Uses for Elements in the Carbon Family Some Interesting Facts Members of the Carbon Family вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Carbon Silicon Germanium Tin Lead What do they have in common? SOME FAMILYвЂ¦ вЂў Some are metals, some are nonmetals, and some are metalloids вЂў Lead is poisonous, but carbon is essential to life вЂў The all look really different BUTвЂ¦ вЂў They all have 4 valence electrons. вЂў They react in similar ratios with oxygen and other elements. вЂў They can form up to 4 bonds вЂ“ more than any other family!! Carbon вЂў Carbon is found in every living creature. вЂў Elemental carbon can be black (graphite), or hard and beautiful (diamonds). вЂў Building block of fossil fuels (gasoline and oil) вЂў Basis of organic chemistry Silicon вЂў Important semiconductor used in computer chips, solar cells, and transistors. вЂў Second most plentiful element in the earthвЂ™s crust. вЂў SiO2 is the main ingredient in glass. Germanium вЂў Important for its semiconductor properties. вЂў One of few substances that expand when frozen. вЂў Can be recovered from refining zinc ores or from the gases of coal combustion. Lead вЂў Extensively used in plumbing. вЂў Used to be added to gasoline to prevent engine knocking. вЂў Used to block radiation вЂ“ very dense metal вЂў Neurotoxin вЂ“ may have contributed to fall of the Roman empire. Tin вЂў Once used to make disposable cans, now cheaper aluminum cans are coated inside with tin. вЂў Has been known for centuries and used for itвЂ™s relative nonreactivity.