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ENDOCRINE
SYSTEM
1
2
MORPHOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES
EXOCRINE GLANDS:
FROM
1. Have no ducts.
2. A vascular net is developed well. (Old
name: "ductless glands", "bloody glands").
3. Capillaries have the special structure: a)
sine wave type; b) an endothelia
membrane joins to the cells of gland
directly.
4. They select increts (hormones).
3 "Hormao" –– excite.
Other features:
1. Mass of gland very little in relation to a body.
(Example: Less than 100 gr. in human body)
2. Physiological activity is ever-higher.
(Example: 1 gram. of insulin decreases sugar concentration in a
blood in 125 000 rabbits).
1. Influence on all organism on the whole.
2. Topographically disjoined.
3. They have different origins.
4. Their secretions are blown through have
chemical nature.
5. Their action is purposeful.
6. Distances operate.
4
Function communication
•Regulate to the functions and manage processes
in an organism with the nervous system together.
•The nervous system innervate endocrine organs.
The endocrine system influences on activity of
the nervous system.
•There is crampon connection between
Nervous & Endocrine & Immune
SYSTEMS
5
Differences of the nervous and endocrine systems:
neurotransmitters
Realization through
hormones are
which formed
the chemical
sent in a blood,
under influencing
matters
lymph, tissue
of electric impulse
All cells of
muscles, glands,
organism
Cell-targets
nervous cells
(bodies of
cells)
Time of activating
from seconds
(to beginning of
milliseconds
to hours and
effect)
days
Duration of action
short
long
(effect)
6
TYPES OF HORMONAL RECEPTION:
1. Intra cells (through RNA and DNA & alteration of cell
metabolism).
2.
Superficial membrane (perception by a receptor
& formation of hormone-receptor complex & formed
ATP hormonal mediator & influence on the enzymes of
cells & alteration of cellmetabolism).
7
The mode of hormone influence:
1. Metabolic (influence on an exchange);
2. Morphogenic (stimulation of morphosynthetic processes;
differentiation; growth; metamorphoses);
3. Kinetic (including or exception of certain activity of executive
branches);
4. Correcting (change of intensity of function of organs and
tissues).
8
Paracrine organs
Heart
Liver
Hypothalamus
Kidney
Stomach
Ureter
Their increts operate in city, because
decompose quickly by the enzymes of blood. They
are prostoglandins according chemical nature.
9
Localization of hormone secret structures
Stomach
like A (remind the Рђcells of pancreas,
producing glucagons)
like Р” (remind Р” are
cells of pancreas EG
Duodenum
Pancreas
EG
like A
Hormons
glucagone
Р”
Р”1
Р”
Р”
A function not is set. Possibly,
produce a brake factor (vasoactiv
intestinal polypeptide)
Р”1
Р”1
Р”1
A function not is set. Possibly, relate
to freeing of gastrin
G (gastric)
G
G
glucagon
S
produce secretin
A function while not clears; probably
cholecystokinin-pancreozymin
ЕС (entero chrome)
ЕС (entero chrome)
Serotonin, motilin
In
Histamin
Insulin
10
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