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How to use P2OASys for chemical safety comparisons - Toxics Use

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How to Use P2OASys for Chemical Safety Comparisons
In 2005, TURI established an assessment process for comparing chemicals for safety, performance and costs. During this process, a set of criteria were identified as being important to the assessment process. Many of these criteria were previously established in a systematic tool for pollution prevention evaluations also created by TURI, known as the Pollution Prevention Options Assessment System tool (P2OASys). In an attempt to utilize both methodologies, a comparison to the effectiveness of both was conducted. In addition to these two, a third methodology was included for comparative purposes, Clean Production Action's Green Screen.
TURI Alternative Assessment Process
In July of 2005, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts requested that the Toxics Use Reduction Institute (TURI) conduct a scientific study to assess safer alternatives for the following five toxic or hazardous chemicals: Lead; Formaldehyde; Perchloroethylene (PCE); Hexavalent chromium; and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP).
During this time, TURI developed an "alternatives assessment" methodology that was used to evaluate the technical, economic, and environmental, health and safety feasibility of alternatives to the five chemicals for selected uses. The assessment shall, for each named toxic or hazardous substance, identify significant uses of the toxic substance in manufacturing, consumer products and any other applications; potential human health and environmental impacts; and any alternative chemicals or technologies, both proven and emergent, and an analysis of their potential to serve as substitutes for any of the toxic or hazardous substances listed above.
Initially, alternative chemicals needed to pass a series of screenings. The first utilized persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity. This screening was completed by using the EPA's PBT Profiler software. For persistence, if any one of the environmental media half lives (water, soil, air and sediment), is exceeded, the chemical would be considered to be persistent for this study.
Secondly, bioaccumulation was defined in the PBT Profiler by the US EPA. If a chemical has a bioconcentration factor (BCF) greater than 5,000 (or log Kow greater than 5) it would be considered to be very bioaccumulative.
For Aquatic Toxicity, the PBT Profiler established chronic aquatic toxicity values less than 0.1 mg/L to place that chemical in the high concern catetgory. The parameter used to evaluate for freshwater fish species toxicity is based on 30-day exposure duration, with the endpoint for evaluation expressed in ChV (mg/l). Toxicity data for other aquatic species are not included in this initial screening criterion. In many cases data for aquatic toxicity is not available. In this case the chemical will not be screened out based on toxicity, and can only be screened out as a PBT if the criteria for P and B are exceeded.
After screening using the PBT criteria, chemicals were assessed using carcinogenicity. For the purposes of the TURI AA process a chemical was screened out if it is classified under one of the following classifications:
* US EPA Classifications: Group A: Known Human Carcinogen; Group B1: Probable Human Carcinogen (Limited human evidence); Group B2: Probable Human Carcinogen (Sufficient evidence in animals)
* IARC Classifications: Group 1: Known Human Carcinogen; Group 2A: Probable Human Carcinogen
Finally, TURI eliminated a chemical if the chemical was listed on the Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction (TUR) Science Advisory Board's list of More Hazardous Chemicals.
Following the chemical screening, collected health and safety information was gathered to be compared directly with one of the five chemicals of interest. No set of defined levels were established beyond the screening criteria. Values were compared directly to collected data for the base chemicals. For each of the five chemicals, various physical characteristics were chosen based on specific chemical end uses and desired performance needs.
TURI Pollution Prevention Options Assessment (P2OASys) Tool
In the mid-1990s, the Institute developed a systematic tool to help companies determine whether the TUR options they were considering may have unforeseen negative environmental, worker or public health impacts.
P2OASys allows companies to assess the potential environmental, worker, and public health impacts of alternative technologies aimed at reducing toxics use. The goal is more comprehensive and systematic thinking about the potential hazards posed by current and alternative processes identified during the TUR planning process. The tool will assist companies in two ways: * To systematically examine the potential environmental and worker impacts of TUR options in a comprehensive manner, examining the total impacts of process changes, rather than simply those of chemical changes
* To compare TUR options with the company's current process based on quantitative and qualitative factors.
Embedded formulae in P2OASys provide a numerical hazard score for the company's current process and identified options, which can then be combined with other information sources and professional expertise to make decisions on TUR option implementation.
Green Screen
The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals defines four benchmarks on the path to safer chemicals: Benchmark 1 Avoid - Chemical of high concern; Benchmark 2 Use but search for safer substitutes; Benchmark 3 - Use but still opportunity for improvement; and Benchmark 4 Prefer - Safer chemical. The criteria for each benchmark become progressively more demanding for environmental and human health and safety, with the hazard criteria of Benchmark 4 representing the most preferred chemicals.
Comparison of TURI AA, P2OASys and Green Screen
Fourteen general categories were compared for the three assessment systems. A total of 107 elements were identified in the three systems. The TURI AA system contained the most, totaling 84 criteria. The P2OASys tool used 61 criteria and the Green Screen looked at 25. Despite using the most criteria in the assessment process, the TURI AA process did not provide a systematic way to evaluate all elements beyond the screening process. The P2OASys methodology provided systematic assessment using quantitative data for 31 fields and allowed for expert judgment on the remaining 30 fields. The Green Screen provided guidelines for assessing levels of hazards/safety for each of the 25 elements. The table lists the general categories used in each of the three assessment tools and indicates the number of unique elements used for each category.
Table 1. Categories Used in Alternative Assessment
Categories for Comparison# CriteriaAcute human effects11Chronic human effects12Physical hazards6Aquatic hazards5Persistence/bioaccumulation8Atmospheric hazard4Disposal hazard4Chemical hazard22Energy & resource use3Product hazard3Exposure potential8Performance6Financial15Total Criteria Used at least once107
Further evaluation of each system revealed the number of elements that appeared in more than one tool. The comparison of elements used is shown in the second table. The criteria used in the TURI AA had 19 elements not in P2OASys and 5 not in the Green Screen. For P2OASys, 4o elements did not appear in the TURI AA and 7 in the Green Screen. The Green Screen had least overlap with the other two assessment tools.
Table 2. Comparison of Criteria Used
ToolTURI AAP2OASysGreen ScreenCriteria Used846125Not in TURI AANR4064Not in P2OASys19NR45Not in Green Screen57NRNR - not relevant
The provided guidance for assessing each hazard for the three systems is listed in Table 3. In each category the high, medium and low risk levels were included. In addition, the TURI Lab has put together guidance for the P2OASys expert judgment assessment (categories with High, Medium, Low and no values) which can be found in the Appendix.
Table 3. Alternative Assessment Comparison
P2OASysTURI AAGreen ScreenAcute human effectsAcute human effectsAcute human effectsInhalation LC50; High [<15 ppm]; Medium [ 150 ppm]; Low [ 10000 ppm]Lethal dose/concentration: Inhalation LC50 (ppm); High [LC50 <500 ppm (gas);]; Medium [LC50 500-5000 ppm (gas)]; Low [No basis for concern identified]PEL/TLV; High [<5 ]; Medium [25 ]; Low [ 200]Permissible exposure limit (PEL) (ppm); Threshold limit value (TLV) (ppm)High [LC50 <2.0 mg/l (vapor)]; Medium [LC50 2-20 mg/l (vapor)]; Low [PEL/TLV (dusts/particles); High [<0.1 ]; Medium [1 ]; Low [10]Permissible exposure limit PEL for particles (mg/m3)High [LC50 <0.5 mg/l (dust or mist)]; Medium [LC50 0.5-5 mg/l (dust or mist)]; Low [No basis for concern identified]IDLH; High [<10 ]; Medium [50]; Low [1000]Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) Respiratory irritation; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ]Irritation; RespiratoryHigh [Evidence of adverse effects in humans; Weight of evidence demonstrates potential for adverse effects in humans; GHS Category 1 - (skin or respiratory); or Positive responses in predictive Human Repeat Insult Patch Tests (HRIPT) (skin); Medium [Suggestive animal studies; Analog data; or Chemical class known to produce toxicity]; Low [No basis for concern identified]]Oral LD50; High [<50 ]; Medium [ 50]; Low [5000]Oral LD50 (mg/kg); High [LD50 <50 mg/kg bodyweight (oral);] Medium [LD50 50-2000 mg/kg]; Low [No basis for concern identified]dermal irritation; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ]Irritation; DermalHigh [Evidence of irreversible effects in studies of human populations; Weight of evidence of irreversible effects in animal studies; or GHS Category 1 (skin or eye)]; Medium [Evidence of reversible effects in humans or animals; GHS Category 2 or 3 - skin irritation]; Low [No basis for concern identified]skin absorption; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ] High [Evidence of irreversible effects in studies of human populations; Weight of evidence of irreversible effects in animal studies; or GHS Category 1 (skin or eye)]; Medium [Evidence of reversible effects in humans or animals; GHS Category 2 or 3 - skin irritation]; Low [No basis for concern identified]dermal LD50; High [<50 ]; Medium [ 50]; Low [5000]Dermal LD50 (mg/kg)High [LD50 <200 mg/kg bodyweight (dermal)]; Medium [LD50 200-2000 mg/kg]; Low [No basis for concern identified]ocular irritation; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ]Irritation; OcularHigh [Evidence of irreversible effects in studies of human populations; Weight of evidence of irreversible effects in animal studies; or GHS Category 1 (skin or eye)]; Medium [Evidence of reversible effects in humans or animals; GHS Category 2A or 2B - eye]; Low [No basis for concern identified] High [US EPA Extremely Hazardous Substance List; or GHS Category 1 or 2]; Medium [GHS Category 3 or 4]; Low [No basis for concern identified]Chronic human effectsChronic human effectsChronic human effectsReference Dose RfD; High [<0.001]; Medium [ 0.01]; Low [ 0.1]Reference dose (RfD) carcinogen; High [ 1,A]; Medium [ 2B,C]; Low [4,E ]Carcinogenicity; U.S. EPA Group A, B1, B2, C, D, E,;IARC Group 1, 2A, 2B, 3, 4; High: Known or Probable - 1, 2A, A, B1, B2; Medium: Possible - 2B, C;Low: Unclassifiable or Not Likely - 3, 4, D, EHigh [Evidence of adverse effects in humans; Weight of evidence demonstrates potential for adverse effects in humans; NTP known or reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogen; OSHA carcinogen; California Prop 65; IARC Group 1 or 2A; EU Category 1 or 2; or GHS Category 1A or 1B]; Medium [Suggestive animal studies; Analog data; Chemical class known to produce toxicity; IARC Group 2B; EU Category 3; or GHS Category 2]; Low [No basis for concern identified or IARC Group 3 or 4]mutagen; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ]MutagenicityHigh [Evidence of adverse effects in humans; Weight of evidence demonstrates potential for adverse effects in humans; EU Category 1 o r 2; or GHS Category 1A or 1B]; Medium [Suggestive animal studies; Analog data; or Chemical class known to produce toxicity]; Low [No basis for concern identified]reproductive effects; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ]ReproductiveHigh [Evidence of adverse effects in humans; weight of evidence demonstrates potential for adverse effects in humans; NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human, Reproduction; California Prop 65; EU Category 1 or 2; or GHS Category 1A or 1B]; Medium [Suggestive animal studies; Analog data; Chemical class known to produce toxicity; EU Category 3; or GHS Category 2]; Low [No basis for concern identified]neurotoxicity; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ]Neural systemHigh [Evidence of adverse effects in humans; or Weight of evidence demonstrates potential for adverse effects in humans]; Medium [Suggestive animal studies; Analog data; or Chemical class known to produce toxicity]; Low [No basis for concern identified]developmental effects; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ]DevelopmentalHigh [Evidence of adverse effects in humans; Weight of evidence demonstrates potential for adverse effects in humans; NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction; or California Prop 65]; Medium [Suggestive animal studies; Analog data; or Chemical class known to produce toxicity]; Low [No basis for concern identified]respir. sensistivity/disease; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ]RespiratoryHigh [Evidence of adverse effects in humans; Weight of evidence demonstrates potential for adverse effects in humans; GHS Category 1 - (skin or respiratory); or Positive responses in predictive Human Repeat Insult Patch Tests (HRIPT) (skin); Medium [Suggestive animal studies; Analog data; or Chemical class known to produce toxicity]; Low [No basis for concern identified]]other chronic organ effects; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ]Other Teratogenicity Endocrine systemHigh [Evidence of adverse effects in humans; or Weight of evidence demonstrates that mechanisms of action lead to adverse effects]; Medium [Suggestive animal studies; Analog data; Chemical class known to produce toxicity; EU Draft List - Category 1 or 2; or Japanese list]; Low [No basis for concern identified] Immune: High [Evidence of adverse effects in humans; or Weight of evidence demonstrates potential for adverse effects in humans]; Medium [Suggestive animal studies; Analog data; or Chemical class known to produce toxicity]; Low [No basis for concern identified] Systemic toxicity/ organ effects: High [Evidence of adverse effects in humans; Weight of evidence demonstrates potential for adverse effects in humans; GHS Category 1 - organ/systemic toxicity following single or repeated exposure]; Medium [Suggestive animal studies; Analog data; Chemical class known to produce toxicity; GHS Category 2 or 3 single exposure; or Category 2 repeated exposure]; Low [No basis for concern identified]Physical hazardsPhysical hazardsPhysical hazardsheat; High [ >32]; Medium [ 30]; Low [25 ] noise generation; High [ >90]; Medium [85 ]; Low [80 ]Noise generation vibration; High [>12 ]; Medium [ 8]; Low [ 4]Vibration ergonomic hazard; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ]Ergonomic psychosocial hazard; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ]Psychosocial Radioactivity Aquatic hazardsAquatic hazardsAquatic hazardsWater Quality Criteria (HWQC); High [<1 ]; Medium [4-6 ]; Low [ >10] aquatic LC50; High [<0.10 ]; Medium [1 ]; Low [1000]Fish 96 hour LC50, Daphnid 48 hour LC50; High: Value is < 1 mg/L; Medium: Value is between 1 and 100 mg/L; Low: Value is > 100 mg/L fish NOAEC; High [<0.0002 ]; Medium [0.002]; Low [0.2] plant EC 50; High [ <0.1]; Medium [ 1]; Low [100 ]Algae 72 or 96 hour EC50; High: Value is < 0.1 mg/L; Medium: Value is between 0.1 and 10 mg/L; Low: Value is > 10 mg/L observed ecological effects; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ] Persistence/bioaccumulationPersistence/bioaccumulationPersistence/bioaccumulationpersistence; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ]Persistence/Biological Degradability; High: Half-life in water, soil, sediment > 180 days; Medium: between 60 and 180 days; Low: < 60 daysVery High [soil or sediment >180; water >60 days]; High [>60 to 180; water >40 to 60; potential for long range environmental transport]; Medium [30 to 60; water 7 to 40 days]; Low [<30; water <7 days; or ready biodegradability]BOD half-life; High [ >500]; Medium [ 100]; Low [ 4] hydrolysis half-life; High [>500 ]; Medium [100 ]; Low [ 4] bioconcentration; High [ >6]; Medium [ 4]; Low [ 1]Bioaccumulation Log Kow; bioconcentration factor (BCF); High [>1000 ]; Medium [200 ]; Low [ 10]High: BCF > 5,000; Medium: BCF between 1,000 and 5,000; Low: BCF < 1,000Very High [BCF/BAF >5000 or absent such data log Kow >5]; High[>1000 to 5000; LOGkow >4.5-5; weight of evidence demonstrates bioaccumulation in humand or wildlife]; Medium [500 to 1000; log kow 4-4.5; suggestive evidence of bioaccumulation in humans or willdlife]; Low[<500; log kow <4] Aquatic toxicity - acuteHigh [LC50/EC50/IC50 < 1 mg/l or GHS Cat 1]; Medium [1-100 mg/l or GHS Cat 2 or 3]; Low [>100 mg/l] Aquatic toxicity - chronicHigh [NOEC <0.1 mg/l or GHS Cat 1]; Medium [0.1-10 mg/l or GHS cat 2, 3, or 4]; Low >10 mg/l] Water Quality Criteria Atmospheric hazardAtmospheric hazardAtmospheric hazardgreenhouse gas; High [ y]; Medium [ ]; Low [n]Greenhouse gases; Volume of carbon dioxide, methane, CFC, and nitrous oxide generated ozone depletor; High [y ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ n]Ozone depleting chemicals (ODC); Volume CFC, HCFC, etc. generated acid rain formation; High [y ]; Medium [ ]; Low [n ]Acid rain formation; Volume of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia generated NESHAP; High [ y]; Medium [ ]; Low [n ]NESHAP Disposal hazardDisposal hazardDisposal hazardlandfill; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ] EPCRA reportable quantity; High [1 ]; Medium [ 100]; Low [5000 ] incineration; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ] recycling; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ] Chemical hazardChemical hazardChemical hazardvapor pressure; High [>100 ]; Medium [ 10]; Low [0.1 ]vapor pressure (KPa) (g/cc) solubility in waterAffinity for water; water solubility (mg/l) specific gravitydensity/specific gravity flammability; High [ 4]; Medium [ 2]; Low [ 0]Flammability; 0, 1,2, 3, 4High [GHS cat 1 - flammable gases; GHS cat 1 - flammable aerosols; GHS cat 1 or 2 flammable liquids]; Medium [GHS cat 2 flammable gases; GHS cat 2 flammable aerosols; GHS cat 3 or 4 flammable liquid]; Low [No basis for concern identified]flash point; High [<10 ]; Medium [25 ]; Low [100 ]Flash point reactivity; High [ 4]; Medium [ 2]; Low [ 0]Reactivity; 0, 1,2, 3, 4 pH; High [1-2; 13-14 ]; Medium [5-6; 8-9]; Low [ 7]pH - corrisivity corrosivity; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ] High pressure system; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ]High pressure High temperature system; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ]High temperature mixture/reaction potential; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ]Mixture/reaction potential odor threshold; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ]Odor volatile organic compound; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ] Affinity for solvents; solvent solubility (mg/l) Affinity for air; Henry's Law Coeff. Affinity for soil; Kd (soil sorption coeff.) Affinity for sediments; Koc (organic carbon partition) Affinity for lipids; Kow (octanol-water partition coefficient) Biodiversity; Endangered species affected Metabolites Degradation products High [GHS cat: unstable explosives or divisions 1.1, 1.2 or 1.3]; Medium [GHS cat Division 1.4, 1.5]; Low [No basis for concern identified]Energy & resource useEnergy & resource useEnergy & resource usenon renewable resource; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ] water use; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ] energy use; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ] Product hazardProduct hazardProduct hazardupstream effects; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ] consumer hazard; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ] disposal hazard; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ] Exposure potentialExposure potentialExposure potentialExposure potential; High [ ]; Medium [ ]; Low [ ]Environmental exposure potential & pathways Worker - Inhalation Worker - Dermal Worker - Ingestion General Population - Inhalation General Population - Dermal General Population - Ingestion Aquatic PerformancePerformancePerformanceCombined with CleanerSolutionsLongevity/Life in Service; Useful life of component/end-product; Shelf/storage life of component/end-product Key standards for component/end-product: safety, flammability, others Key physical characteristics Key performance requirements Key quality/reliability parameters Key performance characteristics for chemicals used in manufacturing processes FinancialFinancialFinancialCombined with CleanerSolutionsInitial purchase price for chemical/alternative Initial purchase cost for end-product/component Availability of chemical/alternative Availability of component/end-product Capital costs Key manufacturing costs for component/end-product Key operating costs during use of end-product Replacement rate Key end-of-product life costs Employee and consumer training costs Regulatory compliance costs Insurance costs Taxes, fees Other key costs Financial evaluation Summary
Each of the three systems evaluated had unique elements not contained in the other two assessment tools. The TURI AA had the most elements but was limited in how it assessed hazards/safety beyond the screening methodology. The P2OASys tool provided a methodology on how to assess each of the criteria although half were based on expert judgment. The Green Screen provided a way to assess each category but only included 25 elements.
Appendix TURI Lab Expert Judgment Guides for P2OASys
Standardized Hazard Score Data Basecharacteristicswhere to find dataLL/MMM/HHAcute human effectsInhalation LC50msds for individual components - if applicable PEL/TLVmsds for individual components - if applicable PEL/TLV (dusts/particles)msds for individual components - if applicable IDLHmsds for individual components - if applicable Respiratory irritationmsds nonenot likely/potentialmay cause/under investigationprobablewill cause/confirmedOral LD50msds for individual components - if applicable dermal irritationmsds nonenot likely/potentialmay cause/under investigationprobablewill cause/confirmedskin absorptionmsds nonenot likely/potentialmay cause/under investigationprobablewill cause/confirmeddermal LD50msds for individual components - if applicable ocular irritationmsds nonenot likely/potentialmay cause/under investigationprobablewill cause/confirmedChronic human effectsReference Dose RfDmsds for individual components - if applicable carcinogenmsds for individual components - if applicableUnclassifiable or Not Likely - 3, 4, D, E Possible - 2B, C Known or Probable - 1, 2A, A, B1, B2mutagenmsds for individual components - if applicablenonenot likely/potentialmay cause/under investigationprobablewill cause/confirmedreproductive effectsmsds for individual components - if applicablenonenot likely/potentialmay cause/under investigationprobablewill cause/confirmedneurotoxicitymsds for individual components - if applicablenonenot likely/potentialmay cause/under investigationprobablewill cause/confirmeddevelopmental effectsmsds for individual components - if applicablenonenot likely/potentialmay cause/under investigationprobablewill cause/confirmedrespir. sensistivity/diseasemsds for individual components - if applicablenonenot likely/potentialmay cause/under investigationprobablewill cause/confirmedother chronic organ effectsmsds for individual components - if applicablenone effects existing conditionsPhysical hazardsheatmay not be applicable to cleaning solvents noise generationmay not be applicable to cleaning solvents usage with ultrasonics could be concern vibrationmay not be applicable to cleaning solvents usage with mechanical equipment could be concern ergonomic hazardfrom TDS depending on application - expert judgmentenclosed equipment low; equipment with manual applications manual - high, abrasive blasting;psychosocial hazardexpert judgmentlow - water basedbiobased - w /safer exposure levels solvent based - high - know potential exposer Aquatic hazardsWater Quality Criteria (HWQC)MSDS or other source aquatic LC50MSDS or other source fish NOAECMSDS or other source plant EC 50MSDS or other source observed ecological effectsexpert judgmentnot harmful to aquatic organisms may cause harm harmfulPersistence/ bioaccumulationpersistence MSDS or pbt profiler BOD half-lifeMSDS or pbt profiler hydrolysis half-lifeMSDS or pbt profiler bioconcentrationMSDS or pbt profiler bioconcentration factor (BCF)MSDS or pbt profiler Atmospheric hazardgreenhouse gasMSDS Not listed -n; if listed-y ozone depletorMSDSNot listed -n; if listed-y acid rain formationMSDSNot listed -n; if listed-y NESHAPMSDSNot listed -n; if listed-y Disposal hazardlandfillexpert judgment; msds; tdsrecyclable/filterable limited use/emulsifierEPCRA reportable quantitymsds incinerationexpert judgmentno hazardous byproducts hazardous decompositionrecyclingexpert judgmentrecyclable/filterable limited use/emulsifierChemical hazardvapor pressuremsds solubility in watermsds specific gravitymsds flammabilitymsds flash pointmsds reactivitymsds pHmsds corrosivitymsdsnon corrosive - mid pH corrosive - high/low pHHigh pressure systemTDSimmersion system high pressure system, media blastingHigh temperature systemTDScold clearing 100-150 F temp>150; vapor degreasingmixture/reaction potentialmsdsno hazardous byproducts hazardous decompositionodor thresholdmsds/tdsno odorpleasant odorcitrus solvent smellsolvent smell (toluene, xylene, hydrocarbon, etc)requires breathing apparatusvolatile organic compoundmsds, lab chem formno VOC to 24 g/l25-4950-99100-300>300Energy & resource usenon renewable resourcemsds, tdsbiobased - low; aqueous - m hydrocarbon/solvents -h; water useexpert judgmentsolvent - low semi-aqueous aqueous highenergy useexpert judgmentcold cleaning manual <100F cleaning; immersion, low pressure spray 100-150 F manual, immersion, low pressure sprayheated cleaning, mechanical, ultrasonictemp > 150; vapor degreasing; ultrasonic; high pressure cleaningProduct hazardupstream effectsexpert judgment; NA consumer hazardexpert judgmentaqueous low, green cleaners, renewable materials solvent - high; biobaseddisposal hazardmsds; expert judgmentrecyclable/filterable, renewable materials hazardous materialsExposure potentialExposure potentialexpert judgment - tds on how product is usedenclosed equipment low; non-hazardous materialsrecommends gloves gogglesequipment with manual applications; requires gloves, goggles requires hood, gloves, goggles, safety clothes
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