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Занятие 3

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 Занятие 3. Художники XVIII века. Уильям Хогарт. Цель: познакомить учащихся с творчеством Уильяма Хогарта.
Задачи:
* развивать умения понимать впервые предъявляемые аутентичные тексты с целью извлечения необходимой информации;
* активизировать в речи учащихся употребление специальной лексики по теме;
* воспитывать положительную мотивацию учащихся к изучаемой теме средствами английского языка.
Оснащение урока: текст, презентация портрета и картин художника. William Hogarth
(слайд 1)
William Hogarth, self-portrait, 1745
Born10 November 1697 (1697-11-10)
LondonDied26 October 1764 (aged 66)
LondonOccupationEnglish painter, engraver
William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 - October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. His work ranged from excellent realistic portraiture to comic strip-like series of pictures called "modern moral subjects". Much of his work, though at times vicious, poked fun at contemporary politics and customs. Illustrations in such style are often referred to as Hogarthian.
Life
The son of a poor school teacher and textbook writer, William Hogarth was born at Bartholomew Close in London on November 10, 1697. In his youth he was apprenticed to the engraver Ellis Gamble in Leicester Fields, where he learned to engrave trade cards and the like. Young William also took a lively interest in the street life of the metropolis and the London fairs, and amused himself by sketching the characters he saw. At around the same time, his father, who had opened an unsuccessful Latin-speaking coffee house at St John's Gate, was imprisoned for debt in Fleet Prison for five years. Hogarth never talked about the fact. By April 1720 he was engraver on his own account, at first engraving coats of arms, shop bills, and designing plates for booksellers.
Bust of Hogarth, Leicester Square, London.
(слайд 2)
- 1 -
In 1727, he was hired by Joshua Morris, a tapestry worker, to prepare a design for the Element of Earth. Morris, however, having heard that he was "an engraver, and no painter", declined the work when completed, and Hogarth accordingly sued him for the money in the Westminster Court, where, on the May 28, 1728, the case was decided in Hogarth's favour.
On March 23, 1729 he was married to Jane Thornhill, daughter of artist Sir James Thornhill.
In 1757, he was appointed Serjeant Painter to the King.
Hogarth died in London on October 26, 1764 and was buried at St. Nicholas's Churchyard, Chiswick Mall, Chiswick, London. His friend the actor David Garrick wrote the inscription on his tombstone.
Early works (слайд 3)
An early print by William Hogarth entitled A Just View of the British Stage from 1724, depicting Robert Wilks, Colley Cibber, and Barton Booth rehearsing a pantomime play with puppets enacting a prison break down a privy, based on the escape of a felon from Newgate. In the following years he turned his attention to the production of small "conversation pieces" (i.e., groups in oil of full-length portraits from 12 to 15 in. high). Among his efforts in oil between 1728 and 1732 were The Fountaine Family (c.1730), The Assembly at Wanstead House, The House of Commons examining Bambridge, and several pictures of the chief actors in John Gay's popular The Beggar's Opera.
The Beggar's Opera VI, 1731, Tate Britain's version (слайд 4)
Moralizing art
Harlot's and Rake's Progresses
A Rake's Progress, Plate 8, 1735 (слайд 5)
In 1731, he completed the earliest of the series of moral works which first gave him recognition as a great and original genius. This was A Harlot's Progress, first as paintings, (now lost), and then published as engravings. The series was an immediate success, and was followed in 1735 by the sequel A Rake's Progress showing in eight pictures the reckless life of Tom Rakewell, the son of a rich merchant, who wastes all his money on luxurious living, whoring, and gambling, and ultimately finishes his life in Bedlam. The original paintings of A Harlot's Progress were destroyed in the fire at Fonthill Abbey in 1755; A Rake's Progress is displayed in the gallery room at Sir John Soane's Museum, London.
Marriage à-la-mode
Marriage à-la-mode, Shortly After the Marriage (scene two of six).
(слайд 6)
In 1743-1745 Hogarth painted the six pictures of Marriage à-la-mode (National Gallery, London), a pointed skewering of upper class 18th century society. This moralistic warning - 2 -
shows the miserable tragedy of an ill-considered marriage for money. This is regarded by many as his finest project, certainly the best example of his serially-planned story cycles.
Marital ethics were the topic of much debate in 18th century Britain. Frequent marriages of convenience and their attendant unhappiness came in for particular criticism, with a variety of authors taking the view that love was a much sounder basis for marriage. Hogarth here painted a satire - a genre that by definition has a moral point to convey - of a conventional marriage within the English upper class. All the paintings were engraved and the series achieved wide circulation in print form. The series, which are set in a Classical interior, shows the story of the fashionable marriage of the son of bankrupt Earl Squanderfield to the daughter of a wealthy but miserly city merchant, starting with the signing of a marriage contract at the Earl's mansion and ending with the murder of the son by his wife's lover and the suicide of the daughter after her lover is hanged at Tyburn for murdering her husband.
Hogarth's portrait of Captain Thomas Coram, 1740 (слайд 7)
Hogarth was also a popular portrait painter. In 1746 he painted actor David Garrick as Richard III, for which he was paid £200, "which was more," he wrote, "than any English artist ever received for a single portrait." In 1745 Hogarth painted a self-portrait with his dog (now also in Tate Britain), which shows him as a learned artist supported by volumes of Shakespeare, Milton and Swift. In 1749, he represented the somewhat disorderly English troops on their March of the Guards to Finchley (formerly Thomas Coram Foundation for Children, now Foundling Museum).
During a long period of his life, Hogarth tried to achieve the status of history painter, but had no great success in this field.
The Gate of Calais (also known as, O the Roast Beef of Old England), 1749
(слайд 8)
The Gate of Calais (1748; now in Tate Britain) was produced soon after his return from a visit to France. Horace Walpole wrote that Hogarth had run a great risk to go there since the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, he went to France, and was so imprudent as to be taking a sketch of the drawbridge at Calais. He was seized and carried to the governor, where he was forced to prove his vocation by producing several caricatures of the French; particularly a scene of the shore, with an immense piece of beef landing for the lion d'argent, the English inn at Calais, and several hungry friars following it. They were much diverted with his drawings, and dismissed him.
Back home, he immediately executed a painting of the subject in which he unkindly represented his enemies, the Frenchmen, as cringing, emaciated and superstitious people, while an enormous sirloin of beef arrives, destined for the English inn as a symbol of British prosperity and superiority. He claimed to have painted himself into the picture in the corner, with the solder running him in. Other later works
March of the Guards to Finchley (1750), a satirical depiction of troops mustered to defend London from the 1745 Jacobite rebellion. (слайд 9)
A late painting by Hogarth entitled Hogarth's Servants, mid-1750s.
(слайд 10) Self-portrait, painting Thalia, the muse of comedy and pastoral poetry, 1757-1758 (слайд 11) Others were his satire on canvassing in his Election series (1755-1758; now in Sir John Soane's Museum); his ridicule of the English passion for cockfighting in The Cockpit (1759); his attack on Methodism in Credulity, Superstition, and Fanaticism (1762); his political anti-war satire in The Times, plate I (1762); and his pessimistic view of all things in Tailpiece, or The Bathos (1764).
Writing
Hogarth also wrote and published his ideas of artistic design in his book The Analysis of Beauty (1753). In it, he professes to define the principles of beauty and grace which he, a real child of Rococo, saw realized in serpentine lines (the Line of Beauty).
Hogarth lived in an age when artwork became increasingly commercialized and viewed in shop windows, taverns and public buildings and sold in printshops. Old hierarchies broke down, and new forms began to flourish: the ballad opera, the bourgeois tragedy, and especially, a new form of fiction called the novel with which authors such as Henry Fielding had great success. Therefore, by that time, Hogarth hit on a new idea: "painting and engraving modern moral subjects ... to treat my subjects as a dramatic writer; my picture was my stage", as he himself remarked in his manuscript notes.
He drew from the highly moralizing Protestant tradition of Dutch genre painting, and the very vigorous satirical traditions of the English broadsheet and other types of popular print. In England the fine arts had little comedy in them before Hogarth. His prints were expensive, and remained so until early nineteenth-century reprints brought them to a wider audience.
Influence and Reputation
His satirical engravings are often considered an important ancestor of the comic strip.
Hogarth's paintings and prints have provided the subject matter for several other works. For example, Igor Stravinsky's opera The Rake's Progress, with libretto by W. H. Auden, was inspired by Hogarth's series of paintings of that title. Russell Banks's short story, "Indisposed," is a fictional account of Hogarth's infidelity as told from the viewpoint of his long-suffering wife, Jane.
Hogarth's House in Chiswick, West London, is now a museum (free entry); it abuts one of London's best known road junctions - the Hogarth Roundabout.
Answer the questions:
1. When and where was William Hogarth born?
2. Whose son was he? What was the tragedy of his youth?
3. What early moral works of Hogarth which first gave him recognition as a great and original genius do you know?
4. What series showed the miserable tragedy of an ill-considered marriage for money?
5. Was Hogarth also a popular portrait painter? Prove it. 6. Did he achieve the status of history painter?
7. Where did Hogarth write and publish his ideas of artistic design?
8. When did William Hogarth die? Where was he buried?
9. Is there a Hogarth's museum in Great Britain?
10. What Hogarth's works impress you? - 4 - Экспресс тест по материалу занятия. (слайды 13, 14)
Напишите соответствия: 1.A. Self-portrait, painting Thalia, the muse of comedy and pastoral poetry, 1757-17582.
B. Marriage à-la-mode, Shortly After the Marriage (scene two of six).3.
C. March of the Guards to Finchley (1750), a satirical depiction of troops mustered to defend London from the 1745 Jacobite rebellion.4.
D. Hogarth's portrait of Captain Thomas Coram, 17405. E. The Gate of Calais (also known as, O the Roast Beef of Old England), 17496. F. A late painting by Hogarth entitled Hogarth's Servants, mid-1750s.
7.
G. William Hogarth, self-portrait, 17458. H. The Beggar's Opera VI, 1731, Tate Britain's version 9.
I. A Rake's Progress, Plate 8, 1735
Key: 1 - D; 2 - E; 3 - A; 4 - B; 5 - C; 6 - I; 7 - H; 8 - F; 9 - G. Questions and Answers ( for teacher)
1. When and where was William Hogarth born? (He was born at Bartholomew Close in London on November 10, 1697 )
2. Whose son was he? What was the tragedy of his youth? (The son of a poor school teacher and textbook writer, his family was imprisoned for debt in Fleet Prison for five years) 3. What early moral works of Hogarth which first gave him recognition as a great and original genius do you know? ( In 1731, he completed the earliest of the series of moral works which first gave him recognition as a great and original genius, they were A Harlot's Progress, first as paintings, (now lost), and then published as engravings and A Rake's Progress) 4. What series showed the miserable tragedy of an ill-considered marriage for money? (In 1743-1745 Hogarth painted the six pictures of Marriage à-la-mode a pointed skewering of upper class 18th century society. This moralistic warning shows the miserable tragedy of an ill-considered marriage for money) 5. Was Hogarth also a popular portrait painter? Prove it. (Yes, he was. Hogarth was also a popular portrait painter. In 1746 he painted actor David Garrick as Richard III, for which he was paid £200, "which was more," he wrote, "than any English artist ever received for a single portrait.") 6. Did he achieve the status of history painter? (During a long period of his life, Hogarth tried to achieve the status of history painter, but had no great success in this field)
7. Where did Hogarth write and publish his ideas of artistic design? (Hogarth also wrote and published his ideas of artistic design in his book The Analysis of Beauty (1753)
8. When did William Hogarth die? Where was he buried? (Hogarth died in London on October 26, 1764 and was buried at St. Nicholas's Churchyard, Chiswick Mall, Chiswick, London) 9. Is there a Hogarth's museum in Great Britain? (Hogarth's House in Chiswick, West London, is now a museum (free entry); it abuts one of London's best known road junctions - the Hogarth Roundabout)
10. What Hogarth's works impress you?
[Подробнее]
Хогарт, Уильям (материал для учителя)
Уильям Хогарт (англ. William Hogarth; 10 ноября 1697, Лондон - 26 октября 1764), английский художник, иллюстратор, гравер и теоретик искусства.
Биография. Учился в Лондоне у гравера Э.Геймбла. С 1720 г. посещал занятия в Академии Джеймса Торнхилла, в том же году начал самостоятельно работать как профессиональный художник. Первыми работами Хогарта были книжные иллюстрации, в том числе к сатирической поэме Сэмюэла Батлера "Гудибрас" (1726). Двумя годами позже начал писать маслом групповые портреты небольшого формата и с тех пор постоянно занимался как живописью, так и гравюрой.
Творчество. В 1730-1731 гг. Хогарт выполнил серию из шести картин, получившую название "Карьера проститутки". Большим успехом пользовались гравюрные оттиски серии, напечатанные в 1732 г. Следующая серия гравюр - "Карьера мота" - была опубликована в 1735 г., а в 1745 г. появился знаменитый цикл "Модный брак". Затем последовали другие серии, среди которых - "Прилежание и леность" (1747) и "Выборы" (4 гравюры, 1755-1758). Хогарт выполнил также множество отдельных гравюр, несколько портретов и ряд исторических картин. В 1753 г. вышел в свет его трактат "Анализ красоты". В 1757 г. Георг II назначил Хогарта главным живописцем; в этой должности он стал преемником Джона Торнхилла. В 1764 художник выпустил свою последнюю гравюру "Конец, или Бездна".
Тематика. Хогарт наблюдал жизнь людей разного материального достатка, принадлежавших ко всем слоям общества; он был не только талантливым портретистом, но и моралистом, и сатириком. В портретной живописи художник был объективен и прямолинеен, что хорошо заметно в "Портрете капитана Т.Корема" (1740, Лондон, Сиротский приют Корема) и "Портрете Саймона Фрейзера, лорда Ловета" (1746, Лондон, Национальная портретная галерея). В искусстве Хогарта, несомненно, важное место принадлежит юмору. Так, в двух знаменитых гравюрах 1751 г. он противопоставил ужасные последствия, ожидающие тех, кто злоупотребляет дешевым джином "Переулок джина", процветанию и благополучию тех, кто отдает предпочтение английскому пиву "Пивная улица". Сатирическое изображение жизни эпохи, особенно в сериях "Модный брак" и "Выборы", ставит его в один ряд с великими романистами-сатириками 18 в.
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