Lecture 8 Representatives of the Rosidae subclasses (the Rose, Legume and other Families) Authors as. Kernychna I.Z. . The Rose Family - Rosaceae ? GROWTH FORMS: in family of Rosaceae is large: there are glassy plants, bushes, lianas, trees, shrubs ? Stems: there are straight (apple tree), creeping (strawberries). ? Leaves are simple or compound. ? Flowers are actinomorphous, bisexual, from 5-, rarer by a 4membership double perianth. A bowl is sometimes with a subbowl (strawberries are forest). Stamens much. Ginecey is differenf The ?owers also have 5-4 sepals, usually four nectar glands, and many stamens. Ovary: epigynous or hypogynous ? FLORAL FORMULA * Ca (5) Co 5,4 A? G?,(2-5), 1 ? Inflorescences: raceme (European bird cherry), umbrel (hawthorn, cherry), corymb (apple-tree), compound corymb (rowan-tree) and other. ? Fruit: fleshy fruits, for example, drupe (cherry, apricot, olive), aggregation of drupes (raspberry), pome (apple, hawthorn), pseudocarp (strawberry) Dog rose (Rosa canina) ? It is the shrub with small thorns. The leavers are pinnate, with 5-7 leaflets. Usually the flowers are white. They have five petals, and mature into an oval red-orange fruit, or hip. ? The fruit has a fiveangle space on the apex There is a round hole on the apex of fruit Uses: hip as vitamin, atherosclerosis, hypertensive illness, anemia Cinnamon rose (Ro?sa maja?lis) Redhaw Hawthorn Crataegus sanguinea They are shrubs and small trees growing to 515 m tall, characterized by their small pome fruit and thorny branches. Uses: leaves, flowers and fruit show cardioactive, desensitizing activity, spasmolytic and sedative effect. Strawberries are forest ? ? ve?sca Fraga?ria is a herbaceous perennial plants that have compound leaves with three hairy. The flowers are white, bisexual, on long thin peduncles, have for 5 white petals. Fruit is pseudocarp (strawberry). Uses: The leaves and the fruit diuretic, tonic, cholagogum means. RASPBERRY ? (Rubus idaeus L) It has a perrennial plant which bears biennial stems ("canes") from the perennial root system. Plant has large pinnate leavers with five or seven leaflets. Inflorescence is the сorymb-recame. The fruit is red, or yellow edible, sweet, aggregation of drupes Uses: The fruit ? vitamin, diaphoretic means in influenza, high temperature It is deciduous shrub with simple pinnate leaves. The flowers are borne in corymbs; each flower is white with five petals. The fruit is a small nigra pome Black chokeberry (ARONIA ? Aronia melanocarpa Uses: The fruit ? hypotension, antisclerotic, vitamin means Rowans or mountain ashes (So?rbus aucupa?ria ) There is small trees or shrubs with compound pinnate leaves and compound corymbs inflorescens. The fruit is a small red pome. Uses: fruit as vitamin, diuretic and tonic means. European bird cherry ? Pa?dus a?vium Prunus is a trees and shrurs. Leaves are simple and usually lanceolate. The flowers are usually white to pink, with five petals and five sepals. Inflorescences - racemes. The fruit is a drupe. Uses: fruit as astringent means. Tormentil cinquefoil - (Potenti?lla ere?cta) ? The grassy perennial with woody rhizome. Most of its flowers have 4 petals. Other Potentilla species have 5. Other features: A low-growing plant. Most leaves have three leaflets plus two large stipules at base looking like leaflets. ? Uses: Rhizomes as astringent, haemostatic means. Garden burnet (Sanguiso?rba officina?lis) ? It is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 1 m tall with compound pinnate leaves. The fruit is nut. ? Uses: Rhizomes and roots as astringents, haemostatic haemostatic means. Pear Apple tree ? Ma?lus dome?stica Legume family GROWTH FORMS: grassy plants, rarer bushes, lianas or trees. Underground organs: The taproot system with bacteriorhiza (large range of other organisms including bacteria also closely associate with roots) (1). Leaves: mainly various compound. Inflorescence: more raceme (6), rarely head or umbrella. Flowers: papillionaceous, bisexual, zygomorphic with a double perianth. A bowl is 5-membership. Androcey (9) consists of 10 stamens: one it is outweighed free, other accrete to the half. Ginecey is monocarpous (10). Fruit: Legume is dry dehiscens pod that splists on two sides on sides (11). Кас?я гостролиста (сена) Ca?ssia acutifo?lia Senna (Casia angustifolia) is a small bush with pinnately compound leaves and yellow flowers. Active ingredients: sedasen. USES: Leaves and fruit of plant as a laxative meants. Spiny restharrow (Ononis arvensis) ? Spiny restharrow (Ononis arvensis) is a perennial glassy plant or low shrub with a thick rhizome and root. Leaves are tree compound. Flowers are rose, located single in bosoms leaves. ? Active ingredients: flavonoid-glycosides, essential oils and tannins. ? USES: root are diuretic, cholagogum, desinticiues means. Termopsis lanceolate (Thermopsis lanceolata) Termopsis lanceolate (Thermopsis lanceolata) is a perennial grassy plant with a long rhizome and tree compound leaves. Flowers are yellow. Active ingredients: alkaloid USES: herb as expectorant means and seed use for poisonings, shock states. Liqurice or sweet Liqurice or sweet root (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is a grassy perennial with root (Glycyrrhiza pinnately compound leaves, covered by grandular hairs. Has the well developed rhizome and glabra) roots. Flowers are violet, collected in raceme. The fruit is an oblong pod, 2?3 centimetres (about 1 inch) long, containing several seeds Active ingredients: root and rhizome contain flavonoid, saponine. USES: root and rhizome as a expectorans, spasmolyticum mean. Yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis) Yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis) ? is biennial glassy plant with tree compound leaves. Flowers are yellow, shallow, collected in a raceme. The above-ground organs (grass) of melilot apply as a coughing up, sedative mean. Active ingredients: coumarin, protein, organic acid. USES: herb ? expectorants, anticoagulans, sedativum, analgeticum means. Common bean - Phaseolus vulgaris Plant contain protein, vitamin B6, folic acad and etc. Other plants subclassis Rosidae The Crassulaceae family Snowdon rose (Rhodiola rosea) is the grassy perennial plant brought to the ?Red book of Ukraine?. Active ingredients: flavonoids, tannins, essential oils. Uses: The underground organs of plant called a ?gold root? and used as tonicum mean. The Gooseberry family (Grossulariaceae) Currant black (Ribes nigrum) is small bush with simple 3-5-blade sheets. Flowers are rose-greenish, collected in inflorescence raceme. Fruit - black berry. Active ingredients: contain many vitamins C, organic acids, mineral matters. Uses: fruit and leaves - antiscorbuticum means. The Saxifrage family (Saxifragaceae) Leather bergenia (Bergenia crassifolia) is grassy perennial with the lengthened horizontal rhizome. Leaves are oval, coriaceous, collected, in a rosette. Flowers are whiter-rose. In Ukraine cultivate for the purveyance of rhizome which contains the tannic matters Active ingredients: tannins. Uses: rhizome as astringents means. Linen family (Linaceae) Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is annual grassy plant with the simple lanceolate leaves located by turns. Flowers are actinomorphic, bisexual, with a blue 5-membership chaplet. A fruit is a small сapsule with brilliant brown seed which accumulate butters and mucus. Active ingredients: mucilage. Uses: seed as protectivum,emollins and laxans means. Eucal?ptus (Eucal?ptus globulus) is high evergreen tree from family to Myrtaceae. Two types of leaves: 1 ? older lanceolate or falcate, 2 ? young egg-shaped. Active ingredients: essential oils. Uses: leaf ? gesinficiens, expectorans, antiphlogisticum.