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Lomonosov and Russian Language

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M. V. Lomonosov and Russian Language
M. V. Lomonosov is a founder of a science about Russian language. He is our first linguist who started to study a lively Russian language. He was the first scientist who characterized subject and goals of Russian linguistics as a science.
Knowing Latin and Greek, German and Polish let Lomonosov to make a conclusion about remarkable peculiarities of Russian language.
Lomonosov saw in Russian language not only inexhaustible possibilities for a poet and a prosaist, but also for an orator, scientist and a public figure.
In accordance with Lomonosov's opinion expressed in "A Letter about Russian Rhyming Rules" (1739), Russian literary language should be developed accordingly to its national temper. He put forward the following theses:
1. Usage and development of a language should be based on "its natural feature: what is not common for Russian language shouldn't be penetrated into it";
2. It is necessary to strengthen and extend "own and natural';
3. Not to implement into Russian language something obscene.
Spreading of knowledge in Russian, development of different branches of science had difficulties due to abnormality of grammatical system of Russian language of that time. Lomonosov saw it very clearly. "Russian grammar" published in 1755 was a result of preparatory work over a long period of time and his thoughts about Russian language. "Russian Grammar" is the first true scientific work regarding Russian Language. Strict scientific plan, completeness, big volume of material, scientific analyses, and keen observation of author which are topical till now determined a historical value of Lomonosov's grammar.
In his work "About Use of Church Books for Russian Language" (1755) Lomonosov described new Russian literary language grammatical norms and characterized language styles.
Style in his opinion contained of special organized system of linguistic means which corresponded with strict determined cycle of fiction's genres.
Lomonosov sorted out five groups of words:
1. Church-Slavic words, which are very old and not useful;
2. Church-Slavic words, which know all competent people;
3. Words which are universal for both Church-Slavic language and Russian language;
4. Russian words, which are common for informal speech of a civilized society and not common for a Church-Slavic language;
5. Folksy words.
For each style Lomonosov had strictly specified phonetic, morphological and syntactical peculiarities.
So, Lomonosov theoretically and practically favored the development of Russian language and its study. Main thing what Lomonosov brilliantly managed is to arouse huge interest of the public to language, to the questions of verbal creativity, to show excellent examples of this creativity and also its tempting prospects. That's why the Russian literary language with all its style's richness develops and diversifies so quickly after Lomonosov, many genres of poetry and prose form different aspects of oratory, philology becomes more active. Russian language vocabularies and Russian Grammar are set up.
Lomonosov and the Art
Lomonosov possessed not only academic and professional painting skills, but we must know that he also had an absolute feeling to color and paints, as Mozart to music. Otherwise Lomonosov could not create a huge range of his smalt, incomparable on the purity and variety of shades. There is no doubt that the national origins of his perception of art, learned him from his childhood in his native North affected on the major sounding and decorative of Lomonosov's monumental ideas.
At the time, Sergey Vavilov compared Lomonosov to Leonardo da Vinchi and Goehte, not only through their many-sided talents, but also through "the deep joining of art-historical and scientific interests in one person". Seeking to create a harmonic and holistic materialist picture of Universe, Lomonosov tested it consciously and strictly by the scientific experiments. He tried to prove his theoretical guesses in practice; therefore he carried out two parallel chemical and physical experiments to get colored glasses.
His work had many aspects. On the one hand, it was connected with the important issue on the relations between the substance and color, and with the discovering of the first laws of chromatics. Lomonosov called his work "A new theory about colors, approved by physical and chemical experiments". On the other hand, these experiments were also aimed at satisfaction of the practical needs in coloring materials in the domestic industry.
During the last fifteen years of his short and eventful life, Lomonosov gave himself up to it with the same passion as to science, and it is full of great and deep thoughts embodied in poetic imagery.
The active love to his people, hot patriotism made Lomonosov to carry out more than four thousand experiments to create the monumental mosaics "For preservation of the heroic glorious deeds that debt to the Motherland ordered to represent".
Lomonosov is a unique example of the depth of scientific and art enlightenment.
M. V. Lomonosov's wishes to descendants
Venture to glorify the Motherland with courage!
Only in cheerful and hearty impulse, in passionate love to the native country, in bravery and energy a victory comes up.
The main principle of this I consider the fact of preservation and reproduction of the Russian nation that is a majesty, power and wealth of the whole country and not a big futile territory without inhabitants.
If a schoolboy doesn't know the Russian grammar, he must study in the first form until he will be able to read and write well. University must include: the faculty of law, medical and philosophic faculties. Gymnasium is a first basis of free arts and sciences... Young people should learn right way of thinking and good manners there.
Science is a clear knowledge of truth, enlightenment of intellect. For the common good and especially for strengthening the science in Motherland, there is no harm to be against one's father... I devoted myself to fight with the enemies of the Russian science until my death.
Intellect by means of science gets to the mystery of substance, points out where is a truth. Science and experiments are only means, only a framework for reflection.
We shall never be able to tell exactly what made the great scientist get interested in the history of Russia and its peoples from ages ago. We can only suppose... This interest must have came to him in his young years. His first acquaintance with "the gates to knowledge", historic books, which in those days were a mixture of the biblical "history" with the real one, could have occurred at the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy in Moscow.
The very presence of Mikhail in the capital, and his later visit to Kiev, "mother of all towns Russian", promoted his interest in Russian history in his young years. Lomonosov began systematic scientific studies of the history of his country already at the academy. Thus, in October 1746, Lomonosov finished reading the manuscript of the book written by metropolitans Cuprian and Makary, edited by G. F. Miller, "The Genealogy of the Grand Prince", which would become an important historiographical source for late works. Lomonosov would give a poetic interpretation of historic events. Thus, in 1769 he wrote an ode to the victory of the Russian army in the battle of Khotyn. He was deeply moved by the patriotic aspect of the victory. Lomonosov's interest in history deepened when in March 1748 the Historical Assembly was opened at the Academy. Being appointed to the department, Lomonosov soon played a leading role in it: reviewed the submitted works, took part in discussions and expressed his competent opinion.
One should be astonished by the intuitional far-sightedness of the great Russian thinker. It seems he lived only recently. His thoughts seem to be in tune with problems and challenges of today! This is the power of a genius multiplied by the deep patriotism and unconditional love for his homeland.
1. Lomonosov was born on the 19th of November, 1711 in the village of Denisovka.
2. His stipend at the Academy was 5 kopecks a day.
3. He founded Moscow State University in 1755.
4. He wrote odes and poems.
5. He is buried in Moscow.
6. Lomonosov was appointed to the Historical department at the Academy.
7. His monumental mosaic is called "For preservation of the heroic deeds that debt to the Motherland ordered to represent".
8. M.V. carried out more than 3 thousand experiments to create his mosaics.
9. Lomonosov was the founder of the "Russian Grammar" published in 1755.
10. Lomonosov wrote: If a schoolboy doesn't know the Russian grammar, he must study in the second form until he will be able to read and write well".
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