, и они готовы поделиться опытом.
8.
Оказывайте людям всевозможную поддержку и не
наказывайте их за то, что они не сумели чего-то сделать. Это
не способствует творческому настроению в коллективе.
9.
Будьте готовы обсуждать любые вопросы, относящиеся к работе
и поощряйте людей брать на себя ответственность за результаты
труда всей команды.
10.
Обращайте особое внимание на взаимоотношения в
коллективе и различия в национальных подходах к принятию
решений. В многонациональных командах необходимо
установить четкие правила поведения, которые учитывают
национальную культуру всех участников.
Task 9
. Read and translate the text.
Paragraphs 1–9 contain advice for business leaders. Choose the appropriate
heading for each paragraph from the list below.
a A leader should be a good teacher and communicator.
b A leader must manage time and use it effectively.
с
A leader must have technical competence.
d
A leader must provide vision.
e
A leader must be visible and approachable.
f A leader should be introspective.
g
A leader should be dependable.
h A leader should be open-minded.
I
A leader should have a sense of humour.
38
1.
In large organizations, leaders should spend no more than four hours a
day in their offices. The rest of the time, they should be out with their
people, talking to lower-level employees and getting their feedback on
problem areas. They should be making short speeches and handing out
awards. They should be traveling widely throughout their organization.
2.
The best leaders are those whose minds are never closed and who are
eager to deal with new issues. Leaders should not change their minds too
frequently after a major decision has been made, but if they never recon
-
sider, they are beginning to show a degree of rigidity and inflexibility that
creates problems for the organization.
3.
Executives must take a disciplined approach to their schedules, their post,
their telephone calls, their travel schedules and their meetings. Staying
busy and working long hours are not necessarily a measurement of leader
-
ship effectiveness.
4.
Leaders may run efficient organization, but they do not really serve the
long-term interests of the institution unless they plan, set and provide stra
-
tegic perception.
5.
The leader must be willing to pass on skills, to share insights and experi
-
ences, and to work very closely with people to help them mature and be
creative.
6.
Leaders should let people know that life is not so important that you can’t
sit back occasionally and be amused by what is happening. Laughter can
be a great reliever of tension.
7.
Reliability is something that leaders must have in order to provide stabil
-
ity and strength to organizations. Leaders must be willing to be flexible
but consistency and coherence are important elements of large organiza
-
tions.
8.
Leaders must not only understand the major elements of their businesses
but must also keep up with any changes.
9.
Leaders should be able to look at themselves objectively and analyse
where they have made mistakes and where they have disappointed people.
Unit
6. Banking
(
SB
, p
. 56–64)
Vocabulary
Notes
to
look
after
the
government
’
s
finance
– заниматься финансами государства;
проводить и контролировать финансовую политику государства; monetary
policy
– кредитно–денежная политика; to
act
as
banker
to
other
banks
– выступать в роли банкира по отношению к
другим банкам; the general public – население
; commercial banks – коммерческие
банки
; clearing
banks
– клиринговые банки (ведущие сделки по безналичным расчетам);
clearing
– расчеты, путем взаимного зачета требований; 39
to offer a wide range of services – предлагать
широкий
спектр
услуг
; to
accept
deposits
– принимать депозитные вклады; to
make
loans
– предоставлять ссуды; to
manage
customers
’ accounts
– работать со счетами клиентов; вести счета
клиентов; merchant
banks
– торговый банк (Великобритания); банк, специализирующийся
на финансировании внешней торговли, операциях на рынке капиталов
организации слияний и поглощений; консультациях; to deal with the public – работать
с
населением
; corporate
customers
– корпоративные клиенты, т.е. крупные компании; particularly – особенно
; to arrange mergers and acquisitions – организовывать
слияние
и
поглощения
; to
advise
on
– консультировать по вопросам; aspect
of
corporate
finance
– аспекты корпоративного финансирования; to
provide
business
loans
– обеспечивать коммерческое кредитование; to
grant
loans
– предоставлять ссуды; to
grant
payment
services
– предоставлять услуги по платежам; commercial
insurance
– коммерческое страхование; to advise on pension planning – консультировать
по
пенсионным
схемам
; online
/ electronic
banking
– банковское обслуживание в Интернете; to manage current accounts – работать
с
текущими
счетами
; to
provide
cheque
facilities
– предоставлять услуги по обработке чеков; to
collect
and
pay
cheques
– принимать и оплачивать чеки; to
discount
bills
– осуществлять учет векселей; to
arrange
for
overdraft
facilities
– предоставлять кредит по овердрафту; to
transact
foreign
exchange
business
– проводить операции с иностранной валютой;
to
transact
stock
and
share
business
on
behalf
of
their
clients
– осуществлять
операции с ценными бумагами по поручению клиентов; to
hold
securities
in
safe
custody
– принимать на хранение ценные бумаги; to
be
on
a
shuttle
– путешествовать рейсовым автобусом; en
-
route
– на пути в…; a crucial meeting – важное
совещание
; up-to-date financial information – самая
последняя
финансовая
информация
; to present a cheque – предъявить
чек
к
оплате
; to
boot
up
a
laptop
– построить ноутбук (портативный компьютер);
to download the information – «
скачать
» информацию
(с компьютера на компьютер);
to
unlock
the
information
– «раскрыть» информацию; to
be
at
one
’
s
fingertips
– совсем рядом; на кончиках пальцев; to
group
accounts
– сгруппировать счета; свести их воедино; to
focus
on
– сосредоточиться на чем-либо; to give an overall view – дать
общую
картину
; to
fit
into
banking
hours
– подстроиться под рабочие часы банка, успевать в банк,
когда он открыт; to
access
comprehensive
information
– получить доступ к исчерпывающей
информации; to
initiate
computerized
payments
– перейти на электронные платежи; 40
to
transfer
money
instantly
– осуществить мгновенный перевод денег; standing
order
– платежное поручение; direct
debits
, pl
. – прямое дебетование; система перевода средств; при которой
поставщик по соглашению с покупателем кредитует свой банковский счет и
дебетует счет покупателя на сумму поставленных товаров и услуг; direct
debit
– прямой дебет: инструкция клиента банку автоматически
дебетовать его счет регулярными, но меняющимися суммами, например, плата
за газ, электроэнергию; to locate quickly – быстро
найти
; to use a range of search criteria – использовать
диапазон
критериев
поиска
; surplus funds – избыточные
фонды
; to make surplus funds work really hard for you – сделать
так
, чтобы
избыточные
фонды
работали
на
вас
действительно
эффективно
; to devote time to routine transactions – уделять
время
рутинным
сделкам
; cost-effectiveness – выгодность
; малозатратность
; built-in features – внедренные
характеристики
; off
-
line
processing
– автономная обработка данных; security
– безопасность; to
restrict
access
to
designated
users
– ограничить доступ только доверенными
пользователями; to
specify
exactly
– точно определить; установить; flexibility
– гибкость;
to
dovetail
– подгонять; плотно приладить; согласовывать; увязывать;
подходить; соответствовать; совпадать; to
dovetail
with
your
existing
financial
software
– совпадать с уже существующей
программой финансовых расчетов; payment processing facilities – услуги
по
обработке
платежей
; the
template
function
– функция многократного воспроизведения; to
re
-
key
similar
data
– повторно вводить аналогичную информацию; beneficiary
, n
. – бенефициар; получатель; priority
payments
– первоочередные платежи; urgent
payments
– срочные платежи; subject
to
a
cut
off
time
of
… – при условии, что время отключения (3 часа дня);
high-value payments – крупные
платежи
.
Task 1. Read and translate the text on p. 58, answer the following questions:
What situation is described in the beginning of the story? Why?
When do businesspeople need the most up-to-date financial information?
How can you get this information using the HOBS system?
What facilities can you get using HOBS?
What kind of people are ready to use the system?
How can users carry out financial control?
What facilities are offered to make financial control easier and more efficient?
Why is the system so convenient?
What makes the system cost-effective?
41
How can the amount of time to be connected to HOBS be kept to a minimum?
What allows to restrict access to designated users?
What does it specify exactly?
How has corporate HOBS been designed?
What choice is provided for corporate clients?
What is the BACS Direct facility ideal for?
Why don’t you have to re-key similar data?
How can users make urgent payments?
Sum up the information about HOBS.
Task 2. Translate from Russian using the vocabulary from the text.
1.
Если вам нужна последняя информация относительно состояния
вашего счета, вы можете получить ее по дороге на работу. Включите
ноутбук и вся необходимая информация на кончиках ваших пальцев.
2.
Чтобы получить общую картину финансовых дел, нужно
сгруппировать счета в определенной сфере бизнеса и
проанализировать их.
3.
Электронные банковские услуги предоставляются, если вы
подключены к системе BAKS
. Она позволяет выплачивать зарплаты,
оплачивать услуги поставщиков и осуществлять прямое дебетование.
4.
Платежное поручение банку дает возможность клиенту не уделять
много ценного времени посещению банка. Ему не приходится
приспосабливаться к часам работы банка вместо того, чтобы
заниматься своим бизнесом.
5.
Чтобы выяснить подробности о чеках, предъявленных к оплате,
достаточно скачать информацию с главного компьютера Банка
Шотландии, и получить необходимую информацию быстро и просто.
6.
Малозатратный способ осуществления банковских операций
означает, что его стоимость равна цене местного телефонного
звонка. Кроме этого, время на подключение к системе HOBS
сведено
до минимума благодаря специальным встроенным характеристикам.
7.
Эта система разработана таким образом, что она совместима с уже
существующими программами по финансовым операциям, что дает
пользователям широкие возможности для финансовой отчетности и
обработки платежей.
8.
Доступ к системе ограничен только доверенными пользователями и
каждый человек может получить доступ только к определенной,
четко определенной информации.
9.
Как правило, в личном компьютере пользователя содержится база
данных его получателей. Функция повторного воспроизведения
избавляет от необходимости повторно вводить одну и ту же
информацию.
10.
Новые способы банковского обслуживания позволяют расширить
сферу банковских услуг и сделать их более доступными, но
внедрение этих методов требует высокого развития технологий, и
42
общества в целом (
at
large
).
Task 3. Read the following advertisement for Citibank, a global banking group,
and choose the best sentence (a-I) from the box below to fill in each of the gaps.
The worldwide access you desire with the control you need
Open a Citibank Current Account and you'll benefit from a package of financial
products and services that will change your expectations of a bank.
1
________
. We'll put you more firmly in control of your finances by giving you
unparalleled
access to your money.
Citibank's state-of-the-art technology removes traditional banking limitations of
time and location and gives you free 24-hour telephone access to your
money.
2
_________.
As a result, you'll enjoy the benefits of the world's most global banking group,
whether you are in your home, your high street, on holiday or on business.
There are currently 22 million people in over 40 countries around the world who
enjoy the Citibank difference.
3
__________.
International Currency Accounts
If you travel often, invest internationally or you are an expatriate, we have personal
Current Accounts in US Dollars, Sterling and Euro to help you manage your financial
affairs more efficiently.
Whether you want to pay in US Dollars on your regular trips abroad, or you want
to avoid hefty transaction charges when you send cheques to the US, or you simply want
to save on currency exchange costs, the US Dollar Account is for you. 4
________________
.
24-hour free telephone banking with CitiPhone Banking
Short of making deposits or cash withdrawals, CitiPhone lets you conduct busi
-
ness
conveniently over the phone.
5
_________
. You have a choice of methods, a
touch-tone phone
will speed you through automated procedures, or CitiPhone Bankers
are on hand if you prefer the personal touch.
Total control of your finances, anytime, anywhere... Worldwide Wishful-think
-
ing?
With Citibank's Internet Banking, you can access your Citibank Account from
almost
anywhere you have access to the Internet 6
________
. Change a standing order
Download
your account details. Transfer funds between your Citibank Accounts And
you'll see your balance change instantly.
At Citibank we're not just content with giving you total control of you finances,
worldwide, 365 days a year, plus no fees – with us your finances are productive as
well.
A
Call free in the UK or around the world 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.
В
Alternatively, use our free Internet Banking or withdraw cash from over 350,000
cashpoints worldwide.
С
Full additional overdraft facilities are available to you based on your
personal net worth and individual requirements.
43
D
You can pay bills.
E
Our service is based on a simple promise.
F
This account gives you the ability to buy, borrow, save and transfer funds in Euro,
and still withdraw cash in the local currencies.
G
We have harnessed the latest technology to deliver an easier, and more accessible
banking service.
H We think you'll enjoy it too.
I
You will always have the power of the world's most international currency when you
travel on business or pleasure.
Vocabulary
Match the verbs on the left with the nouns on the right to form common
banking collocations.
1
open
a
interest
2
purchase
b
bills
3
earn
с
funds
4
make
d
an account
5
withdraw
e
a deposit
6
pay*
f
financial data
7
transfer
g
cash
8
download
h
goods.
Replace the underlined words with expressions from above
1
. ___________________________
The Citicard allows you to
_____________
take out money from cashpoints around the world.
2. With Citibank, you can_________ receive a percentage
on your current ac
-
count balance.
3. Just fill out and return the application form or call a Citibank Representative
to___________
set up a banking arrangement
.
4. You can____________
put money into your account by post at Citibank
branches
and Citicard Banking Centres.
5. On-line banking services let you
_______
move money
from one account to an
-
other quickly and easily.
6. All you need is a modem or Internet connection to__________
transfer ac
-
count information
onto your personal computer.
7. Just by using the key pad on your phone, CitiPhone Banking lets
you
_________ settle invoices
from wherever you are.
8. The Citibank Euro Account allows you to_________ buy products in local cur
-
rencies without paying any exchange rates.
Task 5. Give Russian equivalents for the expressions below:
to benefit from a package of financial products
to put more firmly in control of….
to give smb. unparalleled access to money
state-of-the-art technology
44
to remove traditional banking limitations
to enjoy the benefits of the global banking group
to enjoy the difference to manage financial affairs more efficiently
to avoid hefty transaction charges
to save on currency exchange costs
short of making deposits or cash withdrawals
to conduct business conveniently
to be on hand
to speed you through automated procedures
to prefer the personal touch
world-wide wishful-thinking
to change a standing order
to download your account details
to see your balance change instantly
to be content with
Task 6. Translate into Russian without using a dictionary:
1.
Modern banks offer a wide choice of facilities so that their custom
-
ers could benefit from a package of financial products and services.
2.
People can enjoy the state-of-the-art banking technology that re
-
moves traditional banking limitations of time and location.
3.
If you want to avoid hefty transaction charges and save on currency
exchange costs, you can easily initiate Internet Banking services
and enjoy the benefits of the worldwide access to your money.
4.
Some customers prefer the personal touch, so traditional banking
services are available in all high street branches where efficient
bankers are on hand if you want their service or advice.
5.
The new state-of-the-art technology gives you unparalleled access
to your money and sometimes you are offered a package of finan
-
cial products and services that will change your expectations of a
bank.
6.
As a rule, banks offer rather a wide range of services: they accept
money deposits, collect and pay cheques, discount bills, grant
loans, arrange for overdraft facilities, transact stock and share busi
-
ness and provide safe-deposit facilities.
7.
To conduct your business conveniently you can download your ac
-
count details and enjoy the benefits of on-line banking. Short of
making deposits or cash withdrawals, you have a choice of methods
that will speed you though automated procedures.
8.
You can change your standing order or transfer funds and you have
to devote valuable time to these routine transactions, or fit your
business into banking hours.
9.
If you often travel or invest internationally, you want banking fin
-
ances.
10.
All modern banking techniques have been designed to dovetail with
existing financial software, giving a customer a choice of account
45
reporting and payment processing facilities and a smooth transfer of
account formation to and from other packages.
Task 7. Summarizing the topic.
Read and translate the text into Russian.
TYPES OF BANKS
The banking system of a country is made up of a variety of different institu
-
tions supervised by the country's central bank. We know state, private, commercial,
investment, merchant, and clearing banks. They are all commercial institutions, and
as such they have to sell their services.
For the general public and many businesses, banking services are provided by
the Commercial banks. These banks offer a wide range of banking services, e.g., ac
-
cepting and holding deposits, managing customers' accounts, providing credit cards,
arranging loans, arranging mortgages and insurance. Customers can open current (or
cheque) accounts, savings and deposit accounts. Commercial banks issue Letters of
credit, collect payments, discount bills of exchange, handle foreign currency transac
-
tions, and trade in securities. They act as profit-making companies as they sell their
services. They make a profit from the difference (known as a spread or a margin)
between the interest rates they pay to lenders or depositors and those they charge to
borrowers. Commercial banks invest into public and corporate securities.
Merchant banks
do not deal with the public but specialize in providing ser
-
vices to companies, raising capital for industry and financing international trade.
They advise companies on corporate finance, on flotation’s and takeover bids.
Banks issue and underwrite securities, and manage investment portfolios of rich cor
-
porate and individual clients. They are particularly active in arranging mergers and
acquisitions.
Investment banks
provide finance for companies by buying stocks and securities
and selling them in smaller units to members of the public. They can only act as interme
-
diaries offering advisory services, and do not offer loans themselves. These banks make
their profits from the fees and commissions they charge for their services.
The distinction between different kinds of banking has become less clear in re
-
cent years. Deregulation in the USA and Britain is leading to the creation of 'finan
-
cial supermarkets', such conglomerates combining the services offered by banks,
stockbrokers, insurance companies and so on. In some European countries, notably
Germany, Switzerland and Austria, there have always been universal banks combin
-
ing deposit and loan banking, share and bond dealing, investment services.
The central bank
looks after the government's finance and monetary policy and
also acts as banker to other banks. It has 4 main functions.
1. The first one is to implement monetary policy. There are roughly 3 ways to
do it. First is setting interest rate ceilings and floors, which means limiting the fluctu
-
ations of the interest rate. The second way to implement monetary policy is simply
printing money, or destroying it – coins, banknotes. The third is buying and selling
government bonds to and from commercial banks.
2. The second one is exchange rate supervision, mainly for floating exchange
rates. But even for a fixed exchange rate the central bank still has to make sure that it
has enough reserves to counteract any upswing or downswing of this exchange rate.
3. The third main task is commercial banking supervision – that is making sure
46
that the commercial banks have enough liquidity, for instance, to avoid any bank
run. The bank run is a sort of panic, a situation in which investors or customers run
to the bank and take their money out because they realize or they think they realize
that their bank is not trustworthy any more.
4. The fourth main task of the central bank would be to act as a lender of last re
-
sort in case one of these commercial banks goes bankrupt and the investors have to
get back their money.
In some countries the central bank is independent from the government, in oth
-
ers it is controlled by the government. In the former case the government will be un
-
able to instigate expansionary policies, either to boost an economy in a recession, or
to increase money supply before elections to favour employment. Of course, this has
a negative effect on inflation. It's more efficient for a separate body to implement
monetary policy while the government implements budgetary policy and taxation.
The two most independent central banks are in Switzerland and Germany.
Italy has a quite an independent central bank. The American Federal Reserve
Board, the Fed, is slightly independent. France is being slowly privatized and made
independent. But the Bank of England, the Bank of Japan and the Chinese central
bank are examples of central banks, which are influenced by the government. It is
generally accepted that the independent bank is a model for the future. Though it
should not be completely independent. The independence should be adapted to the
economic conditions in the country and outside the country.
Task 8. Translate into English:
Коммерческий банк
Коммерческий банк – это финансовое учреждение, принимающее вклады
от компаний и населения и осуществляющее различные виды банковского
обслуживания – взаимозачеты, кредитование и т. д.
Коммерческий банк в своей деятельности осуществляет две основные
функции: выдавать со счетов деньги по первому требованию и прибыльно
вкладывать свои средства. Основная деятельность заключается в ведении
текущих счетов, принятии депозитных вкладов, получении и выдаче наличных
денег и кредитовании.
Дополнительными услугами являются управление и исполнение
завещаний, предложение иностранной валюты, покупка и продажа ценных
бумаг, страхование, система кредитных карточек.
Банк держит часть своих активов в виде ликвидных активов (наличных
денег, остатках на счетах, кредитов до востребования на учетном рынке,
векселей и т. д.), а другую часть инвестирует в ценные бумаги общественного
сектора и корпораций или выдает в виде кредитов. Коммерческие банки
известны также как акционерные банки.
Торговый банк
Торговые банки занимаются обеспечением финансирования торговли в форме
акцепта переводных векселей импортеров и экспортеров.
Они стали выполнять и другие виды деятельности: управление
инвестициями, операции на фондовом рынке, корпоративное финансирование
(эмиссия новых ценных бумаг от имени корпораций и гарантирование их
размещения). Они предоставляют финансовые средства промышленным
47
корпорациям, приобретая акции компании и продавая их относительно малыми
пакетами инвесторам.
Торговые банки играют особую роль в организации консультаций по
вопросам тактики слияний и поглощений и согласования финансовых условий и
деталей таких сделок.
Центральный банк
Ведущий банк страны, который оказывает финансовые и банковские услуги
правительству и коммерческой банковской системе своей страны, а также
проводит в жизнь государственную денежно-кредитную политику.
Основными функциями ц.б. являются следующие: ведение государственных
счетов, внесение на них средств, поступающих от налогов и продажи
государственных ценных бумаг, принятие депозитных вкладов коммерческих
банков и предоставление им займов; контролирование выпуска банкнот;
управление государственным долгом; регулирование валютных курсов; влияние
на процентные ставки и контроль за денежной массой.
Ц.б. действует также в качестве государственного брокера, осуществляя
кредитные операции, эмиссию и распространение облигаций и казначейских
векселей при обслуживании государственного бюджета и государственного
долга.
Коммерческие банки имеют счета в ц.б., и он предоставляет им
возможность урегулировать свои задолженности друг перед другом, осуществляя
взаимозачет операций по их счетам.
48
???????? ?????????; ???? ??? ??????; Unit 7. Business and the Environment
(SB, p. 65–73)
Vocabulary Notes
consumer society – общество
потребителей
; the
impact
on
the
environment
– последствия для окружающей среды;
воздействие на окружающую среду; to
recycle
– использовать повторно; переработать с целью вторичного использования;
recycling
– система вторичного использования сырья и упаковочных материалов; packaging
– упаковочные материалы; to
pollute
– загрязнять окружающую среду; pollution
, n
. – загрязнение окружающей среды; environmental
threat
– угроза окружающей среде; environmental
cause
– дело защиты окружающей среды; борьба за сохранение
окружающей среды; ozone
layer
– озоновый слой; nuclear
waste
– ядерные отходы; global
warming
– глобальное потепление; oil
spills
– утечка нефти; нефтяные пятна; rubbish bin (GB)
trash can (US)
environmentalism
– политика защиты окружающей среды; environmentally
– friendly
– экологически чистый; безвредный; environmental
commitment
– приверженность делу защиты окружающей среды;
экологическая направленность; to
create
committed
customers
– зд. воспитывать экологически настроенных
покупателей; proven
– доказанный временем; испытанный; to
communicate
corporate
environmentalism
– передавать / пропагандировать
корпоративное отношение к вопросам экологии; knowledgeable
and
loyal
customers
– знающие / информированные и преданные
покупатели; to buy into a commitment to environmental restoration – вместе
с
покупкой
приобретать
приверженность
идее
; exemplary
method
– образцовый метод / способ; environmental
product
attributes
and
benefits
– экологически чистые свойства и
достоинства товара; to
take
pains
(
to
do
smith
) – брать на себя труд / обязанность (что-либо сделать); its
products
’ earth
– friendliness
– экологическая безопасность их товаров; highlighting
the
organic
merchandise
– подробное освещение товаров,
изготовленных из естественных материалов; organically
– produced
products
– товары из природных материалов; the
rationale
behind
the
company
’
s
switch
to
organically
-
grown
merchandise
–
логическое обоснование перехода компании на товары естественного
происхождения; натуральную продукцию; long
-
term
sustainability
issues
– долгосрочные проблемы сохранения
49
окружающей среды; to
sustain
– поддерживать; подкреплять; to
sustain
environment
– поддерживать окружающую среду в надлежащем
состоянии; sustainability
– процесс охраны окружающей среды и поддержание экологии в
чистоте; to
address
environmental
issues
– заниматься проблемами защиты окружающей
среды; broad
environmental
education
– разностороннее просвещение в вопросах экологии;
to be less taxing on the Earth – наносить
меньший
вред
экологии
Земли
; to engage customers with interactive displays of the earth’s processes – вовлекать
покупателей
в
интерактивные
показы
земных
процессов
; tangible
corporate
environmental
progress
– явные успехи; очевидные успехи
компании в экологической сфере; to
doubt
corporate
environmental
claims
– подвергать сомнению экологические
заявления корпораций; to
avoid
consumer
backlash
– чтобы избежать негативного отношения покупателей;
internal
environmental
assessment
– внутренняя оценка экологических мер; to
uncover
opportunities
to
cut
waste
and
reduce
energy
– раскрыть возможности
снижения потребления энергии и уменьшения количества отходов; to conduct business in a socially responsible manner – вести
бизнес
ответственно
; long
– lasting
light
bulbs
– высококачественные электролампы длительного
использования; to
provide
on
– site
child
care
– обеспечить уход за детьми по месту работы; to
pledge
10% of
its
pre
– tax
profit
– отдавать / жертвовать 10% своей прибыли
до вычета налогов; small
, local
preservation
and
restoration
efforts
– местные небольшие группы по
охране и восстановлению окружающей среды; grass
roots
– простые люди; grass
roots
efforts
do
the
most
to
raise
community
awareness
of
local
environmental
issues
– усилия простых людей играют самую важную роль в повышении
осведомленности о местных экологических проблемах; the program targets smaller grass roots organisations – программа
нацелена
на
малые
низовые
организации
; resource extraction – добыча
ископаемых
; to raise community awareness nationwide – расширить
осведомленность
населения
во
всей
стране
; to
empower
consumers
to
take
action
– стимулировать покупателей на активные
действия; to
apply
for
grants
for
local
projects
– подавать заявки на гранты для
осуществления локальных проектов; meaningful
corporate
environmental
progress
– значительные успехи компании в
экологической программе; avenues
for
consumer
activism
– пути развития активности потребителей.
50
Task 1. Read the text on p. 67, translate it into Russian and answer the following
questions:
Why are Patagonia’s customers loyal to the environmental ideas of the company?
What does their exemplary method of communicating corporate environmentalism mean?
What do their customers get while purchasing products from Patagonia?
How does the company educate consumers on environmental issues?
What does environmental education teach consumers?
How is Patagonia’s catalogue different from those of other companies?
What other media do they use to explain new ideas in environmentalism?
In what way do they try to avoid consumer backlash?
What does their annual report show?
How do they help to raise consumer awareness?
Who does the Earth Tax program target? Why?
How does the company empower consumers to take action?
Why do even skeptics become Patagonia customers?
Sum up the information from the text about proven environmental commitment of Pa
-
tagonia company.
Task 2. Translate from Russian into English using the vocabulary from the text.
1.
Успехи компании в защите окружающей среды во многом зависят
от знающих и преданных покупателей.
2.
Небольшие низовые экологические группы занимаются такими
вопросами, как биологическое разнообразие, старые леса,
экологически безопасные методы добычи сырья, альтернативные
источники воды и энергии, общественная активность и
экологическое образование.
3.
В наши дни крупным корпорациям необходимо думать о
долгосрочных проблемах защиты окружающей среды и уделять
особое внимание экологически безвредным свойствам
производимых товаров.
4.
Во всех рекламных материалах нужно подробно освещать
экологически чистое происхождение товара. Это является
стратегическим шагом для широкого экологического
просвещения населения в долгосрочной перспективе.
5.
Усилия простых людей играют самую большую роль в
повышении осведомленности о местных экологических
проблемах.
6.
Компании, которые ответственно ведут бизнес, всегда дают
логическое обоснование перехода на экологически чистую
продукцию, хотя этот шаг не всегда непосредственно связан с
прибылями компании.
7.
Чтобы избежать негативного отношения покупателей, компаниям
нужно освещать проблемы окружающей среды в средствах
массовой информации и вовлекать население в интерактивные
дискуссии о вредном влиянии отходов на земные процессы.
8.
Лучший способ расширить осведомленность населения в
вопросах экологии – это дать возможность самим потребителям
активно участвовать в защите окружающей среды.
51
9.
Постоянная оценка экологических мер открывает новые
возможности для снижения потребления энергии и уменьшения
количества отходов.
10.
Имея мощные средства коммуникаций, пути развития активности
потребителей, а также добившись значительных успехов в
экологической программе, крупные корпорации дают реальную
возможность потребителям активно участвовать в деле защиты
окружающей среды.
Task 3. Do exercise 1 on p. 68, complete the passage and answer the questions:
What kind of firm is Patagonia?
How does it sell its products?
What is it renowned for?
What do their catalogues contain?
What does the company make products from?
How does it educate the employees?
What efforts does the company support?
What is their strategy?
Speak about Patagonia and its environmentalism.
Task 4. Give English equivalents for:
одежда для прогулок / работы на открытом воздухе; твердая приверженность делу защиты окружающей среды; прославиться чем-либо; быть известным благодаря…; необычные и впечатляющие снимки; заплатить выкуп; привлекательные, броские каталоги; содержат подробное описание продукта; толкование производственного процесса; производить одежду из натуральных материалов; жертвовать деньги на экологические цели; проводить учения о проведении демонстраций без применения насилия; поддерживать усилия, которые дают возможность потребителям активно работать; отдавать деньги на благородные цели; быть инициатором новых, долгосрочных подходов к охране окружающей среды
в бизнесе; доказать свою экономическую жизнеспособность; убедить другие компании следовать их примеру.
Task 5. The sentences below are extracts from the introduction to an environmental
report 'How Green is my Patio' written by Martin Toogood, the Managing Director
of B&Q, a British Do-It-Yourself retailer.
Replace the words in brackets with an appropriate word from the box.
policy
customers
impact
stores
programme
issues
52
review
factory
estimate
goal
consumption
A. Whilst our day-to-day running of the business does have an environmental 1
__________(the effect of one thing on another), the
2
___________ (diffi
-
cult questions or problems) with our products were, and still are, far greater.
В
. Rather than just produce a 3
____________(an official course of action)
quickly and stick a few green labels on our products, we started a funda
-
mental 4
____________
(examination/analysis) of the product range and the day-to-day
running of the business.
C. Basic contradictions such as our
5
___________
(objective) to sell more, so con
-
tributing towards 6
______________
(the amount of products used or bought), however,
still provide a philosophical challenge to any retailer.
D. There is considerable work to be done in the 7
________________ (shops) and
the way we communicate with our 8
________________
(the people who buy products).
E. B&Q's environmental 9
____________
(a plan of action) started at the begin
-
ning of 1990.
F. A
10
________________(a place where goods are produced) in Bolivia is ex
-
panding rapidly to make wooden garden furniture. We 11
_____________(calculate)
that we buy products from 60 countries.
Task 6. Now choose the most appropriate extract (A-F)from the previous task
to fill in each of the gaps in the text below.
1
________. A growing number of customer enquiries and difficult media en
-
quiries made us realise that the environment was becoming a business issue. Action
was catalysed when we were asked by a leading Sunday newspaper 'How much trop
-
ical timber does B&Q stock?’. Unable to answer the question, the obvious interpreta
-
tion by the journalist was 'If you don't know, you don't care.' We did care and we
knew that many of our staff cared and most important of all, our customers
cared.
2
________.
This is our third environmental review. The first 'How Green is my Hammer?'
was published in August-1993 and the second 'How Green is my Front Door?' was
published in July 1995. This report covers progress to October 1998.
As the title suggests, all the reviews focus on the products we sell. 3
________.
Many of the issues were not obvious and were only realised after considerable invest
-
igation. For example, brass door handles were made in appalling working conditions
in India, solvents or Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in paint contributed to at
-
mospheric pollution and the wood was connected to deforestation.
This report also tackles in far more detail than ever before 'sustainability' and
some of our ideas and thoughts on this concept.
4
_____________.
Whilst B&Q has stores in the United Kingdom our fingerprint extends across the
world. In the Philippines, people in coastal villages are collecting shells to make
lampshades. In India, there are hundreds of looms in cottage units in which our door
mats and hand knotted rugs are made. 5
________.
6
___________. In 1997 we launched our environmental programme for stores
-
'QUEST for stores' – its success has been staggering.
53
We also recognise that our stores have a significant impact on the local com
-
munities both during their planning and construction, but also the subsequent run
-
ning of the store. This includes addressing our role as a member of the local com
-
munity and the issues associated with the design and impact of our stores.
Read the text again and answer the questions:
Why did the company start the programme?
Why did they intensify their efforts?
How did they prove that the company and their staff really cared?
What reviews did they do in 1993 and 1995?
What do their reviews focus on?
How do they practically discover the ways to tackle the environmental issues?
What basic contradictions do retailers face?
What makes B&Q a really global company?
Where do they produce and sell goods?
What programme was a staggering success?
What do they recognize?
How do they see their role as a member of the local community?
Sum up the information about the environmental policy of B&Q.
Task 7. Use the correct form of the words in the box to complete the sentences below.
suit
effective
manufacture consult
responsible
commit
profit sustain
1.
This particular product is not suitable
for use inside the home.
2.
We have found that in many countries, suppliers do not understand the im
-
portance of using natural resources that you can _____________rather than
deplete.
3.
We are going to discuss the _________of the new sales policy at the meeting
this afternoon.
4.
The best way to reduce the environmental impact of business operations in
developing countries is by helping companies there to take greater
___________ for managing the resources that they use.
5.
When designing packaging that can be recycled, it is sometimes necessary to
use the services of __________
who can advise on the best ways to do this.
6.
Although selling green products can help to protect the environment, it must
also be _________
for the company.
7.
Research shows that consumers would like to see more companies making a
genuine __________
to protecting the environment.
8.
____________industries
produce the highest levels of air pollution.
Task 8. Read the story about Anita Roddick, the founder of the Body Shop,
and choose the correct word from A, B or C to fill the gaps.
1
A
contrast
B
Nevertheless
C
Although
54
2
A
Even though
B
In spite of
C
However
3
A
although
B
despite
C
Unlike
4
A
Whereas
B
Nevertheless
C
While
5
A
Unlike
B
In contrast
C
While
6
A
Although
B
However
C
Unlike
7
A
Although
B
Nevertheless
C
Unlike
8
A
despite
B
In spite of
C
Even though
9
A
However
B
Despite
C
Even though
10
A
Despite
B
However
C
Although
Anita Roddick, the founder of The Body Shop, has recently added her voice to
the campaign to promote the use of hemp as a substitute for various man-made sub
-
stances. 1
Although
hemp in fact belongs to the same plant group as marijuana, it has
none of the narcotic effects of its close relative.
2
____________, 3
________________
the efforts by hemp supporters to stimulate in
-
terest in the plant and to persuade the farming community to grow it commercially,
it is still illegal under British law to actually plant hemp seeds.
4
____________
hemp is no longer used in Western Europe, it is still a common
and valuable raw material in many other regions of the world where it provides the
basis for a whole variety of products ranging from clothing to medication.
5
____________
to man-made fibres, hemp is entirely biodegradable and therefore
does not contribute to the planet's waste problem. 6
____________
some of the ma
-
terials that it could replace, like nylon, hemp requires no energy-intensive produc
-
tion process to turn it into something you can use or wear.
7
__________, the hemp campaigners have sometimes run into some rather un
-
expected opposition 8
____________
of all the arguments that they have produced in
its favour. Even Anita Roddick herself has been accused of behaving irresponsibly
and of being insensitive to the issues involved in drug abuse.
9
_______
some members of the farming community would be only too
happy to grow hemp as a promising alternative crop, the majority of people remain
firmly opposed to its ^introduction because of its association with marijuana.
10
__________ most consumers would have no worries about wearing clothing
with nylon fibres, it would seem that, for the time being, cannabis sativa
, as the
hemp plant is known, is not something you'd want your neighbours to see you with.
Read the text again and answer the questions:
Who is Anita Roddick?
What campaign has she supported recently? Why?
What kind of a plant is hemp? Why is it illegal?
What are hemp supporters trying to do?
Why is hemp a common and valuable raw material in other regions of the world?
Why is hemp environmentally friendly?
How is it different from man – made fibres?
What are the main arguments of the opposition?
Why do the majority of people remain firmly opposed to reintroduction of hemp?
Why do most consumers prefer wearing clothing with man – made fibres?
55
Task 9. Give English equivalents for:
основатель, учредитель; заменитель различных искусственных материалов; присоединить свой голос; стимулировать интерес к; усилия сторонников конопли; убедить работников сельского хозяйства выращивать коноплю на
коммерческой основе; по Британским законам, выращивание конопли вне закона; распространенное и ценное сырье; составляет основу целого ряда продуктов от одежды до лекарств; конопля полностью разлагается; не требует энергозатратных производственных процессов; натолкнуться на неожиданное противодействие; высказать аргументы в пользу чего-либо; обвинять в безответственном поведении; равнодушно относиться к вопросам, связанным со злоупотреблением наркотиками; выращивать коноплю в качестве альтернативной культуры; большинство людей выступают решительно против возвращения к конопле; на данный момент / в настоящее время.
Task 10. The passive
Complete the following passage with the appropriate passive forms of the verbs in
brackets.
A new campaign 1
was launched
(launch) earlier this year by the UK govern
-
ment which aims to reduce the amount of domestic waste. Households
2____________________ (encourage) to recycle certain waste products and to sort and prepare
others for collection at specific sites. From there they
3
_________________________
(take) to special waste treatment plants where spe
-
cial machinery will process them for reuse as recyled material, in Britain today,
when the contents of the average household dustbin 4
_________________
(analyse),
we find that, in terms of weight, 35% of the total 5
_______________
(compose) of
paper and cardboard, 22% of kitchen waste, 12% of plastics with glass, dust and
ashes each representing a further 10%.
There are in fact only a few items of domestic waste that cannot
6
______________
(recycle). One common example is disposable nappies which, as
their name suggests, 7
______________
(design) to be thrown away after use. How
-
ever, a lot of progress could 8
_____________
(make) to reduce the amount of kit
-
chen waste most of which can 9
_________________ (transform) into a useful garden fertil
-
iser. Indeed, if more people chose to do this then the weight of the average dustbin
10
_____________
(reduce) quite significantly.
In terms of glass products, the situation is more encouraging as nearly 20% of
all the glass that 11
_________(
use) every year in the country 1
2 ________
(take) back
for recycling.
Nonetheless, it is clear that the mountains of domestic waste will only decrease
56
if efforts 13
_____________
(make) both by individual households and local govern
-
ment authorities. Special equipment such as collection trucks must 14 ___________
(purchase) and people must 15
_____________(make) aware of
how they can contribute to improving the situation. This 16
_______(achieve) with
increasing success in a number of regions in Europe during the last few years, a
trend that 17 ______________
(expect) to continue in the future.
Read the text again and answer the questions:
What campaign was launched in the UK?
How could it be done?
Why are waste products collected at specific sites?
What is the purpose of special machinery?
What is the average household dustbin in Britain composed of?
What items of domestic waste cannot be recycled?
How can the amount of kitchen waste be reduced?
In what case would the weight of the average dustbin be significantly reduced?
Why is the situation more encouraging in terms of glass products?
In what case will the mountains of domestic waste decrease?
What measures should be taken to improve the situation?
What trend is expected to continue in the future?
Sum up the information about the new environmental campaign in the UK.
Do you know anything about similar campaigns in Russia?
If so, speak about it.
Task 11. Give English equivalents for:
с целью уменьшения количества домашних отходов; людей призывают перерабатывать отдельные отходы по дому; рассортировать отходы и приготовить их к вывозу на специальные полигоны; специальные заводы / предприятия по переработке отходов; средняя корзина отходов; несколько наименований домашних отходов; одноразового использования; выбросить после использования;
снизить количество отходов домашнего хозяйства; превратить в полезное удобрение для сада; значительно сократить среднее количество отходов; более благоприятная ситуация; вернуть для переработки; горы домашнего мусора; местные муниципальные власти; людям нужно разъяснять; способствовать улучшению ситуации; все больше успехов достигнуто в этом деле в ряде регионов.
57
Task 12. Translate into English:
1.
Анита Роддик широко известна тем, что основала компанию «
The
Body
Shop
» и доказала, что приверженность идеям защиты
окружающей среды может стать основным залогом коммерческого
успеха.
2.
Преданные потребители продукции «
The
Body
Shop
» твердо знают,
что вся косметика производится из натуральных материалов и не
испытывается на животных.
3.
Броские каталоги компании содержат необычные и впечатляющие
снимки, сделанные в разных частях света и призывающие
потребителей активно действовать для защиты экологии.
4.
Первые экологические демонстрации, проводимые без применения
насилия, привлекли внимание широкой общественности и привели
к тому, что потребители стали охотно жертвовать деньги на
благородные цели защиты окружающей среды.
5.
Стратегия компании заключается не только в том, чтобы давать
деньги на добрые дела, но и в том, чтобы быть инициатором новых,
долгосрочных подходов к охране окружающей среды в бизнесе.
6.
Вслед за «
The
Body
Shop
», крупные британские фирмы стали искать
лучшие способы снижения вредного воздействия их бизнеса на
природу.
7.
Для того, чтобы убедить другие компании следовать их примеру,
экологически направленные компании доказывают свою
экономическую жизнеспособность даже во времена экономического
спада.
8.
В Великобритании в течение ряда лет проводится
общенациональная компания с целью уменьшения бытовых
отходов. Все большее количество семей включаются в усилия по
переработке домашних отходов.
9.
Людям нужно разъяснять, что экологическую ситуацию можно
улучшить, если они сами будут повторно использовать или
перерабатывать некоторые виды домашних отходов.
10.
Безусловно, для того, чтобы значительно сократить среднее
количество отходов и создать более благоприятную экологическую
ситуацию, нужно создавать и внедрять специальное
перерабатывающее оборудование и создавать предприятия по
переработке отходов.
Unit 8. The Stock Market
(SB, p. 74–83)
Vocabulary
Notes
To
raise
money
– собирать необходимый капитал; привлекать средства;
«сколотить» определенную сумму; To issue shares – выпустить
акции
; 58
(stocks – Am E )
Stock
market
– рынок ценных бумаг; Stock exchange – фондовая
биржа
; Ordinary/common shares – обыкновенные
акции
; Am E – common stock
A shareholder, n. – акционер
; держатель
акций
; Am E – a stockholder
Equity
, n
. (
syn
. share
) – простая акция; акция без фиксированного дивиденда; [‘EKWITI]
Dividends – дивиденды
; A stake, n. – доля
; A
stake
in
a
company
– деловое участие в компании; Annual
profit
– годовой доход; прибыль за год; To
issue
bonds
– выпускать облигации;
Bond
, n
. – облигация; ценная бумага, выпускаемая правительством или
муниципальными властями; Securities
, pl
. – ценные бумаги (акции и облигации);
To
trade
, v
. – вести торги на фондовой бирже;
Preference
shares
– in
the
UK
: привилегированные акции с первоочередной
выплатой дивидендов, но не имеющие права голосовать; Preference
bond
– облигация с первоочередной выплатой процентов и
первоочередным погашением; привилегированные облигации; Preference
dividend
– дивиденд по привилегированным акциям; An
institutional
investor
– институциональный инвестор; юридическое лицо
(организация), инвестирующая ср-ва в акции; A
broker
, n
. – брокер; специалист, торгующий ценными бумагами на фондовой
бирже; To
diversify
, v
. – вкладывать капитал в различные предприятия; Blue
chips
– первоклассные ценные бумаги (защищенные правительственными
гарантиями); Yield
, n
. – доход; доходность от инвестиций; Syn. return
Profits and losses – прибыли
и
убытки
; To track investments on the Internet – отслеживать
инвестиции
в
Интернете
; To
log
on
(
to
smth
.) – подключиться к (чему-либо);
To
be
hooked
(разг.) – «подсесть»; пристраститься к чему-либо; To shop for stocks over the Internet – покупать
акции
через
Интернет
; A stock market boom – расцвет
фондовых
рынков
; On
-
line
investment
fever
– увеличение инвестированием через Интернет;
Инвестиционная «лихорадка»; Fever
– лихорадка; To
shop
for
financial
products
– покупать финансовые бумаги; Web
surfing
– поиск в сети; To
gain
popularity
– набирать популярность; To
gather
pace
– набирать скорость; «обороты»; To
be
still
in
infancy
– находиться на ранних этапах развития; в «младенческом»
59
возрасте; To set their sights on the Continent – устремлять
взгляды
на
континент
; To
pose
a
challenge
– представлять вызов; являться проблемой; To
accelerate
, n
. – ускорять; To
be
under
way
– происходить; быть в процессе; To
set
up
an
on
-
line
trading
service
– продавать услуги по биржевым операциям
через Интернет; открыть в Интернете услуги по торговле ценными бумагами; Apparent
, adj
. – явный, очевидный; To
announce
a
joint
venture
– объявить о создании совместного предприятия; To
study
moves
– изучать возможные действия; To
catch
up
– наверстать упущенное; догнать; To
be
under
competitive
pressure
– испытывать давление со стороны конкурентов; To
drive
down
profit
margins
– снижать размеры прибыли; уменьшать доходность; Lucrative
potential
– зд. потенциальная прибыльность; Lucrative
, adj
. – прибыльный; выгодный; доходный; A
discount
broker
– брокер, работающий по низким ставкам; A
full
-
service
broker
– брокер, работающий за полную оплату; Fees
, n
. – размер оплаты брокерских услуг; The
going
commission
– принятые комиссионные; To
amount
to
.... – насчитывать; достигать (суммы в...);
For
fear
of
.... – из страха перед (чем-либо); из опасения; European
securities
regulators
– органы, контролирующие работу фондовых бирж
в Европе; Long-range goal – долгосрочная цель; A truly global marketplace – поистине глобальный рынок; Across
national
boundaries
– за пределами государственных границ; To
lag
behind
– отставать; To
foster
– поощрять; способствовать благоприятствовать; (развитию, росту);
The
spread
of
stock
trading
– распространение фондовых операций; To
have
it
easy
– легко добиться чего-либо; to
fight
off
the
competition
– справиться с конкуренцией; противостоять конкурентам;
to
launch
its
own
on
-
line
service
– открыть собственные услуги в Интернете; Real
-
time
share
trading
service
– услуги по продаже акций в реальном времени; to
enable
customers
to
trade
electronically
– дать возможность клиентам участвовать
в электронных торгах; to squeeze, v. – вытеснять; A major collapse – крупный спад; крах; to
dip
(
v
) – спускаться, падать; to
surface
(
v
) – появляться на поверхности, всплывать.
Task
1. Read the text on p. 76, translate it and answer the following questions: What kind of addiction in described in the text?
How long has Mr. English been hooked?
How many times a day does he log on?
How is the stock market boom described?
Why is it called a «fever»?
60
Why is on-line trading in Europe still in its infancy?
How is it developed in the US?
Why do American brokers target the Continent?
What challenge does their arrival pose?
What do analysts expect? Why?
Where is the trend most apparent?
What moves are Internet brokers studying?
What factors draw American brokers to lucrative potential of Europe?
Why is the idea of a discount broker rather novel in Europe?
What is the going commission on the World Wide Web?
How does it compare with the fees of full-service brokers?
Why don't American companies actively promote this business?
What do American on-line brokers offer European customers?
What is the long-range goal?
How will single currency foster on-line trading in Europe?
Why cannot the American on-line firms have it easy in Europe?
What service are British banks launching?
What are their plans for the future?
What is going to happen with American on-line brokers?
What does Mr. Eckett predict?
Why is a «major collapse» of commission fees inevitable?
Sum up the information from the text about on-line trading service.
Task 2. Translate from Russian using the vocabulary from the text:
1. Место, где продают и покупают разные виды ценных бумаг, называется
фондовой биржей. Однако, в наше время частные инвесторы могут участвовать
в торгах по Интернету.
2. Люди, которые профессионально занимаются торгами на фондовой
бирже, называются брокерами. Брокерские услуги оплачиваются
комиссионными выплатами, величина которых зависит от суммы сделки.
3. Частные инвесторы (
individual
investors
) могут подключаться к
интернетным торгам по нескольку раз в день, и очень часто они просто
«подсаживаются» на это занятие, которое превращается в интернетную
инвестиционную лихорадку.
4. Облигации отличаются от акций тем, что они дают фиксированный доход
в течение установленного срока, независимо от прибыльности предприятия.
Размер дивидендов по акции меняется в зависимости от успешности бизнеса.
5. Для того, чтобы инвестировать в ценные бумаги, нужно обладать
определенным финансовым опытом. Именно поэтому частные инвесторы
обращаются к профессиональным финансистам за консультациями. Многие
банки предоставляют своим клиентам подобный вид услуг.
6. Деятельность фондовых бирж регулируется специальными
контролирующими органами, которые определяют правила и нормы
проведения операций с ценными бумагами.
Многие Американские компании очень осторожны на европейских
61
фондовых рынках из опасения вызвать неудовольствие контролирующих
органов.
7. В будущем, крупные банки хотят сделать возможным для своих
клиентов участвовать в электронных торгах через границы государств, т.е. на
истинно глобальном рыночном пространстве. 8. Тенденция к переходу на электронные биржевые торги набирает
обороты в Европе, и в данный момент наблюдается бум интернетных
инвестиций. Потенциал хороших прибылей привлекает американских брокеров,
которые у себя дома испытывают большое давление со стороны конкурентов.
9. Ожидается, что введение единой валюты в Европе подстегнет развитие
электронных биржевых операций. Крупные банки уже предлагают собственное
интернетное обслуживание с предоставлением исчерпывающей информации и
услуг по торгам в реальном времени.
10. Размеры комиссионной оплаты брокерских услуг резко снизились с
быстрым развитием электронных операций, и потребители ведут поиск по
Интернету в
c
е более дешевых финансовых услуг.
Task 3. До ex. 2 on p. 77 and answer the following questions:
What has Janis decided to do?
Who does she contact for further advice?
What does the broker recommend?
What else does he explain? Why is it important?
When does he tell her about the fees?
When does he contact his representative on the stock exchange?
Why does he contact him?
When does Janis become a share holder?
Speak about the way Janis became a shareholder.
Task 4. Give English equivalents for:
Инвестировать часть сбережений; Позвонить брокеру относительно дополнительных консультаций; Ряд компаний, чьи акции могут её заинтересовать; Какие результаты были у компаний в последнее время; На какие дивиденды она может рассчитывать; Как будет сделка осуществляться; Какие комиссионные ей придется платить за услуги; Представитель на бирже, который осуществляет сделку; Как только сделка была заключена; Клиент принял все условия.
Task 5. Vocabulary. Match the words and expressions in the box with the headings below.
losses
gains climb surge
analysts
securities
regulators tumble
shareholders closing price
62
jump
retreat bonds brokers price-earnings ratio
share price
equities
dividends
plunge shares
1) poor performance 2) good performance
____________________ ___________________
____________________ ___________________
3) financial products
4) people involved in the stock market
____________________ _______________________________ _____________________ ________________________________
5) financial date
_______________________
_______________________
Write 10 Sentences wing the words from the above exercise.
Task 6.
Read the following text and then decide whether the statements following are TRUE
or FALSE:
The act of issuing shares (GB) or stocks (US) – i.e. offering them for sale to the
public-for the first time, is known as floating a company or making a flotation. Com
-
panies generally use a bank to underwrite the issue. In return for a fee, the bank guar
-
antees to purchase the security issue at an agreed price on a certain day, although it
hopes to sell it to the public. Newer and smaller companies trade on «over-the-
counter» markets, such as the Unlisted Securities Market in London. Successful com
-
panies can apply to have their shares traded on the major stock exchanges, but in or
-
der to be quoted (GB) or listed (US) there, they have to fulfill a large number of re
-
quirements. One of these is to send their shareholders independently audited annual
reports, including the year’s trading results and a statement of the company’s finan
-
cial position.
Buying a share gives its holder part of the ownership of a company. Shares gen
-
erally entitle their owners to vote at companies’ General Meetings, to elect company
directors, and to receive a proportion of distributed profits in the form of a dividend
(or to receive part of the company’s residual value if it goes into bankruptcy). Share
-
holders can sell their shares at any time on the secondary market, but the market price
of a share – the price quoted at any given time on the stock exchange, which reflects
how well or badly the company is doing – may differ radically from its nominal, face,
or par value. At the London Stock Exchange, share transactions do not have to be settled until
the account day or settlement day at the end of a two week accounting period. This
allows speculators to buy shares hoping to resell them at a higher price before they
actually pay for them, or to sell shares, hoping to buy them back at a lower price.
If a company wishes to raise more money for expansion it can issue new shares.
These are frequently offered to existing shareholders at less than their market price:
this is known as a rights issue. Companies may also turn part of their profit info cap
-
ital by issuing new shares to shareholders instead of paying dividends. This is known
63
as a bonus issue or scrip issue or capitalization issue in Britain, and as a stock di
-
vidend or stock split in the US. American corporations are also permitted to reduce
the amount of their capital by buying back their own shares, which are then known as
treasury stock; in Britain this is generally not allowed, in order to protect companies’
creditors. If a company sells shares at above their par value, this amount is recorded
in financial statements as share premium (GB)or paid in surplus (US).
The Financial Times Stock Exchange (FT SE) 100 Share Index (known as the
«Footsie») records the average value of the 100 leading British shares, and is updated
every minute during trading. The most important US index is the Dow Jones Indus
-
trial Average.
1. A company can only be floated once. TRUE/FALSE
2. Banks underwrite share issues when they want to buy the shares.
TRUE/FALSE
3. It is easier for a company to be quoted on an unlisted securities market than
on a major stock exchange. TRUE/FALSE
4. Unlisted companies do not publish annual reports. TRUE/FALSE 5. The market price of a share is never the same as its nominal value.
TRUE/FALSE
6. On the London Stock Exchange it is possible to make a profit without ever
paying anyone any money. TRUE/FALSE
7. If a company issues new shares, it has to offer them to existing shareholders
at a reduced price. TRUE/FALSE
8. A scrip issue can be an alternative to paying a dividend. TRUE/FALSE 9. American corporations with large amounts of cash can spend it. by buying
their own shares. TRUE/FALSE
10. Companies do not have to sell their shares at their nominal value.
TRUE/FALSE Task 7. Add appropriate words from the text to these sentences:
1. Offering shares to the public for the first time is called…………a company.
2. A company offering shares usually uses a merchant bank to…………the issue.
3. The major British companies are……………on the London Stock Exchange.
4. In London, share transactions have to be…………every two weeks.
5. The value written on a share is its………….
Unit 9. Import-Export / International Trade
(SB p. 84–95)
Vocabulary
Notes
To
export
, v
. – экспортировать; продавать в другие страны; Export
, n
. – экспорт; процесс продажи за границу; товары, продаваемые за рубеж; To
import
, v
. – импортировать; ввозить из-за рубежа; Import
, n
. – импорт; процесс ввоза/покупки товаров за границей; товары,
купленные за рубежом; 64
ВАЖНО!
Конверсия
– это способ образования одной части речи от другой без
изменения основной формы слова. Однако, ударение во многих случаях
передвигается: в глаголах оно падает на второй слог, в существительных – на
первый.
Глагол
Существительное. To export
‘export To import
‘import
To increase
‘increase
To produce
‘produce
To contact
‘contact
To comment
‘comment
To transport
‘transport
To record ‘record
To access
‘access
To process
‘process Tariffs, n. – тарифы
, налог
на
импортируемый
товар
; Duty
/
duties
, pl
. – пошлины на ввозимые товары; Ad valorem
duties
– пошлины, взимаемые соответственно стоимости товара; Quotas
– квоты, ограничения на количество ввозимого товара; Protectionist
measures
– протекционистские меры; меры защиты внутреннего
рынка от конкуренции со стороны импортеров; Domestically
produced
goods
– товары отечественного производства; To reduce trade restrictions – снизить
ограничения
торговли
; to regulate tariffs – регулировать
тарифы
; WTO
– Всемирная Торговая Организация; EFTA
– Европейская Ассоциация свободной Торговли; OECD
– Организация Экономического сотрудничества и развития; EEC
– Европейское экономическое сообщество; to
establish
products
in
a
foreign
market
– упрочить позиции своей продукции на
зарубежных рынках; one
option
is
... – один из методов/способов;
local
experts
– местные профессионалы; специалисты;
sole
agents
– агенты, работающие на эксклюзивных правах; единственный
представитель компании на определенной территории; multi
-
distributors
– фирмы, занимающиеся распространением всех видов
товаров; оптовые фирмы; to sell on behalf of the company – продавать
от
имени
компании
; a local branch – местный
филиал
; syn. local subsidiary
sales office – коммерческий
центр
; syn. a profit centre
to give permission to use – дать
разрешение
на
использование
; patent, n. – патент
; 65
licence, n. – лицензия
; to set up a local subsidiary – открыть
местный
филиал
; syn. a local branch
to set up a joint venture – учредить
совместное
предприятие
; long
-
term
market
opportunity
– долгосрочная перспектива пребывания на рынке; complex
, adj
. – сложный; трудный; замысловатый; a relatively low level of exports – относительно
низкий
уровень
экспорта
; to assemble on the spot – собирать
на
месте
(
зд
.
продаж
);
a significant part – значительная
часть
; a
shift
in
the
company
'
s
strategic
focus
– изменение (сдвиг) стратегической
направленности компании; emergence
, n
. – появление; возникновение; to
move
out
of
consumer
products
– уйти от производства потребительских товаров;
to
concentrate
on
high
-
value
niche
markets
– сосредоточиться на секторах рынка
дорогостоящих товаров; specialist
display
systems
– дисплейные системы для профессиональных целей; originally – зд
. сначала
; поначалу
; to set up its own sales and services office – открыть
собственный
офис
продаж
и
обслуживания
; a
software
house
– предприятие по выпуску программного обеспечения; a
projector
assembly
plant
– завод по сборке проекторов; a
further
sales
office
– еще один коммерческий центр; a
components
factory
– завод по выпуску запчастей; definitely
– определенно; fast
-
growing
market
– быстро развивающийся рынок; to
exploit
the
potential
– использовать возможности; реализовать потенциал; obstacles
, pl
. – препятствия; tax
barriers
, pl
. -налоговые барьеры; infamous
, adj
. – печально известный; имеющий дурную репутацию; позорный;
постыдный; to have important practical effects – важные
практические
последствия
; to
create
huge
amounts
of
paperwork
– создавать огромное количество бумажной
работы; привести к огромной бумажной волоките; cultural
hurdles
, pl
. – проблемы межкультурного общения; трудности из-за
культурных различий; deceptive
, adj
. – обманчивый; sensitive
, n
. – чувствительная точка; зд. тонкие различия; чувствительность; strata of society – слои
общества
; make
the
country
fascinating
– делают страну завораживающей; поразительной; to outweigh any disadvantages – перевесить
все
недостатки
; to
afford
, v
. – позволить себе; to have a worldwide market share – иметь
долю
всемирного
рынка
.
Task 1. Read the text on p. 87 and answer the following questions:
Who is the head of BAR
С
O's activities in the Asian region?
What is he convinced of?
66
What is BARCO known for?
How did they expand in India? What did they start from?
When did the company start?
When did it move out of consumer products?
What market did it concentrate on?
Where is the company based?
What did it sell originally in India?
What happened four years ago?
How is it operating in India now?
What are their plans for the future?
What obstacles do they face?
Why is it difficult to exploit the potential of the Indian market?
How do cultural hurdles affect operating of foreign companies?
What sensitivities and cultural differences make the country fascinating?
Why did the company decide to set up its own sales office in the subcontinent?
What do businessmen have to understand working in India?
Why cannot foreign businessmen afford to miss the Indian market?
Sum up the information from the text about the ways of expanding into foreign markets.
Task 2. Translate from Russian using the vocabulary from the text:
1. Каждая страна стремится защитить свой рынок от конкуренции
импортных товаров. Широко распространенные протекционистские меры – это
тарифы и квоты. Они способствуют повышению цены импортируемых товаров,
таким образом улучшая положение отечественных товаров.
2. Для того, чтобы внедрить товары на зарубежных рынках, компании
открывают местные филиалы или пользуются услугами агентов, продающих их
товары на определенной территории.
3. Существует еще одна возможность укрепиться на зарубежном рынке.
Компании либо продают лицензию на свои товары или услуги, либо открывают
совместные предприятия и начинают производить товары прямо на месте.
4. Местные филиалы привлекают местных специалистов, которые хорошо
знают рынок и местные особенности, что очень способствует более быстрому
росту компании и развитию местной сети потребителей.
5. Значительная часть общего товарооборота распродается на зарубежных
рынках, поэтому для крупных компаний они представляют долгосрочную
перспективу пребывания на глобальном рынке.
6. Когда компания ушла от производства потребительских товаров и
сосредоточилась на секторах рынка дорогостоящих товаров для
профессиональных целей, она стала одной из самых быстрорастущих
глобальных компаний в отрасли.
7. Поначалу BARCO
продавали наборы запчастей для видеомониторов
через местных агентов, но потом открыли собственные предприятия по сборке
оборудования и производству запчастей.
8. Для иностранных компаний, работающих на рынке России, остается еще
масса трудностей и преград. К ним относится и печально известный бюрократизм
нашей системы, и колоссальное количество бумаг, и всевозможные проволочки.
67
9. Препятствия, вызванные культурными различиями, имеют важные
практические последствия. Но потенциальные возможности новых зарубежных
рынков перевешивают любые негативные стороны, поэтому современные
бизнесмены не могут позволить себе не присутствовать на этих рынках.
10. Импортные пошлины и налоговые барьеры являются общепринятыми
инструментами регулирования внешней торговли. Ряд международных
экономических организаций имеют целью снизить эти ограничения.
Task 3. Do exercise 2 on p. 88 and answer the following questions:
Why did Peugeot sign a joint venture agreement?
What did they plan? Did they achieve their goals? Why not?
What was the strongest niche market for a foreign competitor?
What did the company opt for?
Why did the delays occur?
What did the company have to pay?
How did the obstacles affect the company's decision to stay in the market?
What way of expanding did they choose?
Speak about Peugeot's expansion into India's market.
Task 4. Give English equivalents for the following:
подписать соглашение о создании СП; освоить огромный рынок; добиться исключительного преобладания на рынке; самая выгодная ниша на рынке для иностранного конкурента; машины высокого класса; зарплата среднего рабочего; произошли задержки; список запрещенных товаров; подлежат отдельному налогообложению; вынуждать платить высокие импортные тарифы; несмотря на все преграды; расширяться посредством выдачи лицензий; Task 5.
Reading
The following sentences are from the first paragraph of the text below. Read the
sentences and decide where they fit in the text.
A
. The 150 sweaters she sent off last week to Saks Fifth Avenue was the last or
-
der on the company’s books.
B
. As a result, Robertson has laid off
*
her first worker in her production plant in
the Scottish borders town of Hawick, where more than half of Europe’s cashmere
*
*
**
goods are produced
C
. With the spring shows just around the corner, this is normally a busy time of
*
to lay (someone) off =to stop employing someone.
*
*
cashmere =a type of fine soft wool.
68
year for Belinda Robertson, an Edinburgh-based producer of cashmere clothing for
fashion houses, boutiques and department stores. Casualties of the Trade Wars
If you think fashion is unpredictable, try world trade. 1)___
. Last year she did
60% of her $2.5 million annual sales in the United Stated, but this year is starting dif
-
ferently. 2)____
. «We’re low on work at the moment», she says, because the mere
threat of US trade sanctions has put American buyers in wait-and-see mode. 3)___
. Officials fear the loss there of as many as 700 further jobs.
Hawick’s fate is tied, bizarrely, to bananas. Because the US believes EU trade
policy unfairly favors crops from ex-colonies in the Caribbean and Africa over those
owned by US firms like Chiquita and Dole, it threatens more than $500 million in
«cross-sanctions» against unrelated European exports from almost 20 product cat
-
egories like plastics, sweet biscuits – and cashmere.
Washington won’t introduce the 100% punitive tariffs until March at the earli
-
est, depending on the outcome of negotiations at the World Trade Organization in
Geneva. But the threat alone is enough to damage Hawick’s cashmere industry. Clan
Douglas Ltd., for instance, landed a $1.65 million order from an American depart
-
ment store just before Christmas. That price included normal duties of $100,000, but
if the sanctions kick in they will rise to almost $800,000. «Our commitment to our
contract could force us into bankruptcy», says finance director Jeff Gutteridge.
There’s no American cashmere to fill the gap. Top-grade weaves come from
Scotland and from Northern Italy, whose industry faces the same US sanctions; next
in line is China with whom the US already has an immense trade deficit. «If this goes
through,» says Gutteridge, «the Americans will be handing over our business to
China and destroying the economic base of this town.»
Little wonder that the weavers of Hawick, like Belgian biscuit makers and Ger
-
man plastics manufacturers, hope sanctions can be avoided. But with serious issues of
procedure and precedent on the line at WTO for both Washington and Brussels, ne
-
gotiators were pessimistic on prospects of a compromise. In trade as in fashion,
reason isn’t necessarily the highest good.
By James L Graff/Brussels
Time magazine (adapted)
Task 6. Choose the correct answer to complete the following statements about the text.
1. Belinda Robertson’s company a) Sold more than 60% of its production last year to department stores.
b) is usually very busy during the first few months of the year.
c) Produces more than 50% of Europe’s cashmere.
2. Belinda Robertson has had to make some of her staff redundant because of
a) The competition from China.
b) The introduction of US sanctions.
c) A shortage of US orders.
3. If the EU doesn’t change its trade policy, the US will
a) Apply restrictions on the imports of fruit to America.
b) Import more cashmere from Italy.
69
c) Import certain goods from non-European sources instead. 4. The US
a) Exports more to China than it imports.
b) Imports more from China than it exports.
c) Imports as much as it exports to China.
5. The negotiations
a) will determine which goods are subject to sanctions.
b) are not expected to be difficult.
c) involve some complex questions.
Read the text again and answer the following questions:
What is the market situation in the fashion business?
Why are producers of cashmere clothing low on work at the moment?
What do officials fear?
Why does the US threaten cross-sanctions against European exports?
When is Washington to introduce punitive tariffs?
What do they depend on?
Why is this threat alone enough to damage the cashmere industry?
What could force the company into bankruptcy?
How can the Americans fill the gap if the sanctions go through?
What do the weavers of Hawick hope for?
Why were negotiators pessimistic on prospects of a compromise?
Summarise the story of the trade war.
Task 7.
Vocabulary. Use the letters in brackets to from a word to complete each sentence.
1. Companies will be penalised if they exceed the________ (SAOQTU) that
have been imposed on imports of certain categories of goods.
2. When you export to India, you must conform to the administrative procedures
that are required by the government_________(CUBCAUREARY).
3. We have decided to appoint Mr. Carver who will represent us as our sole
____________(GATEN) for the South African market.
4. All goods coming into the country are subject to customs_______(IDESTU).
5. The EU has agreed that__________________(CISNATNOS) will only be lif
-
ted when the country has agreed to respect the international trade agreement that it
signed two years ago.
6. We have agreed to allow two Taiwanese companies manufacture our products
under_________________________(CELNICE).
7. The _________________(NOTRCATC) contains several clauses referring to
the conditions concerning the transfer of technology.
8. The goods were delivered two months ago but we are still waiting for our cus
-
tomer to pay the_________________________(CONIVEI).
70
Task 8. Language Focus
The future
Complete the following conversations with the appropriate future form of the
verbs in brackets.
1. A: Hannah Rottman, our German agent, called earlier. She wants to know when
she ______(receive) confirmation of the delivery date for her latest order.
B:
She should know that we __________(get) it to her on time, after all we have
never missed a delivery so far!
A: Yeah. Well, in any case, she ________________(call) back at three.
________________(speak) to her?
B: No. I’m afraid I ___________________(not be able to) as I
_______________(visit) the warehouse this afternoon. But tell her that I
__________________(call) her tomorrow morning.
2. S: Hi Janet it’s Sylvia. I’m calling about the conference in Geneva. Remember?
_____________(you come)?
J: No, I’m afraid I can’t. Mike Johnson ________________(represent) us with
two other people from the Swiss office.
S
: That’s a shame. In that case, I ____________________(not see) you until the
meeting in Birmingham next month. Oh by the way, could you ask Mike to bring me
a copy of the Indonesian survey that he’s been working on? I ___________(visit)
Jakarta in July.
J
: Ok. I ________________(ask) him when I see him tomorrow. I’m sure he
_______________(want) to give you a call himself.
Task 9. Translate into English:
1. Одним из способов закрепления на иностранном рынке является
подписание соглашения о создании СП; Это помогает освоить огромный и быстро растущий рынок развивающихся
регионов.
2. Компания добилась исключительного преобладания на рынке,
поскольку они сумели найти самую выгодную нишу для иностранного
конкурента, предлагая товары доступные людям среднего достатка.
3. Некоторые запчасти подлежат отдельному налогообложению, и
компании приходится иметь дело с огромным количеством бумажной работы.
Из-за этого происходит задержка в выполнении контрактов.
4. Несмотря на все препятствия, которые существуют на этом рынке,
многие компании стремятся закрепиться на нем, поскольку он является самым
притягательным долгосрочным способом развивать торговый потенциал.
5. Если компании превышают квоты, введенные на определенные
категории товаров, их наказывают посредством санкций. В каждой стране
существуют органы, регулирующие нормы внешней торговли.
6. ЕС тщательно следит за соблюдением правил торговли. Санкции
отменяются только в том случае, когда страна соглашается соблюдать нормы
международной торговли.
7. США регулярно вводит штрафные тарифы на импортные товары из
71
Европы. Подобные санкции приводят к росту цен на импортные товары,
защищая американских производителей.
8. США считают, что торговая политика Евросоюза несправедливо отдает
предпочтение товарам из стран бывших колоний. Они угрожают введением
встречных санкций против европейского импорта.
9. Если вы экспортируете товары в Индию, вы должны следовать всем
бюрократическим процедурам, принятым там. Это создает массу препятствий и
трудностей, и приводит к задержкам в выполнении контракта.
10. Контракт содержит несколько пунктов относительно условий передачи
технологий и методов их внедрения. При создании совместного предприятия
эти условия имеют большую практическую ценность.
11. Создание филиала зависит от результата переговоров с представителем
местного рынка. Если они будут успешными, компании не придется платить
высокие импортные тарифы.
12. Некоторые компании предпочитают выходить на новые рынки,
предоставляя лицензии и патенты местным предпринимателям.
72
Task 10. Read the text and answer the questions:
TARIFFS, CUSTOMS, AND NONTARIFF BARRIERS
Governments have always looked to the traffic in goods across their borders as
an important source of revenue. The tax charged on incoming goods is known as a
tariff or a duty. When goods are imported, three main issues need to be resolved in
order to determine the appropriate tariff: the classification of the product, its value,
and its place of origin.
Despite the multitude of available product listings, some products fit more than
one category or in the case of new technologies, do not fit any. Most custom duties
are ad valorem taxes; that is, the tax is a percentage of the value of the goods. In or
-
der to compute the proper tariff, the importer also needs to know where the goods
come from. Tariffs vary, depending on the source of the imported goods. A country
might have most-favoured nation (MFN) status, or it may belong to a tariff prefer
-
ence program. Finally, imports from countries in free-trade areas may have their
products qualify for duty-free import.
However, in this era of multinational corporations, it is not always easy to de
-
termine the country of origin for imports. The production of goods may take place at
any number of places around the globe. Companies ship parts and materials to any
point for assembly or manufacture in order to take advantage of low taxes, low
wages, low energy costs, and tariff preference programs. In some cases, companies
subject to antidumping duties simply ship the component parts to another country for
assembly in what is called a «screwdriver plant». Then it exports the goods from the
second country, which is not subject to a dumping order.
Problems with determining a place of origin occur when goods from one country
are exported to another country during the production process. For example, automo
-
biles assembled in one country may use sheet metal, glass, engine parts, and uphol
-
stery from many others. When these automobiles arrive at their final destination,
there will be more than one possible place of origin. There are several rules to de
-
termine it. In some circumstances, the customs officials will look at the percentage of
content from each country to determine the place of origin. Another rule is «substan
-
tial transformation». For example, a company might buy vinyl from Mexico, metal
handles from Brazil, and turn these components into luggage in Jamaica. The latter
will be declared as the place of origin, because the goods have undergone a signific
-
ant change there. In the last few years, variations on this rule, such as «change in
character, appearance, identity, and use» have been used as alternative tests.
These barriers exist in every-country and range from safety standards to quotas.
Standards exist for a variety of reasons, including safety, environmental protection,
and health. Most countries require all imported cars to meet pollution standards. This
standard does not discriminate against imports, but does add costs. Some standards
may be targeted at imports, in an attempt to protect domestic industries. For example,
in 1989 the EC banned all imports of beef treated with hormones. The EC initially
based its decision on health and safety grounds, but later claimed that the ban reflec
-
ted consumer preferences, much like the US requirement that all imported cheese be
pasteurized. The United States, claiming that the ban was an unfair trade practice
aimed at US exports, retaliated by imposing 100 percent duties on a variety of EC im
-
73
ports to the United States.
Countries have long used quotas and embargoes as part of foreign policy and the
protection for domestic industries. Increased exports from other countries can
threaten or cause serious injury to a domestic industry.
What is a tariff?
Why are they imposed?
How are the appropriate tariffs determined?
What is ad valorem duties?
How do tariffs depend on the source of the imported goods?
What countries may have their products qualify for duty-free import?
Why is it problematic to determine the country of origin?
How do countries try to avoid restrictions?
When do problems with determining a place of origin occur?
What are the rules for that?
What is «substantial transformation»?
What kinds of standards exist in foreign trade? Give examples.
Why do countries use restrictions?
Sum up the information from the text about all kinds of trade barriers.
Task 11. Summarizing the Topic.
INTERNATIONAL TRADE
Read the text and write short headings:
_________________________
International trade can be defined as the exchange of goods and services
between different countries. Depending on what the country produces or needs, it can
export or import. The basic idea of international trade and investment is simple: each
country produces goods or services that can be either produced at home or exported
to other countries.
_________________________
Basically countries trade with each other because they are better at producing
certain things than others. Nations may have advantages in producing goods or ser
-
vices because of factors of production: raw materials, climate, division of labour, eco
-
nomies of scale, etc. Climatic variations among countries offer different possibilities
for agriculture.
_________________________
It is easy to understand why nations import goods they cannot produce. But why
are clothing, toys and cars imported if they are also made in the country? There are
two answers: quality and price. A country that specializes in making a certain product
may produce goods of such quality that buyers abroad prefer them to the domestically
produced goods. The Swiss, e.g., have long specialized in making watches. The suc
-
cess of imports is also connected with lower prices. The workfoce in China, South
Korea and Taiwan is cheap and as a result the goods made in Asia are cheaper. Some
-
times a country is able to produce goods more cheaply because it has newer and more
efficient production facilities.
__________________________
The transfer of goods is only one aspect of the international balance of pay
-
74
ments. A country gets payments not only for the goods it sells to other countries, but
also for the services it offers them. These are some of the most important sources of
invisible exports and imports: foreign travel, international transportation, banking in
-
surance, foreign investment.
__________________________
Governments are interested in monitoring their country’s foreign trade. Most
countries are keen to develop their export trade to increase their earnings of foreign
exchange. At the same time they prefer to keep down the flow of imported goods to
reduce the loss of foreign exchange. Governments impose tariffs and quotas to pro
-
tect their country’s strategic industries-notably agriculture and growing industries un
-
til they are large enough to achieve economies of scale and strong enough to compete
internationally.
__________________________
Tariffs are taxes or duties on goods as they cross an international border. For ex
-
ample, in Trinidad and Tobago protection tariffs have been placed on motor vehicles
to protect the region’s young automobile assembly industry. Tariffs make imported
goods more expensive than home-produced goods. They get a price advantage and
this makes the consumer less keen to buy imported goods. Another purpose of impos
-
ing tariffs is to raise money for the government.
__________________________
Another instrument of control is quotas. It is the maximum quantity of a product
that may be admitted in a country during a certain period of time. Quotas are usually
applied to commodities that exceed the world demand. By setting quotas, country
limits the amount of goods that may be imported. Yet unlike tariffs, quotas provide
no revenue for the government. Many countries have a «negative list» of goods
which are not allowed to be imported. Import controls are often imposed to encour
-
age the production of particular kinds of goods within the country.
________________________
Today, many different kinds of groups attempt to regulate international trade.
The United Nations has several agencies and commissions working on trade-related
problems. Some multilateral organizations concentrate on specific trade-related prob
-
lems, e.g. the World Intellectual Property Organization. But at the core of all of them
are the IMF, the World Bank, and the WTO, founded in the 1940s.
________________________
A great number of countries set up commodity trade agreements, such as the In
-
ternational Coffee Agreement and the International Sugar Agreement to solve the
problems of price fluctuations. Under such an agreement sugar-producing countries
are allowed to sell a certain amount of sugar to the EEC at guaranteed prices. Organ
-
ization of Petroleum exporting Countries (OPEC) was set up in an attempt to main
-
tain oil prices for the benefit of the producing countries.
________________________
The European Community was founded in order to create a common market in
which tariffs and quotas between member countries would be progressively elimin
-
ated. Many steps have been taken to create a single European market, free of phys
-
ical, technical and fiscal barriers.
Retell and discuss the text.
75
Task 12. Questions for discussion.
1.
International organisations concerned in trade.
2.
Why do countries trade with each other?
3.
How do countries protect domestically produced goods?
4.
How do countries establish their products in a foreign market?
5.
Why do companies use services of agents?
6.
In what case do they set up joint ventures?
7.
What is the aim of WTO?
8.
What is protectionism?
9.
Why do nations restrict trade?
10.
What has Russia traditionally exported and imported?
Unit 10. Company Performance
(SB, p. 96–103)
Vocabulary
Notes
Management
accounts
– отчеты руководства (о работе компании);
To
provide
data
– предоставлять данные/информацию; Operational
efficiency
– производственная эффективность; Financial
accounts
– финансовая отчетность; Financial
performance
– финансовые показатели; результаты финансовой
деятельности; Revenue
, n
. – доходы; годовой доход; Cost
, n
. – издержки; затраты; To
make
profits
– получать прибыль; Losses, pl. – убытки
; To suffer losses – нести
убытки
; Listed
companies
– зарегистрированные на фондовой бирже компании,
имеющие право продавать акции; To present accounts to the public – представлять
отчеты
населению
; Annual
report
– годовой отчет; To
trade
the
stock
publicly
– продавать акции населению; открыто продавать акции;
Financial affairs – финансовые
дела
; To perform a useful function – выполнять
полезную
функцию
; To transmit information – передавать
информацию
; Investing
public
– люди инвестирующие в ценные бумаги; To have a stake in the business – иметь
долю
в
бизнесе
; Stakeholders – долевые
владельцы
; Auditor ’report – отчет
аудитора
; Financial statements and notes – финансовые
счета
и
пояснения
; Selected
financial
data
– выборочные финансовые данные о финансовом
положении компании; Financial
highlights
– основные финансовые показатели деятельности компании;
Corporate
message
– послание компании своим акционерам; отражение
основных направлений деятельности компании; 76
Stockholders
information
– информация для акционеров; Optional
elements
– элементы годового отчета по усмотрению компании; SEC
-
required
elements
– обязательные элементы отчета, включаемые по
требованию комиссии по ценным бумагам и биржам; SEC
– комиссия по ценным бумагам и биржам; To administer the activities of US stock exchanges – контролировать
деятельность
фондовых
бирж
в
США
; GAAP – generally accepted accounting principles – общепринятые
/
общепризнанные
принципы
бухгалтерии
; The financial statements are complete and reliable – финансовая
отчетность
исчерпывающая
и
достоверная
; Validity
, n
. – действенность; юридическая достоверность; законность; To
comply
with
– следовать (инструкциям, правилам); подчиняться; Statement of earnings, Am. E. – отчет
о
прибылях
и
убытках
;
Profit and loss account, Br. E. Statement of cash flows, Am. E. – отчет
о
движении
наличных
средств
;
Cash
flow
statement
, Br
. E
. Cash
flow
– движение денежной наличности;
движение ликвидности; Lifeblood
– жизненная сила; Short
-
term
, temporary
investments
– краткосрочные временные инвестиции; To
be
converted
to
cash
– переводить в денежную наличность; At
a
set
date
– на определенный день; A
snapshot
– моментальный снимок; Assets
– активы; все имущество компании и денежные средства, которые
принадлежат компании; Liabilities
– пассивы; средства, которые компания должна выплатить; Stockholders’ equity – акционерный
капитал
; Statement of financial position, Am. E. – балансовый
отчет
; Balance sheet, Br. E. Gross profit – валовой
доход
; Net earnings/net income – чистая
прибыль
; Management
discussion
– анализ эффективности методов руководства; To
cover
results
of
operations
– включать результаты производственной деятельности;
The
adequacy
of
resources
to
fund
operations
– достаточность ресурсов для
финансирования производства; To
reflect
the
business
philosophy
– отражать философию ведения бизнеса; To
lay
out
the
company
direction
– представить; обрисовать направление работы
компании; To
cover
the
company
'
s
lines
of
business
– освещать направления деловой
активности компании; Mission
, n
. – цель компании; предназначение; To give a quick summary – дать
сжатую
информацию
; A short table accompanied by supporting graphs – краткая
таблица
с
прилагаемыми
графиками
.
77
Task 1. Read and translate the text. on p.98 and answer the following questions:
What information do annual reports contain?
What elements are optional and what elements are required by SEC?
What is SEC?
What does the auditor's report show? Who prepares it?
What does the report of management state?
What does it take responsibility for?
What do financial statements and notes cover?
What does the statement of earnings show?
What does the statement of cash flow report?
What is cash for a company?
What cash equivalents can be used?
Why is the statement of financial position compared to a snapshot?
What does it show?
Where can you find how the company performed during previous years?
What does the selected financial data include?
What part of the annual report analyzes the company’s performance?
What does it cover?
What do optional elements include?
Where can shareholders find the names of the top management team?
What can you find in the back of the annual report?
What does this information cover?
Who is the letter to stockholders from?
What does it provide?
What does the letter to stockholders reflect?
What part of the report may be considered an advertisement for the company? Why?
What does corporate message reflect?
What else does it cover?
What is the most often-read section of any annual report?
Why? How are the figures presented?
Speak about different sections of an annual report and the information they contain.
Task 2. Translate into English using the vocabulary from the text:
1. Если компания стремится работать эффективно и строить планы на
будущее, ей необходимо знать насколько продуктивна её деятельность. Такую
информацию можно найти в отчетах руководства компании.
2. Финансовые отчеты дают информацию не только о доходах компании,
но также и о затратах, т. е. сколько компания должна заплатить, чтобы работать
стабильно.
3. Поскольку современный бизнес становится все сложнее, компании
стремятся получить квалифицированные рекомендации специалистов, которые
анализируют возникающие проблемы и находят пути их решения.
4. Компании, которые участвуют в торгах на фондовой бирже и продают
свои акции населению, обязаны публиковать свои годовые отчеты, в которых
содержится всесторонняя информация о результатах деятельности компании.
78
5. Годовой отчет готовится руководством компании и анализирует работу
компании в течение года, а также состояние её финансовых дел. Он передает эту
информацию своим акционерам и всем тем, кто готов инвестировать в компанию.
6. В США существует специальная комиссия по ценным бумагам и биржам, в
обязанность которой входит контроль и руководство работой фондовых бирж. Все
финансовые отчеты обязательно включают данные, требуемые этой комиссией.
7. Основная финансовая часть отчета включает такие разделы как отчет о
прибылях и убытках, отчет о движении денежной наличности, балансовый
отчет, валовой доход и чистую прибыль компании.
8. Вся финансовая отчетность должна быть в соответствии с требованиями
SEC
и другими юридическими нормами. Руководство компании несет
ответственность за юридическую достоверность финансовых данных годового
отчета.
9. Чаще всего акционеры читают раздел отчета об основных финансовых
показателях компании, в которых содержится краткое изложение результатов
работы компании.
Эти цифры обычно появляются в кратких таблицах и сопровождаются
наглядными графиками. Это помогает акционерам проще узнать перспективу
размеров дивидендов по акциям.
10. Некоторая информация в годовом отчете рассматривается как реклама
компании. Но она крайне необходима, поскольку отражает взгляды компании
на свою деятельность о направлениях деловой активности компании, её
рынках, целях, философии руководства, корпоративной культуре,
стратегических направлениях.
Task 3.
Reading. Read the text below and number the events in the correct order. Start
with (1) for the first event.
a) Mr. Pischetsrieder becomes chairman.
b) Joachim Milberg begins his new job.
c) BMW buys Rover.
d) BMW holds an extraordinary meeting.
e) Mr. Pischetsrieder's resignation is announced.
f) BMW agrees to keep the Longbridge factory open.
Board Ousts
*
BMW Chief and His heir.
By John Schmid
Frankfurt – The maker of BMW autos announced the departures of its two top
executives Friday in a rare German boardroom revolt that analysts said was triggered
by heavy losses at the company’s British Rover Automaking subsidiary.
Persistent problems at Rover forced the exit of Bayerische Motoren Worke Ag`s
Chief Executive Bernd Pischetsrieder, 50. and his heir apparent on the company
board. Wolfgang Reitzle, 49. The two men were long-time rivals, and both had
worked at BMW for more than two decades.
Although Mr. Pischetsrieder`s job has been the subject of intense speculation,
the development shocked the auto industry because of Mr. Reitzle`s reputation as a
*
oust = force someone from power.
79
talented and visionary manager whose skills have been crucial in recent years in pol
-
ishing BMW`s sporty and youthful image.
The shake-up leaves a relatively unknown BMW board member, Joachim Mil
-
berg, 56. as the head of one of Europe`s most prestigious auto-makers.
BMW`s supervisory board made the decisions at an extraordinary meeting
*
at its
Munich headquarters. In a sign of possible dissent, the meeting lasted into the even
-
ing. BMW stock closed Friday at 682 Euros ($770), up 23, on hopes Pischetsrier
would be ousted.
In a brief statement, BMW said that both Mr. Pischetsrieder and Mr. Reitzle had
resigned without giving reasons. The board meeting had been called to discuss Rover,
the company said. Simultaneous exits by two top executives are virtually unknown in
German business.
«It`s a very rare situation when board members, especially the chairman, are
kicked out when they still have a contract», said Jurgen Roethig, an analyst in Frank
-
furt at B. Metxler & Co.Bank.
From the moment Mr. Milberg begins his job, his most pressing task will be a
turnaround at the unprofitable Rover operations.
Rover`s fate threatened Friday to become a heated political issue in Britain
where automakers are concerned that Munich-based BMW might consider shutting
down Rover`s flagship productions plant in Longbridge, near Birmingham.
British government officials joined trade union officials in demanding that
BMW honor a commitment made in December that would keep the plant open.
Autoworkers said they feared that new management could bring an eventual
shutdown of Longbridge, the largest Of Rover`s three factories and the oldest auto
plant in Great Britain.
Rover`s 1998 losses are estimated to have been as high as 1.5 million Deutshe
Marks ($869.3 million), greater than last year`s entire BMW group net profit figures
for last year.
Analysts said the supervisory board had lost patience with Mr. Pieschetsrieder
because Rover`s poor performance had overshadowed a record year at BMW`s Ger
-
man operations. BMW sold a record 699, 378 cars last year but its profit dropped for
the first time since 1993 because of Rover.
Long Bridge assembles most of the line of Rover passenger cars, which plunged
in sales last year by 17 percent to 303, 800.By contrast, Rover`s popular Land Rover
sport-utility vehicles-which are built at the Solihul plant near Oxford – and a 20 per
-
cent jump in 1998 demand to 153.500.
BMW evidently was surprised by the magniture of Rover`s problems. The com
-
pany was slow to recognize Rover`s 30 percent productivity gap with BMW`s Bav
-
arian plants. Mr. Pischetsrieder led the 1994 acquisition of Rover as one of his first
actions as chief executive. His mistake, analysts say, was to manage Rover at arms-
length. An Anglophile who speaks fluent English, Mr. Pischetsrieder was worried
about anti-German feelings, and he maintained Rover as a separate company. Br. E
cars
honour Am. E.
autos
honor *
extraordinary meting = an extra meeting called to deal with matters which can't wait.
80
Read the text again and decide if the following statements are true (T) or false (F).
1. BMW announced that Mr. Pischetsrieder and Mr. Reitzle were leaving be
-
cause of losses at Rover.
2. The auto industry had expected that both Mr. Pischetsrieder and Mr. Reitzle
would resign.
3. In German companies it is common for several board members to resign when
a company has serious problems.
4. The British government is prepared to allow BMW to close the Rover factory
at Longbridge.
5. BMW made more than $870 million in profit last year.
6. Last year BMW sold more vehicles than ever before.
7. All divisions of the Rover group have been performing badly.
8. The problems at Rover are more serious than expected.
9. Rover and BMW factories are equally efficient.
10. One of Mr. Pischetsrieder's main mistakes was that he intervened too dir
-
ectly in the management of Rover.
Task 4. Answer the following questions on the text:
What is the key issue of the article?
What was the departure of the two top executives triggered by?
When did the acquisition of Rover take place?
Why was the job of Mr. Pischetsrieder the subject of intense speculation?
Why was the auto industry shocked by the news?
What reasons did the manager give for their resignation?
Who is going to take over? What is his most pressing task?
Why did Rover's fate become a heated political issue?
What did the British government demand?
What performance did the British subsidiary show?
How did it compare with the parent company?
What was the main mistake of the chief executive?
Speak about the performance of Rover company and analyse the problems they face.
Task 5.
Vocabulary Circle the word which does not belong in each horizontal group and
write the words in the spaces provided in (6) to form another group.
1. figures
supplies calculation
ratio fractions digits 2. auditor accountant overheads CFO analyst chairperson
3. rent vehicles premises patents equipment trademarks
4. dividends bills bonds equities securities shares 5. earnings profit loss insurance income revenue 6. _____ ______ ______ ______ ______
Match the following general headings to the groups of five words that you iden
-
tified above.
a) assets ____ b) professionals ____ c) performance _______
81
d) costs _____ e) numbers _______ f ) stock market _______
Write ten sentences using the words from the exercise.
Task 6. Give English equivalents for the following:
изгнать (с руководящей должности); объявить об уходе; вынудил уйти в отставку; протест, восстание; мятеж; предположение, размышление; предмет пристального внимания; вызванное огромными убытками; ход событий потряс всю отрасль; разногласие, расхождение во взглядах; не давая разъяснений; без обоснования; вышвырнуть; самая насущная задача; перелом в лучшую сторону; рассматривать возможность закрытия ведущего предприятия отрасли; выполнять обязательства; в конечном итоге привести к закрытию завода; не опубликовали данные о прибылях; прибыли упали впервые с 1993 г.; продажа которых резко снизилась; показали 20%-ный рост; Task 7. Match up these words with the definitions below.
assets depreciation liabilities turnover
creditors (GB) or accounts payable (US)
debtors (GB) or accounts receivable (US) overheads (GB) or overhead (US)
revenue or earnings or income shareholders (GB) or stockholders (US)
stock (GB) or inventory (US)
1) a company's owners
2) all the money received by a company during a given period
3) all the money that a company will have to pay to someone else in the future,
including taxes, debts, and interest and mortgage payments
4) the amount of business done by a company over a year
5) anything owned by a business (cash investments, buildings, machines, and so
on) that can be used to produce goods or pay liabilities
82
6) the reduction in value of a fixed asset during the years it is in use(charged
against profits)
7) sums of money owed by customers for goods or services purchased on credit
8) sums of money owed to suppliers for purchases made on credit
9) (the value of) raw materials, work in progress, and finished products stored
ready for sale
10) the various expenses of operating a business that cannot be charged to any
one product, process or department
Task 8. Use the words from Task 7 in gaps to complete the text.
Read and translate the text. Use a dictionary if necessary.
ACCOUNTING AND FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
In accounting, it is always assumed that a business is a ‘going concern’, i.e. that
it will continue indefinitely into the future, which means that the current market value
of its fixed assets is irrelevant, as they are not for sale. Consequently, the most com
-
mon accounting system is historical cost accounting, which records (1)…………at
their original purchase price, minus accumulated deprecation charges. In times of in
-
flation, this understates the value of appreciating assets such as land, but overstates
profits as it does not record the replacement cost of plant or(2)……………... The
value of business’s assets under historical cost accounting – purchase price minus (3)
…………………- is known as its net book value. Countries with persistently high in
-
flation often prefer to use current cost or replacement cost accounting, which values
assets (and related expenses like depreciation) at the price that would have to be paid
to replace them(or to buy a more modern equivalent) today.
Company law specifies that (4)………………….must be given certain financial
information. Companies generally include three financial statements in their annual
reports.
The profit and loss account (GB) or income statement (US) shows (5)
…………… and expenditure. It usually gives figures for total sales or (6)
……………, and costs and (7)……………... The first figure should obviously be
higher that the second, i.e. there should be a profit. Part of the profit goes to the gov
-
ernment in taxation, part is usually distributed to shareholders (stockholders) as a di
-
vidend, and part is retained by the company.
The balance sheet shows a company’s financial situation on a particular date,
generally the last day of the financial year. It lists the company’s assets, its (8)
………, and shareholders’ (stockholders’) funds. A business’s assets include (9)
…………….. as it is assumed that these will be paid. Liabilities include (10)
…………………., as these will have to be paid. Negative items on financial state
-
ments, such as creditors, taxation, and dividends paid, are usually enclosed in brack
-
ets. In accordance with the principle of double-entry bookkeeping (that all transac
-
tions are entered as a credit in one account and as a debit in another), the basic ac
-
counting equation is Assets=Liabilities+ Owners’ (or Shareholders’) Equity. This can
be rewritten as Assets-Liabilities=Owners’ Equity or Net Assets. This includes share
capital (money received from the issue of shares), share premium (GB) or paid-in
83
surplus (US) (any money realized by selling shares at above their nominal value), and
the company’s reserves, including the year’s retained profits. Shareholders’ equity or
net assets are generally less than a company’s market capitalization (the total value of
its shares at any given moment, i.e. the number of shares times their market price),
because net assets do not record items such as goodwill.
The third financial statement has various names, including the source and ap
-
plication of funds statement, and the statement of changes in financial position. This
shows the flow of cash in and out of the business between balance sheet dates.
Sources of funds include trading profits, depreciation provisions, sales of assets, bor
-
rowing, and the issuing of shares. Applications of funds include purchases of fixed or financial assets, payment of
dividends, repayment of loans, and – in a bad year- trading losses.
Summarizing
Complete the following sentences.
1.
Companies record their fixed assets at historical cost because…
2.
Historical cost accounting usually underestimates…
3.
Countries with a regularly high rate of…
4.
Company profits are usually split …
5.
Double – entry bookkeeping requires that…
6.
A company’s net assets consist of…….
7.
A company’s stock market capitalization…
8.
Flows of cash both in and out of the company…
Unit 11. Setting Up a Business
(p. 106–115)
Types of ownership
Vocabulary Notes
Public limited companies (plc) – открытые
компании
с
ограниченной
ответственностью
; открытые
акционерные
общества
> ОАО
Sole trader –
единоличный
собственник
; Sole Proprietor (UK)
Sole
proprietorship
– собственность, имеющая одного владельца; единоличная
собственность (владение) Partnership
, n
. – товарищество; партнерство; компания с участием партнеров; To
share
profits
and
losses
– участвовать в прибылях и убытках; Private
limited
company
(
Ltd
) – частная акционерская компания; закрытая
акционерская компания; A
company
secretary
– администратор компании; To
appoint
a
director
– назначить на должность (директора); To
go
out
of
business
– отойти от дел; прекратить ведение бизнеса; свернуть
бизнес; To contribute the amount of capital – внести
(
инвестировать
) сумму
капитала
; Limited
liability
– ограниченная ответственность; 84
Incorporated
– имеющий статус акционерного общества; зарегистрированный
как корпорация; Apply
to
– обратиться в …; Securities
Exchange
Commission
(
SEC
) – Комиссия по ценным бумагам и
биржам (США); Prolific
entrepreneurs
– плодовитые, высокорезультативные предприниматели; A
household
name
– всем известный; тот, кого все знают; Admittedly
, adv
. – по общему признанию; Justice
, n
. – справедливость; Venture
, n
. – начинание; рискованное предприятие; To
spot
the
next
big
wave
(
in
the
industry
) – распознать; точно определить, новую
тенденцию развития отрасли; Chartered accountant –
дипломированный
бухгалтер
; Cumbersome, adj. – громоздкий
; ‘
the
light
dawned
’ – зд. его осенило; он понял проблему; To
run
back
office
operations
– вести административные дела; осуществлять
внутриофисные расчеты; Increasingly, adv. – все
больше
; The future lay in hardware – зд
. будущее
было
за
комплектующими
; A co-founder – соучредитель
; At the company’s height – на
пике
успеха
компании
; To satisfy demand – удовлетворить
спрос
; Bad bite – зд
. полоса
неудач
; Let the advantage slip – позволил
удаче
ускользнуть
; To steal market share from… – увести
долю
рынка
у
…; The
campaign
flopped
– компания с треском провалилась; Sortie
– вылазка; набег; To
prove
fatal
– оказаться фатальным; губительным; To
fail
to
spot
– не суметь распознать; The
rise
of
IBM
- compatible
computing
– возникновение и распространение
компьютерных программ, совместимых с IBM
; …
had
a
hardware
architecture
peculiar
to
itself
– работали на компьютерном
оборудовании со специфическими характеристиками, свойственными только
этому типу оборудования; To
concede
, v
. – признать; согласиться с доводами; To be late in shifting to the IBM standard – опоздать
с
переходом
на
стандарты
IBM;
To
squeeze
margins
– снижать прибыль; урезать доходы; Cost
– efficient
, adj
. – малозатратный; Sales
stagnated
at
… – продажи застыли на уровне…
To
abandon
non
-
IBM
-
compatible
inventory
– отказаться от оборудования,
несовместимого с IBM
; To
pursue
plans
– осуществлять планы; To
go
on
a
buying
spree
– безудержно заниматься покупками; Fleeting
victory
– мимолетная, скоротечная победа; To embark on restructuring – приступить
к
реорганизации
; Profit
warning
– сигнал о снижении доходов; 85
Infighting
– междуусобица; внутренние конфликты; склоки; To
step
in
– вмешиваться; вступать в спор; Latest
brainchild
– последняя выдумка; детище; удачный замысел; To compile a library – составить
библиотеку
; Slot
together
– сочетать; совмещать; скомпоновать; To
be
dominant
– доминировать; занимать ведущие позиции; To
post
sales
– осуществить продажи; заключить сделки; Commodity
, n
. – биржевой товар; товар; предмет торговли; To remain confident – остаться
уверенным
; Swansong – лебединая
песня
; As far as the eye can see – в
обозримом
будущем
; To take it all the way – довести
дело
до
конца
.
Task 1. Read and translate the text on p. 108 and answer the following questions:
What is Foster’s best talent?
What profession did he get after school?
Why did he decide to take up computers?
When did he set up his first company?
How soon did it become successful?
What made him switch over to hardware?
How successful was his new business?
Why did he let the advantage slip?
What mistake did he make?
Why was ACT forced to sell Apricot business?
What was the next wave to catch?
When did the profit warnings come? Why?
What is Foster’s latest brainchild?
Does it have good prospects? Why?
Why does he say that it is his swansong?
What are his predictions?
Say what you have learned from the text about the different ways and stages of devel
-
oping business.
Task 2. Translate into English using the vocabulary from the text:
1.
Предприниматель должен уметь предвидеть новое направление развития
своей отрасли.
2.
Далеко не все плодовитые изобретатели становятся известными широким
массам потребителей.
3.
Попытка АСТ увести долю американского рынка у Apple
Computer
Corp
.
закончилась полным провалом.
4.
Компания упустила преимущество на рынке. Её прибыли застыли на
уровне 100 млн фунтов, а потом превратились в убытки.
5.
Фостеру не удалось вовремя распознать новую тенденцию развития
компьютерных программ совместимых с IBM
.
6.
Когда акции компании резко упали в цене, они были вынуждены продать
86
часть бизнеса. 7.
Программы по финансам стали новым направлением, которое нужно
было освоить.
8.
Последнее детище Фостера позволит компании доминировать на рынке в
обозримом будущем.
9.
Идея собрать библиотеку программного обеспечения, которая позволит
фирмам сочетать компоненты программ по своему усмотрению, стала
лучшим его замыслом.
10.
Из-за склок внутри руководства компания стала нести убытки, пока
другая ведущая компания не вмешалась и не перехватила большую долю
рынка.
Task 3. Do ex. 3 on p. 110 and answer the following questions:
When was SSBC founded?
What was the purpose of setting up the company?
What made Andrew Klein a pioneer in the new field?
What did he understand?
How did he attract investment capital?
Who followed in his footsteps?
What does Andrew Klein predict? Why?
Speak about the original approach to finding investment capital.
Task 4. Give English equivalents for:
Основать компанию; Средство привлечения инвестиций; Оригинальный подход к поиску необходимых средств; Продвинуть бельгийское пиво на американский рынок; Осознать преимущество использования Интернета; Новые коммерческие инициативы; Всего за 200 дол. в месяц; Следуя его примеру/идя по его стопам; Арендовать сайт в Интернете/покупать хостинг; Аналогичным способом; Опередить по объему продаж; Представить свой продукт и наладить связи с инвесторами по всему миру; Потребительский спрос будет продолжать расти; Task 5. Read and translate the newspaper article and answer the questions:
New Kids on the Business Block:
Thatcher’s Enterprise Babes are Taking the Tycoon’s World by Storm
By Ruth Sunderland
Dylan Wilk runs his own multimillion-pound business and could afford to retire.
He draws a six-figure salary and drives a bright yellow BMW M3. Holidays are
spent in California or skiing in Austria.
87
But Wilk is only 23 years old. He set up his company, Gameplay, at the age of
20 and in just three years it has become Britain’s second-largest mail-
order supplier
of computer games with 35 staff and a turnover of £7.5 million in 1997, set to double
this y
ear. He is one of Thatcher’s babes – the children born or brought up since 1979
when she swept to power and started the enterprise revolution.
Now as ‘young adults’ they are taking the business world by storm. One in eight
of all startup businesses is founded by an entrepreneur aged 16 to 24 and there is a
growing band of teenage and twenty – something tycoons. They include 14-year old
Tom Hartley, who recently hit the headlines after becoming Britain’s youngest self-
made millionaire by selling Porsches.
Andrew Collins, 21, started Firemagic Fireworks, at the age of 19. He is turning
over £100,
000 a year and has just taken on a new partner, his former chemistry
teacher, Pete Taschimowitz, who encouraged his interest in pyrotechnics.
Collins loves his work but admits success has come at a price. ‘Starting a busi
-
ness at that age is not easy. I have to work seven days a week and my social life is out
of the window. My girlfriend doesn’t even like fireworks’.
Several organisations have been set up to help young entrepreneurs; including
the Prince’s Youth Business Trust, a charity that offers loans and advice, and oil
company Shell’s Live WIRE scheme, which provides free guidance. But young hope
-
fuls face greater barriers than their mature counterparts and run high risk of failure.
In spite of some undeniable success stories, two-thirds of startups by under 25s
end in failure within four years, a far higher rate than for older people. Eighties’ en
-
trepreneur Alan Sugar, who set up his first business at 19, believes starting too young
can be damaging. Sugar says: ‘I would not want to see many entrepreneurs straight
out of school. They need to have some experience of work and real life.’ Many also
face a daunting hurdle trying to raise finance, since banks are often unwi
lling to lend
to someone without a financial record. Gulam Kadir, 21, had to overcome his bank
manager’s opposition to found the Ruhani Moslem Funeral Service at the age of 19.
It now has a turnover of nearly £100,000. Kadir says: ‘I was turned down for a loan
because they said I was too young for the funeral business. People do not expect a
young person in this area. I knew it wouldn’t be easy, but I was determined.’
Youngsters may also experience prejudice from customers and suppliers who
see them as naïv
e and inexperienced. Victoria Goodwin, 22, set up her own decorat
-
ive finishes business based in Sheffield when she was 20, and has recently worked on
the set of a TV soap opera. She says: ‘Being young can be a drawback, but it can also
be an advantage because some customers believe you don’t have preconceived ideas
and will do what they want.’
Richard Street, chief executive of the Prince’s Youth Business Trust, believes
future generations must learn the lessons of Thatcher’s children or risk losing out in
the employment market. He says: ‘Business education would certainly benefit young
people: not all will become entrepreneurs, but they need to be prepared because they
will have flexible careers with periods in jobs and periods of self-employment.’
Mail on Sunday
Why can Dylan Wilk retire at 23?
When did he set up his company?
How has his business grown?
88
What generation does he belong to?
How does this generation enter the business world?
What examples show the roaring success of their startup businesses?
Does this success come easy? Why not?
What do these young entrepreneurs have to sacrifice?
What barriers do young hopefuls face?
How many startups fail? Why?
What reasons do banks give for not willing to give loans to young entrepreneurs?
How do customers and suppliers see them?
In what way can young age be an advantage?
Why must future generations learn the lessons of Thatcher's children?
Why do they need business education?
Task 6.
Read the following statements about the article and indicate whether they are
true (T) or false (F).
1. Dylan Wilk, who founded Gameplay at the age of 20, retired three years later
after becoming a millionaire.
2. Gameplay is the largest British retail chain specialising in computer games.
3. Over ten percent of new businesses are started by people under the age of 25.
4. Tom Hartley inherited most of his money.
5. Andrew Collins set up his company with his chemistry teacher.
6. Shell offers loans to young entrepreneurs.
7. Entrepreneurs in their early 20s are more likely to succeed than older people
who go into business for themselves.
8. Many banks are reluctant to provide financing to youngsters.
9. The bank accepted Gulam Kadir's loan application because his business
concept was unusual for a young person.
10. Some customers like doing business with young entrepreneurs as they are
more flexible.
Sum up what you've learned from the article about the young generation of Brit
-
ish businessmen.
Task 7. Translate from Russian into English using the vocabulary from the text:
1. Дети, которые родились и воспитывались во времена, когда Маргарет
Тэтчер пришла к власти и начала революцию в предпринимательстве,
добиваются ошеломляющего успеха в бизнесе.
2. Начинающие компании врываются в деловой мир и занимают
доминирующие позиции в своей отрасли.
3. Начинать бизнес в таком юном возрасте нелегко. Молодые
предприниматели вынуждены трудиться без выходных и отказываются от
личной жизни.
4. Хотя существует ряд организаций, которые бесплатно помогают
новичкам, подающие надежду молодые люди сталкиваются с серьезными
89
препятствиями и подвержены большему риску провала.
5. Предприниматели, идущие в бизнес прямо из школы, нуждаются в
жизненном опыте и практических навыках. Самым устрашающим
препятствием для них является (привлечение) стартового капитала.
6. Банки неохотно предоставляют ссуды бизнесменам, у которых нет
кредитной истории.
7. Молодежь также испытывает недостаток доверия и всевозможные
предрассудки со стороны поставщиков и потребителей.
8. Основным преимуществом молодости в бизнесе является то, что многие
покупатели считают, что у молодежи нет предвзятости и они способны на
оригинальный подход ко многим идеям в бизнесе.
Task 8.
Vocabulary
Combine a word or expression from A with one from B to complete the gaps in
the passage below. You may need to change the form of some of the words.
A
B
overcome a partner
set up finance
raise a business
take on (x2) hurdles
turn down a request
run a risk
the challenge
Half a million people_____________(start a company) each year in the UK,
even though they__________(face the danger) of failing. Statistics have shown that
within three years, 45 % of them go out of business, many losing all their money.
What sort of people want to be entrepreneurs when there is such a high failure rate?
They tend to be motivated, creative and eager to _____________ (accept something
that is difficult but interesting) of being their own boss. They are resilient and able
to__________(find ways around problems) when, for example, the bank
_________(rejects an application) for a loan. Instead of giving up, they will look for
other ways to___________(obtain capital) such as_______________(engaging a
business associate).
Task 9. Read the text again and give English equivalents for the following phrases:
подвергаться риску; преодолевать препятствия; отвергнуть просьбу; принять вызов; привлекать финансовые средства; мотивированный и творческий подход; стремиться открыть собственное дело; способный быстро восстанавливать силы; высокий уровень банкротств; 90
потерпеть неудачу; бросить затею, отказаться от задуманного; уйти из бизнеса; привлечь партнера; искать другие способы привлечения капитала; Write down 10 sentences using the expressions from Task 8.
Task 10.
Language Focus
Relative pronouns Complete the text below with an appropriate relative pronoun: who, which,
where, whose, that. If it is possible to omit the relative pronoun, indicate this with (-).
Some tips on starting your own business
Planning is an essential ingredient for a successful business. The type of busi
-
ness 1)_______needs most careful thought is the one you start from scratch. But you
don’t need an original idea to have a good business. If you are worried about starting
from scratch, you might want to think about buying a business 2)_________ is
already running.
Talking to people 3) ________ have already started up their own business is
very useful. You can learn a great deal from both successful businesses and those
4)_______ have failed. Your Enterprise Agency or Chamber of Commerce may run
business clubs 5)__________ you can meet other small business owners. Not having enough finance, 6) _________ is one of the most common problems
in small business, can be fatal. It is easy to underestimate the amount of money
7)______ you will need to start up your business. The time 8) _______ you spend
working out your cash needs and monitoring cashflow is time well-spent.
You should have at least a basic understanding of trading laws, 9)________ pro
-
tect consumers, employees, the general public and businesses as well.
Failure to respect these laws could even be a crime. For example, every em
-
ployee 10) ________ employment continues for one month or more, has the right to
receive a written statement, 11)_________ is a sort of contract with the terms and de
-
tails of their employment.
Your local tax office will send you documents 12)_____________ show you
how much you need to take out of each employee’s wages, and where to send the
money.
Answer the following questions:
What is important for a successful business?
What do you need if you start from scratch?
Why is it useful to talk to people who have already started up their own business?
What is the most common problem in small business?
What should you work out carefully? Why?
What basic knowledge do you need starting up a business?
What can failure to respect laws lead to?
What documents will you receive from your local tax office?
91
Task 11. Give Russian equivalents for the following phrases:
an essential ingredient for a successful business
to start from scratch
to be worried about starting from scratch
you can learn a great deal from those who have failed to run business clubs
not having enough finance can be fatal
the amount of money you need to start up your business
it is easy to underestimate
to work out your cash needs and monitor cashflow
well – spent time
to have a basic understanding of trading laws
failure to respect the laws
a sort of contract with the terms and details of their employment
a local tax office
how much you need to take out of each employee's wages
Speak about useful tips for startups using the above vocabulary.
Unit
12. Corporate Alliances and Acquisions
(SB, p. 116–124)
Vocabulary
Notes
joint
venture
– совместное предприятие (СП); jointly
invest
– совместно инвестировать, быть соинвесторами; to collaborate – сотрудничать
; to combine their strengths – объединять
усилия
; to
strengthen
their
operations
– укреплять свои позиции; расширять деятельность;
to
merge
– сливаться; соединяться; a
merger
– слияние; to increase market share – увеличить
долю
рынка
; to
cut
costs
– снижать доходы; уменьшать затраты; acquisition
– приобретение; покупка; takeover
, n
. – поглощение; to take over control – захватить
контроль
; to take over ownership – завладеть
собственностью
; to
collide
– сталкиваться; вступить в противоречие; an
ego
– самомнение; свое «Я»; alpha
males
– зд. СЕО (
Chief
Executive
Officer
) первое лицо в компании; главное
должностное лицо; a
deal
– breaker
– виновник расторжения сделки; to
draw
uncanny
parallels
– проводить пугающие параллели; a
spectacular
collapse
– нашумевший крах; скандальный провал; the
supposed
alliance
– предполагаемый / планируемый союз; a textbook example – типичный
пример
; complementary
research
technologies
– взаимодополняющие исследовательские
92
технологии; streets
ahead
of
– оставить далеко позади; намного опережать; to
throw
sand
in
each
other
'
s
faces
– вступать в конфликт; обмениваться
нелицеприятными комментариями; the
deal
is
off
– сделка не состоялась; сорвана; to cause problems – создавать
проблемы
; inevitable, adj. – неизбежный
; to
prize
, v
. – высоко ценить; вознаграждать; to
outmanoevre
, v
. – переиграть; обойти; перехитрить; a fundamental prerequisite – основная
предпосылка
; to climb to the top of the corporate ladder – достичь
вершины
корпоративной
лестницы
; power
-
hungry
– властолюбивый; жаждущий власти; a boardroom bust – up – срыв
сделки
наверху
; go
off
the
top
of
the
scale
– зд. показывают далеко не лучшие результаты при
тестировании личностных качеств; to be verging on – быть
на
грани
; peers
– сослуживцы; люди, равные по рангу; Europe's most spectacular and public bust-up – самый
нашумевший
публичный
срыв
сделки
в
Европе
; to tie the knot – связать
себя
узами
; to reject the marriage plans – отказаться
от
брачных
намерений
; to undervalue – недооценивать
; simmering
resentment
– зд. еле сдерживаемое недовольство; to
add
spice
– добавить остроты; the
management
revolt
– противодействие со стороны руководства; отпор
руководителей; to force the resignation – вынудить
уйти
в
отставку
; to be in the driving seat – занимать
руководящую
должность
; to
take
a
back
seat
– уступить руководящую позицию; отказаться от ведущей роли; to
step
down
– уйти с поста; to
relinquish
old
roles
– выпускать из рук прежнее положение; уступать;
отказаться от права принятия основных решений; in
favour
of
– в пользу (кого-то или чего-то); to the advantage of both parties – к
выгоде
обеих
сторон
; to turn into all – out war – превратиться
в
полномасштабную
войну
; the imperatives of shareholders – насущные
интересы
акционеров
; to deliver the financial return they expect – принести
финансовые
выгоды
,
которые
они
ждут
; To force through deals – довести
до
конца
сделки
; Task 1. Read and translate the text on p. 118 and answer the following questions:
Why should business schools add anthropology to the curriculum?
What parallels can be uncanny? Why?
What is a typical example of a merger failure?
What advantages did the supposed alliance of drug giants promise?
93
Why was the deal off?
Why are problems of corporate egos inevitable?
What is a fundamental prerequisite for climbing to the top of the corporate ladder?
Why is there always a high probability of a boardroom bust- up?
What do personality tests show?
Why do companies want precisely this sort of personalities?
When do the problems appear?
What was Europe's most spectacular and public bust – up?
How did it all happen?
What were the shareholders and management concerned about?
What added spice to the management revolt?
At what expense was the deal called off?
Why is it so difficult to make mega – mergers work?
What is a textbook example of a successful merger?
Why was it successful?
Why is compromise essential when two powerful corporations merge?
What can control the egos of managers?
Sum up what you have learned about the problems caused by the clashes of personal
-
ities in mergers.
Task 2. Translate into English using the vocabulary from the text.
1.
Очень типичным примером сделки, которая не состоялась, является
нашумевший крах предполагаемого слияния между гигантскими
фармацевтическими компаниями.
2.
Если бы сделка состоялась, то ближайшие соперники остались
далеко позади. Бюджет на исследование и разработку новых
лекарств вдвое превзошел бы бюджет их конкурентов.
3.
Столкновения властолюбивых амбиций и завышенных самомнений
корпоративных руководителей неизбежны при слияниях, и
поведение первых лиц корпораций приводит к пугающим
сравнениям.
4.
Неудивительно, что каждый раз, когда объявляют о платных
слияниях, существует высокая степень вероятности срыва сделки
наверху.
5.
Многие руководители крупных корпораций не выдерживают тесты
на многочисленные характеристики, поскольку находятся на грани
паранойи. Но именно такие люди способны трансформировать
бизнес, и именно поэтому они нужны корпорациям. 6.
Срыв предполагаемого союза между гигантами автомобильной
промышленности Вольво и Рено стал самым нашумевшим публичным
скандалом в Европе.
7.
Руководство Вольво и акционеры отказались от брачных намерений
из-за опасений, что сделка недооценивала их компанию, превращаясь
в поглощение.
8.
Говорят, что расторжение сделки стоило Вольво несколько сотен
94
миллионов долларов и вынудило председателя совета директоров
уйти в отставку. Он занимал руководящий пост более двадцати лет.
9.
Самолюбие руководителей играет такую огромную роль при
слияниях, что сделки не работают, если один из руководителей не
уступит свой пост.
10. Слияния могут быть успешными, если ключевые сотрудники готовы
уступить свои позиции ради новых возможностей в других обстоятельствах.
Task 3.
Reading 1
. Each of the following statements refers to one of the companies mentioned in
texts A-C. Write the letter of the text referred to (A. B or C) and the name of the com
-
pany in the spaces provided.
1. A company that is combining several acquisitions into a new business unit.
Text:___________ company:_____________
2. A company that has reached an agreement with another one that will help it to per
-
form better.
Text:___________ company:_____________
3. A company whose shareholders have rejected an offer.
Text:___________ company:_____________
4. A company that is working with one of its direct competitors.
Text:___________ company:_____________
5. A company that has been trying to take control of a foreign operation but that has
faced unexpected opposition.
Text:___________ company:_____________
6. A company that was hoping to own almost two thirds of the share capital of an
-
other.
Text:___________ company:_____________
7. A company that will soon lose one of its top executives.
Text:___________ company:_____________
8. A company that has a guaranteed source of revenue for the next few years.
Text:___________ company:______________
9. A company that has started negotiations to purchase one part of another business.
Text:___________ company:______________
10. A company that will now have to review its expansion strategy.
Text:___________ company:______________
A
. MADRID
– Endesa SA’s shares fell Thursday after Spain’s largest power
company lost a bid to control Enersis SA, Chile’s biggest utility* holding** com
-
pany. Enersis shareholders blocked a $1.5 billion offer late Wednesday that would
have let Endesa double its 32 percent stake.
The shareholders refused to increase the maximum amount an investor an in
-
vestor can own in Enersis, dashig Endesa’s hopes of taking over Enersis to make it
the vehicle for its Latin American expansion plans.
95
«We were very surprised by the outcome of the vote, « said Ramon Olleros, a
fund manager at AB Asesores, a brokerage in Madrid. «It’s very bad news for En
-
desa.» International Herald Tribune
B. NEW YORK – Dell Computer Corp said Thursday that it would buy $16 bil
-
lion of equipment from International Business Machines Corp under a seven- year
deal that also calls for the companies to jointly develop new computer technology. Both companies’ stock rose on the announcement.
The deal initially calls for Dell to buy such IBM equipment as disk drives, flat-
panel displays and memory chips to use in its computers. The companies eventually
expect broader sharing of technology, including co-developing new products. Dell said the deal would help the company increase its competitiveness in notebook
personal computers, storage products and servers, which are powerful corporate ma
-
chines that run networks of PCs, IBM, in turn, will get a guaranteed source of sales.
«These companies are about the biggest competitors that I’ve ever seen get to
-
gether on a technology agreement», said George Logemann of Boston consulting
firm Yankee Group. International Herald Tribune
С
. NEW YORK – Siemens AG of Germany is about to expand into the fast-
growing data networking business by forming a new American subsidiary, acquiring
two private companies in the Unite States, investing in a third and hiring a senior ex
-
ecutive from IBM, executives close to the company’s planning said.
Siemens, one of Europe’s biggest manufacturing companies, also is in prelimin
-
ary discussions with 3 Com Corp about paying $1.2 billion for the 3 Com unit that
sells networking equipment to telephone companies, the executives said.
Siemens plans to announce Monday that it has agreed to acquire Castle Net
-
works Inc, a private data-networking company based in Westford Massachusetts, for
about $300 million cash, and Argon Networks Inc, a private data-networking com
-
pany in Littleton, Massachusetts, for about $240 million in cash, executives said.
Siemens also will announce an agreement to acquire a $30 million stake in Ac
-
celerated Networks Inc, a private company based in Moorpark, California.
The acquisitions will be folded into a new Siemens venture to be based in Bo
-
ston, the executives said. International Herald Tribune
Notes:
*utility company = a company which supplies the public with gas, water,
electricity etc.
**holding company = a company that holds a controlling number of shares in
one or more companies
Task 4. Give Russian equivalents for the following phrases:
To lose a bid
To block an offer
To double a stake Refused to increase the maximum amount
To dash hopes of taking over the company
To make it (the company) the vehicle for expansion plans
The outcome of the vote
96
To jointly develop new computer technology
The stock rose on the announcement
The deal initially calls for Dell to buy…
The companies eventually expect broader sharing of technology
Co – developing new products
Help the company increase its competitiveness
To run networks
The biggest competitors get together on a technology agreement
The fast-growing data networking business
To acquire two private companies
To be in preliminary discussions
A private data- networking company
To announce an agreement to acquire a $30 million stake
The acquisitions will be folded into a new venture
Write down 10 sentences using the above vocabulary.
Task 5. Read and translate the text «After the deal».
HOW TO MERGE
After the deal
Doing deals is easy. As mergers hit record levels, now comes the hard part
The merger wave, which in 1998 was a predominantly American affair, is now
sweeping over Europe. Cross- border deals such as Daimler- Benz's takeover of Chrysler,
accounted for a quarter of mergers in 1998; more are expected as firms go global.
In many cases this consolidation makes sense-at least on paper. But just as cer
-
tain as the flow of deals is that most will be failures. Study after study of past merger
waves has shown that two out of every three deals have not worked.
Success in the future will depend more than ever on the merged companies`
ability to create added value. And that will depend mainly on what happens after the
deal has been done. Yet many deal makers have neglected this side of the business.
Once the merger is done, they simply assume that computer programmers, sales man
-
agers and engineers will cut costs and boost revenue according to plan.
Yet, just when post-merger integration has become decisive, it has become harder to
pull off. Not only are modern firms complicated global affairs, but executives are putting
today’s deals together in a hurry. Few give enough thought to the pitfalls.
One set of obstacles is 'hard' things, such as linking distribution or computer sys
-
tems. In particular, many recent mergers have been undone by the presumption that
information technology is easy to mesh together.
More difficult are the 'soft issues'; and here the same word keeps popping up-
culture. People never fit together as easily as flow charts. Culture permeates a com
-
pany, and differences can poison any collaboration. After one large US merger, the
two firms had a row over the annual picnic: employees of one company were accus
-
tomed to inviting spouses, the others were totally against the idea. The issue was re
-
solved by inviting spouses only in alternate years.
Two new things have made culture clashes harder to manage. The first is the
97
growing importance of intangible assets. In an advertising agency, for instance, most
of the value can walk out of the door if key people leave.
The second new thing is the number of cross-border mergers. In this area
DaimlerChrysler may prove to be an interesting case study in differing management
cultures. One worry is compensation: Chrysler’s pay levels are much higher than the
German company’s. So a US manager posted to Stuttgart may end up reporting to a
German manager who is earning half his salary.
Nor is pay the only difference. Chrysler likes to pride itself on its flexible ap
-
proach, where speed and ingenuity are prized. When designing new models, teams of
engineers, designers and marketing people work on each model. Daimler-Benz has a
more traditional structure, in which designers and marketing people mix less and en
-
gineers are in charge.
Some recent deals will no doubt prove a stunning success. Nevertheless, there are
three ominous signs about the current merger boom. First, much of the attention seems to
be on the deal itself rather than the integration that must follow. Second, many deals are
rushed. And third, mergers have too often become a strategy in their own right.
So the things that are so impressive about today’s mergers – their size, complex
-
ity and daring-could count against them if the economy turns down.
Answer the following questions:
Why have mergers become so popular?
What do studies of past merger waves show?
What does success of mergers depend on?
Why do deal makers neglect what happens after mergers?
What do they assume?
Why is post- merger integration difficult?
What things make culture clashes harder to manage? Why?
Why is pay level a matter of concern?
What ominous signs are there about mergers?
What things can count against mergers if the economy turns down?
Task 6. Say whether the statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the text.
Find the part of the text that gives the correct information.
1. The majority of mergers take place in the USA.
2. Many international mergers are failures.
3. Most attention is concentrated on what to do after the merger is completed.
4. Many mergers are done too quickly.
5. Connecting different computer systems together is not usually a problem. 6. High salaries were given to Chrysler managers as compensation for the mer
-
ger with Daimler – Benz.
7. Chrysler has won many prizes for its production methods.
8.
Engineers have a high status at Daimler – Benz.
Task 7. Understanding expressions
Choose the best explanation for each extract from the text.
1. 'the merger wave is now sweeping over Europe' 98
a) a lot of American companies are merging with European ones
b) there has been a big increase in the number of mergers involving European
companies
2. 'success will depend on the merged companies' ability to create added value' a) they must try to make sure the share price goes up after the merger
b) they must try to reduce costs and increase revenue in the new merged com
-
pany
3. 'post-merger integration has become decisive' a) the way merged companies work together as one company is extremely im
-
portant
b)it is necessary to take quick decisions after the merger is competed
4. 'the growing importance of intangible assets' a) some assets are carefully protected and cannot be touched
b) people are the most valuable asset in many companies
Find in the text equivalent expressions:
в основном; в большей степени; становиться глобальным;
имеет смысл;
насчитывает, составляет;
пренебрегать, не учитывать;
потерпеть неудачу; не сработать; снизить затраты; резко увеличить доходы; решающий фактор; добиться успеха;
заключать сделки поспешно;
схемы;
глубоко проникать; пронизывать; проблема была решена;
конфликты на почве культурных различий;
нематериальные активы; международные слияния; вознаграждение, оплата труда; гибкий подход; меньше общаться; ошеломляющий успех; зловещие предзнаменования; становятся стратегией ради самой идеи; обернуться против самых слияний; когда экономика идет на спад.
Speak about the reasons for mergers becoming failures.
Task 8. Read and retell the text about mergers and acquisitions.
Profitable growth constitutes one of the prime objectives of most of the business
99
firms. It can be achieved «internally», either through the process of introducing or de
-
veloping new products, as well as by expanding the capacity of existing products a
firm is engaged in.
Alternatively, growth process can be facilitated «externally», by acquisitions of
existing business firms. This acquisition is technically referred to as mergers, acquisi
-
tions, amalgamations, takeovers, absorptions, consolidations, etc. Although the legal
procedures involved in these terms are different, these terms are often used inter
-
changeably.
It is a finance manager's job to say how large an enterprise should be, how fast it
should grow, and how it should grow. If an enterprise grows «internally» it can retain
control with itself during expansion and it will be free to choose how to grow. How
-
ever, internal expansion usually involves a longer implementation period as well as
different problems connected with raising the necessary funds. Mergers or acquisi
-
tions, in most cases, help to avoid financial problems and expedite the pace of
growth, by saving the time otherwise required in building up new facilities from
scratch in the case of internal expansion programme.
Mergers are typically classified into horizontal mergers (when two or more cor
-
porate firms dealing in similar lines of activity combine together) and vertical mer
-
gers, extending to suppliers of raw materials or distributors.
The finance manager's job is to evaluate such merger decisions.
Unit 13. Marketing
(SB
,
p. 125
–
133)
Vocabulary Notes
marketing
mix
(4)
P
'
s
– структура маркетинга; составляющие маркетинга
сочетание аспектов реализации товара; product – price – 4 P's place – promotion – to identify consumer needs – определить
потребности
потребителя
; military metaphor in marketing – военная
терминология
в
маркетинге
; a
coup
[
ku
:] – удачный ход; a
raid
; n
. – рейд, внезапное нападение; surprise attack – внезапная
атака
; to surrender, v. – сдаваться
; to
be
outgunned
– быть вытесненными; не в состоянии противодействовать; key
strongholds
– основной оплот; ключевые опорные позиции; casualties
– потери; to
rage
on
– не утихать; продолжать бушевать; campaign
– военная кампания; hassle
– free
, adj
. – бесперебойный; fuel
buying
– автозаправка; to
test
buying
habits
– исследовать модели поведения покупателей; 100
to exceed expectations – превзойти
ожидания
; desperately seek ways to increase the business – настойчиво
/
упорно
искать
пути
расширения
бизнеса
; to come up with a strategy – придумать
, изобрести
стратегию
; to put clearly ahead of the competition – явно
оставить
конкурентов
позади
; to differentiate the brand in the eyes of consumers – выделить
бренд
в
глазах
потребителей
; a fragmented market – фрагментарный
рынок
; cutting
edge
research
– исследование, проведенное новейшими методами; to
be
on
track
to
– быть на пути чего-либо; to
deliver
a
hassle
– free
fuelling
experience
– обеспечить бесперебойную и
легкую автозаправку; to
deliver
through
facilities
, systems
upgrades
and
new
operating
practices
–
предоставить посредством технических возможностей; усовершенствованных
систем и новых методов работы; to form the basis for the new brand initiative – составить
основу
новой
инициативы
по
созданию
брэнда
; a
customer
segment
study
– исследование сегмента потребителей; buying decisions are influenced by other factors – на
решение
о
покупке
влияют
другие
факторы
; full
-
serve
outlets
– автозаправки со всем комплексом услуг; a
focus
group
– группа опрашиваемых; to
create
a
psychological
profile
– создать психологический портрет; to
drive
up
-
market
cars
– водить дорогие автомобили; go
out
of
their
way
– специально ищут места; to eliminate the little hassles – устранить
мелкие
неудобства
; to
be
test
marketed
– проходить маркетинговые испытания; to introduce a sophisticated measurement system – ввести
высоко
технологичную
систему
измерений
; to
monitor
satisfaction
, behaviour
and
perception
of
the
brand
– отслеживать степень
удовлетворенности, поведение покупателей и их восприятие нового брэнда; to
be
ahead
of
the
game
– находиться на передовых позициях.
Task 1. Read and translate the text on p.126 and answer the following questions:
What marketing campaign is under way in America?
What project did Shell Oil researchers carry out? Why?
Why did the marketing people from Shell Oil seek new ways to attract customers?
What was their main mission?
What is the aim of their new brand initiative?
How did they start their research?
What things did the customers want from a service station?
What did their buying decisions depend on?
How was the study arranged?
What three groups did they determine?
What are the typical features of each group?
101
What was the common thread for all three groups?
What innovations did the company introduce following the experiment?
Say what you have learned from the text about marketing research carried out by a
global company.
Task 2. Translate into English using the vocabulary from the text:
1.
На очень конкурентном рынке услуг по автозаправке, очень трудно
придумать стратегию маркетинга, которая могла бы вывести
компанию далеко вперед от конкурентов.
2.
Основной задачей маркетологов является поиск путей расширения
бизнеса, часто посредством введения инновации и
усовершенствованных подходов к осуществлению маркетинга.
3.
Чтобы выделить свой брэнд в глазах потребителей, маркетологи
проводят исследования новейшими методами, изучая модели
поведения покупателей.
4. Чтобы превзойти ожидания своих клиентов, компания должна
обеспечить им бесперебойную и легкую автозаправку посредством новых
технических возможностей и усовершенствованных методов работы.
5. Результаты исследований четко показали, что потребители хотят три
основных вещи: конкурентную цену, удобное месторасположение и хорошее
качество бензина.
6. В течение нескольких лет компания разрабатывала подробную
информацию о потребностях своих потребителей и их отношении к брэнду. Эта
информация послужила основой для инициативы по созданию нового брэнда.
7. Владельцы дорогих автомобилей, которые свидетельствуют об их
высоком статусе, предпочитают высокий класс обслуживания и мощные
насосы.
8. Люди, которые стремятся к простоте во всем, обычно удручены
житейскими сложностями и хотят простых и легких сделок.
9. Те, кто на первое место ставит безопасность, никогда не отходят далеко
от автомобиля. Они специально ищут автозаправки, где им спокойно, и где есть
порядок и комфорт.
10. Изучение этих групп потребителей помогло компании объединить
силы и определить, как можно устранить мелкие неудобства, с которыми
иногда сталкиваются их клиенты.
Task 3. Do ex. 3 on p. 128 and answer the following questions:
Why are market researchers asked to compile more detailed profiles of consumer
groups?
Why aren’t broad classifications sufficient?
How are questionnaires designed?
What are questionnaires planned to establish?
How can advertising campaigns be targeted in this case?
What must marketing people monitor? Why?
102
Retell the passage using the vocabulary.
Task 4. Give English equivalents for:
Производить продукцию, специально предназначенную для определенных
сегментов рынка; Составить более подробные характеристики потребительских групп; Общие классификации широкого охвата; Компании, работающие на высоко конкурентных и фрагментарных рынках; Подобные классификации не достаточны для определения точных потребностей; Что влияет на решения о покупке; Рекламная компания должна быть нацелена на вкусы определенных групп
потребителей; Маркетологи отслеживают успех компании; Они видоизменяют методы рекламы, если это необходимо; Task 5. Reported speech
Complete the gaps with the correct form of ask, say or tell
and give the correct form
of the verbs in brackets.
As part of our most recent consumer survey, we recently interviewed 50 car
drivers about their experience of buying fuel. The first question that they were asked
was how often they had visited
(visit) a petrol station during the last month. The ma
-
jority of the people interviewed _______ that they _______ (do) so at least three
times to buy either petrol or diesel for their vehicles. We then _____ them if they
________ (can) give us their opinion about the quality of the services that they had
found. While most of our sample group ________ that they ________ (be) satisfied
with the services provided, several drivers ________ us that they _______ (like) to
see improvements in certain areas in the future. When these respondents _______ to
elaborate on this, several of them ________ that they _________ (feel) more relaxed
if they did not have to do the work of refueling their cars by themselves. Two re
-
spondents also _________ us that they __________ (like) to see the introduction of
systems which would make it possible for drivers to complete all transactions without
leaving the car.
We also _________ everyone in the sample if they _________ (appreciate)
some form of automated diagnosis of their vehicle. More than 50 % of those inter
-
viewed _________ that they __________ (welcome) this especially if it could
provide automated tyre pressure and oil level checks.
In the final question they _________ if they _________(hear)about any of our
latest innovations such as ‘the auto pump’ but only one person in the survey had any
knowledge of this.
Read out the text again and answer the questions:
How many drivers were interviewed?
What was the purpose of the survey?
What did the consumers think of the quality of the services?
What were the respondents asked to elaborate on? Why?
103
What improvements did they want to be introduced?
How many of them knew about the latest innovations?
Speak about the marketing survey described in the text.
Task 6. Translate into English:
1.
В ходе последнего опроса потребителей, автолюбителей спрашивали
о том, как они покупают горючее.
2.
Большинство людей посещают автозаправку по крайней мере
трижды в неделю, чтобы купить либо бензин, либо дизельное
топливо для своих машин.
3.
Многие были вполне удовлетворены качеством предоставляемых
услуг, хотя некоторые хотели бы видеть в будущем некоторые
усовершенствования.
4.
Двое респондентов ответили, что им хотелось бы проходить всю эту
процедуру не выходя из автомобиля.
5.
Большинство хотели бы, чтобы им самим не нужно было заправлять
машину. Им очень понравилась идея автоматической диагностики их
автомобилей, особенно если это касается проверки уровня масла и
давления шин.
6.
Только один человек слышал о последней технической новинке
«автонасосе», остальные не имели понятия о том, что это такое.
Task 7. Read and translate the text «What is marketing?»
Answer the questions and retell the text.
A market can be defined as all the potential customers sharing a particular need
or want. Marketing is the process of developing, pricing, distributing and promoting
the goods or services that satisfy such needs. Marketing therefore combines market
research, new product development, distribution, advertising, promotion, product im
-
provement, and so on. According to this definition, marketing begins and ends with
the customer. Truly successful marketing understands the customer so well that the
product or service satisfies a need so perfectly that the customer is desperate to buy it.
The product almost sells itself. Of course this will only happen if the product or ser
-
vice is better than those of competitors.
Companies are always looking for marketing opportunities – possibilities of
filling unsatisfied needs in areas in which they are likely to enjoy a differential ad
-
vantage, due to their particular competencies. Marketing opportunities are generally
isolated by market segmentation – dividing a market into submarkets or segments ac
-
cording to customers` requirements or buying habits. Once a target market has been
identified, a company has to decide what goods or services to offer, always remem
-
bering the existence of competitors.
Marketers do not only identify consumer needs; they can anticipate them by de
-
veloping new products. They will then have to design marketing strategies and plan
marketing programmes, and then organize, implement, and control the marketing ef
-
fort. Once the basic offer, for example a product concept, has been established, the
104
company has to think about the marketing mix – the set of all the various elements of
a marketing programme, their integration, and the amount of effort that a company
can expend on them in order to influence the target market. The best-known classific
-
ation of these elements is the 4 P`s: Product, Price, Promotion and Place.
Aspects to be considered in marketing a product include its quality, its features,
style, brand name, size, packaging, services and guarantee, while price includes con
-
sideration of things like the basic list price, discounts, the length of the payment
period, and possible credit terms. Place in a marketing mix includes such factors as
distribution channels, coverage of the market, locations of points of sale, inventory
size, and so on. Promotion groups together advertising, publicity, sales promotion,
and personal selling.
The next stage is to create long-term demand, perhaps by modifying particular
features of the product to satisfy changes in consumer needs or market conditions.
Marketing can also involve the attempt to influence or change consumers` needs
and wants. Companies try to do this in order to sell their products; governments and
health authorities sometimes try to change people`s habits for their own good or for
the general good. In other words, marketing also involves regulating the level, timing
and character of demand.
Now translate the highlighted expressions in the text into your own language.
How is a market defined?
What process is marketing?
What does marketing combine?
What does such definition mean?
What kind of marketing is truly successful?
In what case can this happen?
What are companies always looking for?
When do they enjoy a differential advantage?
What is market segmentation?
What should companies always remember?
How can markets anticipate consumer needs?
When does the company start implementing the marketing mix?
What is the marketing mix? Why is it important?
What do aspects of the marketing mix include?
What is the next stage?
How can marketing influence or change consumers’ needs and wants?
Task 8.
Categorize the following aspects of marketing according to the well-known «4P’s»
classification of the marketing mix – product, price, promotion, and place.
advertising
commercials
franchising
inventory
market coverage
after-sales service
credit terms
free samples
line-filling
market penetration
brand name
characteristics
going-rate
list price
market skimming
cash discounts
distribution channels
guarantee
mailings
media plan
105
optional features
points of sale
public relations
retailing
transportation
packaging
posters
publicity
sizes
vending machines
payment period
prestige pricing
quality
sponsorship
warehousing
personal selling
production costs
quantity discounts
style
wholesaling PRODUCT
PRICE
PLACE
PROMOTION
Unit 14. Product and Corporate Advesrtising
(SB, p. 134–142)
Vocabulary Notes
to 'advertise, v. – рекламировать
; advertising
, n
. – реклама (в широком смысле, система мероприятий,
направленных на продвижение товара на рынке);
advertisement
, n
. – рекламное объявление; реклама как продукт рекламной
деятельности; also
; advert
; ad
(сокращенные формы, часто употребляемые в устном общении); to
emphasise
, v
. – подчеркивать; акцентировать; придавать особое значение; emphasis
, n
. – выразительность; акцент; сила; to
make
an
emphasis
on
smth
– придавать особое значение, особенно
подчеркивать что-либо; to
target
an
audience
– направлять на определенную группу потребителей; media (of advertising) – средства
рекламы
; advertising agency – рекламное
агентство
; corporate advertising – корпоративная
реклама
; to
be
directly
concerned
with
– быть непосредственно связанным с...;
непосредственно относиться к...; brand
image
– репутация брэнда; брэндовый имидж; public
relations
(
PR
) – связь с общественностью; взаимодействие с потребителями; publicity
, n
. – освещение в прессе; to
generate
positive
publicity
– создавать положительный образ компании (в
прессе); to
get
extra
publicity
– получить дополнительное освещение в прессе; 106
to ensure that people pay attention to their ads – добиться
того
, что
люди
обращают
внимание
на
их
рекламу
; to come up with better ways of advertising – придумать
, изобрести
лучшие
способы
рекламы
; a slogan – лозунг
; девиз
; a slogan is a short phrase to attract the consumer's attention. Effective slogans are
usually short, easy to remember, easy to repeat and easy to translate for international
markets.
sacrilege – кощунство
; святотатство
; to scrape off – соскребать
; стирать
; billboard advertisement – реклама
на
щитах
; furious complaints – гневные
жалобы
; poster, n. – плакат
; постер
; to
liken
(
to
) – уподоблять, сравнивать; приравнивать (
to
, with
);
disciples
– ученики, последователи; церк. апостолы; admen
, n
. – зд. рекламщики; создатели рекламы; outrageous
advertising
– скандальная, возмутительная реклама; оскорбительная; to
figure
, v
. – рассчитывать; представить себе; понимать; постигать; to
revive
the
image
– оживить образ; вернуть репутацию; to
sue
, v
. – возбуждать дело о возмещении ущерба; to obtain reparation – получить
компенсацию
; to confess to the sins – сознаваться
в
грехах
; the beliefs of the faithful – чувства
верующих
; to retract the posters – зд
. убрать
плакаты
; to
retract
, v
. – отрекаться; отзывать; отменять; отказываться; penance
, n
. – наказание; кара; to
be
exposed
to
– подвергаться воздействию; adland
thinkers
– зд. мыслители от рекламы; to take something at face value – принимать
за
чистую
монету
; inception, n. – начало
; inevitably, adv. – неизбежно
; to
use
images
of
faith
– использовать образы веры (религиозные); to
take
offence
– оскорбиться, обидеться; to
generate
PR
– вызвать отклики в прессе; to
pitch
for
business
– стремиться получить заказ; искать возможность заработать; to
garner
extra
publicity
– создать, заполучить дополнительное внимание прессы;
deliberately
, adv
. – преднамеренно; умышленно; обдуманно; negative
coverage
– зд. нелестные отзывы в прессе; неблагоприятное освещение
в средствах массовой информации; in
marketing
terms
– относительно маркетинга; taboo
-
breaking
– зд. нарушение табу; использование запрещенных примеров; receptive
to
, adj
. – восприимчивый; creative
, n
. – сотрудник агентства, отвечающий за творческий аспект рекламы;
напр. креативный директор; a
counterpart
, n
. – зд. сверстник; человек, занимающий равное положение в
другом месте; 107
to
see
the
shattering
of
taboos
as
the
norm
– рассматривать крушение запретных
тем как норму; collision
, n
. – столкновение, противоречие; acumen
, n
. – проницательность, сообразительность; to
be
in
touch
with
the
public
mood
– быть в курсе общественных настроений; Task 1. Read and translate the text on p. 136 and answer the following questions:
Why did VW workmen have to scrape off 10,000 billboard advertisements?
What did the poster show? Why did the advertisement cause such furious response?
What did the advertising agency figure?
What did the Catholic Church threaten to do?
How did the company act on the threat?
What did the spokesperson for DDB claim?
What did the agency’s penance include?
Why are the vast majority of commercial messages ignored?
How do advertisers force consumers to listen to their message?
Why do consumers challenge everything they are told?
What can ads deal with nowadays?
In what case can people take offence?
What was terribly wrong with the advertisement showing Jesus?
In what way can this kind of advertising attract consumers?
What ability is valued high in advertising business?
What can a deliberately shocking ad generate?
What do experts think of taboos in advertising? Why?
When is outrageous advertising acceptable? Why?
How are young people today different from previous generations?
Why will outrageous advertising no longer be limited in future?
What does VW’s collision with Catholics show?
Speak about the advertising philosophy which led to public offence and explain the
reasons behind such approach.
Task 2. Translate into English using the vocabulary from the text:
1.
Рекламные щиты компании Фольксваген вызвали гневное
возмущение верующих католиков, которые посчитали такой вид
рекламы оскорбительным.
2.
Компании пришлось убрать всю рекламу немедленно, чтобы
подтвердить свое уважение к чувствам верующих а также выплатить
компенсацию за ущерб, понесенный католической церковью.
3. Европейские потребители каждый день подвергаются огромному
количеству коммерческих предположений, поэтому они просто игнорируют
большинство из них.
4. Шокирующая реклама становится все более популярной среди
рекламодателей, потому что они считают, что подобная реклама заставляет
потребителя обратить внимание на их продукцию.
5. Потребители подвергают сомнению старомодные методы рекламы
108
брэндов и не принимают за чистую монету заявления компаний о
превосходстве их брэндов.
Им нужна реклама, которая обещает им что-то взамен, и имеет отношение
к насущным вопросам общественной жизни.
6. Хотя реклама, оскорбляющая чувства потребителя, может показаться
маркетинговым провалом, все чаще рекламные агентства предлагают клиентам
не просто свои способности сочинять рекламу, а способность сочинять
рекламу, о которой пишет пресса.
7. Преднамеренно шокирующее рекламное объявление способно вызвать
дополнительное внимание прессы.
Даже если отклики в прессе неблагоприятные, они приводят к увеличению
объема продаж, так как многие люди начинают покупать товар из любопытства.
8. Некоторые специалисты считают, что можно оскорбить чувства людей в
том случае, если ваши потребители не обращают на это внимания, и все вполне
законно. Единственным табу в маркетинге может быть лишь то, что огорчает
вашего потребителя.
9. Молодежь, как правило, более восприимчива к нарушению запретов,
поскольку у них более широкий кругозор. Они с удовольствием воспринимают
рекламу, которая раздражает их родителей.
10. Очевидно, в будущем скандальная реклама не будет направлена только
на молодежь, и нарушение запретов станет нормой в рекламном бизнесе.
Task 3. Do exercise «Practice» on p. 139 «Coca-Cola and its advertising» and
answer the following questions:
When was Coca-Cola invented? How was it advertised?
When did the company begin building its global network?
How did Robert Woodcruff transform Coca-Cola into a truly international product?
What did he promise to do during World War Two?
What philosophy has Coca-Cola's advertising always pursued?
What does creating an international advertising compaign involve?
How have celebrity endorsements been used by the company?
How did the company develop after launching Diet Coke?
When did the company try changing the secret formula? Did it work?
How did the company respond to the reaction of its consumers?
How many people around the globe enjoy drinking Coca Cola?
What are further plans of the company?
Sum up what you have learned about ways of advertising Coca-Cola.
Task 4. Give English equivalents for:
Разместить рекламу; Сделать товар известным посредством вывесок и календарей; Создать глобальную сеть; Добиться успеха в превращении продукта во всемирно известную марку; Открывать зарубежные филиалы; Доставить Кока-Колу во все уголки мира; Отражать современный образ жизни; 109
Создавать международную рекламную кампанию; Талантливые профессионалы во многих областях; Проводить всесторонние испытания и исследования; Участие знаменитостей в рекламе; Явиться свидетелем того, как резко возросли продажи; Попробовали изменить секретную формулу; Американцы очень привыкли к изначальному рецепту; Быстро среагировали на мнение потребителей; Намеревается расширить свое присутствие в мире;
Особенно на развивающихся рынках.
Task 5. Read the following article and choose the best sentence (A-I) from the
list below to complete each gap.
Would you call your friends if it meant hearing ads every three minutes- er,
make that free minutes?
You pick up the telephone, dial the number and before it rings a cheerful voice
says, «Hello! This call is sponsored by...»
.
______. We’ve come to tolerate (Maybe) TV ads that cut into movies just at the
dramatic moment, or intrude on soccer matches right when a crucial play begins. In
American football, referees even halt play for commercials. But how many people
would be willing to have a phone
call
repeatedly interrupted for «a brief word from
our sponsor»?
Answer: plenty.
That’s the verdict from Sweden, where an outfit called Gratistelefon is offering
free, advertising-supported calls in a two-month trial. Lines are overloaded._______.
They are not, it seems.
A caller dials a toll-free number, then dials any other number in Sweden.
_______.There’s no charge for as long as the caller-or the person called-wants
to talk, or is willing to have conversation punctuated by chirpy jingles.
_______. But giveaways know no age barrier, says Broden. «We were a bit
amazed, but we’re getting lots of middle-aged and older people. For them it’s no
bother.» He wouldn’t confirm published reports that the system is getting 30,000 callers
a day, but did say it is so popular that on some evenings the circuits are jammed.
And what’s in it for advertisers in this brave new medium? ________ «Because
the ad is only 10 seconds long and your friend is waiting on the line, you can’t really
go to the bathroom», says Broden. «It’s very cost-efficient.» A handful of organiza
-
tions, including a movie theater chain, a radio station, a snacks company and a char
-
ity, are already running ads, which cost about 13 cents per spot, and dozens more
have expressed interest.
Gratistelefon has bigger, not to mention Big Brother-like plants. ________.
Then, different callers might hear different ads, tailored to the advertisers' needs.
There’s even the technology to play separate ads to each person on the line – the
caller from the rural north might hear a pickup truck pitch, while the recipient in
Stockholm could listen to one for a local restaurant. The company plans to extend the
service nationwide in Sweden in the next few months, and it has been deluged by In
-
110
quiries from other countries. If the (READ TIME!) idea catches on and (READ
TIME!) consumers elsewhere prove tolerant(READ TIME!) of such interruptions,
who knows where it may lead? By Jay Branegan
Time
Br. E
Freephone cinema
Am. E. toll-free
movie theater
A. Each ad has a very small – but equally captive – audience.
B. Gratistelefon leases capacity from other telephone operators at bulk rates.
C. «We were afraid consumers would be annoyed by the breaks, «says Peter Broden,
the marketing director.
D. Future customers will have to provide a telephone number and all-important
demographic data – age, sex, marital status, address and so on.
E. We put up with commercials between songs on the radio.
F. They hope to make profits by charging advertisers for the chance to reach the
world’s most narrowly targeted audience.
G. Not surprisingly, young people and students have been the biggest users in the
test.
H. Although Sweden’s telephone market has been competitive for some time, long-
distance charges can still be high.
I. The caller hears one 10-seconds ad while the connection is made, another in a
minute, and then one spot every three minutes.
Task 6. Answer the following questions:
What new ways of advertising are mentioned in the article?
What is a Swedish company Gratistelefon offering its customers?
Is the new service popular? Why? What age groups have been involved in the experiment?
How popular is it?
What does this new medium of advertising mean for advertisers?
What kind of businesses are running these ads?
How is the company Gratistelefon planning to develop further?
What might happen if the idea catches on?
What do you think of this way of advertising?
Would you be attracted by such an offer?
How tolerant are you to such interruptions?
Speak about the latest media of advertising.
Task 7. Translate into Russian:
1. Each ad has a very small- but equally captive-audience.
2. We've come to tolerate TV ads that cut into movies.
3. Referees even halt play for commercials.
4. To have a phone call repeatedly interrupted for a brief word from our sponsor.
111
5. An outfit called Gratistelefon is offering free, advertising- supported calls.
6. Lines are overloaded
.
7. Consumers would be annoyed by the breaks.
8. A two-month trial
.
9. The biggest users in the test.
10. As long as the caller is willing to have conversation punctuated by chirpy jingles.
11. The circuits are jammed.
12.
It's very cost-efficient.
13. A handful of organisations are already running ads, which cost about 13 cents per spot.
14. ...not to mention Big Brother -like plans.
15. Callers might hear different ads, tailored to the advertisers' needs.
16. The caller from the rural north might hear a pickup truck pitch.
17. The company has been deluged by inquiries from other countries.
18. If the idea catches on and consumers prove tolerant...
Task 8. Select the correct alternatives to complete the text.
Advertising informs consumers about the existence and benefits of products and
services, and attempts to persuade them to buy them. The best form of advertising is
free(1)... advertising, which occurs when satisfied customers recommend products or
services to their friends, but very few companies rely on this alone.
Large companies could easily set up their own advertising departments, but they
tend to hire the services of a/an (2)... A contract to produce the advertisements for a
specific company, product, or service is known as a/an (3)... The client company gen
-
erally decides on its advertising (4)..., the amount of money it plans to spend in devel
-
oping its advertising and buying media time or space. It also provides a (5)..., or a
statement of the objectives of the advertising, as well as an overall advertising
strategy concerning what (6)... is to be communicated. The choice of how and where
to advertise (newspapers and magazine ads, radio and television commercials, cinema
ads, posters on hoardings (GB) or billboards (US), point-of-purchase displays in
stores, mailings of leaflets, brochures or booklets, and so on), and in what propor
-
tions, is called a (7)... The set of customers whose needs a company plans to satisfy,
and therefore to expose to an advertisement are known as the (8)... market. The ad
-
vertising of a particular product or service during a particular period of time is called
an advertising (9)...
Favorable mentions of a company's products or services, in any medium read,
viewed or heard by a company's customers or potential customers, that are not paid
for, are called (10)...
1. a. mouth-to-mouth b. mouth-to-ear c. word-of-mouth
2. a. advertising agency b. advertising company c. public relations company
3. a. account b. arrangement c. deal
4. a. campaign b. budget c. effort
5. a. brief b. dossier c. message
6. a. facts b. message c. opinions
7. a. medium plan b. medias plan c. media plan
8. a. aimed b. segmented c. target 112
9. a. campaign b. mix c. plan
10. a. promotions b. publicity c. public relations
Answer the following questions:
What is the aim of advertising?
What is the best form of advertising?
Why do big companies tend to hire the services of an advertising agency?
How is a contract in advertising called?
What does the client company decide on? What else does it have to provide?
What does a media plan include?
What is the target market?
What is called an advertising campaign?
What is publicity?
Task 9.
Complete the following collocations:
1.
to persuade…
2.
to hire…
3.
to buy…
4.
to communicate a…
5.
to satisfy…
6.
a target…
Make up and write down 10 sentences with the above collocations.
Task 10.
Read and translate the article:
GOING GLOBAL
Perhaps the biggest challenge now facing the international advertising industry is
that of establishing ‘world brands’ by appealing to the global consumer in all niche mar
-
kets which require specific marketing strategies, global operations call for global cam
-
paigns. Professor Theodore Lewitt of Harvard Business School first put forward the the
-
ory of ‘the globalization of markets.’ But the idea that there are more similarities
between cultures than differences goes back to the popular image of the ‘global village’.
The best in the business
It was Coca-Cola who told us in the 70s that ‘they’d like to buy the world a
Coke’ and British Airways who announced in the 80s that they were ‘the world’s fa
-
vorite airline’. Their universally recognized TV and cinema advertisements invented
the global advertising genre.
Simple messages
The very first global commercial Saatchi & Saatchi ran for BA featured Manhat
-
tan Island being flown across the Atlantic. The effect was breathtaking, words were
hardly needed, the pictures said it all. The commercial was screened in 29 countries
and caused a sensation in the industry. Since then, ‘the world’s favorite airline’ has
become a part of the language, recognized the world over. The secret, according to
BA, is that the message is straightforward, easily understood and vividly expressed.
Minimalist approach
113
So what is it that makes global advertising so compelling and memorable? The an
-
swer to that lies partly in reducing the message to an absolute minimum. A lot of adverts
pack in too much and end up obscuring their message. The global commercial gets its
message across succinctly, with great impact and an emotional intensity of the universal
languages of pictures and music. The commercials reinforce the brand- image independ
-
ently of any real consideration of the product. And image outsells product every time.
Costs the earth
The beauty of a good global ad is that it can be used to great effect over a period
of many years and still seem fresh. Global image-making, however, is a lengthy and
costly business. Bringing together the best creative talent in the advertising industry
usually ends up costing the earth.
Which of the following viewpoints support the opinions expressed in the article?
1.
Global advertising is just a current trend.
2.
Showing the same commercial in several countries cuts down production costs
and saves time.
3.
A global advertising policy usually leads to extremely bland commercials.
4.
Good global ads often rely on their non-verbal impact.
5.
Global commercials have more mileage.
Look back at the article. Find expressions which mean:
1.
a very small number
2.
with excellent results
3.
costs a fortune
4.
expressed briefly and clearly
5.
strengthen, improve one’s position
6.
prevent from being seen or understood
Read the text again. Find:
1.
3 words you want to use more often
2.
3 word partnerships with their equivalents in Russian
3.
longer expressions with their equivalents in Russian.
Content
Unit I. Company Structures (SB, p. 4–13)
......................................................................
Unit 2. Recruitment (SB, p. 14–24)
.................................................................................
Unit 3. Retailing (SB, p. 25–33)
......................................................................................
Unit 4. Franchising (SB, p. 34–43)
.................................................................................
Unit 5. International Business Styles (SB, p. 44–45)
......................................................
Unit 6. Banking
(SB, p. 56–64)
......................................................................................
Unit 7. Business and the Environment (SB, p. 65–73)
....................................................
Unit 8. The Stock Market (SB, p. 74–83)
.......................................................................
Unit 9. Import-Export / International Trade (SB p. 84–95)
............................................
Unit 10. Company Performance (SB, p. 96–103)
...........................................................
Unit 11. Setting Up a Business (p. 106–115)
..................................................................
114
Unit 12. Corporate Alliances and Acquisions (SB, p. 116–124)
....................................
Unit 13. Marketing (SB, p. 125–133)
..............................................................................
Unit 14. Product and Corporate Advesrtising (SB, p. 134–142)
.....................................
115
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