Занятие 10. Музеи, картинные галереи Великобритании. (слайд 1) Цель: познакомить учащихся c музеями и картинными галереями Великобритании. (The National Gallery, London; Tate Britain; British Museum; National Portrait Gallery; National Museum Cardiff; National Gallery of Ireland; National Gallery of Scotland) Задачи: развивать навыки понимать впервые предъявляемые аудиотексты с целью извлечения необходимой информации; активизировать в речи учащихся употребление специальной лексики по теме; Оснащение урока: диск с аудиотекстом, тексты о музеях и галереях, фото картинных галерей и музеев в виде компьютерной презентации. Ход занятия. I. Now let’s listen to the text «Art. Museums and Galleries» (2 мин 20 сек) Art. Museums and Galleries. London museums and galleries attract millions of visitors from all over the world. There dozens of them for any taste, from the London Fire Brigade Museum to Sherlock Holmes museum. To my mind, the most interesting art gallery in London is the National Gallery. It was founded in 1824 when the House of Commons bought the collection of the banker John Julius Angerstein composed of just 38 pieces. It is situated to the north of the Trafalgar Square. School pupils and students have always been welcome. Any of them will be admitted to the Gallery to not only to study the collection but even to make a copy of the paintings themselves. The collection contains paintings by all known art schools and all periods. Especially famous are collections of Rembrandt and Rubens. Today, it houses more than 2,000 works of art and is one of the richest collection in the world. The gallery boasts of real masterpieces by such artists as da Vinci, Boticelli, Manet, and Renoir. At the same time, British art is almost not represented since main collections of paintings by British artists are housed at the Tate gallery. I cannot fail to mention a few more of the London museums. To start with, the British Museum is one of the most striking in the UK. It houses one of the world’s greatest collection of world antiquities from ancient times. Also, one can see items from prehistoric Britain. There are also regular exhibitions dedicated to a specific culture, like art of Africa. Victoria and Albert Museum in London has great collections of applied art. You can see there extraordinary collections from around the world starting from Venetian glass and Chinese art, to items of 15th century furniture. One of the most popular museums in London is Madame Tussaud’s Wax Museum. Here, you can see lots of famous people in natural size. Sportsmen and scientists, musicians and politics are displayed in their typical clothing. You can make a picture with Brad Pitt, Diego Maradonna, or Margaret Thatcher. The Science Museum gives a timeline of science and industry in the UK over the centuries. The collection is so extensive that you can see there exhibits practically from all fields of science from biochemistry and photography to meteorology and astronomy. All these museums are worthwhile visiting. II. Now let’s read about museums and galleries in GreatBritain 1. National Gallery, London (слайды 2, 3), Established 1824 Trafalgar Square, London WC2, Location England, United Kingdom Collection 2,300 paintings size Museum 46,396 m² area Visitor 4,600,000 (2006) figures London's National Gallery (слайд 2), founded in 1824, houses a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home on Trafalgar Square. The collection belongs to the British public and entry to the main collection is free, although there are charges for entry to special exhibitions. The National Gallery's beginnings were modest; unlike comparable galleries such as the Louvre in Paris or the Museo del Prado in Madrid, it was not formed by nationalising an existing royal or princely art collection. It came into being when the British government bought 36 paintings from the banker John Julius Angerstein in 1824. After that initial purchase the Gallery has been shaped mainly by its early directors, notably Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, and by private donations, which comprise two thirds of the collection. The resulting collection is small compared with the national galleries of continental Europe, but has a high concentration of important works across a broad art-historical scope, from the Early Renaissance to Postimpressionism, with relatively few weak areas. The National Gallery opened to the public on May 10, 1824, housed in Angerstein's former townhouse on No. 100 Pall Mall. (слайд 4) The National Gallery at Pall Mall was frequently overcrowded and hot and its diminutive size in comparison with the Louvre in Paris was the cause of national embarrassment. In 1832 construction began on a new building by William Wilkins on the site of the King's Mews in Charing Cross, in an area that had been transformed over the 1820s into Trafalgar Square. (слайд 5), Wilkins's façade, illuminated at night 2. Tate Britain (слайды 6, 7) Established 1897 as National Gallery of British Art; became Tate Britain in 2000 Location Millbank, London SW1, England, United Kingdom Visitor 1,700,000 (2005) figures Tate is the United Kingdom national museum of British and Modern Art, and is a network of four art galleries in England: Tate Britain (слайд 6), (opened in 1897(слайд 7), and renamed in 2000), Tate Liverpool (слайд 8), (1988), Tate St Ives (слайд 9), (1993) and Tate Modern (2000) (слайд10),, with a complementary website, Tate Online (1998). The Tate was founded in 1897 as the National Gallery of British Art (слайд 9) When its role was changed to include Modern Art it was renamed the Tate Gallery after Henry Tate, who had laid the foundations for the collection. The Tate Gallery was housed in a building at Millbank, London. In 2000, the Tate Gallery split its collection into four museums: Tate Britain (housed in the original building) displays the collection of British art from 1500 to the present day; Tate Modern which is also in London, houses the Tate's collection of British and International Modern and Contemporary Art from 1900 to the present day. Tate Liverpool, in Liverpool has the same purpose as Tate Modern but on a smaller scale, and Tate St Ives displays Modern and Contemporary Art by artists who have connections with the area. All four museums share the Tate Collection. One of the Tate's most publicised art events is the annual Turner Prize, which takes place at Tate Britain. The logo of Tate, used in different colours for the 4 galleries. (слайд 11), 3. British Museum (слайд 12) Established 1753 Location Great Russell Street, London WC1, England Collection size 13+ million objects Museum area 13.5 acres/ 588,000 ft²/ 94 Galleries Visitor figures 4,903,000 (2006–2007) The British Museum in London, England is a museum of human history and culture. Its collections, which number more than 13 million objects, are amongst the largest and most comprehensive in the world and originate from all continents, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present. The British Museum was established in 1753(слайд13), largely based on the collections of the physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane. (слайд 14) The museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759 in Montagu House in Bloomsbury, on the site of the current museum building. The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2000 to become the Great Court, surrounding the original Reading Room. Sir Hans Sloane, founder of the British Museum (слайд 14) At that time, Sloane’s collection consisted of around 71,000 objects of all kinds including some 40,000 printed books, 7,000 manuscripts, extensive natural history specimens including 337 volumes of dried plants, prints and drawings including those by Albrecht Dürer and antiquities from Egypt, Greece, Rome, the Ancient Near and Far East and the Americas. Department of Prints and Drawings The Department of Prints and Drawings holds the national collection of Western Prints and Drawings. It ranks as one of the largest collections in existence alongside the Musée du Louvre and the Hermitage as one of the top three collections of its kind. The British Museum, Room 90 - Dürer The Triumphal Arch - One of the largest Prints ever produced The British Museum, Room 90 - Michelangelo, Epifania - Last surviving large scale cartoon by the artist Since its foundation in 1808 the Prints and Drawings collection has grown to international renown as one of the richest and most representative collections in the world. There are approximately 50,000 drawings and over two million prints. The collection of Drawings covers the period 14th century to the present, and includes many works of the highest quality by the leading artists of the European school. The collection of Prints covers the tradition of fine printmaking from its beginnings in the 15th century up to the present, with near complete holdings of most of the great names before the 19th century. 4. National Portrait Gallery (слайды 15, 16) Established 1856 St Martin's Place, WC2, England Location Collection size 10,000 portraits Visitor figures 1,500,000 (2005) The National Portrait Gallery is an art gallery primarily located in St Martin's Place, off Trafalgar Square in London, but with various satellite outstations located elsewhere in the UK. The collection The gallery opened to the public in 1856. It houses portraits of historically important and famous British people, selected on the basis of the significance of the sitter. The collection includes photographs and caricatures as well as paintings, drawings and sculpture. Not all of the portraits are exceptional artistically, although there are self-portraits by William Hogarth, Sir Joshua Reynolds and other British artists of note. Some, such as the group portrait of the participants in the Somerset House Conference of 1604, are important historical documents in their own right. Often the curiosity value is greater than the artistic worth of a work, as in the case of the anamorphic portrait of Edward VI by William Scrots, Patrick Branwell Brontë's painting of his sisters Charlotte, Emily and Anne, or a sculpture of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in medieval costume. Portraits of living figures were allowed from 1969. 5. National Museum Cardiff (слайд 17) Established Location 1912 Cathays Park, Cardiff, Wales The National Museum Cardiff (Welsh: Amgueddfa Genedlaethol Caerdydd) is a museum and art gallery in Cardiff, Wales. The National Museum was designed by architects Arnold Dunbar Smith & Cecil Brewer. Its foundation stone was laid in 1912 but construction was delayed by the First World War and the National Museum was not open to the public until 1927, with some parts of the building being completed in 1932. The museum is part of the wider network of the National Museum Wales (formerly the National Museums and Galleries of Wales). 6. National Gallery of Ireland (слайд 18) The National Gallery of Ireland houses the Irish national collection of Irish and European art. It is located in the centre of Dublin with one entrance on Merrion Square, beside Leinster House, and another on Clare Street. It was founded in 1854 and opened its doors ten years later. The Gallery has an extensive, representative collection of Irish painting and is also notable for its Italian Baroque and Dutch masters painting. The current director of the gallery is Raymond Keaveney. Entry to the gallery is free. 7. National Gallery of Scotland (слайд 19, 20) The National Gallery of Scotland viewed from the south in front of the Royal Scottish Academy and Princes Street The National Gallery of Scotland, in Edinburgh, is the national art gallery of Scotland. An elaborate neoclassical edifice, it stands on The Mound, between the two sections of Edinburgh's Princes Street Gardens. The building, which was designed by William Henry Playfair, first opened to the public in 1859. At the heart of the National Gallery's collection is a group of paintings transferred from the Royal Scottish Academy Building. This includes masterpieces by Jacopo Bassano, Van Dyck and Giambattista Tiepolo. The National Gallery did not receive its own purchase grant until 1903. Answer the questions: 1. Where do people usually go if they want to see works of art? 2. What museums and galleries in Great Britain can you name? 3. What do you know about them? 4. Have you ever visited any museums or galleries? 5. What did you see there? 6. What is your impression from that visiting?