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Zadanie 131 Engl

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Министерство образования и науки
Российской Федерации
Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет»
Факультет экономики и управления
Кафедра иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ЗАДАНИЕ № 131
для студентов всех специальностeй II курса
факультета безотрывных форм обучения
Санкт-Петербург
2012
1
Урок 1
УДК 378.6:811.111(075.8)
Рецензент д-р филол. наук, доцент Е. И. Варгина (СПбГУ)
Английский язык: 3адание № 131 для студентов всех специальностeй II курса факультета безотрывных форм обучения / сост.:
Т. Б. Воеводская, Л. Я. Лапшина; СПбГАСУ. – СПб., 2012. – 46 с.
Задание предназначено для аудиторного чтения для студентов II курса факультета безотрывных форм обучения всех специальностей для развития навыков технического перевода. В задании использованы тексты, взятые из оригинальной литературы.
Каждый урок включает тексты для устного и письменного перевода, лексические и грамматические упражнения, направленные на развитие навыков
устного и письменного перевода со словарем. В конце задания имеется англорусский словарь, составленный на основе употребляющейся в задании лексики.
 Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет, 2012
2
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст А.
Текст A. Ground Stability
Ground is the term used for the earth’s surface, which varies in composition. There are five groups of ground: rocks; non-cohesive soils; cohesive
soils; peat and organic soils; made-up ground and fill. Rocks include the
hard, rigid, strongly cemented geological deposits such as granite, sandstone
and limestone. Soils include the comparatively soft, loose, geological deposits such as gravel, sand and clay. Unlike rocks, soils, made-up ground and fill
are compacted under the compression of the loads of buildings on foundations. The foundation of a building is designed to transmit loads to the ground
so that any movements of the foundation are limited. Movement of the foundations may be caused by the load of the building on the ground or by the
movements of the ground that are independent of the load applied to the
building.
The applied load of buildings on foundations may cause settlement either
through the compression of soil below foundations or because of shear failure due to overloading. Settlement movements on non-cohesive soils, such
as gravel and sand, take place as the building is erected and this settlement is
described as ‘immediate settlement’. On cohesive soils, such as clay, settlement is a gradual process as water, or water and air, are expelled from pores
in the soil. This settlement, which is described as ‘consolidation settlement’,
may continue for several years after completion of the building.
If the building loads are not properly distributed and foundations not designed and constructed correctly, differential settlement may occur. Differential settlement occurs when different parts of the building settle into the ground
at different rates.
Correctly designed and constructed, the foundations will provide a firm
and durable base, helping to prevent distortion of the structure and damage to
underground services.
Notes:
made-up ground – искусственный грунт
fill – насыпной грунт
immediate settlement – начальная осадка фундамента
3
consolidation settlement – консолидационная осадка
cohesive soils – связный грунт
non-cohesive soils – несвязный грунт
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
surface, ground, soil, rock, granite, sandstone, limestone, gravel, clay, rigid,
durable, soft, loose, transmit, prevent, apply, cause, occur, movement, settlement
Задание 3. Найдите в тексте A причастия II и определите их функции.
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
1. soil
2. granite
3. surface
4. rock
5. fill
6. sandstone
7. limestone
8. clay
9. rigid
10. durable
11. soft
12. loose
13. prevent
14. cause
15. occur
16. settlement
17. transmit
18. apply
19. movement
a. встречаться, иметь место
b. насыпной грунт
c. мягкий
d. глина
e. почва
f. жесткий
g. рыхлый
h. применять, прикладывать
i. вызывать, быть причиной
j. горная порода
k. осаждение, осадка
l. известняк
m. поверхность
n. препятствовать
o. передавать, переносить
p. песчаник
q. движение, перемещение
r. долговечный
s. гранит
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
4
1. There are five groups of
ground:
2. Soils include the comparatively
soft, loose, geological deposits
such as
3. On cohesive soils
4. Ground is the term
5. If the building loads are not
properly distributed
6. The foundation of a building is
designed
a. to transmit loads to the ground.
b. granite, sandstone and
limestone.
c. used for the earth’s surface.
d. gravel, sand and clay.
e. settlement is a gradual process.
f. rocks; non-cohesive soils;
cohesive soils; peat and organic
soils; made-up ground and fill.
g. settlement.
7. Movement of the foundations
may be caused by
8. Rocks include the hard, rigid,
strongly cemented geological
deposits such as
9. Correctly designed and
constructed,
10. The applied load of buildings
on foundations may cause
h. the load of the building on the
ground.
i. may continue for several years
after completion of the building.
j. when different parts of the
building settle into the ground at
different rates.
k. differential settlement may
occur.
l. the foundations will provide a
firm and durable base.
11. Differential settlement occurs
12. Consolidation settlement
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках слова и словосочетания на русском
языке их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на
русский язык.
1. (Грунт) is the term used for the earth’s surface. 2. (Горные породы
включают) the hard, rigid, strongly cemented geological deposits. 3. Soils
include the (сравнительно мягкие, рыхлые) geological deposits such as
gravel, sand and clay. 4. The (приложенная нагрузка) of buildings on foundations may cause settlement. 5. Movement of the foundations (может быть
вызвано) by the load of the building on the ground. 6. Settlement movements (на несвязных грунтах, таких как гравий и песок) take place as the
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building is erected. 7. On cohesive soils, (таких как глина), settlement is a
gradual process. 8. If the building loads are not properly distributed and foundations not designed and constructed correctly, differential settlement (может
иметь место). 9. Correctly designed and constructed, the foundations will
provide a (долговечное основание).
Задание 7. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
Текст B. Dimensional Stability
Stability of the building as a whole will be determined by the independent
movement of different materials and components within the structure over
time.
Moisture movement. Dimensional variation will occur in porous materials
as they take up or lose moisture through evaporation. Seasonal variations in
temperature will occur in temperate climates and affect many building materials.
Thermal movement. All building materials exhibit some amount of thermal movement because of seasonal changes in temperature and day fluctuations. Dimensional variation is usually linear. The extent of movement will
be determined by the temperature range, the coefficient of expansion of the
material, its size and its colour.
Loading. Dimensional variation will occur in materials that are subjected
to load. Deformation under load may be permanent. However, some materials will return to their natural state when the load is removed. Thus live and
wind loads should be considered too.
Урок 2
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст А.
Текст A. Foundations
The primary functional requirements of foundations are strength and stability. The combined dead, imposed and wind loads of the building should be
safely transmitted to the ground without causing movement of the ground.
The foundation should be designed so that the combined loads from the building are spread over an area of the ground capable of sustaining the loads
without undue movement. The pressure on the ground from the foundations
of a new building increases the load on the ground under the foundations of
an adjoining building and so increases the possibility of instability.
The building should also be constructed so that ground movement caused
by swelling, shrinking or freezing of the subsoil will not impair the stability
of any part of the building.
The natural foundation of rock or soil on which a building is constructed
should be capable of supporting the loads of the building without such settlement due to compression of the ground that may fracture connected services
or impair the stability of the structure. For the majority of small buildings the
bearing capacities for rocks and soils will provide an acceptable guide in the
design of foundations. For heavy loads on foundations some depth below the
surface, it may not be sufficient to accept the bearing capacities because of
the uncertain nature of the subsoil. The descriptions of hard clays and soft
clays may not in practice give a sufficiently clear indication of an allowable
bearing pressure to design an economical, safe foundation. Clay soils, when
overloaded, may be subjected to shear failure due to the plastic nature of the
soil. It is necessary to have some indication of the nature of subsoils under a
foundation by soil exploration.
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
foundation, requirement, strength, dead load, imposed load, wind load, transmit, spread, pressure, increase, allowable, shear failure
Задание 3. Найдите в тексте A модальные глаголы.
6
7
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
1. foundation
2. requirement
3. strength
4. dead load
5. imposed load
6. wind load
7. transmit
8. spread
9. pressure
10. increase
11.allowable
12. shear failure
a. постоянная нагрузка
b. допустимый
c. ветровая нагрузка
d. передавать, переносить
e. основание, фундамент
f. увеличиваться
g. прочность, сила
h. приложенная нагрузка
i. требование
j. давление
k. разрушение от сдвига
l. распространять
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The primary functional
a. may not give a clear indication of an
requirements of foundations are allowable bearing pressure to design
an economical, safe foundation.
2. The natural foundation of
b. strength and stability.
rock or soil
3. Clay soils, when overloaded, c. safely transmitted to the ground.
4. The pressure on the ground
d. should be capable of supporting the
from the foundations of a new loads of the building.
building
5. It is necessary to have some e. increases the load on the ground
indication of the nature of
under the foundations of an adjoining
subsoils
building.
6. The combined dead, imposed f. the bearing capacities for rocks and
and wind loads of the building soils will provide an acceptable guide
should be
in the design of foundations.
7. The descriptions of hard clays g. may be subjected to shear failure.
and soft clays
8. For the majority of small
h. under a foundation by soil
buildings
exploration.
8
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках слова и словосочетания на русском
языке их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на
русский язык.
1. (Давление) on the ground from the foundations of a new building increases the load on the ground under the foundations of an adjoining building. 2. The natural (фундамент) of rock or soil should be capable of supporting the loads of the building. 3. The primary functional requirements of foundations are (прочность и устойчивость). 4. For small buildings the (несущие
способности) for rocks and soils will provide an acceptable guide in the
design of foundations. 5. The descriptions of hard clays and soft clays may
not in practice give a clear indication of an (допустимого) bearing pressure.
6. Clay soils, when overloaded, may be subjected to (разрушению от сдвига)
due to the plastic nature of the soil. 7. For heavy loads on foundations some
depth below the surface, it may not be sufficient to accept the bearing capacities because of the uncertain nature of the subsoil. 8. The combined
(постоянные, приложенные и ветровые нагрузки) of the building should
be safely transmitted to the ground without causing movement of the ground.
Задание 7. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
Текст B. Foundation types
Foundations may be classified as:
1) Strip foundations
2) Pad foundations
3) Raft foundations
4) Pile foundations.
Strip foundations consist of a continuous, longitudinal strip of concrete
designed to spread the load from uniformly loaded walls of brick, masonry or
concrete to a sufficient area of subsoil. The spread of the strip depends on
foundation loads and the bearing capacity and shearing strength of the subsoil. The thickness of the foundation depends on the strength of the foundation material.
The foundation to piers of brick, masonry and reinforced concrete and
steel columns is often in the form of a square or rectangular isolated pad of
concrete to spread a concentrated load. The area of this type of foundation
9
depends on the load on the foundation and the bearing and shear strength of
the subsoil. The thickness of the foundation depends on the strength of the
foundation material.
A raft foundation is a continuous slab of concrete. It usually covers an area
equal to or greater than the base of a building. This slab should provide
support for wall and serve as a base for the ground floor. Raft foundations are
used for lightly loaded structures on soil with poor bearing capacity.
The word “pile” is used to describe columns, usually of reinforced concrete, driven into or cast in the ground in order to carry foundation loads. The
main function of a pile is to transmit loads to lower levels of ground.
Урок 3
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст А.
Текст A. Structural Frame
The strength of a structural frame depends on the strength of the material
used in the fabrication of the members of the frame. It also depends on the
stability of the frame. Steel is the material most used in framed structures
because of its good compressive and tensile strength, and good strength to
weight ratio. Concrete has good compressive strength but poor tensile strength
and so it is used as reinforced concrete in structural frames. Concrete also
provides protection against corrosion and damage by fire to steel.
Timber is often used in the fabrication of roof frames because it has adequate tensile and compressive strength to support the comparatively light
loads. Timber is often used instead of steel to form lightweight roof frames
because of its ease of handling and fixing.
Reinforced concrete is highly durable and the surface will need little maintenance.
All load bearing structures should be designed so that they do not fail
during a fire. Elements of the structure that give support or stability to another element of the building must have no less fire resistance than the other
supporting elements. If a roof provides stability and support to columns then
the roof must have at least the same fire resistance as the columns.
Medium- and long-span flat roof structures are less efficient structurally
and therefore less economic than truss, lattice or portal frames. The advantage of a flat roof is that there is little unused roof space to be heated, compared with pitched roofs. The main disadvantage is a deflection of the flat
roof structure under load that leads to ponding of water on the surface of the
roof. The most common form of framed flat roof construction is with lattice
beam or with space frames.
Notes:
space frame – пространственная стержневая конструкция
load bearing structure – несущая конструкция
10
11
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
fabrication, frame, connect, compressive strength, tensile strength, ratio, reinforced concrete, timber, lightweight, handling, maintenance, flat, pitched
roof, lattice beam, due to, at least, same
Задание 3. Найдите в тексте А глаголы в форме пассивного залога.
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
1. fabrication
a. легковесный
2. frame
b. прочность на растяжение
3. compressive strength
c. древесина
4. tensile strength
d. скатная крыша
5. ratio
e. изготовление
6. reinforced concrete
f. подача, транспортирование
7. timber
g. техническое обслуживание
8. lightweight
h. прочность на сжатие
9. handling
i. тот же самый
10. maintenance
j. каркас, рама
11. flat
k. по крайней мере
12. connect
l. соотношение, коэффициент
13. pitched roof
m. вследствие
14. lattice beam
n. железобетон
15. due to
o. плоский
16. at least
p. соединять
17. same
q. решетчатая балка
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Concrete has good compressive
a. to form lightweight roof
strength but
frames because of its ease of
handling and fixing.
2. If a roof provides stability and
b. the strength of the material
support to columns
used in the fabrication of the
members of the frame.
3. Steel is the material
c. poor tensile strength
4. Timber is often used instead of
d. then the roof must have at
steel
least the same fire resistance as
the columns.
5. The strength of a structural
12 e. most used in framed
the columns.
e. most used in framed
structures.
f. highly durable.
g. are less efficient structurally
than truss, lattice or portal
frames.
h. little maintenance.
i. so that they do not fail during
a fire.
j. The most common form of
framed flat roof construction is
k. there is little unused roof
space to be heated, compared
with pitched roofs.
5. The strength of a structural
frame depends on
6. The surface will need
7. The most common form of
framed flat roof construction is
8. Reinforced concrete is
9. The advantage of a flat roof is
that
10. Medium- and long-span flat
roof structures
11. All load bearing structures
should be designed
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках слова и словосочетания на русском
языке их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на
русский язык.
1. The strength of a structural frame depends on the strength of the material used in the (изготовление) of the members of the frame. 2. Steel is the
material most used in (каркасных конструкциях) because of its good
compressive and tensile strength. 3. (Железобетон) is highly durable and the
surface will need little maintenance. 4. Timber is often used in the fabrication
of roof frames because it has adequate (прочность на растяжение и сжатие)
to support the comparatively light loads. 5. If a roof provides stability and
support to columns then the roof must have (по крайней мере ту же самую)
fire resistance as the columns. 6. (Бетон) also provides protection against
corrosion and damage by fire to steel. 7. All (несущие конструкции) should
be designed so that they do not fail during a fire. 9. The advantage of a flat
roof is that there is little unused roof space to be heated, compared with. 10.
The most common form of framed flat roof construction is with (решетчатая
балка) or with space frames.
Задание 7. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
13
Текст B. Flat Roof Construction
The terms ‘beam’ and ‘girder’ are used in a general sense to describe lattice construction. The term ‘beam’ is used to describe small depths associated
with most roof construction and ‘girder’ for deeper depths associated with,
for example, bridge construction. For flat and low pitch roofs it is convenient
to fabricate the top boom to provide a fall for the roof decking. The majority
of lattice beams used for flat and low pitch roofs are fabricated from hollow
round and rectangular steel sections.
Where there is a requirement for a large unobstructed floor area, such as
exhibition areas and sports halls, a space deck roof can be used. A two-layer
space deck comprises a grid of standard prefabricated units, each in the form
of an inverted pyramid. The units are bolted together and connected with tie
bars to form the roof structure.
Space deck roofs may be designed as a two-way spanning structure with a
square grid, or as a one-way spanning structure with a rectangular grid. Economic grid sizes are 12 × 12 m, 18 × 18 m and 12 × 18 m. The main advantages of the space deck roof are:1) the wide spacing of the supporting columns, 2) the economy of the structure in the use of standard units and 3) the
speed of erection. One disadvantage is that the members tend to attract dust
and will require regular cleaning. Regular maintenance is also required to
prevent rust.
Урок 4
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст А.
Текст A. Cement
The cement used today was first developed by Joseph Aspdin, a Leeds
builder, who took out a patent in 1824 for the manufacture of Portland cement. He developed the material for the production of artificial stone and
named it Portland cement because, in its hardened state, it resembled natural
Portland limestone in texture and colour. The materials of Aspdin’s cement
were limestone and clay. These materials were later burned at a high temperature by Isaac Johnson in 1845. A clinker was produced and ground to a fine
powder. This is what we now term Portland cement. A variety of Portland cements
are produced, each with characteristics suited to a particular use.
Ordinary Portland cement is the cheapest and most commonly used cement. It is made by heating limestone and clay to a temperature of about
1300єC to form a clinker, rich in calcium silicates. The clinker is ground to a
fine powder with a small proportion of gypsum, which regulates the rate of
setting when the cement is mixed with water.
Rapid hardening Portland cement is similar to ordinary Portland except
that the cement powder is more finely ground. The effect of the finer grinding
is that the constituents of the cement powder react more quickly with water, and
the cement develops strength more rapidly. Rapid hardening cement develops in
three days a strength which is similar to that developed by ordinary Portland in
seven days. Although rapid hardening is more expensive than ordinary Portland
cement, it is often used because of its early strength advantage.
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
artificial, develop, harden, clinker, fine, grind (ground, ground), suit (v), common, ordinary, constituent, rapid, expensive, cheap, although
Задание 3. Найдите в тексте А прилагательные в сравнительной и
превосходной степени сравнения.
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
14
15
1. artificial
2. harden
3. grind
4. suit
5. clinker
6. develop
7. fine
8. expensive
9. common
10. constituent
11. rapid
12. ordinary
13. cheap
14. although
a. дорогой
b. мелкий
c. искусственный
d. общий, общепринятый
e. составная часть
f. твердеть, затвердевать
g. быстрый
h. молоть, размалывать
i. обычный
j. дешевый
k. удовлетворять, соответствовать
l. хотя
m. развивать, разрабатывать
n. клинкерный кирпич
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The cement used today was
first developed by
2. The materials of Aspdin’s
cement
3. These materials were later
burned at a high temperature by
4. Joseph Aspdin developed the
material
5. This is what we now term
6. The material resembled
natural Portland limestone
7. The clinker is ground to a
fine powder
8. Ordinary Portland cement is
9. Rapid hardening cement
develops in three days
10. Although rapid hardening is
more expensive than ordinary
Portland cement,
11. Rapid hardening Portland
cement is similar
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках слова и словосочетания на русском
языке их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на
русский язык.
1. Joseph Aspdin developed the material for the production of
(искусственного камня) and named it Portland cement. 2. This material in
its (затвердевшем состоянии) resembled natural Portland limestone in texture and colour. 3. A clinker was produced and ground to a (мелкий) powder.
4. Ordinary Portland cement (самый дешевый) and most commonly used
cement. 5. The clinker (перемалывают) to a fine powder with a small proportion of gypsum. 6. (Быстро затвердевающий) Portland cement is similar to
ordinary Portland cement. 7. The (составляющие) of the cement powder react
quickly with water. 8. (Хотя) rapid hardening is (более дорогой) than ordinary
Portland cement, it is often used because of its early strength advantage.
Задание 7. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
a. Portland cement.
b. for the production of artificial
stone.
c. in texture and colour.
d. Joseph Aspdin, a Leeds builder.
e. Isaac Johnson in 1845.
f. it is often used because of its
early strength advantage.
g. are limestone and clay.
h. with a small proportion of
gypsum.
i. to ordinary Portland cement.
j. a strength which is similar to that
developed by ordinary Portland in
seven days.
k. the cheapest and most commonly
used cement.
16
Текст B
Reinforced concrete is one of the primary materials used in engineering
and building works. French engineer Josef Monier got a patent in 1867 for
the process of strengthening concrete by embedding steel in it. Since the
early days of reinforcing concrete with steel to enhance its strength, reinforced concrete has become a common material on construction sites. It is
used extensively for civil engineering works and widely applied in the construction of buildings.
The three materials used in the production of concrete are cement, aggregate, sand and water.
The strength and durability of concrete are affected by the voids in concrete caused by poor grading of aggregate, incomplete compaction or excessive water in the mix.
Note: voids – пустоты
17
Урок 5
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст А.
Текст A. Aggregates
Concrete is a mix of particles of hard material, the aggregate, bound with
a paste of cement and water. At least three quarters of the volume of concrete
are occupied by aggregate. Cement is generally more costly than aggregate
and it is advantageous, therefore, to use as little cement as necessary to produce a dense, durable concrete.
A wet concrete mix is spread in the form of slabs and compacted into a
dense mass. There is a direct relation between the density and strength of
finished concrete and the ease with which concrete can be compacted. The
characteristics of the aggregate play a considerable part in the ease with which
concrete can be compacted. The measure of the ease with which concrete can
be compacted is described as the workability of the mix. Workability is affected by the characteristics of the particles of the aggregate such as size and
shape. So workability can be improved by careful selection of aggregate.
The grading of the size and the shape of the particles of aggregate affects
the amount of cement and water required to produce a mix of concrete. The
more cement and water are needed for workability, the greater the shrinkage
will be as the concrete dries and hardens.
Aggregate for concrete should be hard, durable and contain no materials
which can affect reinforcement. Clay, coal or pyrites in aggregate may soften, decompose and cause stains in concrete. Aggregate should be clean and
free from organic impurities and coating of dust or clay as they can lower the
strength of the concrete.
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
aggregate, concrete, paste, quarter, occupy, bind (bound, bound), volume,
mix, measure, ease, workability, particle, shrinkage, loss, dry, dust
Задание 3. Найдите в тексте А модальные глаголы.
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
18
1. concrete
2. paste
3. dry
4. quarter
5. dust
6. volume
7. mix
8. shrinkage
9. aggregate
10. measure
11. ease
12. occupy
13. particle
14. loss
15. workability
a. потеря
b. пыль
c. усадка
d. бетон
e. удобоукладываемость
f. пластичная смесь
g. легкость, удобство
h. сухой
i. частица
j. четверть
k. мера
l. смесь
m. объем
n. занимать
o. заполнитель
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Aggregate should be clean
2. Aggregate for concrete should
be
3. The more cement and water are
needed for workability,
4. Concrete is a mix of particles of
hard material,
5. Workability can be improved
6. It is advantageous to use as little
cement as necessary
7. Clay, coal or pyrites in aggregate
may soften, decompose
8. At least three quarters of the
volume of concrete
9. The grading of the size and the
shape of the particles of aggregate
affects the amount of cement and
water
19
a. by careful selection of
aggregate.
b. the aggregate.
c. to produce a dense, durable
concrete.
d. decompose and cause stains
in concrete.
e. are occupied by aggregate.
f. hard, durable and contain no
materials which can affect
reinforcement.
g. and free from organic
impurities.
h. water required to produce a
mix of concrete.
i. the greater the shrinkage will
be as the concrete dries and
hardens.
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках слова и словосочетания на русском
языке их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на
русский язык.
1. (Заполнитель) for concrete should be hard, durable and contain no
materials which can affect reinforcement. 2. Concrete is a (смесь) of particles of hard material, the aggregate, bound with a paste of cement and water.
3. At least three quarters of the (объема) of concrete are occupied by aggregate. 4. Workability is affected by the characteristics of the (частиц
заполнителя) such as size and shape. 5. (Удобоукладываемость) can be
improved by careful selection of aggregate. 6. Aggregate should be free from
(пыли или глины) as they can lower the strength of the concrete. 7. It is
advantageous to use as little cement as necessary to produce a dense,
(долговечный бетон). 8. The (мера) of the ease with which concrete can be
compacted is described as the workability of the mix.
Задание 7. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
Текст B. Natural and Artificial Aggregates
Sand and gravel are the cheapest and most commonly used aggregates.
They consist of particles of broken stone deposited by the action of rivers.
Crushed rock aggregates are generally more expensive than sand and gravel,
because of the cost of quarrying and crushing the stone. If the stone is hard,
inert and well graded, it serves as a good aggregate for concrete. Natural
granite is hard and dense and serves as an excellent aggregate. Hard sandstone and limestone, when crushed and graded, are commonly used as aggregate in areas where sand and gravel are not readily available.
Clean broken brick is used as an aggregate for concrete with good fire
resistance. The strength of the concrete produced with this aggregate depends on the strength and density of the bricks from which the aggregate is
produced. Crushed engineering brick aggregate will produce a concrete of
medium crushing strength. Porous brick aggregate should not be used for
reinforced concrete work in exposed positions as the aggregate will absorb
moisture and encourage the corrosion of the reinforcement.
Урок 6
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст А.
Текст A. Functional requirements of a wall
The main functional requirements of a wall are:
1. Strength and stability.
2. Resistance to weather.
3. Durability and freedom from maintenance.
4. Fire safety.
Strength and stability. A wall structure should have adequate strength to
support its own weight between points of support or fixing to the structural
frame, and sufficient stability against lateral wind pressures.
Brick and precast concrete cladding do not suffer the rapid changes of
temperature between day and night. Thin sheet wall materials such as metal
and glass suffer rapid changes in temperature and consequent expansion and
contraction. These may cause damage to fixings or the thin panel material.
Resistance to weather. The traditional walling materials, brick, stone and
block, serve to exclude rain from the inside of buildings by absorbing rainwater that evaporates to outside air during dry periods. Common practice is
to construct a wall as a cavity wall with an outer leaf of masonry as rain
screen, a cavity and an inner leaf that provides adequate thermal resistance to
the passage of heat, and an attractive internal finish.
Durability and freedom from maintenance. The durability of a wall structure is a measure of the frequency and extent of the work necessary to maintain minimum functional requirements and acceptable appearance.
Walls of brick and natural stone will very gradually change colour over
the years. This slow change of colour is generally accepted as one of the
attractive features of these traditional materials. Walls of brick and stone facing require very little maintenance over the expected life of most buildings.
Fire safety. The design of cladding and curtain wall construction must
take into account fire safety. Primary concerns are the internal spread of fire
across the surface materials of walls and ceilings, external fire spread over
the fabric and fire spread within concealed spaces such as cavities.
Note: take into account – принимать во внимание
20
21
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
resistance, durability, maintenance, weight, precast concrete, cladding, facing, finish, damage, change, feature, inside, outside, appearance, requirement,
sufficient
Задание 3. Найдите в тексте А инфинитивы и определите их функции.
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
1. feature
2. maintenance
3. precast concrete
4. cladding
5. inside
6. durability
7. damage
8. weight
9. resistance
10. change
11. outside
12. appearance
13. requirement
14. sufficient
a. появление, внешний вид
b. внутренний
c. долговечность
d. особенность, характерная черта
e. повреждение, ущерб
f. перемена, менять
g. техническое обслуживание
h. облицовка, обшивка
i. внешний
j. требование
k. сборный бетон
l. вес
m. достаточный
n. сопротивление
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. A wall structure should have
adequate strength
2. Walls of brick and natural stone
will
3. Primary concerns are
4. Brick and precast concrete
cladding do not suffer the rapid
changes of temperature
a. must take into account fire
safety.
b. the inside of buildings by
absorbing rainwater.
c. to support its own weight.
d. the internal spread of fire
across the surface materials of
walls and ceilings, external fire
spread over the fabric and fire
spread within concealed spaces
such as cavities.
e. suffer rapid changes in
5. The durability of a wall
22
such as cavities.
e. suffer rapid changes in
temperature.
f. of the frequency and extent of
the work necessary to maintain
minimum functional
requirements and acceptable
appearance
g. fixings or the thin panel
material.
h. very gradually change colour
over the years.
i. between day and night.
5. The durability of a wall
structure is a measure
6. The traditional walling
materials, brick, stone and block,
serve to exclude rain from
7. The design of cladding and
curtain wall construction must
8. Thin sheet wall materials such
as metal and glass
9. These may cause damage to
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках слова и словосочетания на русском
языке их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на
русский язык.
1. Walls of brick and natural stone will very gradually (менять) colour
over the years. 2. Walls of brick and stone facing require very little
(технического обслуживания) over the expected life of most buildings.
3. A wall structure should have adequate strength to support its own (вес)
between points of support or fixing to the structural frame. 4. A wall structure
should have (достаточную) stability against lateral wind pressures. 5. The
design of (облицовки) must take into account fire safety. 6. The main functional (требование) of a wall is strength and stability. 7. (Облицовка из
кирпича и сборного бетона) do not suffer the rapid changes of temperature
between day and night. 8. Rapid changes in temperature may cause
(повреждения) to fixings or the thin panel material.
Задание 7. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
Текст B
The interiors of buildings are heated by the transfer of heat from heaters
and radiators to air. This internal heat is transferred to and through colder
enclosing walls, roof and floors by conduction, convection and radiation to
23
colder outside air. As long as the interior of buildings is heated to a temperature above that of outside air, transfer of heat from heat sources to outside air
will continue.
The natural exchange of outside and inside air is necessary to provide
ventilation of buildings. For comfort there should be a continuous change of
air inside buildings to provide an adequate supply of oxygen, and to limit
humidity, fumes and smells. The necessary movement of air inside sealed
buildings may be induced artificially by mechanical systems of air conditioning. These systems filter, dry and humidify air through a complex of ducting,
connected to one or more air treatment plants.
Урок 7
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст А.
Текст A. Prefabrication and Off-Site Production
Prefabrication is a term used to describe the construction of buildings or
building components at a location, usually a factory, remote from the building site. Off-site production is another term widely used to describe the manufacture of a prefabricated building. The manufactured building or building
parts are then delivered to the site and assembled in their final position. This
method of construction enables a high degree of accuracy and quality control
of the component parts, which are then transported to the site to a precise
timetable and erected in position in a clearly defined sequence. Component
parts as well as joints between them should be accurately designed. Attention
must be given to fixing and positioning tolerances. On a large scale, prefabrication may be a more efficient alternative to more traditional site-based
construction methods. For commercial applications the saving in time on the
site is an important economic consideration. Improvements in accuracy, quality
and safety are other important considerations.
The majority of components that make up buildings are factory produced,
e.g. doors, windows, staircases, sanitary ware etc., and are readily available
from manufacturers’ catalogues of standard products. Construction is essentially a process of assembly, fixing and fitting of manufactured components
in a precise location.
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
prefabrication, remote, off-site, assemble, accuracy, timetable, staircase, quality, improvement, application, enable, site, deliver, as well as
Задание 3. Найдите в тексте А причастия II и определите их функции.
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
24
25
1. off-site
2. component
3. remote
4. improvement
5. prefabrication
6. accuracy
7. staircase
8. timetable
9. assemble
10. deliver
11. as well as
12. site
13. enable
14. application
a. предварительное изготовление
b. расписание, график
c. лестница, лестничный марш
d. доставлять
e. деталь, элемент
f. вне стройплощадки
g. дистанционный
h. применение
i. стройплощадка
j. улучшение, усовершенствование
k. точность
l. собирать
m. давать возможность
n. а также
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Prefabrication is a term
2. Attention must be given to
3. Improvements in accuracy,
quality and safety
4. The manufactured building or
building parts are delivered
5. This method of construction
enables a high degree of accuracy
and quality control of the
component parts,
6. Component parts as well as
joints between them should be
7. Off-site production is another
term widely used
a. to the site and assembled in their
final position.
b. accurately designed.
c. to describe the manufacture of a
prefabricated building.
d. which are then transported to the
site to a precise timetable and
erected in position in a clearly
defined sequence.
e. used to describe the construction
of buildings or building
components at a location remote
from the building site.
f. fixing and positioning tolerances.
g. are important considerations.
26
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках слова и словосочетания на русском
языке их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на
русский язык.
1. The manufactured building or building parts (доставляются) to the site
and assembled in their final position. 2. This method of construction enables
a high degree of (точности) and quality control of the component parts.
3. Component parts are transported to the site to a precise (расписанию) and
erected in position in a clearly defined sequence. 4. (Предварительное
изготовление) is a term used to describe the construction of buildings or
building components at a location, remote from the building site. 5. (Вне
стройплощадки) production is another term widely used to describe the
manufacture of a prefabricated building. 6. Component parts (а также) joints
between them should be accurately designed. 7. (Усовершенствования)
in accuracy, quality and safety are important considerations.
Задание 7. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
Текст B
The early British settlers to America took prefabricated timber houses with
them in the 1620s, and records show that prefabricated buildings of timber
were exported from the UK for use in other countries. With the development
of cast iron, and in particular the development of prefabricated cast iron components in the 1840s and 1850s, came the development of prefabricated iron
buildings. Many houses were shipped to Africa, Australia and the Caribbean.
Steel fabrication was developed in the 1930s in America and the UK, and
aluminum fabrication followed after the Second World War. Concrete panels
were developed during the 1900s and have proved to be popular in some
countries (such as Denmark) but have had more limited application in the
UK. Advances in the development of lightweight concrete panels and material technologies, such as carbon reinforcement, have helped to keep concrete an effective choice for some developers. The majority of systems are
based on a framed construction of timber or lightweight steel. Concrete systems are primarily based on load bearing concrete panels.
27
Урок 8
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст А.
Текст A. Shell Structures
A shell structure is a thin, curved membrane or slab, usually of reinforced
concrete, that functions both as a structure and covering, deriving its strength
and rigidity from the curved shell form. The term “shell” is used to describe
these structures by reference to the considerable strength and rigidity of thin,
natural, curved forms such as the shell of an egg. The material most suited to
the construction of a shell structure is concrete, which is a highly plastic
material when wet and which can take up any shape inside formwork. Small
section reinforcing bars can readily be bent to follow the curvature of shells.
Wet concrete is spread over the formwork and around the reinforcement, and
compacted to the required thickness with the stiffness of the concrete mix.
The reinforcement prevents the concrete from running down the slope of the
curvature of the shell while the concrete is wet. Once the concrete has hardened, the reinforced concrete slab acts as a strong, rigid shell, which serves as
both structure and covering to the building. The strength and rigidity of curved
shell structures makes it possible to construct single curved barrel vaults
60 mm thick and double curved hyperbolic paraboloids 40 mm thick in reinforced concrete for clear spans up to 30 mm.
The attraction of shell structure lies in the elegant simplicity of the curved
shell form that utilizes the natural strength and stiffness of shell forms with
great economy in the use of material. The main disadvantages relate to their
cost and poor thermal insulation properties. The shell structure is more expensive than, for example, a portal framed structure covering the same floor
area because of the considerable labour required to construct the formwork
on which the shell is cast.
Notes:
by reference to – в связи с, относительно
section – сечение
both … and – и … и, как… так и
28
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
shell structure, thin, curve, curvature, slab, formwork, concrete mix, utilize,
rigid, rigidity, strength, thickness, stiffness, property, span, vault, floor, disadvantage, cast, both … and
Задание 3. Найдите в тексте причастия I и определите их функции.
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
1. shell structure
2. vault
3. function
4. thin
5. curved
6. rigidity
7. formwork
8. thickness
9. utilize
10. property
11. stiffness
12. disadvantage
13. span
14. cast
15. floor
a. свойство
b. недостаток
c. изогнутый
d. оболочка
e. использовать, применять
f. функционировать
g. жесткость, твердость
h. тонкий
i. жесткость
j. опалубка
k. отливать
l. толщина
m. перекрытие
n. пролет
o. свод
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. A shell structure is
a. concrete, which is a highly plastic
material when wet.
b. spread over the formwork and around
the reinforcement.
c. a strong, rigid shell.
d. a thin, curved membrane or slab.
e. to follow the curvature of shells.
2. Small section reinforcing
bars can readily be bent
3. Wet concrete is
4. The term “shell” is used
5. The reinforced concrete
slab acts as
6. The attraction of shell
f. relate to their cost and poor thermal
structure lies in
insulation properties.
7. The material most suited to g. to
29describe these structures by
structure lies in
7. The material most suited to
the construction of a shell
structure is
8. The main disadvantages
9. The shell structure is more
expensive than
insulation properties.
g. to describe these structures by
reference to the considerable strength
and rigidity of thin, natural, curved
forms such as the shell of an egg.
h. a portal framed structure.
i. the elegant simplicity of the curved
shell form.
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках слова и словосочетания на русском
языке их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на
русский язык.
1. The term (оболочка) is used to describe these structures by reference to
the considerable strength and rigidity of thin, natural, curved forms such as
the shell of an egg. 2. The material most suited to the construction of a
(оболочки) is concrete. 3. Small section reinforcing bars can readily be bent
to follow the (изгибам) of shells. 4. A shell structure is a thin, (изогнутая)
membrane or slab. 5. Once the concrete has hardened, the reinforced concrete slab acts as a strong, (жесткая) shell. 6. Wet concrete is spread over the
(опалубку) and around the reinforcement. 7. Wet concrete is compacted to
the required (толщины) with the stiffness of the concrete mix.
Задание 7. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
Текст B. Reinforced Concrete Barrel Vaults
Reinforced concrete barrel vaults consist of a thin membrane of reinforced
concrete positively curved in one direction so that the vault acts as both structure and roof surface. The most common form of barrel vault is the long span
vault where the strength and stiffness of the shell lie at right angles to the
curvature. Typical spans range from 12 to 30 m. The width is usually about
half the span and the rise is about one fifth of the width. To cover large areas,
multi-span, multi-bay barrel vault roofs can be used. The concrete shell may
be from 57 to 75 mm thick for spans of 12 and 30 m respectively. The thickness of the concrete provides sufficient cover of concrete to protect the reinforcement against damage by fire and corrosion.
Under loads the thin shell of the barrel vault will tend to lose shape. To
strengthen the shell stiffening beams or arches are cast with the shell. Stiffening members are provided between the columns supporting the shell.
30
Урок 9
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст А.
Текст A. Raised Floors
A raised floor is used to conceal services, usually electrical ca­bles and air
conditioning ducts, in the cavity between the raised floor and the structural
floor. Raised floors are particularly useful in large open plan spaces, such as
offices, where it is not practical to house services in partition walls. Air-conditioning grilles and services outlets, such as electrical and telephone sockets, can be provided within the floor to provide a flat and even surface fin­ish.
The cables and air conditioning ducts are hidden from view in the cavity
between the raised floor and the structural floor finish. Concealing the cables
not only improves the visual appearance of the floor area but also helps to
keep trip hazards to a minimum. Most manufacturers of raised floor systems
also supply ancillary items such as electrical floor boxes, cable ports and
cable management systems.
Raised floors are used in new building developments as well as in
refurbish­ment work where there is sufficient vertical height between structural floors to add a raised floor. By adjusting the depth of the supports to suit
uneven floors and changes in floor levels, it is possible to provide a flat level
surface and eliminate the need for ramps and short flights of stairs.
The functional requirements are to: 1) accommodate and conceal services;
2) be flexible; 3) sustain and resist imposed loads; 4) have good appearance
and aesthetics; 5) resist passage of sound and provide acoustical control;
6) provide required thermal resistance and prevent formation of condensation;
7) provide protection against fire; 8) resist wear and tear; 9) provide safety of
installation and maintenance.
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
raised floor, conceal, services, cable, socket, cavity, particularly, useful, partition wall, uneven, wear, installation, imposed load, adjust, provide
Задание 3. Найдите в первом абзаце текста А глаголы и определите их
видо-временную форму и залог.
31
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
1. raised floor
a. скрывать, прятать
2. services
b. в частности
3. uneven
c. установка
4. conceal
d. коммуникации
5. wear
e. прилагаемая нагрузка
6. cavity
f. фальшпол
7. partition wall
g. регулировать
8. installation
h. износ
9. imposed load
j. предусматривать, обеспечивать
10. adjust
k. полость
11. particularly
l. стена – перегородка
12. provide
m. неровный
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. A raised floor is used
a. in partition walls.
2. Raised floors are used in new
b. are particularly useful in large
building developments
open plan spaces, such as offices.
3. Air-conditioning grilles and
c. helps to keep trip hazards to a
services outlets can be provided
minimum.
4. Concealing the cables not only d. to conceal services in the cavity
improves the visual appearance of between the raised floor and the
the floor area but also
structural floor.
5. Raised floors
e. as well as in refurbishment
work.
6. it is possible to provide
f. within the floor to provide a flat
and even surface finish.
7. It is not practical to house
g. a flat level surface and eliminate
services
the need for ramps and short flights
of stairs.
1. (Фальшполы, в частности) are useful in large open plan spaces. 2. Airconditioning grilles and services outlets, such as (электрические
и телефонные розетки), can be provided within the floor to provide a flat
and even surface fin­ish. 3. Raised floors are useful where it is not practical
to house services in (перегородках). 4. By adjusting the depth of the supports
to suit (неровным полам) and changes in floor levels, it is possible to provide a flat level surface and eliminate the need for ramps and short flights of
stairs. 5. One of the functional requirements is to resist (износу). 6. A raised
floor is used to conceal services in the (полости) between the raised floor
and the structural floor.
Задание 7. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
Текст B. Floor assembly
There are two primary components to a raised floor, the floor panel and
the support pedestal. Combined, the components provide a rigid and stable
floor surface for a variety of uses. The design life of the floor panels tends to
be anything up to 25 years, that of the supports around 50 years. Loading
capacity will vary with different systems. In situations where heavy furniture
or equipment is to be installed, the loading of the system can be improved by
the installation of additional support pedestals. Manufacturers will also provide details of the air leakage, the fire rating, the combined weight of the
system, which will vary with height. Acoustic performance of the system
(which depends on the type of floor finish) should also be provided. Floor to
wall junctions are usually sealed with an air seal.
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках слова и словосочетания на русском
языке их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на
русский язык.
32
33
Урок 10
Задание 1. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст А.
Задание 2. Переведите на русский язык и выучите следующие слова:
suspended ceiling, wire, grid, tile, smoke, alarm, attach, support, comprise,
include, absorption, insulation, access, cable, additional, current, unit, within
Текст A. Suspended Ceilings
Задание 3. Найдите в тексте А инфинитивы и определите их функции.
Suspended ceilings are primarily used to provide an attractive finish to the
ceiling while at the same time concealing services. A suspended ceiling comprises a lightweight structural grid, which is supported by wire hangers attached to the underside of the structural floor, and into which lightweight
tiles are positioned. The structural grid is based on a 600 × 600 mm module.
Suspended ceilings may also be used in refurbishment projects to provide
a level ceiling finish to areas of the building that differ in height.
Suspended ceilings not only provide an attractive, level ceiling finish, with
convenient access to services when required, but are also used to house
a wide variety of equipment, which may include ventilation grilles, light fittings, fire sprinklers, detectors (e.g. smoke, heat), security cameras, movement sensors and alarms.
The functional requirements include:
1. Concealment of structure – to hide changes in the structure, beams,
floors and ties, and to provide a level and attractive ceiling finish.
2. Concealment of services – to hide services such as ducts, equipment
and cables, and allow easy access for maintenance.
3. Thermal insulation - thermal insulation may be introduced if the ceiling
is adjacent to the roof. It must be designed and positioned to prevent condensation.
4. Acoustic control: sound insulation and absorption – the two main aspects of acoustic control are absorption of a sound within an enclosed space,
and the reduction of sound passing through a material or structure.
5. Fire control: control the development and spread of a fire.
6. Ventilation – the services may form an integral part of the suspended
ceiling unit. Where services are concealed within the ceiling they may need
additional support.
7. Heating, air conditioning, illumination – the luminaries may be surface
mounted or independently supported from the structure.
8. Electrical earthing – the ceiling grid must be earthed. In the event of any
electrical fault, the parts of the ceiling capable of carrying an electrical current are earthed and protected.
Задание 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты английских
слов и словосочетаний.
34
1. suspended ceiling
2. grid
3. comprise
4. support
5. attach
6. insulation
7. sound
8. absorption
9. wire
10. additional
11. current
12. access
13. within
14. unit
a. внутри, в пределах
b. поддерживать
c. прикреплять
d. дополнительный
e. сетка
f. электрический ток
g. включать
h. подход, доступ
i. элемент, блок
j. подвесной потолок
k. поглощение
l. изоляция
m. проволока, провод
n. звук
Задание 5. Составьте предложения из двух, подходящих по смыслу
частей и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The functional requirements
include
2. Suspended ceilings are
primarily used
3. The services may form an
integral part of
4. A suspended ceiling
5. Thermal insulation must be
designed and positioned
6. Heating, air conditioning,
illumination may be surface
mounted or
7. A suspended ceiling
a. the suspended ceiling unit.
b. to prevent condensation.
c. independently supported from the
structure.
d. a lightweight structural grid.
e. to provide an attractive finish to
the ceiling while at the same time
concealing services.
f. electrical earthing.
g.
35 the ceiling is adjacent to the roof.
mounted or
7. A suspended ceiling
comprises
8. Thermal insulation may be
introduced if
g. the ceiling is adjacent to the roof.
h. is supported by wire hangers
attached to the underside of the
structural floor.
Задание 6. Замените данные в скобках слова и словосочетания на русском
языке их английскими эквивалентами и переведите предложения на
русский язык.
1. Suspended ceilings provide an attractive, level ceiling finish, with
convenient (доступ) to services when required. 2. (Подвесные потолки) are
also used to house a wide variety of equipment, which may include ventilation grilles, light fittings, fire sprinklers, detectors (e.g. smoke, heat), security
cameras, movement sensors and alarms. 3. A suspended ceiling comprises a
lightweight structural (сетку), which is supported by wire hangers.
4. (Теплоизоляция) may be introduced if the ceiling is adjacent to the roof.
5. Sound insulation and (поглощение) are main aspects of acoustic control.
6. The functional requirements also (включают) heating, air conditioning
and illumination.
Задание 7. Переведите текст В на русский язык письменно со словарем.
Текст B. Wallpaper
Wallpaper is the term used to cover a wide variety of sheet papers produced for use on internal walls. The papers are mainly used in domestic
premises, applied by professional decorators or by householders.
Papers adhere to the wall by means of a water-based adhesive paste. The
paste may be mixed with water and applied to the wall or more commonly to
the back of the paper. The sheet of pasted paper is then ‘hung’ on the wall.
The paper is carefully positioned and then the surface is brushed over with a
soft brush to apply enough pressure to remove any air bubbles that have
formed under the paper. Once positioned, the sheet of wallpaper can be
trimmed at the ceiling and skirting with a sharp knife. Some papers are
manufactured with an adhesive back which is activated by soaking the paper
in water for a few minutes or by brushing water to the back of the paper
before it is applied to the wall. Some skill is required in keeping the sheets of
paper straight and patterns lined up at the joint.
36
Лексический минимум
absorption n. поглощение,
впитывание
acceptable adj. приемлемый,
допустимый
access n. подход, доступ
accommodate v снабжать,
согласовывать
accuracy n. точность, тщательность
acoustical adj. акустический
add v. прибавлять, присоединять
additional adj. дополнительный,
добавочный
adequate adj. соответствующий
adhere v. приклеиваться, приставать
adhesion n. сцепление, трение
adjacent n. смежный, примыкающий,
соседний
adjoin v. примыкать, прилегать,
соединять
adjust v. регулировать
advantage n. преимущество
adversely adv. неблагоприятно, вредно
aesthetics n. эстетика
affect v. воздействовать, влиять
after adv. позади, затем
after conj. после того как
after prep. за
aggregate n. заполнитель
air adj. воздушный
air conditioning n.
кондиционирование воздуха
alarm n. сигнал тревоги, тревога,
v. взволновать
allow v. позволять, допускать
allowable adj. допускаемый,
допустимый
amount n. количество, итог
ancillary adj. вспомогательный
angle n. угол
appearance n. появление, внешний
вид
apply v. применять, прикладывать
arch n. арка, свод, дуга
area n. область, площадь, зона,
сфера
artificial adj. искусственный
as long as cj. пока
assemble v. собирать
associate v. объединять, присоединять
associate adj. объединенный,
соединенный
at least по крайней мере
attach v. присоединять, прикреплять
attraction n. притяжение,
привлекательность
attractive adj. привлекательный
bar n. стержень, арматурный прут
barrel n. бочка, цилиндр
barrel vault цилиндрический свод
base v. основывать
beam n. балка
bearing n. опора
bearing capacity n. несущая
способность
bearing strength несущая
способность
because of cj. из-за
below prp, adv позади, за, после, ниже
bend v. гнуться, изгибаться
bind (bound, bound) v. связывать
bonding n. сцепление, склеивание
boom n. стрела, забральная балка
box n. короб, коробка
brick n. кирпич
bridge n. мост
broken stone щебень
building n. здание, строительство
cable n. трос, канат
capable adj. способный
capacity n. способность, мощность,
производительность
carry v. нести, поддерживать
37
cast v. отливать
cast iron n. чугун
cause v. быть причиной, вызывать
cavity n. полость, пустота
ceiling n. потолок
cement v. цементировать, скреплять
change n. изменение, v. менять
characteristic n. характерная черта,
особенность
choice n. выбор
civil engineering гражданское
строительство
cladding n. облицовка, обшивка
clay n. глина
clinker n. клинкер, клинкерный
кирпич
coat v. красить, покрывать слоем,
облицовывать
coefficient n. коэффициент
cohesive adv. способный к сцеплению,
связанный
combine v. соединять, смешивать
combined loads комбинированная
(совместная) нагрузка
common adj. общий, обычный
common brick обыкновенный кирпич
compact v. уплотнять
compacted adj. компактный,
уплотненный
compaction n. уплотнение
comparatively adv. сравнительно,
относительно
complete v. завершать
completion n. завершение, комплект
component n. компонент, элемент,
составляющая
composite n. смесь,
adj. составной, сложный
composition n. состав, смесь, сплав
compression n. сжатие
compressive strength прочность при
сжатии
comprise v. включать, содержать
conceal v. скрывать, прятать
concentrated load сосредоточенная
нагрузка
concern v. касаться, иметь отношение
с, интересовать
concrete n. бетон
condensation n. сгущение,
конденсация
connect v. соединять, связывать
consequent adj. последовательный
consider v. считать, полагать
considerable adj. значительный,
важный
consideration n. рассмотрение,
соображение
consolidation n. затвердевание
constituent n. составная часть, adj.
составной, составляющий
contain v. содержать, вмещать
content n. вместимость, емкость,
объем, основное содержание
continue v. оставаться, продолжаться,
простираться
continuous adj. непрерывный,
сплошной
contraction n. сжатие, уплотнение,
усадка
convection n. конвекция
convenient adj. удобный, пригодный,
подходящий
correctly adv. правильно, точно
corrosion n. коррозия, окисление
cover v. покрывать, закрывать
covering n. облицовка, настил,
покрытие
crush v. дробить, размельчать
current n. электрический ток
curtain wall навесная стена,
перегородка
curvature n. кривизна, изгиб
curve v. сгибаться, гнуться
curved adj. изогнутый
damage n. повреждение
38
dead load постоянная нагрузка
decking n. опалубка
deliver v. доставлять, передавать
dense adj. плотный, густой
depend v. зависеть
deposit v. давать осадок, n. отложение,
осадок
depth n. глубина
derive from v. происходит от, отводить
describe v. описывать
description n описание.
design n. проект, конструкция,
v. проектировать
determine v. определять
develop v. развивать, разрабатывать
different adj. другой, непохожий
differential settlement неравномерная
осадка, относительная осадка
dimensional adj. пространственный
distortion n. деформация,
искривление
distribute v. распределять,
размазывать
drive v. забивать, управлять,
приводить в действие
dry adj. сухой
duct n. канал, воздуховод
due to из-за
durability n. долговечность
dust n. пыль
earth n. земля
earthing n. заземление
ease n. легкость, удобство,
v. ослаблять, уменьшать
egg n. яйцо
embed v. закапывать, укреплять,
заделывать
enable v. давать возможность
enclose v. окружать, огораживать
encourage v. способствовать
engineering brick плотный кирпич
повышенной и высокой прочности
enhance v. увеличивать, усиливать
equal adj. равный
equipment n. оборудование
evaporation n. испарение
excessive adj. чрезмерный
exclude v. исключать
exhibit v. проявлять, показывать
exhibition n. выставка, проявление,
показ
expansion n. расширение,
распространение, пространство
expel v. выталкивать, исключать
expensive adj. дорогой
exploration n. исследование
expose v. выставлять, подвергать,
открывать
external adj. внешний, наружный
fabric n. ткань, сетка, каркас здания,
структура
fabrication n. изготовление
facing n. облицовочные работы,
облицовка
facing brick лицевой кирпич
failure n. разрушение, излом, потеря
несущей способности
fault n. недостаток, дефект, сдвиг
feature n. особенность, характерная
черта
fill n. насыпной грунт
fine adj. мелкий, высококачественный
finish n. отделка, v. заканчивать,
облицовывать
firm adj. крепкий, твердый
fit v. устанавливать монтировать,
подходить
fitting n. установка, сборка, монтаж
fix v. укреплять, закреплять
fixing n. крепление, закрепление
flat adj. плоский
floor n. перекрытие, пол, этаж
fluctuation n. колебание, изменение
foundation n. основание, фундамент
fracture n. разрушение, трещина,
разрыв
39
frame n. каркас, рама
framework n. каркас, стержневая
конструкция
freeze n. замораживание, замерзание
function v. действовать,
функционировать
furniture n. мебель, обстановка,
содержимое
girder n. главная балка, ферма
grade v. сортировать, отбирать
по сортам, категориям
granite n. гранит
gravel n. гравий
grid n. сетка
grill n. решетка
grind (ground, ground) v молоть,
размалывать
ground n. земля, почва, грунт
handling n. транспортирование,
подача
hanger n. подвеска ,крюк, балка свода
печи
hard adj. твердый, жесткий
harden v. твердеть, застывать
heat n. тепло, нагрев,
v. нагревать
heating n. обогрев, отопление
heavy adj. тяжелый, сильный,
нагруженный
hidden adj. скрытый
hide v. прятать, скрывать
hollow adj. пустотелый
however cj. однако
humidity n. влажность
immediate settlement начальная
(первичная) осадка фундамента
impair v. ослаблять
imposed load прилагаемая, временная
нагрузка
include v. включать
incomplete adj. неполный,
незаконченный
increase n. увеличение,
v. увеличиваться
independent adj. независимый
influence v. влиять, воздействовать
initial adj. начальный, исходный
innovation n. нововведение,
новшество
inside prep. внутри, на внутренней
стороне
instability n. неустойчивость
installation n. установка, сборка
insulating adj. изолирующий
integral adj. объединенный,
комплексный
interaction n. взаимодействие
internal adj. внутренний
investigate v. исследовать
involve v. включать в себя
isolate v. изолировать
junction n. соединение, стык
just adj. точно, как раз, именно
keep up to date v. пополнять
последними данными
labour n. труд, рабочая сила
lateral adj. боковой
lattice n. решетка
layer n. слой
leaf n. лист, слой, перегородка
leakage n. утечка, течь
level adj. плоский, ровный,
горизонтальный
life n. долговечность, срок службы,
ресурс
lightly adv. легко, едва
lightweight adj. легкий
lime n. известь
limestone n. известняк
limited adj. ограниченный
linear adj. линейный
live load временная нагрузка
load n. нагрузка
load bearing самонесущая нагрузка
location n. местоположение
40
longitudinal adj. продольный
long-term adj. долгосрочный
loose adj. рыхлый
loss n. потеря, затухание, ущерб
luminary n. светило
machinery n. машинное
оборудование, техника
made-up ground искусственный грунт
main adj. главный
mainly adv. главным образом
maintenance n. эксплуатация,
техническое обслуживание, ремонт
majority n. большинство
manufacturer n. изготовитель,
производитель
masonry n. каменная кладка
measure n. мера,
v. измерять, оценивать
medium n. средство
meet the requirements отвечать
требованиям
membrane n. диафрагма, перегородка,
экран
mix v. смешивать
mixture n. смесь
moisture n. влажность
movement n. движение, перемещение
multi-bay многопролетный,
многосекционный
nature n. природа, характер
necessary adj. необходимый, важный
need v. требоваться
non-cohesive adj. несвязанный
occupy v. занимать
occur v. иметь место, случаться,
встречаться
off-site вне стройплощадки
ordinary adj. обычный, заурядный
organic soil минеральный грунт
органического происхождения
outer adj. наружный, внешний
outlet n. выпускное отверстие,
водоотвод
outside adj. наружный, внешний
overloading n. перегрузка
owing to благодаря, в следствие
pad v. заполнять мягкой прокладкой
pad foundation вибропоглощающее
основание
particle n. частица
particular adj. особый, определенный
particularly adv. очень, в особенности
partition n. перегородка, внутренняя
стена
pass v. переходить, превращать
paste n. пластичная смесь
pattern n. образец
peat n. торф
performance n. характеристика,
работа
permanent adj. постоянный,
неизменный
pile n. свая
pile foundation свайный фундамент
pitched roof скатная крыша
plastic n. пластмасса
plastic adj. пластичный, гибкий
ponding n. запруживание
poor adj. слабый
pore v. пора, пустота
porous adj. пористый
port n. порт, проходное отверстие
portal n. портал
position n. положение, место,
размещение
possibility n. возможность,
вероятность
possible adj. возможный
powder n.порошок
precast adj. сборный
precise adj. точный, определенный
prefabricated adj. сборный, готовый
prefabrication n. предварительное
изготовление
premise n. помещение
pressure n. давление, напор, сжатие
41
prevent v. предотвращать, мешать,
препятствовать
primarily adv. первоначально,
в основном
primary adj. первоначальный,
главный
process n. процесс
properly adv. как следует, должным
образом
property n. свойство
protect v. защищать
protection n. защита
provide v. обеспечивать,
предусматривать
purpose n. цель
quality n. качество
quarter n. четверть
raft n. опорная фундаментная плита
raised floor фальшпол
range n. ряд, диапазон
rapid adj. быстрый
rate n. скорость, степень, норма, сорт,
параметр, коэффициент
rating n. номинальная мощность,
нормативные характеристики
ratio n. коэффициент, соотношение
raw material сырьевые материалы,
сырье
recent adj. недавний
rectangular adj. прямоугольный
reduce v. уменьшать
reduction n. уменьшение
reference n. отношение, ссылка
refurbishment n. повторная очистка,
обновление
reinforced concrete железобетон,
железобетонный
reinforcement n. арматура
remote adj. действующий на
расстоянии, дистанционный
remove v. удалять, устранять
requirement n. требование
resist v. сопротивляться, устоять
против чего-либо
respectively adv. в указанном порядке,
соответственно
result n. результат, исход v. приводить
к чему-л.
rigid adj. жесткий, твердый
rigidity n. жесткость, твердость
rock n. горная порода
roof n. крыша, кровля
rust n. ржавчина
safety n. безопасность
sand n. песок
sandstone n. песчаник
screen n. сетка, экран
seal v. закрывать, изолировать
seasonal adj. сезонный
selection n. выбор
services n. инженерные сети,
инженерное оборудование (здания)
set v. устанавливать
settle n. усаживаться, оседать
settlement n. осаждение, осадка,
заселение
settler n. поселенец
several pron. несколько
shear n. сдвиг, поперечная сила
shear failure разрушение от сдвига
shear strength сопротивление сдвигу,
прочность при сдвиге
shearing strength сопротивление
сдвигу, прочность при сдвиге
shell n. оболочка, свод, остов, каркас
shell structure оболочковая
конструкция, оболочка
ship v. перевозить, грузить
shrinkage n. усадка
shrinking n. усадка
silicate n. силикат
similar adj. подобный, сходный
simplicity n. простота
single adj. единственный
42
site n. участок, местоположение,
стройплощадка
situation n. местоположение,
расположение, состояние
skill n. навыки, квалификация
size n. размер
slab n. плита
slope n. наклон, откос
smell n. запах
smoke n.дым
so adv. таким образом
soak v. замачивать
socket n. штепсельная розетка
soft adj. мягкий
soil n. почва, грунтовое основание
source n. источник
space n. пространство
space frame пространственная
стержневая конструкция
span n. пролет, v. перекрывать
spanning n. перекрытие
spread n. распространение
spread v. распространяться,
растягивать, вытягивать
sprinkler n. автоматическая
водораспыляющая насадка,
опрыскиватель
square adj. квадратный
stability n. стойкость, устойчивость
staircase n. лестница, лестничный
марш
steel n. сталь
stick v. клеить, приклеивать
stiffness n. жесткость
straight adj. прямой
strength n. прочность
strip n. лента, полоса,
v. демонтировать опалубку, снимать
strip foundation ленточный
фундамент
strong adj. прочный
strongly adv.сильно
structural adj. структурный,
строительный
structure n. конструкция, структур
subject v. подвергать
subsoil n. грунтовое основание
suffer v. претерпевать, допускать
sufficient adj. достаточный
sufficiently adv. достаточно
suit v. удовлетворять, соответствовать
suitable adj. подходящий, годный
sulphate n. сульфат
supply v. снабжать, обеспечивать
support n. опора,
v. поддерживать
surface n. поверхность
suspended ceiling подвесной поток
sustain v. выдерживать
sustaining n. выдерживание
swelling n. набухание, вспучивание
tensile adj. растягивающий
tensile strength предел прочности при
растяжении
term n. термин
texture n. текстура
than cj. чем
therefore adv. поэтому, следовательно
thermal adj. термический, тепловой
thick adj. толстый, плотный
thickness n.толщина
thin adj. тонкий
though cj. хотя
through prep. через, сквозь
throughout prep. повсюду, везде,
полностью
thus adv. так, таким образом
tie n. анкерная распорка. скреплять
tile n. плитка, черепица
timber n. лесоматериал, древесина
timetable n. расписание
tolerance n. допуск
top adj. верхний
total adj. общий, целый
transfer v. передавать
43
transmit v. передавать, переносить
treatment plant установка по очистке
trim v. подрезать, подравнивать
trip n. пробег
truss n. сквозная ферма, стропильная
ферма
type n. тип
underground n. подпочва
underside нижняя или оборотная
сторона
undue adj. чрезмерный
uneven adj. неровный
unit n. элемент, блок
unless cj. если не, без того чтобы
unlike prep. в отличие от,
adj. не такой как
unobstructed adj. беспрепятственный,
свободный
use n. применение,
v. применять, использовать
useful adj. полезный
utilize v. использовать
variation n. изменение, отклонение
vary v. меняться, изменяться
vault n. свод
ventilation n. вентиляция
vertical adj. вертикальный
via через
volume n. объем
wall n. стена
ware n. изделия
wear n. износ
weight n. вес
wet adj. влажный, сырой
which pron. который, какой
whole adj. целый, весь
width n. ширина
wind load ветровая нагрузка
wire n. провод, проволока
within prep. внутри, в пределах
without prp. без
word n. слово
workability n. удобоукладываемость,
удобообрабатываемость
44
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
Урок 1 ...................................................................................................................... 3
Текст A. Ground Stability ............................................................................... 3
Текст B. Dimensional Stability ....................................................................... 6
Урок 2 ...................................................................................................................... 7
Текст A. Foundations ...................................................................................... 7
Текст B. Foundation types .............................................................................. 9
Урок 3 .................................................................................................................... 11
Текст A. Structural Frame ............................................................................. 11
Текст B. Flat Roof Construction .................................................................. 14
Урок 4 .................................................................................................................... 15
Текст A. Cement............................................................................................ 15
Текст B .......................................................................................................... 17
Урок 5 .................................................................................................................... 18
Текст A. Aggregates ...................................................................................... 18
Текст B. Natural and Artificial Aggregates ................................................... 20
Урок 6 .................................................................................................................... 21
Текст A. Functional requirements of a wall .................................................. 21
Текст B .......................................................................................................... 23
Урок 7 .................................................................................................................... 25
Текст A. Prefabrication and Off-Site Production .......................................... 25
Текст B .......................................................................................................... 27
Урок 8 .................................................................................................................... 28
Текст A. Shell Structures............................................................................... 28
Текст B. Reinforced Concrete Barrel Vaults ................................................. 30
Урок 9 .................................................................................................................... 31
Текст A. Raised Floors .................................................................................. 31
Текст B. Floor assembly................................................................................ 33
Урок 10 .................................................................................................................. 34
Текст A. Suspended Ceilings ........................................................................ 34
Текст B. Wallpaper ........................................................................................ 36
45
ДЛЯ ЗАПИСЕЙ
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Задание № 131
для студентов всех специальностей II курса
факультета безотрывных форм обучения
Составители: Воеводская Татьяна Борисовна
Лапшина Лилия Ярославовна
Компьютерная верстка И. А. Яблоковой
Подписано к печати 02.02.12. Формат 60×80 1/16.Бум. офсетная.
Усл. печ. л. 2,7. Тираж 300 экз. Заказ 6. «С» 5.
Санкт-Петербургский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет.
190005, Санкт-Петербург, 2-я Красноармейская ул., д. 4.
Отпечатано на ризографе. 190005, Санкт-Петербург, 2-я Красноармейская ул., д. 5.
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47
ДЛЯ ЗАПИСЕЙ
48
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