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2014-03-04

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ECONOMICS
UDC 330
I.V. Reikhanova
Institute of service and entrepreneurship (branch) of DSTU
Shakhty, Russia
e-mail:nmurnd@mail.ru
REGIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF LOCAL MARKETS OF EDUCATIONAL
SERVICES: FEATURES AND FACTORS
[Региональная окружающая среда локального рынка образовательных услуг:
особенности и факторы]
The article describes regional environment as a confluence of factors, active and influencing the local market of
educational services. It is considered the development and operation of the local market of educational services based
on local markets, taking into account regional macro-and micro habitation. For example, the Rostov region peculiarities
and environmental factors and certain social benefits are described. It is identified the indicators of the gross regional
product of the Rostov region and analyzed the demographic environment. It is justified by economic factors, the
economic profile and socio-cultural factors that contribute to the formation of the environment of the local education
market.
Key words: local market of educational services, particularly regional macro-and microspheres, environment
factors of formation of market education.
The development and functioning of the local market of educational services, of course,
depends largely on the type of environment of this or that region[ 1]On the example of the Rostov
region consider the features and environmental factors .
The Rostov region has certain social benefits: the largest city with a growing service and
administrative functions, high entrepreneurial activity, developed by the higher school and more
modernized social environment; higher incomes in comparison with other regions of the South and
reduced poverty; active reforming the housing and utilities sector, social protection and transition to
targeted assistance. The Rostov region occupies the 6th place by population among the subjects of
the Russian Federation, on the Russian South, it is inferior only to the Krasnodar territory. It is the
largest region of the North Caucasus on the territory. The average population density - 42 persons
per sq. km. In comparison with other regions of the Northern Caucasus, the Rostov region is the
most urbanised in cities and towns lives 67% of the population, although this percentage is below
the national average (73%). City region were formed at different times. The oldest cities are Azov,
Taganrog, Novocherkassk and Rostov, were founded in the XVII-XVIII centuries In the end of XIX
- beginning of XX century there was a bunch of cities of the Eastern wing of Donbass (Shakhty,
Novoshakhtinsk, Kamensk-Shakhtinsky, Gukovo). The youngest of the major cities became
Volgodonsk, created in the middle of XX century and then rapidly developing due to the
construction of enterprises of atomic engineering "Atommash" and Rostov NPP. Local centers are
not developed enough, which lay down the basic functions of social services to the surrounding
countryside. There are 43 administrative districts and 23 of the city, of which only 7 are large (with
a population over 100 thousand people) in the area. In 20 districts centers are villages and villages,
even in 9 settlements, i.e. full of local centers do not have 2/3 administrative districts. As a
consequence, the availability of many common services is small in the areas and their quality
remains low.
If you compare per capita gross regional product (GRP), the Rostov region remains "a circus",
taking place in the fifth-sixth top ten regions of the country (adjusted for cost of living in the
region). But it should be noted that the accuracy of the calculations GRP southern regions raises a
lot of doubts because of the high share of shadow economy, especially in the food industry and the
service sector. The economic situation are very different in the Rostov region, which confirms the
dynamics of industrial production in the years of economic growth. The most stable is Volgodonsk,
the growth rate of the it industry maximum. City food industry, especially the suburb of Rostov
Bataisk, also grow steadily. But more than half of the cities in the region marked decline or
stagnation of production, among them not only all the coal city, such as Mines , but also depressive
Azov (shipbuilding) and a large diversified industrial centers - Taganrog and Novocherkassk. The
level of economic activity of the population is below the national average in the Rostov region. In
2010, 62% of the population belonged to the economically active, the national average of 65%. On
the dynamics of employment Rostov region is similar to the national average trend . In a branch cut
the maximum reduction occurred in industry and construction, the strongest growth in trade,
increased employment in management and budget sphere .
Rostov-on-don has always been one of the leading centers of higher school, so the numbers of
students per 10 thousand people were and still remain higher than the national average (438 and
415, respectively). With strong traditions of quality education has managed to avoid the avalanchelike growth of education in private universities, where the level of training, usually low. If the
average in the Russian Federation in such schools has more than 12% of the students , in the Rostov
region - 8,5% . Adaptation of the higher school to the market leads to its location , the old
University centers lose weight: the share of students enrolled in Rostov-on-don, decreased to 57% ,
Novocherkassk as the second center of the higher school has reduced its share from 18%to 11%.,
the share of Taganrog remained at the level of 9%. This rapidly growing branch network of
universities in other large cities, especially in Volgodonsk.
Analysis of the demographic environment of the area shows that there is a natural decrease of
population, and this inevitably leads to a reduction in the contingent of pupils, students, labour
potential of the region and will have a negative impact on the state of regional and local markets of
educational services.
Economic factors influence first of all on the solvency of the consumers, as well as the
dynamics and structure of consumption of education services. The Rostov region is intensively
developing regions of Russia. Natural raw material and labor resources contribute to a dynamic and
balanced development of its economy. On volume of gross regional product (GRP) is a measure
that includes the cost of products and services produced in different branches and fields of activity
of the region, the region ranks 41st place among the 85 regions of the Russian Federation.
The economic profile of the Rostov area define the following areas: highly developed
industry, agriculture and transport, and the industry prevails over other branches of the regional
economy. On volume of industrial production the region takes the 22nd place in Russia. Land
resources are the main wealth of the Rostov region. In area of agricultural land area occupies the
3rd place. In General, the economy of the Rostov region has been a trend of stabilization, which
will positively affect the solvency of the consumers, as well as on the dynamics and structure of
consumption of education services. Scientific-technical factors contribute to the creation of new
technologies, which substantially modified educational services and new marketing opportunities.
Currently, the Rostov region retains a high scientific and technical potential. Investment projects in
engineering mainly aimed at reconstruction and modernization of industrial base of the enterprises
of the region. The high degree of depreciation of production equipment, obsolescence of technology
creates preconditions for increase of training specialists for repair and restoration of machines,
repair and re-adjustment of computers. Global computerization is held in Rostov region. A small
number of investment projects in this branch is connected first of all with high barriers to entry (the
level and development of technology), which do not allow domestic companies to develop
successfully in this field.
Analysis of investment projects also showed that among the total number of economic
specialities are the most demanded specialists in marketing, management of tax payments and
financial managers. Changes in the economy, associated with scientific and technical progress,
inevitably affect educational services of a region and its towns. Political and legal factors stimulate
or limit the activity of educational institutions and their clients in a given society. In the Russian
Federation current normative documents, regulating educational activities at all levels, creating
conditions for development of educational institutions, market of educational servants are the
Constitution of the Russian Federation, the RF Law "On education" , the law of the RF "On higher
and postgraduate professional education" and other laws, decrees and decisions of the Government
of the Russian Federation in the field of education, as well as regulations adopted by the Rostov
regional Duma.
Adopted by Federal and regional normative documents provide free access to education and
training at all levels of society, the preservation of the rights of citizens to free secondary education,
tolerance multilevel character of higher professional education. As negative moments in the legal
sphere of the market of educational services should be noted weak regulatory framework; the failure
of the legislation in the field of education; low level of protection of the rights of subjects of
educational process.
Regional environment is a set of factors that are active and affecting the situation of the oblast
(regional) and local markets of educational services. It is customary to distinguish between macroand microenvironment.
The macro-environment is a set of demographic, economic, scientific-technical, political ,
legal and socio-cultural factors . Consider the impact of these factors on the development and
implementation of the potential of the local market of educational services, opportunities and threats
that they carry. Demographic factors. Last years the tendency has been the change in the population
of the Rostov region, began depopulation [2,4].
The demand for educational services directly connected with culture. With the growth of
cultural level of the population's growing demand for education. The preference given consumers a
single educational service in comparison with other educational services may be based on cultural
traditions and personal value system.
These factors form the total context in which develops lo-tion of the market of educational
services. At different times different factors have a different effect on the market of educational
services and acting on it higher educational institutions, sometimes promote dynamic growth (for
example, due to favorable political and legal conditions), and sometimes POPs-to be substantial
obstacles for progressive movement (as a consequence of reduction of effective demand for
educational services in the result of the economic crisis). The underestimation of the significance of
any of these factors can significantly complicate the activity of higher educational institutions.
To the factors of microenvironment direct impact on the activities of educational institutions
affecting the potential of the local market of educational services include policy of the higher
educational institutions, behavior, composition, structure its customers, competitors and contact
audiences. The most important factor microenvironment is the policy of a higher educational
institution, its innovative development strategy.
"Innovation strategy is the direction of the development of the institution determines its
vision, mission and targets of the scientific-educational activity, potential, technology, system of
government, ensuring the achievement of development goals. If the universities were able to
function successfully, concentrating mainly on the rational use of its inner potential, it currently has
ripened necessity of transition of the University from functioning in the mode of development. This
requires a fundamentally new strategy, capable of adapting universities to the rapidly changing
external and internal conditions. This strategy gives the University the opportunity to adequately
and timely react to the dynamics of macro-micro. The essence of innovation development strategy
of the University is to anticipate change his scientific-pedagogical activity, decision-making for
sustainable development. Therefore, this strategy should be ahead of market demand for scientific
and educational activity. To innovate, necessary for development, the University is required to
monitor the state of the environment in which it functions as it should seek new sources of
development"[3].
The customers of educational services market can be explicitly (real clients) and implicitly
(potential customers). The most acute struggle in the market of educational services is for potential
customers. Clients as an element of the microenvironment of the educational services market are
graduates of secondary school; graduates of institutions of primary, medium and higher professional
education; certified specialists trained; the working-age population.
Competitors are other higher educational institutions and their branches, representative offices
in the cities that produce the same educational services, providing similar services and assigns the
same rates. A large industrial enterprise with a developed system of training, retraining and
improvement of professional skills can also provide educational services to their employees and
employees of other organizations. As for the other cities, such industrial enterprises that compete
for higher professional educational institutions here. A certain influence on the competitive
situation on the local market of educational services can have a company that manages through its
non educational products (mostly services) to alter the demand for educational services. In this role
are companies - sellers of technology, patents and know-how, as well as the companies offering for
lease ("rent") of its specialists, already possessing necessary consumer knowledge and skills. This
layer of competition is missing in the cities. Bankruptcy of any enterprise sharpens the need for
retraining of its employees, at the same time reduces (at least in this geographic segment) demand
for educational services on the profile of the enterprise. Competitors it is necessary to study,
because they set the criteria that an educational institution has to meet or exceed.
References
1. Rejhanova I.V. Market factors of economic development of the University: the relationship,
cycles, processes//Humanities and Social Sciences: electronic scientific journal. 2010. №
2.-P. 99-106.
2. Encyclopedia of economic regions of Russia. Rostovskaya oblast /. CJSC «Ekonomika
Publishing House», 2010.- P. 303-320.
3. Filatov S . Regional models of education services market/S. Filatov//economics of
education, 2012.-No 1.- P. 38.
4. Ul′ânickaâ N.M. Industry Development space of regional economic systems//Humanities
and Social Sciences: electronic scientific journal. 2012. № 2-P. 71-78.
Литература
1. Рейханова И.В. Рыночные факторы развития экономики вуза: взаимосвязи, циклы,
процессы // Гуманитарные и социальные науки. 2010. №2. www.hses-online.ru
2. Экономическая энциклопедия регионов России. Ростовская область. 2010.
3. Филатов С. Региональные модели рынка образовательных услуг / С.Филатов //
Экономика образования. 2012 . №1.
4. Ульяницкая Н.М. Развитие отраслевого пространства региональной хозяйственной
системы // Гуманитарные и социальные науки: электронный научный журнал. 2012.
№ 2.
June, 27, 2014
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