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Zadanie 133 Engl

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Министерство образования и науки
Российской Федерации
«Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет
Общестроительный факультет
Кафедра иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ЗАДАНИЕ № 133
для студентов I курса направлений подготовки 270100 – архитектура,
270900 – градостроительство, 270300 – дизайн архитектурной среды,
270200 – реконструкция и реставрация архитектурного наследия
Санкт-Петербург
2013
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UNIT 1
УДК 811.111:378.147(076.6)
Рецензент канд. филол. наук Т. Б. Воеводская (СПбГАСУ)
Английский язык: задание № 133 для студентов I курса направлений подготовки 270100 – архитектура, 270900 – градостроительство, 270300 – дизайн архитектурной среды, 270200 – реконструкция
и реставрация архитектурного наследия / сост.: М. Я. Креер,
А. М. Гореликова; СПбГАСУ. – СПб., 2013. – 63 с.
Задание состоит из нескольких частей. Каждый урок включает тексты, лексические и грамматические упражнения, лексику по данным специальностям.
Тексты для чтения и перевода заимствованы из оригинальной научнотехнической литературы по архитектуре и строительству. Тексты для аудиторного чтения «А» предназначены для развития навыков перевода по специальности. Некоторые слова даются перед текстами «А», чтобы облегчить
ориентирование в материале. Тексты «В» и «С» способствуют развитию
навыков быстрого чтения. Грамматические реалии, встречающиеся в задании, изучаются в упражнениях. В конце задания имеются приложение и словарь терминов.
Exercise 1. Translate the auxiliary words:
since, so, as to, whereas, until, between, for, hence, thus, neither.
Exercise 2. Words to be remembered:
structure – конструкция, строение
delight – восторг
physical structure – реальная конструкция
perceptual structure – конструкция в нашем восприятии
column – колонна
compare – сравнивать
masonry walls – каменные стены
suspend – подвесной, подвешивать
cover – покрывать
arise – возникать
hide – прятать, скрывать
gravity – притяжение
affect – влиять
force – сила
dominate – доминировать
cathedral – собор
lift – подъем
support – опора, поддержка
Exercise 3. Read and translate text A:
Text A. FIRMNESS: HOW DOES THE BUILDING STAND UP?
 Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет,
2013
2
The most apparent part of a building is its structure, or what makes it
stand up. This may be more noticeable nowadays than it once was, since
architects and engineers take delight in making structures do more and more
work with less and less material, seemingly defying gravity. The tension we
may feel when looking at a structure so delicate as to seem in danger of
collapse illustrates the difference between the physical structure, the literal
bones of the building that do the work, and the perceptual structure, or what
we see. They are not the same, for a column may be much larger than
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structurally necessary simply to reassure us that it is indeed big enough for
the job. Such is the case with the thick columns of the Temple of Poseidon at
Paestum, Italy in a comparison between Lever House, New York, by Skidmore,
Owings and Merrill, 1951-55, and the neighboring New York Racquet and
Tennis Club, by the office of McKim, Mead & White, 1916-19, we see the
difference between a wall of glass that hides the structure and a massive
masonry wall. The wall of the Racquet and Tennis Club looks stronger than
it needs to be, and gives us the assurance of structural excess, whereas the
actual physical columns of Lever House are covered by a suspended skin of
green glass, and there is no readily perceptible clue as to what holds the
building up. We know from experience that sheets of glass by themselves
cannot hold up a building of that size, so we must hunt for the actual structure
(the architects force us into a land of game) until we finally see the columns
emerge at the base of the building. This play between what we know to be a
heavy building and its suggested weightlessness is part of the appeal of these
glass-skinned skyscrapers.
We grow up with a good sense of gravity and how it affects objects
around us, for from the first moment we try to move our limbs we experience
the pull of gravity. We develop early a way of understanding objects around
us through empathy, of imagining ourselves inside the object and feeling how
gravity works on it.
The architect played with our different perceptions of solid stone and
transparent glass, knowing that we would sense one building as solid and
“heavy” and the other as “light.” Some architects, in fact, have taken pains
to accentuate the sense of weight.
Part of our perception of architecture has to do with this empathetic
analysis of how forces are handled in buildings. Hence, when we see the
Parthenon in Athens, the careful balance of vertical and horizontal elements,
in which neither dominate, suggests a delicate equilibrium of forces and thus
exemplifies the Greek philosophical ideal. In contrast, Gothic architecture, as
represented by the east end of the cathedral of Beauvais, France, is
characterized by soaring, thin vertical supports, and a multiplicity of vertical
lines.
Exercise 4. Translate the words:
structure, masonry wall, columns, emerge, cover, suspend, glass, temple, defy,
consider, weightlessness, experience, delight, excess, appeal, exemplify.
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Exercise 5. Choose the right translation from A to B:
A: column, emerge, cover, defy, consider, weightlessness, experience, excess,
material, perceptual structure, skin, clue, sheet, base, skyscraper, suggest.
B: опыт, лист, подсказка, считать, невесомость, предлагать, пренебречь,
избыток, небоскреб, воспринимаемая конструкция, основа, оболочка,
возникать, покрывать, колонна, материал.
Exercise 6. Are these meanings correct or incorrect? Correct the
mistakes:
experience – квалификация
struсture – структура
cover – покрывать
temple – храм
delight – красота
masonry wall – каменная стена
emerge – объединять
excess – доступ
denial – соответствие
skyscraper – небоскреб
project (v.,n.) – проект, выступать
Exercise 7. Translate the following word combinations:
take delight, in comparison with, sheets of glass, glass-skinned skyscrapers,
pull of gravity, solid stone, transparent glass, delicate equilibrium, take pains,
suspended skin of green glass.
Exercise 8. Read and translate text B with a dictionary. Write a
summary of the text.
Text B.
It was mentioned, that Architecture is the science of building. A man
who designs buildings and makes the plans for them is called an architect.
First of all, an architect has to think what he wants to build. He must not
forget what it is to be used for. He must not forget the sort of material to be
used in the building. It may be stone, brick, wood or steel and concrete.
We know that Architecture is the art, which makes buildings beautiful
to look at. There were many different styles or kinds of architecture in the
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past. Now they tell us about advanced civilization of ancient countries. One
of the oldest monuments, constructed about 6.000 years ago, are the colossal
pyramids of Egyptian. The pyramids are large triangular buildings which were
placed over the tombs of Egyptian kings. The best known of the pyramids
are a group of three built at Giza south of Cairo. The largest of these is 482
feet high. There are many buildings of different styles today in different
parts of the world, which are much spoken about in our days.
Exercise 9. Translate from English into Russian. Define the syntax
functions of the underlined words.
1. The most apparent part of a building is its structure, or what makes it
stand up.
2. This may be more noticeable nowadays than it once was.
3. Physical structure and perceptual structure are not the same, for a column
may be much larger than structurally necessary simply to reassure us
that it is indeed big enough for the job.
4. There is no readily perceptible clue as to what holds the building up.
5. Part of our perception of architecture has to do with this empathetic
analysis of how forces are handled in buildings.
6. We develop early a way of understanding objects around us through
empathy, of imagining ourselves inside the object and feeling how gravity
works on it.
Exercise 10. Translate the words:
конструкция, колонна, каменные стены, подвешивать, влиять, сила,
собор, опора, поддержка, покрывать.
Exercise 11. Note in the texts of this unit:
a. Comparative and superlative forms
b. Noun groups
c. Modal verbs
d. Participle I, II
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UNIT 2
Exercise 1. Translate the auxiliary words:
whether, either…or, such, so to, as….as, for, one, from, along, while, as,
since.
Exercise 2. Words to be remembered:
pull – тянуть
beam – балка
lintel – перемычка окна или двери, притолока
post – опора
post-and-lintel structure – стоечно-балочная конструкция
durable – прочный
trabeated – с балочным покрытием
polish – полировать
pier – пилястра, колонна
cantilever – консоль
sag – провисать
apply – применять
support – поддерживать
squeeze – сдавливать
compress – сжимать
stretch – растягивать
rest on – опираться на
result in – приводить к чему-либо.
load – нагрузка
Exercise 3. Read and translate text A.
Text A. THE POST AND LINTEL (part I)
The beginning of structure is the wall, whether the wall is made of
stone, brick, glass blocks, or any of a variety of materials. But a room enclosed
with walls has no light or view, so the wall must be opened up. The blocks or
bricks over that opening must be supported against the pull of gravity, and
this is done either by means of a beam (of wood, or of metal after 1750) or an
arch. Such a beam inserted in a wall to support the wall above is called a
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lintel. The wall could also be cut away, so to speak, and replaced with slender
stacks of blocks to form columns, with lintels spanning the spaces between
them. The post and lintel system is as old as human construction in permanent
materials. Archaeological and anthropological evidence suggests that post
and lintel systems of wood or bound papyrus were used long before they
were translated into more durable stone, and in fact humans have been using
posts and beams for several hundred thousand years. Such a system is called
“a trabeated system”, from the Latin “trabes” or beam. One of the most
straightforward examples of post and lintel construction is the Valley Temple
east of the pyramid of Khafre, Giza, Egypt, built between 2570 B.C. and
2500 B.C. Here, finely polished square lintels of red granite rest on square
piers of the same material, contrast in that with the alabaster floor. Extending
the beam over the end of the column, results in a cantilever.
All beams, whether of stone, wood, or any other material, are acted
upon by gravity. Since all materials are flexible to varying degrees - beams
tend to sag of their own weight even more as loads are applied. This means
that the upper part of a beam between two supports is squeezed together and
is compressed along the top surface, while the lower part is stretched and is
said to be in tension. In a cantilever, the situation is exactly reversed, for as
the extended beam sags due to the pull of gravity, the upper part is stretched
(put in tension) and the lower portion experiences compressive stresses.
Exercise 4. Translate the words:
block, beam, support, post, lintel, stacks of blocks, column, part(v., n.), span
(v., n.), suggest, wood, bound papyrus, trabeated system, pier, cantilever, apply,
sag, squeeze, compress, stretch, load.
Exercise 5. Choose the right translation from A to B:
A: crack, deform, rest on, support, cantilever, pier, stone, steel, gravity, polish,
mud.
B: поддерживать, камень, полировать, грязь, опора, консоль,
растрескиваться, деформироваться, сталь, опираться на, притяжение.
Exercise 6. Are these meanings correct or incorrect? Correct the
mistakes:
lintel – стойка
suggest – поддерживать
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column – колонна
wood – железо
steel – стекло
compress – сжимать
stretch – растягивать
squeeze – сжимать
Exercise 7. Translate the following word combinations:
stacks of blocks, trabeated system, compressive strength, tensile strength,
tensile stress, solid concrete, crystalline material, post and lintel system,
result in.
Exercise 8. Read and translate text B with a dictionary. Write a
summary of the text.
Text B.
Engineering is a complex discipline, including a lot of fields. One of
them is an architectural engineering. It is a discipline that deals with the
technological aspects of buildings. They are the properties and behavior of
building materials and their components, foundation design, structural analysis
and design, construction management, and building operation. Besides,
architectural engineering deals with environmental system analysis and design.
Every engineer knows an environmental system, which may account for
45-70% of a building’s cost, includes heating, ventilating and air conditioning,
illumination, building power system, plumbing and piping, storm drainage,
building communications, acoustic, vertical and horizontal transportation, fire
protection, alternate energy sources, heat recovery, and energy conservation.
In addition, it is necessary to help protect everybody from unnecessary risk.
That’s why architectural engineers must know and be familiar with the various
building codes, plumbing, electrical and mechanical codes, and the Life Safety
Code. The latter code is designed to require planning and construction
techniques in buildings which will minimize possible hazards to the occupants.
Exercise 9. Translate from English into Russian. Define the syntax
functions of the underlined words.
1. A room enclosed with walls has no light or view, so the wall must be
opened up.
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
The blocks or bricks over that opening must be supported against the
pull of gravity.
The wall could also be cut away, so to speak, and replaced with slender
stacks of blocks to form columns.
The post and lintel system is as old as human construction in permanent
materials.
In fact humans have been using posts and beams for several hundred
thousand years.
The lower part is stretched and is said to be in tension.
The latter code is designed to require planning and construction
techniques.
Exercise 10. Translate the words:
тянуть, балка, стоечно-балочная конструкция, прочный, пилястра,
консоль, применять, поддерживать, сжимать, нагрузка.
Exercise 11. Note in the texts of this unit:
a. That-forms
b. Noun groups
c. Modal verbs
d. ed-forms
e. ing-forms
UNIT 3
Exercise 1.Translate the auxiliary words:
as, does, these, along, so that, over, as well as.
Exercise 2. Words to be remembered:
fibrous material – волокнистый материал
resist – противостоять
tensile stress –напряжение при растяжении
wrought iron – кованное железо
span(v., n.) – пролет, перекрывать расстояние
tensile strength – прочность при растяжении
crack – растрескиваться
deform – деформировать
force (v., n.) – прикладывать силу, сила
collapse – разрушать
solid – твердый
crystalline – с кристаллической структурой
carry – нести
compressive strength – прочность при сжатии
formwork – опалубка
liquid – жидкий
pour – лить
reinforced concrete – железобетон
hollow out – опустошать
reduce – уменьшать
iron bar – железный брус.
Exercise 3. Read and translate text A.
Text A. THE POST AND LINTEL (part 2)
Wood, being a fibrous material, resists tensile stresses well, as does
wrought iron and modern steel, and beams of these materials can span
significant distances. The tensile forces along the bottom of a beam for along
the top of a cantilever are determined by the length of the span and the load
placed on the beam. It happens so that eventually, given a span and a load
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sufficiently great, the tensile strength of the material will be exceeded. The
beam will crack at the bottom or deform along the top (or both) and will
collapse. Stone and solid concrete, being crystalline materials, have less tensile
strength than fibrous wood, and a wooden beam over a given span can carry
a load that would crack a stone beam carrying the same load. Of course, the
stone beam starts out being far heavier by itself.
The solution, in beams of concrete, which has great compressive strength,
is to place something within the concrete that will take the tensile forces.
This was done by the Romans, as well as in modern times, by placing iron
(and now steel) rods in the formwork into which the liquid concrete is then
poured. The result is reinforced concrete. The steel is placed where the
tensile forces accumulate — on the bottoms of beams and at the top of
cantilevers. The Greeks also faced this problem. The central opening of the
gateway to the Akropolis in Athens, the Propylaia, built 437-32 B.C., had to
accommodate the passage of pairs of sacrificial oxen with their handlers; the
result was a span of 18 feet (5.5 meters), far too great for a solid block of
marble that also had to carry the roof. The solution adopted by the architect,
Mnesikles, was to hollow out the beam to reduce its own weight (it still
weighed eleven tons) and to place iron bars along the top of the beam, tо
carry the weight of the marble blocks above. In this unique instance, the iron
bars are at the top of the beam, not the bottom, where they would be expected.
Even so, over the centuries cracks developed in this lintel beam.
Exercise 4. Translate the words:
wood, beams, span(v., n.), crack, deform, exceed, top, collapse, force, rod,
formwork, opening, roof, reduce, accommodate, accumulate, solution,
determine, opening.
Exercise 5. Choose the right translation from A to B:
A: resist, span, crack, deform, formwork, reduce, pour, bar, rod, fibrous, liquid.
B: пролет, уменьшать, растрескиваться, стержень, брусок, жидкий,
противостоять, деформировать, лить, опалубка, волокнистый.
Exercise 6. Are these meanings correct or incorrect? Correct the
mistakes:
expect – предлагать
develop – развивать
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determine – уменьшать
reduce – определять
solution - решение
crack – перекрывать
span – растрескиваться
formwork – брусок
resist – противостоять
pour – лить
Exercise 7. Translate the following word combinations:
fibrous material, tensile strength, wrought iron, modern steel, tensile stress,
wooden beam, carry a load, compressive strength, iron rod, reinforced concrete,
face the problem, solid block of marble, iron bars.
Exercise 8. Read and translate text B with a dictionary. Write a
summary of the text.
Text B.
With a great number of plants producing precast reinforced concrete
elements in our country and abroad it is a rapid growth of precast concrete
products. Particularly they are wall panels, slabs, beams to serve a multitude
of building needs. This industry has a task to maintain and improve the quality
of the products. A lot of excellent work has already been done to raise the
standards of this industry to their present level.
First of all a well-designed plant must be established in the given area.
A careful appraisal of the potential requirements provides valuable information
for determining the size of the plant which should be built. A number of
economic considerations deserve a particular attention. The following general
aspects should be kept in mind when designing a plant. The plant floor level
should be not 6 inches above the general grade of the yard to assure. In
addition, concrete yard runways should be slightly above the level of the
surrounding yard so that they will remain free of pebbles and other obstructions
that might interfere with the operation of trucks or other equipment. The
yard should slope away from the main building in all directions if possible.
Adequate space should be allowed at sides and in front of machines and
casting beds.
Then, a well-designed plant must have sufficient capacity for the normal
output plus reasonable margin for a possible increase. All raw materials are
13
elevated into overhead storage bins. The materials may move by gravity
from the bins to the mixers and molding machinery without re-elevating.
With such an arrangement the mixers are located on a separate floor level
directly above the molding machinery. In large plants producing precastconcrete elements the molded units are delivered from the molding machinery
to high-pressure steam curing autoclaves for further treatment.
Exercise 9. Translate from English into Russian. Define the syntax
functions of the underlined words.
1. Modern steel, and beams of these materials can span significant distances.
2. Stone and solid concrete have less tensile strength than fibrous wood.
3. This was done by the Romans, as well as in modern times.
4. The central opening of the gateway to the Akropolis in Athens had to
accommodate the passage.
5. The iron bars are at the top of the beam, not the bottom, where they
would be expected.
6. The tensile strength of the material will be exceeded.
7. A wooden beam over a given span can carry a load that would crack a
stone beam carrying the same load.
8. The solution adopted by the architect, Mnesikles, was to hollow out the
beam to reduce its own weight.
9. This was done by the Romans, as well as in modern times, by placing
iron (and now steel) rods in the formwork.
Exercise 10. Translate the words:
противостоять, напряжение при растяжении, пролет, перекрывать
расстояние, прочность при растяжении, растрескиваться, прочность при
сжатии, опалубка, железобетон, уменьшать, железный брус.
Exercise 1.Translate the auxiliary words:
first, second, because of, as, much, during, by, until, unless, would, either.
Exercise 2. Words to be remembered:
masonry wall – каменные стены
arch – арка
wedge-shaped voussoir – клиновидный (клинчатый) кирпич
blocks of stone – слои камня
subject (v. n.) – подвергаться воздействию, предмет
eliminate – устранять
generate – производить
distribute – распределять
wooden framework – деревянный каркас (опалубка)
keystone – замковый камень
lay out – укладывать, раскладывать планировать
increase – увеличивать
structural form – конструкционная форма
restrain – ограничивать
arched bridge – арочный мост
feet of the arch – опоры арки
bedrock – подстилающая порода, скальное основание
bear down – опираться на
Exercise 3. Read and translate text A.
Text A. ARCH
UNIT 4
If we return to the basic masonry wall once again, we find there is an
alternative for spanning an opening — the arch.
Like the lintel the arch can be made up of stone, but the arch has two
great advantages. First, masonry arch is made up of many smaller parts, the
wedge-shaped voussoirs, the critical necessity of finding a large lintel free of
cracks or flaws is eliminated, as are the logistics of handling large blocks of
stone. Second, because of the physics involved, the arch can span much
greater distances than can a stone lintel. The gravitational forces generated
by the wall above the arch are distributed over the arch and converted in the
14
15
Exercise 11. Note in the texts of this unit:
a. Passive Voice
b. Noun groups
c. Modal verbs
d. ed-forms
e. ing-forms
voussoirs to diagonal forces roughly perpendicular to the lower face of each
voussoir. Each voussoir is subjected to compressive forces. One of the
drawbacks of arch construction is that during construction all the voussoirs
must be supported by a wooden framework, the centering, until the uppermost
voussoir, the keystone, is put in place. At that instant the arch becomes selfsupporting and the centering can be removed to be used to build the next arch.
Traditionally, centering was semicircular in form, as this shape was the
easiest to lay out on the job site. Unfortunately the semicircular arch is not a
perfect structural form, for the forces at the base of an arch of this shape are
not going straight down. In almost every- traditional structural form, there
are lateral (sideways) forces in additional to vertical forces (those generated
by gravity and going straight down). This is especially true of the semicircular
arch, and the problem increases in direct proportion to the vertical forces the
arch carries. These lateral forces would cause the base of the arch to spread
unless suitably restrained, as in a large arched bridge in which the feet of the
arch push against the bedrock on either side of a gorge. In an arch that has
no wall bearing down on it there is another problem – the arch’s own weight.
Exercise 4. Translate the words:
stone, part, eliminate, generate, involve, force, voussoir, support, uppermost,
put, semicircular, shape, lateral, cause.
Exercise 5. Choose the right translation from A to B:
A: involve, distribute, keystone, remove, restrain, bedrock, framework,
increase, lay out, advantage.
B: вовлекать, ограничивать, опалубка, увеличивать, преимущество,
подстилающая порода, распределять, прокладывать, удалять, замковый
камень.
Exercise 6. Are these meanings correct or incorrect? Correct the
mistakes:
eliminate – поддерживать
drawback – преимущество
force – сила
voussoir – кирпич
bridge – свод
generate – устранять
support – подвергать воздействию
subject – вовлекать
Exercise 7. Translate the following word combinations:
masonry wall, block of stone, stone lintel, gravitational forces, compressive
force, arch construction, wooden framework, structural form, arched bridge,
job site, bear down.
Exercise 8. Read and translate text B with a dictionary. Write a
summary of the text.
Text B.
The science of building is Architecture. Any engineer can’t take a form
of the building without consideration of structural principles, materials, social
and economic requirements. So, a building cannot be considered as a work
of architecture. From the very beginning architecture of many skills, systems
and theories have been used for the construction of the buildings that men
have housed in all their essential activities. The coexistence of change and
survival is evident in all phases of the human story. This change and repetition
is clearly illustrated in any architectural style. The historical background of
architecture is the value of our cultural heritage. The heritage of the past
cannot be ignored. Such recognition of continuity does not imply repetition or
imitation. It must be expressed in contemporary terminology. Writing on
architecture is almost as old as writing itself. There are a lot of books on the
theory of architecture, on the art of a building and on the aesthetic appearance
of buildings. The oldest book is a work of Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, written in
the first century B.C. Nearly two thousand years ago the Roman architect
Vitruvius set the principles upon which buildings should be designed and aims
to guide the architect. He was the first who listed three basic factors in
architecture — “convenience, strength and beauty”. The sequence of these
three basic aims — “convenience, strength and beauty” — has its own
significance.
Exercise 9. Translate from English into Russian. Define the syntax
functions of the underlined words.
1. The arch can be made up of stone, but it has two great advantages.
2. Masonry arch is made up of many smaller parts.
3. Because of the physics involved, the arch can span much greater distances
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4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
than can a stone lintel.
Each voussoir is subjected to compressive forces.
The arch becomes self-supporting and the centering can be removed to
be used to build the next arch.
These lateral forces would cause the base of the arch to spread unless
suitably restrained.
In an arch that has no wall bearing down on it there is another problem –
the arch’s own weight.
From the very beginning systems and theories have been used for the
construction of the buildings that men have housed in all their essential
activities.
Exercise 10. Translate the words:
ограничивать, устранять, укладывать, производить, распределять, арка,
замковый камень, увеличивать, подвергаться воздействию,
подстилающая порода.
Exercise 11. Note in the texts of this unit:
a. Comparative and superlative forms
b. Noun groups
c. Modal Verbs
d. ed-forms
e. ing-forms
f. That-functions
UNIT 5
Exercise 1.Translate the auxiliary words:
one, ones, that, in the case of, such, since, along, by, so that, thus, as.
Exercise 2. Words to be remembered:
arcuated structure – аркообразное (дугообразное) сооружение
flat plane – плоскость
vault – свод
tunnel (barrel) vault – цилиндрический свод
solid – жесткий
buttress – подпорка, опора
intersect – пересекать
groin vault – крестовый свод
lunette – люнет (арочный проем в стене)
arrangement – расположение
foot of the vault – основание свода
dome – купол
shell – каркас, остов, свод-оболочка
oculus – круглое окно, отверстие в вершине купола
wall of the drum – стена барабана купола
niche – ниша
viscous material – вязкий, клейкий материал
aggregate – заполнитель
lime – известняк
cement (v., n.) – цементировать, цемент
basalt – базальт
pumice – пемза, пористый вулканический материал
foundation ring – кольцо фундамента
binding – связующий
Exercise 3. Read and translate text A.
Text A. VAULTS (part I)
An arcuated structure, the one built up of arches, acts structurally on a
flat plane, but if the arch is imagined pushed through space, the form that
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results is a vault. In the case of a semicircular arch, the resulting vault is
called a tunnel or barrel vault.
Usually such vaults are placed up on walls, but since the solid barrel
vault is heavy, this causes the walls to spread out at the top. These lateral
forces can be resisted by substantial buttresses along the walls or by thickening
the wall. An example of a barrel vault raised to great height is the nave of
Saint-Sernin, Toulouse, France, begun 1080. But, as Saint-Sernin also shows,
solid barrel vaults result in dark interiors. A solution devised earlier by the
Romans was to run additional barrel vaults at right angles to the main vault
so that they intersected, resulting in a groin vault, opened up by wide
semicircular lunettes at each end and along the sides. With this arrangement,
the forces are channeled down along the groins where the vaults intersect
and are concentrated at points at the foot of the vaults.
An arch rotated in three dimensions about its center generates a dome;
a semicircular arch thus makes a hemispherical dome. The dome is a massive
shell of concrete, 4 feet (1.2 meters) thick at the top, where there is the
broad, single opening of the eye, or oculus, 30 feet (9.1 meters) across. The
wall of the drum below, also 21 feet (6.4 meters) thick and supporting the
five thousand tons of the dome, is hollowed out by niches 14 feet (4.3 meters)
deep, so that in fact it functions structurally as sixteen radial buttresses,
connected at their tops by radial barrel vaults.
The weight of the concrete per cubic foot in the Pantheon was varied
by the Roman architects and engineers by means of the materials used to
make up the concrete. Concrete is a thick viscous material mixed of water,
an aggregate of broken rock (caementa in Latin), and a binding material
derived from lime that will cement everything together. In the concrete of the
Pantheon, the rock aggregate was varied from the very densest and heaviest
basalt in the foundation ring, where the greatest weight had to be carried, to
pumice in the part of the dome nearest the oculus, in an effort to reduce the
loads from above.
B: купол, цемент, пересекать, решение, расположение, образовывать,
точка, опора, свод, каркас.
Exercise 6. Are these meanings correct or incorrect? Correct the
mistakes:
aggregate – агрегат
devise – устройство
lime – глина
vary – изменяться
foundation – фундамент
build up – размещать
cause – приводить к ч-л.
connect – распределять
bind – строить
Exercise 7. Translate the following word combinations:
tunnel vault, semicircular arch, result in, groin vault, foot of the vaults,
massive shell, wall of the drum, viscous material, aggregate of broken rock,
binding material.
Exercise 8. Read and translate text B with a dictionary. Write a
summary of the text.
Text B.
Exercise 5. Choose the right translation from A to B:
A: vault, dome, shell, cement, intersect, arrangement, solution, point, generate,
buttress.
One of the ancient human activities is building construction. It began
with a purely functional need for a controlled environment to moderate the
effect of climate. Human shelters were constructed to adapt human beings
to a wide variety of climates and become a global species. But temporary
structures were used only a few days or months. Over time were they evolved
into such a highly refined form as the igloo. After agriculture had emerged,
people began to stay in one place for long periods. That’s why more durable
structures began to appear. The first human shelters were very simple. The
first shelters were dwellings. But later they were used for other functions,
such as food storage and ceremony. Some structures began to have symbolic
as well as functional value, marking the beginning of the distinction between
architecture and building.
Building construction has its own history, which is marked by a number
of trends. Let’s describe some of them. One of these trends is increasing
durability of the material as the first building materials were perishable. We
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21
Exercise 4. Translate the words:
vault, buttress, lunette, shell, dome, aggregate, basalt, oculus, lime, nave,
cement, devise, effort.
mention leaves, branches and animal hides. Later people began to use more
durable natural material such as clay, stone, timber. Finally, synthetic materials
such as brick, concrete, metals, plastics were used in building; another trend
is quest for buildings of greater height and span. It was possible by the
development of stronger building materials and by knowledge of how materials
behave and how to exploit them to greater advantage. The third trend involves
the degree of control exercised over the interior environment of buildings
increasingly precise regulation of air temperature, light and sound levels,
humidity, air speed. All factors that affect human comfort become possible.
A modern trend is change in energy of the construction progress starting
with human muscle power and developing toward the powerful machinery.
Exercise 9. Translate from English into Russian. Define the syntax
functions of the underlined words.
1. An arcuated structure, the one built up of arches, acts structurally on a
flat plane.
2. Lateral forces can be resisted by substantial buttresses along the walls
or by thickening the wall.
3. An example of a barrel vault raised to great height is the nave of SaintSernin, Toulouse, France.
4. A solution devised earlier by the Romans was to run additional barrel
vaults at right angles to the main vault so that they intersected, resulting
in a groin vault.
5. The wall of the drum below, also 21 feet (6.4 meters) thick, supporting
the five thousand tons of the dome, is hollowed out by niches 14 feet
(4.3 meters) deep.
6. The greatest weight had to be carried, to pumice in the part of the dome
nearest the oculus.
7. A solution devised earlier by the Romans was to run additional barrel
vaults resulting in a groin vault.
Exercise 10. Translate the words:
жесткий, опора, расположение, купол, свод-оболочка, заполнитель,
известняк, цемент, связующий, свод.
Exercise 11. Note in the texts of this unit:
a. Noun groups
d. ed-forms
b. Modal Verbs
e. ing-forms
c. Passive Voice
f. s-forms
22
UNIT 6
Exercise 1.Translate the auxiliary words:
for, too, since, wherever, whenever, whatever, as, both…and, once, by, A.D.,
B.C., below, over, just, while, across, from one end to the other.
Exercise 2. Words to be remembered:
sidewalk (pavement – Br.) – тротуар
mortar – строительный раствор
sand – песок
gravel – гравий
mix – смешивать
contain – содержать
occur – происходить
form (v., n..) – формировать, форма
mold – образец
cure – отвердевать
dry – высушивать
curve (v., n.) – искривлять, кривизна
evocative – вызывающий воспоминания
formwork (shuttering) – опалубка
adjacent – смежный, прилегающий
enclose – охватывать
triangle – треугольник
pendentive – парус свода
transition – переход
cut (v., n.) – резать, срез
extend – расширять
Exercise 3. Read and translate text A.
Text A. VAULTS (Part II)
For both the Romans and us, the cement itself is too costly to make
entire buildings, sidewalks, or other constructions from it alone. Even the
mortar used between bricks and stone is stretched by adding sand; and in
making concrete, gravel and sand are mixed in as the aggregate.
23
Since the mid-nineteenth century, iron or steel rods have been placed
in the formwork for modern concrete wherever tensile forces will occur.
Formwork is one of the cost disadvantages of concrete. As first mixed,
concrete is a thick viscous material and must be contained in forms, or molds,
until it has cured and dried; the formwork (called shuttering in England) is
like the centering used for arch construction. In large structures, both in
Roman times and now, this means the construction of substantial and expensive
wooden structures, significant in themselves, which are then destroyed once
the concrete has cured sufficiently for the forms to be removed.
Domes, particularly of the size of the Pantheon in Rome, are powerfully
evocative spaces, but they require circular plans, making it difficult to add
adjacent spaces. This problem became acute by the fourth century A.D., but
the solution devised by Byzantine architects was to place the dome over a
square plan below. What made this possible was the curved triangle-shaped
spherical segment called a pendentive.
Imagine a square over which you wish to place a dome. First cover the
square with a larger hemisphere, which just touches the corners of the square.
Then slice downward along the sides of the square so that looking down on
the cut hemisphere you see a square. Then, just at the top of the semicircles
now forming the sides, slice off the top parallel to the square on the bottom.
The resulting form has a circular shape at the top while at the bottom it is a
square. The four curved segments that remain are the pendentives, making
the transition from the square plan below to the circular plan above. An
excellent example of the use of pendentives is found in the church of Hagia
Sophia (Holy Wisdom), Istanbul, Turkey, 532-37. designed by Isidores of
Miletos and Anthemios of Tralles. As with the Pantheon in Rome, the space
enclosed is huge; here the dome is 107 feet (32.6 meters) across, but with
the extended half-domes below and the barrel-vaulted spaces beyond, the
total clear distance from one end of the church to the other is more than 250
feet (76.2 meters).
Exercise 4. Translate the words:
sidewalks, construction, structure, mortar, gravel, sand, aggregate, shuttering,
enclose, cure, dry, curve, occur.
Exercise 5. Choose the right translation from A to B:
A: significant, sufficient, mix, contain, destroy, devise, place, remain, remove,
touch, aggregate.
24
B: касаться, достаточный, заполнитель, изобретать, удалять, разрушать,
содержать, размещать, смешивать, оставаться, удалять.
Exercise 6. Are these meanings correct or incorrect? Correct the
mistakes:
structure – структура
construction – строение
mortar – бетон
concrete – кирпич
vault – арка
brick – песок
tensile force – сила при растяжении
formwork – форма
result in – воздействовать
result from – являться причиной
Exercise 7. Translate the following word combinations:
mid-nineteenth century, tensile forces, thick viscous material, arch construction,
wooden structures, circular plans, adjacent spaces, square plan, curved
triangle-shaped spherical segment, corners of the square, result from, result
in, excellent example, the space enclosed, the extended half-domes, barrelvaulted spaces, total clear distance.
Exercise 8. Read and translate text B with a dictionary. Write a
summary of the text.
Text B.
The present state of building construction is complex. There is wide
range of products and systems which are aimed primarily at groups of building
types. We know about a great role of the design process for buildings. It
draws upon research establishment that study material properties and
performance, code officials Last ones adopt and enforce safety standards
and design professionals who determine user’s needs and design a building
to meet thou needs. It proves that the design process for buildings is highly
organized. The construction progress is also highly organized. It includes the
manufacturers of building products and systems. On the building site craftsmen
25
assemble themselves. A work of the craftsmen is employed and coordinated
by contractors. There are also consultants who specialize in such aspects as
construction management, quality control and insurance. We must mention
about complexity and measure of mastery of natural forces, which can produce
a widely varied built environment to serve the needs of society. In conclusion,
modern building construction is a significant part of an industrial culture.
Exercise 9. Translate from English into Russian. Define the syntax
functions of the underlined words.
1. The mortar used between bricks and stone is stretched by adding sand.
2. Since the mid-nineteenth century, iron or steel rods have been placed in
the formwork for modern concrete.
3. Concrete must be contained in forms, or molds, until it has cured and
dried.
4.
Wooden structures are then destroyed once the concrete has cured
sufficiently for the forms to be removed.
5. The solution devised by Byzantine architects was to place the dome
over a square plan.
6. As with the Pantheon in Rome, the space enclosed is huge.
7. An excellent example of the use of pendentives is found in the church of
Hagia Sophia.
8. The resulting form has a circular shape at the top while at the bottom it
is a square.
Exercise 10. Translate the words:
тротуар, строительный раствор, песок, гравий, смешивать, содержать,
образец, отвердевать, высушивать, опалубка.
Exercise 11. Note in the texts of this unit:
a. That-forms
b. Noun groups
c. Modal verbs
d. Participle II
e. ing-forms
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UNIT 7
Exercise 1.Translate the auxiliary words:
without, hence, that, despite(in spite of), one, such as, these, those, which,
here, with, beneath, just, feet, meter.
Exercise 2. Words to be remembered:
prove – доказывать, оказываться
truss – ферма
timber – древесина
arrange – размещать
cell – ячейка
by virtue of – благодаря ч-л.
built-in – встроенный
distort – искажать
bend – сгибать
relatively – относительно
roof – крыша
cathedral – собор
rib – ребро
medieval – средневековый
identify – определять
member – часть, элемент
hold – зд. проводить
Exercise 3. Read and translate text A.
Text A. TRUSSES
The Romans also used another structural type that has proved basic to
large constructions in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries – the truss. The
traditional truss was made up of timbers arranged in triangular shapes or cells.
The triangle, by virtue of its built-in geometry, cannot be changed in
shape without distorting or bending one of its sides. Hence, by adding triangle
to triangle, it is possible to construct extended figures that are quite strong
despite being relatively light. Wooden trusses were used in a wide variety of
forms for roof construction in Roman buildings and continued to be used
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during the Middle Ages. One superb example of medieval wooden truss
construction is the hammer-beam truss roof of Westminster Hall, London,
built in 1394-99 by Henry Yevele and Hugh Herland and spanning 68 feet
(20.7 meters); it is the broadest wooden span of medieval times. The great
Gothic cathedrals such as Amiens were covered by such a wooden roof over
the rib vault.
During the nineteenth century, many new forms of trusses were devised,
often identified by the name of the engineer who first used them. The truss,
particularly when built up of steel members, proved capable of great spans,
and hence was used to enclose vast spaces. An example is the Galerie des
Machines, the largest of the buildings in the international exhibition held in
Paris, in which a series of curved arch trusses spanned 377 feet (114.9
meters). Here, as with any arch, there were considerable lateral forces at
the base, but massive buttresses were made unnecessary because the ends
of the arched trusses were connected by steel rods just beneath the floor.
Exercise 4. Translate the words:
prove, identify, truss, timber, roof, rib, span (v., n.), member, cathedral, type,
shape, cell, bend, distort, arrange, form (v., n.).
Exercise 5. Choose the right translation from A to B:
A: arrange, devise, despite (in spite of), triangle, use, construction, span, form,
vault, exhibition.
B: несмотря на, изобретать, треугольник, строительство, форма,
использовать, пролет, свод, размещать, выставка.
Exercise 6. Are these meanings correct or incorrect? Correct the
mistakes:
distort – размещать
bend – соединять
devise – поддерживать
member – главный
cathedral – церковь
cell – ячейка
roof – крыша
from – форма
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capable of smth (doing smth.)
timber – бетон
steel – железо
beam – стержень
Exercise 7. Translate the following word combinations:
structural type, triangular shape, built-in geometry, roof construction, the
Middle Ages, medieval wooden truss construction, hammer-beam truss
roof, rib vault, steel members, curved arch trusses, massive buttresses,
steel rods.
Exercise 8. Read and translate text B with a dictionary. Write a
summary of the text.
Text B.
Many new materials are familiar to us over centuries. We are pretty
well acquainted with the advantages and disadvantages of wood. We know
that glass is transparent, but in some ways it is rather brittle. Glass has the
advantages of cheapness, rigidity and chemical inertness. We are aware that
most metals can stand severe handling, but some of them rust. But such
materials as plastic materials are not found in nature. Some years ago plastics
were little more than laboratory curiosities. Today plastics are conceived in
the laboratory of the chemical plant. But plastic is formed by extrusion or
injection molding under very high pressure. It can be molded into any desired
shape. Organic plastics are divided into two general groups: thermosetting
and thermoplastic. The thermosetting group becomes rigid through a chemical
change that occurs when heat is applied. These plastic cannot be remolded.
The thermoplastic group remains soft at high temperatures and must be cooled
before becoming rigid. This group is not used generally as a structural material.
Plastics are rapidly becoming important construction materials because of its
great variety, strength, durability and lightness. The high strength to weight
ratio of some plastic offers big field in the coming age of space travels and
rockets. Plastics are light. The same benefits of light weight coupled with
good strength and absence of corrosion offer tremendous potential as
alternative to traditional building materials. A given volume of polythene
weighs less than one-eighth of an equal volume of iron and less than half of
the same volume of aluminum. The following of plastics are usually shared
by all plastics lightweight, corrosion resistance, electrical and thermal insulation.
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Exercise 9. Translate from English into Russian. Define the syntax
functions of the underlined words.
1. The Romans also used another structural type.
2. The traditional truss was made up of timbers arranged in triangular shapes
or cells.
3. The triangle cannot be changed in shape.
4. It is possible to construct extended figures that are quite strong.
5. Wooden trusses were used in a wide variety of forms for roof construction
in Roman buildings and continued to be used during the Middle Ages.
6. It is the broadest wooden span of medieval times.
7. During the nineteenth century, many new forms of trusses were devised,
often identified by the name of the engineer who first used them.
8. Wooden trusses were used in a wide variety of forms for roof construction
in Roman buildings and continued to be used during the Middle Ages.
Exercise 10. Translate the words:
ферма, древесина, размещать встроенный, искажать, сгибать, крыша,
ребро, определять, элемент.
Exercise 11. Note in the texts of this unit:
a. Noun groups
b. Modal verbs
c. Participle II
d. ing-forms
UNIT 8
Exercise 1. Translate the auxiliary words:
before, after, since, rather than, as, that, so that, in order to, because of,
because, only, the only, as well as.
Exercise 2. Words to be remembered:
juncture – шов
tube – труба
rotate – вращаться
curve – гнуть, изгибать
handle – переносить, транспортировать
design – проект, проектировать, конструировать
employ – применять
shell – оболочка
edge – край, ребро, грань
stiffen – придавать жесткость
double – двойной
curvature – кривизна, извилина, изгиб
fold (v., n.) – складка, сгиб, сгибать (ся), складывать (ся)
rest on – опираться на
radial – радиальный, веерный
footing ring – опорное кольцо
belt – лента, ремень
wire – проволока
Exercise 3. Read and translate text A.
Text A. SPACE FRAMES AND GEODESIC DOMES
As with the post and lintel or the arch, so the truss can be extended in
three dimensions, forming a new type of structure. The truss extended in
three dimensions becomes a space frame. It can be supported at any of the
junctures of its members permitting large cantilevers, as in McCormick Place,
Chicago, 1970-71 by CT F. Murphy and Associates. Substantial threedimensional trusses, built up of tubes of steel, have a clear span of 342 feet
(104.2 meters) and carry the roof slung on their underside.
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Just as the arch can be rotated to form a dome, so a truss can be
curved in three dimensions to form the “geodesic dome”. Like the truss, this
is built up of small, light, easily handled steel members.
Shells
Another structural type employs shells. Typically constructed of
concrete, shells can be very thick and heavy or extremely thin and light. The
American architect Eero Saarinen was interested in shell forms and used a
portion of a sphere cut to a triangular plan in his Kresge Auditorium at
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
He devised sweeping, reinforced concrete cantilevered shells for the
Trans World Airline Terminal at Idlewild (Kennedy) Airport, New York, 195662. The total covered space is 212 by 291 feet (64.6 by 88.7 meters), with
enormous cantilevers at the ends of 82 feet (24.9 meters). Typically the
edges of such shells are subject to significant internal stresses and deformation
so large beams run along the edges of such shells to stiffen them. The feetshaped piers that support the cantilevered shells are packed with reinforcing
rods to take up the tensile stresses generated by the 82-foot overhangs.
It is possible to build shells with much less material, as a Mexican
architect Felix Candela demonstrated in a number of buildings in the 1950s
and 1960s. A good example is his restaurant at Xochimilco, Mexico, 1958.
The concrete is only about 4 inches (10.2 centimeters) thick. The rigidity of
the structure is a function of its double curvature, for it is curved.
A shell may also be curved or folded in only one direction. A good
example of this is an accordion-fold shell, as in the Minneapolis International
Airport Terminal building, 1962-63 by Cerny Associates. A particularly
interesting use of a folded shell is in the Assembly Hall at the University of
Illinois Urbana, 1961-62, by Harrison and Abramovitz, with the engineers
Ammann and Whitney. This dome consists of a folded plate, 394 feet (120
meters) in diameter, which rests on a series of radial supports reaching upward
from a footing ring at the base. The enormous lateral forces are taken up by
a belt of almost 622 miles (1,000 kilometers) of steel wire wound under tension
around it.
Exercise 4. Translate the words:
arch, post, truss, dimension, structure, span (v., n.), cantilever (v., n.), roof,
tube, dome, curve, rotate, form (v., n.), handle, steel, member, construct,
triangular, reinforce, shell, rigidity, fold, base, stiffen, juncture, belt, double,
edge, rest on, carry.
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Exercise 5. Choose the right translation from A to B:
A: juncture, rotate, belt, rest on, edge, radial, double, design, curve, tube,
enormous, curvature, shell, fold, employ, stiffen.
B: складка, вращаться, лента, проект, труба, край, опираться на, шов,
радиальный, двойной, изгибать, применять, огромный, изгиб, оболочка,
придавать жесткость.
Exercise 6. Are these meanings correct or incorrect? Correct the
mistakes:
wire – проволока
edge – край
rest on – опираться на
design – дизайн
stiffen – армировать
belt – лента
arch – арка
employ – нанимать
fold – сгибать
double – двойной
roof – крыша
span – пролет
shell – раковина
Exercise 7. Translate the following word combinations:
post and lintel construction, footing ring, space frame, considerable distance,
substantial three-dimensional truss, steel tube, easily handled steel member,
shell form, triangular plan, reinforced concrete cantilevered shell, total covered
space, significant internal stress, feet-shaped pier, reinforcing rod, tensile stress,
double curvature, lateral force, steel wire.
Exercise 8. Translate the following words as nouns and verbs:
space, span, design, cantilever, form, concrete, stress, plan, fold, shape, support,
function, use, reach, force, subject, place, mix.
Exercise 9. Translate the sentences paying attention to Participle I.
1. When looking at the structure we may feel the tension.
2. The wall could be cut away and replaced with slender blocks to form
columns with lintels spanning the spaces between them.
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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Wood being a fibrous material can span significant distances.
Stone being crystalline material has less tensile strength than fibrous
wood.
A wooden beam can carry a load that would crack a stone beam carrying
the same load.
We are constructing this modern house now.
There are a great number of plants producing precast reinforced concrete
elements.
Concrete yard runways should be above the level of the surrounding
yard.
It was a large plant producing precast concrete elements.
The forces at the base of an arch of this shape are not going straight
down.
Additional barrel vaults intersected resulting in a groin vault.
Eero Saarinen devised sweeping reinforced concrete cantilevered shells.
A space frame can be supported at any of the junctures of its members
permitting large cantilevers.
This dome consists of a folded plate which rests on a series of radial
supports reaching upward from a footing ring at the base.
Examining samples of the earth from various depths the engineer can
forecast the probable shifts in the earth.
Exercise 10. Read and translate text B with a dictionary. Write a
summary of the text.
Text B.
sank into the ground, the earth beneath was compressed until it became
dense enough to prevent further movement.
That’s why a foundation engineer has a lot of work. But in a tall modern
structure the load may be very heavy indeed. In this way the foundation
engineer has an extremely important job to do. He must have understanding
of soil mechanics, which entails a scientific study of the ground to see what
load it can be without dangerous movement. The engineer must collect
undisturbed samples of earth from various depths. By examining this, the
engineer can forecast the probable shifts in the earth during and after building,
according to the sort of the foundation he designs. Thus he comes to the
most important decision of all in the building’s construction. He decides whether
the earth is a type that can best support each column on a separate solid
block, or whether he must aim at lightness.
Exercise 11. Translate the words:
шов, транспортировать, опираться на, проект, пролет, труба, изгиб, грань,
опорное кольцо, применять.
Exercise 12. Note in text B:
a.
s- endings
b.
That-functions
c.
Modal verbs
We have mentioned some problems connected with building. One of
them is a foundation. Architects and engineers are aware of the problems
involved in laying building’s foundations. They do not always realize to what
extent the earth can be pressed down by the weight of a building. Too little
allowance has sometimes been made for the possibility of a heavy structure’s
sinking unevenly. There are a lot of examples of foundations1 problems. One
of them is the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Why did the Leaning Tower of Pisa
lean? The answer is that its foundations were not soundly laid. Though the
Leaning Tower is 14 feet out of the perpendicular, it has never toppled. But
there is a way out. As the building began to lean over, the builders altered the
design of the upper storeys to balance it. At the same time as one side of it
34
35
UNIT 9
Exercise 1. Read the following:
6/7; 365 B.C.; 816 A.D.; 1/3; 1/5; 1/2; 8/9; 0.75; 2.426; 0.6; 0.25; 3.756;
0.5; 0.25.
Exercise 2. Words to be remembered:
suspension bridge – подвесной мост
iron – железо
chain – цепь
tension – растяжение
bottom – дно, нижняя часть
freeze – замораживать
derive – заимствовать
at the turn of the century – в начале века
to be interested in – интересоваться чем-либо (кем-либо)
parabolic – параболический
rink – спортивное сооружение, каток
deck – настил
lightweight structure – легкая конструкция
dead weight – собственный вес
live weight – рабочий (временный) вес
flutter (v., n.) – вибрация, вибрировать
Exercise 3. Read and translate text A.
Text A. SUSPENSION STRUCTURES (I)
Technologically primitive societies use lines and ropes for suspension
bridges. Beginning in the early nineteen century, suspension bridges began to
be built of iron chains, and then bundled steel wire cables. The classic example
of the modern suspension bridge is the Brooklyn Bridge, begun by John
Augustus Roebling in 1867 and finished by his son, George Washington
Roebling in 1883. In this bridge steel wire was used in the cables for the first
time. It has remained the model for suspension bridges since its construction.
Only since 1955 has the principle of cables in tension been used
extensively for buildings. A tension structure is especially efficient, since the
entire cable is in tension, whereas most other structural forms have mixed
36
stresses (as in a simple beam which is in compression along the top and in
tension along the bottom). A suspended cable is an ideal structural form, for
it is entirely in tension. In fact, if it were possible to freeze that form and
invert it, the result would be a parabolic arch virtually entirely in compression.
Such arches and vault forms derived from them, were used by the Spanish
architect Antoni Gaudi last century in Barcelona, Spain.
Eero Saarinen also used suspension in a number of buildings. Saarinen
put up a reinforced concrete parabolic arch the length of the rink, suspending
cables from that arch down to curved walls on either side of the rink. A
wooden roof deck was then laid on the cables, Saarinen enlarged on this idea
in his Dulles Airport Terminal, outside Washington, D.C., 1958-62. Here two
rows were created of outward-leaning columns, curving over at the top to
carry beams running the length of the terminal. Between these two parallel
beams, cables were suspended. Concrete slabs were placed on the cables to
create the roof deck. This may not seem a lightweight structure, but the dead
weight of the roof deck was necessary to keep the roof from fluttering in the
wind.
Exercise 4. Translate the words:
deck, iron, bottom, parabolic, rope, chain, cable, model, tension, compression,
vault, rink, column, top, length, beam, suspend, slab, row, wall, freeze, entirely,
invert, result, side, carry, remain, construction.
Exercise 5. Choose the right translation from A to B:
A: iron, steel, deck, vault, derive, tension, chain, compression, cable, rope,
top, bottom, length, side, row, beam, suspend, slab, weight.
B: длина, железо, ряд, подвешивать, плита, вес, сталь, свод, цепь, настил,
заимствовать, растяжение, сжатие, трос, балка, кабель, нижняя часть,
верхняя часть, сторона.
Exercise 6. Are these meanings correct or incorrect? Correct the
mistakes:
flutter – вибрация
dead weight – мертвый вес
top – верхняя часть
deck – палуба
bottom – нижняя часть
37
live weight – временный вес
chain – цепь
tension – сжатие
parabolic – параболический
cable – кабель
derive – заимствовать
freeze – замораживать
wire – трос
arch – арка
12.
13.
14.
15.
Exercise 7. Translate the following word combinations:
dead weight, live weight, modern suspension bridge, steel wire cable,
suspended cable, ideal structural form, reinforced concrete, parabolic arch,
wooden roof deck, concrete slab, lightweight structure, mixed stresses.
Exercise 8. Guess the meaning of the following words:
steel, cable, model, efficient, result, arch, idea, terminal, parallel, parabolic,
form, classic, primitive, column, principle, vertical, dilemma, crane, architect,
central, material, diameter, section.
Exercise 9. Translate the sentences paying attention to Participle II.
1. We have mentioned about some problems connected with building.
2. Architects and engineers must be aware of the problems involved in
laying foundations.
3. The engineer must collect undisturbed samples.
4. Other structural forms have mixed stresses.
5. Such vault forms derived from these structures were used by Antoni
Gaudi last century.
6. These are solid shafts made by driving reinforced concrete deep into
the ground.
7. Each pile may serve as a column with its foot driven into solid earth.
8. The truss extended in three dimensions becomes a space frame.
9. Substantial three-dimensional trusses built up of tubes of steel have a
clear span of 342 ft.
10. The “geodesic dome” is built up of small light easily handled steel
members.
11. Typically constructed of concrete shells can be very thick and heavy
or extremely thin and light.
38
An interesting use of a folded shell is the Assembly hall at the University
of Illinois Urbana.
These lateral forces are taken up by a belt of steel wire wound under
tension around it.
These houses had roofs pitched inward towards the central open court.
Roman theatres derived from Greek models were the scene for the
Greek plays.
Exercise 10. Read and translate text B with a dictionary. Make a
plan.
Text B.
It is important for the foundation engineer to know about different types
of the ground. If it is a firm ground at great depth, the foundation engineer may
use piles. These are solid shafts made either by driving reinforced, concrete
deep into the ground, or by boring holes in the earth and pouring in the concrete.
Each pile supports its load in one, or two ways. It may serve as a column with
its foot driven into solid earth. At the same time it may stand firm because
friction along its sides “grips”* the column and prevents it from sinking.
But it may be a question of building’s floating. In this way the foundations
take the form of a vast, hollow concrete box. This box is divided into chambers.
These ones will be house heating and ventilating plants as well as provide
garage and storage space for the building.
The situations may be different. There are no problems at all or few of
them. It can be if the earth is stable. Buildings stand on hard rock like granite
or ironstone. It is the best time for those foundation engineers whose buildings
stand on the foundations possessing few problems.
*grip – схватывать, крепко держать
Exercise 11. Translate the words:
подвесной мост, железо, растяжение, собственный вес, рабочий вес,
настил, цепь, каток, параболический, арка.
Exercise 12. Note in the texts of this unit:
a.
it-functions
d.
b.
House – verb or noun
e.
c.
Noun-groups
f.
39
Modal verbs
Subjunctive mood
s-endings
UNIT 10
Exercise 1. Translate the following:
as soon as, according to, as…as, any, from, if, a number of, some, unless,
with, without, the…the, than, then, the same, these, instead of.
Exercise 2. Words to be remembered:
van – фургон
deliver – доставлять
grid – решетка
attach – прикреплять
tower – башня, башнеподобная конструкция
mast – мачта
technique – технология
central core – центральный ствол (со стояками инженерных сетей)
invent – изобретать
counteract – противодействовать
Exercise 3. Read and translate text A.
Text A. SUSPENSION STRUCTURES (II)
This is the Federal Reserve Bank in Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1971-73,
by Gunnar Birkerts. The written requirements for this building stipulated*
that there would be a large area below the paving at ground level; within this
covered area, free of supporting columns vans could deliver and pick up
shipments**. This meant there could be no supporting columns coming down
from any structure above, and Birkerts’s solution to this dilemma was to
carry the entire building on cables suspended from the tops of two towers
much like a suspension bridge. The outer walls are rigid grids attached to the
cables and all floor beams are fastened to these cable-supported wall grids
all floor and wall loads are carried by the cables back up to the tops of the
towers. With the towers being pulled in and down in this way, the tops would
be drawn together. Spanning the top of the building there is a truss serving to
keep the towers apart. Birkerts also provided for the construction of two
arches atop*** the towers from which additional floors could be hung when
it proved necessary to enlarge the building vertically. The outward lateral
40
forces created by the arch carrying the added floors will counteract some of
the inward lateral forces created by the lower floors hanging from the cables.
Buildings can also be suspended by cables from a single mast support
and most buildings are built nowadays using such a suspension device in the
cranes that lift materials. These have cables or steel rods from a central
mast supporting the end of the boom of the crane. A striking example of this
technique as the principal structure of a building is the West coast Transmission
Building, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 1968-69, by Rhone and Iredale,
architects, with Bogue and Babicki, engineers. In this building the floors are
suspended by cables coming out from the central core that rises above the
topmost floor.
* – stipulate – ставить условием
** – shipments – погрузка, груз
*** – atop – наверху
Exercise 4. Translate the words:
van, technique, tower, mast, grid, deliver, area, floor, attach, fasten, proof,
lateral, add, rod, boom, crane, lift, enlarge, outer, load, create, rigid, truss,
device, single, material, pull, example.
Exercise 5. Choose the right translation from column A to column B:
A: grid, technique, attach, central core, van, boom, device, floor, cable, support,
lateral, truss, load, area, pave, structure, solution, deliver, pull.
B: решетка, решение, прикреплять, доставлять, технология, центральный
ствол со стояками инженерных сетей, устройство, фургон, стрела,
перекрытие, опора, нагрузка, кабель, боковой, конструкция, ферма, зона,
мостить, тянуть.
Exercise 6. Are these meanings correct or incorrect? Correct the
mistakes:
mast – мачта
level – этаж
area – зона
van – ванна
structure – конструкция
grid – сеть
tower – башня
truss – трест
41
Exercise 10. Read and translate text B with a dictionary. Try to retell
this text.
Text B. WALLS
lateral – боковой
boom – кран
device – устройство
attach – прикреплять
beam – луч
mast – должен
Exercise 7. Translate the following word combinations:
ground level, entire building, outer wall, rigid grid, floor beam, cable-supported
wall grid, floor load, wall load, outward, lateral force, lower floor, single mast
support, suspension device, steel rod, central mast, crane boom, central core,
topmost floor.
Exercise 8. Underline the word which is unnecessary:
steel, iron, wood, cement, concrete, floor.
floor, wall, ceiling, partition, load.
column, truss, beam, girder, van.
Exercise 9. Translate the sentences paying attention to Gerund.
1. The dead weight of the roof deck kept the roof from fluttering in the
wind.
2. Glazing is done on site.
3. This column fulfills the function of resisting.
4. The exterior walls are necessary for carrying the loads.
5. The concrete floor units are capable of carrying a load of up to 5 kN/ sq m.
6. These panels are installed for lining the walls.
7. The panels are capable of being removed.
8. The internal sills are cavity for heating services.
9. Engineers are aware of the problems involved in laying building’s
foundations.
10. Too little allowance is made for possibility of a heavy structure’s sinking
unevenly.
11. By examining the sample the engineer can know the shifts in the earth
during and after building.
12. These are solid shafts made either by driving reinforced concrete into
the ground or by boring holes in the earth and pouring in the concrete.
13. It may be a question of a building’s floating.
14. Friction prevents a foundation from sinking.
42
A very important part of any structure is a wall. Walls may be constructed
in different forms. The walls include windows and doors, heads and sills,
stanchion* casings and inner lining panels. The doors and windows provide
for controlled passage of environmental factors and people through the wall
line. The aluminum heads, sills and windows are fixed from inside the building.
After this, the 900 mm and 1.800 mm wide exterior doors are installed. These
doors are aluminum framed and pre-glazed or hardwood framed and glazing
is done on site. All walls are also designed to provide resistance to passage
of fire for some defined period of time, such as a one-hour wall. The function
of resisting fire fulfills stanchions. The stanchions are enclosed in casings.
That’s why any engineer must know all methods of constructing walls
for buildings. Of cause walls are made of various materials to serve several
functions. The wails are divided into interior and exterior walls. The exterior
walls protect the building interior from external environmental effects such
as heat and cold, sunlight, ultraviolet radiation, rain, sound, while containing
desirable interior environmental conditions. The exterior walls arc made up
of brick cladding, wall planks. The wall planks are designed to be weatherproof
and to support the outer cladding. The wall planks and floor units are fixed
only while the steel frame is being erected. The concrete floor units are
capable of carrying a load of up to 5 kN/ sq m**. Finally, the internal’ sills and
lining panels are installed. The lining panels are capable of being removed to
give access to the services. The lining panels and the internal sills are cavity
for heating and electrical services.
* – stanchion – опора, стойка, колонна
** – kN/sq m – кН/кв. м
Exercise 11. Translate the words:
решетка, мачта, центральный ствол со стояками инженерных сетей,
башнеподобная конструкция, прикреплять, верхняя часть, доставлять,
уровень, зона, кабель, стрела (крана).
Exercise 12. Note in the texts of this unit:
a.
Passive Voice
c.
b.
Noun-groups
d.
43
Modal verbs
ed-forms
UNIT 11
Exercise 1. Translate the following:
either…or…, both…and…, most, with, the same, by, nearly, within, for,
due to, compared to, following, but, by, about, provided, in case, a series of,
until.
Exercise 2. Words to be remembered:
agora – агора
production – производство
pottery – (керамическое) гончарное изделие
metalwork – металлическая конструкция
pitched roof – покатая крыша
pitch (v., n.) – устанавливать, уклон ската крыши
unit – единица, секция
internal – внутренний
chamber – камера, помещение, комната
line (v.) – облицовывать
exedra – экседра, гостиная, зал, ротонда
stoa – портик, стоа (крытая колоннада)
Exercise 3. Read and translate text A.
Text A. DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE
Since most civic and commercial business was transacted in the open
air in the agora, the private houses of the Greeks generally were small until
the fourth century B.C., when Greek culture entered a new phase called
Hellenistic. Artisans’* houses discovered west of the Athenian acropolis show
how the plans were adapted to the irregular street pattern. In such artisans
homes there might be a room set aside for the production of pottery or
metalwork. Aside from this the house consisted of a small court open to the
sky, with a series of rooms opening on to it. Of one storey, these houses
usually had roofs pitched inward toward the central open court In Priene
because of the regular blocks, the houses were rectangles. Typically these
had an exedra to the south of a central court, sheltered from the sun and
winds, and a megaron** or «oikos», the major public room.
44
PUBLIC BUILDINGS (I)
Compared to the number, types, and size of Roman public buildings,
Greek public buildings were more limited. Perhaps most important in function
were the stoas that lined and defined the agoras. Long rectangular buildings
and open on one side to face the agora, these often had an internal row of
columns down the middle to support the roof or the upper floor, and small
chambers in a row along the back for storekeepers and offices. Following
the Classical period, stoas became quite long, as illustrated by the 117-foot
(35.7 meters) stoa given to Athens by King Attalos of Pergamum and built
c.150 B.C. on the east side of the agora. Various covered halls were built to
accommodate small groups of people. The bouletarion*** was one type,
designed to house the council, of the polis. The bouletarion of Athens, on the
west side of the agora, was larger than most, but the small bouletarion at
Priene, built about 200 B.C., survives in better condition. Measuring nearly
60 by 66 feet (18.5 by 20 meters), it had tiers of benches on three sides,
providing seating for about seven hundred people, and could probably have
housed nearly all the voting citizens of Priene whose total population must
have been about four thousand. Around the topmost seats were fourteen
supports, reducing the span required of the wooden truss roof to roughly
47% feet (14.5 meters), a considerable span at that time.
* artisan – ремесленник, кустарь
** megaron – греческий дом прямоугольного плана с очагом
посередине
*** bouletarion – булевтерион (Дом Совета, здание Сената)
Exercise 4. Translate the words:
chamber, metalwork, production, pottery, unit, rectangle, adapt, line (v., n.),
production, type, size, define, agora, upper, house (v), polis, accommodate,
survive, reduce, roughly, span, truss.
Exercise 5. Choose the right translation from A to B:
A: line (v), chamber, unit, production, agora, type, internal, external, upper,
metalwork, pottery, rectangular, provide, function, row, size, column, consist
of, pattern.
B: образец, единица (секция), тип, колонна, ряд, облицовывать, комната,
производство, размер, функция, состоять из, верхний,
металлоконструкция, агора, гончарное изделие, обеспечивать,
прямоугольный, внешний, внутренний.
45
Exercise 6. Are these meanings correct or incorrect? Correct the
mistakes:
metalwork – работа с металлом
type – тип
condition – условие
chamber – палата
pattern – партнер
unit – единица
agora – агора
pitch – конек крыши
pottery – гончарное изделие
roof – крыша
house – вмещать
production – продукт
side – сторона
size – размер
Exercise 7. Translate the following word combinations:
private house, irregular street pattern, central open court, pitched roof, internal
column row, upper floor, topmost seats, wooden truss roof, considerable span,
public building, pottery production, unit type, single unit, domestic architecture,
rectangular structure, city plan.
Exercise 8. Translate the following words as nouns and verbs:
house, span, line, design, pitch, limit, support, face, concrete, plan, feature,
cover, project, work, order, level, measure, range, rate.
Exercise 9. Translate the sentences paying attention to Infinitive.
1. Large beams run along the edges of such shells to stiffen them.
2. It is possible to build shells with much less material.
3. Concrete was placed on the cables to create the roof deck.
4. The solution was to carry the entire building on cables suspended from
the tops of two towers.
5. There is a truss to keep the towers apart.
6. Walls are made of various materials to serve several functions.
7. An engineer has a lot of work to be done.
8. The walls are designed to support the outer cladding.
9. The lining panels can be removed to give access to the services.
46
10. Covered halls were built to accommodate small groups of people.
11. These feet-shaped piers are packed with reinforcing rods to take up the
tensile stresses.
12. The earth became dense enough to prevent movement.
13. It is important for an engineer to know about different types of the
ground.
14. In the 19-th century suspension bridges began to be built of iron chains.
Exercise 10. Read and translate text B with a dictionary. Write five
special questions to the text.
Text B. BRICKWORK
We have mentioned about some methods of constructing walls for
buildings. All walls are made of different materials. For example, walls are
made of brick. The brick walls are laid up with a space between separate
vertical parallel walls and connected with occasional cross bricks or metal
ties. This method provides «cavity walls».
In areas of possible earthquake damage the «cavity» in brick work and
the open cells in concrete units is reinforced with standard reinforcing rods
and fully grouted with a soupy mixture of concrete. Normal spacing for vertical
reinforcement is 4 at 24" with 4 at 48" horizontal fully, encased in grout up to
10" high. Reinforcement requirements should be shown on the drawings for
other situations.
But it is a special part of building called masonry. Masonry is installed
with cement mortar at bed and end joints, usually 3/8" or 1/2" thick. The
masonry includes a stone or brick work and concrete units. The concrete
units are laid in a similar manner, but obviously there is no open space between
inner and outer shells. Each unit has an open core. The concrete units are
used primarily as foundations, exterior or fire-separation walls. The brick
and concrete units are manufactured in standard sizes.
Exercise 11. Read and translate text С without a dictionary.
Text C. THE GREEK POLIS
The most important political contribution of Greek civilization was the
invention of democracy in Athens. As with other Greek words, we have no
proper equivalent to polis except to render it as “city-state,” which says both
47
too much and not enough. The polis was a community of families related by
common ancestors a person did not move into or join a city — one was born
a member. Those who travelled and lived in cities other than those where
they were born were considered resident aliens.
The polis encompassed the farms around it for Greeks preferred to live
in the city in close quarters and walk out to their farms, rather than live in
isolated farm villas. The polis encompassed the whole communal life of the
people, political, cultural, moral, and economic.
To say a polis was a city suggests a size that is too large, for Greeks
felt a person ought to be able to cross the entire of the polis on foot in two
days. In the Republic Plato described the ideal polis as having 5,000 citizens,
and Aristotle wrote in Politics that a person should be able to recognize all
the citizens of his polis. Most poleis were roughly this size, although Athens,
Syracuse, and Akragas had populations over 20,000. In 430 B.C. the total
population of the region of Attica including Athens, was roughly 330,000 of
which about 15,000 were resident aliens and about 115,000 were slaves in
domestic service. Of the remaining 200,000, about 35,000 were male citizens
over eighteen and the remainders were women and children.
contribution – вклад
polis – полис
ancestor – предок
resident – житель
alien – чужак
isolate – изолировать
roughly – примерно
row – ряд
erect – возводить
community – населенный пункт, сообщество
Exercise 12. Translate the words:
кирпичная кладка, комната, единица, гончарное изделие, металлическая
конструкция, покатая крыша, внутренний, частный дом, облицовывать,
производство.
Exercise 13. Note in the texts of this unit:
a.
Modal verbs
b.
ing-forms
c.
ed-forms
48
UNIT 12
Exercise 1. Translate the following:
15 in.; 342 ft.; 15sq. ft.; 25 p.s.i.; 4 p.s.f.; 5 yd.; 100 m.p.h.; 120 r.p.m.; 28 lb.
Exercise 2. Words to be remembered:
temple – храм
ramp up – наращивать
tilt – наклонять
stone pier – каменная опора
radiating – радиальный
curved wall – изогнутая стена
fluted – рифленый
semicircular – полукруглый
sacred – священный
dedicate – посвящать, открывать
barrel vault – полуцилиндрический свод
tier – ряд, ярус
Exercise 3. Read and translate text A.
Text A. PUBLIC BUILDINGS
Because of their intensive urban life the Romans developed a range of
varied public building types. The largest of these, meant to accommodate
public amusements, were not covered, but others had large volumes covered
with concrete vaults of various shapes.
Roman theaters, derived from Greek models, were the scene for revivals
of Greek plays as well as the production of newer, Roman works. They were
not located near temples but instead near the business centre of the Roman
city; and since they were not built into the sides of sacred acropolises, Roman
theatres had their seats ramped up on tilted vaults raised on stone piers. The
basic form of the Roman theatre was crystallized in the Theatre of Marcellus,
Rome projected by Augustus himself built under the direction of Marcus
Agrippa and dedicated about 12 B.C. The seats were inclined on a system of
radiating and tilted concrete barrel vaults supported by radiating stone piers,
between which threaded the stairs and ramps leading to the sections of seating.
49
The outer curved wall was opened up by superimposed arcades of travertine*
faced with engaged orders—unfluted Doric at the lower level and Ionic on
the second level (the treatment of the third level is not known, for it was
rebuilt during the Middle Ages). Unlike Greek theatres, Roman theatres were
exactly semicircular, with a half-circle orchestra where Senators were often
seated; the Theatre of Marcellus measured 365 feet (111 meters) in diameter.
In its three tiers of seats, each one pitched more steeply than the one below,
the Theatre of Marcellus could accommodate eleven thousand spectators.
* travertine – известковый туф
Exercise 4. Translate the words:
ramp up, tilt, curve, semicircular, pier, pitch (v., n.), diameter, treatment, stone,
incline, seat, locate, temple, volume, cover (v., n.), high, height, stairs, ramp,
urban, rural, raise, model, works, order (n.).
Exercise 5. Choose the right translation from A to B:
A: ramp, tilt, pier, stone, curve, temple, rural, urban, semicircular, volume,
pitch, treatment, level, typical, exactly, permanent, vault, shape, rebuild, rear.
B: перестраивать, постоянный, форма, типовой, свод, уклон (пандус),
наклонять, городской, сельский, изгибать (-ся), опора, уровень, камень,
точно, храм, полукруглый, объем, уклон (скат) (крыши), обработка,
задний (задняя часть).
Exercise 6. Are these meanings correct or incorrect? Correct the
mistakes:
tilt – наращивать
semicircular – круглый
pier – опора
ramp – скат (крыши)
pitch – пандус
temple – гробница
permanent – временный
vault – свод
lead – вести
concrete – бетон
side – размер
50
urban – городской
raise – поднимать
locate – выдерживать
radiating – радиация
Exercise 7. Translate the following word combinations:
intensive urban life, varied public building type, tilted concrete barrel vault,
Greek model, Roman works, business centre, radiating stone pier, basic form,
outer curved wall, lower level, Middle Ages, half-circle orchestra, rear wall,
pitched roof, business centre, Greek theatre, semicircular seatings.
Exercise 8. Translate and explain:
build – rebuild
develop – redevelop
use – reuse
circular – semicircular
circle – half-circle
impose – superimpose
like (adj.) – unlike
treatment – pretreatment
fluted – unfluted
Exercise 9. Translate the sentences paying attention to Complex
Object and Complex Subject.
1.
This construction proved to enlarge the building vertically.
2.
All walls are considered to provide resistance to passage of fire.
3.
This seems to be a lightweight structure.
4.
This engineer expected the dead weight of the roof deck to keep the
roof from fluttering in the wind.
5.
The outer walls are known to be rigid grids.
6.
We know brick and concrete units to be manufactured in standard
sizes.
7.
The Theatre of Marcellus is claimed to have accommodated eleven
thousand people.
8.
The structure is supposed to be a rectangular block.
9.
The parts of the building seemed to be compressed into one another.
10. The engineers expect the beam to be cracked at the bottom.
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11.
12.
13.
14.
Another structural type proved to be basic to large constructions in the
nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Three dimensional trusses are known to have a clear span of 342 ft.
We consider the truss to enclose vast spaces.
A shell is known to be curved or folded in only one direction.
Exercise 10. Read and translate text B with a dictionary. Write five
special questions to the text.
Text B. MESOPOTAMIA CITIES
The growing of grain meant that, after harvest the surplus of seeds had
to be stored, necessitating the development of clay vessels that resisted
moisture and attack by insects and rodents. Even more important was the
need for some permanent way of recording communal decisions and the
tallies of stored grain. In the broad valley watered by the meandering Tigris
and Euphrates rivers writing was developed. By 6000 B.C. primitive villages
were scattered across the lower Tigris-Euphrates valley and by 3500 B.C.
larger cities were being built. The first of the large cities in Mesopotamia
were near the mouths of the two rivers. Wood was scarce here so the
developing urban architecture consisted of mud brick masses covered with a
protective layer of fired brick laid in a bitumen mortar. What remains of the
period are the great pyramid like mounds, the ziggurats, which served as
artificial mountains on which temples were built. The White Temple at Uruk
with its whitewashed brick walls built between 3500 B.C. and 3100 B.C. is
among the first examples of a ziggurat surmounted by a temple. The ziggurat
of the moon god Nannar in the city of Ur was built of earth and soft brick
with an outer facing of hard-fired brick laid in bitumen rising in a series of
terraces ascended by long straight stairs and surmounted by a temple.
rodent – грызун
meander – извиваться, уклон
Exercise 11. Translate the words:
храм, наклонять, радиальный, изогнутая стена, полукруглый, каменная
опора, желобчатый, опора, наращивать, задняя часть.
Exercise 12. Note in the texts of this unit:
a.
Passive voice
b.
Degrees of comparison (adj., adv.)
c.
Noun-groups
d.
To be-function
e.
One-function
ziggurat – зиггурат (ступенчатая культовая башня в архитектуре
древней Месопотамии)
water (v.) – поливать
facing – облицовка
mortar – раствор
bitumen – битум
scatter – рассеивать
52
53
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ave. – average – средний
cu. ft. – cubic foot – кубический фут
cfm. – cubic foot per minute – куб. фут в минуту
cu. yd. – cubic yard – кубический ярд
ft. – foot – фут
hr. – hour – час
in. – inch – дюйм
lb. – pound – фунт
min. – minute – минута
p.s.i. – pounds per square inch – фунтов на квадратный дюйм
p.s.f. – pounds per square foot – фунтов на кв. фут
sec. – second – секунда
sq. ft. – square foot – квадратный фут
cwt – hundred weight – 50.8 kgr. (England)
r.c. – reinforced concrete
m.p.h. – miles per hour
at 3 ft centres – with the distance (span) of 3 ft between the axes
(centers)
54
СЛОВАРЬ
A
adjacent – смежный, прилегающий
affect – влиять
aggregate – заполнитель
agora – агора
alien – чужак
ancestor – предок
apply – применять
arch – арка
arched bridge – арочный мост
arcuated structure – аркообразное (дугообразное) сооружение
arise – возникать
arrange – размещать
arrangement – расположение
artisan – ремесленник, кустарь
at the turn of the century – в начале века
atop – наверху
attach – прикреплять
B
barrel vault – полуцилиндрический свод
basalt – базальт
beam – балка
bear down – опираться на
bedrock – подстилающая порода, скальное основание
belt – лента, ремень
bend – сгибать
binding – связующий
bitumen – битум
blocks of stone – слои камня
bottom – дно, нижняя часть
bouletarion – булевтерион (Дом Совета, здание Сената)
built-in – встроенный
buttress – подпорка, опора
by virture of – благодаря ч-л.
55
C
cantilever – консоль
carry – нести
cathedral – собор
cell – ячейка
cement (v., n.) – цементировать, цемент
central core – центральный ствол (со стояками инженерных сетей)
chain – цепь
chamber – камера
collapse – разрушать
column – колонна
community – населенный пункт, сообщество
compare - сравнивать
compress – сжимать
compressive strength – прочность при сжатии
contain – содержать
contribution – вклад
counteract – противодействовать
cover – покрывать, покрытие
crack – растрескиваться
crystalline – с кристаллической структурой
cure – отвердевать
curvature – кривизна, извилина, изгиб
curve – гнуть, изгибать
curve (v., n.) – искривлять, кривизна
curved wall – изогнутая стена
cut (v., n.) – резать, срез
D
dead weight – собственный вес
deck – настил
dedicate – посвящать, открывать
deform – деформировать
delight – восторг
deliver – доставлять
derive – заимствовать
design – проект, проектировать, конструировать
distort – искажать
56
distribute – распределять
dome – купол
dominate – доминировать
double – двойной
dry – высушивать
durable – прочный
E
edge – край, ребро, грань
eliminate – устранять
employ – применять
enclose – охватывать
erect – возводить
evocative – вызывающий воспоминания
exedra – экседра, гостиная, зал, ротонда
extend – расширять
F
facing – облицовка
feet of the arch – опоры арки
fibrous material – волокнистый материал
flat plane – плоскость
fluted – рифленый
flutter (v., n.) – вибрация, вибрировать
fold (v., n.) – складка, сгиб, сгибать (ся), складывать (ся)
foot of the vault – основание свода
footing ring – опорное кольцо
force – сила
form (v., n.) – формировать, форма
formwork (shuttering) – опалубка
foundation ring – кольцо фундамента
freeze – замораживать
G
generate – производить
gravel – гравий
gravity – притяжение
grid – решетка
grip – схватывать, крепко держать
groin vault – крестовый свод
57
H
handle – переносить, транспортировать
hide – прятать, скрывать
hold – зд. проводить
hollow out – опустошать
I
identify – определять
increase – увеличивать
internal – внутренний
intersect – пересекать
invent – изобретать
iron – железо
iron bar – железный брус
isolate – изолировать
J
juncture – шов
K
keystone – замковый камень
L
lay out – укладывать, раскладывать, планировать
lift – подъем
lightweight structure – легкая конструкция
lime – известняк
line (v.) – облицовывать
lintel – перемычка окна или двери, притолока
liquid – жидкий
live weight – рабочий (временный) вес
load – нагрузка
lunette – люнет (арочный проем в стене)
M
masonry wall – каменная стена
mast – мачта
meander – извиваться, уклон
medieval – средневековый
megaron – греческий дом прямоугольного плана с очагом посередине
member – часть, элемент
metalwork – металлическая конструкция
58
mix – смешивать
mold – образец
mortar – строительный раствор
niche – ниша
N
O
occur – происходить
oculus – круглое окно, отверстие в вершине купола
P
parabolic – параболический
pendentive – парус свода
perceptual structure – конструкция в нашем восприятии
physical structure – реальная конструкция
pier – пилястра, колонна
pitch (v., n.) – устанавливать, уклон ската крыши
pitched roof – покатая крыша
polis – полис
polish – полировать
post – опора
pottery – (керамическое) гончарное изделие
pour – лить
production – производство
prove – доказывать, оказываться
pull – тянуть
pumice – пемза, пористый вулканический материал
R
radial – радиальный, веерный
radiating – радиальный
ramp up – наращивать
reduce – уменьшать
reinforced concrete – железобетон
relatively – относительно
resident – житель
resist – противостоять
rest on – опираться на
restrain – ограничивать
result in – приводить к ч-л.
59
rib – ребро
rink – спортивное сооружение, каток
rodent – грызун
roof – крыша
rotate – вращаться
roughly – примерно
row – ряд
S
sacred – священный
sag – провисать
sand – песок
scatter – рассеивать
semicircular – полукруглый
shell – каркас, остов, свод-оболочка
shipments – погрузка, груз
sidewalk (pavement – br.) – тротуар
solid – твердый, сплошной
span (v., n.) – пролет, перекрывать расстояние
squeeze – сдавливать
stanchion – опора, стойка, колонна
stiffen – придавать жесткость
stipulate – ставить условием
stoa – портик, стоа(крытая колоннада)
stone pier – каменная опора
stretch – растягивать
structural form – конструкционная форма
structure – конструкция, строение
subject (v., n.) – подвергаться воздействию, предмет
support (v., n.) – опора, поддерживать
suspend – подвешивать
suspension bridge – подвесной мост
T
technique – технология
temple – храм
tensile strength – прочность при растяжении
tensile stress –напряжение при растяжении
tension – растяжение
60
tier – ряд, ярус
tilt – наклонять
timber – древесина
to be interested in – интересоваться чем-либо (кем-либо)
tower – башня, башенноподобная конструкция
trabeated – с балочным покрытием
transition – переход
travertine – известковый туф
triangle – треугольник
truss – ферма
tube – труба
tunnel (barrel) vault – цилиндрический свод
U
unit – единица
V
van – фургон
vault – свод
viscous material – вязкий, клейкий материал
W
wall of the drum – стена барабана купола
water (v.) – поливать
wedge-shaped voussoir – клиновидный (клинчатый) кирпич
wire – проволока
wooden framework – деревянный каркас (опалубка)
wrought iron – кованное железо
Z
ziggurat – зиггурат (ступенчатая культовая башня в архитектуре
древней месопотамии)
61
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
UNIT 1 ..................................................................................................................... 3
UNIT 2 ..................................................................................................................... 7
UNIT 3 ................................................................................................................... 11
UNIT 4 ................................................................................................................... 15
UNIT 5 ................................................................................................................... 19
UNIT 6 ................................................................................................................... 23
UNIT 7 ................................................................................................................... 27
UNIT 8 ................................................................................................................... 31
UNIT 9 ................................................................................................................... 36
UNIT 10 ................................................................................................................. 40
UNIT 11 ................................................................................................................. 44
UNIT 12 ................................................................................................................. 49
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................... 54
СЛОВАРЬ ............................................................................................................. 55
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Задание № 133
для студентов I курса направлений подготовки 270100 – архитектура,
270900 – градостроительство, 270300 – дизайн архитектурной среды,
270200 – реконструкция и реставрация архитектурного наследия
Составители: Креер Михаил Яковлевич
Гореликова Анна Михайловна
Компьютерная верстка И. А. Яблоковой
Подписано к печати 10.01.13. Формат 60×80 1/16. Бум. офсетная.
Усл. печ. л. Тираж 500 экз. Заказ 1. «С» 1.
Санкт-Петербургский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет.
190005, Санкт-Петербург, 2-я Красноармейская ул., д. 4.
Отпечатано на ризографе. 190005, Санкт-Петербург, 2-я Красноармейская ул., д. 5.
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63
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