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растения
 THE WORD AROUND US
Pavel Danilyuk
Andrey Zakharov
Yevgeny Kryuchkov
Vyacheslav Dubitsky
Kirill Buravlyov
Matvey Aleksashin
Artur Valishin
T
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Content
1.
Great Britain
: England
(Tulip; Rose)
Scotland
(Thistle)
Wales
(Narcissus
)
Nothern Ireland
(Snowdrop;
Shamrock)
2.
The United States of Ameri
c
a
(
Franklin Alatamaha, Ginseng
)
3.
Canada
(Maple; Thuja)
4.
Australia (Araucaria Bidwill)
5.
New Zealand
(Kauri; Silver Fern)
England
Roses
.
T h e s y m b o l o f E n g l a n d i s t h e R e d R o s e.
Roses are very nice flowers. The color may be different: red, white and yellow. Many kinds of roses smell sweet. Roses have thorns, which are very sharp. People grow roses in the gardens and roses can grow wild.
Roses are very naughty flowers. They like w
et weather. If the air and ground are dry, you should often water roses. If a man wants to grow nice roses, he should take care of them.
Roses are summer flowers. People can buy roses in the flowers
-
shops. Roses are bush
-
flowers.
Tulips
.
Tulips are very nice flowers. They are spring flowers. The color of the flowers may be different: red, white, yellow, black. Sometimes the color is mixed.
People grow tulips in the gardens and they can grow wild. Tulips are nice, but they do not smell. The leaves of the tulips are long and green. These flowers are usually bought for women for the 8
th
of March.
Pavel Danilyuk
WALES.
Narcissus.
Narcissus
is the botanic name for spring
flowers in the Amaryllis
family.
There are also several Narcissus
species that bloom in the autumn. You can find a lot of variations of this flower and their number becomes larger from year to year.
Daffodil
is a common English name, so
metimes used now for all varieties. The name Daffodil is derived from an earlier "Affodell", a variant of Asphodel
. From at least the sixteenth century "daffadown dilly", and "daffydowndill
y" have appeared as playful synonyms of the name.
This flower is the national symbol of Wales.
SCOTLAND.
Thistle.
Thistle
is the common name of a group of flowering plants
characterised by leaves
with sharp prickles on the margins. Prickles are often all over the plant. They protect the plant against herbivorous
animals, discouraging them from feeding on the plant.
Thistle is the national emblem of Scotland.
In the language of flowers
, the thistle is an ancient Celtic
symbol of nobility. For this reason the thistle is the symbol of the Order of the Thistle
, a high chivalric Order
of Scotland
.
Kirill Buravly
ov
Northern Ireland
THE SNOWDRO
Р
The snowdrop is the flower of early spring. It is as white as snow, appears in forests and gardens when there is still snow there. The little plant is a native flower
of Europe. The height of the flower is 15 centimetres. There are 18 species of snowdrops, and 10 species are in Russia. The snowdrop has been known for a long time. English people call it snow shackle or snowdrop. It is mentioned in the myths of Homer.
T
he snowdrop is rare flower. This flower is protected by state. It is poisonous, but snowdrop is a medical flower. The flower is very elegant. It is known in all countries.
The shamrock
The shamrock is a symbol of Ireland.
The shamrock is tradi
tionally used for its medical properties and was a popular motif in Victorian times.
The shamrock is a low plant. It blooms with pink, red and white flowers. The shamrock is nutritious feed for live
-
stock. There are 300 species of shamrocks. The plant g
rows in the meadows. It grows in groups. People get honey from this plant.
People believe that this plant brings good luck in the west.
Yevgeny Kryuchkov
The USA
Evening Primrose
Th
e other n
ames
of
this flower are Common Evening Primrose, Fever plant, Great Evening
-
Primrose, King's
-
cure
-
all, Night willow
-
herb, Scabish, Scurvish, Tree primrose
.
Evening Primrose is a North American native biennial plant. The plants are very tall, ofte
n 4 to 5 feet or more in height. The stem is erect, stout, soft
-
hairy, reddish and branching forming a shrub. The l
eaves are alternate, rough
-
hairy, lanceolate, about 3 to 6 inches long and lemon
-
scented. The taproot is elongated, fibrous, yellow on the ou
tside and whitish within. The flower spikes grow on auxiliary branches all along the stalk. They are about 2
-
1/2 inched in diameter, bright yellow and have four petals, a cross shaped stigma and a refluxed calyx (leaves under petals). The flowers open in the evening and close up during the day and are strongly scented with a delicious sweet perfume which attracts pollinating moths. The fruit is an oblong 1 in. capsule containing many tiny reddish seeds
.
Matvey Aleksashin
Canada.
Maple.
Maple is a sort of trees and bushes of family maples. There are over 150 kinds of maples. They grow in many parts of the country in mixed and deciduoud forests.
It h
as large, five sharp
-
bladed leaves which are very beautiful and useful. People make black and yellow pain of them. Besides juice of this tree contains up to 20 percent of sugar and it is a national soft drink. Maple wood is loved by builders. It is also us
ed for creating musical instruments (especially stringed) and sport equipment. Maple is well
-
known as the best shadow tree for parks, strees and squares.
The Sugar Maple has become an original national tree of Canada which is often called “the country of
maples”. Thuy
a Thuya g
rows in the western part of the North America along
the
coast of the Pacific Ocean
. I
t
is
name
d there
«the western red cedar»
or «a huge tree of life»
. It grows on damp and crude places, near water
and in the mou
ntains up to 1200
—
1500 m. It can be up to 60 (
-
75) m and up to 2,5 m
at the diameter of a trunk
. T
his tree with the dense crone which bottom branches hang down the earth, looks like a green pyramid. It can live up to
500 years.
Viacheslav Dybitskiy
Араукария
Бидвилла
Араукария
Бидвилла
, или
Буния
-
буния
(
лат
. Araucaria bidwillii) —
вид вечнозеленых хвойных деревьев из рода Ар
аукария семейства Араукариевые.
Является единственным выжившим представителем секции Буния рода Араукария. Эт
а секция была широко представлена в Мезозое, первые представители появились в Юрском периоде. Окаменелые остатки представителей этой секции найдены в Южной Америке и Европе.
Вечнозеленое древесное растение. Высота ствола достигает 50 метров, диаметром д
о 125 см. Женские экземпляры крупнее мужских. Молодые деревья с широкопирамидальной кроной, боковые ветви по 8
—
12 в мутовках, мало ветвящиеся, нередко на концах повислые. У взрослых деревьев ствол почти до половины высоты освобожден от ветвей.
Листья у а
раукарии овально
-
ланцетные, остроконечные и колючие, длиной 2,5
-
7,5 см, и шириной 1,2
-
1,5 см, кожистые, глянцевитые. В верхней части кроны расположены спирально, на боковых побегах двурядно расположены в одной плоскости. Почки на концах молодых побегов окр
ужены значительно более мелкими листьями, которые впоследствии остаются на побегах; благодаря этому хорошо заметны границы одногодичных приростов побега. Верхняя поверхность листьев блестящая, со многими параллельными жилками, но без киля, устьичные линии имеются на всей нижней поверхности листа. К обоим концам годичного побега размер листьев уменьшается.
Араукария Бидвилла —
растение двудомное. Шишки (мегастробилы) на женских деревьях располагаются на концах коротких боковых облиственных веток, вегетатив
ные листья которых постепенно переходят в чешуи шишки. Зрелые шишки широкоэллиптические или шаровидно
-
яйцевидные, с толстой осью и очень крупные, в природных условиях размеры шишек достигают в диаметре 35 см и массы до 3 кг. На шишке в пазухе каждой кроюще
й чешуи расположена одна или до трёх семенных чешуй, несущих по одному семязачатку. Из семязачатка образуется семя, таким образом, на одной кроющей чешуе может образовываться до трёх семян. Микростробилы (у мужских деревьев) —
цилиндрические, до 20 см длин
ой, в то время, как ширина —
лишь до 1,5 см. Семена длиной 5,5 см при ширине 3 см.
Растёт в Австралии влажных субтропических лесах на тихоокеанском побережье.
Природная популяция этого вида сильно сократилась из
-
за человеческой деятельности и природных у
словия. В данных момент большинство экземпляров произрастает в национальных парках и заповедниках.
В 1843 г. английский натуралист и путешественник Дж. Бидвилл, в честь которого и назван этот вид, передал несколько экземпляров араукарии в Королевский бо
танический сад в Кью (Англия). С этого началась интродукция этого растения в Западную Европу и Россию.
Артур
Валишин
Australia
Araucaria
Bidwill
Araucaria is
an evergreen tree. It grows in Australian subtropical forests of the Pacific Coast.
This tree has its name in the honour of the
English naturalist and trave
ller, J. Bidwill. In
1843 he
gave a few copies of Araucaria in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (England). This started the introduction of this plant in Western Europe and Russia. It c
an be up to
50 meters
tall with the
diameter 125 cm.
The branches of the
adult trees are grown only in the upper part of the trunk.
Natural populations of this species was strongly reduced due to human activities and natural conditions. Nowadays most trees grow in the national parks and reserves.
Arthur Valishin
New Zealand
Silver Fern T
he Silver Tree Fern
or silver fern is a species of medium
-
sized tree fern
whish grows
to
New Zealand. It is a symbol commonly associated with the country
.
This fern is known to grow to height of 10 m or more (though it occasionally takes a rare creeping form). The crown is dense, and the fronds tend to be about 4 m long and
have a silver
-
whi
te colour
on the undersides. This distinctive silver colouration has made them useful for laying along tracks for night walking. It does best when sheltered from winds and should be protected from frost. It does not grow under the dense canopy of mature forests.
The silver fern has long been used on dairy products and was trademarked as early as 1885.
Silver fern is represented
on the Coat of arms of New
Zealand
.
Many New Zealanders get a tattoo of a Silver Fern, as a statement of being from New Zealand.
Al in all
, the fern has become one of the most widely recognized symbols of New Zealand, next to the Kiwi, though it is not an official symbol.
Kauri
One of the largest and longest
-
living trees in the world
is
New Zealand kauri
.
It
belongs to the ancient conifer family
.
New Zealand kauri appeared about 20 million years ago. The height of this tree can be 30
-
40 meters and trunks can reach several metres in diameter. Kauri can survive for 1,000 years or more (with an average diameter of 2 metres), but trees older than 1,700 years (average diameters over 3 metres) are now rare. The trunk of the kauri is grey
. It is massive
and
column
-
like
.
Its leaves are bronze at first but
then they
turn bright green
.
The roots can extend 5 metres into the ground. Kauri gum (sometimes called New Zealand amber) oozes from the bark of mature trees. Andrey Zakharov
L
iterature
http://ru.wikipedia.org
Автор
t.Yadykina
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