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CRUDE OIL - Chichester Online

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CRUDE OIL
Learning Objectives
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How crude oil obtained
Composition : HYDROCARBONS
How crude oil split into fractions
Products of fractional distillation
Properties and uses
Crude Oil
• A fossil fuel
• Buried animals and plants over millions of
years…...become…
• Hydrocarbons : a mixture of carbon and
hydrogen molecules
• Crude oil can be split, into fractions
• Components - No chemical bonds
Fractional Distillation
• Industrial process of distillation by heating
oil
• Different components vaporise at different
temperatures
• Collecting different oil vapours at different
temperatures
• Process Crude oil split into fractions
Properties of crude oil
• The fractions of crude oil are called
ALKANES
ALKANES
• Composed of chain molecules of hydrogen
and carbon
• They are stored as liquid, used as gases
• The length of the chain identifies the gas :
• Methane
• Ethane
• Propane
• Butane
VOLATILITY
• The shorter the chain, the more volatile
the alkane. It becomes a gas at a lower
temperature OR
• Condenses into a liquid at a lower
temperature.
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