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Zadanie 137 Engl

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Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет
Общестроительный факультет
Кафедра иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебно-методическое пособие № 137
Санкт-Петербург
2014
Министерство образования и науки
Российской Федерации
Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет
Общестроительный факультет
Кафедра иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебно-методическое пособие № 137
Санкт-Петербург
2014
1
УДК 811.111:378.6:62(075.8)
Рецензенты: ст. преподаватель А. В. Потапчук (СПбГАСУ),
ст. преподаватель Т. Н. Павлова (СПбГАСУ)
Сарян, М. А.
Английский язык: учеб.-метод. пособие № 137 / М. А. Сарян;
под ред. М. А. Сарян; СПбГАСУ. – СПб., 2014. – Ч. III. – 106 с.
Данное учебно-методическое пособие является третьей частью комплекса пособий из 4-х частей (135–138), предназначенных для студентов I–II
курса, специализирующихся в области инженерно-экологических систем.
Учебно-методическое пособие способствует развитию навыков чтения и перевода, формированию умений использования активной лексики и грамматики
в специальной литературе. Оно составлено на материале оригинальных англоязычных текстов и нацелено на достижение уровня владения английским
языком, позволяющего студентам вести профессиональную деятельность
в соответствии со специальностью.
Предназначено для вузов, специализирующихся по направлениям подготовки: 140100.62 – теплоэнергетика и теплотехника, 140400.62 – электроэнергетика и электротехника, 270109 – теплогазоснабжение и вентиляция,
270112 – водоснабжение и водоотведение, 280700.62 – техносферная безопасность.
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Данное учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов, обучающихся по направлениям подготовки: «Теплоэнергетика и теплотехника», «Электроэнергетика и электротехника», «Теплогазоснабжение и вентиляция», «Водоснабжение и водоотведение», «Техносферная безопасность».
Цель учебно-методического пособия – подготовить студентов
к чтению специальной научно-технической литературы для извлечения информации в условиях будущей профессиональной деятельности. Учебно-методическое пособие состоит из четырех частей.
Каждая часть рассчитана на один семестр обучения и содержит
10 уроков и словарный минимум терминов. В основе структуры каждого урока – два текста (основной текст А и вспомогательный текст В).
Тексты уроков сопровождаются рядом упражнений на закрепление
тематической и терминологической лексики, а также на развитие
навыков чтения и перевода в рамках профессиональной тематики.
Упражнения по грамматике составлены на основе лексики предыдущих уроков. Грамматические задания, построенные на повторении наиболее частотных в технических текстах грамматических
структур с неличными формами глаголов, условными предложениями различных типов и т. д., способствуют закреплению полученных
ранее знаний по грамматике английского языка.
Тексты учебно-методического пособия отобраны из оригинальных английских и американских источников с учетом их информативности и соответствия научно-техническим достижениям,
поэтому текстовый материал содержит в равной степени ценную
информацию лингвистического и профессионального характера.
 М.А. Сарян, 2014
 Санкт-Петербургский государственный
архитектурно-строительный университет, 2014
2
3
Урок 3.1
Упражнение 1. Прочитайте слова.
science; provide; describe; device; occupy; centralize; comprise; utilize.
number; combustion; ductwork; pump; accomplish.
Упражнение 2. Сопоставьте слово с переводом и соответствующей
ему транскрипцией.
1) combustion; 2) mechanical; 3) compression; 4) furnace; 5) equipment;
6) portion;
1)
5)
; 2)
(ə) ; 3)
(ə)n ; 6) kə '
(ə)n ;
ə
; 4)
;
1) оборудование; 2) секция; 3) печь; 4) горение; 5) сжатие; 6) механический.
Текст А
HVAC systems
• means of distributing heat, cooling, and/or filtered ventilation air
where needed: air, water or steam;
• devices that deliver the heat, cooling, and/or fresh air into the
building: registers and diffusers, hydronic radiators or convectors, and
fan coil units.
The objective of an HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning)
system is to control the temperature, humidity, air movement, and air
cleanliness, normally with mechanical means, to achieve thermal comfort. Centralized HVAC system installations utilize a number of separate
components that are field assembled to serve the specific needs of an individual building. A central plant has 4 principle elements:
1. Energy supply (e.g. electricity, fuel);
2. Service generators (e.g. boilers, chillers);
3. Distribution components (e.g. air distribution ducts, pipes);
4. Delivery components (e.g. diffusers, radiators).
Distribution components convey a heating or cooling medium from
source-located service generators to portions of a building that require
conditioning. Delivery components serve as an interface between the distribution system and occupied spaces.
The field of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning – HVAC (Figure 3.1) – is a science and practice of controlling indoor climate, thereby
providing health and comfortable interior conditions for occupants in a
well-designed, energy-efficient, and low-emissions manner. The term
"H" stands for heating that comprises of any number of heating systems
from gas furnaces, electric furnaces, oil furnaces, oil and gas boilers, radiant heating systems, and heat pumps. "V" describes ventilation. This
can be ventilating the facility using ductwork or ventilating a kitchen using ductwork and fans with a hood. It can also refer to combustion air or
the air needed to have combustion for various heating systems. "AC" refers to air conditioning that comprises of 3 main methods – mechanical
compression, vapor absorption and evaporative cooling. Air conditioners
(direct expansion – DX systems) and chillers usually accomplish the job
of air conditioning.
HVAC systems have the following elements in common:
• equipment to generate heating or cooling: the equipment is selected with a capacity to offset the peak load of the space or spaces to be
served;
Figure 3.1 HVAC system
4
5
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. What does HVAC system provide?
2. What do the terms "H" and "V" stand for?
3. What does "AC" refer to?
4. What elements do HVAC systems have in common?
5. What is the objective of an HVAC (heating, ventilating, and airconditioning) system?
6. What principle elements does a central plant have?
7. How do distribution components function?
8. What are delivery components used for?
Упражнение 3. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на
русский язык.
Field (n.); heating; ventilation (n.); air conditioning; science (n.);
indoor climate; thereby; provide (v.); health (n.); comfortable interior
condition; occupant (n.); well-designed; energy-efficient; low-emission;
stand for (v.); comprise (v.); gas furnace; electric furnace; oil furnace; oil
and gas boilers; radiant heating system; heat pumps; facility (n.); ductwork (n.); fan (n.); hood (n.); refer to (v.); combustion air; mechanical
compression; vapor absorption; evaporative cooling; direct expansion;
chiller (n.); accomplish (v.); equipment (n.); generate (v.); select (v.); capacity (n.); offset (v.); peak load; means (n.); register (n.); diffuser (n.);
hydronic radiator; convector (n.); fan coil unit; objective (n.); humidity
(n.); air movement; air cleanliness; mechanical mean; utilize (v.); separate component; field assembled; serve (v.); energy supply; electricity
(n.); fuel (n.); service generator; distribution component; air distribution
duct; delivery component; radiator (n.); convey (v.).
Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на
английский язык.
Средство механизации; система радиационного нагрева; электрическая печь; оборудование; собранный в эксплуатационных условиях; распределительный вентиляционный канал/воздуховод;
движение воздушных потоков; занятая зона/зона пребывания людей;
влажность; электричество; конвектор; жидкостный/водяной радиатор; житель/обитатель; холодильник; сеть вентиляционных труб;
энергоэффективный/энергосберегающий; тягодутьевое устройство;
компенсировать; требовать; достигать; выполнять.
6
Упражнение 5. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
(А)
1) to ventilate;
2) air-conditioning;
3) furnace;
4) humidity;
5) generator;
6) electricity;
7) radiator;
8) heat pump;
(В)
a) the amount of water contained in the air;
b) to let fresh air into a room, building, etc.;
c) a system that makes the air in a room or building cooler and drier;
d) part of a machine that takes heat from one place to another;
e) a piece of equipment used to heat a building;
f) the power that is carried by wires, cables etc., and is used to provide
light or heat, to make machines work etc.;
g) a thin metal container that is fastened to a wall and through which
hot water passes to provide heat for a room;
h) a machine that produces electricity.
Упражнение 6. Переведите группы существительных.
Gas furnace; oil furnace; air movement; distribution component; delivery
component; service generator; distribution system; combustion air; system installation; peak load; vapor absorption.
Упражнение 7. Дайте антонимы следующих слов.
More; outdoor; high; warm; big; uncomfortable; inefficient; uncover.
Упражнение 8. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на время и залог сказуемого.
1. HVAC systems have some elements in common.
2. The equipment is selected with a capacity to offset the peak load of
the space.
3. The objective of an HVAC system is to control the temperature, humidity, air movement, and air cleanliness.
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4. Delivery components will serve as an interface between the distribution system and occupied spaces.
5. Plastics can be employed to reduce breakage and cost.
6. Fire tube boilers have been used in various early forms to produce
steam for industrial purposes.
7. A substance preventing corrosion in the system is being added
which binds oxygen.
8. All kinds of online cleaning methods were developed.
9. The shell boiler evolved into modern forms such as the electric
boiler.
10. This device will have suffered less thermal forces.
Упражнение 9. Переведите предложения. Выделите главные и второстепенные члены предложения.
1. The term "H" stands for heating that comprises of gas furnaces,
electric furnaces, oil furnaces, radiant heating systems, and heat
pumps.
2. Distribution components convey a heating or cooling medium.
3. HVAC system installations will utilize a number of separate components.
4. Air conditioning system should provide health and comfortable interior conditions for occupants.
5. Energy supply is used in central plant.
6. Separate components were served as the specific needs of an individual building.
Упражнение 10. Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Упражнение 11. Прочитайте и переведите текст.
When the air is cooled directly by passing it over an evaporator in which
the refrigerant is expanding from a liquid to a gas, the process is known
as direct expansion (DX). It is suitable only for small systems, window
air-conditioners; package units and split systems are typical examples of
DX systems. The application and unit capacity ranges are as follows:
room air conditioner (capacity range of 0.5 to 3 capacity range (TR) per
unit, suitable for an area of not more than 1,000 square feet); packaged
unit integral air-cooled condenser (capacity range of 3 to 50 TR, suitable
for a maximum an area of 1,000–10,000 square feet); split system with
8
outdoor air-cooled condenser (capacity range of 0.5 to 50 TR, suitable for
an area of 100–10,000 square feet). Multiple DX units are often used for
larger buildings.
Note
TR (ton of refrigeration) тонна охлаждения (единица холодопроизводительности).
Текст В
System selection
HVAC systems are of great importance to architectural design efforts for
three main reasons.
1. These systems consume substantial floor space and/or building volume for equipment and distribution elements that must be accommodated during the design process (Figure 3.2).
2. HVAC systems constitute a single major budget item in building
projects.
3. The success of a building depends on the ability to provide thermal
comfort with the least operating costs (maintenance, energy, or replacement). This depends on the HVAC system design, equipment
and controls.
There are several choices for air distribution, each satisfying the HVAC
objectives with different degrees of success. The best design will consider the pertinent architectural and financial constraints without sacrificing the performance in terms of reliability, indoor air quality, and energy
efficiency.
While HVAC system design is the responsibility of the HVAC designer, an
architect must oversee the complete building project on a wider perspective. The type of system selected is determined by the HVAC designer's
knowledge of systems. The architect does understand the basics, system
objectives, the role of key system components, the type of systems that
are available and, what such systems can and cannot accomplish.
In selecting a suitable air conditioning system for a particular application,
considerations are given according to the architectural constraints, system
constraints, financial constraints. Each of these concerns has a different
priority depending on the customer’s goals. Most customers may not understand HVAC design aspects nor their benefits and limitations. It is the
responsibility of the architect and the HVAC engineer to guide and advise
the customer on the best option. For an HVAC engineer, the customer
may be an architect whose customer may be the building owner.
9
7. What must engineers consider while selecting a suitable air conditioning system?
8. Who guides and advises the customer on the best option?
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на
русский язык.
Architectural design effort; main reason; consume (v.); floor space;
building volume; accommodate (v.); constitute (v.); budget item; building
project; depend on (v.); ability (n.); operating cost; maintenance (n.); objective (n.); consider (v.); pertinent (adj.); performance (n.); reliability
(n.); indoor (adj.); energy efficiency; responsibility (n.); designer (n.); architect (n.); oversee (v.); complete building project; wide perspective; select (v.); determine (v.); designer's knowledge; basic (n.); key system
component; available (adj.); accomplish (v.); particular application; consideration (n.); according to; architectural constraint; system constraint;
financial constraint; concern (n.); customer’s goal; benefit (n.); limitation
(n.); guide (v.); advise (v.); building owner.
With; without; also; such; each; whose; in terms of.
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на
английский язык.
Проектно-конструкторская работа; бюджетная статья; эксплуатационные расходы; надежность/безопасность; с точки зрения; энергоэффективность; проект строительства; особенное/характерное применение; факторы, которые необходимо учитывать; архитектурные
и финансовые ограничения; отбирать; определять; инструктировать;
выполнять; осуществлять надзор/обеспечить контроль; ключевые
системные компоненты; ограничение (2); уместный; советовать.
В то время как; каждый; с; без; с точки зрения.
Figure 3.2
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. What must be accommodated during the design process?
2. What does the success of a building depend on?
3. What will the best design consider?
4. Whose responsibility is the HVAC system design?
5. What must an architect oversee?
6. What must the architect understand?
10
Упражнение 3. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
А
Complete; reliability; application; owner; consider; constraint; distribution; efficiency; objective; guide; advise; accommodate; quality; performance;
11
В
Производительность; учитывать; надежность; ограничение; цель;
советовать; владелец; завершать; распределение; применение; эффективность; инструктировать; качество; размещать.
Упражнение 4. Какие времена использованы в тексте?
Упражнение 5. Найдите в тексте группы существительных.
Упражнение 6. Найдите в тексте пример эмоционального использования глагола do.
Урок 3.2
Упражнение 1. Прочитайте слова.
process, control, zone, impose, over, both, role, goal, owner, location, local, most, component;
cool, whose, remove, move, to.
Упражнение 2. Сопоставьте слово с переводом и соответствующей
ему транскрипцией.
1) moisture; 2) unique; 3) variable; 4) apparatus; 5) circulation; 6) efficient;
1)
5)
[
ə
]
2 [
(ə)n] 6) ['
ə ]
ə ə ]
3)
[
ə
]
4)
[
]
1) переменный; 2) эффективный; 3) циркуляция; 4) уникальный;
5)установка; 6) влага.
Текст А
System requirements
An air conditioning system may have several requirements that
must be accommodated during the design process:
1. The cooling, heating, and moisture control provide the foundation for
key HVAC system design and components.
2. The additional functions of air circulation and air quality control establish further component requirements.
3. In specific building situations, supplemental functions such as noise
and smoke control and the interlocking of security and fire protection
functions, can be imposed on an HVAC system.
4. Automation and control of an HVAC system is critical to its successful
operation. The subject of system control leads to the concept of HVAC
zoning. During the design process, a zone is defined as a region of a
building that requires separate control if comfort is to be provided for occupants. Numerous air distribution systems are available ranging from
uni-zone systems (the indoor space constitutes a unique conditioned
zone), to multi-zone systems (separate specifically conditioned indoor
spaces), with or without reheat design options.
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5. An air conditioning system (Figure 3.3) must satisfy both humidity and
temperature requirements. Humidity control generally takes precedence
over (иметь преимущественное значение над) temperature control and
as such, the air is cooled much lower (equal to the apparatus dewpoint of
the coil) to remove moisture over the coil surface. The resultant air becomes too cold and is reheated before it is delivered to the indoor spaces.
6. The modern HVAC design relies on energy efficient, variable air volume
(VAV) systems and variable air volume and temperature (VVT) systems.
Упражнение 3. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на
русский язык.
Requirement (n.); moisture control; provide (v.); component (n.);
additional (adj.); air circulation; establish (v.); supplemental function; interlocking (n.); security (n.); fire protection; impose (v.); automation (n.);
critical (adj.); successful operation; lead (v.); zone (n.); define (v.); occupant (n.); air distribution system; available (adj.); reheat (v.); design option; satisfy (v.); humidity (n.); precedence (n.); equal (adj.); dewpoint
(n.); remove (v.); moisture (n.); deliver (v.); indoor space; modern design; rely on (v.); energy efficient; variable air volume.
Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на
английский язык.
Исправная работа; переменный воздушный объем/переменный расход воздуха; влажность (2); точка росы; равный; дополнительный
(2); первоочередность/предпочтение; автоматизация; внутреннее
пространство; проектное решение/разработка; противопожарная защита; возлагать на; циркуляция воздуха; контроль качества; устанавливать; определять; удовлетворять; взаимозависимость.
Упражнение 5. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
Figure 3.3 Air conditioning system
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. What do the cooling, heating, and moisture control provide?
2. What do the additional functions of air circulation and air quality
control establish?
3. What can be imposed on an HVAC system in specific building situations?
4. What does the subject of system control lead to?
5. How is a zone defined?
6. What must an air conditioning system satisfy?
7. Why is the air cooled much lower?
8. When is the resultant air reheated?
9. What does the modern HVAC design rely on?
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(A)
1) moisture;
2) component;
3) air circulation;
4) dewpoint;
5) air distribution system;
6) automation;
7) occupant.
(B)
a) someone who lives in a house, room etc.;
b) the use of computers and machines instead of people to do a job;
c) ventilation system for supplying and distributing air;
d) small amounts of water that are present in the air, in a substance, or
on a surface;
e) one of several parts that together make up a whole machine, system
etc.;
f) large-scale movement of air;
15
g) the atmospheric temperature (varying according to pressure and
humidity) below which water droplets begin to condense and dew
can form.
Упражнение 6. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на
причастия и причастные обороты.
1. Numerous air distribution systems ranging from uni-zone systems
to multi-zone systems may have several requirements.
2. A zone defined as a region of a building requires separate control.
3. The type of system selected is determined by the HVAC designer's
knowledge of systems.
4. Having determined the basics, system objectives, the role of key
system components the architect choose the type of systems that are
available.
5. Considering the pertinent architectural and financial constraints an
architect must oversee the complete building project.
6. Each of the concerns has a different priority depending on the customer’s goals.
7. Delivery components serve as an interface between the distribution
system and occupied spaces.
8. A consideration of these requiring methods used in manufacture is
important.
9. The water used in the boiler is treated before it enters the system.
10. A substance preventing corrosion in the system is being added
which binds oxygen.
11. Expected environmental factors (salt air, etc.) must be included in
specifications for selective surfaces.
12. Heat transfer oils used in liquid systems offer freeze protection
and some corrosion protection.
heat through the process of electric resistance. Solar radiation (Figure
3.4) or other renewable energy resources may be collected on site and
converted to heat. Heat may be removed from some material on site and
transferred into a building. The choice of a heat source for a given building situation is usually based upon source availability, required system
capacity, and the fuel/equipment costs.
Heating systems (Figure 3.5) may be classified as central or local.
Central heating system contains a boiler, furnace, or heat pump to heat
water, steam, or air, all in a central location. The system also contains either ductwork, for forced air systems, or piping to distribute a heated
fluid and radiators to transfer this heat to the air. Every area in the space
is heated to the same temperature, which is controlled by a single thermostat. In local systems, all the 3 functions of heat generation, delivery and
distribution are combined into a single package unit. In general central
system is preferable for large buildings having multiple zones and local
heating is a plus, if majority of areas remain unoccupied and if the people
preferences require different temperatures or they disagree about the most
comfortable temperature.
Упражнение 7. Задайте пять вопросов различных типов.
Текст В
Central heating sources
Four distinctly different types of heat sources are employed in
buildings. Heat may be generated by the combustion of some flammable
material such as fuel oil or natural gas. Electricity may be converted to
Figure 3.4
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Упражнение 3. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на
русский язык.
Distinctly (adv.); heat source; employ (v.); generate (v.); combustion (n.);
flammable material; convert (v.); electric resistance; renewable energy
resources; remove (v.); system capacity; equipment cost; central heating
system; contain (v.); boiler (n.); furnace (n.); heat pump; steam (n.);
ductwork (n.); forced air system; distribute (v.); thermostat (n.); combine
into (v.); single package unit; preferable (adj.); fuel oil; majority (n.); remain (v.); preference (n.); require (v.).
Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на
английский язык.
Возобновляемые источники энергии; емкость системы; принудительная воздушная система; единая компактная установка; топочное
масло; горючее вещество; печь; объединять в; распределять; предпочтительный; преобразовать; горючее вещество; воздуховод; электрическое сопротивление.
Figure 3.5 Typical heating system
(CW-cooling water; DHW-domestic hot water)
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. What types of heat sources are employed in buildings?
2. How may heat be generated?
3. How may electricity be converted?
4. What is usually the choice of a heat source based upon?
5. How may heating systems be classified?
6. What does central heating system contain?
7. How is the temperature controlled?
8. What are the 3 functions in local systems?
9. What system is preferable for large buildings having multiple zones?
Упражнение 5. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
А
distinctly; convert; collect; resistance; source; availability; capacity; fuel
oil; equipment; cost; combustion; flammable; resource; employ; require;
multiple; distribute; transfer; electricity; preference; if; in; all; this; majority; area; contain; remain; delivery;
B
распределять; передавать; электричество; если; ресурс; это; собирать; наличие; оборудование; затраты; подача; сопротивление; все;
использовать; топочное масло; требовать; в; мощность; предпочтение; горение; горючий; многочисленный; определенно; преобразовать; источник; большинство; содержать; оставаться; область.
Упражнение 1. Найдите в тексте сказуемые в страдательном залоге.
Упражнение 2. Найдите в тексте причастие I (Participle I) и определите его функцию.
18
19
Урок 3.3
Упражнение 1. Прочитайте слова.
[ ] furnace; circulate; term; refer; first; circuit; purpose; further; surface; return; earth;
[ ] fact; that; as; flammable; transfer; gas.
heat. This is not a very efficient way to heat a space and generally can effectively condition only one space.
Упражнение 2. Сопоставьте слова с переводом и соответствующей
ему транскрипцией.
1) furnace; 2) circulate; 3) equip; 4) either (…or); 5) exterior; 6) through;
7) exhaust; 8) (life) expectancy; 9) various;
1)
6)
; 2)
; 3)
; 7)
; 8)
; 4)
; 5)
; 9)
,
;
1) циркулировать; 2) через; 3) различный; 4) печь; 5) внешний;
6) отработанный; 7) ожидаемый срок службы; 8) оборудовать; 9) либо… либо.
Текст А
Furnace
A furnace (Figure 3.6) is a heating system component designed to
heat air for distribution to various building spaces. All heat source categories are used with furnaces, including on-site combustion (coal, oil,
natural gas, propane), electric resistance, on-site energy collection (solar
energy), and heat transfer (heat pumps). Regardless of the type of fuel the
furnaces generally work on the same principle. The burning of fuel takes
place inside an enclosed metal container (generally referred to as a fire
box or heat exchanger), which warms the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger, now hot, radiates the heat into the air. This heated air is either
circulated by density differential via a ‘gravity furnace’ or by aid of a
blower via ‘forced air furnace’.
Gravity furnaces are small-capacity furnaces that rely on natural
convection for heat distribution and they are classified as gravity furnaces. The term gravity refers to the fact that the furnace has no blower to
move the heated air around the room. They rely on the fact that heated
(less dense) air rises and the cooler (more dense) air falls to circulate the
Forced air furnaces are equipped with fans to circulate warm air
over greater distance through a ductwork system. Cool return air from
occupied spaces passes first through a filter, the blower, and the heating
20
21
Figure 3.6 Typical furnace
chamber, arriving at the supply ductwork at a raised temperature. The exhaust gases including carbon-mono-oxide are vented to the exterior of the
building. The unit may also include a humidifier that evaporates moisture
into the air as it passes through. Furnaces provide effective heating in
smaller buildings where the longest duct run is less than 200 feet from the
heat source. The life expectancy of furnace is 15 to 20 years.
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. What is furnace?
2. What are heat source categories used with?
3. How do furnaces generally work?
4. What do gravity furnaces rely on?
5. How are they classified?
6. What does the term gravity refer to?
7. What are the forced air furnaces equipped with?
8. How does cool return air from occupied spaces pass?
9. What do furnaces provide?
Упражнение 3. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский
язык.
Distribution (n.); building space; combustion (n.); resistance (n.); regardless (adj.); fuel (n.); generally (adv.); burning (n.); inside; an enclosed
metal container; refer to (v.); fire box; radiate (v.); density (n.); via; aid
(n.); blower (n.); natural convection; fan (n.); ductwork system; return
air; heating chamber; exhaust gas; vent (v.); exterior(n.); humidifier (n.);
evaporate (v.); moisture (n.); pass through (v.); provide (v.); duct (n.); life
expectancy.
Упражнение 5. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
(А)
1) humidifier;
2) combustion;
3) density;
4) blower;
5) fuel;
6) convection;
7) to radiate;
(В)
a) to emit (energy, especially light or heat) in the form of rays or
waves;
b) the movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and
therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to
sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in
transfer of heat;
c) a substance such as coal, gas, or oil that can be burned to produce
heat or energy;
d) the process of burning something;
e) the degree of compactness of a substance; the quantity of mass per
unit volume of a substance;
f) a device for keeping the atmosphere in a room moist;
g) thing that blows, especially a mechanical device for creating a current of air used to dry or heat something.
Упражнение 4. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский
язык.
Топочная камера; эжектор (воздуходувная машина); ожидаемый
срок службы; естественная конвекция; тягодутьевое устройство; отработанный воздух; камера подогрева ; отработанный газ; продувать, выпускать; увлажнитель; испарять; влажность, влагосодержание; труба, трубопровод; помещение пребывания людей; эффективный способ; через; безотносительно, независимо от; система каналов; полагаться на.
Упражнение 6. Переведите предложения, определите, к какой части
речи относятся подчеркнутые слова.
1. The heated air is circulated by aid of a blower.
2. Engineers aided customers in making choice of proper conditioning
system.
3. Air conditioning kept occupants warm and dry.
4. The grass was yellowing and the dry had started.
5. The window sashes were lifted regularly to air the room.
6. The air was stale.
7. The new ductwork system will enable air to be processed more
speedily.
8. The manufacturing process is relatively simple.
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23
Упражнение 7. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на
причастие I (Participle I) и причастные обороты.
1. All heat source categories are used with furnaces, including on-site
combustion.
2. Some collectors are manufactured with a black coating which absorbs the high frequency incoming solar radiation very well.
3. Standard plate glass reflects about 8% and absorbs about 6% of
normal incident solar radiation, resulting in a transmissivity of
about 86 %.
4. Plastic covers transmit infrared radiation increasing radiation losses
from the collector.
5. Some collectors using plastic covers are designed to have stagnation
temperatures no higher than 200 – 275 0 F.
6. Forced air furnaces circulating warm air over greater distance
through a ductwork system are equipped with fans.
7. The burning of fuel taking place inside an enclosed metal container
generally referred to as a fire box.
8. The unit including a humidifier evaporates moisture into the air.
a 4-way reversing valve that lets it switch between (переключить
режим) "air conditioner" and "heater."
For climates with moderate heating and cooling needs, heat pumps
offer an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. This
unit works by moving existing heat from one area to another in one of the
following ways:
Air-to-air – Uses air as the outdoor source of heating or cooling and
delivers heating or cooling to air indoors. A condenser absorbs heat from
the outdoor air (even the coldest air contains some heat) and transfers it
to an indoor heat exchanger. Indoor air circulating throughout the interior
space is warmed in the heat exchanger and. During the summer, the process is reversed to cool and dehumidify the home.
Упражнение 8. Переведите предложения с оборотом there + to be.
1. There were several choices for air distribution, each satisfying the
HVAC objectives with different degrees of success.
2. If there is no danger of freezing then ordinary water would be the
choice for collector fluid.
3. As with all systems, you can’t inspect everything, and with air conditioning systems, there are many limitations.
4. There are liquids which are noncorrosive and nonelectrolytic.
5. There are several factors that should be taken into account for material
selection.
6. There were 5 boilers at the university.
7. There are a few instructions for the maintenance of the boiler.
8. There will be some problems to be overcome.
9.
Упражнение 9. Задайте пять вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Текст В
Heat pump
A heat pump (Figure 3.7) is a device acting as an air conditioner in
the summer and as a heater in the winter. Heat pumps look and function
exactly like an air conditioner except it has a reversible cycle. It contains
24
Figure 3.7 Heat pump
Water-to-air – Uses water as the source of heating/cooling, delivers
heating/cooling to air indoors. Instead of extracting heat from outside air,
25
this type of pump absorbs heat from ground water or surface water, such
as a farm pond.
Air-to-water – Uses air outside, water inside: useful where there is a
demand for hot water as well as for air cooling and dehumidification.
Ground-to-air – Also known as a geothermal system, this type of
heat pump uses underground loops to absorb heat from the earth. Geothermal systems are usually installed in newly-built homes, but can also
be used in existing home.
One advantage of a heat pump is that it provides both heating and
cooling capabilities in one unit. Electric heat pumps are usually supplemented with a backup system, such as radiant floor heaters or baseboard
units, in case of extended periods of extreme low ambient temperatures.
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. How does the heat pump act?
2. What is the difference between heat pumps and air conditioners?
3. What does the heat pump contain?
4. How does air-to-air heat pump work?
5. What pump does absorb heat from ground water or surface water?
6. What type is known as a geothermal system?
7. What is the advantage of a heat pump?
Обратимый цикл; реверсивный клапан; внутреннее пространство;
фермерский пруд; подземный трубопровод; резервная система; радиационный обогреватель пола; объединительная панель; продленный период; низкая температура окружающей среды; кроме; точно;
существовать; осушать; осушение; внутренний; наружный; поверхность; способность; дополнять; вместо; по всей площади, через.
Упражнение 3. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
А
Circulate; deliver; extract; supplement; exist; rely on; extend; contain;
act; function; absorb; distribute; dehumidify; include; evaporate; vent;
transfer; provide; reverse.
В
Осушать; циркулировать; дополнять; расширять; содержать; действовать; функционировать; испарять; продувать; полагаться на; распределять; включать; менять; извлекать; поглощать; подавать; передавать; обеспечивать; существовать.
Упражнение 4. Найдите в тексте причастия I (Participle I). Определите функцию и переведите на русский язык.
Упражнение 1. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский
язык.
Device (n.); act (v.); exactly (adv.); except (adj.); reversible cycle; contain (v.); reversing valve; switch (v.); between; moderate (adj); need (n.);
exist (v.); area (n.); another; outdoor (adj.); source (n.); indoor (adj.); absorb (v.); transfer (v.); circulate (v.); throughout; interior space; reverse
(v.); dehumidify (v.); deliver (v.); instead; extract (v.); outside; surface
(n.); farm pond; inside; useful; demand (n.); as well as; dehumidification
(n.); geothermal system; underground loop; earth (n.); geothermal system; install (v.); newly-built home; advantage (n.); capability (n.); supplement (v.); backup system; radiant floor heater; baseboard; extended
period; low ambient temperature; in case of.
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский
язык.
26
27
Урок 3.4
Упражнение 1. Сопоставьте слово с переводом и соответствующей
ему транскрипцией.
1) exposure; 2) designate; 3) furnish; 4) otherwise; 5) biological;
1)
5)
;2
3)
4)
this information to employees; workers are characterized by these assessments and exposure monitoring in accordance with occupational
safety and hazard administration requirements (Figure 3.8).
Notes:
Government Designated Authority (GDA) – специально уполномоченный правительственный орган;
Occupational Safety and Hazard Administration (OSHA) – Управление охраны
труда (безопасностью и рисками на производстве);
release – снимать запрет.
1) определять; 2) иначе; 3) облучение; 4) предоставлять;
5) биологический.
Текст А
Appropriate medical and emergency assistance
After a person has been continuously employed in compressed air
for a period designated by a physician, but it’s not exceeded 1 year, that
person shall be reexamined by a physician. A doctor determines if he/she
is still physically qualified to engage in compressed-air work. All other
requirements for compressed-air work will be specified in the contract
technical provisions.
Except for rescue and emergency measures, the accident scene shall
not be disturbed until it has been released by the investigating official.
The contractor is responsible for obtaining appropriate medical and
emergency assistance and for notifying fire, law enforcement, and regulatory agencies. The contractor must assist and cooperate fully with the
government designated authority conducting the government investigation of the accident. Daily records of all first aid treatments not otherwise
reportable shall be maintained on prescribed forms and furnished to the
government designated authority upon request. In addition to any other
applicable requirements of this section on contract operations, the prime
contractor shall:
a) maintain records of all exposure and accident experience incidental to the work; this includes exposure and accident experience of the
prime contractor and subcontractors and, as a minimum, these records
shall include exposure work hours and a log of occupational injuries and
illnesses;
b) maintain health hazard assessment documentation and employee
exposure monitoring to chemical, biological, and physical agents, provide
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. When shall person be reexamined by a physician?
2. What does a doctor determine?
3. Where will the requirements for compressed-air work be specified?
4. When shall the accident scene be disturbed?
5. What is the contractor responsible for?
6. Who must the contractor assist and cooperate with?
7. Where shall daily records of all first aid treatments be maintained?
8. What shall the prime contractor do in addition to any other applicable requirements?
9. What do the records include?
10. What does health hazard assessment monitor?
28
29
Figure 3.8 Warning signs
Упражнение 1. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский
язык.
Continuously (adv.); designate (v.); exceed (v.); engage (v.); requirement
(n.); contract (n.); technical (adj.); obtaining (n.); appropriate provisions;
rescue (n.); emergency measures; accident scene; disturb (v.); release
(v.); responsible for (v.); medical and emergency assistance; law enforcement; regulatory agencies; assist (v.); cooperate (v.); fully (adv.);
daily records; first aid treatments; reportable (adj.); maintain (v.); prescribe (v.); applicable (adj.); exposure (n.); incidental (adj.); subcontractor (n.); occupational injuries; physical agents; provide (v.).
In accordance with; after; until; with; except; otherwise; all; other.
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский
язык.
Непрерывно; техническое обеспечение; определять, обозначать; место несчастного случая; правоохранительные органы; орган управления; производственная травма; обуславливать, устанавливать.
Упражнение 3. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
(А)
1) hazard;
2) provision;
3) emergency;
4) exposure;
5) qualification;
(В)
a) a quality or accomplishment that makes someone suitable for a particular job or activity;
b) the quantity of light or other radiation reaching a photographic film,
as determined by shutter speed and lens aperture;
c) a potential source of danger;
d) an amount or thing or equipment supplied or provided;
e) an unexpected and dangerous situation that must be dealt with immediately.
1. Accidents will be investigated in depth to identify all causes and to
recommend hazard control measures.
2. The records to be maintained include exposure work hours and a
log of occupational injuries and illnesses.
3. The contractor must assist and cooperate fully with the government
designated authority.
4. A person shall be examined by a physician to determine if he/she is
physically qualified to engage in compressed-air work.
5. To circulate the heat is not a very efficient way to heat a space.
6. The equipment is selected with spaces to be served.
7. The objective of an HVAC (heating, ventilating, and airconditioning) system is to control the temperature.
8. To oversee the complete building project on a wider perspective is
the responsibility of the architect.
9. The area to be heated to the same temperature is controlled by a
single thermostat.
10. The success of a building depends on the ability to provide thermal
comfort with the least operating costs.
11. The air is cooled much lower to remove moisture.
Упражнение 5. Переведите существительные.
Absorbtion; action; administration; application; accumulation; automation; collection; combustion; construction; convection; condition; consideration; circulation; dehumidification; direction; distribution; function;
foundation; generation; installation; instruction; insulation; interaction;
investigation; limitation; option; operation; portion; prevention; protection; regulation; radiation; section; selection; station; specification; stagnation; ventilation.
Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на инфинитив и инфинитивные обороты. Определите функцию инфинитива в предложениях.
Упражнение 6. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на
функцию слова -it.
1. It is important to assist and cooperate fully with the government designated authority.
2. This requirement is used because of its importance.
3. The accident scene shall not be disturbed until it has been released
by the investigating official.
4. It is the responsibility of the architect to guide and advise the customer on the best option.
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31
5. It is the water-to-air heat pump that uses water as the source of heating/cooling.
6. The absorber plate is that part of the collector which absorbs the solar energy and converts it to thermal energy.
7. The advantage of the water tube boiler is that it can work in high
steam pressure and capacities.
8. It is very harmful for the boiler if it contains too little water.
9. Once-Through Boiler. It is the type that suited to supercritical pressure operation above 220 bar, for steam.
Notes:
at no time – никогда;
APP- accident prevention plan – план предотвращений аварий.
Упражнение 7. Задайте пять различных типов вопросов к тексту.
Текст В
Emergency situations
The employer shall provide training in handling emergency situations that may arise in the activities or use of equipment on the project.
All persons who may have occasion to use emergency and rescue or lifesaving equipment shall be familiarized with the location of the equipment. They shall be trained in the proper use of the equipment and its capabilities and limitations, and medically qualified for its use.
Physical qualifications of employees. All persons shall be physically, medically, and emotionally qualified for performing the duties to
which they are assigned. Some factors that must be considered in making
work assignments are strength, endurance, agility, coordination, and visual and hearing acuity. At no time while on duty employees may use or
be under the influence of alcohol, narcotics, intoxicants, or similar mindaltering substances. Employees found under the influence of or consuming such substances will be immediately removed from the job site. Contractors shall enforce the drug-free workplace requirements as part of
their APP (Figure 3.9).
Emergency planning. Emergency plans to ensure employee safety
in case of fire or other emergency shall be prepared in writing and reviewed with all affected employees. Emergency plans shall be tested to
ensure their effectiveness. Plans shall include escape procedures and
routes, critical plant operations, employee accounting following an emergency evacuation, rescue and medical duties, means of reporting emergencies, and persons to be contacted for information or clarification.
32
Figure 3.9
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. What shall the employer provide in emergency situations?
2. Who shall be familiarized with the location of the equipment?
3. How shall all employees be qualified for performing the duties to
which they are assigned?
4. Why will employees be immediately removed from the job site?
Упражнение 1. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский
язык.
Provide (v.); emergency situations; equipment (n.); rescue or equipment;
familiarize (v.); location (n.); proper (adj.); capability (n.); limitation (n.);
physical qualifications; physically (adv.); medically (adv.); emotionally
(adv.); duty (n.); assignment (n.); strength (n.); endurance (n.); agility(n.);
coordination (n.); , visual and hearing acuity; influence (n.); alcohol (n.);
33
narcotic (n.); intoxicant (n.); substance (n.); immediately (adv.); job site;
enforce (v.); drug-free (adj.); workplace (n.); part (n.).
At no time; under; which; some; that; or; all; in; and; for; with; while.
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский
язык.
Экстремальная ситуация; никогда; выносливость; назначение; знакомить, приобщать; физическая подготовка; сообразительность,
оперативность действий; острота (зрения), четкость; не содержащий
наркотиков; обязанность; влияние.
Упражнение 3. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
А
alcohol; enforce; drug-free; influence; duty; proper; qualification; intoxicant; assignment; substance; immediately; acuity;
В
квалификация; обязанность; отравляющее вещество; обеспечивать
исполнение; надлежащий; острота (зрения); назначение; вещество;
влияние; не содержащий наркотиков; алкоголь; немедленно.
Упражнение 4. Найдите в тексте прилагательное с суффиксом -al
и наречия с суффиксом -ly.
Упражнение 5. Найдите в тексте сложноподчиненные предложения
и определите его структуру.
Урок 3.5
Упражнение 1. Сопоставьте слово с переводом и соответствующей
ему транскрипцией.
1) access; 2) bulletin; 3) facility; 4) injury; 5) physician;
1)
; 2)
3)
4)
; 5)
;
1) зд. организация; 2) получить доступ; 3) увечье; 4) доктор; 5) бюллетень.
Текст А
Health bulletin board
The contractor shall erect and maintain a safety and health bulletin
board in an area commonly accessed by workers. The bulletin board shall
be maintained currently, in clear view of onsite workers. It shall be protected against the unauthorized removal. It shall contain at least the following safety and health information: a) map denoting the route to the
nearest emergency care facility; b) emergency phone numbers; c) copy of
the most up-to-date accident prevention plan shall be mounted on to the
bulletin board or located in accessible place for all workers; d) copy of
current activity hazard analyses shall be mounted on to the bulletin board
and will be accessible on the site by all workers; e) occupational safety
and health administration shall be posted in accordance with requirements and mounted on to the bulletin board.
Compressed-air workers No person shall be permitted to enter a compressed-air environment until examined by a licensed physician and
found to be physically qualified to engage in such work. Any person
working in a compressed-air environment who is absent from work for 10
or more days, or is absent due to sickness or injury, shall not resume
work until she/ he is reexamined by a licensed physician and found to be
physically qualified to work in a compressed-air environment.
Notes:
Government Designated Authority (GDA) – специально уполномоченный правительственный орган;
Occupational Safety and Hazard Administration (OSHA) – Управление охраны
труда (безопасностью и рисками на производстве).
bulletin board – доска объявлений;
unauthorized removal – незаконное изъятие;
34
35
emergency care facility – организация неотложной помощи;
in clear view – на виду.
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. What shall the contractor erect and maintain?
2. What information shall bulletin board contain?
3. Who shall be permitted to enter a compressed-air environment?
4. When can workers resume their work?
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский
язык.
Contractor (n.); erect (v.); maintain (v.); safety and health bulletin board;
area (n.); commonly (adv.); access (v.); currently (adv.); protect (v.); unauthorized removal; contain (v.); map (n.); denote (v.); route (n.); emergency care facility; copy (v.); up-to-date (adj.); accident prevention plan;
mount (v.); accessible (adj.); requirement (n.); permit (v.); enter(v.);
compressed-air environment; examine (v.); licensed physician; engage
(v.); sickness (n.); resume (v.).
Such; until; at least; all; in accordance with; in clear view; more.
Упражнение 3. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский
язык.
Подрядчик; требование; доступ; доска объявлений; незаконное изъятие; организация неотложной помощи; план предотвращения аварий; на виду; квалифицированный врач; болезнь; привлекать, вовлекать; устанавливать; безопасность; позволять; современный; карта;
указывать; маршрут; в соответствии с.
Упражнение 4. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
А
1) contractor;
2) worker;
3) bulletin board;
4) physician;
5) site;
В
a. a board on the wall that you put information or pictures on;
b. a person qualified to practice medicine;
36
c. a person or company that undertakes a contract to provide materials or
labor to perform a service or do a job;
d. an employee, especially one who does a job, especially a particular
type of job;
e. the place where people work or an area of ground on which a town,
building, or monument is constructed.
Упражнение 5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на инфинитив, а также на объектные и субъектные инфинитивные обороты.
1. It is important to reduce roof heat load.
2. The transparent covers serve to admit solar radiation to the absorber.
3. Glass is generally considered to be more durable than plastic.
4. A selective coating plus one cover glass may be expected to be about
equal in efficiency to a collector with two cover glasses and a flat black
painted surface.
5. Much research is being done to produce low cost and easily applied
coatings.
6. Plastic covers have been developed to withstand 400 0 F.
7. Of the plastic covers, teflon seemed to have the least weathering (0.5 to
4.3% loss) and the most dirt accumulation (5.4–7.7% loss).
8. No person shall be permitted to enter a compressed-air environment
until she or he is reexamined by a licensed physician and found to be
physically qualified to engage in such work.
Упражнение 6. Переведите предложения, определите функцию слова that.
1. Absorptance of solar radiation by the collector can be increased by using glass that has a low iron content.
2. Some testing suggests that over a 24 month period glass covers will
lose about 0–2 % of their transmittance.
3. The advantage of the water tube boiler is that it can work in high steam
pressure and capacities.
4. The problem is that the heat exchanger that doesn’t suffer from fouling
still has to be invented.
5. That worker is permitted to enter a compressed-air environment.
6. The thermal conductivity of hydrocarbons is lower than that of water.
37
7. If the temperature in the boiler could rise to dangerous values, in that
case the pipes of the boiler could melt down or the boiler could explode.
8. The absorber plate is that part of the collector which absorbs the solar
energy and converts it to thermal energy.
Упражнение 7. Задайте пять вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Текст В
Accident reporting and recordkeeping
All accidents occurring incidentally to an operation, project, or facility will be investigated, reported, and analyzed as prescribed by the
Government Designated Authority (GDA). Employees are responsible
for reporting all injuries or occupationally related illnesses as soon as
possible to their employer or immediate supervisor. Employers and immediate supervisors are responsible for reporting all injuries to the GDA
within 24 hours. No supervisor shall decline to accept a report of injury
from a subordinate. An accident having any of the consequences listed
below shall be immediately reported to the GDA. These accidents will be
investigated in depth to identify all causes and to recommend hazard control measures. The GDA shall immediately notify the safety and occupational health office of all serious accidents and follow-up with official accidents reports as prescribed by regulation.
Contractors are responsible for notifying Occupational Safety and
Hazard Administration (OSHA) when one or more of their employees are
seriously injured Figure 3.10. List of consequences: a) fatal injury; b)
permanent totally disabling injury; c) permanent partial disabling injury;
d) three or more persons admitted to a hospital; e) property damage.
Notes:
Government Designated Authority (GDA) – специально уполномоченный пра-
вительственный орган;
immediate supervisor – непосредственный начальник;
subordinate – подчиненный;
Occupational Safety and Hazard Administration (OSHA) – Управление охраны
труда (безопасностью и рисками на производстве).
38
Figure 3.10 Workplace hazardous material information system
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. What will be investigated, reported, and analyzed as prescribed by the
GDA?
2. What are employees responsible for?
3. What are immediate supervisors responsible for?
4. Whom shall supervisor accept a report of injury from?
5. Why will accidents be investigated in depth?
6. What shall the GDA immediately do?
39
Упражнение 1. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский
язык.
Accident (n.); occur (v.); incidentally (adv.); operation (n.); project (n.);
facility (n.); investigate (v.); report (v.); analyze (v.); prescribe (v.); employee (n.); responsible (adj.); injury (n.); occupationally (adv.); illness
(n.); employer (n.); immediate supervisor; decline (v.); accept (v.); subordinate (n.); consequence (n.); list (v.); immediately (adv.); in depth;
identify (v.); cause (n.); hazard control measures; notify (v.); follow-up
(v.); regulation (n.); contractor (n.); permanent (adj.); totally (adv.); partial (adj.); admit (v.); as soon as possible; hospital (n.); property damage.
Within; below; from; that.
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский
язык.
Случайно; несчастный случай с тяжкими последствиями; исследовать; сообщать; анализировать; подчиненный; ответственный; последствия; тщательно, детально; регламент, устав; постоянный; контроль степени риска; извещать, уведомлять; отказаться, отвергать,
отклонять; производственный, профессиональный; непосредственный начальник; происшествие, несчастный случай; подрядчик; травма с частичной (полной) потерей трудоспособности; больница; госпитализировать; официальный донесение о чрезвычайном происшествии.
Упражнение 3. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
А
accident; subordinate; report; accept; occur; consequences; admit; identify; partial; measure; hazard; cause; investigate; illness; depth; employee.
В
cлужащий; риск; частичный; исследовать; госпитализировать; принимать; глубина; последствия; подчиненный; происшествие; сообщать; мера; происходить; болезнь; причина; устанавливать.
Упражнение 4. Найдите в тексте причастия I (Participle I). Определите функцию и переведите на русский язык.
40
Урок 3.6
Упражнение 1. Прочитайте слова.
[ ] only; component; zone; local; stove; ho tel; total; control; know;
window;
[ ] advantage; package; large; energy; geothermal; general; breakage;
oxygen; range; refrigerant; exchange; budget; knowledge.
Упражнение 2. Сопоставьте слово с переводом и соответствующей
ему транскрипцией.
1) infrared (heater); 2) associate; 3) occasional (basis); 4) adjacent;
5) sophisticate; 6) individualize; 7) thermostat.
1)
5)
2
6)
3)
; 7)
4)
1) соседний; 2) (технически) сложный; 3) время от времени (по мере
необходимости); 4) персонализировать; 5) термостат (электротепловое реле); 6) связывать, ассоциировать; 7) (радиационный нагреватель) с использованием инфракрасного излучения.
Текст А
Local heating sources
A local heating system serves a single thermal zone and has its major
components located within the zone itself. Serving only a single zone, local heating systems have only one point of control – typically a thermostat for active systems. A local heating system consists of one or more
self-contained equipment units containing heat source, distribution, and
delivery functions in a single package. Portable electric heaters, built in
electric resistance heaters (Figure 3.11), electric resistance baseboard radiators, infrared heaters, fireplaces, and wood stoves are examples of local heating systems. There are a number of advantages associated with
the use of local systems.
• The failure of one of 12 heating units, for example, may cause discomfort in one room of a building but there are still 11 operating
units that can provide heat for the rest of the building.
41
• Because local systems are likely to be of small capacity and are not
complicated by interconnections with other units, maintenance of
local systems tends to be simple and available through numerous
service providers.
• In a building where a large number of spaces may be used only on
an occasional basis, such as a dormitory or hotel, local systems may
be totally shut off in the unused spaces, thus providing potential energy savings.
• A local HVAC system may provide greater occupant comfort
through totally individualized control options – if one room needs
heating while an adjacent one needs cooling, two local systems can
respond without conflict.
With advantages often come disadvantages.
• Local system units can not be easily connected together to permit
centralized energy management operations.
• Local systems can usually be centrally controlled with respect to
on-off functions through electric circuit control, but more sophisticated central control (such as night-setback or economizer operation) is not possible.
Figure 3.11 Electrical resistance
42
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. What does a local heating system serve?
2. What does it consist of?
3. What are the examples of local heating systems?
4. What are the advantages of local heating systems?
5. What are the disadvantages of local heating systems?
Упражнение 3. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский
язык.
A local heating system; a single thermal zone; thermostat (n.); selfcontained equipment unit; heat source; distribution function; delivery
function; portable electric heater; built-in electric resistance heater; electric resistance baseboard radiator; infrared heater; fireplace (n.); wood
stove; associate with (v.); the rest of the building; likely (adv.); small capacity; complicated (adj.); interconnections; maintenance (n.); tend (v.);
available (adj.); service provider; occasional basis; shut off (v.); unused
space; potential energy saving; adjacent (adj.); respond (v.); advantage
(n.); disadvantage (n.); connect together; permit (v.); centralized energy
management operation; with respect to; on-off functions; electric circuit
control; night-setback (n.).
Упражнение 5. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский
язык.
Замкнутый, автономный; электрический резистивный нагреватель;
радиатор плинтусного типа; источник автономной системы отопления; печь с дровяным отоплением; электрическая разводка; соседний, смежный; централизованное управление энергоупотребелением; понижение температуры на ночной период; технически сложное
центральное управление; поставщик услуг; потенциальное энергосбережение; соответствовать; в отношении, что касается, относительно; управление электрической цепью; остальная часть здания;
состоять из; источник тепла; функция распределения питания;
функция подачи питания; обслуживание, поддержания технического
состояния; полностью персонализованные средства управления.
Упражнение 6. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
(А)
1) thermal;
2) centralized energy management;
3) night-setback;
4) wood stove;
43
5) baseboard radiator;
6) thermostat;
(В)
a) an electric heater that contains an electric heating element inside a
metal pipe;
b) relating to heat;
c) a device that automatically regulates temperature, or that activates
a device when the temperature reaches a certain point;
d) system is used to control a heating system and lower the room
temperature at night, which reduces heating costs;
e) system uses a central controller where the manipulation of all
HVAC and heater fans, ducts, or appliances resides;
f) a heating appliance capable of burning wood fuel and woodderived biomass fuel.
Упражнение 7. Заполните пропуски, используя данные слова.
A chiller; uses; buildings; water.
Chillers (Figure3.12)
A water chilled system has to be used for larger 1)…….. . In such a
system, the entire refrigeration cycle occurs within a single piece of
equipment known as 2)…….. . An electrically driven water chiller
3)…….. the same vapor-compression refrigeration as a DX (direct expansion-испарение непосредственным охлаждением хладагента) system. But instead of cooling air, it chills 4)…….. which is pumped to the
air handling units.
Упражнение 8. Переведите прилагательные с суффиксом -al и наречия с суффиксом -ly. Образуйте от прилагательных наречия с помощью суффикса -ly.
Actual; additional; biological; carefully central; chemical; commercially;
critically; directly; drastically; economically; environmental; essential;
emotional; especially; equal; external; fatal; generally; gradually; individual; industrial; incidentally; local; mechanical; natural; normal; official; partial; occasional; optical; possibly; potential; properly; quickly;
structural; substantial; thermal; typical; totally; usual.
Упражнение 9. Переведите сложноподчиненные предложения. Определите тип придаточного предложения.
1. Local heating systems will have only one point of control since it
serves only a single zone.
2. Because local systems are likely to be of small capacity its maintenance tends to be simple.
3. If one room needs heating while an adjacent one needs cooling, two
local systems can respond without conflict.
4. A local heating system consists of one or more self-contained
equipment units which contains heat source, distribution, and delivery functions in a single package.
5. If a large number of spaces may be used only on an occasional basis, local systems may be totally shut off in the unused spaces.
6. There are 12 operating units that can provide heat.
7. They used totally individualized control options to provide greater
occupant comfort.
8. Chillers cool water which is pumped to the air handling units.
9. Why local system units cannot be easily connected together is clear.
Упражнение 10. Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Текст В
Figure 3.12 Chiller
44
HVAC equipment: processes of cooling
The process of cooling is actually removal of heat. Comfort cooling
is almost always accomplished by cooling air and then distributing the air
into the space, where it mixes with the room air and cools down the entire
volume.
45
There are four principal processes of cooling: a) mechanical compression refrigeration, b) absorption refrigeration, c) evaporative cooling,
and d) natural ventilation. Cooling processes almost always involve circulating air through a machine that cools air down and blows it with a fan
back into the space to be conditioned. The fluid that imparts the cooling
effect to air is either a refrigerant which changes from a liquid to a gas or
water. The central cooling generation equipment is referred to as DX (direct expansion) when the fluid used is a refrigerant. If the fluid is water,
then the equipment called water chiller.
The mechanical vapor-compression cycle (Figure 3.13) is a method
of transferring heat from one location to another. The cycle consists of
four basic components: a) evaporator, b) compressor, c) condenser, and
d) expansion valve.
Figure 3.13 Mechanical compression refrigeration system
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. What is the process of cooling?
2. How does the process of cooling work?
3. How many principal processes of cooling are there?
4. What do cooling processes involve?
5. What is the central cooling generation equipment referred to?
6. How is the equipment called if the fluid is water?
7. What is the mechanical vapor-compression cycle?
8. What does the cycle consist of?
46
Упражнение 1. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский
язык.
Removal (n.); comfort cooling; accomplish (v.); distribute (v.); entire
volume; mechanical compression refrigeration; absorption refrigeration;
evaporative cooling; natural ventilation; involve (v.); fan (n.); impart (v.);
cooling effect; refrigerant (n.); central cooling generation equipment; refer to (v.); DX (direct expansion); water chiller; mechanical vaporcompression cycle; location (n.); consist of (v.); evaporator (n.); compressor (n.); condenser (n.); expansion valve.
Actually; almost; always; and; then; into; where; with; through; down;
back; that; either; which; from; or; as; when; if.
Упражнение 3. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский
язык.
Сжатие в компрессоре; испарение охлаждением; естественная вентиляция, аэрация; придавать, наделять; охлаждающее действие; холодильный агент; установка для охлаждения водой; цикл с механической компрессией пара; расширительный клапан, регулирующий
вентиль.
Всегда; и; затем; где; с; через; назад; который; когда; что; либо; от;
как, в качестве; если.
Упражнение 4. Найдите перевод слов списка А в списке В.
А
Evaporator; compressor; liquid; refrigeration; chiller; direct expansion;
ventilation; valve; condenser; space; equipment; fan; fluid; absorption;
location; volume; accomplish; distribute; impart; another; consist of; involve; refer to; almost; always; through.
В
Жидкость; клапан; охлаждение; компрессор; текучая среда; испаритель; непосредственное охлаждение; пространство; через; оборудование; вентиляция; состоять из; всегда; относится к; придавать; другой; расположение; объем; завершать; тягодутьевое устройство; конденсатор; распределять; почти; абсорбция; включать; охладитель
(охлаждающий теплообменник).
Упражнение 5. Найдите в тексте прилагательное с суффиксом -al
и наречия с суффиксом -ly.
47
Упражнение 6. Сопоставьте элементы оборудования по охлаждению и подогреву (А) с их функциями (В).
(A) The essential elements of delivery side cooling and heating equipment are:
1) air handling equipment;
2) supply network;
3) return path;
4) exhaust outlet;
5) fresh air inlet;
(B) Functions:
a. required to replace exhaust air and maintain an acceptable level
of air quality.
b. carries air back to the delivery unit (air handling unit). Ducting is
optional.
c. distributes conditioned air to different part of the building. Ducts
required.
d. controls temperature, humidity, and quality of air.
e. required to get rid of odors and air contaminants.
48
Урок 3.7
Упражнение 1. Прочитайте слова.
[ ] e xpansion; е vaporators; ex changer; e ffect; e lectrical; elect ricity;
e xcept; ex tract (v.); rec iprocating; degree; ref rigerant.
Упражнение 2. Сопоставьте слово с переводом и соответствующей
ему транскрипцией.
1) evaporator; 2) medium; 3) vaporization; 4) reciprocating; 5) cylinder;
6) coil;
1)
4)
5)
2
; 6)
3)
;
1) поршневой; 2) испаритель; 3) испарение; 4) среда (вещество);
5) змеевик; 6) цилиндр.
Текст А
Evaporators and Compressors
An evaporator is a heat exchanger in which the liquid refrigerant is vaporized and extracts heat from the surrounding air, chilled water, brine,
or other substance to produce a refrigeration effect. Evaporators used in
air-conditioning can be classified according to the combination of the
medium to be cooled and the type of refrigerant feed; broadly 2 types are
used in comfort applications:
Direct expansion coils are air coolers, and the refrigerant is fed according
to its degree of superheat after vaporization.
Flooded shell-and-tube liquid coolers is similar in construction to a shelland-tube water-cooled condenser, except that it’s liquid refrigeration inlet
is at the bottom and the vapor outlet is at the top. Water velocity inside
the copper tubes is usually between 4 and 12 ft/sec and the water-side
pressure drop is normally below 10 psig. Flooded liquid coolers can provide larger evaporating surface area and need minimal space. They are
widely used in large central air-conditioning systems.
The compressor compresses the refrigerant gas, causing it to become
much warmer than the outside air. The refrigerant enters the compressor
on the "suction side" and after it leaves the compressor, the refrigerant is
referred to as "hot gas". Four types of electrical chillers (Figure 3.14)
49
dominate the market: reciprocating compressors, scroll compressors,
screw compressors, centrifugal compressors. Reciprocating compressors
are driven by a motor and use pistons, cylinders and valves to compress
the refrigerant. Scroll compressors feature two involute scrolls, one stationary and one orbiting around the first. Power input to the scroll compressor is about 5 to 10% less than to the reciprocating compressor. A
scroll compressor also operates more smoothly and is quieter. Screw
compressors are based on a mechanism made up of two threaded rotors
(screws) that are coupled together. Twin-screw compressors are more efficient than reciprocating compressors. Centrifugal compressors are made
up of a rotor located inside a special chamber. The characteristics of a
centrifugal compressor make it ideal for air conditioning applications because it is suitable for variable loads, has few moving parts, and is economical to operate. They are the most widely used refrigeration compressors in large air-conditioning systems but are used only in water cooled
configurations due to lower compression ratios.
Notes:
psig (pounds per square inch gauged) фунт на квадратный дюйм индикаторный.
Figure 3.14 Ciller system
50
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. What is an evaporator?
2. How can evaporators used in air-conditioning be classified?
3. What is the difference between flooded shell-and-tube liquid coolers and shell-and-tube water-cooled condenser?
4. How does the compressor work?
5. What types of electrical chillers do dominate the market?
6. What are reciprocating compressors driven by?
7. How does a scroll compressor operate?
8. What are screw compressors based on?
9. What are the centrifugal compressors made up of?
10. Why is the centrifugal compressor ideal for air conditioning applications?
11. Why are the centrifugal compressors used only in water cooled
configurations?
Упражнение 3. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский
язык.
Vaporize (v.); extract (v.); surrounding air; brine (n.); substance; classify
(v.); according to; combination (n.); medium (n.); refrigerant feed;
broadly (adv.); application; coil (n.); superheat (n.); vaporization (n.);
flooded shell-and-tube liquid cooler; construction (n.); shell-and-tube water-cooled condenser; except (v.); liquid refrigeration inlet; bottom (n.);
vapor outlet; top (n.); water velocity; inside; below; flooded liquid cooler;
provide (v.); evaporating surface area; central air-conditioning systems;
refrigerant gas, cause (v.); outside air; suction side; electrical chiller;
dominate (v.); reciprocating compressor; scroll compressor; screw compressor; centrifugal compressor; drive by (v.); motor (n.); piston (n.); cylinder (n.); valve (n.); feature (n.); involute scroll; stationary; orbiting;
power input; operate (v.); smoothly; base on (v.); threaded rotor; couple
together; chamber (n.); compression ratio.
Упражнение 4. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский
язык.
Газообразный хладагент; сторона пониженного давления, сторона
всасывания; поршневой компрессор; спиральный компрессор; винтовой компрессор; центробежный (ротационный) компрессор; скрученный, закрученный; спираль; потребляемая мощность; нарезной
51
ротор(винт); соединять, связывать; коэффициент сжатия (уплотнения); охлаждающий раствор солей; перегрев, избыточное тепло;
змеевик непосредственного охлаждения; окружающий воздух; затопленный кожухотрубный жидкостный охладитель; область парообразующей поверхности; центральная система кондиционирования
воздуха.
Упражнение 5. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
(А)
1) refrigerant;
2) evaporator;
3) cooler;
4) compressor;
5) condenser;
6) scroll;
7) screw;
(В)
a) an apparatus or container for condensing vapour;
b) a machine used to supply air or other gas at increased pressure;
c) a device used to turn the liquid form of a chemical into its gaseous form;
d) a thin pointed piece of metal that you push and turn in order to
fasten pieces of metal or wood together;
e) a substance used for refrigeration;
f) a machine for cooling something;
g) a design shaped like a piece of rolled up paper.
Упражнение 6. Переведите предложения и определите функцию
причастия I и II (Participle I & II), обратите внимание на независимый причастный оборот.
1. Local systems may be totally shut off in the unused spaces providing potential energy savings.
2. Serving only a single zone, local heating systems have only one
point of control.
3. Employees found under the influence of alcohol will be immediately removed from the job site.
4. Heat transfer oils used in liquid systems offer freeze protection.
52
5. Evaporators used in air-conditioning can be classified according to
the combination of the medium to be cooled and the type of refrigerant feed.
6. Screw compressors are based on a mechanism made up of two
threaded rotors.
7. An evaporator is a heat exchanger extracting heat from the air.
8. The electrical chillers dominating the market are scroll compressors, screw compressors, centrifugal compressors and others.
9. Having few moving parts, centrifugal compressor is economical to
operate.
10. Providing larger evaporating surface area, flooded liquid coolers
need minimal space.
11. The system objectives having been determined, the architect
choose the type of system.
12. The centrifugal compressor being ideal for air conditioning applications, the engineers used them a lot.
13. Time permitting, they will come next week.
14. Your attempt falling, no one will help us.
Упражнение 7. Заполните пропуски, используя данные слова.
Are used; is used; is; reenters; to absorb.
Expansion process
The final step in the refrigeration cycle …….. the expansion of the refrigerant in an expansion valve. This relieves the pressure built up by the
compressor. Temperature is thus reduced even further allowing the refrigerant …….. more heat from the interior space when it …….. the
evaporator. For large chillers, electronic thermostatic expansion valves
……. as expansion device, whereas in smaller systems such as window
air conditioners capillary tube ……. .
Упражнение 8. Образуйте существительные от следующих глаголов, используя суффикс -ment и переведите их.
Accomplish; assign; assess; govern; enforce; environ; equipment; move;
manage; replace; require; supple; treat.
Упражнение 9. Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
53
Текст В
Condenser
A condenser is a heat exchanger in which hot gaseous refrigerant is condensed into liquid and the latent heat of condensation is rejected to the
atmospheric air, surface water, or well water. In a condenser, hot gas is
first desuperheated, then condensed into liquid, and finally sub-cooled.
Condensers can be either air-cooled (Figure 3.15) or water-cooled
(Figure 3.16).
Air cooled condensers use ambient air to remove heat from the refrigerant. Hot gas from the compressor enters the condensing coil from
the top. A fan forces air across small tubes containing the hot refrigerant
and discharges that heat into the ambient air. The volume flow of cooling
air per unit of total heat rejection is typically 600 to 1,200 cfm/ton of refrigeration capacity and the optimum value is about 900 cfm/ton. The
corresponding cooling air temperature difference – cooling air leaving
temperature minus outdoor temperature is around 13°F. Air-cooled condensers are rated at a specific condenser temperature difference, depending on the evaporating temperature of the refrigeration system. The condenser temperature difference for an air-cooled condenser is defined as
the difference between the saturated condensing temperature corresponding to the pressure at the inlet and the air intake temperature. For a refrigeration system having a lower evaporating temperature, it is more economical to equip a larger condenser with a smaller condenser temperature
difference. For a comfort air-conditioning system having an evaporative
temperature of 45°F; condenser temperature difference is 20 to 30°F.
Water-cooled condensers; water condensed units are more efficient than
air condensed, often operating in the range of 15 EER (energy efficiency
ratio) or better. Water-cooled chillers require a source of cooling water,
such as cooling tower water, to extract heat from the refrigerant at the
condenser and reject it to the ambient environment. Two types of watercooled condensers are widely used for air-conditioning and refrigeration:
double-tube condensers and horizontal shell-and-tube condensers.
54
Figure 3.15 Air-cooled condenser (HR-hot reheat; HRSG – heat recovery steam generation – паровой котел-утилизатор)
Figure 3.16 Water-cooled condenser
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. What is a condenser?
2. What types of condensers are there?
3. How do air cooled condensers work?
4. How is the condenser temperature difference for an air-cooled condenser defined?
5. What is more economical for a refrigeration system having a lower
evaporating temperature?
55
6. How do water cooled condensers work?
7. What types of water-cooled condensers are widely used for airconditioning and refrigeration?
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский
язык.
Gaseous refrigerant; latent heat; reject (v.); atmospheric air; surface water; well water; desuperheat (v.); sub-cooled; air-cooled condenser; water-cooled condenser; ambient air; coil (n.); force (v.); discharge (v.);
flow (n.); heat rejection; refrigeration capacity; optimum value; temperature difference; leaving temperature; outdoor temperature; rate; define
(v.); saturated condensing temperature; air intake temperature; EER (energy efficiency ratio); cooling tower water; extract (v.).
In; which; into; and; then; either; from; that; cfm/ton; about; around; between; with; often; per unit; such as; °F.
Упражнение 3. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский
язык.
Вода из скважины; конденсатор с водяным охлаждением; до вскипания; окружающий воздух; отвод тепла; вода, охлажденная в градирне (башня); температура воздухозабора; поверхностные воды;
температура на выходе; температура насыщенного пара; газообразный хладагент; коэффициент энергоэффективности; футы в минуту;
в диапазоне; тонна.
Между; который; с; на единицу (длины, площади, объема); такой
как; около (2); часто; от; что; затем; в; внутрь.
Упражнение 5. Прочитайте текст и переведите его, не используя
словарь.
Condensers
A higher condensing temperature, a higher condensing pressure,
and a higher compressor power input may be due to an undersized aircooled condenser, lack of cooling air or a high entering cooling air temperature, a dirty condensing coil, warm air circulation because of insufficient clearance between the condenser and the wall, or a combination of
these. The clearance should not be less than the width of the condensing
coil. Compared to water, air is a poor conductor of heat and therefore aircooled chillers are larger and less efficient. Air-cooled machines operate
at higher compressor ratios – which mean less cooling per watt energy
consumption.
Упражнение 6. Найдите в тексте причастия II (Participle II). Определите их функцию и переведите на русский язык.
Упражнение 4. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний.
Температура конденсации; давление конденсации; потребляемая
мощность компрессора; конденсатор с воздушным охлаждением недостаточной величины; высокая температура поступающего охлаждающего воздуха; загрязненный охладительный змеевик; циркуляция нагретого воздуха; недостаточный зазор; степень сжатия компрессора; понижать температуру перегретого пара; энергопотребление.
56
57
cally range from as little as 50 tons to as much as 1,000 tons or more.
Large facilities may be equipped with several large cooling towers.
Урок 3.8
Упражнение 1. Прочитайте слова.
one; ton, function; pump, bulb; other; result; comfort; just.
Упражнение 2. Сопоставьте слово с переводом и соответствующей
ему транскрипцией.
1) quantity; 2) equal; 3) equivalent; 4) duty; 5) magnitude; 6) to cause;
1)
5)
; 6)
; 2)
;
; 3)
; 4)
];
1) эквивалент (равный по величине); 2) величина; 3) вызывать; 4)
количество; 5) равный; 6) производительность (зд.).
Текст А
Cooling towers
A cooling tower (Figure 3.17) is a heat rejection device, installed
outside of the building envelope, through which condenser water is circulated. Refrigerant in the refrigeration cycle is condensed in a refrigerant
to water heat exchanger. Heat rejected from the refrigerant increases the
temperature of the condenser water, which must be cooled to permit the
cycle to continue. The condenser water is circulated to the cooling tower
where evaporative cooling causes heat to be removed from the water and
added to the outside air. The cooled condenser water is then piped back
to the condenser of the chiller. A cooling tower is a latent heat exchanger,
where the magnitude of heat flow is a function of the quantity of water
that is evaporated which is primarily a function of the relative humidity
of the outside air. Cooling Towers for HVAC duty are usually described
by their tons of cooling capacity. The cooling capacity indicates the rate
at which the cooling tower can transfer heat. One ton of cooling is equal
to 12,000 BTUs (British thermal units) per hour, or 200 BTUs per minute. The heat rejected from an air conditioning system equals about 1.25
times the net refrigeration effect. Therefore the equivalent ton on the
cooling tower side actually rejects about 15,000 Btu/hour (12,000 Btu
cooling load plus 3,000 Btu’s per ton for work of compression). Cooling
tower capacities at commercial, industrial, or institutional facilities typi58
Figure 3.17 Cooling tower
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. What is cooling tower?
2. How does it work?
3. What is the magnitude of heat flow?
4. How are HVAC duty usually described?
5. What does the cooling capacity indicate?
6. How do the cooling tower capacities at commercial, industrial, or
institutional facilities typically range?
Упражнение 3. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский
язык.
Heat rejection device; install (v.); outside (adv.); building envelope; refrigeration cycle; reject (v.); permit (v.); evaporative cooling; cooling
tower; latent heat exchanger; relative humidity; cooling capacity; equal
(adj.); equivalent (n.); net refrigeration effect; ton (n.); facility (n.); typically (adv.); range (v.); equipped with.
Through; which; therefore.
59
Упражнение 4.Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский
язык.
Охлаждающая башня; отвергать, отводить; относительная влажность; охлаждающая вода в конденсаторе; варьироваться, изменяться в пределах; указывать, показывать; охлаждающая способность,
производительность холодильной установки; расход холода (тепловая нагрузка); производительность системы ОВиК (Отопление, Вентиляция и Кондиционирование).
Упражнение 5. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
(А)
1) to permit;
2) cooling capacity;
3) to indicate;
4) cooling tower;
5) to reject;
6) to pipe;
7) to range;
(В)
a) to send a liquid or gas through a pipe to another place;
b) is the measure of a cooling system's ability to remove heat;
c) to point out, show;
d) a tall, open-topped, cylindrical concrete tower, used for cooling water or condensing steam from an industrial process;
e) to dismiss as inadequate, unacceptable, or faulty;
f) to allow (someone) to do something;
g) to vary or extend between specified limits.
Упражнение 6. Переведите письменно термины и дефиниции, используемые в производстве охлаждающих башен (градирни), используйте словарь при необходимости.
1. BTU (British thermal unit) – BTU is the heat energy required to raise
the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit in the
range from 32°F to 212°F.
2. Cooling Range – The difference in temperature between the hot water
entering the tower and the cold water leaving the tower is the cooling
range.
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3. Approach – The difference between the temperature of the cold water
leaving the tower and the wet-bulb temperature of the air is known as
the approach.
Establishment of the approach fixes the operating temperature of the
tower and is the most important parameter in determining both tower
size and cost.
4. Drift – Water droplets that are carried out of the cooling tower with
the exhaust air. Drift loss does not include water lost by evaporation.
Proper tower design can minimize drift loss. The drift rate is typically
reduced by employing baffle-like devices, called drift eliminators,
through which the air must travel after leaving the fill and spray zones
of the tower.
5. Heat Load – The amount of heat to be removed from the circulating
water within the tower. Heat load is equal to water circulation rate
(gpm) times the cooling range times 500 and is expressed in BTU/hr.
Heat load is also an important parameter in determining tower size and
cost.
6. Ton – An evaporative cooling ton is 15,000 BTU's per hour. The refrigeration ton is 12,000 BTU’s per hour.
7. Wet Bulb Temperature (WBT) – The lowest temperature that water
theoretically can reach by evaporation. Wet-Bulb temperature is an extremely important parameter in tower selection and design, and should
be measured by a psychrometer.
8. Dry-Bulb Temperature – The temperature of the entering or ambient
air adjacent to the cooling tower as measured with a dry-bulb thermometer.
9. Pumping Head – The pressure required to pump the water from the
tower basin through the entire system and return to the top of the
tower.
10. Makeup – The amount of water required to replace normal losses
caused by bleed off, drift and evaporation.
11. Bleed off – The portion of the circulating water flow that is removed
in order to maintain the amount of dissolved solids and other impurities at an acceptable level. As a result of evaporation, dissolved solids
concentration will continually increase unless reduced by bleed off.
Упражнение 7. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на условные придаточные предложения. Определите тип предложений.
61
1. If the temperature in the boiler rose to dangerous values, in that case
the pipes of the boiler could melt down.
2. It will be very harmful for the boiler if it contains too little water.
3. If peek temperatures occur during combustion, NOx will be formed.
4. The air is cooler and drier if there is an air conditioning system in
the room.
5. If unrealistically low allowable pressure drops were imposed, the
designer would be forced to use lower fluid velocities to maintain
the pressure drops limitations.
6. If the air is cooled directly by passing it over an evaporator, the
process is known as direct expansion.
7. If customers did not understand HVAC design aspects, the engineer
would guide and advise the customer on the best option.
8. If comfort is to be provided for occupants, a zone requires separate
control.
9. If the longest duct run had been less than 200 feet from the heat
source, furnaces would have provided effective heating in smaller
buildings.
10.
In general local heating system is a plus if majority of areas
remain unoccupied and if the people preferences require different
temperatures or they disagree about the most comfortable temperature.
Упражнение 8. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на
функцию герундия.
1. Evaporative cooling causes heat.
2. The field of heating and ventilation is a science and practice to provide health and comfortable interior conditions for occupants.
3. Sometimes the air is cooled directly by passing it over an evaporator.
4. The control of cooling, heating, and moisture provide the foundation for key HVAC system design and components.
5. Humidifier is a device for keeping the atmosphere in a room moist.
6. This unit works by moving heat from one area to another.
7. Employers and supervisors are responsible for reporting all injuries
to the government authority.
8. An air solar system does not suffer from corrosion or freezing.
62
9. Deformation is the action or process of changing in shape or distorting, especially through the application of pressure.
10. Absorptance of solar radiation by the collector can be increased
by using glass that has low iron content.
11. The drift rate is typically reduced by employing baffle-like devices.
12. Comfort cooling is almost always accomplished by cooling air
and then distributing the air into the space.
13. This unit works by moving existing heat from one area to another.
Упражнение 9. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на
формы с суффиксом –ing.
1. Glass is a transparent solid substance used for making windows,
bottles etc.
2. All kinds of online cleaning methods were developed.
3. Electroplated black nickel, black chrome, copper oxide or anodized
aluminum are common types of selective coatings.
4. The contractor is responsible for obtaining appropriate medical and
emergency assistance.
5. Local systems may be totally shut off in the unused spaces providing potential energy savings.
6. The burning of fuel takes place inside an enclosed metal container.
7. Furnaces provide effective heating in smaller buildings.
8. The ventilating of a kitchen uses ductwork and fans with a hood.
9. The exhaust gases including carbon-mono-oxide are vented to the
exterior of the building.
10.
All these surroundings have a uniform composition.
Упражнение 10. Задайте 5 различных типов вопросов к тексту А.
Текст В
Cooling Tower Materials (1)
Cooling tower structures are constructed using a variety of materials.
While package cooling towers are generally constructed with fiberglass,
galvanized steel (or stainless steel in special situations), many possibilities exist for field-erected structures. Field-erected towers can be con63
structed of douglas fir, redwood, fiberglass, steel or concrete (Figure
3.18). Each material has advantages and disadvantages.
Wood – In early days, towers were constructed primarily of redwood because of its natural tendency to inhibit decay. As the redwood resources
diminished, douglas fir come into existence. Douglas fir however supports the growth and proliferation of micro-organisms causing rapid diglinification (eating of wood). Various methods of pressure treatment and incising are used to prevent micro-organisms attack to wood, which includes
chrome copper arsenate and acid copper chromate treatment. Chromate
copper arsenate was initially used as a preservative but because of its arsenic content, acid copper chromate has replaced it. Irrespective of any treatment, the leaching of chemicals is still a concern to the environment and
sometimes extensive additional water treatment of blowdown and tower
sediment is needed. Some drawbacks of wooden towers are stated below:
• The wooden structure is less durable and its life expectancy is low.
Delignification (eating of wood) is controlled by adjusting the pH
strictly between 7 and 7.5.
• The drift losses are over 1%.
• The tower has a larger footprint and needs more space when compared to other alternatives.
• Algae formation is a continuous problem in this type of Cooling
Tower.
• The wooden structure is less durable.
• The wooden tower usually requires a large concrete tank that involves more cost, time and labor. Since this type of cooling tower is
extremely heavy, it has to be installed on ground only.
• The nozzles on the wooden tower consume a significant amount of
pressure head, which results in pressure drop.
Figure 3.18 Cooling towers
64
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. What are package cooling towers generally constructed with?
2. What can field-erected towers be constructed of?
3. What advantages does wood have?
4. What are the drawbacks of wooden towers?
5. What does the wooden tower usually require?
6. Where does it have to be installed?
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский
язык.
Cooling tower structure; fiberglass (n.); galvanized steel; stainless steel;
field-erected structure; douglas fir; redwood (n.); wood (n.); inhibit (v.);
decay (v.); diminish (v.); support (v.); proliferation (n.); pressure treatment; prevent (v.); chrome copper arsenate; acid copper chromate; irrespective; chemical (adj.); concern (n.); environment (n.); blowdown (n.);
sediment (n.); drawback (n.); durable; life expectancy; strictly (adv.); algae formation; extremely (adv.); heavy (adj.); nozzle (n.); significant
(adj.); amount (n.); result in (v.).
Below; between; which; still; while; for; however; into.
Упражнение 7. Найдите перевод списка А в списке В.
А
Pressure treatment; fiberglass; various; replace; results in; significant; involve; durable; initially; support; concern; diminish; irrespective; prevent; wooden; source; promote; distribute; footprint; inhibit; decay; erect;
consume; adjust; require; primarily; field-erected; advantage; media; provide; properly; throughout; term; dumped into; mean; proliferation; life
expectancy; drawback; content; come into existence; collectively; delivery device; approach; interface.
В
Подход; обработка под давлением; преимущество; возводить; оцинкованная сталь; различный; потреблять; перемещать; приводить к;
существенный; включать, предполагать; недостаток; вещество; долговечный; первоначально; поддерживать; опасение, беспокойство;
называть; снижать; регулировать; средство; быстрое разрастание;
безотносительный; содержание; обеспечивать; предотвращать; деревянный; требовать; срок службы; надлежащим образом; главным
65
образом; источник; повышать; распределять; повсюду, по всему; зона обслуживания; выводить в (атмосферу); возникнуть, начать существование; в собирательном значении, обобщенно; подающее
устройство; контактная поверхность; препятствовать, подавлять;
гниение, разложение; монтируемый на месте.
Упражнение 8. Переведите текст письменно.
HVAC delivery equipment
1. The heating or cooling effect produced at a source and distributed by a
central system to spaces throughout a building needs to be properly delivered to each space to promote comfort. 2. In air-based systems, heated
or cooled air could theoretically just be dumped into each space. 3. Such
an approach, however, does not provide the control over air distribution.
4. In water-based systems, the heated or cooled media (water or steam)
cannot just be dumped into a space. 5. Some means of transferring the
conditioning effect from the media to the space is required. 6. Devices
designed to provide the interface between occupied building spaces and
distribution components are collectively termed delivery devices.
Найдите в тексте:
1. Participles I, functions; Participles II, functions; Infinitives, functions.
2. Participles II, functions; modal verb; passive voice.
3. Subject; predicate.
4. Participles II, functions; passive voice.
5. Subject; predicate; Gerund, function.
6. Subject; predicate; Participles II, functions; Infinitive, function.
66
Урок 3.9
Упражнение 1. Прочитайте слова.
concrete, construct, currently, cost, thickness, architectural, plastic,
equal, chemistry, chemically .
Упражнение 2. Сопоставьте слово с переводом и соответствующей
ему транскрипцией.
1) submerge; 2) disguise; 3) measure; 4) height; 5) environment; 6) cylinder; 7) pultruded;
1)
4)
; 2)
; 5)
; 3)
; 6)
;
; 7)
;
1) цилиндр; 2) изменять внешний вид; 3) измерять; 4) высота; 5) погружать в воду; 6) окружающая среда; 7) одноосноориентированный.
Текст A
Cooling Tower Materials (2)
Galvanized Steel (Figure 3.19) – The most cost-effective material of
construction for packaged towers is G-235 hot-dipped galvanized steel,
from both structural and corrosion resistance standpoint. G-235 is the
heaviest galvanizing mill commercially available, and offers a substantial
amount of protection as compared to the lighter zinc thicknesses used
several decades ago, providing reliable corrosion protection for most
HVAC and industrial system water chemistries. The most common upgrade from G-235 galvanized steel is type 304 stainless steel. Parts that
are submerged during operation and/or at shutdown can benefit the most
by upgrading to stainless steel.
Stainless Steel – Type 304 stainless steel construction is recommended
for cooling towers that are to be used in a highly corrosive environment.
Concrete Towers – Larger field erected towers for power plant and refinery applications are constructed of concrete. Concrete towers will last
more than 40 years, but they are the most expensive to build. Because of
their cost, they represent only 2 to 3% of all field-erected towers. Sometimes concrete construction is also used for architectural reasons (where
the tower is disguised to look like or blend in with a building), or the
67
cooling tower is designed as a structure with a life expectancy equal to
the facility it serves.
the fan cylinder. Heights for towers, on which a wood, steel, or plastic
basin is included within the manufacturer's scope of supply, are generally
measured from the lowermost point of the basin.
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. What is the most cost-effective material of construction for packaged towers?
2. What is the most common upgrade type from G-235 galvanized
steel?
3. How many years will concrete towers last?
4. What are the reasons of using concrete constructions?
5. What kind of material is inert inorganic material?
6. What are the advantages of fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) towers?
7. How are heights for towers generally measured?
Figure 3.19 Galvanized steel
Figure 3.20 Fiber-Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Towers
Fiber-Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Towers (Figure 3.20) – Currently, the
fastest growing segment of the cooling tower market is structures built
with pultruded FRP sections. This inert inorganic material is strong,
lightweight, chemically resistant and able to handle a range of pH values.
Fire-retardant FRP can eliminate the cost of a fire protection system,
which can equal 5 to 12% of the cost of a cooling tower.
Note that for the cooling towers erected over a concrete basin, height is
measured from the elevation of the basin curb. "Nominal" heights are
usually measured to the fan deck elevation, not including the height of
68
Упражнение 3.Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский
язык.
Galvanized steel; cost-effective material; hot-dipped galvanized steel;
structural resistance; corrosion resistance; standpoint (n.); commercially
(adv.) available (adj.); substantial (adj.); zinc (n.); reliable corrosion protection; industrial system; water chemistry; common upgrade type; part
(n.); submerge (v.); stainless steel; highly corrosive environment; erect
(v.); power plant; refinery application; field-erected tower; facility (n.);
fiber-reinforced plastic.
Упражнение 4. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский
язык.
Экономичный материал; оцинкованная сталь; градирня; имеющийся
в продаже; сталь горячего цинкования; подпиточная вода, свежая
вода; цилиндр; изменять внешний вид; измерять; высота; погружать
в воду; окружающая среда; одноосноориентированный; сочетаться,
влиться; существенный, значительный; химический состав воды;
коррозионная стойкость; показатель кислотности; объем поставки
производителя.
Упражнение 5. Найдите в тексте формы с суффиксом –ing . Определите их функцию.
69
Упражнение 6. Переведите предложения, определите, к какой части
речи относятся подчеркнутые слова.
1. Liquid collectors are more suited to domestic hot water.
2. Will you water my houseplants while I'm away?
3. Before heat transfer fluids are discussed, a review of basic corrosion
theory is in order.
4. They are learning the basics of the physics.
5. These accidents will be investigated in depth to identify all causes and
to recommend hazard control measures.
6. The two types of corrosion which cause the most damage in solar systems are galvanic and pitting corrosion.
7. Electroplated black nickel, black chrome, copper oxide or anodized
aluminum are common types of selective coatings.
8. They are learning how to type.
9. An old bridge crosses the river.
10. In case of a cross flow, fluids flows pass at right angles to each
other.
Упражнение 7. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на
функцию инфинитива.
1. Type 304 stainless steel construction is recommended for cooling
towers that are to be used in a highly corrosive environment.
2. This inert inorganic material is able to handle a range of pH values.
3. Various methods of pressure treatment and incising are used to prevent micro-organisms attack to wood.
4. Air cooled condensers use ambient air to remove heat from the refrigerant.
5. Heat load is the amount of heat to be removed from the circulating
water within the tower.
6. The furnaces rely on the fact that heated (less dense) air rises and
the cooler (more dense) air falls to circulate the heat.
7. The equipment is selected with a capacity to offset the peak load of
the space or spaces to be served.
8. The HVAC system contains either ductwork, for forced air systems,
or piping to distribute a heated fluid and radiators to transfer this
heat to the air.
9. Geothermal system uses underground loops to absorb heat from the
earth.
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10. Evaporators used in air-conditioning can be classified according
to the combination of the medium to be cooled and the type of refrigerant feed.
Упражнение 8. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на
функцию глагола to have.
1. Many plastics have an undesirable transparency to infrared radiation.
2. Fire tube boilers have been used in various early forms to produce
steam for industrial purposes.
3. Plastic covers have been developed to withstand 400 0 F.
4. Some collectors using plastic covers are designed to have stagnation
temperatures no higher than 200 – 275 0 F.
5. Silicone sealants have exceptional weathering resistance and have received widespread use for many years.
6. They had to control the stream of liquid or gas pouring out.
7. With such large diameter, the shell would have to operate under such
extreme pressure and thermal stresses that their thickness would have
been too large.
8. A fouled heat changer has to be cleaned once in a while, in order to
keep the energy needed for operation low.
Упражнение 9. Образуйте существительные от следующих слов,
используя суффикс –ness.
Useful; rough; tough; weak; effective; thick; hard; ill.
Текст B
Cooling Water Treatment
The makeup water used in cooling systems contains dissolved minerals,
suspended solids, debris, bacteria and other impurities. Among other dissolved solids, water contains calcium and magnesium salts; commonly
referred to as "hardness." These salts have only limited solubility; that is,
only a certain amount will be soluble in a given volume of water. Water
is capable of dissolving a wide variety of solids and gases in infinite
combinations and amounts. As the water continues to circulate throughout the system, the contaminants begin to concentrate.
There is another problem with cooling towers; this occurs when air is
brought into intimate contact with the cooling water as it passes over the
71
cooling tower. Because of pollution, the air contains a wide variety of
impurities; both solids and gases. As it passes through the water in a
cooling tower, the air is effectively "scrubbed" and the impurities are
transferred to the water. Thus, the dirt picked up from the air along with
the precipitated hardness and suspended solids make up the major cooling tower water contaminants.
Another problem results when the moist surfaces of the tower are exposed to sunlight. This promotes the growth of algae, bacteria and fungal
slime. Large masses of slime or algae growth can accumulate rapidly,
causing clogging, reduced flow, and reduced heat transfer. This "fouling"
must be prevented.
The operating efficiency of a cooling tower system is adversely affected
by scaling, corrosion and organic fouling. Effective cooling water operation and treatment can prevent such an occurrence.
A major objective of a cooling tower treatment program is to keep the
water quality sufficient to prevent scaling, corrosion and biological fouling that can affect normal productive operations. The problem of water
impurities is controlled in two ways:
1) By introduction of chemicals which prevent the dissolved solids from
precipitating as scale, and which prevent corrosion.
2) By bleed-off which limits the solids concentration at a level which can
be successfully handled by chemical treatment.
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. What does the makeup water used in cooling systems contain?
2. Why do the contaminants begin to concentrate?
3. What does the air contain?
4. How are the impurities transferred to the water?
5. What makes up the major cooling tower water contaminants?
6. What may the moist surfaces of the tower be exposed to?
7. How can large masses of slime or algae growth reduce heat transfer?
8. What is the operating efficiency of a cooling tower system affected
by?
9. What can prevent the problems occurring in cooling water operation?
10. What is a major objective of a cooling tower treatment program?
11. How is the problem of water impurities controlled?
72
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский
язык.
Makeup water; contain (v.); dissolved mineral; suspended solid; debris
(n); bacteria (n); impurity (n); calcium (n); magnesium salt; refer to (v.);
limited solubility; contaminant (n); occur (v.); occurrence (n); intimate
contact (v.); pollution; expose to (v.); prevent (v.); algae (n); fungal (n);
operating efficiency; adversely (adv.); affect (v.); scaling (n); corrosion
(n); organic fouling; objective (n); water quality; sufficient; biological
fouling; water impurity; way (n); limit (v.); level (n); successfully (adv.);
handle (v); chemical treatment.
Among; as; that is; with; such; thus; from; which; another; along with.
Упражнение 3. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский
язык.
Загрязнитель; подвергать; эффективность эксплуатации; неблагоприятно, отрицательно; примеси воды; загрязнения, содержащиеся
в воде; химическая очистка; химическая обработка; подпиточная
вода, свежая вода; дебрис, обломочный материал, продукты разложения; жесткость; ограниченная растворимость; бесконечное сочетание; загрязняющая примесь; непосредственный контакт; очищать;
осажденные соли жесткости; взвесь, взвешенные твердые вещества;
грибковое обрастание, грибковая слизь; засорение, закупорка; образование накипи, окалины; накипь; регулировать, управлять, обращаться; загрязнение, примесь.
Упражнение 4. Образуйте прилагательные и существительные с
указанными суффиксами и назовите значения производных слов:
-able
to consider; to observe; to avail; to move; to suit; to accept; to vary;
value; comfort; rely;
-ity
possible; special; probable; reliable; rapid; able; capable; dense; flexible;
durable; stable; impure.
Упражнение 5. Сгруппируйте синонимы по образцу:
to begin- to start.
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To accumulate; to advance; to affect; to alter; to change; to contain; to
contaminate; to collect; to complete; to compose; to comprise; to decrease; to decompose; to differ; to dissolve; to expose; to finish; to get; to
handle; to happen; to hold; to influence; to keep; to let; to limit; to make;
to make up; to observe; to obtain; to occur; to operate; to pick up; to pollute; to remain; to reduce; to restrict; to promote; to transfer; to transport;
to stay; to store; to subject; to regulate; to vary; to watch; to work, to do,
toallow.
Упражнение 5. Найдите в тексте предложения с неличными формами глагола, определите функцию и переведите на русский язык.
Урок 3.10
Упражнение 1. Прочитайте слова.
south, power, hour, out, house, amount, found, fouling, mount.
Упражнение 2. Сопоставьте слово с переводом и соответствующей
ему транскрипцией.
1) luxury; 2) rather (than); 3) crawl (space); 4) warn; 5) client; 6) essential; 7) supply (duct);
1)
6)
; 2)
; 7)
;
; 3)
; 4)
; 5)
1) клиент; 2) роскошь, повышенная комфортность; 3) технический
этаж; 4) существенный; 5) канал подачи; 6) предупреждать; 7) скорее чем, а не.
Текст А
Central air conditioning (Part I)
Central air conditioning (Figure 3.21) is considered a luxury rather than
an essential in most parts of North America. Air conditioning systems are
more common in the southern areas and are more common in humid areas than in dry areas. There are probably more air conditioners per capita
in Florida than in California, for example. We inspect air conditioning
systems that are connected to ductwork and that deliver conditioned air to
all parts of the house. The standards also ask us to inspect through the
wall and other ductless systems. Through-the-wall air conditioners do not
have a duct system. These units are commonly used to heat single rooms
or areas without partition walls. They may be self-contained units or may
be split systems with the evaporator and fan in the wall and a remote
compressor, condenser coil and fan. Split-system central air conditioners
are the most common. They can be independent systems or incorporated
with indoor furnaces and indoor fan coils that can be upflow, downflow,
or horizontal. You may also come across single-package systems that are
often on roofs, in attics, or in crawl spaces. The supply and return duct
system extends outside the living space to pass the air through the air
conditioning or heat pump system. As with all systems, you can’t inspect
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75
everything, and with air conditioning systems, there are many limitations.
For example, you shouldn’t test an air conditioner when the outdoor temperature is below 65°F or has been below 65°F in the past 24 hours. If the
power to the central air conditioner has been turned off, you cannot simply turn the power on and test the air conditioner, as this may damage the
compressor. In many cases, you can’t get a good look at the internal components of the condenser unit (removing the access panel to the condenser unit is beyond (не предусмотрено) the standards), and, sometimes, you won’t get a look at the evaporator coil in the ductwork inside
the house. You may be tempted to think that this isn’t important, since
the air conditioner is a luxury item only and the house will still be habitable even if the air conditioner doesn’t work. However, you should understand that the clients bought the house with central air conditioning
and expect it to work. If it doesn’t work and you didn’t warn them of this,
you should expect to receive a callback from the client. It’s worth nothing
that central air conditioning systems are among the most expensive mechanical components in a home and have a relatively short life expectancy.
Figure 3.21 Central air conditioning
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. Where are air conditioning systems more common?
2. What air conditioners do not have a duct system?
3. How are these units commonly used?
4. What units are the most common?
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5. Why does the supply and return duct system extend outside the living space?
6. What limitations with air conditioning systems are there?
7. What should engineers warn their clients of?
8. What life expectancy do air conditioning systems have?
Упражнение 3. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский
язык.
Consider (n.); luxury (n.); essential (adj.); common (adj.); humid area;
dry area; probably (adv.); per capita; inspect (v.); ductwork (n.); deliver
(v.); ductless systems; through-the-wall air conditioner; partition wall;
self-contained unit; split system; evaporator (n.); fan (n.); remote compressor; condenser coil; independent system; indoor furnace; upflow (n.);
downflow (n.); horizontal (adj.); come across; roof (n.); attic (n.); crawl
space; supply and return duct system; extend (v.); heat pump system;
limitation (n.); damage (n.); condenser unit; access (n.); habitable (adj.);
understand (v.); that; expect (v.); warn (v.); receive (v.); callback (n.);
worth (adj.); expensive; mechanical component; relatively; short life expectancy.
With; from; even; if; however; through; rather than; when; also; among;
than; that; all.
Упражнение 4. Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский
язык.
Перегородка, внутренняя стена; внутристенной кондиционер; автономная установка, независимый блок; раздельная система отопления
и вентиляции, система с раздельным управлением; обратный канал;
канал подачи воздуха; восходящий поток; нисходящий поток; конденсаторная установка; жилой, пригодный для жилья; ответный звонок; относительно; короткий срок службы; дорогой; среди; доступ;
встроенный; широко используемый.
Однако; даже; если; чем; скорее чем, а не; когда; также; все; с.
Упражнение 5. Сопоставьте слово (A) с его определением (B).
(А)
1) to inspect;
2) limitation;
3) to supply;
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4) essential;
5) to incorporate;
6) partition;
7) life expectancy;
8) damage;
(В)
a) absolutely necessary; extremely important;
b) to take in or contain (something) as part of a whole; include;
c) to look at (someone or something) closely, typically to assess their
condition or to discover any shortcomings (недостатки);
d) to provide people with something that they need or want, especially
regularly over a long period of time;
e) a rule or condition that stops something from increasing beyond a
particular point;
f) a structure dividing a space into two parts, especially a light interior
wall;
g) the average period that a person or thing may expect to live;
h) physical harm that impairs the value, usefulness, or normal function
of something.
Упражнение 6. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на
конструкцию it is/was….. that… .
1. It is the corrosion that causes equipment to fail by perforation with
only a very small weight loss.
2. It is the method that avoids mechanical seal leakage.
3. It is the spot that occurs on vertical surfaces.
4. It is the method that has the lowest capital cost and energy use cost.
5. It is the method that does not depend on additional electrical valves or
heating tape.
6. It was the material that had an undesirable transparency to infrared radiation.
3. Emergency plans to ensure employee safety in case of fire or other
emergency shall be prepared in writing, and reviewed with all affected
employees.
4. The dirt picked up from the air along with the precipitated hardness
and suspended solids make up the major cooling tower water contaminants.
5. Pitting corrosion is a highly localized form of corrosion resulting in
deep penetration at only a few spots.
6. Some factors to be considered in making work assignments are
strength, endurance, agility, coordination, and visual and hearing acuity.
7. Emergency plans shall be tested to ensure their effectiveness.
8. The success of a building depends on the ability to provide thermal
comfort with the least operating costs.
9. Durability and weatherability of many plastics is still to be determined
by field use.
10. A substance preventing corrosion in the system is being added
which binds oxygen.
Упражнение 8. Найдите в тексте прилагательные в превосходной
степени, переведите их на русский язык.
Упражнение 9. Задайте 5 вопросов различных типов к тексту А.
Упражнение 7. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на неличные формы глагола.
1. Heat rejected from the refrigerant increases the temperature of the condenser water.
2. Portable electric heaters built in electric resistance heaters are examples
of local heating systems.
Упражнение 10. Какие времена использованы в тексте? Найдите
в тексте:
1) антонимы к следующим словам: warm; to take in; to include; indoor; uncomfortable; inside; to close; to come down; rare; to fall;
slow; less; day; to cool down;
2) прилагательные в сравнительной и превосходной степени;
3) модальные глаголы;
4) условное предложение.
Air conditioning is complex. To most people, it is not obvious how on a
hot summer day you can take heat out of a house and throw it outside,
where it is even hotter. But that is exactly what central air conditioning
does. The split-system air-cooled central air conditioning system is the
most common system in homes. Comfort involves more than cool air. Air
conditioning also involves more than lowering the air temperature. It in-
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79
cludes dehumidifying, cleaning (filtering), and circulating the air. Good
air conditioning systems perform all of these functions, although most
people focus on the “cool” concept. (In the broadest sense of the term, air
conditioning also means heating, humidification, and ventilation.) If the
outdoor temperature is 70°F at night and all the windows in the house are
open, the indoor and outdoor temperatures will both be about 70°F. As
the sun comes up, the outdoor temperature may rise to 85°F or 90°F. Because of shading, thermal mass, and so on, the house will not heat up as
quickly as the outdoors, but it will eventually get just as hot as it is outside. The goal is to keep it more comfortable inside the house than it is
outside.
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. What does air conditioning involve?
2. How does the temperature change during the day time?
3. What is the main goal of air conditioning system?
Текст В
Central air conditioning (Part II)
The most common type of air conditioning that we see is technically referred to as direct expansion, mechanical, vapor-compression refrigeration system.
Like a Refrigerator The goal with air conditioning is to capture heat in
the house and throw it outside. But how can we take heat from a space
that is already cooler than outdoors and dump it into the outdoor air? One
of the ways we can think about it is to look at a refrigerator. If we can
keep the temperature inside your refrigerator at about 40°F and it is 70°F
in the kitchen, somehow we are taking heat out of that cool air and dumping it into a kitchen that is warmer. Central air conditioning and refrigerators operate on exactly the same principle. The process works something
like this.
The Coils We have two coils similar to the radiator in a car: one inside
the house and one outside. We put something cold through the coil inside
the house and then blow warm house air across the coil, so the coil can
grab heat from the house air. This cools the house. We want to take that
heat in the coil outside and dump it into the outdoor air.
Let’s look at how we can do this. Freon On the inside of a coil we use a
substance such as Freon 12 or Freon 22 (which are brand names for a re80
frigerant that is noncorrosive, nonflammable, and nontoxic but, as we
have recently discovered, not great for the ozone layer). This refrigerant
is a colorless gas at atmospheric temperature and pressure. Inside the
coils we manipulate the Freon to make it a liquid or a gas. Freon Goes in
Circles The Freon runs in a loop, passing through the indoor coil, through
a copper pipe to the outdoors, through the outdoor coil, and back inside
through another pipe to the indoor coil.
Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:
1. How is the most common type of air conditioning technically referred to?
2. What is the goal of air conditioning?
3. How can we take heat from a space that is already cooler than outdoors and dump it into the outdoor air?
4. How do central air conditioning and refrigerators operate?
5. What is refrigerant?
Упражнение 2. Переведите слова и словосочетания на русский
язык.
Referred to (v.); direct expansion; mechanical (adj.); vapor-compression
refrigeration system; goal (n.); capture (v.); throw (v.); dump (v.); outdoor air; refrigerator (n.); keep (v.); operate (v.); exactly (adv.); process
(n.); radiator (n.); blow (v.); grab (v.); substance (n.); noncorrosive (adj.);
nonflammable (adj.); nontoxic (adj.); recently (adv.); ozone layer; colorless (adj.); atmospheric temperature; pressure (n.); manipulate (v.); make
(v.); pass through; copper pipe.
The same; like; similar; across; another; inside; outside; as; such as;
which.
Упражнение 3.Переведите слова и словосочетания на английский
язык.
Забирать; пускать; цель; невоспламеняемый; температура окружающей среды; обрабатывать; проходить через; сбрасывать; недавно; вещество; озоновый слой; медная труба; жидкость; распространенный тип; давление; змеевик, катушка; точно.
Такой как; снаружи; внутри; который; другой; чем; через, сквозь;
подобный; как.
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Упражнение 4. Найдите в тексте неличные формы глагола и переведите их на русский язык.
Упражнение 5. Задайте 5 различных типов вопросов к тексту В.
82
Словарный минимум
A
absorb (v.) поглощать 2.6а
absorption refrigeration абсорбционное охлаждение 3.6b
acceptance (n.) приемка (установки; работ; материалов,) одобрение
(проектов) 2.7b
accident prevention техника безопасности; предупреждение несчастных случаев 2.8b
accomplish (v.) совершать; выполнять; достигать; осуществлять
2.10b
acid copper chromate кислый хромат меди 3.8b
acidification of the environment закисление среды 2.4b
acknowledge (v.) подтверждать 2.8b
address (v.) обращать внимание; исследовать 2.8b
adequate (adj.) соответствующий; достаточный; отвечающий требованиям; пригодный 3.7a
adjacent (adj.) соседний, смежный 3.6а
adjust (v.) регулировать 3.8b
adversely (adv.) неблагоприятно, отрицательно 3.9b
advice (n.) рекомендация; заключение 2.8b
air conditioning кондиционирование воздуха 1.1a
air handling unit блок подогрева и кондиционирования воздуха 3.6а
air intake temperature температура воздухозабора 3.7b
air-cooled condenser конденсатор с водяным охлаждением 3.7b
air-type collector воздухосборник; воздушный коллектор 2.9а
alloying (n.) легирование; получение сплава 2.2b
ambient air окружающий воздух 3.7b
amount (n.) количество 1.1a
angle (n.) угол 1.1a
annulus (n.) кольцеобразная деталь; кольцевое пространство, между
двумя концентричными поверхностями 1.3b
anticipate (v.) упреждать; опережать; предвидеть 2.7b
applicable (adj.) применимый; пригодный; соответствующий 2.8b
application (n.) область применения 3.8b
arc (n.) электрическая дуга; дуговой разряд 2.6а
asphalt heater асфальторазогреватель (нагреватель битума) 1.10b
assemble (v.) собирать, монтировать 2.2b
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assembly tolerance допуск на сборку ( монтажный допуск) 1.3a
assure (v.) уверять; убеждать; гарантировать 2.10b
at most по большей мере 2.6а
at noon в полдень 2.6а
atmosphere (n.) атмосфера 2.6а
attach (v.) прикреплять; присоединять 1.2b
attachment (n.) прикрепление; присоединение 1.8а
automatic valve автоматическая задвижка; контрольный клапан 3.8а
avoidable accidents предотвратимые происшествия 2.10а
B
backup system резервная система 3.3b
baffle (n.) диафрагма, перегородка 1.2b
bar (n.) бар, единица давления (Па) 2.1a
base (v) основывать; базировать 1.1b
baseboard (n.) объединительная панель 3.3b
baseboard radiator радиатор плинтусного типа 3.6а
basic (adj.) основной 1.1a
basin curb бортик бассейна 3.8b
below (v) снижать, понижать 1.1b
bent (v.) гнуть 1.4а
bleed off слив воды, отвод утечек, регулирование на сливе 3.8а
blend in (v.) сочетаться, влиться 3.9а
blowdown (n.) продувание 3.8b
blower эжектор, воздуходувная машина 3.3а
boiler (n.) бойлер; котел 2.1a
breakage (n.) поломка; повреждение 2.2а
brief (v.) резюмировать; составлять краткое изложение 2.10b
brine ( n.) охлаждающий раствор солей 3.7а
British thermal unit британская тепловая единица (~1,06кДж) 3.8a
budget item бюджетная статья 3.1b
building (n.) здание; сооружение 1.1a
building envelope ограждающая конструкция, оболочка (здания) 3.8а
building volume объем строительства 3.1b
bulk (n.) масса; объем; навал 1.7b
bulk temperature средняя температура массы 1.7b
bundle construction моноблочная конструкция (состоящая из пучка
труб) 1.2a
burner (n.) форсунка; горелка 2.2а
by means of посредством; с помощью 1.1b
С
callback (n.) ответный звонок 3.10а
capability (n.) способность, возможность 3.3b
capture (v.) забирать 3.10в
capture (v.) захватывать; удерживать 2.7а
carbon (n.) углерод; уголь; сажа; слой нагара 2.2b
carbon dioxide углекислый газ 2.2b
carbon steel углеродистая сталь 2.2b
catalyst (n.) катализатор; активатор химической реакции 1.6b
central air-conditioning system центральная система кондиционирования воздуха 3.7а
centralized energy management централизованное управление энергоупотребелением 3.6а
centrifugal compressor центробежный (ротационный)компрессор
3.7а
Cfm (cubic feet per minute) кубические футы в минуту 3.7b
chemical treatment химическая очистка; химическая обработка 3.9b
chiller (n) охладитель (охлаждающий теплообменник) 1.1b
choice (n) выбор 1.1b
chrome copper arsenate хромированный арсенат меди 3.8b
circumvent (v.) окружать; обходить; охватывать 2.8а
classification (n) классификация 1.1a
classify (v.) классифицировать 1.1a
clogging (n.) засорение, закупорка 3.9b
coil surface поверхность змеевика 3.2а
cold forming изменение формы в холодном состоянии 2.2b
collector plate пластина коллектора 2.6а
combustion process процесс сгорания 2.5а
commercially available имеющийся в продаже 3.8b
common (adj.) распространенный 1.1b
competitively (adv.) на конкурентной основе, на рыночных условиях
1.3a
compose (v.) составлять (компоновать) 1.10b
compressed-air worker кессонный рабочий 3.5a
compression ratio коэффициент сжатия (уплотнения) 3.7а
comprise (v.) включать; содержать; заключать в себе 1.3a
condenser (n) конденсатор 1.1b
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85
condenser unit конденсаторная установка 3.10а
conduct (v.) проводить; вести 2.8b
configuration (n.) конфигурация; очертание; форма 2.6
consumption (n.) потребление 2.3а
contaminant (n.) загрязнитель, загрязняющая примесь 3.9b
content (n.) содержание; объем; вместимость; наполнение 2.8b
control measures меры по контролю 2.7b
control phase фаза управления 2.7b
conventional (adj.) общепринятый 2.8а
convert (v.) превращать; преобразовывать 2.9а
cool (adj.) прохладный (v.) охлаждать 1.1a
cooler (n) кулер, нулевая камера 1.1b
cooling effect охлаждающее действие 3.6b
cooling load расход холода, тепловая нагрузка (холодильного оборудования) 3.8а
cooling tower water вода, охлажденная в градирне (стояк) 3.7b
cooling tower градирня (охлаждающая башня) 3.8а
copper (n.) медь 2.10b
corrosion resistance коррозионная стойкость 3.8b
cost-effective material экономичный материал 3.8b
counter flow встречное течение (противоток) 1.1a
couple together соединять, связывать 3.7а
creep rupture strength предел длительной прочности; сопротивление ползучести 2.2а
creep strength предел ползучести 2.2а
cross flow поперечный поток 1.1a
cross-section (n.) поперечное сечение 1.8а
cyclic loadings периодические нагрузки 2.2а
cylindrical (adj.) цилиндрический 2.1а
D
damper (n.) вентиляционная решетка; вентиляционное отверстие с
клапаном 3.1а
debris (n.) дебрис; обломочный материал; продукты разложения 3.9b
decay (n.) гниение, разложение, разрушение 3.8b
dehumidify (v.) осушать 3.3b
demand (n.) спрос 1.1a
demountable (adj.) разборный, разъемный, съемный 1.3a
density (n.) плотность 2.1b
depend on (v.) зависеть от 1.1a
deposition (n.) отложение, осажденный слой 1.6b
design effort проектно-конструкторская работа 3.1b
design features детали конструкции 1.5а
designated authority специально уполномоченный орган 2.7b
designation code код маркировки 1.3a
desuperheat понижать температуру перегретого пара 3.7b
deviation (n.) сдвиг; расхождение; отклонение 2.8а
device (n.) устройство 1.1a
difference (n) разница, различие 1.1b
diffuse (v.) рассеивать 2.6b
dimensionless parameter закон подобия; безразмерный параметр
1.5b
diminish (v.) уменьшать, снижать, ослаблять 3.8b
direct component постоянная составляющая 2.7а
direct demand спрос на средства потребления 1.1b
direct expansion coils змеевик непосредственного охлаждения 3.7а
direct expansion непосредственное охлаждение 3.6а
direct radiation прямое излучение; направленное излучение 2.7а
direction (n.) направление 1.1a
directly (adv.) прямо, непосредственно 1.3a
disguise (v.) изменять внешний вид 3.9а
distinct (adj.) отличный, отдельный 2.6
double pipe heat exchangers двухтрубный теплообменник 1.1b
Douglas fir дугласовая пихта 3.8b
downcomer pipes спускная труба (циркуляционная труба) 2.1b
downflow нисходящий поток 3.10
drawback (n.) недостаток; препятствие 3.7а
drift унос капель воды воздухом 3.8а
drift eliminator сепаратор капель 3.8а
drive (v.) управлять; приводить в действие 2.6а
Dry-Bulb Temperature температура сухого термометра 3.8а
duct труба, трубопровод 3.3а
ductile (adj.) эластичный; ковкий; податливый 2.10b
ductility (n.) пластичность 2.2а
ductwork system система каналов 3.3а
dump сбрасывать 3.10в
duty производительность, нагрузка (на установку), режим 3.8а
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87
E
ear plugs предохранительные наушники; защитные наушники 2.10b
EER (energy efficiency ratio) коэффициент энергоэффективности
3.7b
electric boiler электрический бойлер 2.1а
electric circuit control управление электрической цепью 3.6а
electric resistance heater электрический резистивный нагреватель3.6
а
electrochemical reaction электрохимическая реакция 3.9a
electrode (n.) электрод 2.1а
eliminate (v.) устранять; ликвидировать 2.7b
embed (v.) погружать 2.1а
emergency assistance неотложная помощь; чрезвычайная помощь
2.10b
emergency response реагирование на чрезвычайную ситуацию 2.10b
employee (n.) служащий 2.8b
enclose (v.) вмещать, помещать (в корпус); окружать 1.4а
encounter (v.) встречать; наталкиваться; сталкиваться 1.3b
energy source источник энергии 2.1b
engage (v.) участвовать; вовлекать 2.7b
enhance (v.); усиливать; увеличивать; повышать 2.9а
equal (adj.) равный 2.7а
equation (n.) равенство; уравнение 1.2b
escort (n.) охрана; сопровождение 2.10b
etc. лат.(et cetera) и так далее 2.2а
euro (n.) евро; денежная единица 2.3а
evaporate испарять 3.3а
evaporating surface area область парообразующей поверхности 3.7а
evaporative cooling испарение охлаждением 3.6b
evaporator (n.) испаритель 1.1b
evolved into (v.) переходить; превращаться 2.1а
excavation (n.) выемка грунта 2.7b
exhaust gas отработанный газ 3.3а
exhausted emissions отработанные выбросы 2.5а
exhibit (v.) иллюстрировать; иметь 2.10b
expanding (n.) развальцовка 2.2b
expansion joint температурный трубный компенсатор (сильфонный
компенсатор) 1.2a
expansion valve расширительный клапан, регулирующий вентиль
3.6b
expose (v.) подвергать; воздействовать 2.2а
exposure (n.) воздействия внешних условий; облучение 2.10а
extended period продленный период 3.3b
extended static load увеличенная постоянная нагрузка 2.2а
extensive обширный 3.8b
extreme pressure экстремальное (предельное, чрезвычайно высокое)
давление 2.1a
F
fall protections защита от падения 2.7b
fan coil unit вентиляторный теплообменник, блок катушки вентилятора 3.1а
fan тягодутьевое устройство 3.1а
fan тягодутьевое устройство 3.3а
fan тягодутьевое устройство, охлаждающий вентилятор 3.6b
farm pond фермерский пруд 3.3b
fatigue (n.) усталость материала 2.2а
fatigue life срок службы при нагрузках 2.2а
feed (n.) подача; (v.) подавать 3.7a
fiberglass стеклопластик, стекловолокно 3.8b
fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) towers пластиковая башня армированная волокном 3.8b
field (n) область, поле 2.1а
field assembled собранный на месте/в эксплуатационных условиях
3.1а
field of application область применения 2.1a
field-erected монтируемый на месте 3.8b
fine (n) мелкие частицы 1.1a
fire box топочная камера 3.3а
fire tube boiler дымогарный (жаротрубный) котел 2.1a
fired pressure vessel резервуар под давлением с огневым подводом
теплоты 2.2а
fire-retardant огнезащитный материал, огнезадерживающее средство
3.8b
firing method метод сжигания 2.1a
flame (n.) пламя 2.3а
flammable material горючий (сгораемый) материал 3.2b
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flat absorber plate поглощающая пластины 2.6а
flat-plate collectors пластинчатый солнечный коллектор; плоский
коллектор 2.10b
flexibility (n.) гибкость применения, широкие возможности 1.5а
flooded shell-and-tube liquid cooler затопленный кожухотрубный
жидкостный охладитель3.7а
floor space площадь помещения 3.1b
flue gas дымовой газ (топочный газ) 2.4b
fluid (n.) текучая среда (жидкость, газ) 1.1a
fluid path линия тока 1.3a
fly ash летучая зола; копоть 2.4b
fog (n.) густой туман 2.7а
footprint зона обслуживания 3.8b
forced circulation вынужденная циркуляция (насосная циркуляция)
2.1b
foremen (n.) производитель работ; мастер; бригадир 2.10а
formation (n.) формирование; образование 2.5а
fossil fuel горючее полезное ископаемое; ископаемое топливо 2.8а
foulant (n.) вещество (ухудшающее качество) 1.9а
fouling (n.) биологическое обрастание; засорение; образование осадка 1.5a
fouling factor степень загрязнения 1.5а
fracture (n.) разлом (растрескивание) 2.2а
freon (n.) фреон, хладон 1.1b
fuel (n.) топливо, горючее 2.1a
fulfill the need удовлетворять требованиям 1.1a
fungal slime грибковое обрастание, грибковая слизь 3.9b
furnish (v.) снабжать; доставлять; загружать; предоставлять 2.10b
G
galvanized steel оцинкованная сталь 3.8b
gas turbine plant газотурбинная установка 1.1a
gaseous refrigerant газообразный хладагент 3.7b
gas-to-gas exchanger газо-газовый теплообменник 1.1a
gather (n.) складка 1.2b
generally (adv.) как правило, обычно 1.1a
geothermal (adj.) геотермальный 2.1b
get an idea составить представление, понимать 1.3b
glass cover plate стеклянная пластина 2.6а
government (n.) правительство 2.4b
government agency государственный орган 2.8b
gpm (gallons per minute) галлонов в минуту 3.8а
great care повышенная степень внимательности 1.4а
great influence большое влияние 1.4а
greenhouse effect парниковый эффект 2.6а
H
habitable жилой, пригодный для жилья 3.10а
hairpin construction U-образная конструкция 1.2a
handle регулировать, управлять, обращаться 3.9b
hard hat шлем-каска; предохранительный шлем 2.10b
hardness жесткость 3.9b
hazard analysis анализ степени риска (анализ эксплуатационной
безопасности) 2.7b
hazardous conditions опасные условия; опасное состояние 2.10b
haze (n.) сухой (легкий) туман 2.7а
header (n.) коллектор 2.1b
heat (n.) тепло 1.1a
heat absorber теплоприемник 2.6а
heat balance equation уравнение теплового баланса 1.4a
heat capacity теплоёмкость 1.4a
heat loss тепловые потери; рассеяние тепла 2.6а
heat rate удельный расход теплоты; тепловой коэффициент, тепловая мощность 1.4a
heat rejection отвод тепла 3.7b
heat transfer area поверхность теплопередачи 1.4а
heat transfer coefficient коэффициент теплопередачи 1.1a
heat transfer oil высокотемпературный теплоноситель; масляный
теплоноситель 2.9а
heat up (v.) нагревать; разогревать; накаливать 1.4a
heated absorber plate обогреваемая пластина поглотителя (солнечного коллектора) 2.6а
heating chamber камера подогрева 3.3а
height (n.)высота 2.1b
helium (n.) гелий 2.2b
helium-cooled reactor гелиевый реактор с охлаждением 1.1a
horizon (n.) горизонт 2.6а
horizontally (adv.) горизонтально 1.1a
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hot dip galvanized steel сталь горячего цинкования 3.8b
hot forming изменение формы в горячем состоянии 2.2b
hour (n.) час 2.3а
humidifier увлажнитель 3.3а
hydrocarbon (n.) гидрокарбон; углеводород 2.9а
hydrogen (n.) водород 2.2b
hydrogen-induced cracking растрескивание под воздействием водорода 2.2b
I
i.e лат. (id est) то есть (т.е.) 2.7а
impart придавать, наделять 3.6 b
implement (v.) снабжать, обеспечивать инструментами 1.2a
impurity загрязнение, примесь 3.9b
in advance заранее; заблаговременно; предварительно; досрочно
2.10а
in case of в случае 1.1a
in summary в заключении; в итоге 2.8а
in the presence of при наличии, с участием 1.1b
incising накалывание 3.8b
indoctrination (n.) внушение (принципов); инструктаж; подготовка
2.8b
induce (v.) вызывать, побуждать 2.2b
industrial purposes промышленные цели 2.1a
industry standards отраслевые нормативы, промышленные стандарты 1.3a
inert inorganic material инертный неорганический материал 3.8b
infinite combination бесконечное сочетание 3.9b
infrared (adj.) инфракрасный 2.6а
infrared portions спектр инфракрасного излучения 2.6а
inherently (adv.) по существу в своей основе; по определению 2.8а
inhibit предотвращать, препятствовать, подавлять 3.8b
inlet port впускное окно (входной канал) 1.2b
inner diameter внутренний диаметр 1.4а
insolate (v.) подвергать воздействию солнечных лучей 2.6a
insolation (n.) воздействие солнечного излучения 2.6а
instable (adj.) неустойчивый, нестабильный, изменчивый 2.5b
insufficient clearance недостаточный зазор 3.7b
insulate (v.) изолировать; защищать 2.9а
insulation (n.) изоляция; технология утепления 2.9a
interact (v.) взаимодействовать 1.1a
interconnections электрическая разводка 3.6 а
interface контактная поверхность 3.8b
interior space внутреннее пространство 3.3b
intimate contact непосредственный контакт 3.9b
intricate geometry сложная форма (конфигурация) 1.2b
involute скрученный, закрученный 3.7а
K
kg/second (kilogram per second) килограмм в секунду 2.3а
km (kilometer) километр 2.3а
kW (kilowatt) киловатт 2.3а
L
lamellar cracking слоистое растрескивание 2.2b
latent heat скрытое тепло (потенциальное тепло фазового перехода)
2.1b
Latitude (n.) географическая широта 2.6а
leaching выщелачивание 3.8b
leakage (n.) протечка (негерметичность, прорыв) 2.4а
leaving temperature температура на выходе 3.7b
life expectancy ожидаемый срок службы, прогнозируемый ресурс
стойкости 3.8b
life expectancy срок службы 2.10b
limited solubility ограниченная растворимость 3.9b
line pressure линейное давление; давление в трубопроводе 2.10b
liquid (n.) жидкость 1.1a
liquid-to-gas exchanger газо-жидкостный теплообменник 1.1a
liquid-to-liquid exchangers жидкостно-жидкостный теплообменник
1.1a
local heating source источник автономной системы отопления 3.6а
long-lived с длительным сроком службы 2.9а
low (adj.) низкий 1.1a
low ambient temperature низкая температура окружающей среды
3.3b
lowermost самое нижнее положение 3.8b
M
m (metre) метр 2.3а
magnitude (n.) абсолютная величина; значение; размер 1.9a
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maintain (v.) сохранять; поддерживать; содержать; обслуживать;
эксплуатировать 2.10а
maintenance costs затраты на техническое обслуживание 1.9а
make decision принимать решение 1.1b
make up (v.) составлять 1.3a
makeup water подпиточная вода; свежая вода 3.9b
manipulate обрабатывать 3.10в
manual (n.) руководство; справочник 2.8b
manufacturing consideration производственная разработка 2.2b
mechanical compression сжатие в компрессоре 3.6b
mechanical vapor-compression cycle цикл с механической компрессией пара 3.6b
media (n.) вещество 1.1a
melt down (v.) расплавиться 2.4а
melting point температура (точка) таяния (плавления, каплепадения)
1.7a
mention (v.) упоминать 1.1a
moderate size средний размер 2.4b
moisture влажность, влагосодержание 3.3а
MW (Mega Watt) мега ватт 2.3а
N
N (North) север 2.6а
natural convection естественная конвекция 3.3а
natural ventilation естественная вентиляция, аэрация 3.6b
night-setback понижение температуры на ночной период 3.6 а
nitrogen (n.) азот 2.5а
nominal условный, относительный, расчетный 3.8b
nonflammable негорючий, невоспламеняемый 3.10в
NOx оксид азота 2.5а
nozzle (n.) насадка; наконечник; патрубок; форсунка; распылитель;
горловина; фильтр 1.2a
nozzle 3.8b
nuclear boiler ядерный бойлер 2.1b
Number of Transfer Units число единиц переноса 1.5b
numbering (n.) нумерация, числовое кодирование 1.3a
O
obtainable (adj) допустимый, достижимый 1.1b
occurrence (n.) явление 2.7а
offset компенсировать, сбалансировать 3.1а
once-through boiler прямоточный бойлер 2.1b
once-through boilers прямоточный котел 2.1а
operate (v.) работать; управлять; производить операцию или ряд
операций 1.1a
operating costs эксплуатационные расходы 3.1b
operating efficiency эффективность эксплуатации 3.9b
operating principal принцип работы 1.9b
opposite (adj.) противоположный; встречный; обратный 1.1a
options (n) оборудование 1.1b
orientation angle угол ориентации 2.8а
outer diameter внешний (наружный ) диаметр 1.4а
outlet port выходное отверстие (выпускной канал) 1.2b
overhead (adv.) наверху; вверху; в зените 2.6а
oxidation (n.) оксидирование; окисление 2.5а
oxygen (n.) кислород 2.5а
P
package сборный 3.8b
parallel flow параллельный поток 1.1a
particular (adj.)особенный; специфический 2.7b
particulate (adj.) корпускулярный; в форме частиц 1.6b
partition wall перегородка, внутренняя стена 3.10а
pass through проходить через что-нибудь 3.10в
past (adv.) мимо; (prep.) за, мимо 1.1a
path (n.) канал, линия, дорожка, траектория 1.1a
peak load максимальная/ предельная нагрузка, пиковое значение нагрузки 3.1а
person in charge прораб; руководитель проекта 2.10b
personal protective equipment средства индивидуальной защиты;
индивидуальное защитное оборудование 2.10b
pertinent (adj.) уместный; подходящий; соответствующий; применимый 2.8b
pertinent соответствующий, непосредственно связанный 2.1b
petroleum refining очистка нефти и нефтепродуктов 1.6b
pH value показатель кислотности 3.8b
pH концентрация ионов водорода 3.8b
place (v.) размещать 1.1a
plastic cover plate пластиковая пластина 2.6а
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position (n.) должность 2.10b
potable water питьевая вода 2.6а
potential energy saving потенциальное энергосбережение 3.6а
power cycle air conditioner цикл перезагрузки (включения и выключения) установки для кондиционирования воздуха 2.6а
power input потребляемая мощность 3.7а
power plant boiler энергетический котел 2.3а
power station электрическая станция 2.2b
precipitated hardness осажденные соли жесткости 3.9b
precipitation (n.) оседание, отложение 1.6b
preheater (n.) предварительный подогреватель 1.1a
preparatory (adj.) предварительный 2.7b
pressure (n.)давление 2.1 а
pressure head механизм давления 3.8b
pressure parts элемент, работающий под давлением 2.2а
pressure treatment обработка под давлением, пропитка (древесины
антисептиками) под давлением 3.8b
prevent (v.) предотвращать; избегать 2.10а
preventive measures профилактические меры 4.1a
prior to (prep.)перед началом; прежде чем 2.7b
project operations проектные работы 2.7b
proliferation быстрое разрастание, заполнение 3.8b
provision (n.) обеспечение; снабжение; положение; мера предосторожности; условие 2.8b
psychrometer психрометр (прибор для определения степени влажности воздуха) 3.8а
pultruded (FRP) одноосноориентированный (пластик) 3.8b
pultruded одноосноориентированный 3.9а
pumping head высота напора насоса 3.8а
purchasing costs затраты на приобретение 2.3а
purpose (n) цель 1.1b
Q
quality practices обеспечение/контроль качества; 1.3a
R
radiant energy излучаемая энергия 2.6а
radiant floor heater радиационный обогреватель пола 3.3b
radiate (v.) излучать 2.6а
range (n.)диапазон; пределы; зона; ряд 2.2а
rated capacity номинальная емкость 2.8а
ratio (n.), отношение, соотношение, коэффициент 2.5b
rear head задняя часть корпуса 1.3a
reasonable temperature приемлемая (допустимая, умеренная) температура 1.5b
receive (v.) получать; принимать 2.6а
reciprocating compressor поршневой компрессор 3.7а
recirculation (n.) циркуляция по замкнутой траектории; рециркуляция (газов) 2.5b
recognize (v.) признавать, учитывать 1.3a
refinery нефтеперерабатывающее предприятие 3.8b
reflect (v.) отражать 2.6а
refrigerant (n) охлаждающее вещество 1.1b
refrigerant gas газообразный хладагент 3.7а
refrigerant холодильный агент 3.6b
regardless of безотносительно 3.3а
reheat cracking растрескивание при повторном нагреве 2.2b
relate to (v.) иметь отношение; относиться к 1.3a
relation (v.) зависимость 1.4а
release rate мощность выброса 1.7b
relief valve клапан сброса давления; компенсационный клапан 3.10b
remainder (n.) остаток; оставшаяся часть 2.6а
removable (adj.) съемный 1.2a
representative (n.) представитель 2.7b
respond соответствовать 3.6а
responsible (adj.) ответственный (зд. обуславливающий, содействующий) 2.6
restriction (n.) ограничение 1.1a
retrieve (v.) восстанавливать; извлекать 1.5b
return air отработанный воздух 3.3а
return duct обратный канал 3.10а
reversible cycle обратимый цикл 3.3b
reversing valve реверсивный клапан 3.3b
right (adj.) правый 1.1a
rigid mounting прочное крепление; жесткий монтаж 2.10b
riser (n.) вертикальный трубопровод 2.1b
roof ( n.) крыша; покрытие здания 2.8а
rough idea грубое /приблизительное представление 1.4а
rule of thumb эмпирический метод (основанный на опыте) 2.8а
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97
S
safe ( adj.) надежный; безопасный; безвредный 2.8b
safe working procedures безопасные методы производства 2.10b
saturated condensing temperature температура насыщенного пара
3.7b
saturated water насыщенная вода 2.1b
scaffold (n.) строительные леса; (scaffolding- возведение строительных лесов) 2.7
scale накипь 3.9b
scaling resistance окалиностойкость 2.2b
scaling образование накипи, окалины 3.9b
scatter (v.) рассеивать 2.6b
screw compressor винтовой компрессор 3.7а
scroll compressor спиральный компрессор 3.7а
scroll спираль 3.7а
scrub очищать 3.9b
seal (n.) изоляция; перемычка; сальник; прокладка 2.10b
sediment накипь, осаждение 3.8b
self-contained unit автономная установка, независимый блок 3.10а
self-contained замкнутый, автономный 3.6 а
sequence of parameters ряд параметров 1.3a
sequence of work последовательность работы 2.7b
service generator генератор испытательных сигналов 3.1a
service provider поставщик услуг 3.6а
sheet (n.) пластина 2.10b
shell boiler жаротрубный котел 2.1a
shell-and-tube heat exchangers кожухотрубчатый теплообменник
1.1b
short duration малая продолжительность (кратковременный) 2.2а
shutdown (n.) остановка, простой 1.9a
shutdown выключение, остановка, неполадка 3.8b
silicone (n.) силикон 2.9а
single phase flow течение однородной жидкости 2.1b
site conditions условия площадки (рабочей) 2.7b
slightly (adv.) слегка; незначительно 2.7а
smog ( n.) дымная мгла (смог) 2.4b
sodium (n.) натрий 2.2b
softened water смягченная вода 2.10b
solar (adj.) солнечный 2.6а
solar access поступление солнечной радиации 2.8а
solar constant солнечная константа 2.6а
solar time солнечное время суток (светлое время суток) 2.6а
soldering (n.) соединение; скрепление 2.10b
solidification cracking образование усадочных трещин 2.2b
sophisticated central control технически сложное центральное
управление 3.6а
space cooling охлаждение помещений 2.7а
space heating отопление помещений 2.7а
split system раздельная система отопления и вентиляции, система с
раздельным управлением 3.10а
stainless steel нержавеющая сталь 3.8b
stand for (v.) означать, расшифровываться как 1.3a
standpoint точка зрения, позиция 3.8b
starting point отправная точка 1.1b
state (n.) состояние, (v) устанавливать определять; утверждать; констатировать 1.1a
stationary head неподвижная головная часть 1.3a
steam (n.) пар 2.1а
steam drum разделительный паровой барабан 2.1а
steam plant паросиловая установка, теплоцентраль 1.1a
subcontractor (n.) субподрядчик 2.7b
sub-cooled до вскипания 3.7b
subject (n.) предмет; тема 2.2а
subject (v.) подчинять; подвергать (воздействию) 4.1b
submerge погружать в воду 3.8b
submerged погруженный, затопленный 3.8b
submit (v.) представлять; выдвигать 2.7b
substantial существенный, значительный 3.9а
such as такой как 1.1b
suction side сторона пониженного давления, сторона всасывания
3.7а
suffer (v.) претерпевать (подвергаться) 1.2a
supercritical pressure сверхкритическое давление 2.1b
superfluous (adj.) излишний (ненужный) 1.2a
superheat перегрев, избыточное тепло 3.7а
supersaturation (n.) перенасыщение 1.6b
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99
supplied air подаваемый воздух 2.5а
supply ductwork канал подачи воздуха 3.10а
surface (n.) поверхность 1.1a
surface water поверхностные воды 3.7b
surrounding air окружающий воздух 3.7а
suspended solids взвесь, взвешенные твердые вещества 3.9b
T
table (n.) таблица 1.3a
take into account принимать во внимание 1.1a
take place возникать; протекать (происходить) 2.5а
tangential (adj.) направленный по касательной 1.10b
technique (n.) технология; техника; метод; оборудование 2.5b
techniques (n.) оборудование; технологии 2.5b
technology (n.) технология; техника; метод; методика; оборудование;
техническое решение 2.5b
temperature differences перепад температур (разница температур)
1.2a
thermal conductivity теплопроводность 2.9а
thermal expansion термальное/термическое расширение 1.2a
thermal force температурные воздействия 1.2a
thermal stratification термальное расслоение 4.8b
thermal stresses температурные напряжения 2.1a
threaded rotor нарезной ротор(винт) 3.7а
throughout (prep.)на всем протяжении 2.7а
throughput (n.) количество материала, пропускаемого через систему; пропускная способность; выработка 1.6а
through-the-wall air conditioner внутристенной кондиционер 3.10а
throw пускать 3.10в
thrust out (v.) выбрасывать 2.4b
tilt (v.) наклоняться 2.7а
tilt angle угол наклона 2.7а
time consuming требующий больших затрат времени 1.10а
time schedule календарный план 2.4b
tolerate (v.) выдерживать; вынести; допустить 2.10b
ton тонна 3.7b
total-surface полная поверхность 1.3а
toughness (n.) жесткость 2.2а
track (v.) следить; выслеживать 2.10b
track down (v.) исследовать (до конца) 2.4а
transparent cover прозрачное защитное покрытие (солнечного элемента) 2.9а
treat (v.) обрабатывать; очищать 2.5а
Tropic of Cancer Северный тропик или тропик Рака 2.6а
tube length длина патрубка 1.3a
tube sheet трубная решётка 1.2b
Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) Ассоциация
предприятий по производству трубчатых теплообменников 1.3a
two phase-mixtures двухфазная смесь 2.1b
type designation обозначение типа 1.3a
U
ultimate tensile strength максимальный предел прочности при растяжении 2.2а
ultraviolet radiation ультрафиолетовое излучение 2.6а
underground loop подземный трубопровод 3.3b
uniform (adj.) равномерный, однородный 2.5b
upflow восходящий поток 3.10а
upgrading наращивание ресурсов, повышение качества, усовершенствование 3.8b
U-shape U-образный 1.4а
V
vapor-compression refrigeration system компрессионная холодильная установка 3.10в
vapour (n) пар, испарение 1.1b
vendor (n.) поставщик, торговец, разработчик 1.3a
vent продувать, выпускать 3.3а
vertically (adv.) вертикально 1.1a
vessel (n.) сосуд, бак, котел 2.1a
via (prep.) через 2.b
vice versa напротив, наоборот, обратно 1.1a
virtually (adv.) фактически; практически; в сущности 2.6b
visible portion видимая часть радиационного спектра 2.6а
W
wall (n.) стена 1.10b
warm (adj.) теплый 1.1a
water automotive radiator водяной автомеханический радиатор 1.1a
water chemistry химический состав воды 3.9а
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101
water chiller установка для охлаждения водой 3.6b
water droplet капля воды 3.8a
water impurity примеси воды; загрязнения, содержащиеся в воде
3.9b
water source heat pump тепловой насос, использующий воду в качестве источника тепла 2.9а
water tube boilers водотрубный котел 2.1a
water-cooled condenser конденсатор с водяным охлаждением 3.7 b
wavelength (n.) длина волны 2.6а
way (n.) способ; путь 1.1a
weatherproofed защищенный от непогоды 2.10b
weathertight seals стойкий против атмосферных воздействий 2.10b
well water вода из скважины 3.7b
Wet Bulb Temperature температура влажного термометра 3.8а
with respect to в отношении, что касается, относительно 3.6а
wood stove печь с дровяным отоплением 3.6а
work activity производственная деятельность; технологический
процесс 2.7b
work crew рабочая команда 2.7b
work environment производственная среда; рабочие условия; условия труда 2.8b
wrought iron pipe стальная сварная труба 1.2b
Y
yield strength технический предел текучести 2.2а
yielding (n.) деформация 2.2а
Распределение грамматических тем по урокам
Урок 3.1 Повторение: группы существительных; видовременные
формы глагола в действительном залоге; части речи; члены предложения; вопросительные предложения; усилительное слово do.
Урок 3.2 Повторение: Participle I и причастные обороты; вопросительные предложения; видовременные формы глагола в страдательном залоге.
Урок 3.3 Повторение: Participle I и причастные обороты; оборот
there +to be; вопросительные предложения; конверсия.
Урок 3.4 Повторение: Инфинитив и инфинитивные обороты;
функции слова it; суффикс существительных: -ion; суффикс прилагательных –al;
суффикс наречий –ly; сложноподчиненные предложения.
Урок 3.5 Повторение: Инфинитив и инфинитивные обороты;
функции слова that; Participle I.
Урок 3.6 Повторение: Суффикс прилагательных –al; суффикс наречий –ly; сложноподчиненные предложения.
Урок 3.7 Повторение: Participle I, II и независимый причастный
оборот ; суффикс существительных: -ment.
Урок 3.8 Повторение: Условные предожения; герундий; Participle
I; герундий и отглагольное существительного.
Урок 3.9 Повторение: Инфинитив; конверсия; функция глагола to
have; суффикс существительных –ness; неличные формы глагола;
суффикс прилагательных –able; суффикс существительных –ity.
Урок 3.10 Повторение: Неличные формы глагола; степени сравнения прилагательных; усилительная конструкция it+ to be …
that/who.
102
103
Библиографический список
1. A. Bhatia. HVAC-Space heating system. – New York: Continuing education and development, Inc, 2010.
2. Harlan H. Bengston, PhD, PE. Package Plants for Wastewater treatment.
New York: Wiley-Interscience, 2011.
3. Steven Lischedt, PE, Industrial heat pumps for steam and fuel savings.
NY: Continuing education and development, Inc, 2010.
4. A. Bhatia. Cooling towers. New York: Continuing education and development, Inc, 2010.
5. Justin Louis et al. Boilers and Burners.- New York: Wiley-Interscience,
2000.
6. Solar heating of building and domestic hot water.- New York: ASHRAE,
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, 2000.
7. Kreider, J.J. Design: Solar heating of buildings and domestic hot water /
Kreith F.-New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.
8. Safety and health requirements.- Washington: Government printing office,
2006.
9. Мюллер В.К. Англо-русский словарь. -М: Русский язык,1992.
10. Якимов М.В. Англо-Русский политехнический словарь. – СПб: Изд.
Дом «Литера», 2006.
11. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Longman Dictionaries,
Harlow, 2005.
104
Оглавление
Предисловие……………………………………………………………
Урок 3.1
HVAC systems………………………………………………………….
System selection…………………………………………………...........
Урок 3.2
System requirements…………………………………………………….
Central heating sources…………………………………………………..
Урок 3.3
Furnace………………………………………………………………….
Heat pump……………………………………………………………….
Урок 3.4
Appropriate medical and emergency assistance ………………………..
Emergency situations……………………………………………………
Урок 3.5
Health bulletin board……………………………………………………
Accident reporting and recordkeeping………………………………….
Урок 3.6
Local heating sources ………………………………………………….
HVAC equipment: processes of cooling………………………………..
Урок 3.7
Evaporators and Compressors………………………………………….
Condenser………………………………………………………………
Урок 3.8
Cooling towers………………………………………………………….
Cooling Tower Materials (1)……………….. …………………………..
Урок 3.9
Cooling Tower Materials (2)………...………………………………….
Cooling Water Treatment………………………………………………..
Урок 3.10
Central air conditioning (Part I)……………………………………
Central air conditioning (Part II)………………………………………...
Словарный минимум…………………………………………………..
Распределение грамматических тем по урокам………………………
Библиографический список……………………………………………
105
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ДЛЯ ЗАПИСЕЙ
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Учебно-методическое пособие № 137
Составитель: Сарян Марина Арташевна
Компьютерная верстка И. А. Яблоковой
Подписано к печати 28.02.14. Формат 60×80 1/16.Бум.офсутная.
Усл. печ. л. 6,3.Тираж 100 экз. Заказ 18. «С» 11.
Санкт-Петербургский государственный архитектурно-строительный университет.
190005, Санкт-Петербург, ул. 2-я Красноармейская ул., д. 4.
Отпечатано на ризографе. 190005, Санкт-Петербург, 2-я Красноармейская ул., д. 5.
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