close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

ФИЗИКО-ХИМИЧЕСКИЕ ОСНОВЫ НАНОТЕХНОЛОГИИ

код для вставкиСкачать
ФИЗИКО-ХИМИЧЕСКИЕ
ОСНОВЫ
НАНОТЕХНОЛОГИИ
Профессор Н.Г. Рамбиди
14. Национальная
нанотехнологическая
инициатива США
и ее международные
следствия
ННИ : организации соучредители
NSF – National Science Foundation
NEC – National Economic Commission
DOD – Department of Defense
DOC – Department of Commerce
DOE – Department of Energy
DOT – US Department of Transportation
DoTREAS – Department of Treasury
OSTP – Office of Science and Technology Policy
NSTC – National Science and Technology Council
OMB – Office of Management and Budget
NASA – National Aeronautic and Space
Administration
NIH – National Institute of Health
Структура ННИ
The essence of nanotechnology is the ability to work at the
molecular level, atom by atom, to create large structures
with fundamentally new molecular organization …
Nanotechnology is concerned with materials and systems
whose structures and components exhibit novel and
significantly improved physical, chemical, and biological
properties, phenomena, and processes due to their
nanoscale size. The aim is to exploit these properties by
gaining control of structures and devices at atomic,
molecular, and supramolecular levels and to learn to
efficiently manufacture and use these devices. Maintaining
the stability of interfaces, and the integration of these
"nanostructures" at the micron-length scale and
macroscopic scale is another objective.
ННИ – основные направления
Нанотехнология:
финансирование до 2000 г
ННИ: финансирование 2001 г
ННИ: финансирование 2001г
Некоторые результаты
Опреснение морской воды
Молекулярная оперативная
память
Наноструктурированные
катализаторы
Наночастицы доставляют
лекарство
Полимеры с дисперсным
наполнителем
ДНК диагностика
Нанотехнология и энергетика
BASIC ENERGY SCIENCES -- Serving the Present, Shaping the Future
Nanoscience Activities
in Basic Energy Sciences
D.D. Koelling
Basic Energy Sciences
May 15, 2002
<With special thanks to Walter J. Stevens>
NNI FY 2003 Funding Requests
DOE is one of the three lead agencies
National Nanotechnology Initiative
(NNI Coordination Office compilation, as of 1/18/02)
FY 2003
(Dollars in millions)
NSF
DOD
DOE
*
All other agencies
TOTAL NNI
221.0
201.0
133.0 + up to $15M in FY 02
117.4
678.7
* Excludes funding for synchrotron light source and
neutron scattering facility operations and beamlines.
National Nanotechnology Initiative Focus Areas
Long-term, fundamental nanoscience and engineering research
FY 2001: BES awarded $26.5M in new NNI funds based on peer review -76 university grants ($16.1M) and 12 laboratory awards ($10.4M)
FY 2002: BES may award up to $15M based on peer review
340 university proposals + 37 national lab proposals under review
FY 2003 (Request)
BES $93M for research + $35M for construction and PED
(including ~$3.0M for Theory and Modeling in Nanoscience)
ASCR $4M
(including $3.0M for support of Theory and Modeling in Nanoscience)
FY 2004: …
Centers and networks of excellence
BES Nanoscale Science Research Centers – the DOE “flagship” NNI activity
Research infrastructure
BES supports the synchrotron light sources, neutron scattering facilities, and other
specialized facilities in support of nanoscale science
Some Interesting Challenges
Nanoparticles contain between hundreds and billions of atoms.
Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo atomic studies can deal with
billions of atoms.
Density Functional Theory can deal with the electrons of up to a
thousand atoms.
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations can deal with the electrons more
closely correlating their motions up to ~150 atoms.
Quantum Chemical calculations describe that correlated motion for
smaller numbers of atoms (50?)
Nanoparticles contain “countable” numbers of atoms.
We probably will do the atomistic calculations.
We also will use the larger scale descriptions --- but now we can
benchmark them!
Nanoparticles are dynamic entities --- here is where the community will have to
confront the limitations of different time scales.
Some Computational Issues
A workshop has been recently held (most slides were stolen from there) and a
report will be out shortly. Some items that mix my own thoughts with those
discussed there --- Eigensystems and Linear Algebra for very large N
O(N) approaches
Sparse
Fast Algorithms (FFT, FMM, • • • • )
- Fast Poisson Solver
Optimization
Changing Time and Length Scales
Data Visualization/Mining
Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs)
NSRCs:
Research facilities for synthesis, processing, and fabrication of
nanoscale materials
Co-located with existing user facilities (synchrotron radiation light
sources, neutron scattering facilities, other specialized facilities) to
provide characterization and analysis capabilities
Operated as user facilities; available to all researchers; access
determined by peer review of proposals
Provide specialized equipment and support staff not readily available to
the research community
Conceived with broad input from university and industry user
communities to define equipment scope
NSRCs have been extensively reviewed by external peers and by the
Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee
NSRCs (
) and the BES User Facilities
Materials
Preparation Center
Advanced Light
Source
Electron Microscopy
Center for Materials
Research
Advanced
Photon
Source
Center for
Microanalysis of
Materials
Intense Pulsed
Neutron Source
National Center for
Electron
Microscopy
National
Synchrotron
Light Source
Molecular
Foundry
Spallation Neutron
Source
Stanford
Synchrotron
Radiation Lab
Center for
Nanophase
Materials Sciences
Linac Coherent
Light Source
Surface Modification &
Characterization
Center
Combustion
Research Facility
Los Alamos
Neutron Science
Center
Center for
Integrated
Nanotechnologies
Shared Research
Equipment Program
James R.
MacDonald Lab
Pulse Radiolysis
Facility
Under construction
In design/engineering
In design/engineering
High-Flux
Isotope Reactor
The Molecular Foundry
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Unique tools and capabilities:
Advanced Light Source
National Center for Electron Microscopy
National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center
Nationally unique facilities, such as the
e-beam nanowriter – nanofabrication facility
Outstanding faculty and students in multidisciplinary research,
including materials science • physics • chemistry •
biochemistry • biomolecular materials • engineering
21st Century
Challenge
O
P
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
Scientific focus areas:
Combination of “soft” and “hard” materials/building units
Multicomponent functional assemblies
Combine nanoscale building
blocks to make functional
devices, e.g., a
photosynthetic reaction
center with integral
semiconductor storage
ННИ: перспективы
ННИ: финансирование 2005 г
Нанотехнология
и Министерство обороны
США
Нанотехнология
и ВМФ США
Нанаотехнология и
космические
исследования
Международная
активность
Европейская активность
FP6 NanoMatPro (NMP)
The new Work Programme 2004- 2nd
Call opportunities
Nanotechnologies and nanosciences, knowledge-based multifunctional
materials, and new production processes and devices - NMP
Nicholas Hartley
DG Research, Unit G-1 “Policy Aspects”
FP6:
Budget 2002 – 2006
(excluding Euratom)
Focusing and Integrating ERA
13345
• Pr 1 genomics and biotech for health
• Pr 2 information society technologies
• Pr 3 nanotech, intelligent mat, production
• Pr 4 aeronautics and space
• Pr 5 food safety and health risks
• Pr 6 sustainable dev & global change
• Pr 7 citizens and governance
• Pr 8 anticipating needs (INCO, CRAFT, JRC, etc)
Structuring the ERA
2255
3625
1300
1075
685
2120
225
2080
2605
research & innovation, human resources, infrastructures, science & society
Strengthening the Foundations of ERA
320
coordination of activities, development of policies
TOTAL (Millions €)
16270
Thematic Priority 3
concentrates on:
i) Nanotechnology, as a flagship of the next
industrial revolution
ii) Multi-functional knowledge-based
Materials, as critical drivers of innovation
iii)New Production processes and devices,
as the key to sustainable development
WP 2004 and next calls
Next Call 2004
AREA 1:
Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies
Focus on:
Self-organisation and self-assembling (STREP)
Molecular motors (STREP)
Expanding knowledge in size-dependent phenomena (SSA)
New knowledge on interfaces for new applications (STREP)
Nanostructured surfaces (IP)
Industrially relevant production of nanoparticles (IP)
Characterisation and/or manipulation devices & techniques (STREP)
Impact on human health and environment (SSA; CA)
Ethical, legal, social aspects of research in nanotechnology (SSA)
Нанотехнология в Японии
Последние результаты
Автомобиль без водителя
Автомобиль без водителя
Автомобиль без водителя
Документ
Категория
Презентации
Просмотров
21
Размер файла
13 754 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа