The difficulties of the quark hypothesis 2код для вставкиСкачать
The article considers the hypothesis of quarks of which must consist of elementary particles and the problems it faced. Continuation.
1 The difficulties of the quark hypothesis 16p. Updated on 28 January 2012 Theory, this hypothesis has not become as yet has not clear workable mathematical apparatus. Difficulties begin already with the name. The name "quarks" is taken from the novel "Finnegan’s Wake" (1939) by Irish writers James Joyce (1882–1944). In the interpretation of this novel "quarks" means – "crazy", "inconceivable", "unthinkable," "wild" etc. «Quarks surrounded by gluons» is literally «crazy in glue». It was a joke Marie Gell-Mann (b.1929) American physicist-theorist who introduced this term in science. This hypothesis can not explain structure of the electron, muon, tau-lepton, all mesons (their mass), and also gives an error of more than 2–3% and higher (up to 10%) by weight in more than half of the baryons. Moreover, error both with underestimation and overestimation of the calculated mass. That is, the binding energy of quarks inside an elementary particle can be both negative and positive. So. Quarks are hypothetical subparticles which should compose many "elementary" particles. Gell-Mann was the clever person and never about it spoke! To the question asked to him, whether there are quarks? He has answered: Who knows? Gell Mann had in mind only a mathematical model. Quarks should have a fractional electric charge ± ⅓ and ± ⅔. That is, it is simple on ⅔ or ⅓ less than elementary charge of an electron or a proton (charges are equal). On the end of 80th years of quarks was 6 (12) twelve together with antiquarks. Quarks: Upper u with mass ≈ 310 MeV charge +2 / 3 (5MeV) up Lower d with mass ≈ 310 MeV charge -1 / 3 (7MeV) down Strange s ≈ 505 MeV -1 / 3 (150 MeV) strange Charm c ≈ 1500 MeV +2 / 3 (1300MeV) charm Beautiful b ≈ 5000 MeV -1 / 3 (5000 MeV) bottom True t ≈ 22 500 MeV +2 / 3 (? MeV) top In brackets energy the mass of free quarks outside the particles is specified. It is estimated their weight and in the calculations are not counted. 2 Mesons should consist of two quarks, and baryons (protons, neutrons, etc.) of the three. Thus, the weight: Proton p + 938 MeV consists of uud quarks and or ūūđ antiquarks (refer to lines above or wavy lines). Neutron n o 940 MeV consists of udd quarks and or ūđđ antiquarks. Quark masses are summarized satisfactorily (310+310+310= 930) Mesons: πº meson (pi-zero meson) 135 MeV should be composed of quarks uū or dđ (310+310 MeV) π + meson (pi-plus meson) 140 MeV uđ (310+310) "pi" – mesons π – meson (pi-minus meson) 140 MeV ūd (310+310) Kº meson (K-zero meson) 498 MeV dš and or đs (310+505) "kappa"–mesons K + meson (K-plus meson) 494 MeV uš (310+505) K – meson (K-minus meson) 494 MeV ūs (310+505) η meson 549 MeV uu or dd or ss (310+310) or (505+505) "eta" – a meson D + meson 1868 MeV cđ (1500+310) "D" – mesons D – meson 1868 MeV čd (1500+310) Dº meson 1863 MeV (lower) ču and or cū (1500+310) Baryons: λ 1116 MeV uds and or ūđš (310+310+505) "lambda" – a baryon Σ + 1189 MeV uus and or ūūš (310+310+505) "sigma" – baryons Σº 1192 MeV (more) uds and or ūđš (310+310+505) Σ – 1197 MeV (ones more) dds and or đđš (310+310+505) 3 Ξº 1315 MeV uss and or ūšš (310+505+505) "xi" – baryons Ξ – 1321 MeV (it is more) dss and or đšš (310+505+505) Ω – 1672 MeV sss and or ššš (505+505+505) "omega" – a baryon Summarize and check for yourself. Leptons: Electron e – 0,511 MeV no quarks (too easy!) Electron neutrino υ e 0 (MeV) quarks aren't present Muon µ – 106 MeV no quarks Muon neutrino υ µ 0 (MeV) quarks aren't present Tau lepton τ – 1782 MeV, no quarks Tau-neutrino υ τ 250 MeV quarks aren't present The masses are indicated on the energy scale. Electron volts – out-system unit of energy used to measure the energy and mass of microparticles, the following designations: eV. 1eV = 1,602·10 -19 J = 1,602·10 -12 erg. Multiple units: 1keV=10 3 eV, 1MeV=10 6 eV, 1GeV=10 9 eV. Such energy of a particle get, accelerated by electric field of such value between electrodes. These particles (or waves) the quark hypothesis does not explain at all. Strangely, if the mass is at the electron, muon, tau lepton, why this mass does not need to quarks? Maybe easier at first explain mass? What is it? Each time when energy accelerators increases, new particles emerge that do not fit into the quark model and it is necessary to "invent" new quarks.. Remember the name, which gave the Gell-Mann! Particles produced at accelerators so much, that if any of them fit into the set of combinations of quarks, it is presented as another success! Never mind that many of the other particles do not fit into this system! Now one moment connected with "carriers" of interactions. The mass of the particles "the carriers" interaction (should connect protons and neutrons in the nucleus) is calculated by the formula: cl m 0 h = , where ћ – is a constant Dirac 1,054·10 -34 J·s, с– the speed of light 2,9979·10 8 m/s, l 0 – selected range (radius) of interaction. If we are dealing with elementary particles in quantum physics, in the formulas used constant Dirac ћ, and when dealing with radiation, is used Planck constant h – 6,62·10 -34 J·s, and it is more constant the Dirac in 2π times, that is: h = 2πћ. If the radius of the circle is 1, its area and 4 circumference of a circle equal to 2π. And so, nuclear forces can be transmitted both, by particles and by fields. Radiation, it is variable field in time, nothing more. If we assume that the mass of the nuclear connection is formed by particles, then using the formula: cl m 0 h = with selected interaction radius equal to the diameter of a proton (≈1,54·10 -15 m range of nuclear forces is very small), we obtain weight carrier of force equal to ≈ 95% by weight of π 0 -meson. Or about 7 times smaller than the mass of the proton. If we consider that the weight of nuclear connection is formed by a field of nuclear forces connected with space, that applying the formula: cl h m 0 = (this formula is the Compton wavelength) with a selected range of interaction (≈1,54·10 -15 m) we obtain 86% of weight of the proton-neutron. That is, protons, and neutrons are connected with themselves! And "transmit" the interaction, without intermediaries! And mathematics doesn't object! And no need to explain: why there are more heavy mesons in 4–13–74 times! heavier than the π-mesons with the same shorter-range?! It is not clear, that they are linked? They "pour out" from the unstable baryons entire batches. Do protons "overeat" mesons, which should their fasten with each other? And where did they come from, after the blow of protons against each other? Simply imagine that they are synthesized in the moment of blow together with the new protons. Unstable elements breaks up and remains only the protons, electrons and their electric antipodes. Thus, there is reasonable doubt: that the nuclear forces "are transmitted" by light mesons. By the way, how does this process, a clear explanation of the "official" hypothesis also does not provide. Whether protons and neutrons are exchanged mesons, or mesons bind them as a deformable springs, or alternately annihilating and arising again in some way, keep the nucleons (particles of a nucleus) together. Besides, mesons are very heavy, 7 pieces and the proton mass is doubled. How much should weigh the nucleus of atoms? If they have a lot of mesons? It is unclear why the gluons (glue) – hypothetical particles that hold quarks inside protons and neutrons can not perform the same function and to keep the nucleons together? Mist is a lot! Now it is clear that without a precise definition (formulation) – what is the mass of the substance (matter) can not build any decent theory. Einstein gave his definition of mass. According to his views, « "curvature" of space-time and gives a mass to all objects"» – end quote. And he was urgently sent on pension and all tried to forget about it! At silly people always is censorship. Nobody should know that they are silly people! Higgs Bosons also do not clarify the picture. It is unclear where they come from? Why elementary particles "absorb" Higgs bosons with varying degree of saturation and have thus different masses? Where to disappear unobservable "spirits" of these bosons? What is the mass of the Higgs boson? By what criteria it calculated? Mist is even greater. 5 The hypothesis of quarks is zonal, rather than a general hypothesis, that is, it "explains" only part of the structure of matter. Field (electric, magnetic, gravity), this hypothesis does not explain. As well, and yourself "quarks" – what is it? What their relationship to space and time? In fundamental physics, there are three important questions that need to give a clear answer: 1. What is the quantum of action? That is why the energy share (split) on the already indivisible portions – quanta, whose energy depends on the radiation frequency (derivative of time). 2. Where the magnetic field disappears at collision two gamma quanta (rays) of high energy and then the birth of at least a couple of elementary particles takes place (particle and its electric antipode or "electric reflection" in space). The electric field around the particles is (neutral particles with no electric field is not stable), but no magnetic field! Gamma quanta are fragments of an electromagnetic field. Search (look for), where a magnetic field is! 3. Quantized space-time in portions or it is continuous and it without structure (space) which should not limit the speed of flight of photons (particles or waves its are, it makes no difference!). In fact, flatten and increase the mass of accelerated particles, it (space) also should not. Accelerated protons approaching to the speed of light similar to the flat side of a coin flying forward. With increasing speed (energy) collisions (the colliding beams of protons) the number of small fragments (spray-fragments) should increase, if it is component parts of colliding protons (in forehead). In practice, there is an increase of heavy particles ("fragments"), which are even heavier than the proton! After disintegration they turn into set, of protons, antiprotons, electrons and anti-electrons (positrons). Thus, the probability that it is debris colliding protons is very small. These particles were formed at the moment of blow of protons and into their structure didn't enter. And thus, increasing energy accelerators does not clarify the picture, and even more confusing it. By the way. Time for calculation of all quantum numbers (the charge, weight, spin etc.) the particles received at collision now makes some hours. So to wait months of results it is not necessary. Quarks were sought in the 70s in Space, where the energy of the protons in cosmic rays exceeds reached recently. Search did not succeed. It is unclear what expected from the collision of protons in our time? Interest can be present only collisions of heavy nucleus Pb, Au, etc., as these elements in cosmic rays aren't present, or too little. If you look closely to the net (lattice) of baryons masses, and mesons too, is clearly seen that the mass difference between the clusters of baryons and the mass of a proton is 1.3 – 2.7 – 5.4 and more mass of πº-mesons. Products of disintegration of baryons, and heavy mesons are containing mesons π or K. If you 6 define the concept – the mass, it becomes evident that baryons are simply compounds the protons (neutrons) with various numbers of mesons of different types (and charge), plus the "mass of connection" protons and neutrons with mesons (the fractional difference of weight). Compounds πº and π – , π + mesons among themselves form other types of mesons. Super heavy baryons are formed by connecting the set of protons, neutrons and mesons in a single conglomerate. Quark values – is the difference between the fractional value of the proton mass and the mass of additional mesons, and that misleading. Probably seeing fractional "spin" of elementary particles Gell-Mann proposed the existence of fractional electric charge. For the "spin" particles (quantum "mechanical" magnetic moment) can be a fraction: ½ or 3/2, etc. By the way, because of the additional mass of mesons, the system of quarks and does not work for mesons themselves. Especially on π and K mesons, since they add weight to the protons and neutrons (plus mass connection), forming a short-lived and unstable baryons. Whether there could be physicists "victims" of auto-suggestion? Yes could! Words that describe the properties of quark "flavor", "color", "beauty", "charm" fascinate and lead to influence on emotional area of a brain, instead on the logic one. Physicists would merely "fascinated" of this "fragrant" hypothesis and do not hear objections of opponents. Simply don't want to listen. That there is just such an invention as a "renormalization". All the calculations that exceed the norm, just throw away! All the equations that give absurd results, simply aren't considered by physicists! Richard Feynman (1918–1988) called it a "sweeping dust under the carpet" – end quote. Practice to fit under the hypothesis. This is the irrational behavior, and it is explained by the effect of auto-suggestion. It should be avoided combination of similar words in strict physical theories, as it is fraught with replacement of the thinking process on the process of contemplation. The last argument for the existence of quarks inside the proton, the dynamics of scattering of high-energy electrons with the conclusion of the existence of point’s (point-like) formations inside the proton. Certainly, the proton also is not obliged to be a round ideal ball, as well as electron. At least two poles, these particles may have, if they are formed of linear objects. The theory of "strings" tries to explain, why quarks can't be beaten out from protons. According to this theory, the quarks flying out are completed by an arising antiquark, and generates a meson. A beautiful idea! If it does not contradict the Law of Conservation of Energy. Beautifully! Quarks are connected between themselves a thin string (gluon field) and rotate with huge speed, forming a particle. Even better the theory of "superstrings". In this theory the space may have to fold by "superfluous" six dimensions, and particles are similar to vibrating strings, that is, they one-dimensional objects. For a proton the length of a string is supposed of 10 -35 m. Try to unite now the theory of "strings" for quarks and the theory of "superstrings" for particles and to apply it not only to elementary particles, but also for all space. And you get a view of Albert Einstein (1879–1955) that is a mass in space. Once he realized this long time ago. 7 P.S. Small addition to a theme. In Cosmology existed two variants of expansion of the Universe. The first: the Universe should extend infinitely since in it is not enough weight of substance to slow the expansion of space-time and matter scattering. The second: the Universe should extend with the slowdown which then will be replaced by compression up to a singular point. And then again the Big explosion with a birth of the new Universe. For realization of the second variant, average density of a matter before recent time was insufficiently. Then was opened so-called «The dark matter» (it simply doesn't radiate electromagnetic waves). And as if the second variant can be executed. However recent discovery of possible effect of expansion of the Universe with small acceleration put under question necessity of existence of "a dark matter». After all its gravitational contribution should interfere in accelerated expansion of the Universe. And it is not important, because of what this acceleration can arise, because of effect of acceleration of time or other effects. It is important to understand that the study only one matter can not be restricted. Also it is impossible to be too self-confident and to believe that we know all about this World. Andrey Vladimirovich Polevikov On October, 9th 2011 Continuation 0844794-51 8 Problems arising from the consideration of some physical models, and their possible solution The quark hypothesis π 0 (pi-zero) – meson should consist of one quark and one antiquark, which are destroyed in the annihilation of this particle, accompanied by the generation of gamma rays (quanta). There is a problem: why at disintegration π 0 meson, sometimes there is electron-positron a pair, which can arise from two gamma quanta when they collide? However, under the law of Conservation of an impulse, generated during the moment of annihilation quanta should have opposite directed impulse. Thus, electron and a positron should arise at disintegration π 0 meson, instead of at it annihilation! What role in formation of nuclear forces should play π 0 meson? This particle is electrically neutral! Also, π 0 mesons there should be some "grades" consisting of different quarks and antiquarks with different weights, and consequently, with different energy annihilation. But it is not observed! For the π – and π + mesons all is clear. They can theoretically neutralize electric pushing away of protons in an atomic nucleus and thus, contribute to their holding together. However, there is a problem with an explanation of the mechanism of their disintegration by annihilation of a quark and an antiquark. They should also consist of two quarks. At annihilation of the electric charge of the particles is zero and the energy is released in return. At the same disintegration π + and π – mesons produced neutrino and an electron or positron. Final products of disintegration are specified. The electric charge after disintegration completely remains! Electron or positron has exactly the same charge as the original disintegrated particle. The lifetime of the π - mesons, less than one millionth of a second. It turns out that in this case, annihilation takes place without loss of electric charge! This is possible, if the π – and π + mesons consist of four quarks and of which one antiquark is, that is, 3 quarks and 1 antiquark. Initially annihilate quark (charge or + ⅓ + ⅔) and antiquark (charge - ⅓ or - ⅔), and after the release of energy, the remaining quarks (+ ⅓ + ⅔ or and - ⅓ and - ⅔) forming a particle with charge +1 or -1, are emitted from the zone of annihilation. In such a scenario, an electron or positron should consist of two quarks or antiquarks. And mesons π + and π – should consist of four quarks and have twice more weight, than with two quarks. And if the weight of connection of quarks nonlinearly depends on number of the connected quarks (energy of connection of 2 quarks about 70 MeV, 3 quarks about 300 MeV) in this case, the weight π mesons should be in several times more! Or the 9 mechanism annihilation in this case doesn't explain disintegration of these particles. A situation with other charged mesons – is similar! K and η – mesons consist of two quarks (one of them very strange – breaking up). And as a result these particles break up on 2 π or 3 π mesons which too consist of two quarks, but already other grades. Total. From 2 quarks is born new 4 or 6 quarks! Then that quarks, it not elementary subparticles, but complex systems which can break up! By the way, the weight of connection of quarks among themselves in tens times exceeds weight of quarks, so the matter actually, should consist of gluons connecting quarks, and then, actually from quarks. Also should be called, thus, in a reality: a gluon-quark's model! In the 60s the version dominated: that quarks in a reality super heavy (top – a quark = 22 500 MeV, top – the higher, true, truthful). And at formation of protons energy is emitted (till 97 %). However there was other version later: that quarks in a reality very easy (5–7 MeV), but the rest weight is weight of connection of quarks. Anyway: quarks are considered as intermediaries between electromagnetic waves (gamma quanta) and matter particles. Energy of connection in a nucleus of atom of uranium 238 is equal of 1802 MeV. The weight of one proton is equal 938 MeV, a neutron – 940 MeV. That is, the weight of the sum of all protons and neutrons of a nucleus of uranium if a nucleus to disassemble and weigh these particles separately, is less than weight of a nucleus of uranium on 1802 MeV or 1,92 weights of a proton. Energy of connection of all particles of a nucleus "weighs" hardly less than weight of 2 protons or 12,87 weights mesons. Weight π + or π – meson – 140 MeV. It is interesting to know? How 12–13 mesons can keep 92 protons and 146 neutrons together?! Is not it easier to assume that it is done by 146 electrons, which are part of the 146 neutrons? And which, fasten protons among themselves as writing paper clips! The tunnel effect will neutralize interaction of electric fields of protons and electrons. External electric field of an atomic nucleus – result of the sum of all fields of particles entering into its structure (+92 =-146+238). If protons and neutrons consist of set of mesons (are surrounded by a cloud of pions), that, how many quarks in them? Three? Or more? Inside everyone meson is two quarks. The official hypothesis – is silent. By the way. In Chemistry the paper clip role is played by methylene group CH 2 . Which is formed at reaction of formaldehyde with reactive groups. So, "the paper clip" mechanism in the Nature is extended enough. It is rather strange, when electric and nuclear forces among themselves are compared! Nuclear forces are capable to saturation (shielding) and are short- range (operate only on short distances). Electric forces can operate at a great distance and are shielded sufficiently only by metals. Thus, comparison of these forces among themselves can appear rather subjective and not correspond to a reality. Inability to explain the weight gain of the nucleus because of the nucleons connection (particles of the nucleus) also has resulted Japanese physicist Jukava in the version: the mass of the particles formed the nucleus, because of location in the nucleus of an atom of small particles (mesons), which bind the nucleons 10 together, and thus increasing the weight of the nucleus. And so the model of particles, carriers of forces has been created; intermediate vector bosons – the weak interactions (the disintegration of particles), mesons – nuclear forces, gluons – quarks connection. Also, a particle with a very large mass that exists in a vacuum and is absorbed by all the elementary particles, and thereafter, these elementary particles acquire properties: to be braked in vacuum, and to have, thus, inertia-weight. Different particles absorb this super particle in varying degrees and have, because of this, a different mass. Or many of these super particles (Higgs bosons) prevent elementary particles move by surrounding them with a cloud, and thus creates the inertial properties of particles of matter. This is also the intermediaries between the physical vacuum and the particles of matter. And why do the particles can not interact with the vacuum, without intermediaries? Do not become very heavy our space filled with a large number of intermediaries, whose mass (a piece), in one hundred times surpasses weight of a proton? Inability to give a precise concept: – the mass and inertia, has led to the physics of elementary particles to that that we have now hundreds forces and the physical fields which are created by set of particles astable in a free condition and "beaten out" from elementary particles or nucleus of atoms, pushed together in accelerators. The quantity of "carriers" of such forces and fields already surpasses Mendeleyev's periodic table and continues to increase. It may be that the DNA molecule would soon be declared an elementary particle, which are simpler than the hydrogen nucleus – the proton? There was even a hypothesis: that in elementary particles there is the whole Universe which splinters are fixed by detectors of physicists! The hypothesis of a holographic Universe, which essence: that each individual particle contains within itself the whole Universe. Maybe it will be easier to search for another explanation for the mass connection within the nucleus of atoms? So. What happens inside the accelerator, when it faced two protons flying towards each other at a rate slightly less than the speed of light and form after hitting two sheaves of bright sparks and quickly damped and the damping of which is interrupted by new outbreaks? These are splinters of protons and set of carriers of various forces – elementary particles hidden in a proton or simply synthesis new, in the majority, new and unstable "elementary" particles? Energy of blow already in thousand times exceeds energy annihilation of protons. Particles have electric field which quickly accrues at approach of particles (are 50 % of gamma quanta). The neutral particles we do not know how to speed up. Gamma quanta with such energies themselves can synthesize particles without the participation of protons. Thus, the electric field of the protons can to synthesize, at least some of the particles (sparks), since increasing the electric field can produce and the increasing magnetic field. Other moment. The gamma quantum doesn't possess ability to division. Gamma quanta of various energy generate: electrons, protons and their mirror doubles with an opposite electric charge. 11 Question: why the two indivisible gamma quanta to form two elementary particles, which is divisible? Is the electric field is divided into three quark electric field? Or three quark magnetic field? The strength of the forces that ⅓ of conventional electric or magnetic field? Then, should exist and a quark gamma quantum! See! As all is simple! From indivisible, the indivisible is formed! From quanta of an electromagnetic field, matter quanta are formed: easy quanta – electrons and heavy quanta – protons. If to physicists (it is casual!) it has appeared possible to divide easily enough nucleus of atoms (association of elementary particles). That, it at all doesn't mean that it will be possible to them, as it is easy, to divide gamma quanta or their derivatives: electrons or protons. So what will happen with the protons at collision with them, if they are indivisible? Protons in this case, are simply destroyed, if energy of their impact exceeds energy of their synthesis in tens or thousand times. At the moment of impact, flattened in tens or thousands times, protons, annihilate and produce a short gamma quanta that are colliding with each other, generate a shower of new unstable particles that disintegrate, again generate gamma quanta and neutrinos turning into stable particles: electrons and protons with different electric charge. Practically physicists make rigid gamma quanta and observe their transformation. Theoretically (it not the strict statement): gamma quanta can have such energy that flying in space, they can generate particles and without mutual impact of quanta (superfluous energy more than 112 GeV), only because of resistance of vacuum such a high energy quanta. So such – weight of a particle? If an elementary particle to accelerate to a velocity of light, its longitudinal size is reduced in n times. In n times is slowed down time and in n times increases weight of this particle. We will start to slow a particle. Its longitudinal size increases. Time is accelerated, and the weight decreases. Thus, there is an interrelation between weight, length of a particle and time. Energy of a moving particle is transformed to its weight and compresses its linear size. Time too is slowed down. From here we see that growth of energy of a particle, causes particle deformation, makes it more heavy and the decreases of time operating on a particle. So. Energy increases weight of a particle it is clear! But at what here deformation of a particle and time decreasing? By the way. At this deformation, forces at all don't operate! The drop of water flying in an air stream, is flattened by air and thus, to be braked! But if the elementary particles flying with pre-light's speed, to stop to accelerate, they to braking won't be! And their deformation also won't disappear! And time not to be accelerated! It means that at great speed, properties of space and time have changed and in such kind were fixed! Symmetry of space was broken! It also has caused time slowing (in dissymmetric space it flows more slowly, than in symmetric). The direction of motion along the shortened, and the remaining two ones (perpendicular to the first one) are the same. 12 Can you imagine! And the weight in such dissymmetric space has increased! Also that is surprising, the particle volume has decreased! Symmetry of the form of an elementary particle and its weight – sizes interconnected it means! That is, the form of sphere for electron and a proton fixes weight of these particles. Matter quanta – electron and a proton have weight because their form spherical and has the different sizes. And now, we will compare them with electromagnetic quanta. If to generate extremely short electromagnetic impulse in space we will receive huge sphere extending with a velocity of light. The sphere volume extends, but it is empty. An impulse short. That is, we have, only extending surface of a sphere. A sphere surface – is two-dimensional. Gamma quanta weights of rest have no. It will appear, if one surface of such extending sphere faces other such surface, similarly extending sphere (directly as the Universe!). After collision, there will be small three-dimensional balls – elementary particles. And which weight, can change, depending on speed of their movement. Thus, we have shown – the particle mass is connected with three-dimensional space and depends on the shape of the particle! We are getting even closer! Electric field round particles is, and the magnetic field isn't present! Means, the magnetic field has formed the closed power lines round three-dimensional sphere and has formed particle volume, at which deformation, the particle changes weight. However particles have electric charges of a different sign. It means, as the electric field partly, too, "has hidden" somewhere in a particle, and outside there is only this field part. So. Weight (mass) – it's closed (twisted) magnetic and electric fields inside an elementary particle. And for this field to disappear simply already there is no place! The exit only one – to become isolated in a ring or sphere! Compression of sphere of a particle leads to consolidation of this field and increase in weight of a particle. It is simple? At movement of this particle in space, electric and the magnetic fields closed in a particle interact with vacuum, passing it through itself. The more intensity of the closed fields in a particle, the more than its weight. It is clear? Because, its interaction with vacuum amplifies. How there is this interaction? Not bent vacuum has linear properties, and closed electric and magnetic fields in particles have nonlinear properties. The vacuum tries to straighten electric and magnetic fields, and closed electric and magnetic fields in a particle try to bend linear properties of vacuum. It is easy to understand? And who is wins! If the vacuum with its linear properties appears more strongly, the particle will break up. If there will be a particle with its nonlinear 13 fields more strongly to be bent vacuum, and it will be compelled to obey to a particle, being bent in a particle, providing inertia to a particle, as explains its weight. The more the closed fields in a particle, the more weight of such particle and its inertia as, the vacuum should be bent very strongly. At approach to a velocity of light, the quantity of linear properties of vacuum for a time unit increase, its "pressure" upon a particle increases and it (a particle) is deformed flattened. As, force of "resistance" of vacuum ahead of a particle is completely compensated by force of "acceleration" behind a particle (the bent vacuum is straightened, earlier it was compressed), it and provides constant speed of three- dimensional motion for a particle at its any speed (inertia). The vacuum is very poorly bent and out of a particle, getting insignificant nonlinear properties. The huge number of elementary particles can significantly distort the space at large distances (gravitational field) as the sum of all the influences formed, and geometrical properties of space vary in arithmetical progression. It slightly loses symmetry, and, trying to restore it, creates force of reaction which we name gravity. In fact, the gravitational field – is the residual effect of a huge number of closed magnetic and electric fields under our feet. And also, confined in us, the same closed fields. At increase in speed – the particle is deformed, being compressed that reserves energy, at slowing – the particle is deformed, being straightened that directs energy in the form of efforts of inertia which are transferred mainly by means of electric field. At usual deformation of a body, electric fields between particles which are linear are compressed or stretched only and partially magnetic ones, and the weight of bodies, thus, doesn't change. At least for a substantial amount. Changes mainly the particle velocity (temperature), which already increases the mass of the particles by increasing their rate of oscillation within the body. Deformation is a change of the form. The fixed change of the form, is called – as plastic deformation. If the form restores the initial condition it is called – as elastic deformation. Why assortment of particles of a matter received at collision of protons on accelerators of elementary particles such huge? Because the quantity of the closed combinations electric and magnetic fields is very great, as well as quantity of connections of the closed spheres among themselves (and the rotating rings forming spheres). Most of them, not compete with the vacuum (the it "pressure"), and they are opened, turning back to the alternating electric and magnetic fields (gamma quanta). Sometimes, the first disconnects a magnetic field, and the ring consisting of closed electric field, is disconnected by the last, generating thereby – neutrinos various grades (a versions of neutral radiation in space). Why the spheres consisting from closed electric and magnetic fields can incorporate in nucleus of atoms or at least elementary particles? Such, as for example a neutron? Because, linear electric and magnetic fields operate on a straight line, and on closed the same fields their action is insignificant. In case, if the electric and magnetic fields are generated from a single point on the surface of a particle (like a searchlight), and the particles themselves quickly rotate (spin), then at a certain 14 arrangement of spheres (rings) to each other, the repulsive force of like-charged particles weakens (or even disappear!) and will enable the mutual holding of a single particle near the other, and their synchronous rotation. For a neutron consisting of two particles (stable, with a mass of rest), this holding is 918 seconds. For three or more particles, this time indefinitely, provided that, the closed combination of electric and magnetic fields within each particle is sufficiently stable, that is, there is no significant excess of a closed electric or magnetic field, which makes these particles unstable, and they are rapidly destroyed, lasted from 10 -6 to 10 -20 or less of a second. How, the weight of connection of particles is formed? To keep the particles together, you can use the π mesons, electrons. However, they should somehow be attached to the particles. Or as a spring or a clip. For linking of the uranium nucleus π mesons should have a lot of not less than half of all a nucleus particles, i.e. > 100, however, and their mass is too large! Thus, remains only electrons. Their weight 0.51 MeV and should be > 100, i.e., the mass increases by ≈ 51 MeV (in the case of the π meson by 140 MeV x 100 = 14 000 MeV). Let me remind you, that the mass of the nucleons in the nucleus of uranium in 1802 MeV. Draw your own conclusions! Electrons in the nucleus of U 238 146 and thus, their total mass is 74.46 MeV. Obvious shortage of weight. Total 4.13% from necessary. In the case of mesons, the mass excess (several times). What to do? Recall that the weight – it's closed electric and magnetic fields. There in electron it is less and it are more in proton. Are all the fields accurately fit inside the particle or some of them beyond the enclosed volume of the sphere? If the huge tension within the proton electric and magnetic fields, which is 1836 times greater than the intensity of similar fields in electron, a small part of them, may in some places to go outside, and thus, the particles can be joined together by curved short fields (a different sign), which decrease rapidly with distance and the particles are held for each other. Bending of short fields and adds the missing 1727.54 MeV, that only 7.25 MeV, on one nucleon. This is 5.17% by weight of π meson! So, it is possible to cope by means electrons only! As inside the electrons is small intensity of fields, and they ideally play a role «springs», it is elastic damping vibrations of heavy and firm protons on the one hand. And on the other hand. Having the small sizes, both keeping, and focusing protons on optimum distance from each other, don't allow them to interact the electric fields (pushing away). Playing "a greasing" role electrons don't allow increasing a distance of protons on critical distance, at which, the bent short fields will weaken and will release protons. In electron less intense magnetic and electric fields inside, however, this particle has a much smaller size, which allows it to be connected with a proton at a short distance, provided that the synchronization of rotation of the electron and proton. Construction of two particles is unstable, but the three particles as a triangle stay indefinitely. Two protons and one electron, creates a deuteron. This nucleus is an isotope of hydrogen – deuterium. With the help of an electron, a nucleus has three attachment points, and this stabilizes the composite structure. 15 In conclusion, I will result Compton wavelength of particles which have been received on accelerators of elementary particles: 1,53·10 -17 m (81 GeV), intermediate vector boson 1,33·10 -17 m (93 GeV), intermediate vector boson 0,99·10 -17 m (125 GeV), presumably the Higgs boson (boson (Bose – particles) – a particle or a quasiparticle with integer spin.) The Compton wavelength is a length of electromagnetic radiation which is formed at annihilation two elementary particles. Energy of quanta of such radiation corresponds to energy of each of annihilated particles: where h – Planck of constant 6,62·10 -34 J·s, m – mass of a particle of kg, c – a velocity of light of 3·10 8 km/s. As a matter of fact, it is an electromagnetic equivalent of weight of an elementary particle. Also, at such length of radiation, electromagnetic waves at interaction with elementary particles, behave as particles. After increase in energy of the accelerator approximately in 7 times, one more particle with mass of 125 GeV has been found out. It Compton wavelength of 0,99·10 -17 m, from such short waves it is possible to synthesize this particle. Or quasiparticle too little of its lifetime. Have noticed? What is the increase in energy of the accelerator doesn't lead to sharp growth of mass of a new particle. In total on 26 %, but not in 7 times! It means that in space there is a limiting length of an electromagnetic wave which already can't be reduced any way. Relativistic reduction of length in thousand times it is possible! But attempts to synthesize (or to beat out) a super particle with weight of 500– 700 GeV, it already is impossible! It is probable that the space has any terminator for the reduction, in the same way, as the same space has the terminator for a velocity of light. For usual space not being under the influence of high-energy, it is size of length in space is inversely proportional to square of velocity of light. The square of velocity of light will transform energy to weight and on the contrary: E=mc 2 , 2 c E m = . Energy of an electromagnetic field – is an extending sphere, that is, energy – is two-dimensional. This is the minimum necessary condition for the existence of electromagnetic radiation. A weight – is three- dimensional. Consequently, the square of the speed of light and converts the two- dimensional into three-dimensional and vice versa, thus defining some properties one dimension (a) of space: m c a 17 2 101.1 1 − ⋅≈= This is a very small quantity. When we multiply c 2 on (by) m, then one dimension disappears, and when divided by c 2 or the same as multiplying on (by) 1 c 2 , then there is a whole new dimension (a) appears. The product of the electric ε 0 and magnetic µ 0 constants also yield a value of 1,11·10 -17 m (12,56·10 -7 x 8,85·10 -12 = 1,11·10 -17 m). Thus it appears that the properties of three-dimensional world are beginning to change sharply on this border: 1,11·10 -17 m. Look at the wavelengths for the synthesized particles. They are very close to this value. With great energy, this value may 16 decrease, but it is already clear that at an energy of 125 GeV, the amount of 1,11·10 -17 m decreased by 10.8%. It testifies in favor of huge rigidity of three- dimensional space which rather reluctantly gives in to compression. If gamma quanta have limiting energy in three-dimensional space it means that the space- time consists from small 1,11·10 -17 m of "particles" – quanta of space and time which transmit only final quantity of energy, and deformation of which different type, on different directions (in these particles) and causes formation, both gamma quanta, and quanta of a matter which we name elementary particles. Directions electric and magnetic at an angle in 90 0 . More visually and in detail this issue is considered in the quantum theory of space-time. 17th December 2011 Andrey Vladimirovich Polevikov See other publications of the author 0844794-51