THE WORLD AROUND US ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS Andrey Lazutin Nikita Nozdrin Denis Pashkeev Alexander Andriyashin Pavel Bogomolov Sergey Novikov Maria Chernukha Content 1. Greenhouse Effect 2. Radiation 3. Air Pollution 4. Water Pollution 5. Deforestation 6. Animals in Danger 7. Plants in Danger Greenhouse Effect There are several kinds of power stations : atomic power stations, hydropower stations, wind power stations, solar p ower stations and thermal power stations . Hydropower S tations Atomic P ower S tations They don't make harm ful smoke, but leave a lot of radioactive wastes which are very di fficult either to destroy or to save. Solar Power Stations Wind Power Stations Fuel – Burning (Thermal) Stations Fuel - burning power stations (thermal stations) make greenhouse effect . Th e greenhouse effect is a process when thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re - radiated in all directions. Since part of this re - radiation is back to the surface, energy is transferred to the surfac e and the lower atmosphere. The greenhouse effect was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824, first reliably experimented on by John Tyndall in 1858 . There are four major gases that have special contribution to The Greenhouse Effect: 1. water v apor, 36 – 70% 2. carbon dioxide, 9 – 26% 3. methane, 4 – 9% 4. ozone, 3 – 7% This process makes the climate of the Earth warmer . I f the temperature grows by 3 - 4 degrees it will become more difficult to live on the Earth. Hydroelectric, Solar and Wind pow er stations don't soil our surrounding but their huge buildings spoil the view. But I think it is a great solution of the problem, because these power stations don't make so much harm to our nature and ecology. Andrey Lazutin Air Pollution Air pollution has become o ne of the main ecological problems. There are a lot of cars and factories nowadays. They pollute the air we use. It is difficult to breath. They also produce a lot of carbon dioxide. It destroys the ozone layer which protects o ur planet. So there are some ozone holes in the atmosphere and the dangerous light of the sun can get to the Earth. To protect our planet from air pollution we should plant more trees. Factories, power stations, cars and buses need good filters. Let’s th ink about our future! Let’s save The Earth! Alexand e r Andriyashin RADIATION . Radioactive contamination is a global problem. From one hand the nuclear weapon promoted the development of science and technology. But from the other h and it was a gre at danger for us , because of the nuclear war. In Au gust 1946 the United States of America t h rew down two Atomic bombs on Hiros h ima and Nagasaki cities. This fact caused the death of hundred thousand lives of peacefue citizens. The ex plosion at Chernobyl. Chernobyl Atomic Station is a terrible example showing the danger of radiation. On 26 April 1986 there was a disaster at this Atomic Station. As a result our country and many countries abroad were polluted and the consequenses of th is pollution are evident nowadays. Many countries consider stopping nuclear weapon production. If it is so our future will be be tter. Denis Pashkeev Water P ollution Development of civilization cau tion the shortage of drinkable water on our planet. We use water every day and don’t think about quality of it . But our health and life depend on water . Water is everywhere . But many seas, oceans and rivers turned into dumps. Fish and sea animals are poisoned and killed. Birds , animals a nd even people who eat poisoned fish can ill or even die! If they drink such water they can die too. It happens so because factories and plants produce a lot of waste and pour it into seas oceans, rivers . So, water is poisoned . We should think about o ur future. Let’ s save the drinkable water . Nikita Nozdrin Deforestation Some people’s activities do a lot of harm to the forests. People cut down trees to build farms, homes and roads. Many animals and plants lose their homes. It leads to serious problems: drainage of reservoirs and deforestation . It contributes to global warming and is often called one of the main reasons for the greenhouse effect. Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of greenhouse gases. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, deforestation (mostly in the tropics) adds up to one third of the total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. T rees and other plants withdraw carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis. Rotting and burning wood emits carbon back into the atmosphere . To avoid this problem we stop deforestation and plant more trees . Sergey Novikov ANIMALS IN DANGER. Every day a big number of animals disappears. People kill animals for different aims: e.g. people hunt whales for their meat and oil; elephants for their tusks, croco diles for their leather and so on. And also animals are used for medical experiments. (M onkeys are more often used for it . ) Modern life is bad for animals, birds, fish. The air isn’t fresh and the water isn’t pure. They don’t have good meal and facilities for the life. You can find their names in the Red Book. Of course, people can’t stay indifferent to these problems. There are a lot of special organizations, which try to save our nature. The most known are: The Royal Society for the prevention of cruelty to animals (The RSPCA), the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and Greenpeace . People must take care of animals. Indian tigers Tigers are often dangerous. Tigers can kill cows, sheep, other domestic animals and sometimes they can also kill men. Some people ar e afraid of tigers and kill them to save their domestic animals and their lives. But some people have often hunted tigers for fun and for their beautiful skin. There are few Indian tigers left on the earth now. Many of them are old, sick animals. Most tige rs don’t hunt people nowadays, but hide from them in deep, dark forests. Or they rather hid there earlier, because there aren’t many forests for tigers nowadays. Africa elephants African elephants are wonderful animals. They can help men. In the 19 th century Africa was full of elephants. But these days there are not many of them except in African parks. This is the sad story of Indian African elephants. But many less dangerous wild animals and birds are also disappearing from the Earth. Modern l ife is bad for them. The air is not fresh. The water is not clean. They don’t often have good things to eat and space to live. Let’s save wild animals! Maria Chernukha Plants are in Danger According to the latest scientific research a ppr oximately the fifth part of the world’s plants are endangered. The main reasons of it are deforestation and human activities. These plants are included into the Red Book ( a state document established for documenting rare and endangered species of animals, plants ) and they are protected by law. Some of these plants are presented here. Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) This plant has rather big pink or white flowers with very pleasant scent. It usually grows in the damp places or near rivers, pond or lakes. That’s why it has long root which is under water. As it has a nut in the middle of the flower the plant got its name. This plant is used as a medicine for heart diseases and dieting. It is also eaten in salads, soups, and even sweets. In the oriental countries it is considered the symbol of moral innocence and perfection. Many people believe that to be splashed with the water where a lotus grows will bring you luck. Dandelion (Taraxacum leueoglossum) Dandelion (Taraxacum leueoglossum) is a very tender and enduring flower at the same time . But it needs protection as it has the status of the rare flower and included in the Red Book. It’s a small flower which always grows near the seacoasts. This flower can be up to a height of nearly 12 inches. Dandelions ha ve deeply notched, toothy, shiny leaves. Dandelion stems are capped by bright yellow flowers. Dandelion flowers are sensitive to light, so they open with the sun in the morning and close in the evening or during gloomy weather. The dark brown roots are fl eshy and brittle and are filled with a white milky substance that is bitter and slightly odorous. Dandelion is a rich source of vitamins A, B complex, C, and D, as well as minerals such as iron, and zinc. Its leaves are often used to add flavor to salads, sandwiches, and teas. The roots can be found in some coffee substitutes, and the flowers are used to make certain wines. Pavel Bogomolov LITERATURE 1. «Сто зачем и почему». – М.: <<Астрель>> Москва 2005. 2. www . Google . ru 3. www . Greenpeace . ru 4. «Вопросы и ответы». – М.: <<Терра>>. - 2003. 5. «Глобальные проблемы» М.: <<Эксмо>>. - 2004 год.