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2014-03-08

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PHILOSOPHY
UDC 101
L.T. Zaseeva
Gorsk state agrarian university
RSO-Alaniya, Vladikavkaz, Russia
redaction-el@mail.ru
TOPICAL PROBLEMS OF MODERN EDUCATION: PHILOSOPHIC APPROACH
[Актуальные проблемы современного образования:
философский подход]
In the context of understanding the crisis of Russian education process is analyzed, and the results of the administration steps in theoretical pedagogy the term "competence" is considered. It is studied classic crisis of didactics, the first
attempts to adapt the notion of competence in Russian pedagogy. It is identified paradoxes of technologizing training. The
game is presented as means and condition of formation of social activity, to emphasize the status of the game in the traditional learning. Russian education is at an early stage of modernization, which will take more than one generation. Only
now it is determined theoretical orientations of this modernization emanating from global educational experience. Crisis of
the Russian education system was initially regarded in itself as a result of reducing the requirements for training and systematic discipline, and it was assumed that it can overcome if we strengthen these requirements.
Key words: modernization of education, competence, technologization training game.
Modern socio-economic crisis society manifested, in particular, the loss of valid and recognized in the community goals and values education. Today, the work on the theoretical formulation and the introduction of new educational practices in the target values, however, these
two aspects are highly fragmented. Orientation to Western models as a more "progressive"
causes the Ministry of Education to introduce new training criteria, standards and norms are
usually formulated in terms that are alien to the Russian pedagogy.
Attempts to modernize education management based on such concepts have little meaning
because of their initial incomprehensibility teaching staff. It is in this work was developed on
theoretical concepts of adaptation "competence" in a conceptual structure of the Russian pedagogy. The difficulty of this work lies in the fact that this concept has no real match in the Russian practice of education, in fact, the content of this concept in Russia is to be recreated in calculating the design on the new education system.
For this we have, abandoning the original tactics work blindly, to use explicitly logical
and methodological, philosophical, cultural, psychological basis for the development of a new
concept of education. Thus, in the activity approach has been developed a method of "developmental education" aimed at developing tion students skills to operate with scientific concepts as
the most important type of competencies. But this led to ideological contradictions, since life
competencies can not be reduced to scientific. Avoiding such contradictions related shown with
a focus on the natural processes of the formation of any kind of competencies that are implemented in the culture in the game mode. Therefore, to the fore as a universal gaming techniques
basis of formation and competencies as a basis-of humane pedagogics [1; 4; 9; 10].
Indicated as a whole problem, although recently, but has been widely discussed in the
press. Problem analysis and crisis in didactics within the general crisis of education, considered
by authors such as MN Skatkin, IA Roux-Dacian. Crisis pedagogical techniques analyzed in
papers II Loginov, GI Sarantseva, SD Polyakova, TP Beaver. Attempts to analyze the concept
of "competence" in the framework of the activity approach implemented AV Farmsteads, IA
Winter, OV Leba-virgin, II Logvinov, AA Petrenko, DA Leontiev. First approaches to the humanization of education presented in the works of MM Rubinstein, D. Ivanova, NV Pivneva EV
Bondarevskaya, TP Beaver. Role play in the socialization of the child was considered in LS
Vygotsky, DB Elkonin, J. Huizinga, SN Vinogradov, MI Makhmutova, VS Bibler. Prospects for
the development of Russian education in the direction of globalization and economization analyzed SA Smirnov, MR Radovel, SA Woodpeckers, A. Asmolov, MB Zykov.
Thus, the augmented theoreticity and methodological bezvariantnost classic pedal gogiki
and didactics in conditions of social crisis caused demand for its "modernization" that primarily
resulted in the reformulation of its major categories: "knowledge", "skills", "skills", "didactic",
"method", "method", through a combination of the terms "technology", "competence" and
"competence". However, such "modernization" rapidly eroding, because such "explanations"
have nothing to do with the real problems of education.
Introduction as a public educational priority target mounting on the formation of "competence" and "competency" to initiation to of western educational standards sparked a wave of
more or less detailed interpreting these terms. But the difficulty was that the Western version of
these concepts is based on the development of social-activity-their content, which has no match
in the on-our society. Therefore, the first attempts conceptual unfolding of these terms do not go
beyond the traditional methodological approach when under "competence" means the usual professionalism or "Methodism", ie "Competence". This of renewable old dispute between general
cultural trends in pedagogy.
As a result, attention shifts to activity-content competencies: on effective rather than the
conceptual nature of their phenomenology; on reflective (motive Zion) the nature of their formation; on their procedural tier structure (hundred-updating of personal experience); on the socio-cultural conditioning of their contents. Activities structure defined competencies: 1) the individual, social and human scale; 2) psycho-emotional, cognitive and mental (reflexive) aspects;
3) strong-willed, intelligent and self-organizational intentions. Dejatelnostnaja essence of competences given regulatory, socio stipulated limit variability (affordability, freedom and uncertainty) of (variativen). This means that there are only two types of genetically initial competency: normative, always remaining within the normative; reflexive, goes beyond these limits.
Methodism pedagogical crisis revived idea of defining character of the technology training. Attempts to extend the principle of techno-humanitarian disciplines again raised questions:
"What and how to teach?", "What determines the education" and "What is a" good teacher "? In
our time, these issues are increasingly seen not narrowly professional pedagogical context and
globally, in which socio-cultural consequences of schooling in general look negatively. In our
opinion, the cause of this phenomenon is the fact it possible inevitability of violence in technologically aligned training institutes, whose evolution passes stages of physical, mental, moral,'s
intellectual and institutional coercion. [9] All this creates teaching mythology as normative images of "student - teacher impact object-tions," "active role of the teacher in the learning process", "discipline", etc., which are determined and the whole way of life and work in the school .
Same example of a theoretical pedagogical myth is a fashionable term "educational environment" designed to rid The resulting teacher of personal responsibility for learning outcomes.
"Student-centered learning" approved person as a student focous educational efforts of the
entire educational system, but stumbled on the insurmountable: inability to methodically describe
technologically-teacher activities, implementing this principle. It turned out that the teacher can
are able to operate in a natural game for children unpredictability that, on the one hand, removes
all the contradictions in the relationship "teacher - student" and does not affect educational fundamental results on the other - right rejects the "technological Methodism." This contradicts - the
root problems of theoretical pedagogy and authentic base of pedagogical competence.
Despite long-standing research games as a cultural phenomenon, its use in teaching are
still often reduced to the binding of the term to the traditional didactic-methodological terms,
such as "didactic game", "game technology", "play technique" and etc. Such designs only mislead-ing practicing Methodists, teachers and professors, as they are based on the criteria statements of the controlling bodies; same real control becomes purely formal because incomprehensibility of such terms.
Meaningful use of games in education, from 'recreational', pre-subject-design and mnemonic form, then transferred to plan learning motivation as a natural psychological basis of development of consciousness in the learning process (interest). But the content and mode of
learning games are still determined socially, culturally and professionally oriented adults, which
requires registration and use fundamentally philosophical moments of the game, as the valuable
foundation humane direction in pedagogy. Breakthrough in the gaming pedagogy observed in
sectors such as business education, in view of the need to develop skills to navigate and successfully operate in a multi-high socio-economic uncertainty and variability.
Thus, we paid attention to ways in which the crisis is manifested in the modern Russian education, which is the main indicator of the crisis. It is obvious that in our time as the oldest methodical didactic pedagogy structure that expresses the principle of "do as I do" and provides instrumental
operating layer of learning activities is no longer the basis of pedagogy. Who claimed methods,
teaching self-constructed socially meaningful action in which knowledge and skills obtained meaning. But recent attempts to overcome this failure by the idea of universal training only generate concepts that are not applicable in practice and have therefore only formally bureaucratic sense.
This is especially noticeable when the idea technologizing applies to liberal education: the
only consequence of this application is an attempt to introduce some kind of intellectual discipline, which is obvious pointlessness. Original attempt technologizing moral teaching is student-oriented approach, the essence of which individual student motivation to learn - regardless
of its form. Thus, all these attempts technologizing actually mean only the improvement of
methods of coercion to learn - from a physical and mental to the moral and intellectual. But it
can not succeed, because the personal interests of the student still does not count.
However, in our education there are enthusiasts who develop new approaches to learning,
based on gaming procedures, the fundamental difference which the traditional - in the original
game relying on student interests. Game approach based on the concept of the game as a simplified form of activity, and within it is carried out step by step, natural and conflict-familiarizing
the student to complete forms of social activity. However, in the context of the economic and
professional crisis, this approach demanded only in economic and business education and training where the practice is not broken, but on the contrary - ensures each other.
Russian education is at an early stage of modernization, which will take more than one
generation. Only now determined theoretical orientations that modernization emanating from
the global educational experience. Crisis of the Russian education system was initially regarded
in itself as a result of reducing the requirements for training and systematic discipline, and it
was assumed that it can be overcome if we strengthen these requirements. Had spent a lot of effort to justify theoretically the necessity and possibility of such an increase, up to a total technologizing and training. But when society became convinced that it is nothing, do not stop the
crisis, and to changes in requirements continue to grow, the idea to turn to the experience of education in Western countries and fundamentally different, rejects the traditional pedagogy, playful approach to learning [9; 10; 11].
However, the imposition of one experiment to another, someone else - on their own, due
to a total lack of understanding and the consequent formalization methodical control over learning. But the other way is not visible, and, apparently, the notion of competence is indeed yet
cannot serve as a criterion for assessing work functioning of education, although it is the supervisory bodies of the Ministry of Education, as well as a theoretical guide metodologiko it transformation and modernization.
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