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passive-voice

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 Страдательный залог
Passive Voice
Passive voice
•
Рассмотрим пример:
•
People invent
new computer programmes every day. – Люди изобретают новые компьютерные программы каждый день. (действительный залог)
•
New computer programmes are invented every day. – Новые компьютерные программы изобретаются каждый день. (страдательный залог)
Passive voice
•
Обратите внимание: Страдательный залог используется, чтобы описать, что происходит с подлежащим, а действительный – что подлежащее делает.
•
Аня выращивает розы. – Ann grows
roses.
•
Розы выращивают(ся) зимой в теплицах. – Roses are grown in greenhouses
in winter. Passive voice
•
Страдательный залог образуется с помощью вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующем времени и причастия II смыслового глагола.
•
Причастие II глагола to create – created.
•
Mickey Mouse was created
by Walt Disney. – Микки Маус был создан Уолтом Диснеем.
•
То, что в действительном залоге было дополнением, в страдательном становится подлежащим.
Passive voice
•
Walt Disney created
Mickey Mouse. (действительный залог)
•
Mickey Mouse was created by Walt Disney.
(страдательный залог)
•
В страдательном залоге говорящего мало интересует , кем или чем было произведено действие, но если это потребуется указать, то используются предлоги by
(для одушевленных предметов) или with (для неодушевленных предметов).
Passive voice
•
1) The telephone was invented by
Alexander Bell. – Телефон был изобретен Александром Беллом.
•
2) The letter was written with
a pencil. – Письмо было написано карандашом.
•
Как и в действительном залоге, глаголы в страдательном залоге выражают характер и время действия своими формами.
Passive voice
Present
Past
Future Indefinite
(Simple)
I am asked
He, she is asked
We, you, they are asked
I (he, she)
was asked
we (you, they)
were asked
I (we), he (she, you, they) will be asked
Continious
(Progressive)
I am being asked
he (she) is being asked
we (you, they) are being asked I he (she) was being asked
we (you, they) were being asked
Perfect
I, we, you, they have been asked
he (she)
has been asked
I (he, she, we, you, they had been asked
I, we he, she, you, they will have been asked
Passive voice
Present
Past
Future Indefinite
(Simple)
am
is V
3
are
was
V
3
were
shall
be V
3
will Continious
(Progressive)
am
is being V
3
are
was
being V
3
were
__________
Perfect
have been V
3
has
had been V
3
shall
have been V
3
will
Passive voice
•
В эти формулы можно подставлять любой смысловой глагол. Рассмотрите таблицу, где в формулу подставлен глагол to
damage – разрушать, портить. Обратите внимание на сравнение форм действительного и страдательного залога.
Passive voice
•
Present Simple: am/ is/ are +V
3
Active: People damage
the environment
.
Passive: The environment is damaged by the people.
•
Past Simple: was/ were + V
3
Active: People damaged
the environment very much in the 1970’s.
Passive: The environment was damaged very much in the 1970’s.
Passive voice
•
Future simple: will/ shall be + V3
Active: People will damage the environment in the future.
Passive: The environment will be damaged in the future.
•
Present Progressive: am/ is/ are being +V3
Active: People are damaging the environment at this very moment.
Passive: The environment is being damaged at this very moment.
Passive voice
•
Past progressive: was/ were being + V3
Active: People were damaging the environment when I was born.
Passive: The environment was being damaged when I was born.
•
Present Perfect: have/ has been + V
3
Active: People have
already damaged
the environment
.
Passive: The environment has
already been damaged
.
Passive voice
•
Past perfect: had been + V
3
Active: People had
already damaged
the environment by the time I was born.
Passive: The environment had
already been damaged by the time I was born.
•
Future perfect: will/ shall have been + V
3
Active: People will have damaged the environment before her grandchildren are born.
Passive :
The environment will have been damaged before her grandchildren are born.
Использованные источники:
•
T. Klementieva, J. Shannon Happy English 2, издательство «Титул», 2001
•
T. Klementieva, J. Shannon Happy English 3
, издательство «Титул», 2001
•
http://www.labirint.travel/photo/flowers2006/page3.php
•
http://www.allmedia.ru/newsitem.asp?id=824604
•
http://www.sunhome.ru/image/1543
•
http://photo.psychotype.ru/type/11/
Автор
karasevaviktoriy
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