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The Global Information Society:
a Statistical View
FOR DEVELOPMEN
T
PA
RT
NERSHIP ON
MEASURING ICT
ESC
WA
UNCT
AD
ECONOMIC
COMMISSION
FOR AFRICA
United Nation
s
ES CA
P
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
was prepared by a consultant, Ms Sheridan Roberts, with substantive input from members of the Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development. Their contributions are described below.
Esperanza Magpantay and Vanessa Gray of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) provided general comments as well as data and other information on ICT infrastructure and access, and on use of ICT by households and individuals (Chapters 2 and 3).
Susan Teltscher, Scarlett Fondeur Gil and Diana Korka of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) provided comments on the publication, as well as data and other information on business use of ICT, the ICT sector, ICT trade and ICT impacts (chapters 4, 5 and 7).
Martin Schaaper from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) provided valuable comments on the draft. He also provided information on trade in ICT goods statistics (Chapter 5) and extracted data from the United Nations Industrial Development Organization’s INDSTAT4
database on ICT manufacturing statistics (Chapter 5).
Claude Akpabie, Georges Boade and Simon Ellis of the United Nations Educational, Scientiic and Cultural Organization’s Institute for Statistics (UIS) provided the information used in Chapter 6 and for the section on the impact of ICT in educa
-
tion in Chapter 7.
The UN regional commissions provided information on their activities in measuring the information society. Thanks are due to Doris Olaya of UNECLAC, Jean-Michel Sadoul from UNESCAP, Mansour Farah from UNESCWA and Makane Faye of UNECA.
The OECD (Martin Schaaper and Brigitte van Beuzekom) and Eurostat (Albrecht Wirthmann) provided valuable informa
-
tion from their statistical repositories and on the ICT statistics work of their member countries.
Publications and other output of the Partnership
and its members were used extensively and are shown in the Bibliography.
The publication was funded by the International Development Research Centre of Canada (IDRC) and the European Commission, through the @LIS project. Its production was coordinated by Martin Hilbert of the United Nations Regional Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLAC).
UNECLAC also formatted and printed the publication.
The views expressed in this document, which has been produced without formal editing or revision, are those of the author and do not necessarily relect the oficial opinion of ECLAC, IDRC, the European Commission or the contributors listed above.
The electronic version of this document can be found at: http://www.eclac.org/SocInfo.
United Nations Publication
LC/W.190
Copyright © United Nations, April 2008. All rights reserved
Printed in Santiago, Chile – United Nations
Applications for the right to reproduce this work are welcomed and should be sent to the Secretary of the Publications Board, United Nations Headquarters, New York, N.Y. 10017, U.S.A. Member States and their governmental institutions may reproduce this work without prior authorization, but are requested to mention the source and inform the United Nations of such reproduction.
Preface..............................................................
5
Chapter1.Introduction........................................................
7
1.ObjectivesofTheGlobalInformationSociety
:
aStatisticalView...............
7
2.Statisticalstandardsformeasuringtheinformationsociety....................
8
3.ThePartnershiponMeasuringICTforDevelopment.........................
9
3.1Historyandmajorachievements....................................
9
3.2ObjectivesofthePartnership.......................................
1
1
3.3StructureofthePartnership........................................
1
2
3.4Globalstocktakingexercise........................................
1
2
3.5CorelistofICTindicators.........................................
1
2
3.6Capacity-buildingandtraining.....................................
1
4
4.Regionalmeasurementinitiatives........................................
1
7
4.1Africa.........................................................
1
7
4.2Asia-Paciic....................................................
1
7
4.3LatinAmericaandtheCaribbean...................................
1
8
4.4WesternAsiaandtheArabregion...................................
1
8
Chapter2.ICTinfrastructureandaccess..........................................
2
1
1.Introduction.........................................................
2
1
2.Measurementstatus...................................................
2
3
3.Statisticalsummary...................................................
2
4
3.1Infrastructureandaccessstatistics...................................
2
4
3.2Regionalanalysis................................................
2
8
Chapter3.Accessto,anduseof,ICTbyhouseholdsandindividuals...................
3
1
1.Introduction.........................................................
3
1
2.Measurementstatus...................................................
3
3
3.Statisticalsummary...................................................
3
5
3.1HouseholdaccesstoICT
.........................................
3
5
3.2IndividualuseofICT.............................................
4
1
3.3Regionalanalysis................................................
4
7
Chapter4.UseofICTbybusinesses.............................................
5
1
1.Introduction.........................................................
5
1
2.Measurementstatus...................................................
5
3
3.Statisticalsummary...................................................
5
5
3.1BusinessICTusestatistics.........................................
5
5
3.2Regionalanalysis................................................
6
1
Contents
Chapter5.TheICT-producingsectorandinternationaltradeinICTgoods................
6
5
1.Introduction.........................................................
6
5
2.Measurementstatus...................................................
6
8
2.1TheICTsector..................................................
6
8
2.2TradeinICTgoods..............................................
7
0
3.Statisticalsummary...................................................
7
1
3.1TheICTsector..................................................
7
1
3.2TradeinICTgoods..............................................
7
3
3.3Regionalanalysis................................................
7
5
Chapter6.ICTineducation....................................................
7
9
1.Introduction.........................................................
7
9
2.Measurementstatus...................................................
8
2
3.Statisticalsummary...................................................
8
4
4.Regionalactivities....................................................
8
7
Chapter7.MeasuringtheimpactofICT..........................................
8
9
1.Introduction.........................................................
8
9
2.StatisticalworkonmeasuringtheimpactofICT............................
9
0
3.TheimpactofICTineducation.........................................
9
3
Chapter8.Conclusionsandfuturework...........................................
9
5
1.Conclusions.........................................................
9
5
1.1Thestateoftheinformationsociety.................................
9
5
1.2Datagapsanddeiciencies.........................................
9
6
1.3Recommendations...............................................
9
7
2.Futurework.........................................................
9
9
2.1CreationofanICTindicatorsdatabase...............................
9
9
2.2Developmentofe-governmentindicators.............................
9
9
2.3Regionalplans..................................................
10
0
Bibliography..............................................................
10
3
Annexe
s
Annex1.AvailabilityofcoreICTindicator
s.......................................
10
9
Annex2.CoreindicatorsonIC
T
infrastructureandaccess............................
13
5
Annex3.Coreindicatorsonaccessto,anduseof,ICTbyhouseholdsandindividuals......
13
9
Annex4.Coreindicatorsontheus
e
ofICTbybusinesses.............................
14
5
Annex5.CoreindicatorsfortheICTsectorandtradeinICTgoods.....................
15
1
Annex6.OECDlistofICTgoods(2003).........................................
15
3
5
Preface
Measurementisanimportantaspectofthedebate
abouttheinformationsocietyandtheroleit
playsineconomicandsocialdevelopment.This
publicationusesinformationandcommunication
technologystatisticstoprovideaviewofthe
informationsocietyinbothdevelopedand
developingeconomies.
Measuringinformationandcommunication
technology(ICT)fordevelopmentwasamajor
concernforthetwoWorldSummitsonthe
InformationSociety,heldinGenevain2003
andTunisin2005.TheGeneva
Plan of Action
highlightedthedevelopmentof“…international
performanceevaluationandbenchmarking…
throughcomparablestatisticalindicatorsand
researchresults…”andemphasizedmeasurement
ofthemagnitudeofthenationalandinternational
‘digitaldivide’,growthoftheICTsectorand
theimpactsofICTuseonwomenandgirls.
Countrieswereaskedtodeveloptoolsthatwould
enabletheprovisionofstatisticalinformation
ontheinformationsociety,withpriorityfor
“coherentandinternationallycomparable
indicatorsystems”.
ThePartnershiponMeasuringICTfor
DevelopmentwaslaunchedinJune2004,following
theirstWorldSummitontheInformationSociety,
Preface
andmembershaveworkedcollaborativelywith
statisticalagenciesandpolicymakerstoestablish
anagreedsetofstatisticalindicators(the‘corelist’)
formeasuringICT.Theyalsoprovidestatistical
agencieswithtechnicalassistancethatenables
collectionofthestatisticsthatunderliethecore
indicators.Themainobjectiveoftheseeffortsis
theproductionofinternationallycomparableand
reliableICTstatistics.
The2005Tunisphasereiteratedtheimportance
ofmeasuringthedigitaldivideandcalledfor
thetrackingofprogressintheuseofICTto
achieveagreedinternationalgoals.Theeffortsof
the
PartnershipindevelopingacorelistofICT
indicatorsandpromotingstatisticalcapacity-
buildingwerenotedandtheinternational
communitywasinvitedtoassistinstrengthening
thestatisticalcapacityofdevelopingeconomies.
Aswellaspresentingavailablestatistics,this
publicationassessesprogressinmeasuring
theinformationsocietybyexploringthedata
gapsthatremain.Whilstavailabilityofthecore
indicatorsfordevelopedeconomiesisgood–and
improvingforsomedevelopingeconomies–for
mostofthecoreindicators,dataavailabilityin
thedevelopingworldislimited.Inaddition,
moreworkisrequiredbymostcountriesthat
6
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
alreadycollectcoreindicatorstobetteralign
theirstatisticalprogramswiththerequirements
ofthecoreindicatorsinordertoimprovethe
internationalcomparabilityofICTstatistics.
The
Partnership’seffortsincapacity-building
andawarenessraising,andtheendorsement
in2007ofthecorelistofICTindicatorsby
theUNStatisticalCommission,shouldleadto
improvementsinthenumberofcountriesthat
collectcoreICTindicatorsandthecomparability
oftheindicators.
Noteontheaggregationsusedinthis
publication
Thepublicationpresentsinformationcategorized
oraggregatedby
level of developmentand
region
.
Economieshavebeenassignedtocategories
basedontheUnitedNationsStatisticalDivision’s
Standard country or area codes for statistical use(http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/
m49.htm).Aneconomyappearsonce(andonly
once)ineach
level of developmentand
region
broadcategory,forinstance,Japanisshownin
Developed economiesandin
Asia(andinno
othercategories).
Taiwan,
ChinahasbeenaddedtotheUNSD
listbecausesomeorganizationscollectrelevant
informationforthiseconomy(thenameofthe
economyfollowsITUpractice).
Nojudgementisimpliedinallocatingeconomies
tolevelsofdevelopment.Inrelationtothe
classiication,UNSDnotesthat“Thereisno
establishedconventionforthedesignationof
“developed”and“developing”countriesor
areasintheUnitedNationssystem.Incommon
practice,JapaninAsia,CanadaandtheUnited
StatesinnorthernAmerica,AustraliaandNew
ZealandinOceania,andEuropeareconsidered
“developed”regionsorareas.”
Therearedifferingpracticesamonginternational
organizationsforclassifyingeconomiesbylevel
ofdevelopment.Asalldatainthispublication
usethelistdescribedabove,someaggregates
willdifferfromthoseproducedbytheindividual
organizationsthatprovidedinformationforthis
publication.
Thedesignationofsomeeconomiesas‘developed’
or‘transition’hasrecentlychanged(asshownin
the31January2008revision).However,these
changesarenotrelectedinthispublicationas
thepreviousversionwasused.Theeconomies
affectedbytherevisionareCroatia,Bulgariaand
Romania.
7
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.Theaimofthispublicationistwofold.
Theirstistopresentacoherentpicture
ofthestateoftheinformationsocietyin
theworld.Toachievethis,thepublication
presentsavailablestatisticaldatabased
onacoresetofinternationallyagreed
informationandcommunicationtechnology
(ICT)indicators.
2.Whilesomeofthesestatisticshavebeen
compiledbefore(forinstance,forasmallset
ofcountriesorforalimitedsetofindicators),
thisistheirstattempttocompilecoreICT
indicatorsforawiderangeofcountriesand
acrossalltheareascoveredbythecoreICT
indicators.Theseare:
•ICTinfrastructureandaccess;
•Accessto,anduseof,ICTbyhouseholds
andindividuals;
•UseofICTbybusinesses;and
•TheICTsectorandtradeinICTgoods.
3.Thesecondaimofthepublicationistoshow
recentdevelopmentsinICTmeasurement
and,importantly,highlighttheconsiderable
gapsthatremain.
4.Thepublicationhasbeenproducedby
thePartnershiponMeasuringICTfor
Development,whosemembership,history
andobjectivesareoutlinedlaterinthis
chapter.The
Partnershiparosebecauseof
aglobalrecognitionoftheimportanceof
ICTforsocialandeconomicdevelopment,
especiallyindevelopingeconomies.The
policyinterestinICTwasaccompanied
byaneedformeasurement,whichwasa
majorconcernforthetwoWorldSummits
ontheInformationSociety.TheGeneva
phasehighlightedtheimportanceof
benchmarkingandmeasuringprogress
towardstheinformationsocietythrough
internationallycomparablestatistical
indicators.Itwasfollowedbytheformation
ofthe
Partnership,whichwaslaunchedin
June2004atUNCTADXIinBrazil.
5.Thisintroductorychapterwillconsider
thebroaderstatisticalconceptsusedinthe
measurementoftheinformationsociety.
Itwilldiscussthe
Partnership,looking
atitshistory,objectives,membersand
majorachievements.The
Partnership’s
activitiesinthedevelopmentofcoreICT
indicatorsareexploredinmoredepthas
isitsinvolvementincapacity-building
fordevelopingandleastdeveloped
economies.
Chapter 1. Introduction
1. Objectives of The Global Information Society:
a Statistical View
8
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
6.TheOrganisationforEconomicCo-
operationandDevelopment(OECD)
starteddevelopingstatisticalstandards
forinformationsocietymeasurement
about10yearsago,throughitsWorking
PartyonIndicatorsfortheInformation
Society(WPIIS).TheWPIISprovides
aforumfornationalstatisticalexperts
toshareexperiencesandcollaborateon
thedevelopmentofinformationsociety
statisticalstandards.Itsmainachievements
todateare:
•Industry-baseddeinitionsofthe
ICT
sectorand
content and mediasector
(themostrecentversionsarebasedon
ISICRev.4);
•AnICTgoodsandanICTservices
classiication(basedontheHarmonized
SystemandCPCVer.2respectively);
•Narrowandbroaddeinitionsof
electroniccommercetransactions;and
•ModelsurveysofICTusebybusinesses
andhouseholds/individuals.
7.Aclassiicationforallinformationeconomy
products,basedonCPCVer.2,isalmost
completed.Itwillincludeupdatestothe
ICTgoodsandservicesclassiications,and
anewclassiicationforcontentandmedia
products.
8.TheWPIIShasproducedaconceptual
modelforinformationsocietymeasurement
whichincludes:
•ICTsupply(theICTsector);
•ICTproducts,productionandtrade;
•ICTinfrastructure;
•ICTdemandbybusinesses,households,
individualsandotherentitiessuchas
governmentorganizations;
•Thecontentandmediasectorandits
products;
•TheimpactsofICTonsociety,the
economyandtheenvironment;and
•Theimpactsofvariousfactors,such
aspolicydecisions,onelementsofthe
informationsociety.
9.Eurostathasalsobeenactiveinthearea
ofdevelopingstandardsforinformation
societymeasurement,mainlythrough
itscommunitysurveysonICTuseby
households/individualsandbusinesses.The
surveyshavebeenrunningsincetheearly
2000sanduseharmonizedquestionnaires
providedtomemberstatestouseintheir
nationalsurveys.
10.Othermembersofthe
Partnershiphave
alsobeeninvolvedindevelopingstatistical
standardsformeasuringtheinformation
society.Inparticular,theInternational
TelecommunicationUnionhasbeen
activelydevelopingstandardsformeasuring
infrastructureandaccessindicatorsfora
numberofyears.ITU’sreferenceforthis
workis
Telecommunication Indicators Handbook,whichincludesdeinitionsfor
alltheirtelecommunication/ICTindicators
(ITU,2007a).
2. Statistical standards for measuring the information society
9
Chapter 1. Introduction
3.1 History and major achievements
11.FollowingaWSISstatisticaleventin
Geneva,
1
theUnitedNationsConference
onTradeandDevelopment(UNCTAD)
ledthecoordinationofinternational
agenciesintheareaofICTmeasurement,
commencingpreparatoryworktocreatea
globalpartnershiponICTmeasurement
inJanuary2004.Thefoundingmembers
ofthe
PartnershipwereUNCTAD,the
InternationalTelecommunicationUnion
(ITU)andtheOECD.Discussionsquickly
followedwithotheragenciesinterestedin
joiningthegroup.
12.TheUnitedNationsEconomicCommission
forLatinAmericaandtheCaribbean
(UNECLAC)alsofollowedthroughon
therecommendationsoftheWSISevent,
producingadraftquestionnaireforstock-
takingICTstatisticsinitsregionof
responsibility.
2
Afterconsultationwith
theotherUNRegionalCommissionsand
relevantinternationalorganizations,the
inalquestionnairewasadoptedbyfour
RegionalCommissionsandUNCTAD(on
behalfofUNECE)forconductingstock-
takingsurveysintheirrespectiveregions.
13.On17June2004,themulti-stakeholder
Partnership on Measuring ICT for DevelopmentwaslaunchedatUNCTAD
XIinSaoPaulo,Brazil(UNCTAD,2004).
Itsmembers,atthattime,were:
3. The Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development
•Thefoundingmembers(UNCTAD,
ITUandOECD);
•TheUnitedNationsEducational,
ScientiicandCulturalOrganization’s
InstituteforStatistics(UIS);
•UNECLAC;
•TheUnitedNationsEconomicand
SocialCommissionforWesternAsia
(UNESCWA);
•TheUnitedNationsEconomicand
SocialCommissionforAsiaandthe
Paciic(UNESCAP);
•TheUnitedNationsEconomic
CommissionforAfrica(UNECA);
•TheUNICTTaskForce(whosemandate
expiredattheendof2005);and
•TheWorldBank.
14.Eurostatoficiallyjoinedthe
Partnership
inFebruary2005.
15.Theirstphaseofthe
Partnershipranfrom
June2004toDecember2005.Majorevents
andachievementsduringthisperiodwere:
•June2004:Presentationofa
Partnership
projectdocument(objectives,expected
output,proposedactivities,partners’
maincontributions)(
Partnership,2004)
andformallaunchofthe
Partnershipat
UNCTADXI(SaoPaulo,Brazil).
•July/August2004:Initiationofaglobal
stocktakingexercisethroughametadata
questionnaireonICTstatisticssent
byUNECA,UNECLAC,UNESCAP,
10
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
UNESCWAandUNCTAD(onbehalf
ofUNECE)tostatisticalagencies
indevelopingmembercountries.A
parallelexerciseforOECDmember
countrieswasorganizedbytheOECD,
withinputfromEurostat.
•OctobertoDecember2004:Regional
workshopswereheldinWesternAsia,
Africa,andLatinAmericaandthe
Caribbean(organizedbyUNESCWA,
ITU/UNECAandUNECLAC/Institute
forConnectivityintheAmericas
respectively).Participantsconsidered
theresultsofthemetadataquestionnaire
anddiscussedinformationsociety
measurementactivitiesintheirregions.
Importantoutcomesfromthese
workshopswererecommendationsfor
acommoncoresetofICTindicators.
Inputstothecorelistwerealsoreceived
throughothermeans(suchasviae-mail
andanAsia-PaciicICTstatisticians
meetingheldinNewZealandin
December2004).Theendresultwas
asetofrecommendationsoncoreICT
indicatorsforinputintoaWSISthematic
meetingheldinFebruary2005.
•February2005:WSISThematicMeeting
onMeasuringtheInformationSociety
heldinGenevaundertheumbrellaof
the
Partnership,toproduceinputto
thesecondphaseoftheWSISinTunis
(November2005).Theoutcomesof
themeetingincludedagreementona
corelistofICTindicators(
Partnership,
2005a),withagreementtodevelop
othersthatwouldrelectthebroader
informationsociety(inareassuchas
education,healthandgovernment).
•March2005:Presentationofthecore
listofICTindicatorsanda
Partnership
progressreporttothemeetingofthe
UNStatisticalCommission(NewYork)
(
Partnership,2005b).
•JuneandOctober2005:Regional
meetingsinWesternAsiaandLatin
AmericaandtheCaribbean(organized
byUNESCWA/ITUandUNECLAC
respectively).
•November2005:SecondphaseofWSIS
inTunis.AParallelEventonMeasuring
theInformationSocietywasorganized
bythe
Partnershipandheldon15
November.Thisglobaleventbrought
togetherICTstakeholdersatnational,
regionalandinternationallevels.The
objectivesofthemeetingwere:
-Topresenttheagreedcorelist
ofindicatorstopolicymakers,
togetherwithanaccompanying
methodologicalpublication(
Core
ICT Indicators,
Partnership,2005c);
-Todebatetheimportanceof
measuringtheinformationsocietyfor
ICTpolicymakinganddevelopment;
and
-Tolaunchthepublication,
Measuring ICT: The Global Status of ICT Indicators(
Partnership,2005d);this
publicationpresentstheresultsofthe
globalstocktakingexerciseonICT
indicatorscarriedoutduring2004.
16.Thesecondphaseofthe
Partnershipstarted
inJanuary2006andwillrununtilaboutthe
middleof2008.TheoutcomesoftheWSIS
Tunis(November2005)wereincorporated
intotheplanningofthesecondphaseofthe
Partnership
.
17.Byearly2008,theachievementsduring
thesecondphaseinclude:
•The
Partnershipsubmittedareport
containingashortoverviewofitsrecent
workandthecorelistofICTindicators
tothe38thsessionoftheUNStatistical
Commission(February2007).The
Commissionendorsedthe
Partnership
corelistandencouragedcountriestouse
itintheirdatacollectionprogrammes
(
Partnership,2007;UNSC,2007).
TheCommissioncongratulatedthe
Partnershiponitsachievementsand
noteditasanexampleofsuccessful
cooperationbetweeninternational
organizations.
•AcorelistofindicatorsforICTin
educationhasbeenproposedbyUIS
(whichleadsthe
Partnership’sTask
11
Chapter 1. Introduction
GrouponEducation).Thislistwillbe
consideredforinclusioninthecorelist
during2008.
•Severalregionalmeetingson
informationsocietymeasurementhave
occurredsincetheWSISTunis.They
aredescribedin
Capacity-building and trainingbelow.
3
•Aprogrammeontechnicalassistance
andcapacity-buildingfordeveloping
economieshasbeenestablishedandis
beingcarriedoutbyindividualmembers
ofthe
Partnershipduringthesecond
phase(describedinCapacity-building
andtrainingbelow).
•AMemorandumofUnderstandingwas
signedbythepartnersin2007,with
theobjectiveoffurtherstrengthening
theinstitutionalcommitmentofthe
partnersandtoprovideguidelines
tonewmemberswishingtojointhe
Partnership
.
Box 1. The Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development
Launched:
June2004atUNCTADXI(SaoPaulo,Brazil).
Current members:
UNCTAD,ITU,OECD,UIS,UNECLAC,UNESCWA,
UNESCAP,UNECA,EurostatandTheWorldBank.
Objectives:
ToachieveacommonsetofcoreICTindicators,tobe
harmonizedandagreeduponinternationally,whichwill
constitutethebasisforadatabaseonICTstatistics;
Toenhancethecapacitiesofnationalstatisticalofices
indevelopingeconomiesandtobuildcompetenceto
developstatisticalcompilationprogrammesonthe
informationsociety,basedoninternationallyagreed
indicators;and
TodevelopaglobaldatabaseofICTindicatorsandto
makeitavailableviatheInternet.
Memorandum of Understanding:
Signedbythepartnersin2007inordertofurther
strengthentheircommitmentandtoprovideguidelines
topotentialnewmembers.
Structure:
ASteeringCommittee(consistingofITU,UNCTAD
andUNECLAC)plusfourtaskgroups(onICT
ineducationindicators,e-governmentindicators,
capacity-buildinganddatabasedevelopment).
3.2 Objectives of the Partnership
18.The
Partnershipprovidesanopen
frameworkforcoordinatingongoingand
futureactivities.Itisajointeffortamong
thestakeholdersinvolvedandassumes
equalityofthepartners.Theoriginal
objectivesofthe
Partnershipareshownin
Box1above.
19.Theobjectivesofthesecondphasebuild
onthoseoftheirst,andareasfollows:
•Continuetoraiseawarenessamong
policymakersontheimportanceof
statisticalindicatorsformonitoring
ICTpoliciesandcarryingoutimpact
analysis;
•Expandthecorelistofindicatorsto
otherareasofinterest,suchasICTin
education,governmentandhealth;
•Conducttechnicalworkshopsatthe
regionalleveltoexchangenational
experiencesanddiscussmethodologies,
deinitions,surveyvehiclesanddata
collectionefforts;
•Assiststatisticalagenciesindeveloping
economiesintheirICTdatacollection
anddisseminationefforts,including
thedevelopmentofnationaldatabases
tostoreandanalysesurveyresults
(during2006,aneedsassessmentwas
undertaken,asaresultofwhichmore
than50requestsfortechnicalassistance
havebeenreceived);and
12
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
•DevelopaglobaldatabaseofICT
indicatorsandmakeitavailableonthe
WorldWideWeb.
3.3 Structure of the Partnership
20.Severalstructuralimprovementswere
introducedtothe
Partnershipearlyinthe
secondphase.ASteeringCommitteewas
electedtohelpcoordinateactivitiesand
promotetheworkofthe
Partnership.The
Committeepresentsa‘publicface’for
the
Partnership.Itprovidessecretariat
functions,coordinatestheworkprogramme
ofthe
Partnership,initiatesandcoordinates
various
Partnershipactivities,andreviews
applicationsfrompotentialnewmembers.
ThecurrentmembersoftheSteering
CommitteeareITU,UNCTADand
UNECLAC.
21.Atthesametime,fourtaskgroupswere
createdtoaddressspeciicobjectivesand
activitiesofthe
Partnership.Eachtask
groupisledbyavolunteerorganization
anditsmembersareinterestedpartners.
Thetaskgroupsare:
•TheTaskGrouponEducation(ledby
UIS)whoseobjectiveistodevelopa
planofactivitytocollectacoredata
setofindicatorsontheroleofICTin
education;
•TheTaskGrouponeGovernment
(ledbyUNECA)whoseobjectiveis
tocoordinateandfurtherdevelopthe
variousactivitiesofthepartnersinthe
areaofe-governmentindicators;
•TheTaskGrouponCapacity-building
(ledbyUNCTAD)whoseobjectiveis
tocoordinateandfurtherdevelopthe
variousactivitiesofthepartnersin
theareaofcapacity-buildingonICT
measurementindevelopingcountries;
and
•TheTaskGrouponDatabase
Development(ledbytheWorldBank),
theobjectiveofwhichistocoordinate
andfurtherdevelopthevariousactivities
ofthePartnersintheareaofdatabase
developmentforICTindicators.
3.4 Global stocktaking exercise
22.Anearlyachievementofthe
Partnership
wastheconductofanexercisedesigned
toassessthestateofICTstatisticsand
identifybestpracticesinUNeconomies.
23.Thestocktakingexercisewascarriedout
during2004andwasundertakenbyfour
UNcommissionsfortheirrespective
regions(UNECA,UNECLAC,UNESCAP
andUNESCWA).Thequestionnaireswere
senttostatisticalagenciesofmember
economies,excludingOECDcountries
(OECDprovidedmetadatainformation
inrespectofitsmembercountries).
UNCTADsentthequestionnairetoUnited
NationsEconomicCommissionforEurope
(UNECE)economiesnotcoveredbythe
OECDorEurostat.
24.Whiletheexerciseproducedsomevaluable
information,theresponseforsomeregions
wasdisappointingandnodoubtaffectedthe
reliabilityofthestatisticsgeneratedfrom
theexercise.Ofthe169economiesthat
weresentquestionnaires,86responded(51
percent).Responseratesvariedbyregion,
rangingfrom37percent(Africa)to79per
cent(WesternAsia).
25.Theresultsofthestock-takingexercise
werepublishedin
Partnership(2005d).
AsummarycanbefoundinAnnex4of
OECD(2007a).
3.5 Core list of ICT indicators
26.Amajoraimofthe
Partnershipatits
inceptionwasthedevelopmentofa
corelistofICTindicatorsthatcouldbe
collectedbyallcountries.Anumberof
regionalworkshopsonICTmeasurement
wereheldaftertheGenevaphaseofWSIS
andincludeddiscussionofregionalICT
indicatorsofinteresttopolicymakers.
Outcomesofthesemeetingsincluded
13
Chapter 1. Introduction
regionalcoreliststhatwerepresented
forinformationtotheUnitedNations
StatisticalCommissionatitsmeetingof
March2005(
Partnership,2005b).The
Partnershipconsolidatedaglobalcorelist
andcirculatedittoallnationalstatistical
ofices(NSOs)forfurthercomment.A
inallistwasdiscussed,andagreedon,at
theWSISThematicMeetingonMeasuring
theInformationSociety,heldinGenevain
February2005.
27.Thelist(publishedas
Core ICT Indicators)
wasoficiallypresentedatthesecondphase
ofWSIS,heldinTunisinNovember2005,
duringtheParallelEventonMeasuring
theInformationSociety.Sincethen,the
listhasbeendisseminatedwidelyand
nowservesasabasisforthe
Partnership’s
workonmeasuringICT.Thecorelistwas
endorsedbytheUnitedNationsStatistical
Commission(UNSC)atitsthirty-eighth
meetingofMarch2007(UNSC,2007).
28.Thecorelistformsthebasisfordata
presentedinthispublication,whichisthe
irstcomprehensivecompilationofcore
ICTindicatordata.
29.Thereare41coreICTindicatorsinfour
groupsasfollows:
•ICTinfrastructureandaccess(12
indicators,seeAnnex2);
•Accessto,anduseof,ICTbyhouseholds
andindividuals(13indicators,see
Annex3);
4
•UseofICTbybusinesses(12indicators,
seeAnnex4);and
•TheICTsectorandtradeinICTgoods
(4indicators,seeAnnex5).
30.Themainpurposeofthecorelististohelp
countriesthataredevelopingICTsurveys
–oraddingICTquestionstoexisting
collections–toproducehighqualityand
internationallycomparabledata.Inorder
toachievethisobjective,theindicators
haveassociatedstandardsandmetadata
including:
•Deinitionsofterms(e.g.
computer,
the
Internet);thesecanbefoundinthe
annexesreferencedabove;
•Modelquestions;
•Calculationofindicators(e.g.use
ofappropriatedenominatorsfor
calculatingproportions);
•Classiicatoryvariables(e.g.business
sizeforbusinessICTusecore
indicators;genderforindividualICT
usecoreindicators);thesecanbefound
inannexes3and4;
•Adviceonparticularstatisticalissues
(suchasthemeasurementofe-
commerce);
•Collectionscope(e.g.bybusinesssize
orindustry,ageofindividuals);and
•Limitedrecommendationson
methodology(e.g.statisticalunits,
surveyvehicles).
31.Whilstthecorelistisnotmandatory,
itsusehasbeenrecommendedbythe
UNSC.Importantly,thelistisnotlimiting
−countrieswillalsoneedtorespondto
nationalpolicyneedsandthesemayonly
bepartiallycoveredbythecorelist.
32.Eachindicatorisnominatedaseither‘basic
core’or‘extendedcore’,wherethelatter
areconsideredmoresuitableforcountries
withrelativelyadvancedICTstatistical
systems(
Partnership,2005c).
33.ThedevelopmentofICTindicatorsisa
continuingprocessandthe
Partnershipwill
reviewthelistperiodically.Forexample,
someminorrevisionshavebeenproposed
totheICTbusinessindicatorsinlinewith
progressmadeelsewhere(inparticular
byEurostat).Ongoingworkincludes
thedevelopmentofnewICTindicators
–especiallyintheareasofeducation
andgovernment.Thesearelikelytobe
discussedataglobalmeetinginmid2008.
14
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
3.6 Capacity-building and training
34.Akeyobjectiveofthe
Partnershipisto
assiststatisticalagenciesofdeveloping
economiestocollectanddisseminate
ICTdata.The
Partnership’sTaskGroup
onCapacity-buildingisledbyUNCTAD,
whichhasconductedastocktakingexercise
onthecapacity-buildingrequirements
ofdevelopingeconomies.UNCTAD
alsomaintainsaregisterofICTstatistics
expertswhoareabletoprovideassistance
todevelopingeconomies.
35.Inanefforttoimprovetheavailabilityof
internationallycomparableICTstatistics,
offersoftechnicalassistancepresumea
commitmentbytherecipienteconomyto
followthecorelistofICTindicators.
36.UNCTADreleasedthe
Manual for the Production of Statistics on the Information Economy(UNCTAD,2007a)inNovember
2007.The
ManualisareferenceforNSOs
andotherproducersofoficialstatistics
ontheinformationeconomy.Itcovers
datacollectionandanalysistechniques;
statisticalstandards,includingdeinitions
andmodelquestions;methodological
adviceonstatisticalissuesofparticular
interesttodevelopingcountries,and
institutionalaspectsofthestatistical
process.The
Manualisthesubjectof
consultationwithNSOsworldwide,with
aviewtosubmittingarevisedversionfor
approvalbytheUNStatisticalCommission
in2009.
37.UNCTADhasalsodevelopedatraining
courseonmeasuringtheinformation
economy.Thetrainingcourse,whichwas
developedundertheframeworkofthe
UNCTAD
TrainForTradeprogramme,is
basedontheUNCTAD
Manualdescribed
aboveandincludespresentationslides,a
participant’shandbook,groupexercises,
testsandevaluationquestionnaires.
38.ITUisplanningtoreleaseacomplementary
manualandtrainingcourseonthe
productionofhouseholdICTstatisticsin
2008.
39.Partnersalsorunregionalcapacity-
buildingworkshopsandtrainingcourses.
Recentexamplesare:
•RegionalWorkshoponMeasuringthe
InformationSociety,11-12February
2008,SanSalvador,ElSalvador.
Theworkshopwasorganizedby
UNECLAC,withthesupportof
UNCTAD,theNSOandtheMinistry
ofEconomicsofElSalvador.The
OSILACinformationsystemandNSO
experiencesinthecollectionofICT
statistics,werepresented.Agreements
ontheharmonizedpresentationof
indicatorswerereachedandfourworking
groupswerecreatedtoworkon,among
otherthings,methodologicalissuesand
proposalsfornewindicators.
•TrainingcourseontheProduction
ofStatisticsfortheInformation
EconomyforAsia,18-22February
2008,Incheon,RepublicofKorea.The
coursewasorganizedbyUNCTAD
andhostedbytheUNESCAPAsiaand
PaciicTrainingCentreforInformation
andCommunicationTechnologyfor
Development,incollaborationwiththe
UNStatisticalInstituteforAsiaand
Paciic.
•TheUNCTADtrainingcourseon
theProductionofStatisticsforthe
InformationEconomywasirst
deliveredinColombiainDecember
2007,incooperationwiththeCentro
AndinodeAltosEstudios(CANDANE)
forthemembercountriesoftheAndean
CommunityandUNECLAC.
•CapacityBuildingWorkshopon
InformationSocietyStatistics:
InfrastructureandHouseholdIndicators,
6-8November2007,Bangkok,
Thailand.Theworkshopwasjointly
organizedbyITU,UNESCAPandthe
Asia-PaciicTelecommunity(APT).
Theworkshopcovereddeinitions,
collectionmethodologiesanddata
15
Chapter 1. Introduction
collectionissuesforICTstatistics,
withanemphasisoninfrastructure
andhouseholdICTstatistics.The
workshopwasaddressedprimarilyto
staffofNSOswhoareresponsiblefor
informationsocietymeasurement,as
wellasrepresentativesofministriesand
regulatoryagencieswhoareproducers
and/orusersofICTstatistics.
•Atrainingcourse,HowtoEstablish
anICTIndicatorsDatabase,took
placefrom29Octoberto2November
2007,inIndonesia.Thetrainingtaught
statisticiansanddatacollectors(from
theNSOandthetelecommunication
regulatoryauthority)aboutITU’s
deinitionandcollectionof
telecommunication/ICTindicators,as
wellascollectionanddissemination
ofICTstatisticscollectedusingan
ICThouseholdsurvey.Thetraining
includeddiscussionsonthedeinitionof
telecommunication/ICTindicators,data
collectiontechniques,andexamples
ofhowtocompilecountrydatausing
companyannualreports.
•Capacity-BuildingWorkshopon
InformationSocietyMeasurements:
HouseholdandBusinessSurveys,June
2007,Cairo,Egypt.Theworkshop
wasjointlyorganizedbyUNESCWA,
UNCTAD,OECD,theITUArab
RegionalOfice,theLeagueofArab
StatesandtheEgyptianMinistryof
CommunicationsandInformation
Technology.Itfocusedonthetechnical
andmethodologicalaspectsofcapacity-
buildingandontheuseofsurveys
forthecollectionofdataforthecore
indicatorsonICTusebyhouseholds
andbusinesses.Inaddition,participants
discussedglobalandregional
experiencesinICTmeasurementand
statisticsontheICTsector.
•RegionalWorkshoponInformation
SocietyMeasurementinAfrica,
March2007,AddisAbaba,Ethiopia.
Theworkshopwasjointlyorganized
byUNCTAD-UNECA-ITUandbuilt
ontheworkofthe
Partnershipand
theScan-ICTmeasurementproject,
andaimedtoadvancetheavailability
ofcomparableICTdataforAfrica.
Theeventallowedstatisticiansand
policymakerstodiscusstheneedfor
comparabledataontheinformation
societyandsharebestpracticesinICT
measurementattheregionallevel.The
meetingalsodiscussedpossiblecore
indicatorsfore-government,reviewed
theresultsachievedandchallenges
encounteredintheimplementationof
PhaseIIofScan-ICTandidentiied
technicalassistanceneeds.Theworkshop
providedpracticalrecommendationson
policies,programmesandmechanisms
formonitoringandmeasuringregional
informationsocietydevelopmentwith
theaimofpromotingtheproductionof
comparableICTindicatorsforeffective
ICTpolicymaking.
•ExpertGroupMeetingonICT
IndicatorsAdoptionandData
Collection:ICTIndicatorsinEducation
andE-government,February2007,
Cairo,Egypt.Themeetingwasjointly
organizedbyUNESCWA,UNESCO
InstituteforStatistics(UIS),the
KnowledgeManagementBranch/
DPADM/UNDESA,andtheCabinet
InformationandDecisionSupport
Center(IDSC).Themeetingconsidered
aproposalfromUISforcoreindicators
ontheuseofICTineducationfor
possibleendorsementandadoption
intothe
PartnershiplistofcoreICT
indicators.Italsoprovidedaforum
fordisseminatingcasestudiesand
presentingproposalsforindicators
ontheuseofICTbygovernment,
therebypavingthewayforestablishing
apreliminaryregionallisttostart
collectingdatafortheseindicators.
•AnUNCTADtrainingcourse,January
2007,Bangkok,Thailand.UNCTAD
andtheThaiNationalStatisticalOfice
carriedoutajointresearchprojectto
measuretheimpactoftheadoption
16
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
anduseofICTontheproductivityof
Thaiirms.Thetrainingcoursewason
applyingeconometricmethodstoICT
dataanalysisandfollowedaconference
heldthepreviousdayonMeasuring
ICT.
•Capacity-BuildingWorkshopon
InformationSocietyMeasurements:
CoreIndicators,StatisticsandData
Collection,December2006,Amman,
Jordan.Theworkshopwasorganized
bytheITUArabRegionalOfice,the
JordanianMinistryofICT,UNESCWA
andtheArabInstitutefor‎Training
andResearchinStatistics(AITRS).It
aimedtobuildontheoutcomesofthe
GenevaandTunisphasesoftheWSIS
andconsideredimplementationof
thedecisionsendorsedbytheearlier
capacity-buildingworkshopheldin
theregion,inJune2005.Inaddition,
participantsexploredthestepsnecessary
forfulillingmandatesoutlinedinthe
ArabInitiativethatwaspresentedat
thefourthWorldTelecommunication
DevelopmentConference(Doha,7-15
March2006).
•TheThirdRegionalWorkshopon
InformationSocietyMeasurement
inLatinAmericaandtheCaribbean,
November2006,Panama.Theworkshop
highlightedtheprogressmadein
collectingICTdataviahouseholdand
businesssurveys.Themeeting,which
includedparticipantsfromNSOs,
ministriesandregulatoryagencies,
alsodiscussedcapacity-buildingand
technicalassistancerequirements.The
workshopwasorganizedbyUNECLAC
withthesupportofITUandtheNSO
fromPanama.
•TrainingonInformationandCommu
-
nicationsTechnologymeasurementin
Panama,November2006(priortothe
ThirdRegionalWorkshop).Thetrai
-
ningwaspromotedbyUNECLAC,and
presentedbyStatisticsCanada.
•TheJointUNCTAD–ITU–UNESCAP
RegionalWorkshoponInformation
SocietyMeasurementsinAsia-
Paciic,July2006,Bangkok,Thailand.
TheWorkshopallowedparticipants
(representativesfromNSOs,ministries
andregulatoryagencies)todiscuss
theneedforcomparabledataonthe
informationsocietyandtosharebest
practicesinICTmeasurementatthe
regionallevel.Themeetingfocused
onthecoreICTindicators,deinitions,
methodologiesanddatacollection
issues.Inaddition,itidentiiedtechnical
assistanceneedsinthisarea.
17
Chapter 1. Introduction
4.1 Africa
40.TheAfricanInformationSocietyInitiative
5
(AISI),adoptedin1996,isthebasisof
UNECA’sworkonpromotingICTas
amotorforAfricandevelopment.At
theinceptionofAISI,itwasrecognised
thatregionaleffortstoharnessICTfor
developmentwouldonlyberealizedif
nationsimplementedeffectivemeasurement
tools.Currently,reliablestatistical
indicatorsforcollectingandcompiling
dataontheimpactofICTinAfricaare
scarcebecausemostAfricannationslack
basicinformationonkeyICTandrelated
economicandsocialindicators.
41.Torespondtothischallenge,theScan-
ICTInitiativewaslaunchedinNovember
2000asacollaborativeprojectbetween
theAcaciaprogrammeoftheInternational
DevelopmentResearchCentre(IDRC)
andUNECA.Phase1oftheinitiative
aimedtomonitorthepenetration,impact
andeffectivenessofICTinsixAfrican
countriesandtherebyassistmember
statestodevelopnationalinformation
societiesandeconomiesbydevelopingand
compilingsuitablestatisticalindicators.
42.Theirstphaseendedin2004and
involvedpilotsurveysinEthiopia,Ghana,
Mozambique,Morocco,Senegaland
Uganda.Thesurveysaddressededucation,
health,publicadministrationandthe
privatesector/privateICTirms.Major
indingsincluded:
•ICTpenetrationisgenerallyhigher
ineducationalinstitutionsandpublic
administrationfacilitiesthaninhealth
institutions;
•WhilemanyinstitutionsreportICT
use,frequentlyonlyafewstaffin
eachinstitutionactuallypossessthat
capability;
•Ashortageofqualiiedstaffappearsto
beacriticalissueinallareas;and
•Theproportionofinstitutionswith
websitesislowandthecontentofthe
sitesisfrequentlylimitedtogeneric
information.Thus,theresourcesof
theInternetasatoolforbusinessand
commercehaveyettomakeasubstantive
impactinthepilotcountries.
43.TheScan-ICTsurveyresultsshowthatthe
sixpilotcountriesarefollowingdifferent
ICTdevelopmentpatternsthathave
resultedindifferentwaysofaddressing
ICTchallenges.Insomecases,building
infrastructurehasbeenemphasized,while
inothers,thefocusisoneducation/training
andastrongskillsbase.
4.2 Asia-Paciic
44.SeveralresearcheffortsofUNESCAPhave
attemptedtocharacterizethesupportive
environmentforICTintheregion,including
itsuse.However,theseeffortshavebeen
impairedbylackofdata.UNESCAP
(2006),attemptedtosolvesuchproblems
bycomputingavalueofthe(UNDP)
4. Regional measurement initiatives
18
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
HumanDevelopmentIndex(HDI),aswell
asaseparateConnectionIndex(CI),which
usesdataonixedandmobiletelephone
users,andInternetusers.Theindexesare
availableforallUNESCAPmemberand
associatemembereconomies.TheHDI
canbeusedtosummarizetheenabling
environmentandtheCIthedeliveryofICT
resultstothepeopleofeconomiesofthe
region.
45.The
Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Paciic 2007(UNESCAP,2007)presented
arangeofcurrentICTstatisticsforthe
region.
4.3 Latin America and the Caribbean
46.InresponsetoalackofregionalICTdata,
in2003,UNECLACandtheInstitutefor
ConnectivityintheAmericas(ICA)of
theInternationalDevelopmentResearch
CentreofCanada(IDRC)createdthe
ObservatoryfortheInformationSociety
inLatinAmericaandtheCaribbean
(OSILAC).Themainobjectiveofthe
Observatoryistofosterthedevelopment
ofICTstatisticsinLatinAmericaandthe
Caribbean.TheObservatoryoperatesunder
theumbrellaoftheStatisticalConference
oftheAmericasofUNECLACandworks
withmembersofthe
Partnershipand
NSOsoftheregiontoachieveharmonized
measurementofaccessto,anduseof,
ICTataregional,nationalandlocallevel.
Since2005,additionaldonoragencies
havejoinedtheeffort;theyincludedthe
EuropeanCommissionthroughthe@LIS
programoftheEuropeAidCo-operation
Ofice.Inthesameyear,countriesofthe
regionadoptedaplanofactionthatcalled
onparticipantsto“Supportandfoster,
withtechnicalco-operationprogrammes,
institution-buildingandmethodological
strengtheningandthedevelopmentof
ICTaccessanduseindicators...”andto
“carryoutannualtechnicalseminars,with
theparticipationofnationalandregional
statisticalagencies,suchasthoseofthe
ObservatoryfortheInformationSociety
inLatinAmericaandtheCaribbean
(OSILAC)”.
6
4.4 Western Asia and the Arab region
47.Theregionhasbeeninvolvedinanumber
ofcapacity-buildingworkshops/meetings
relatingtoICTmeasurement(theseare
listedabove).
48.Followingtherecommendationsofone
suchmeeting(the
Expert Group Meeting on ICT Indicators Adoption and Data Collection: ICT Indicators in Education and E-government,heldinFebruary2007),
UNESCWA,incollaborationwiththe
ArabInstituteforTrainingandResearchin
Statistics(AITRS),hastranslatedthecore
listofICTindicatorsintoArabicforwider
disseminationintheArabregion.
49.Inaddition,UNESCWAandAITRS
havepublished,inArabic,abooklet
entitled
Guidelines for ICT Indicators Measurement(UNESCWA,2007a).This
bookletconstitutestheirststeptowards
thestandardizationofthemeasurement
processforICTindicators.
50.SeveralUNESCWAmembereconomies
collectICTstatisticsintheareasofICT
expenditure(includingitspercentage
ofGDP)andexportsofICTservices.
ThestatisticscanbefoundontheWorld
DevelopmentIndicators2007CD-ROM
(WorldBank,2007)intables4.2
Structure of output,5.11
The Information Ageand4.6
Structure of service exports.Ananalysisof
thesestatisticscanbefoundinUNESCWA
(2007b).
19
Chapter 1. Introduction
Notes
1
JointUNECE/UNCTAD/UIS/ITU/OECD/EurostatsideeventtoWSISon“MonitoringtheInformationSociety”,
December2003,Geneva.
2
Thiswaspresentedtoaninter-agencycoordinationmeetingoninformationsocietystatisticsattheoccasionofthe
thirty-ifthsessionoftheUNStatisticalCommission,NewYork,5March2004.
3
SeealsoUNCTAD’swebsite:http://new.unctad.org/templates/calendar____631.aspx.
4
A‘referenceindicator’,HHR1,ontheproportionofhouseholdswithelectricityisalsopartofthisset.However,
feweconomiescollectit.
5
www.uneca.org/aisi.
6
PlanofActionfortheInformationSocietyinLatinAmericaandtheCaribbeaneLAC2007,June2005,goals26.1
and26.3.
21
Chapter 2. ICT infrastructure and access
Table 1. Core indicators on ICT infrastructure and access
Basic core indicators
A1Fixedtelephonelinesper100inhabitants
A2Mobilecellulartelephonesubscribersper100inhabitants
A3Computersper100inhabitants
A4Internetsubscribersper100inhabitants
A5BroadbandInternetsubscribersper100inhabitants
A6InternationalInternetbandwidthperinhabitant(bits)
A7Percentageofpopulationcoveredbymobilecellulartelephony
A8Internetaccesstariffs(20hourspermonth),inUS$(A8a),andasapercentageof
per capita
income(A8b)
A9Mobilecellulartariffs(100minutesofusepermonth),inUS$(A9a),andasapercentageof
per capitaincome(A9b)
A10PercentageoflocalitieswithpublicInternetaccesscentres(PIACs)bynumberofinhabitants
(rural/urban)
Extended core indicators
A11Radiosetsper100inhabitants
A12Televisionsetsper100inhabitants
Source: Core ICT Indicators (
Partnership
, 2005c).
51.Thedatapresentedinthischapterare
basedonthecore
ICT infrastructure and accessindicators,whichareshowninTable
1belowanddeinedinAnnex2.These
indicatorsarecollectedbytheInternational
TelecommunicationUnion(ITU)andare
publishedinthe
World Telecommunication/
ICT Indicators Database(ITU,2007b)
Chapter 2. ICT infrastructure and access
1. Introduction
22
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
andotherpublicationssuchasthe
World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report(ITU,2006).Theyaredeined
inITU’s
Telecommunication Indicators Handbook(ITU,2007a),withthegoalof
assistingthestandardizationofstatisticsin
thisield.
52.Givenrapidchangesintheareaof
telecommunicationsandICT,itis
necessaryfortheindicatorstobeupdated
regularly.Changesarediscussed,and
revisedindicatorsadopted,atITU’sWorld
Telecommunication/ICTIndicators(WTI)
meeting,whichisorganizedregularly.The
ifthWTImeetingtookplaceinOctober
2006andapprovedarevisedversionofthe
Telecommunication Indicators Handbook
(ITU,2007a).ThesixthWTImeeting
washeldinDecember2007andincluded
discussionofindicatorstomeasure
communityaccessandtorelectnewer
technologiesandservices,particularly
theuptakeofmobilebroadband.The
discussionsdidnotresultinmodiications
totheindicatordeinitions.
53.ITUcollectsdatafromseveralsources
butmainlythroughanannualsurveyof
telecommunicationauthorities,telecommu-
nication/ICTMinistriesandsomeoperators.
Additionaldataareobtainedfromreports
providedbytelecommunicationregulatory
authorities,ministriesandoperators,and
fromITUstaffreports.Insomecases,
estimatesarederivedfromITUbackground
documentsorotherreferences(ITU,2003;
2007b).
23
Chapter 2. ICT infrastructure and access
54.AsTable2shows,dataontheinfrastructure
andaccessindicators(A1–A9)arewidely
available.Dataforthethreeindicators,
A10–12areavailableforasmaller
proportionofeconomies,withtheleast
availableindicatorbeingA10(‘percentage
oflocalitieswithpublicInternetaccess
centres(PIACs)bynumberofinhabitants
(rural/urban)’)thatisavailableforonly
12percentofeconomies.
1
Thereason
fortherelativelyhighavailabilityofthe
otherinfrastructureandaccessindicators
isthattheunderlyingstatisticsare
basedonadministrativedatacollected
bytelecommunication/ICTregulatory
authoritiesorministriesdirectlyfrom
serviceproviders,ratherthanfromICT
usersdirectly.
55.ITUcollectsandpublishesamuchlargerset
oftelecommunication/ICTindicatorsthan
thesetofcoreindicators.Theseareavailable
fromtheWorldTelecommunication/ICT
IndicatorsDatabase(ITU,2007b).
56.Annex1showstheavailabilityofindicators
A1–A12forindividualeconomies.
2. Measurement status
Table 2. Summary of global measurement status by level of development:
2
ICT infrastructure and access
3
IndicatorDevelopedTransitionDevelopingLeastTotalnumberof
economieseconomieseconomiesdevelopedeconomieswith
economieseachindicator
Proportionofeconomieswitheachindicator
A184%100%89%94%214
A286%100%90%98%218
A369%89%83%94%197
A467%68%58%66%148
A580%89%67%88%180
A690%100%97%100%229
A771%84%57%36%137
A8a67%89%70%88%178
A8b67%89%67%86%173
A9a76%89%77%84%188
A9b67%89%69%82%174
A104%11%14%16%29
A1112%26%31%66%81
A1235%32%43%52%100
Total491912050238
economies
Source: ITU (see Annex 1 for more detail).
24
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
3.1 Infrastructure and access statistics
57.Therearetwobroadtypesofinfrastructure
andaccessindicators–thosewhereahigher
valueimpliesabettersituationintermsof
ICTinfrastructureandaccessdevelopment
(the‘positive’indicators)andthosewhere
alowervalueusuallyindicatesabetter
situation(tariffindicators).Indicators
A1toA7,andA10toA12are‘positive’
indicators.Theremainingindicators,A8a
&bandA9a&b,aretariffindicators.
58.Becausealargenumberofcountrieshave
coreinfrastructureandaccessindicators,
datahavebeenaggregated(bylevel
ofdevelopmentandregion).Thisboth
improvespresentationandprovidesviews
ofthedatathatareeasiertounderstandand
analyse.
59.Thedatahavebeenpresentedataggregate
levelintwodifferentways.Theirstis
aggregationsformedfromcomponentsof
countryleveldata,namely,theoriginal
numeratoranddenominatordata.Theseare
aggregatedacrosslevelsofdevelopment/
regionsandthentheratiosarecalculated
ataggregatelevel.
4
Table3shows
aggregationsfromcountrylevelcomponent
3. Statistical summary
datafortheindicatorsforwhichthisis
possible(A1toA7).
5
However,notall
indicatorscanbeaggregatedinthismanner.
Therefore,themedianofindicatorvalues
wasusedtoshowlevelofdevelopment
andregionaggregationsfortheremaining
indicators(A8toA12).Thesecanbefound
inTable4.
60.Tables3and4showthatthedeveloped
economieshavehigheraggregateor
medianvaluesforallthepositiveindicators
–inmostcasesmuchhigherthanfor
theotherlevelsofdevelopment.There
isaclearpatternofdecreasingvalueof
positiveindicatorswithdecreasinglevelof
development.
61.Inrespectoftariffindicators,A8a(Internet
accesstariffsinUS$)islowestfortransition
economiesandsecondlowestfordeveloped
economies.IndicatorA9a(mobilephone
tariffsinUS$)ishighestfordeveloped
economiesandlowestfordeveloping
economies.Whenlookedatona‘percapita
income’basis(indicatorsA8bandA9b),it
isclearthatbothInternetandmobilephone
tariffsarelowinrelativeincometermsfor
developedeconomiesandveryhighforthe
leastdevelopedeconomies.
25
Chapter 2. ICT infrastructure and access
Table 3. ICT infrastructure and access core indicators, aggregate values,
6
latest year available
7
LevelofA1.A2.A3.A4.A5.A6.A7.
developmentFixedMobileComputersInternetBroadbandInternationalPercentage
andtelephonecellularsubscribersInternetInternetof
region
2
linestelephonesubscribersbandwidthpopulation
subscriberspercoveredby
inhabitantmobile
(bits)cellular
Numberper100inhabitants
telephony
Developed 51 92 62 24 19 4 755 99
economies
Asia
8
4379na27211038100
Europe49107502417624599
NorthernAmerica5875772220364599
Oceania48955232181002698
Transition 23 77 10 3 2 223 88
economies
Asia1120410.12569
Europe2693113227797
Developing 15 33 5 4 2 177 74
economies
Africa635220.35877
Asia163044216869
LatinAmericaand1855125333590
theCaribbean
Oceania49740.55074
Least developed 0.9 10 0.7 0.2 0.0 7 59
economies
Africa0.780.60.30.0848
Asia1130.90.20.0576
LatinAmericaand260.20.9na18na
theCaribbean
8
Oceania4530.60.12520
Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database.
26
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Table 4: ICT infrastructure and access core indicators, median values,
6
latest year available
9
LevelofA8a.A8b.A9a.A9b.A10.A11.A12.
developmentInternetInternetMobileMobilePercentageRadioTelevision
andaccessaccesscellularcellularofsetssets
region
2
tariffs,tariffs,asatariffs,tariffs,asalocalities
inUS$percentageinUS$percentagewithPIAC’s
ofpercapitaofpercapitabynumber
incomeincomeofinhabitants
20hourspermonth100minutesofusepermonthper100inhabitants
Developed 16 1 30 2 na 128 57
economies
Asia
8
140.5522nanana
Europe191282na11455
NorthernAmericanana12nananana
USA
10
15 0.4 10 0.3 na na na
Oceania170.9432nana63
Transition 12 11 27 17 na 54 24
economies
Asia12261935nana23
Europe1372715na4625
Developing 22 8 20 8 26 29 22
economies
Africa31212014502316
Asia123133994332
LatinAmericaand241126964022
theCaribbean
Oceania2553226na5519
Least developed 41 123 22 60 6 15 2
economies
Africa42168238711152
Asia26398182106
LatinAmericaand712131339nanana
theCaribbean
8
Oceania58503435na131
Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database.
62.Forthe‘positive’coreindicators,A1toA7,
itispossibletolookatchangeovertime,
inthiscasebasedonaggregatevalues
atthreepointsintime,1995,2000and
2006.
11
Table5showssuchananalysis
bylevelofdevelopment.Itrevealslarge
increasesinthevalueofsomeindicators,
foralllevelsofdevelopment–particularly
thenumberofmobilephonesubscribers.
Forothers,increaseswerelowerorwere
restrictedtosomelevelsofdevelopment.
Thenumberofixedtelephonelines
hasincreasedmodestlyformostlevels
ofdevelopmentbuthasstabilizedsince
1995fordevelopedeconomies.Withthe
exceptionofmobilephonesubscribers
andinternationalbandwidth,indicatorsfor
theleastdevelopedeconomieshavenot
increasedmuchoverthe11-yearperiod.
63.Asthetableshows,eventhelatestvaluesof
someoftheindicatorsarestillverylowfor
transition,developingandleastdeveloped
economies,especiallythoserelatingto
computersandtheInternet.Itistherefore
importanttoconsiderbothabsolutevalues
andpercentagechangeswhenattempting
toanalysedifferencesbetweenlevelsof
developmentandovertime.
27
Chapter 2. ICT infrastructure and access
64.Chart1compareschangesinthenumbers
ofixedandmobilephonesubscribers(per
100inhabitants)overtheperiod1995to
2006.Itillustrates:
•Thedramaticdifferencebetweenixed
andmobilephonegrowthoverthe
period;
•Thelowlevelsinleastdeveloped
economiescomparedwithdeveloping
economies;and
•Thestabilizationofthenumberofixed
telephonelinesindevelopedeconomies,
withsteadygrowthforotherlevelsof
development.
Table 5. Change over time by level of development, selected core indicators,
6
1995, 2000 and 2006
LevelofYearA1.A2.A3.A4.A5.A6.A7.
developmentFixedMobileComputersInternetBroadbandInternationalPercentage
andtelephonecellularsubscribersInternetInternetof
region
2
linestelephonesubscribersbandwidthpopulation
subscriberspercoveredby
inhabitantmobile
(bits)cellular
Numberper100inhabitants
telephony
Developed199550819nananana
economies200057503714160698
20065192622419475599
Transition1995150.15nananana
economies200019350.3na1276
20062377103222388
Developing199550.43nananana
economies20009630.9na571
2006153354217774
Least19950.30.00.3nananana
developed20000.50.30.30.0na0.234
economies20060.9100.70.20.0759
Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database.
28
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
65.Someinterestingtimeseriescomparisons
betweenthedevelopedanddeveloping
worldhavebeenmadebyITUandcanbe
foundontheirwebsite,see:http://www.itu.
int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/ict/index.html.
3.2 Regional analysis
66.Asdiscussedabove,indicatorsA1to
A7,andA10toA12canbethoughtofas
‘positive’ICTinfrastructureandaccess
indicators,thatis,ahighervalueimpliesa
higherlevelofICTinfrastructureandaccess
development.Tables3and4showthat,for
mostofthepositiveindicators,Northern
America,Europeandthedeveloped
OceaniaandAsiancountrieshavethe
highestaggregateormedianvalues.The
lowestvaluesofthepositiveindicatorscan
befoundinAfricanandAsiancountries,
especiallythosethatareamongtheleast
developedeconomies.Thetariffindicators
8aand9a(indicatingthemonthlycostin
USdollarsofInternetandmobilephone
accessrespectively)aremoreevenacross
regions,althoughtheyarerelativelylowfor
AsiaandtheUSA.However,whenlooked
atona‘percapitaincome’basis,theleast
developedeconomiesinAfricafaremuch
worsethanotherregions,withtherelative
costforthoseservicesveryhigh.
12
Chart 1. Fixed phone lines and mobile phone subscribers, per 100 inhabitants
Source: ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database.
Notes
1
Thisindicatorhasonlybeencollectedforarelativelyshorttime.Itprovidesimportantinformationfordeveloping
economies,wherefewhouseholdshaveInternetaccessandthereforemanyindividualsusetheInternetatpublic
facilities.Dataontheindicatorarescarcebecausemanycountriesinditdificulttomeasurethisindicator.Problems
oftenstartwiththedeinitionof‘localities’(whichincludevillages,townsandcities)andtheavailabilityofdataon
localities.Inaddition,localitydatamaynotbelinkedtotheavailabilityofpublicInternetaccesscentres(PIACs).
Inothercases,thenumberofPIACs(ortheirlocation)arenottracked.ITUisencouragingmorecountriesto
collectthisinformation.
1995
2000
2006
1995
2000
2006
1995
2000
2006
1995
2000
Developed
economies
T
ransitio
n
economies
Developing
economies
Least developed
economies
2006
100
80
60
40
20
0
A1.
Fi
xed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants
A2.
Mobile cellular subscribers per 100
29
Chapter 2. ICT infrastructure and access
2
Annex1showstheeconomieswhichareincludedineach‘levelofdevelopment’and‘region’category.The
classiicationisbasedontheUNStatisticalDivision’s
Standard country or area codes for statistical use,seehttp://
unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49.htm.TheclassiicationwasrevisedinJanuary2008andisnowslightly
differentfromtheversionusedtoaggregatedataforthispublication.ThedifferencesaredetailedinAnnex1.
3
Anindicatorwasconsideredtobe
availableifITUreceiveddataforit(includingzerovalues)fortheyear2002or
later.ThetotaleconomycountincludescountriesfromwhichITUdoesnotcollectdata.SeeAnnex1fordetails.
4
Forexample,fortheindicatorA1(thenumberofixedtelephonelinesper100inhabitants),thenumberofixed
telephonelinesissummed,asisthenumberofinhabitants.ThevalueoftheindicatorA1iscalculatedastheratio:
totalnumberofixedtelephonelinestototalnumberofinhabitantsdividedby100.
5
Intheory,A10-12couldbeaggregatedfromcomponentdata,however,theyhavenotbeenbecauseoflackof
data.
6
Anoteonthepresentationofvaluesintablesofthischapter:theterm‘na’meansnotavailable,thatis,thereare
insuficientdatatoproduceameaningfulresultornodataareavailable.Allvalueswhicharelessthan1havebeen
shownto1decimalplace.
7
Latest year availableisgenerally2005or2006.SeeAnnex1fordetails.
8
Thiscategoryconsistsofonecountryonly.
9
Latest year availableisgenerally2005or2006withtheexceptionofindicatorsA11andA12,wheredatawere
generallyolder.SeeAnnex1fordetails.
10
NorthernAmericaisasmallregionconsistingofonlyiveeconomies,thereforemedianvaluesmaynotbe
meaningful.Forcomparativepurposes,dataforUSAareshownseparately.
11
2006dataorlatestyearavailable.Datafor1995arenotavailableforallindicators.
12
TheonlyexceptionisfortheLatinAmericaandtheCaribbeanregionwhichconsistsofonlyonecountry.
31
Chapter 3. Access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals
67.Thedatapresentedinthischapterarebased
onthecoreICTindicatorsonaccessto,and
useof,ICTbyhouseholdsandindividuals
(HH1-HH13).TheseareshowninTable6
belowandaredeinedinAnnex3.
68.Statisticsonhousehold/individualICT
accessandusearetypicallycollected
byNSOsthroughhouseholdsurveys.
Thesemaybesurveysthatarededicated
tomeasuringICTaccessanduse,or
surveyssuchaslabourforceor‘omnibus’
(‘generalpurpose’)surveyswhereICT
isoneofseveraltopics.Mostdeveloped
economieshavebeencollectingthese
statisticsinareasonablycoordinated
fashionforanumberofyears,using
modelquestionnairesrecommendedby
theOECDandEurostat.Othereconomies
arestartingtocollecttheseindicators
usingthecoreindicatorsmethodological
recommendations(
Partnership,2005c)
and/orthoseoftheOECD(2007a)and
Eurostat(2006and2007a).Among
developingeconomies,theLatinAmerican
andCaribbeancountrieshaverecentlybeen
veryactiveinthecollectionofhousehold
ICTindicators(seeBox2).
69.TheOECDandEurostathavebeen
collectingandpublishinghousehold/
individualICTaccessandusestatistics
fromtheirmembercountriessince2002.
Morerecently,ITUhasstartedtocollect
thesestatisticsfromdevelopingeconomies
andcompilestatisticsforalleconomies.
70.Statisticalstandardsforhousehold/
individualICTaccessanduseindicators
havebeendevelopedprimarilybythe
OECDandEurostat.AswesawinChapter
1,the
Partnershiphasplayedanimportant
roleinextendingthesestandardsto
developingeconomies,viathecorelist
ofICTindicators.Severalinternational
organizationsareproactiveinpromoting
householdstatisticalstandardsand
methodologiesmoregenerally.TheUN
StatisticsDivisionplaysamajorrolein
developingandpromulgatingstandards,
whiletheInternationalHouseholdSurvey
Network(IHSN)fosterstheimprovement
oftheavailability,accessibilityandquality
ofhouseholdsurveydataindeveloping
economies,andencouragestheiruseby
decision-makersandothers.
1
71.Thischapterpresentsdataandmetadata
collectedbyITU,supplementedby
informationfromEurostat,national
statisticalsourcesandtheOECD.
Chapter 3. Access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals
1. Introduction
32
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Table 6. Core indicators on access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals
Basic core indicators
HH1Proportionofhouseholdswitharadio
HH2ProportionofhouseholdswithaTV
HH3Proportionofhouseholdswithaixedlinetelephone
HH4Proportionofhouseholdswithamobilecellulartelephone
HH5Proportionofhouseholdswithacomputer
HH6Proportionofindividualswhousedacomputer(fromanylocation)inthelast12months
HH7ProportionofhouseholdswithInternetaccessathome
HH8ProportionofindividualswhousedtheInternet(fromanylocation)inthelast12months
HH9LocationofindividualuseoftheInternetinthelast12months
Athome
Atwork
Placeofeducation
Atanotherperson’shome
CommunityInternetaccessfacility
CommercialInternetaccessfacility
Others
HH10Internetactivitiesundertakenbyindividualsinthelast12months
Gettinginformation:
Aboutgoodsorservices
Relatedtohealthorhealthservices
Fromgovernmentorganizations/publicauthoritiesviawebsitesoremail
Otherinformationorgeneralwebbrowsing
Communicating
Purchasingororderinggoodsorservices
Internetbanking
Educationorlearningactivities
Dealing(interacting)withgovernmentorganizations/publicauthorities
Leisureactivities
Playing/downloadingvideoorcomputergames
Downloadingmovies,musicorsoftware
Reading/downloadingelectronicbooks,newspapersormagazines
Otherleisureactivities
Extended core indicators
HH11Proportionofindividualswithuseofamobiletelephone
HH12ProportionofhouseholdswithaccesstotheInternetbytypeofaccess
Narrowbandaccess
Broadbandaccess
SeeAnnex3fordetailedcategories.
HH13FrequencyofindividualaccesstotheInternetinthelast12months(fromanylocation)
Atleastonceaday
Atleastonceaweekbutnoteveryday
Atleastonceamonthbutnoteveryweek
Lessthanonceamonth
HHR1Proportionofhouseholdswithelectricity
2
Source: Core ICT Indicators (
Partnership
, 2005c).
33
Chapter 3. Access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals
72.Table7showsthatsomeofthecore
indicatorsonhousehold/individualICT
accessandusearereasonablywidely
available,especiallyfordeveloped
economies.However,thereremain
questionsofdatacomparability,including
variableagescope(forindividuals)and
variationsinquestionsasked(forinstance,
howlocationsandactivitiesaredeined).In
addition,mostcountriesdonothavegood
timeseriesofICTaccessandusedataand
muchoftheavailabledataareout-of-date
andthereforelessusefulgiventhepaceof
changeinadoptionofmanytechnologies
(thisisespeciallytrueofdevelopingand
leastdevelopedeconomies;seeAnnex1for
moreinformationonthecurrencyofdata).
73.Someoftheaccessindicatorsarenot
widelyavailable,includingthosefor
accesstoaradio(HH1)andthereference
indicator,accesstoelectricity(HR1).
TheindividualICTuseindicatorsare
generallylesswidelyavailablethanthose
forhouseholdICTaccess.Inparticular,
themorecomplexindicatorsonlocation
andfrequencyofInternetuseandthe
natureofInternetactivities(HH9,HH10
andHH13)arecollectedbyrelativelyfew
countries,withtheexceptionofdeveloped
economies.
3
74.Notsurprisingly,Europeancountrieshave
themostcomparableandavailabledata,
whilethewidermembershipoftheOECD
hasareasonablesetofstatistics,although
theyarelesscomparablethanEurostat
data.
4
Amongstdevelopingeconomies,a
numberofLatinAmericaandCaribbean
economieshavequitecomprehensiveand
recentdatasets,althoughdifferencesinage
scopestillexist(seeBox2).
2. Measurement status
34
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Box 2. Measurement initiatives in the Latin America and the Caribbean region
Table 7. Summary of global measurement status by level of development:
5
access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals
6
IndicatorDevelopedTransitionDevelopingLeastdevelopedTotalnumber
economieseconomieseconomieseconomieseconomieswith
eachindicator
Proportionofeconomieswitheachindicator
HH114%21%26%34%59
HH261%42%33%32%94
HH363%37%36%32%97
HH465%26%31%2%75
HH576%47%41%20%105
HH663%26%14%0%53
HH769%37%33%6%83
HH865%26%23%4%66
HH961%26%18%0%56
HH1063%26%17%0%55
HH1157%21%17%0%52
HH1259%26%8%0%43
HH1361%26%11%0%47
HR114%16%19%6%36
Totaleconomies491912050238
Source: ITU and Eurostat (see Annex 1 for more detail).
Inrespectofhouseholdaccessstatistics,most
countriesoftheregionhavebeenaskingquestions
onICTaccessforsomeyears.Themaingoodsand
servicesaboutwhichinformationiscollectedare
radio,television,ixedtelephoneand,morerecently,
theownershipofacomputer,mobiletelephoneand
accesstotheInternet.Between2005and2006,a
smallgroupofLACcountriesaddedamoduleofICT
usequestionstohouseholdsurveys.By2006,about
halfofthecountriesoftheregion,includingmostof
thelargerones,collectedinformationonhousehold
accesstotheInternetandabout15countriescollected
allorsomeoftheICTindicatorsonhouseholdaccess
anduserecommendedbythe
Partnership.Avariety
ofsurveytypesisusedtocollectthesestatistics,
includingmultipurposehouseholdsurveys,life
conditionssurveysandstand-aloneICTsurveys.Most
countriescollectthecoreaccessindicatorsannually,
withthecoreuseindicatorscollectedlessfrequently
forsomecountries.
Source: Olaya (2007).
35
Chapter 3. Access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals
3.1 Household access to ICT 75.Table8belowshowshouseholdICTaccess
dataclassiiedbylevelofdevelopment.
Forthe25EuropeanUnioncountries
comprising‘EU25’,
7
dataareshownas
asingleaggregate.Othercountriesare
shownindividually.
76.Despitesomedatacomparabilityissues
(asoutlinedabove),ageneralpicture
emergesofreasonablyhighaccessto
newertechnologiesamongsthouseholdsof
developedeconomiesandlowerlevelsin
othereconomies.
77.Indevelopedeconomies(andmany
developingandtransitioneconomies),
mosthouseholdshaveaccesstoolder
technologies,suchasTV(HH2)and
ixedphone(HH3).
8
Inmostdeveloped
economies,overhalfofallhouseholdshave
accesstothenewertechnologies–mobile
phones(HH4),computers(HH5)andthe
Internet(HH7).Accesstocomputersand
theInternetinothereconomiesisgenerally
lowbutappearstobeincreasing(seecharts
3and4below).Withveryfewexceptions,
inleastdevelopedeconomies,thereisalow
levelofaccesstoalltechnologies,except
forradios.
78.Theproportionofhouseholdswiththe
Internetcanbefurthersplittoshowthetype
ofInternetaccessservicesused(HH12).
Table9showsHH12forasmallnumber
ofcountries,plusEU25.Eventhoughdata
arenotwidelyavailable,thebroadpattern
appearstobethatdevelopedeconomies
haveahigherlevelofhouseholdbroadband
accesscomparedtoeconomiesatother
levelsofdevelopment.Exceptionsaresome
ofthewealthierAsianeconomies,which
haveveryhighlevelsofbroadbandaccess.
3. Statistical summary
36
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Table 8. Household ICT access core indicators, proportion of households,
latest year available
9
LevelofEconomy
11
HH1HH2HH3HH4HH5HH7HR1
development
(radio)(TV)(ixed(mobile(computer)(Internet)(electri-
andregion
10
phone)phone)city)
Developed economies
AsiaJapan99%91%90%81%61%
EuropeCroatia50%94%88%28%99%
EuropeIceland93%94%98%89%84%
EuropeMonaco96%93%81%56%32%100%
EuropeNorway95%67%95%82%78%
EuropeSanMarino83%
EuropeSwitzerland71%77%
EuropeEU25
7
97%82%87%66%56%
N.AmericaBermuda73%96%91%74%66%57%100%
N.AmericaCanada99%99%64%72%64%
N.AmericaUnitedStates99%62%55%100%
OceaniaAustralia73%64%
OceaniaNewZealand98%93%86%72%65%95%
Transition economies
AsiaArmenia93%72%5%4%2%99%
AsiaAzerbaijan99%69%26%9%0%100%
AsiaGeorgia19%89%33%2%100%
EuropeBelarus93%81%16%9%100%
EuropeBulgaria98%73%64%23%19%
EuropeRep.Moldova82%55%2%
EuropeRomania97%52%58%34%22%
EuropeSerbia34%26%
EuropeTFYRMacedonia39%99%84%71%25%14%
Developing economies
AfricaBotswana70%22%6%1%
AfricaCameroon63%23%2%22%1%
AfricaCongo57%25%1%
AfricaEgypt85%93%56%14%
AfricaGhana71%26%7%5%
AfricaKenya74%19%13%
AfricaMauritius96%77%69%24%17%99%
AfricaMorocco79%77%18%59%13%4%
AfricaNigeria77%25%6%
AfricaRéunion55%39%
AfricaSaintHelena25%
AfricaSeychelles92%12%
AfricaSouthAfrica81%59%55%50%80%
AfricaTunisia36%
AfricaZimbabwe24%
AsiaCyprus
12
100%92%91%53%39%
AsiaHongKongSARChina72%67%
AsiaIndia33%45%1%0%
AsiaIndonesia70%65%14%3%91%
AsiaIran,IslamicRepublicof26%
AsiaIsrael93%87%84%59%41%
AsiaLebanon97%37%43%24%100%
AsiaMacaoSARChina56%32%100%
AsiaMalaysia28%
AsiaMongolia25%86%20%28%6%9%86%
AsiaOcc.PalestinianTerr.93%8%30%26%9%
37
Chapter 3. Access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals
LevelofEconomy
11
HH1HH2HH3HH4HH5HH7HR1
development
(radio)(TV)(ixed(mobile(computer)(Internet)(electri-
andregion
10
phone)phone)city)
AsiaOman69%84%44%72%24%14%98%
AsiaPhilippines71%63%12%36%7%77%
AsiaRepublicofKorea
13
79%94%
AsiaSingapore99%78%71%
AsiaSriLanka4%1%
AsiaTaiwan,China100%98%65%87%
AsiaThailand27%16%6%99%
AsiaTurkey98%73%12%9%
AsiaVietNam56%87%
LACBolivia67%63%19%39%12%4%67%
LACBrazil
14
88%91%48%59%19%14%97%
LACChile27%47%84%33%19%
LACColombia71%85%56%8%
LACCostaRica85%91%65%50%27%10%97%
LACCuba38%88%17%1%2%0%100%
LACDominicanRepublic62%76%26%44%9%3%95%
LACEcuador73%87%36%64%18%3%96%
LACElSalvador58%78%41%35%7%2%
LACFalklandIslands72%
LACHonduras65%64%30%41%8%2%70%
LACMartinique50%26%
LACMexico88%93%49%47%21%10%
LACPanama80%83%40%64%16%8%88%
LACParaguay80%82%17%64%6%3%97%
LACPeru84%69%28%28%10%5%77%
LACSuriname46%23%96%
LACTrinidadandTobago60%31%17%
LACUruguay94%91%70%49%24%14%
LACVenezuela83%91%34%25%10%2%99%
OceaniaFrenchPolynesia45%
OceaniaNewCaledonia43%44%
OceaniaN.MarianaIslands79%71%40%31%
Least developed economies
AfricaBurkinaFaso63%12%4%3%
AfricaChad37%3%1%
AfricaEritrea0%
AfricaEthiopia34%5%4%0%
AfricaGuinea64%11%6%
AfricaLesotho54%13%18%
AfricaMadagascar59%18%5%9%1%
AfricaMalawi62%5%5%
AfricaMozambique53%9%2%
AfricaRwanda46%2%1%
AfricaSenegal87%40%16%
AfricaSudan39%16%16%
AfricaUganda6%
AfricaU.Rep.ofTanzania58%6%9%11%
AsiaBangladesh30%23%5%41%
AsiaBhutan77%58%5%0%
AsiaLaoPeople’sDem.Rep.0%
AsiaMaldives72%85%67%83%28%8%
AsiaNepal6%37%
Source: ITU, UNECLAC and Eurostat (30 November 2007).
38
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Table 9. Households with access to Internet, by type of access,
15
proportion
of households with Internet access, latest year available
9
LevelofEconomy
11
Dial-upISDNDSLCableOther
developmentmodemmodemmodesof
andregion
10
access
Developed economies
AsiaJapan16%19%34%16%15%
EuropeIceland7%89%
EuropeNorway22%77%
EuropeEU25
7
25%61%
OceaniaAustralia
16
31%54%14%9%
OceaniaNewZealand48%36%9%9%
Transition economies
AsiaAzerbaijan41%1%1%1%56%
EuropeBulgaria17%16%
EuropeRomania62%6%
EuropeSerbia75%12%
EuropeTFYRMacedonia76%5%4%31%
Developing economies
AfricaMauritius76%3%17%0%4%
AsiaChina25%58%17%
AsiaOcc.PalestinianTerr.69%1%15%16%
AsiaRepublicofKorea3%1%82%22%23%
AsiaTaiwan,China4%80%6%5%
AsiaThailand
17
26%53%21%
LACBrazil63%43%
LACCostaRica61%3%20%16%1%
Source: ITU and Eurostat (30 November 2007).
79.Thereareseveralexamplesoftimeseries
dataforhouseholdICTstatistics.Chart2
belowshowstime-seriesdataforEurostat
countries(representedbytheEU15
aggregateinordertoshowalongerseries
ofobservations)inrespectofhousehold
accesstotheInternet.Itshowsasteadyrise
inInternetaccessfrom2002to2007.The
methodusedtoaccesstheInternetinthe
threeyears,2005to2007,showsarapidrise
inbroadbandaccess,withacorresponding
dropindial-upandISDNaccess.
39
Chapter 3. Access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals
80.Charts3and4belowshowaselectionof
timeseriesdataforhouseholdcomputerand
Internetaccess.Eventhoughthedataare
notnecessarilycomparable,theyallshow
thesamerisingtrendoverrecentyears.
Forsomeeconomies,thelevelofaccess
tocomputersisstabilizing,presumably
relectingthefactthatmosthouseholds
withaninterestincomputershadaccessby
2006.Asat2006,thesamegeneraltrend
wasnotevidentfortheInternet,wherethe
accesslevelwasstillincreasingformost
economies.
Chart 2. Change in household means of accessing the Internet, EU15,
proportion of all households
18
Source: Eurostat, 30 November 2007.
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Household Internet access by
type,
dial-up and ISDN
Household Internet access
by type,
broadband
Proportion of households with
Internet access at hom
e
40
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Chart 3: Change in household level of access to a computer, selected countries
Source: ITU.
Chart 4. Change in household level of access to the Internet, selected countries
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
2000
2001
2002
2003
200
4 2
00
5 2
00
6
0%
H
ong K
ong SAR
Ch
in
a
Ro
m
ani
a
Un
it
ed Ki
ngdom
Cy
prus
Sw
eden
Br
az
il
R
epub
lic
of
Ko
re
a
Co
st
a Ri
ca
Me
xi
co
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100
%
2000
2001
2002
2003
200
4 2
00
5 2
00
6
0%
Austria
Denmark
Hungary
Portugal
Switzerlan
d
Republic of Kore
a
Peru
Singapor
e
Me
xi
co
Source: ITU.
41
Chapter 3. Access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals
3.2 Individual use of ICT
81.Table10showsindividualdataforuseof
computers,theInternetandmobilephones.
Aswiththehouseholdaccessindicators,
forthe25EuropeanUnioncountries
comprising‘EU25’,dataareshownasa
singleaggregate.
82.Despitesomedataavailabilityand
comparabilityissues(describedunder
Measurement statusabove),ageneral
pictureemergesofhighcomputerand
Internetusebyindividualsindeveloped
economiesandsomedeveloping
economies(particularly,thewealthier
Asianeconomies).Levelsofuseare
considerablylowerforthetransitionand
mostdevelopingeconomies,includingthe
twoleastdevelopedeconomiesforwhich
dataareavailable.
83.Mobilephoneuseisgenerallyhigher
thancomputerorInternetuse,withthe
differenceinthepenetrationrateoften
greaterindevelopingeconomies.
Table 10. Individual use of computers, the Internet and mobile phones,
19
latest year available
9
LevelofEconomy
11
HH6.ProportionHH8.ProportionHH11.Proportion
developmentofindividualswhoofindividualswhoofindividualswith
andregion
10
usedacomputer
20
usedtheInternet
20
useofamobile
phone
Developed economies
AsiaJapan56%68%71%
EuropeIceland92%91%97%
EuropeNorway91%87%97%
EuropeSwitzerland64%
EuropeEU25
7
68%62%85%
N.AmericaBermuda89%80%45%
N.AmericaCanada72%
N.AmericaUnitedStates72%68%
OceaniaAustralia69%
OceaniaNewZealand74%69%80%
Transition economies
AsiaAzerbaijan17%10%
EuropeBulgaria37%34%70%
EuropeRomania38%28%67%
EuropeSerbia44%33%77%
EuropeTFYRMacedonia38%29%63%
Developing economies
AfricaBotswana4%25%
AfricaMauritius30%17%
AfricaMorocco64%46%89%
AsiaChina12%
AsiaCyprus
12
49%41%91%
AsiaHongKongSARChina63%61%86%
AsiaIsrael52%42%81%
AsiaMacaoSARChina54%46%
AsiaMalaysia50%
AsiaOcc.PalestinianTerr.87%36%74%
AsiaOman11%6%55%
42
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
84.Table11belowshowswhereindividualsuse
theInternet.Notsurprisingly,homeisthe
majorlocationofaccessformostcountries.
Indevelopedeconomies,theuseofpublic
andeducationalfacilitiesisrelativelylow
infavourofuseathomeandwork.In
manydevelopingeconomies,workand/or
commercialInternetaccessfacilitieswere
commonlocationsofInternetuse.Useof
communityInternetaccessfacilitieswas
relativelylowformosteconomies.However,
thisindingmaynotbegeneralizabletothe
poorerdevelopingeconomiesandtheleast
developedeconomiesthatdonotcollect
thisinformation.
LevelofEconomy
11
HH6.ProportionHH8.ProportionHH11.Proportion
developmentofindividualswhoofindividualswhoofindividualswith
andregion
10
usedacomputer
23
usedtheInternet
20
useofamobile
phone
AsiaRepublicofKorea79%80%80%
AsiaSingapore64%60%47%
AsiaTaiwan,China
21
64%
AsiaThailand26%14%41%
AsiaTurkey
22
20%15%
LACBrazil21%37%
LACChile43%37%54%
LACCostaRica22%33%
LACCuba57%24%1%
LACDominicanRepublic28%16%57%
LACEcuador7%38%
LACHonduras15%22%
LACMexico31%20%40%
LACPanama
24
22%44%
LACParaguay8%
LACPeru12%
LACTrinidadandTobago33%27%60%
LACUruguay29%
Least developed economies
AsiaAfghanistan21%
AsiaBhutan10%
Source: ITU, UNECLAC, national statistical sources and Eurostat (30 November 2007).
43
Chapter 3. Access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals
Table 11. Location
25
of Internet use by individuals,
19
proportion of Internet users,
latest year available
9
LevelofEconomy
11
AgeHomeWorkPlaceAnotherCommu-Commer-Other
developmentofedu-person’snitycialplaces
andregion
10
cationhomeInternetInternet
accessaccess
facilityfacility
Developed economies
AsiaJapan6+83%34%12%4%5%
EuropeIceland16-7493%63%30%48%30%
EuropeNorway16-7492%56%15%18%13%
EuropeEU25
7
16-7482%43%13%22%12%
N.AmericaCanada18+61%26%12%10%20%
N.AmericaUnitedStates3+80%36%23%
OceaniaAustralia15+88%45%23%38%
OceaniaNewZealand15+88%36%16%24%9%11%0%
Transition economies
AsiaAzerbaijan15+69%38%17%11%1%44%11%
EuropeBulgaria16-7471%38%12%6%16%
EuropeRomania16-7467%34%21%12%9%
EuropeSerbia16-7476%32%13%18%6%
EuropeTFYRMacedonia15-7432%17%19%9%54%
Developing economies
AfricaMorocco12-6528%7%3%3%1%71%
AfricaMauritius12+73%28%23%2%2%9%0%
AsiaChina6+76%33%13%32%1%
AsiaCyprus
12
16-7470%51%16%15%9%
AsiaHongKongSARChina10+91%42%14%2%1%4%
AsiaMacaoSARChina3+86%26%12%8%
AsiaRepublicofKorea5+95%32%17%7%4%21%17%
AsiaSingapore10+82%50%25%13%6%5%
AsiaTaiwan,China12+93%36%19%8%5%16%4%
AsiaThailand6+33%28%46%17%2%
LACBrazil10+50%40%26%31%10%22%
LACChile5+40%19%35%2%28%5%
LACCostaRica5+32%27%20%5%0%46%1%
LACDominicanRepublic12+20%32%34%28%8%41%2%
LACHonduras15+10%11%7%0%81%1%
LACMexico6+34%24%16%2%1%42%
LACParaguay10+21%25%15%2%51%1%
LACUruguay6+41%26%14%11%3%52%
Source: ITU, UNECLAC, national statistical sources and Eurostat (30 November 2007).
44
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Table 12. Frequency of Internet use by individuals,
19
proportion of Internet users,
latest year available
LevelofEconomy
11
AgeAtleastAtleastAtleastLessthan
developmentonceaonceaonceaoncea
andregion
10
dayweekbutmonthbutmonth
noteverynotevery
dayweek
Developed economies
EuropeIceland16-7482%14%3%1%
EuropeNorway16-7477%17%4%1%
EuropeEU25
7
16-7467%23%8%3%
N.AmericaCanada18+64%26%5%2%
OceaniaAustralia
26
15+50%41%8%1%
OceaniaNewZealand15+58%30%6%5%
Transition economies
AsiaAzerbaijan15+41%51%5%3%
EuropeBulgaria16-7464%28%6%2%
EuropeRomania16-7449%41%9%1%
EuropeSerbia16-7450%37%8%4%
EuropeTFYRMacedonia15-7444%40%13%3%
Developing economies
AfricaMorocco12-6555%34%8%3%
AfricaMauritius12+33%47%15%5%
AsiaHongKongSARChina10+72%19%5%4%
AsiaOcc.PalestinianTerr.10+49%40%10%0%
AsiaRepublicofKorea5+71%21%2%5%
AsiaSingapore10+70%22%8%
AsiaThailand6+23%60%17%1%
LACBrazil10+36%47%12%3%
LACCostaRica5+34%38%24%5%
LACMexico6+20%68%10%2%
LACUruguay6+37%48%12%3%
Source: ITU, UNECLAC, national statistical sources and Eurostat (30 November 2007).
86.Table13belowshowsthetypesofInternet
activitiesundertakenbyindividuals.
Unsurprisingly,inmostcountries,alarge
proportionofInternetusersuseitfor
communicating.UseoftheInternetfor
gettinginformationisalsoimportant,
particularlyobtaininginformationabout
goodsandservicesandinformationfrom
government.Theresidual‘other’category
mayincludegeneralwebbrowsing
85.Table12showsavailabledataonthe
frequencyofInternetusebyindividuals.It
appearsthatInternetusers,whatevercountry
theyarefrom,tendtousetheInternet
frequently(atleastonceaweek).However,
thisindingmaynotbegeneralizabletothe
poorerdevelopingeconomiesandtheleast
developedeconomiesthatdonotcollect
thisinformation.
45
Chapter 3. Access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals
Table 13. Internet activities
27
undertaken by individuals,
19
proportion of Internet users, latest year available
9
Gettinginformation
LevelofEconomy
11
AgeAboutRelatedFromOtherCommu-PurchasingInternetEducationDealingLeisure
developmentgoodstohealth/govern-nicationororderingbankingorlearningwithactivities
andregion
10
andhealthmentgoodsoractivitiesgovernment
servicesservicesservices
Developed economies
AsiaJapan6+67%69%41%10%2%5%
EuropeIceland16-7487%49%60%92%36%80%
EuropeNorway16-7489%43%65%91%56%83%
EuropeEU25
7,28
16-7482%42%48%87%41%45%16%31%
N.AmericaBermuda16-6571%56%13%92%42%24%31%
N.AmericaCanada18+35%51%56%35%26%
N.AmericaUnitedStates3+69%35%30%82%45%23%25%
OceaniaAustralia15+61%53%
OceaniaNewZealand15+65%28%56%84%91%41%11%54%31%
Transition economies
AsiaAzerbaijan15+10%8%5%78%38%1%8%2%
EuropeBulgaria16-7456%16%14%90%6%5%
EuropeRomania16-7451%26%16%87%6%7%
EuropeSerbia16-7465%16%12%80%4%14%
EuropeTFYRMacedonia15-7443%12%46%83%4%1%22%19%
Developing economies
AfricaMorocco12-657%1%5%
AfricaMauritius
26
12+68%3%9%27%
AsiaChina6+56%24%
AsiaHongKongSARChina10+15%14%42%84%85%30%17%11%76%
AsiaMacaoSARChina3+40%
AsiaOcc.PalestinianTerr.10+1%46%9%0%1%19%0%23%
AsiaRepublicofKorea6+85%50%47%86%
AsiaSingapore15+84%27%33%30%36%56%
LACBrazil
29
10+69%14%19%72%27%
LACChile5+59%6%6%12%9%53%
LACCostaRica5+70%8%19%59%45%
LACCuba5-652%16%10%10%39%3%
LACDominicanRepublic12+31%21%58%8%13%70%11%
LACHonduras15+34%2%18%
LACMexico6+8%10%6%42%49%4%2%35%5%20%
LACParaguay10+65%1%22%21%
LACUruguay6+80%4%4%12%42%
Source: ITU, UNECLAC, national statistical sources and Eurostat (30 November 2007).
46
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
70%
80%
90%
100%
110%
Ne
w Z
eal
and
101%
103%
Au
st
ra
li
a
86%
89%
92%
95%
100%
99%
Ko
re
a
74%
77%
80%
81%
84%
85%
89%
89
%
Ja
pa
n
77%
82%
87%
85%
88%
89%
EU
15
85%
86%
87%
87%
89
%
Sw
it
ze
rl
and
75%
78%
82%
84%
84%
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
200
7
forsomecountries(whichprobably
explainsitsrelativelyhighvalueforsome
countries).UseoftheInternetforeducation
orlearningactivities,Internetbanking
andpurchasinggoodsorservicestends
tobehigheramongusersindeveloped
economies(withsomenotableexceptions
indevelopingeconomiessuchasthe
RepublicofKorea,Singaporeandsome
LatinAmericancountries).Itispossible
thatthecategorydescriptionsforInternet
activitiesvarymorebetweencountries
thanforothercategoriespresentedinthis
chapter.Therefore,itisquitelikelythatthe
dataarenotparticularlycomparableacross
countries.
87.MostOECDcountriesareableto
disaggregateInternetusedatabyindividual
characteristics,includingage,levelof
educationandgender.Themainindings,
whichholdwellovertimeandacross
OECDcountries,areasfollows:
•Youngerpeoplearemuchmorelikely
tobeInternetusers(thehighestrates
areforthoseinthe16-24agegroup).
Olderpeoplearemuchlesslikelytouse
theInternet,withratesofusedropping
offsharplyfortheoldestgroup(those
over75);
•Peoplewithtertiaryqualiicationsare
morelikelytobeInternetusers;and
•Ofparticularinteresttopolicymakers
aredifferencesinInternetusebygender.
AsChart5shows,formostOECD
countries,malesareslightlymore
likelytobeInternetusersthanfemales
(withafemaletomaleuserratioofless
than100percent).Thegendergaphas
closedsigniicantlysince2000formost
OECDcountries,withthegeneraltrend
beingtowardsincreasingfemale-to-
maleratiosamongInternetusers.
30
Chart 5. Gender gap: ratio of female to male Internet users, OECD countries, 2000–2007
31
Source: OECD, data collection for 2007 Scoreboard
publication.
47
Chapter 3. Access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Fr
equenc
y of
i
ndi
vi
dual
ac
ce
ss to
t
he In
te
r
net
in
th
e la
st 3 mo
nt
hs
(f
ro
m an
y lo
ca
ti
on),
at
le
as
t
onc
e a da
y (HH13)
In
te
rnet
ac
ti
vi
ti
es
under
ta
k
en by
in
di
vi
d
ual
s in
t
he la
st 3 mo
nt
hs
, In
te
r
net
ban
ki
ng (HH10)
In
te
r
net
ac
ti
vi
ti
es
undert
ak
en by
in
di
vi
dual
s
in
th
e la
st 3 m
ont
hs
, purc
ha
si
ng or
orderi
ng goods
or
se
rv
ic
es
(
HH1
0)
Pr
opor
ti
on of
in
di
vi
dual
s wh
o us
ed th
e In
te
rnet
(f
ro
m any
lo
ca
ti
on) in
th
e la
st 12
mo
nt
hs
(HH8
)
3.3 Regional analysis
89.Regionaldataareshowninthetablesabove.
Theyshowaclearhierarchyregarding
accessto,anduseofICT,byregion.In
general,Africahasthelowestlevelof
householdaccessandindividualuseofICT,
andEuropeandNorthernAmericahave
thehighest.Amongindividualcountries,
somedevelopingeconomieshaveavery
highlevelofaccesstomobilephones,
computersand/ortheInternet.Theyinclude
theRepublicofKorea,where94percent
ofhouseholdshaveInternetaccess,and
HongKong(SARChina),Singaporeand
Taiwan(China),whereovertwothirdsof
householdshaveInternetaccess.
90.Box2highlightsmeasurementinitiativesin
theLatinAmericaandCaribbeanregion.
Chart 6. Change in individual use of ICT for selected indicators, EU15,
proportion of all individuals
32
Source: Eurostat, 30 November 2007.
88.Goodtimeseriesdataareavailablefrom
Eurostatforanumberoftheindividualuse
indicators.Chart6belowshowsselected
dataseriescoveringtheperiodforwhich
EurostathasbeencollectingICTusedata.
TheseriesshowgrowthinInternetuse,
withmorefrequent(daily)usegrowing
morequicklythantotaluse.Theselected
activities,Internetbankingandpurchasing
overtheInternet,arealsogrowing
steadily.
48
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Notes
1
TheIHSNisapartnershipofinternationalorganizationsandhas18members,includingITU,Paris21,UNSD,
UNICEFandtheUNDP.Formoreinformationsee:www.surveynetwork.org.
2
ElectricityisnotanICTcommodity,butisanimportantprerequisiteforusingmanyICTs.Itisthereforeincluded
inthecorelistasareferenceindicator.
3
Whilstdevelopedeconomiesscorewellonmostofthehouseholdindicators,thatisalmostentirelyduetothe
Europeancountries,whichcollectthedataaspartofEurostat’scoordinateddatacollectionofICTaccessanduse
statistics.
4
Eurostat,thestatisticaloficeoftheEuropeanCommunities,alsocollectsdatafromasmallnumberofnonEU
countries,includingNorway,Icelandandcandidatecountries.DataforthosecountriesarenotincludedinEU
aggregates.
5
Annex1showstheeconomieswhichareincludedineach‘levelofdevelopment’and‘region’category.The
classiicationisbasedontheUNStatisticalDivision’s
Standard country or area codes for statistical use,seehttp://
unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49.htm.TheclassiicationwasrevisedinJanuary2008andisnowslightly
differentfromtheversionusedtopresentdataforthispublication.ThedifferencesaredetailedinAnnex1.
6
Anindicatorwasconsideredtobe
availableifITUorEurostatreceivedcompleteorpartialdataforit(including
zerovalues)fortheyear2002orlater.ThetotaleconomycountincludescountriesfromwhichITUdoesnotcollect
data.SeeAnnex1fordetails.
7
Thereare27countriesintheEuropeanUnionbuttwo(RomaniaandBulgaria)areclassiiedastransitioneconomies
forthepurposesofthispublication.TheaggregatechosenfordisplayisthereforeEU25,representingtheremaining
25EUcountries.NotethatCyprusisincludedintheEU25aggregationbutisclassiiedinthispublicationasa
developingeconomy.Itsdataarethereforealsoshownwiththoseofotherdevelopingeconomies.EU25dataare
thelatestavailable(2006or2007,butmainlythelatter)andwereextractedfromEurostat’sdatabase,version30
November2007.ThescopeofEurostatdatapresentedinthispublicationisallhouseholdsandallindividualsaged
16-74.
8
DataforHH1(accesstoradio)arenotwidelyavailablefordevelopedeconomies.
9
Latest year availableisgenerally2005or2006(exceptforEuropeanUnioncountries,where2007datahave
beenusedformostindicators).SeeAnnex1fordetailsofdataavailability.Datafrom2002orearlierhavebeen
excluded,exceptforasmallnumberofcaseswhereolderdataindicateasaturationlevel(97%orhigherlevelof
access).Inthiscase,theigurehasbeenincludedinthetableeventhoughitdatesfrom2002orearlier.Indicators
affectedareHH1,HH2,HH3andHR1.
10
Someregionnameshavebeenabbreviatedtosavespace.FullnamescanbefoundinAnnex1.
11
Someeconomynameshavebeenabbreviatedtosavespace.FullnamescanbefoundinAnnex1.
12
CyprusisalsoincludedintheEU25aggregate.
13
RepublicofKorea.HomeInternetaccessincludesmobiletelephoneaccess.
14
Brazil.HouseholdswithInternetaccessathomebycomputer.
15
Multipleaccessservicesarepossible(forinstance,ifahouseholdhasbothdial-upandcablemodemaccess,they
wouldreportboth).
16
‘Othermodesofaccess’includesbroadbandhouseholdswhodonotknowwhatkindofconnectiontheyhave.
17
‘Othermodesofaccess’areinrespectofthosehouseholdswhoarenotsurewhatkindofconnectiontheyhave.
The‘DSLandCablemodem’igureof53%referstobroadbandaccess.
18
ThenumberofcountriesincludedinEU15is14or15,exceptforInternetaccessintheyears2002to2004,where
11-13countrieswereincludedintheaggregate.
19
Referenceperiodsforindividualuseindicatorsarethelast12months.However,somecountriesuseadifferent
referenceperiod,commonlythreemonths.EurostatdataoncomputerandInternetuse(HH6andHH8)referto12
months,whiletheirdataonlocationofuse,activitiesandfrequencyrefertothelastthreemonths.
49
Chapter 3. Access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals
20
Theindicatorreferstousefromanylocationinthelast12months.Theagescopeofsurveysisvariable.Information
ontheagerangeformostcountriescanbefoundinthefollowingtablesorasafootnotetothistable.
21
Taiwan,China.Individualsaged12+.
22
Turkey.Individualsaged16+.
23
Theindicatorreferstousefromanylocationinthelast12months.Theagescopeofsurveysisvariable.Information
ontheagerangeformostcountriescanbefoundinthefollowingtablesorasafootnotetothistable.
24
Panama.Individualsaged15+.
25
Notethatrespondentscouldreportuseatmultiplelocations.
26
Referstouseathome.
27
Notethatrespondentscouldreportmultipleactivities.
28
Fordealingwithgovernmentorganizations/publicauthorities–theEurostatvariablereferstodownloadingoficial
forms.
29
Communicationreferstosendingandreceivingemail.
30
Itispossiblethatdemographicdifferencesbetweenthegendersaccountforasmallpartofthe‘gendergap’.In
particular,inOECDcountries,therearemorewomenthanmeninolderagegroups,andolderpeoplearelesslikely
tousetheInternet.
31
Thereareagescopedifferencesbetweencountries.However,thescopeisusuallythesameforagivencountryfor
differentyears.TheexceptionisAustraliawheretheagescopehaschangedslightlybetweenyears.
32
ThenumberofcountriesincludedinEU15rangesfrom11to15,withgenerallylowernumbersofcountriesinthe
earlieryears.
51
Chapter 4. Use of ICT by businesses
91.Thedatapresentedinthischapterarebased
onthecoreindicatorsonbusinessuseof
ICT.TheseareshowninTable14below
andaredeinedinAnnex4.Statisticson
businessuseofICTareusuallycollected
viaadedicated(stand-alone)business
ICTsurveyorthroughamoduleofICT
questionsinanotherbusinesssurvey.
MostOECDandEuropeanUnion
countrieshavebeencollectingbusiness
ICTusestatisticsforanumberofyears
andmosthavededicatedsurveysthat
areconductedannually.Theyadaptthe
modelquestionnairesrecommendedbythe
OECDandEurostat,thoughitshouldbe
notedthatthesedonotincludequestions
coveringallthecoreindicatorsonbusiness
useofICT.Othereconomiesarestarting
tocollectbusinessICTuseindicators,
usingthecoreindicatorsmethodological
recommendations(
Partnership,2005c)
and/orthoseoftheOECD(2007a)and
Eurostat(2006and2007a).
92.Thischapterincludesdatafromthe
collectionsofEurostatandUNCTAD.
EurostatcollectsICTusedatafrom
itsmemberstatesannually.Itprovides
guidanceintheformofamodelsurveyand
producesdatathatareverycomparable.
UNCTADcollectsbusinessuseofICT
statisticsfromitsmembercountrieson
anannualbasis.Itsendsaquestionnaire
basedonthecoreICTbusinessindicators
(coveringtheuseofICTbybusinesses
andtheICTsector)toNSOsworldwide
(exceptthoseinEurostatmemberstates).
Fordevelopingeconomies,inparticular,
UNCTADprovidesaframeworkfordata
collection.
1
Chapter 4. Use of ICT by businesses
1. Introduction
52
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Table 14. Core indicators on business use of ICT
Basic core indicators
B1Proportionofbusinessesusingcomputers
B2Proportionofemployeesusingcomputers
B3ProportionofbusinessesusingtheInternet
B4ProportionofemployeesusingtheInternet
B5Proportionofbusinesseswithawebpresence
B6Proportionofbusinesseswithanintranet
B7ProportionofbusinessesreceivingordersovertheInternet
B8ProportionofbusinessesplacingordersovertheInternet
Extended core indicators
B9ProportionofbusinessesusingtheInternetbytypeofaccess
Narrowbandaccess
Broadbandaccess
SeeAnnex4fordetailedcategories.
B10Proportionofbusinesseswithalocalareanetwork(LAN)
B11Proportionofbusinesseswithanextranet
B12ProportionofbusinessesusingtheInternetbytypeofactivity
2
Sendingorreceivingemail
Gettinginformationaboutgoodsorservices
Gettinginformationfromgovernmentorganizations/publicauthoritiesviawebsitesoremail
PerformingInternetbankingoraccessingotherinancialservices
Interactingwithgovernmentorganizations/publicauthorities
Providingcustomerservices
Deliveringproductsonline
Otherinformationsearchesorresearchactivities
Source: Core ICT Indicators (
Partnership
, 2005c).
53
Chapter 4. Use of ICT by businesses
93.Table15showstheavailabilityofthecore
businessuseindicators.ApartfromOECD
andEuropeanUnioncountries,dataon
useofICTbybusinessesarenotwidely
available.Nodataareavailablefortheleast
developedeconomies.
94.TheEuropeanUnionprovidesthemost
comparableregionaldatasetonthistopic,
withastandardizedsurveyacrossEU
countries.
3
Thewidermembershipof
theOECDhasareasonablycomparable
setofstatistics,thoughtherearesome
differencesinscope(industryandbusiness
size)anddatacollected.Sofar,few
developingeconomiescollectbusiness
ICTusestatistics,buttheyareincreasingly
usingthecorelistofindicatorsandthe
standardssetbythe
Partnership.Recent
measurementinitiativesbyeconomiesof
theLatinAmericaandCaribbeanregion
aredescribedinBox3below.
2. Measurement status
Table 15. Summary of global measurement status by level of development:
4
use of ICT by businesses
5
IndicatorDevelopedTransitionDevelopingLeastTotalnumber
economieseconomieseconomiesdevelopedofeconomies
economieswitheach
Proportionofeconomieswitheachindicatorindicator
B161%37%17%0%56
B257%26%8%0%42
B365%42%18%0%61
B457%26%9%0%43
B565%47%16%0%60
B659%21%12%0%47
B765%26%13%0%53
B865%26%13%0%53
B963%21%14%0%52
B1055%42%10%0%47
B1161%21%8%0%43
B1261%32%14%0%53
Totaleconomies491912050238
Source: UNCTAD and Eurostat (see Annex 1 for more detail).
54
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Box 3. Measurement initiatives in the Latin America and the Caribbean region
Inthelastthreeyears,nineoftheregion’scountrieshave
incorporatedatleastonecoreICTindicatorintheir
businesssurveys.Morethanhalfoftheninecountries
collectallthecoreindicatordataforbusinessICTuse
andthequestionsaskedarereasonablycomparable.
However,differencesinsurveyvehiclesandscope
betweencountriesmeanthattherearecomparability
issuesinrespectofsurveyoutput.Thetypesofsurveys
generallyusedasvehiclesforICTusedataareregular
surveysofmanufacturing,commercialorserviceirms;
innovationandR&Dsurveys;orstand-aloneICT
surveys.ManyofthecountriescollectICTusedata
annually,thoughotherscollectthemlessfrequentlyor
haveonlycollectedthemasaone-offexercise.
Source: Olaya (2007).
55
Chapter 4. Use of ICT by businesses
3.1 Business ICT use statistics
95.Table16showsavailabledataforthecore
indicatorswithoutsub-categories.The
otherindicatorsareshowninTable17and
Chart8belowandrefertoInternetactivities
undertakenandthemeansofaccessingthe
Internet,respectively.
6
96.FortheEuropeanUnioncountries
comprising‘EU25’,
7
dataareshownas
asingleaggregate.Othercountriesare
shownindividually.
97.Thedatashowasimilarpatternasfor
households,thatis,thatbusinessesin
developedeconomiesaremorelikelyto
haveahighlevelofICTuse.Formost
economies,theproportionofemployees
usingacomputerortheInternetis
considerablysmallerthantheproportion
ofbusinessesthatuseacomputeror
theInternet.Thisindicatesthatwithin
businesseswithICT,widespreaduseofICT
byemployeeshasnotbeenachievedbyany
economies.Thesituationismoremarked
fortransitionanddevelopingeconomies.
8
3. Statistical summary
56
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Table 16. Selected core indicators on use of ICT by businesses,
9
latest year available
10
LevelofEconomy
12
ProportionofbusinesesProportionofProportionofbusinesses
developmentemployeesusingtheInternet
andregion
11
UsingUsingtheWithanWithaWithanUsingUsingtheWithawebReceivingPlacing
computersInternetintranetLANextranetcomputersInternetpresenceordersviaordersvia
(B1)(B3)(B6)(B10)(B11)(B2)(B4)(B5)InternetInternet
(B7)(B8)
Developed economies
AsiaJapan
13
98%90%40%60%86%16%21%
EuropeFrance
7
99%94%40%22%63%34%65%16%26%
EuropeIceland99%97%36%50%30%58%46%72%7%13%
EuropeNorway97%94%34%16%59%50%76%25%66%
EuropeSwitzerland99%98%61%80%33%57%48%92%23%58%
EuropeEU25
7
96%93%35%70%15%49%37%69%15%42%
N.AmericaBermuda80%71%34%62%37%56%14%41%
N.AmericaCanada95%17%71%13%65%
OceaniaAustralia96%87%52%21%55%
OceaniaNewZealand96%95%22%62%8%63%37%60%
Transition economies
AsiaAzerbaijan38%9%11%9%2%33%
EuropeBelarus84%38%41%27%
EuropeBulgaria90%75%35%53%4%21%15%44%5%8%
EuropeRomania77%58%23%45%19%22%16%41%4%11%
EuropeRussianFederation91%53%52%30%12%28%24%31%
Developing economies
AfricaEgypt100%53%34%79%2%18%10%71%35%21%
AfricaMauritius94%87%37%46%33%35%
AsiaChina47%16%24%12%10%
AsiaCyprus
14
95%86%21%7%43%31%50%6%21%
AsiaHongKongSARChina88%83%29%61%10%58%46%52%3%22%
AsiaMacaoSARChina76%53%26%16%21%
AsiaQatar84%68%38%99%51%41%
AsiaRepublicofKorea97%96%37%67%59%8%34%
AsiaSingapore93%91%74%74%36%75%15%34%
AsiaThailand
15
88%70%51%11%14%
AsiaTurkey88%80%39%65%8%41%34%60%
LACArgentina
16
100%96%47%82%21%40%25%74%46%45%
LACBrazil99%94%39%95%22%48%37%50%50%52%
LACChile60%49%13%3%39%4%7%
LACCuba95%71%34%59%30%24%1%4%
LACPanama90%80%28%53%14%32%20%39%44%
Source: UNCTAD and Eurostat (7 December 2007).
57
Chapter 4. Use of ICT by businesses
98.Table17belowprovidesinformationon
thefunctionsforwhichbusinessesusethe
Internet.Unfortunately,theactivitiesare
notverycomparablebetweencountries.
17
However,somebroadconclusionscanbe
drawn.
99.Notsurprisingly,useoftheInternetfor
emailandforindinginformationis
generallyhighamongInternetbusiness
users,irrespectiveoftheircountry.Useof
theInternetforprovidingcustomerservices
anddeliveringproductsonlineisgenerally
lesscommon.Thetransaction-based
activitiesofbankingandtransactingwith
governmentaregenerallyhigheramong
Internetusersindevelopedeconomies,
althoughtherearesomedeveloping
economiesthatalsohaveahighlevelof
theseactivities.
58
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Table 17. Businesses
9
using the Internet by type of activity, proportion of Internet users, latest year available
10
LevelofEconomy
12
SendingorGettingGettingOtherInternetTransactingProvidingDeliveringOther
developmentreceivinginformationinformationinformationbankingwithcustomerproductstypesof
andregion
11
e-mailaboutgoodsfromsearchesorinancialpublicservicesonlineactivity
orservicesgovernmentorresearchservicesauthorities
Developed economies
EuropeFrance
7
77%66%
EuropeIceland90%87%94%65%
EuropeNorway55%92%74%
EuropeSwitzerland98%60%85%57%21%22%
EuropeEU25
7,18
59%84%60%65%8%
N.AmericaCanada
19
98%
OceaniaAustralia50%
OceaniaNewZealand
20
68%87%77%30%
Transition economies
AsiaAzerbaijan26%26%26%
EuropeBulgaria57%47%53%61%
EuropeRomania94%65%65%52%10%9%4%
EuropeRussianFederation
21
92%55%43%15%5%5%
Developing economies
AfricaEgypt93%59%59%27%6%36%0%
AsiaChina80%65%46%39%37%35%11%
AsiaCyprus
14
67%57%44%
AsiaHongKongSARChina
22
97%96%73%42%23%43%53%
AsiaMacaoSARChina89%20%69%15%4%
AsiaRep.ofKorea89%61%54%78%67%43%35%13%2%
AsiaSingapore93%93%64%42%
AsiaThailand
15
81%65%10%24%21%14%
AsiaTurkey56%75%63%16%38%
LACArgentina
16
97%88%75%40%84%57%43%6%55%
LACBrazil98%78%59%82%80%84%31%14%
LACChile99%
LACPanama97%81%68%61%70%36%39%70%
Source: UNCTAD and Eurostat (7 December 2007).
59
Chapter 4. Use of ICT by businesses
100.Asisthecaseforhouseholdindicators,
fewtimeseriesofbusinessICTusedata
exist.ThebestexamplesarefortheEU15
countriesandselectedseriesareshown
inChart7below.Itshowsthatuseof
computers,theInternet,LANs,extranets
andintranets,andawebpresenceare
levelingoff.
Chart 7. Change in business use of the Internet for selected indicators, EU15, proportion of all businesses with 10 or more employees
23
Source: Eurostat, 7 December 2007.
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100
%
0%
Pr
opor
ti
on of
bus
in
es
se
s us
in
g co
m
put
er
s (B
1)
Pr
opor
ti
on of
bus
in
es
se
s us
in
g th
e In
te
r
net
(B
3)
Pr
opor
ti
on of
bus
in
es
se
s wi
th
a lo
ca
l area net
wo
rk
(L
AN
) (B
10
)
Pr
o
por
ti
on of
bus
in
es
se
s wi
th
an
ex
tr
ane
t (B
11)
Pr
o
por
ti
on of
bus
in
es
se
s wi
th
an
in
tr
anet
(B
6)
Pr
o
por
ti
on of
bus
in
es
se
s wi
th
a w
eb pres
en
ce
(B
5)
101.Chart8showsthatEU15businesses,
likehouseholds,areincreasinglyusing
broadbandtoaccesstheInternet,witha
bigdropinaccessbydial-up(analogue
modem)andISDNovertheperiod2003to
2007.
60
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
102.Somegoodtimeseriesdataareavailable
forothercountries,especiallythosethat
aremembersoftheOECD(forinstance,
Australia(ABS,2007);Canada(Statistics
Chart 8. Change in how businesses access the Internet, EU15,
proportion of Internet users
24
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
0%
Pr
opor
ti
on of
bus
in
e
sse
s us
in
g t
he In
te
rnet
by
ty
pe of
a
cce
ss
, ana
lo
gue m
ode
m (B
9)
Pr
opor
ti
on of
bus
in
e
sse
s us
in
g t
he In
te
rnet
by
ty
pe of
a
cce
ss
, broadband (B
9)
Pr
oport
i
on of
bus
in
e
sse
s us
in
g t
he In
te
rnet
by
ty
pe of
a
cce
ss,
IS
DN (B
9)
Source: Eurostat, 7 December 2007.
Canada,2007)andJapan(MIC,2006)).
Asmallnumberofdevelopingeconomies
alsohaveseveralyears’worthofdata,
includingThailand(seeChart9below).
61
Chapter 4. Use of ICT by businesses
3.2 Regional analysis
103.Theonlyregionthatiswellrepresented
inbusinessICTusestatisticsisEurope.
Historically,thisisbecauseEuropean
countrieswerequicktoinluenceandadopt
OECDrecommendationsonmeasuring
useofICTbybusinesses.Inaddition,
Eurostatmemberstatesareobligedto
produceICTusestatisticsannuallyper
frameworkregulation808/2004.
25
This
ensuresharmoniseddataforEUmember
statesandwillacceleratetheproduction
ofICTusestatisticsbyotherparticipating
countries.
104.OtherregionsoutsideEurope,andexcluding
OECDmembercountries,havestartedto
producebusinessICTusestatisticsonlyfairly
recently.AtanUNCTADexpertmeetingon
measuringe-commerceinSeptember2003,
themethodologiesdevelopedbyWPIISwere
irstpresentedtoanumberofdeveloping
economyparticipants.Atthattime,hardly
anydevelopingeconomywascollecting
businessICTusestatistics.Duringthepast
iveyears,thisnumberhasincreasedtoover
20developingandtransitioneconomies.
Giventheslowpaceimplicitinthedesign
andproductionofstatisticsgenerally,thisis
animpressivedevelopmentandisexpected
tocontinueduringthenextfewyears.
MostprogressisbeingmadeintheLatin
AmericanandCaribbeanregion,strongly
supportedbyUNECLAC(seeBox3).
Chart 9. Internet use and web presence of Thai businesses, with 10 or more employees
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
2004
2005
2006
Pr
opor
ti
on of
bus
in
es
se
s wi
th
a
cce
ss to
In
te
r
net
Pr
o
por
ti
on of
bus
in
es
se
s wi
th
w
eb pres
en
ce
Source: UNCTAD.
Notes
1
Theframeworkincludesthepublication
Manual for the Production of Statistics on the Information Economy.The
ManualincludesamodelquestionnaireonbusinessuseofICTplusotherreferencematerial.
62
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
2
Somecategorieshavebeenslightlyreworded,consistentwiththeUNCTADManual(UNCTAD,2007a).The
changesareminorandnochangestotimeseriesdataareexpected.
3
Eurostat,thestatisticaloficeoftheEuropeanCommunitiesalsocollectsdatafromasmallnumberofnonEU
countries,includingNorway,Icelandandcandidatecountries.DataforthosecountriesarenotincludedinEU
aggregates.
4
Annex1showstheeconomieswhichareincludedineach‘levelofdevelopment’and‘region’category.The
classiicationisbasedontheUNStatisticalDivision’s
Standard country or area codes for statistical use,seehttp://
unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49.htm.TheclassiicationwasrevisedinJanuary2008andisnowslightly
differentfromtheversionusedtoaggregatedataforthispublication.ThedifferencesaredetailedinAnnex1.
5
Anindicatorwasconsideredtobe
availableifUNCTADorEurostatreceivedcompleteorpartialdataforit
(includingzerovalues)fortheyear2002orlater.ThetotaleconomycountincludescountriesfromwhichUNCTAD
doesnotcollectdata.SeeAnnex1fordetails.
6
ThemeansofaccessingtheInternetreferstothetypeofInternetaccessserviceused(ISDN,DSLetc).Whilequite
alargenumberofcountriescollectthisinformation,thedeinitionsofresponsecategoriesarevariable(possibly
relectingthetechnicalcomplexityoftheresponseitems).Thereforeatableofdatahasnotbeenincludedinthis
publication.However,Eurostattimeseriesdatashowingthechangeinanaloguemodem,ISDNandbroadband
servicesovertimehavebeenincluded(Chart8).
7
Thereare27countriesintheEuropeanUnionbuttwo(RomaniaandBulgaria)areclassiiedastransitioneconomies
(forthepurposesofthispublication).TheaggregatechosenfordisplayhereisthereforeEU25,representing
theremaining25EUcountries.NotethatCyprusisincludedintheEU25aggregationbutisclassiiedinthis
publicationasadevelopingeconomy.DataforCyprusarethereforealsoshownwiththoseofotherdeveloping
economies.FranceisnotincludedintheEU25aggregatesoitsdataareshownseparately.EU25dataarethe
aggregatesfor2006andwereextractedfromEurostat’sdatabase,version7December2007.ThescopeofEurostat
EU25datapresentedhereisall(inscope)industriesexcludingtheinancialsector(NACED,F,G,H,I,K,O)and
businesseswith10ormoreemployees.
8
IndicatorsB2andB4areaffectedbyindustrialcomposition.Forinstance,aneconomywithahighproportionof
manufacturingbusinessesislikelytohavealowerlevelofemployeeICTuse.
9
Generallybusinesseswith10ormoreemployees.Exceptions,whereknown,areshowninendnotes.
10
Latest year availableisgenerally2005or2006.Whiledatafor2007areavailableformanyEUcountries,2006
datahavebeenusedforEU25becausethe2006aggregatesincludemoreEUcountriesthanthe2007aggregates.
Datafrom2002orearlierhavebeenexcluded.SeeAnnex1fordetailsofdataavailability.
11
Someregionnameshavebeenabbreviatedtosavespace.FullnamescanbefoundinAnnex1.
12
Someeconomynameshavebeenabbreviatedtosavespace.FullnamescanbefoundinAnnex1.
13
Datarefertoenterpriseswith100ormoreemployees.
14
CyprusisalsoincludedintheEU25aggregate.
15
Datarefertoenterpriseswith16ormoreemployees.
16
Datareferonlytothemanufacturingsector.
17
Informationonthecategoriesforwhichcountriescollectdataisnotwidelyavailable,thereforeitispossiblethat
comparabilityisworsethanindicatedbythenotes.
18
ProvidingcustomerservicesreferstotheproportionofInternetuserswhichuseawebsitetodoatleastone
of:marketing,facilitatingaccesstocataloguesandpricelists,orprovidingaftersalessupport.Transactingwith
publicauthoritiesreferstobusinessesusingtheInternettoobtainformsfromgovernmentorganizations/public
authorities.DeliveringproductsonlinereferstoInternetuserswhichhaveawebsitefacilitytodeliverdigital
products(2005data).
19
EnterprisesusingtheInternetfordeliveringproductsonlinerefertoenterprisesdeliveringdigitisedproducts(via
websiteorotherInternet).
20
EnterprisesusingtheInternetforprovidingcustomerservicesincludesdeliveryofproductsonlineandothertypes
ofactivity.
63
Chapter 4. Use of ICT by businesses
21
EnterprisesusingtheInternetforbankingoraccessingotherinancialservicesincludesenterprisesusingthe
Internettopayforsupplyproducts(procurement).
22
EnterprisesusingtheInternetforgettinginformationfromGovernmentorganizations/publicauthoritiesinclude
transactionswithgovernmentauthorities.EnterprisesusingtheInternetforothertypesofactivityincludeon-line
purchase/orderingandsalesofgoods,servicesorinformation,softwaredownloadandmiscelaneousactivities.
23
ThenumberofcountriesincludedinEU15isfewerfor2007(between10and12countries);somecomponent
countrieshaveanarrowerindustryscopefor2003and/or2004.
24
ThenumberofcountriesincludedinEU15isfewerfor2007(12countries);somecomponentcountrieshavea
narrowerindustryscopefor2003and/or2004.
25
TheregulationensuresharmoniseddataforEUmemberstatesandotherparticipatingEEAcountriesuntil2010.
65
Chapter 5. The ICT-producing sector and international trade in ICT goods
105.Thedatapresentedinthischapterare
basedonthecoreICTindicatorsforthe
ICT-producingsector(hereafterreferredto
astheICTsector)andinternationaltrade
inICTgoods.Theindicatorsareshownin
Table18belowandaredeinedinAnnex
5.
106.StatisticsontheICTsectorareusually
compiledfromtheoutputofsectoral
surveysthatcollectemployment,
incomeandexpensedatafornational
accountspurposes.Whilesomecountries
speciicallysurveytheICTsector,mostuse
availableindustrystatistics.Particular
ICT
characteristicsofthesestatisticsinclude
thedeinitionoftheICTsector(seeBox
4below)anddeinitionsofthevariables
usedinthecoreindicators.
107.TheICTsectordeinitionusedinthis
publicationdatesfrom2002andisbased
onISICRevision3.1.Amorerecent
version,basedonISICRev.4wasreleased
bytheOECDin2007butgiventhatit
willbesometimebeforemostcountries
adoptISICRev.4,the2002versionis
likelytobeinuseforsomeyears.More
informationonthe2007versionmaybe
foundinAnnex1bofOECD’s
Guide to Measuring the Information Society(2007a)
andUNCTAD’s
Manual for the Production of Statistics on the Information Economy
(2007a).
108.OECDandEurostatcompileICTsector
databasedonthecollectionsoftheir
membercountries.UNCTADcollects
ICTsectorcoreindicatordatafromits
membercountries.Itsendsanannual
questionnaire,basedonthecoreICT
businessindicators(coveringtheuseofICT
bybusinessesandtheICTsector),toNSOs
worldwide,exceptthosecountrieswho
aremembersoftheEuropeanStatistical
System.TheUnitedNationsIndustrial
DevelopmentOrganization(UNIDO)
compilesmanufacturingindustrystatistics
(includingthoserelevanttotheICT
manufacturingindustries)foranumberof
countries.
1
109.ThecoreindicatorsontradeinICTgoods
useadministrativetradedatacollected
byindividualcountriesforcustoms
purposes.Thedataareultimatelybrought
togetherbytheUnitedNationsStatistics
Division(UNSD)intheUnitedNations
Chapter 5. The ICT-producing sector and international trade in ICT goods
1. Introduction
66
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
CommodityTradeStatisticsDatabase
(
UN COMTRADE)(UNSD,2007a).
Particular
ICTcharacteristicsofthese
indicatorsincludethedeinitionofICT
goods,andsourcesandconceptsrelating
tointernationaltradestatistics.
110.ThedeinitionofICTgoodsassociated
withthecoreindicatorsontrade(ICT3and
ICT4)isthatagreedbyOECDmember
countriesin2003.Itisbasedonthe
HarmonizedSystemclassiicationsof2002
and1996,andcanbefoundatAnnex6.It
shouldbenotedthattheOECDiscurrently
developinganICTgoodsclassiication
basedontheCentralProductClassiication
Version2.
Table 18. Core indicators for the ICT sector and trade in ICT goods
ICT1ProportionoftotalbusinesssectorworkforceinvolvedintheICTsector(usuallyexpressed
asapercentage)
ICT2ValueaddedintheICTsector(asapercentageoftotalbusinesssectorvalueadded).(See
Table19belowforthevaluationofvalueadded.)
ICT3ICTgoodsimportsasapercentageoftotalimports
ICT4ICTgoodsexportsasapercentageoftotalexports
Source: Core ICT Indicators (
Partnership
, 2005c).
Box 4. The 2002 OECD ICT sector deinition (based on ISIC Rev. 3.1)
ICT Manufacturing
-3000Manufactureofofice,accountingandcomputingmachinery
-3130Manufactureofinsulatedwireandcable*
-3210Manufactureofelectronicvalvesandtubesandotherelectroniccomponents
-3220Manufactureoftelevisionandradiotransmittersandapparatusforlinetelephonyandline
telegraphy
-3230Manufactureoftelevisionandradioreceivers,soundorvideorecordingorreproducing
apparatus,andassociatedgoods
-3312Manufactureofinstrumentsandappliancesformeasuring,checking,testing,navigatingand
otherpurposes,exceptindustrialprocesscontrolequipment*
-3313Manufactureofindustrialprocesscontrolequipment*
ICT Services
-5151Wholesaleofcomputers,computerperipheralequipmentandsoftware
-5152Wholesaleofelectronicandtelecommunicationspartsandequipment
-6420Telecommunications
-7123Rentingofoficemachineryandequipment(includingcomputers)
-72Computerandrelatedactivities
* Note that the activity of these classes is excluded from the OECD’s 2007 definition of the ICT sector.
Source: Guide to Measuring the Information Society 2007 (OECD, 2007a).
67
Chapter 5. The ICT-producing sector and international trade in ICT goods
111.Theconcept,‘valueadded’,isusedin
theindicator,ICT2,andisdeinedbythe
SNA1993as“thevalueofoutputlessthe
valueofintermediateconsumption;itisa
measureofthecontributiontoGDPmade
byanindividualproducer,industryor
sector;grossvalueaddedisthesourcefrom
whichtheprimaryincomesoftheSNAare
generatedandisthereforecarriedforward
intotheprimarydistributionofincome
account.”(UNSDwebsite).Notethatthe
conceptdeinedhereandusedinICT2is
‘grossvalueadded’;‘netvalueadded’is
grossvalueaddedlesstheconsumptionof
ixedcapital.Valueaddedcanbecalculated
invariouswaysasshowninTable19below.
Mostcountriesappeartousevalueadded
atfactorcosts.
Table 19. Valuation of value added
Valueaddedatfactorcosts
+othertaxes,lesssubsidies,onproduction(1)
=Valueaddedatbasicprices
+taxeslesssubsidies,onproducts(2)
(notincludingimportsandVAT)
=Valueaddedatproducers’prices
+taxes,lesssubsidies,onimports
+Tradeandtransportcosts
+Non-deductibleVAT(valueaddedtax)
=Valueaddedatmarketprices(3)
(1).Theseconsistmostlyofcurrenttaxes(and
subsidies)onthelabourorcapitalemployed,such
aspayrolltaxesorcurrenttaxesonvehiclesand
buildings.
(2).Theseconsistoftaxes(andsubsidies)payable
perunitofsomegoodorserviceproduced,suchas
turnovertaxesandexciseduties.
(3).Marketpricesarethosethatpurchaserspay
forthegoodsandservicestheyacquireoruse,
excludingdeductibleVAT.Thetermisusually
usedinthecontextofaggregatessuchasGDP,
whereaspurchaserpricesrefertotheindividual
transactions.
Source: Core ICT Indicators (
Partnership
, 2005c), based on concepts outlined in both the 1968 and 1993 versions of the System of National Accounts (SNA68 and SNA93).
68
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
2.1 The ICT sector
112.Table20belowsummarizestheglobal
measurementstatusforICTsector
indicatorsbylevelofdevelopment.
Thetableshowsthattheavailabilityof
indicators,ICT1andICT2,rangesfrom
reasonablefordevelopedeconomies(about
twothirdsproduceICTsectordata)tovery
poorfortheleastdevelopedeconomies
(withnoeconomiesknowntoproduceICT
sectordata).
113.Compoundinglackofdatainthisarea,
thereareseveralissuesconcerningdata
comparabilitybetweencountries.Thisis
mostmarkedforthedeinitionoftheICT
sectorusedbydifferenteconomiesbutalso
affectsthedeinitionofthebusinesssector,
andthecurrencyofavailabledata.
114.Themostlikelyexplanationforboththelack
ofICTsectordataandpoorcomparability
betweencountriesisthattheICTsector
includesseveral4digitlevelISICclasses
andmanycountriesonlycollectindustry
dataatthetwodigitlevelofdetail.
115.RegardingtheICTsectordeinition,the
majorscopedifferencebetweencountries
isthatUNIDOdatareferonlytoICTand
totalmanufacturing,whereasdatafrom
UNCTADrefertothewholeICTsector.
Apartfromthat,theICTsectorisdeined
indifferentwaysbycountries,withmost
beingbroaderthanthedeinitionspeciied
forthecoreindicators(manycountriescan
onlyprovideapproximatedatafortheICT
sector,oftenusingbroaderlevelindustry
datainsteadofthenarrowerdetailofthe
ICTsectordeinition).Evenamongst
Europeancountries,therearesigniicant
differencesinindustrydataavailableto
compilestatisticsfortheICTsector.The
endnotestoTable22belowuseavailable
metadatatodescribetheselimitations.
However,forsomecountries,themetadata
arelimited,sodonotsuficientlydescribe
thestatisticsusedforthecoreindicators.
116.Differencesinthescopeofthebusiness
sectorincludewhethertheinancialsector
isincludedorexcluded(itisincluded
bymostbutnotallEuropeancountries).
Otherdifferencesnodoubtexistbutarenot
generallywelldescribedbycountries.
117.Inaddition,muchofthedataarerelatively
dated,withquitealargenumberof
economiesonlyhavingdataavailablefor
2003orearlierandonlyasmallnumber
havingdatafor2006.Datafrom2002
orearlierhavenotbeenincludedinthis
publication.
118.Itisnotknowntowhatextentthese
differencesaffectdatacomparisons,
althoughsomeconclusionsareobvious,
forinstance:
•Thatcountrieswillhavehighervalues
oftheindicatorsifthescopeoftheir
ICTsectorisbroaderthantheOECD
standard(forinstance,itincludes
broadermanufacturingorwholesaling
industriescategories);
2. Measurement status
69
Chapter 5. The ICT-producing sector and international trade in ICT goods
•Thatcountrieswillhavehighervaluesof
theindicatorsiftheirICTandbusiness
sectorscopeisrestrictedtomore
stronglyperformingindustries(for
instance,arestrictiontomanufacturing
foreconomiesthathavestrong
manufacturingindustries);and
•Thatanarrowerscopeofthebusiness
sector(e.g.theexclusionoftheinancial
sectorbysomeEuropeancountries)
willincreasethevalueofICTsector
indicators(andviceversa).
119.Itishopedthatthesituationwithregardto
ICTsectormeasurementwillimprovein
thefuture.Inparticular,theintroduction
ofthe2007deinitionoftheICTsector
(basedonISICRev.4)wouldsimplifythe
ICTdeinitionbynarrowingit(seethenote
inBox4).Itmayalsoprovideanimpetus
forcountriestore-developtheirindustry
surveysandtointroducemoredetailin
respectoftheICTsector.
120.ItwouldbeusefultoreviewtheICT
sectorcoreindicatorsand,inparticular,to
considerwhetherthetotalbusinesssector
shouldbere-speciiedtobetterrelectdata
availability.
121.InitiativesbyUNESCWAtoenhance
theavailabilityofICTsectordatainthe
WesternAsiaandtheArabregionare
describedinBox5.
Box 5. Measurement initiatives in the Western Asia and the Arab region
Whileeconomiesoftheregionareactiveinsomeareas
ofICTmeasurement(forexample,ICTexpenditure
andexportsofICTservices),thereisaneedto
increaseeffortsindevelopingandmeasuringtheICT
sector,inordertoattainregionaldevelopmentgoals.
UNESCWAplanstoaddressthemeasurementgapby
initiatingregionalsurveysforthecollectionofdataon
basicindicatorsrelatedtoICTsectordevelopment.It
willalsoprovidetechnicalassistancetonationalICT
statisticsunitswithrespecttosectoraldatacollection
andanalysis.Theseactivitiesareexpectedtocommence
during2008–2009.
Table 20. Summary of global measurement status by level of development:
2
ICT sector
3
IndicatorDevelopedTransitionDevelopingLeastdevelopedTotalnumber
economieseconomieseconomieseconomiesofeconomies
witheach
Proportionofeconomieswitheachindicatorindicator
ICT167%37%15%0%58
ICT265%16%10%0%47
Totaleconomies491912050238
Source: UNCTAD and UNIDO (see Annex 1 for more detail).
70
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
2.2 Trade in ICT goods
122.Table21summarizestheglobal
measurementstatusfortradeinICTgoods
indicatorsbylevelofdevelopment.Data
arewidelyavailablefromcountrytrade
statistics,whicharecollectedbytheUNSD
andpublishedintheir
UN COMTRADE
database.
Table 21. Summary of global measurement status by level of development:
2
trade in ICT goods
4
IndicatorDevelopedTransitionDevelopingLeastdevelopedTotalnumber
economieseconomieseconomieseconomiesofeconomies
witheach
Proportionofeconomieswitheachindicatorindicator
ICT373%79%71%66%169
ICT473%79%68%62%164
Totaleconomies491912050238
Source: UN COMTRADE database (see Annex 1 for more detail).
71
Chapter 5. The ICT-producing sector and international trade in ICT goods
3.1 The ICT sector
123.Table22presentsdataontheICTsector
forindividualeconomies.Thelimitations
ondatacomparabilityarediscussedabove
andaredetailedintheendnotestothe
chapter.
124.Notwithstandingthesigniicant
comparabilitylimitationsthatexist,two
broadobservationsmaybemade:
•ThevalueofICT1(proportionoftotal
businesssectorworkforceinvolvedin
theICTsector)isalmostinvariablyless
thanthevalueofICT2(valueaddedin
theICTsectorasapercentageoftotal
businesssectorvalueadded),indicating
that,comparedwithotherindustries,
theICTsectorproducesarelatively
highlevelofoutputforthelabourinput
required;and
•TheICTsectorisstrongforanumberof
developedanddevelopingeconomies,
butnotasstrongforthetransition
economies(withtheexceptionof
Romania).Itisnotpossibletobe
morespeciicgiventhecomparability
limitationsdescribedabove.
3. Statistical summary
Table 22. ICT sector core indicators, latest year available
5
LevelofRegion
2
Economy
6
ICT1.ProportionofICT2.Valueadded
development
2
totalbusinesssectorintheICTsector
workforceinvolved(asapercentageof
intheICTsectortotalbusiness
sectorvalueadded)
DevelopedAsiaJapan7%12%
DevelopedEuropeAustria
7
6%9%
DevelopedEuropeBelgium
7
7%11%
DevelopedEuropeCroatia
8
3%
DevelopedEuropeCzechRepublic
7
4%9%
DevelopedEuropeDenmark
7
7%8%
DevelopedEuropeFinland
7
10%15%
DevelopedEuropeFrance
7
7%11%
DevelopedEuropeGermany
7
5%9%
DevelopedEuropeIceland6%7%
DevelopedEuropeIreland
7
5%6%
DevelopedEuropeItaly
7
5%9%
DevelopedEuropeLatvia
9
3%9%
DevelopedEuropeLithuania
10
4%9%
DevelopedEuropeLuxembourg
11
4%9%
72
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
LevelofRegion
2
Economy
6
ICT1.ProportionofICT2.Valueadded
development
2
totalbusinesssectorintheICTsector
workforceinvolved(asapercentageof
intheICTsectortotalbusiness
sectorvalueadded)
DevelopedEuropeNetherlands
7
6%7%
DevelopedEuropeNorway
12
5%12%
DevelopedEuropePoland
13
2%3%
DevelopedEuropePortugal
7
3%4%
DevelopedEuropeSlovakia
13
6%10%
DevelopedEuropeSlovenia
14
3%5%
DevelopedEuropeSpain
7
4%8%
DevelopedEuropeSweden
13
8%12%
DevelopedEuropeUnitedKingdom
13
7%12%
DevelopedNorthernAmericaBermuda3%4%
DevelopedNorthernAmericaCanada
15
4%4%
DevelopedNorthernAmericaUnitedStates
16
5%9%
DevelopedOceaniaAustralia
17
5%10%
DevelopedOceaniaNewZealand3%7%
TransitionAsiaAzerbaijan
18
3%
TransitionAsiaKyrgyzstan
19
2%
TransitionEuropeBulgaria
20
1%2%
TransitionEuropeRomania
21
3%10%
TransitionEuropeRussianFederation4%5%
TransitionEuropeUkraine
22
3%
DevelopingAfricaEgypt6%
DevelopingAfricaMauritius
23
4%7%
DevelopingAfricaMorocco
24
1%2%
DevelopingAfricaSouthAfrica
22
2%
DevelopingAsiaCyprus
14
3%8%
DevelopingAsiaHongKong
SARChina
25
4%5%
DevelopingAsiaIndia
26
2%4%
DevelopingAsiaIndonesia
27
3%5%
DevelopingAsiaIran,Islamic
Republicof
28
3%2%
DevelopingAsiaMalaysia6%
DevelopingAsiaRepublicofKorea
29
11%20%
DevelopingAsiaSingapore
22
27%33%
DevelopingAsiaThailand3%
DevelopingLatinAmericaand
theCaribbeanBrazil
30
2%
DevelopingLatinAmericaand
theCaribbeanChile1%3%
DevelopingLatinAmericaand
theCaribbeanCuba3%5%
DevelopingLatinAmericaand
theCaribbeanPanama
31
3%
Source: UNCTAD, UNIDO and OECD (which provided estimates for the United States).
73
Chapter 5. The ICT-producing sector and international trade in ICT goods
3.2 Trade in ICT goods
125.Table23belowpresents2006dataon
tradeinICTgoods,aggregatedbylevel
ofdevelopmentandregion.In2006,
developingeconomieshadthehighest
valueofICT3(ICTgoodsimportsasa
percentageoftotalimports),at22percent.
Whilstdevelopedeconomieshadalower
proportion(12percent),theirtotalvalueof
ICTgoodsimportswasthehighestat949
USDbillion.Leastdevelopedeconomies
hadthelowestvalueofICT3(3percent).
126.Developingeconomieshadamuchhigher
proportionofICTgoodsexportstototal
exports(ICT4)thancountriesatother
levelsofdevelopment(23percent).
Inaddition,theabsolutevalueofICT
goodsexportswashighestfordeveloping
economies,at942USDbillion.Thehigh
valuesfordevelopingeconomiesrelect
thedominationofseveralAsianeconomies
inICTgoodsexporting,namelyChina,
HongKong(SARChina),Malaysiaand
Singapore,whichtogethercontributed
twothirds(67percent)oftotalICTgoods
exportsfordevelopingeconomies.
127.Althoughitisnotacoreindicator,the
ratio‘ValueofICTgoodsexportsasa
percentageofvalueofICTgoodsimports’
showstheICTgoodsbalanceoftrade.
TheratioshowsthatAsiandeveloping
economiesarenetexporters(125percent)
andthatdevelopedeconomiesaremarginal
netimporters(84percent).Transitionand
leastdevelopedeconomieshavealarge
balanceoftradedeicitforICTgoods(at
14and5percentrespectively).
Table 23. ICT trade core indicators,
32
2006
Levelofdevelopmentandregion
2
ICT3.ICTgoodsICT4.ICTgoodsICTgoodsexports
importsasaexportsasaasapercentage
percentageoftotalpercentageofofICTgoods
importstotalexportsimports
Developed economies
12%11%84%
Asia
33
14%19%158%
Europe11%10%89%
NorthernAmerica14%13%59%
Oceania12%2%14%
Transition economies
6%1%14%
Asia5%0.1%2%
Europe7%1%15%
Developing economies
22%23%117%
Africa6%1%18%
Asia24%27%125%
LatinAmericaandtheCaribbean14%9%68%
Oceania4%0.1%3%
Least developed economies3%0.2%5%
Africa5%0.4%5%
Asia1%na3%
LatinAmericaandtheCaribbean
33
nanana
Oceaniananana
Total world
15%15%98%
Source: UN COMTRADE database, February 2008.
74
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
128.Charts10and11presentaten-yeartime
seriesofICTtradedatafromtheyear1997
to2006.Chart10revealsasigniicant
riseovertheperiodinthevalueofICT
importsforalllevelsofdevelopment.The
risewasnotsteady,beinginterruptedfor
ashorttimeafter2000.Whiletherisefor
transitionandleastdevelopedeconomies
wasalsoveryhigh,the2006valuesarestill
lowrelativetootherlevels.
129.Chart11showsthattheincreaseinthe
valueofICTexportshasrisenvery
quicklysince2001.Intermsofvalue,
thedevelopingeconomiesovertookthe
developedeconomiesin2004.AswithICT
imports,theyear2000wasapeakyearand
valuesdroppedinthefollowingyearfor
alllevelsofdevelopmentexceptforthe
transitioneconomies,wherethevaluerose
slightly.
130.Amongdevelopingeconomies,China
accountedfornearlyhalf(44percent)
ofthechangeinthevalueofICTgoods
exportsovertheperiod,1997to2006.
ChinaalsodominatedthegrowthinICT
exportsglobally,accountingforjustunder
athird(30percent)oftotalgrowthinvalue
between1997and2006.
Chart 10. ICT goods imports, 1997 to 2006
Source: UN COMTRADE database, February 2008.
0
100 000
200 000
300 000
400 000
500 000
600 000
700 000
800 000
900 000
1 000 000
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
200
6
US
Dm
illi
on
De
ve
l
oped ec
onom
ie
s
Tr
an
si
ti
on ec
ono
mi
es
De
ve
l
opi
ng ec
onom
ie
s
Leas
t dev
el
oped ec
ono
mi
es
75
Chapter 5. The ICT-producing sector and international trade in ICT goods
3.3 Regional analysis
3.3.1 The ICT sector
131.Asdiscussedearlierinthischapter,ICT
sectordatahavevariouslimitationsin
termsofinternationalcomparability.
Nevertheless,datainTable22donot
showparticularregionalpatterns.Instead,
individualcountriesinAsiaandEurope
haverelativelyhighvaluesofthecore
indicators,withsmallvaluesmoreevenly
spread.Ofparticularnote,withhighvalues,
areFinlandinEuropeandtheRepublic
ofKoreaandSingaporeinAsia.Many
countrieswithsmallvaluesofICT1have
relativelyhighvaluesforICT2,indicating
thattheirICTindustriesaremorelabour-
intensivethanthoseofothercountries.
PlansformeasuringtheICTsectorin
theWesternAsiaandtheArabregionare
describedinBox5.
3.3.2 Trade in ICT goods
132.Table23presentsregionaldataontradein
ICTgoods.Thedevelopingeconomiesof
AsiahadthehighestlevelsofbothICT3
andICT4(24and27percentrespectively).
ValuesforAfricaandthedeveloping
economiesofOceaniawerelowforboth
indicators,butparticularlyforICT4.
Chart 11. ICT goods exports, 1997 to 2006
Source: UN COMTRADE database, February 2008.
0
100 000
200 000
300 000
400 000
500 000
600 000
700 000
800 000
900 000
1 000 000
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
200
6
US
Dm
illio
n
De
ve
lo
ped ec
onom
ie
s
Tr
an
si
ti
on ec
ono
mi
es
De
ve
lo
pi
ng ec
onom
ie
s
Leas
t dev
el
oped ec
onom
ie
s
76
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Notes
1
UNIDO’s
INDSTAT4(2007)databasecontainstimeseriesdatafor113countries.Datafromnon-OECDcountries
arecollectedfromNSOsbyUNIDO(anddatafromOECDmembercountriesarecollectedbyOECDandprovided
toUNIDO).AlldataaresupplementedbyestimatesgeneratedbyUNIDO(UNIDO,2007).
2
Annex1showstheeconomieswhichareincludedineach‘levelofdevelopment’and‘region’category.The
classiicationisbasedontheUNStatisticalDivision’s
Standard country or area codes for statistical use,seehttp://
unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49.htm.TheclassiicationwasrevisedinJanuary2008andisnowslightly
differentfromtheversionusedtoaggregatedataforthispublication.ThedifferencesaredetailedinAnnex1.
3
Anindicatorwasconsideredtobe
availableifUNCTADorUNIDOreceivedcompleteorpartialdataforit
(includingzerovalues)fortheyear2002orlater.ThetotaleconomycountincludescountriesfromwhichUNCTAD
andUNIDOdonotcollectdata.SeeAnnex1fordetails.
4
Anindicatorwasconsideredtobe
availableifdatawereavailablefromthe
UN COMTRADEdatabaseatthetime
ofextraction(September2007withanupdateon22February2008for2005and2006data).SeeAnnex1for
details.
5
Latest year availableisgenerally2004or2005.Datafrom2002orearlierhavebeenexcluded.SeeAnnex1for
details.
6
Someeconomynameshavebeenabbreviatedtosavespace.FullnamescanbefoundinAnnex1.
7
TheICTsectoristhesumofNACERev.1.1categories,D30,D313,D321,D322,D323,D3320,D3330,G518,
I642,K7133,K72.ThetotalbusinesssectoristhesumofNACEcategories,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J6512_652,J6601,
J66021,J6603,J6605,K71-74.DatawereextractedfromtheEurostaton-linedatabaseinAugust2007.Value
addedisatfactorcost.
8
Manufacturingsectoronly,numberofemployeesisasof31Marchofthereferenceyear.
9
ThetotalbusinesssectorconsistsofNACERev.1.1C,D,E,F,G,H,I,Kexcept70.
10
TheICTsectoristhesumofavailableNACEclassiications(NACErev.1.1D30-33,G51,I64,K71,K72).
ThetotalbusinesssectoristhesumoftheavailableNACEclassiications(NACErev.1.1C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J
6512_652,J6601,J66021,J6603,J6605,K71-74).DatawereextractedfromtheEurostaton-linedatabasein
August2007.Valueaddedisatfactorcost.
11
TheICTsectoristhesumofNACERev.1.1categories,D30,D313,D321,D322,D323,D3320,D3330,G5184,
I642,K7133,K72.ThetotalbusinesssectoristhesumofNACEcategories,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J6512_652,J6601,
J66021,J6603,J6605,K71-74.DatawereextractedfromtheEurostaton-linedatabaseinAugust2007.Value
addedisatfactorcost.
12
TheICTsectoristhesumofNACERev.1.1categories,D30-33,G5184,G5186,I64,K71,K72.Thetotal
businesssectoristhesumofNACEcategories,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J6512_652,J6601,J66021,J6603,J6605,K
71-74.DatawereextractedfromtheEurostaton-linedatabaseinAugust2007.Valueaddedisatfactorcost.
13
TheICTsectoristhesumofNACERev1.1categories,D30,D313,D321,D322,D323,D3320,D3330,G518,
I642,K7133,K72.ThetotalbusinesssectoristhesumofNACEcategories,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,K71-74,i.e.
excludingJ65-67(inancialintermediation).DatawereextractedfromtheEurostaton-linedatabaseinAugust
2007.Valueaddedisatfactorcost.
14
TheICTsectoristhesumofNACERev1.1categories,D30-33,G518,I642,K713,K72.Thetotalbusiness
sectoristhesumofNACEcategories,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J6512_652,J6601,J66021,J6603,J6605,K71-74.
DatawereextractedfromtheEurostaton-linedatabaseinAugust2007.Valueaddedisatfactorcost.
15
TheICTsectorworkforcedoesnotincludethefollowingindustries:ISIC7123;ISIC7240;partsofISIC7250.
Datawereeithernotavailableornotsuitableforreleaseduetoconidentiality.Thetotalbusinesssectorworkforce
includesemployeejobsandself-employedjobs.
16
OECDestimate.Totalbusinesssectorexcludesagriculture,ishingetc,realestateandnon-marketservices.
17
TheICTsectorworkforceestimatehasarelativestandarderrorof10%tolessthan25%andshouldbeusedwith
caution.TheICTsectorexcludesISICclasses3230,3313and7123.
77
Chapter 5. The ICT-producing sector and international trade in ICT goods
18
Manufacturingsectoronly.ThedatapresentedinISIC(Rev.3)wereoriginallyclassiiedaccordingtoNACE
(Rev.1).
19
Manufacturingsectoronly,datacollectedunderthenationalclassiicationsystemhavebeenreclassiiedbythe
nationalauthoritiestocorrespondwithISIC(Rev.3).Employeesarethenumberofpeopleengaged.
20
Manufacturingsectoronly,excludesclasses3312and3313.DatawereconvertedfromNACE(Rev.2.2)toISIC
(Rev.3).Valueaddedisatproducers’prices.
21
ThetotalbusinesssectoristhesumofNACERev1.1categories,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J6512_652,J6601,J66021,
J6603,J6605,K71-74.DatawereextractedfromtheEurostaton-linedatabaseinAugust2007.
22
Manufacturingsectoronly.
23
TheICTsectorexcludesG5151butincludesG5239–Otherretailsaleinspecializedstores(notpartoftheICT
sector)andK7499–Otherbusinessactivities,n.e.c.TheigureforthetotalICTsectorworkforceisprovisional.
ThetotalICTsectorworkforceincludesNSIC80220part(technicalandvocationalinstitutionsprovidingtraining
coursesinITonly).ThetotalbusinesssectorincludesNSICK74999(otherbusinessactivities,n.e.c.call-centres
only),NSICG52396(retailtrade,dealerincomputerequipment),andM80220part(technicalandvocational
institutionsprovidingtrainingcoursesinITonly).
24
Manufacturingsectoronly,excludesclass3313.Thescopeisenterpriseswith10ormoreemployeesoraturnoverof
morethan100,000dirhamsperyear.Datacollectedunderthenationalclassiicationsystemhavebeenreclassiied
byUNIDOtocorrespondwithISIC(Rev.3).Valueaddedisatfactorcost.
25
ThecoverageofthebusinesssectorusedinthestatisticslargelyfollowstheOECD’sdeinition,exceptthat
‘maintenanceandrepairofmotorvehiclesandmotorcycles’isnotincludedduetothelackofdetaileddata.Inother
words,thebusinesssectorcoversminingandquarrying;manufacturing;electricity,gasandwater;construction;
wholesales,retail,import/exporttrades,restaurants,hotels;transport,storageandcommunications;inancing,
insuranceandbusinessservices.
26
Manufacturingsectoronly.DatawereoriginallyclassiiedaccordingtotheNationalIndustryClassiication(1998)
whichisfullycompatiblewithISIC(Rev.3).Employeesequaltopersonsengaged.Valueaddedisatproducers’
prices.
27
Manufacturingsectoronly,excludesclass3313.Valueaddedisatfactorcost.
28
Manufacturingsectoronly.Valueaddedinproducers’prices.
29
FortheICTsector,ISICG5151referstoISICG515(3-digitlevel),andK7210referstoISICK72(2-digitlevel).
30
Therearenooficialdataforthebusinesssectorworkforce.WhilethedataontheICTsectorworkforcecomes
fromRAIS,theigureforthetotalbusinesssectorworkforcecomesfromtheIBGE’s“EstatísticasdoCadastro
CentraldeEmpresas2004”.
31
ICTsectorworkforceiguresareprovisional.
32
Anoteonthepresentationofvaluesinthistable:theterm‘na’meansnotavailable,thatis,thereareinsuficient
datatoproduceameaningfulaggregationornodataareavailable.Allvalueswhicharelessthan1havebeenshown
to1decimalplace.
33
Thiscategoryconsistsofonecountryonly.
79
Chapter 6. ICT in education
133.FollowingtheirstphaseoftheWorld
SummitontheInformationSociety,in
2003,theUNESCOInstituteforStatistics
(UIS)joinedotherstakeholdersinvolvedin
ICTmeasurementtoformthePartnership
onMeasuringICTforDevelopment.UIS’
currentroleinthe
Partnershipistolead
theTaskGrouponEducation,thebrief
ofwhichistodevelopaplantocollecta
coresetofindicatorsontheroleofICTin
education.
134.Throughvariousinitiativesandfora,
1
ahighpriorityhasbeenplacedonthe
improvementofeducationinallcountries,
withparticularemphasisonthemost
marginalizedgroups(includinggirls
andwomen,youthandleastdeveloped
economies).InsupportoftheWSISPlan
ofAction,in2000,UNESCOcreatedthe
InformationforAllProgramme(IFAP)
thatenablesGovernmentsto“harnessthe
newopportunitiesoftheinformationage
tocreateequitablesocietiesthroughbetter
accesstoinformation”(UNESCO,2007).
Chapter 6. ICT in education
1. Introduction
Box 6. International imperatives for education and ICT policy
UN Millennium Development Goals
Goal2Achieveuniversalprimaryeducation.TARGET
Ensurethat,by2015,childreneverywhere,boysand
girlsalike,willbeabletocompleteafullcourseof
primaryschooling.
Goal8Developaglobalpartnershipfordevelopment.
TARGETIncooperationwiththeprivatesector,make
availablethebeneitsofnewtechnologies,especially
informationandcommunications.
WSIS Geneva 2003 Declaration of Principles
“Our Common Vision of the Information Society”
2.Ourchallengeistoharnessthepotentialof
informationandcommunicationtechnologytopromote
thedevelopmentgoalsoftheMillenniumDeclaration,
namelytheeradicationofextremepovertyandhunger;
achievementofuniversalprimaryeducation;….
80
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
WSIS Geneva 2003 Plan of Action “Objectives, goals and targets”
B6btoconnectuniversities,colleges,secondary
schoolsandprimaryschoolswithICTs.
B6ctoconnectscientiicandresearchcentreswith
ICTs.
B6gtoadaptallprimaryandsecondaryschool
curriculatomeetthechallengesofthe
InformationSociety,takingintoaccountnational
circumstances.
WSIS Geneva 2003 Plan of Action “Capacity building”
C4,11Everyoneshouldhavethenecessaryskillsto
beneitfullyfromtheInformationSociety.Therefore,
capacitybuildingandICTliteracyareessential.ICTscan
contributetoachievinguniversaleducationworldwide,
throughdeliveryofeducationandtrainingofteachers,
andofferingimprovedconditionsforlifelonglearning,
encompassingpeoplethatareoutsidetheformal
educationprocess,andimprovingprofessionalskills.
WSIS Tunis Commitment 2005
11.Furthermore,ICTsaremakingitpossibleforavastly
largerpopulationthanatanytimeinthepasttojoinin
sharingandexpandingthebaseofhumanknowledge,
andcontributingtoitsfurthergrowthinallspheresof
humanendeavouraswellasitsapplicationtoeducation,
healthandscience.ICTshaveenormouspotentialto
expandaccesstoqualityeducation,toboostliteracy
anduniversalprimaryeducation,andtofacilitatethe
learningprocessitself,thuslayingthegroundworkfor
theestablishmentofafullyinclusiveanddevelopment-
orientedInformationSocietyandknowledgeeconomy
whichrespectculturalandlinguisticdiversity.
Source: The UN Millennium Development Goals (UN, 2007), WSIS Outcome Documents: Geneva 2003 – Tunis 2005 (ITU, 2005).
135.UISworktowardstheidentiicationof
asetofcomparableindicatorsonICTin
educationhasbeeninformedbyarange
ofinternationalsurveysthatassessthe
educationalachievementsofstudents,
withsomecomponentsrelatedtoICT,for
instance,ICTusebystudents.Thesurveys
include:
•LatinAmericanLaboratoryforthe
AssessmentofQualityinEducation
(LABORATORIO1997);
•MonitoringLearningAchievement
(MLA1992-2003);
•Programmed’AnalysedesSystèmes
EducatifsdespaysdelaCONFEMEN
(PASEC1993-1998);
•ProgrammeforInternationalStudent
Assessment(PISA2003);
•ProgressinInternationalReading
LiteracyStudy(PIRLS2001);
•SecondInformationTechnologyin
EducationStudy(SITES-M11997-
1999,SITES-M21999-2002,SITES-
M32006);
•SouthernandEastAfricaConsortium
forMonitoringEducationalQuality
(SACMEQ2000-2003);
•TrendsinInternationalMathematics
andScienceStudy(TIMSS2003);
•WorldEducationIndicators–Surveyof
PrimarySchools(WEI-SPS2004);and
•UNESCOBangkok:Asia-Paciic
RegionalSurvey(UAPRS2004).
136.Thesurveysvaryintheirapproachand
content,forinstance,referenceperiods,
targetpopulations,countrycoverage,
surveymethodologyanddatacollected.
Somesurveysfocusonmonitoringthe
presenceofICTinschools,whileothers
dealwithotheraspectsofformaleducation.
Thisdiversityclearlypresentschallenges
forcomparisonofresults.Despitethis,the
surveysdopresentsomeusefuldataon
ICTineducation.
137.Asamemberofthe
Partnership,UIShas
beenworkingonthedevelopmentofa
coresetof‘ICTineducation’indicators
throughconsultationswithcountriesat
regionalworkshops.Thesemeetingshave
presentedopportunitiesfordiscussionand
endorsementofthecoresetofeducation
indicatorsproposedbyUISattheWSISin
Tunis2005.Theproposedsetofeducation
indicators(seeTable24)isbeingconsidered
81
Chapter 6. ICT in education
foradditiontotheagreedcorelistofICT
indicators.Itislikelythatadecisionwill
bemadeatthe
Global Event on Measuring the Information Societyorganizedbythe
Partnershipfrom27-29May2008.
138.Inparallelwiththiswork,UIShas
undertakenaworld-widescopingstudyto
collectevidenceofcountries’preparedness
tosupplycomparabledatafortheproposed
educationindicators.Furtherconsultations
withcountriesandpartnersareanticipated
inordertodeterminethescopeofamore
substantivesurvey.Theviewsofcountries
andpartnerswillbesoughttodetermine
themosteffectiveapproachtosucha
datacollectionexercise.Thelessons
learntfromthepilotsurveyandcountry
consultationsarealsointendedtohelpUIS
todevisecapacity-buildingprioritiesfor
considerationbycountries.
Table 24. Core indicators for ICT in education proposed by UIS
Basic core indicators
ED1Percentageofschoolswithelectricity(byISCED
2
level1to3)
ED2Percentageofschoolswitharadiosetusedforeducationalpurposes(byISCEDlevel0to4)
ED3Percentageofschoolswithatelevisionsetusedforeducationalpurposes(byISCEDlevel0to4)
ED4Studenttocomputerratio(byISCEDlevel0to4)
ED5Percentageofschoolswithbasictelecommunicationinfrastructureortelephoneaccess(by
ISCEDlevel1to3)
ED6PercentageofschoolswithanInternetconnection(byISCEDlevel1to3)
ED7PercentageofstudentswhousetheInternetatschool(byISCEDlevel0to4)
3
Extended core indicators
ED8PercentageofstudentsenrolledbygenderatthetertiarylevelinanICT-relatedield(ISCED
level5to6)
ED9PercentageofICT-qualiiedteachersinprimaryandsecondaryschools(ofthetotalnumberof
teachers)
3
Source: UIS.
82
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
139.Inlate2006,UISundertookthescoping
studyreferredtoabove.Itsprimarygoal
wastoassessdataholdingsbycountries
intheareaofICTineducationinorder
toevaluatethepotentialforcomparable
measurementoftheproposedcoresetof
indicatorsshowninTable24.
140.Intotal,209countriesweresenta
questionnaireseekingdataonthefollowing
topics:
•ICTorrelatedresourcesinschools/
institutions(availabilityofelectricity,
telephoneline,radio,television,Internet
orsatelliteconnectivity,computersand
theirdedicateduseasteachingand
learningsupporttools);
•TimeallocatedtoICTclasses;
•TeacherstrainedforICTandthoseon
ICTteachingassignments;
•Tertiaryinstitutionsstudentsine-
learningcoursesorinICT-relatedields
ofstudy;and
•ExpendituresonICTineducation.
141.Thescopingstudyquestionnairewassent
tothesamecountrycontactswhocomplete
theannualUISeducationquestionnaire.
Inmostcases,thesecontactsarelocated
inthestatisticsunitsofministriesof
education.Forvariousreasons,UIS
experienceddelaysincountryresponse
andquestionnairesarestillbeingreceived.
AsofFebruary2008,theoverallresponse
ratewas46percent(97respondentsoutof
209countries,including14‘nilreturns’).
142.Informationfromthescopingstudyon
dataavailabilityforthecorelistofICTin
educationindicatorsisshowninTable25
below.ItindicatesthatED1,ED4,ED5
andED6arelikelytobethemostavailable
indicators.Itshouldbenotedthat,forover
halfthecountriesoftheworld,itisnot
knownwhetheranyoftheindicatorsare
available.TheavailabilityindicatedinTable
25isthereforehighlylikelytounderstate
thetrueavailabilityoftheindicators.
2. Measurement status
83
Chapter 6. ICT in education
143.Theresultsarenotsuficientlyconclusive
forUIStofeelstronglyoptimisticor
pessimisticregardingthepotentialfora
worldwidecollectionofthecoresetof
indicatorsonICTineducation.Thekey
unknownisthesituationfornon-responding
countries.Somereasonsthatcountries
couldlackICTineducationdatainclude:
•ICTin/foreducationisnotprominent
inthecountry’spublicpolicyagenda;
•TheapplicationofICTtoeducationis
limitedtoasmallnumberofpublicor
privateschools/institutions;
•UseofICTineducationisrestrictedto
vocational,post-secondaryandtertiary
educationinstitutions;
•AttemptstocollectICTineducation
datahaveprovenproblematicbecause
ofgapsincountries’capacities;and/or
•TheUIScontactinstitutionisnotthe
mandatedentityfornationalcollection
ofICTineducationstatistics(UIS
attemptedtotestthisassumption,but
withonlypartialsuccess).
144.Despitethemodestresponserate,the
sampleofrespondentcountriesprovides
ausefulbasisforre-engineeringtheUIS
surveysonICTineducation.Thereplies
indicatethatamoretailoredquestionnaire
approachmightbefeasible,basedon
groupsofcountrieswithhomogeneous
capacitiesandsimilarpolicyconcerns.
Somecommonalitiescouldberetained
forthesakeofensuringinternational
comparabilityforaminimumcoresetof
indicators.
Table 25. Summary of global measurement status by level of development:
4
ICT in education
5
IndicatorDevelopedTransitionDevelopingLeastdevelopedTotalnumber
economieseconomieseconomieseconomiesofeconomies
witheach
Proportionofeconomieswitheachindicator
6
indicator
ED141%21%32%14%69
ED210%5%13%6%25
ED38%11%20%6%33
ED424%21%28%4%51
ED539%21%31%6%63
ED631%16%32%2%57
ED722%16%23%2%43
ED833%5%16%8%40
ED910%21%28%2%44
Totaleconomies491912050238
Source: UIS.
84
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
145.Ananalysisoftrendswouldbepremature
onthebasisofthedataonthecoreindicators
calculatedfromtheUISscopingstudyasit
isairsttimeexercisethatdidnotaimto
collecttimeseriesdata.Moreover,many
ofthedatapointswererequestedmorefor
thepurposeofassessingormakingvalue
judgmentsonthepotentialavailabilityof
coreindicatordataratherthanasadata
collectionexercise
per se.However,with
thiscaveatinmind,someprovisionaldata
arepresentedinthechartsbelow.
146.Dataareshownbylevelofdevelopmentand
indicatelowlevelsofbasicinfrastructure
forsomedevelopingandleastdeveloped
economies.Somedevelopingeconomies
arerelativelyadvanced,especiallywith
regardtotertiarylevelenrolmentsinICT
studies.
3. Statistical summary
Chart 12. Percentage of schools with electricity, latest year available
Source: UIS.
Andorr
a
Australia
Estoni
a
Germany
Ireland
Latvia
Lithuania
Netherland
s
New Zealand
Norwa
y
Po
land
Po
rtugal
Slovenia
Spai
n
Sweden
United States
Armeni
a
Georgi
a
Republic of Moldova
Algeri
a
Anguilla
Argentina
Arub
a
Bahrain
Cameroon
Cayman Islands
Chin
a
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Cyprus
Dominica
El Salvado
r
Fi
ji
Grenad
a
Hong Ko
ng SAR Chin
a
Israel
Jamaic
a
Ku
wait
Lebanon
Macao SAR China
Malaysia
Mauritiu
s
Mongolia
Montserra
t
Namibia
Nicaragua
Nigeri
a
Occupied P
alestinian Te
rritor
y
Pa
nama
Qata
r
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Tu
nisia
Tu
rkey
Burund
i
Cambodia
Lesotho
Malawi
Mauritania
Niger
Zambia
Developed Economie
s T
ransitio
n
Economies
Developing Economies
Least Developed
Economie
s
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
85
Chapter 6. ICT in education
Chart 13. Percentage of schools with a radio for educational purposes,
latest year available
Source: UIS.
Andorra
New Zealand
Slovenia
Anguilla
Bahrai
n
Cayman
Islands
Cyprus
El Salvador
Grenada
Malaysi
a
Mexico
Mongolia
Montserra
t
Nicaragua
Urugua
y
Burundi
Lesoth
o
Zambia
Developed
Economies
Developing Economies
Least Developed
Economie
s
100%
80
%
60
%
40
%
20
%
0%
Chart 14. Percentage of schools with a telephone, latest year available
Source: UIS.
Andorr
a
Australia
Estoni
a
Fi
nland
German
y
Irelan
d
Latvia
Lithuania
Netherlands
New Zealan
d
Po
land
Po
rtugal
Sloveni
a
Spai
n
Sweden
United States
Armeni
a
Georgi
a
Republic of Moldova
Algeri
a
Anguilla
Argentin
a
Aruba
Bahrain
Cayman Islands
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Cyprus
Dominica
Dominican Republi
c
El Salvador
Fi
ji
Grenad
a
Hong K
ong SAR Chin
a
Israel
Jamaic
a
Ku
wai
t
Lebano
n
Macao SAR Chin
a
Malaysia
Mauritius
Mongoli
a
Montserrat
Namibi
a
Occupied Pa
lestinian Te
rrito
ry
Pa
nama
Pe
ru
Qatar
Saint Vincent and the Grenadine
s
Tu
nisi
a
Tu
rkey
Burundi
Lesoth
o
Zambi
a
Developed Economies
Tr
ansition
Economies
Developing Economies
Least
Develope
d
Economie
s
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
86
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Chart 15. Percentage of schools with an Internet connection,
7
latest year available
Source: UIS.
Chart 16. Percentage of students enrolled at the tertiary level
in an ICT-related ield, latest year available
Source: UIS.
Andorr
a
Estoni
a
Fi
nland
Po
land
Sloveni
a
Spain
United States
Armeni
a
Republic of Moldova
Algeri
a
Anguill
a
Argentin
a
Bahrain
Cameroon
Cayman Islands
Chil
e
Colombia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Cyprus
Dominica
Dominican Republi
c
El Salvador
Grenad
a
Lebano
n
Macao SAR Chin
a
Mauritius
Montserrat
Nicaragua
Occupied Pa
lestinian Te
rrito
ry
Pa
nama
Pe
ru
Qata
r
Saint Vincent and the Grenadine
s
Tu
nisi
a
Tu
rkey
Urugua
y
Zambi
a
Developed Economie
s T
ransition
Economie
s
Developing Economies
Least
Develope
d
Economie
s
100%
80%
60%
40%
20%
0%
Andorr
a
Australia
Estoni
a
German
y
Lithuania
Netherlands
New Zealan
d
Po
land
Po
rtugal
Sloveni
a
Spai
n
Switzerlan
d
United Kingdom
United States
Republic of Moldova
Argentin
a
British Virgin Islands
Cameroon
Chin
a
Colombi
a
Cyprus
El Salvador
Israel
Macao SAR Chin
a
Malaysia
Mauritius
Mexico
Mongoli
a
Occupied Pa
lestinian Te
rrito
ry
Tu
nisi
a
Urugua
y
Burund
i
Cambodia
Niger
United Republic of T
anzania
Developed Economies
Tr
ansition
Economies
Developing Economies
Least Develope
d
Economie
s
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
87
Chapter 6. ICT in education
147.UISiscontinuingtoexplorethe
availabilityofdatafortheproposedcore
indicatorsthroughregionalmeetings.In
February2007,anexpertgroupmeeting
onindicatorsontheuseofICTin
educationande-governmentwasjointly
organizedbyUNESCWAandUISin
Cairo.Aconsultativeworkshopwasheld
inDecember2007inAddisAbaba,in
cooperationwithUNECA.Theworkshop’s
objectiveswereto:
•IncludeAfricancountriesintheprocess
ofadoptionoftheUISproposedcore
setofindicatorsonICTineducation;
•Presentandreviewthescopingsurvey
resultsinordertoanalysechallenges
facedbycountriesandtoseekviews
onthemosteffectivestrategyfor
expandingdatacollectionactivitieson
ICTineducation;and
•Discussthefeasibilityofdeveloping
abroaderrangeofICTineducation
indicatorsadaptedtonationaland
regionalneedsandbasedonthe
programmeofworkcarriedoutbythe
UNESCOBangkokofice(whichhas
developedamanualoncollectingICT
ineducationindicators).
148.UISregionaladvisorsfromAsiaaswell
askeycountryrepresentativesfromthe
MiddleEastandNorthAfricatookpartin
theworkshop,whichledtothefollowing
conclusions:
•TheUIS-proposedcoreindicators
onICTineducationwereadopted.
Participantsstronglyrecommendedthat
UISproducedetaileddeinitionsofthe
variablestobecollectedbycountriesin
ordertoensureconsistentnationaldata
andinternationalcomparability.
•Themainchallengefacingnational
datacollectioneffortsinthisareaisthat
theintroductionofICTineducationin
manyregionsisatanearlystage,thus
conirmingUISviewsthatitwould
beprematuretocollecttheproposed
indicatorsforallcountriesinthenext
surveyonICTineducation.
•Theformationofaninternational
workinggroupofcountriescommitted
tocollectingdataformeasuring
ICTineducationwasendorsedby
workshopparticipants.UISwasinvited
todeveloptermsofreferencefor
theselectionofcandidatecountries.
CountrydiscussionsduringtheUIS
educationregionalworkshopsof2008
willbeheldtoidentifycandidatesfor
theinternationalWorkinggrouponICT
StatisticsinEducation(WISE).
149.Wishingtomaintainmomentumgenerated
bythescopingstudy,workshopparticipants
stronglysupportedtheideathatUISpursue
effortsunderthe
Partnershiptoencourage
capacity-buildingfordatacollectionon
ICTineducation.Inparticular,UISwill
supportregionalinitiativesbytheUN
commissionsaimedatcapacity-buildingin
thisarea.
150.Possiblefollow-upactionforthe
internationalworkinggroupincludes:
4. Regional activities
88
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
•Developmentofaprototypestatistical
instrument,standarddeinitions,a
usermanual,andindicatorguidelines
inconjunctionwithmembersofthe
Partnership.Participantswouldinclude
UNESCOBangkok,andleading
expertsonICTineducationfromLatin
AmericaandtheCaribbean,ArabStates
andAfrica;and
•Thelaunch,in2009,ofaninitialround
ofsurveysinrespectofworkinggroup
membercountries.
Notes
1
IncludingtheMillenniumDevelopmentGoals(UN,2007),theEducationforAllGoals(UNESCO,2007)andthe
WorldSummitfortheInformationSociety(WSIS,Geneva2003andTunis2005).
2
ISCEDistheInternationalStandardClassiicationofEducation.Thelevelsare:ISCED0–Pre-primaryeducation;
ISCED1–Primaryeducation;ISCED2–LowerSecondaryEducation;ISCED3–Uppersecondaryeducation;
ISCED4–Post-secondarynontertiaryeducation(programmesthatliebetweentheupper-secondaryand
tertiarylevelsofeducation);ISCED5–Firststageoftertiaryeducation,andISCED6–Secondstageoftertiary
education.
3
ThevaluesofED7andED9areproxies,thatis,thevaluesdisplayedarenotthetruevaluesoftheseindicatorsbut
areestimatedfromotherdata.
4
Annex1showstheeconomieswhichareincludedineach‘levelofdevelopment’and‘region’category.The
classiicationisbasedontheUNStatisticalDivision’s
Standard country or area codes for statistical use,seehttp://
unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49.htm.TheclassiicationwasrevisedinJanuary2008andisnowslightly
differentfromtheversionusedtoaggregatedataforthispublication.ThedifferencesaredetailedinAnnex1.
5
Availableorpartiallyavailable.ThetotaleconomycountincludescountriesfromwhichUISdoesnotcollect
data.
6
Thesituationisunknownfor141countries(outof238).Thepercentagesshownherearethereforelikelyto
understatetheavailabilityofindicators.
7
Thedataitemforallcountrieswaseither:percentageofschoolswithadialupconnectiononlyorpercentageof
schoolswithabroadbandconnectiononly.
89
Chapter 7. Measuring the impact of ICT
151.AssessingtheimpactofICToneconomies
andsocietiesiscriticaltonationaland
internationalICTpolicymaking.Muchof
theinterestindevelopinganICTindustry,
orpromotinguseofICTbybusinesses
andindividuals,hasbeenbasedonthe
potentialofICTtoimproveproductivity
andeconomicgrowth,andprovidesocial
beneits.
152.Thischapteroutlinesrecentworkinthis
areaandprovidessomesuggestionsfor
statisticalagenciestoconsiderintermsof
datacollectionandanalysis.Itconcludes
withasectionontheimpactofICTon
education,whichisbasedoninformation
providedbyUIS.
Chapter 7. Measuring the impact of ICT
1. Introduction
90
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
153.Overviewsoftheavailabletheoretical
approachesandempiricalevidencecan
befoundinrecentpublicationsincluding
ITU’s
World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report 2006: Measuring ICT for social and economic development
(ITU,2006),theOECDpaper“Measuring
theimpactsofICTusingoficialstatistics”
(OECD,2007b),UNCTAD’s
Information Economy Report 2007-2008(UNCTAD,
2007b)andUNECA’spublication
Project on Information Society (IS) indicators by the African Academia Research Network (ARN) – Current situation and prospects, 2007(UNECA,2007b).
154.ThemeasurementofICTimpactsis
challengingforanumberofreasons
including:
•Therangeofeffectsthatcanbe
characterizedasimpacts,forinstance,
strongorweakinluences,director
indirectimpacts,positiveandnegative
impacts,shortorlongtermimpacts,
intendedandunintendedimpacts,
intermediateandinalimpacts;
•Therangeofpossiblestatistical
approachestoimpactmeasurement,
combinedwithalackofbothcomparable
measurementmodelsanddata;
•Thelargerangeofpotentialimpact
measures,relectingthescopeofthe
informationsocietyandtheinteractions
betweenitselements;
•Thegeneralchallengeinmeasuring
impactsofanykind(demonstratingthe
impactofonefactoronanothercanbe
dificultbecauseapositivecorrelation
cannotreadilybeattributedtoacause-
and-effectrelationship);and
•ThenatureofICTitself;asexplained
byITU(2006),measuringtheimpactof
ICTcanbecomparedwithmeasuring
theimpactofelectricity,“Partof
thedificultyisthatbothICTsand
electricityare“enabling”or“General
PurposeTechnologies”…which
meanstheiruseandtheirimpactsare
ubiquitousyetdificulttomeasure
becausetheyaremainlyindirect.It
isnotelectricityorICTsassuchthat
makethe(bulk)impactoneconomy
andsocietybuthowtheyareusedto
transformorganization,processesand
behaviours.”(OECD,2007b).
155.Itisbeyondthescopeofthischapterto
reviewtheseissuesindepth;instead,
readersarereferredtothereferences
providedabove.However,wewillexamine
oneofthemoreprominentareasofICT
impactmeasurement,thatis,useofmicro
dataanalysistoassesstheimpactofICT
onproductivityattheirmlevel.Firm
levelstudiesofICTimpactsarebasedon
linkingstatisticsfromvarioussources,
wherethelinkeddatacanincludestatistics
onirmperformance,ICTuse,innovation
andorganizationalfactors.TheOECD
startedcoordinatingsuchworkamong
membercountriesintheearly2000sand
Pilat(2004)providesahistoryofthose
earlyefforts.
2. Statistical work on measuring the impact of ICT
91
Chapter 7. Measuring the impact of ICT
156.Therearevariousapproachestoanalysing
irmleveldata,aswellasavarietyofdata
sourcesused.Whilethisdiversityhas
somebeneits,italsolimitscross-country
comparison.Workiscurrentlyunderway
amongstEuropeanUnioncountriesto
developacomparablemethodologyfor
measuringirmlevelimpacts.Theproject
isfundedbyEurostatandledbytheUnited
Kingdom’sOficeforNationalStatistics.
ItsaimistoassessICTimpactsbylinking
irmleveldatafromdifferentsources,
eachofwhichiscomparableacrossEU
countries.Theprojectisscheduledto
concludein2008,withdeliveryofanalysis
andrecommendationsforindicators
(OECD,2007b).
157.Somegeneralizedindingsfromirm
levelstudies(Eurostat,2007b)arethat
ICTaffectsproductivityinapositiveway
–forexample,throughhardwareand
softwareinvestment,throughirmlevel
useofmultipleelectronicbusinesslinks,
andthroughgreateremployeeengagement
withcomputersandtheInternet(especially
withhighspeedbroadband).
158.Theextentofthegaindiffersaccording
tothetypeofirm–forexampleacross
industries(withsomeserviceindustries
showingaparticularlystrongeffect),
betweenyoungandestablishedirms
(withtheformershowinggreatergains
fromITinvestment),andbetweenirms
withdifferentownershipandgeographic
scope.Therearealsorelationshipswith
otherirmattributes,forinstance,thereis
agreaterpositiveimpactwhereirmshave
moreixedinvestment,ahighernumber
ofskilledemployeesandagreaterlevelof
innovativeactivity(Eurostat,2007b).
159.Amongdevelopingeconomies,theThai
NationalStatisticalOficehasconducted
ajointresearchprojectwithUNCTADto
assessthelinkbetweenICTuseandlabour
productivityinThaimanufacturingirms.
ThestudywaspartofabroaderUNCTAD
initiativetoimproveICTmeasurement
andistheirstknownexampleofuseof
oficialstatisticstomeasuretheimpactof
ICTonlabourproductivityindeveloping
economies.
160.ThestudyfoundthattheuseofICT
(computers,theInternetandwebpresence)
byThaimanufacturersisassociatedwith
signiicantlyhighersalesperemployee.
Importantly,theuseofeventhemostbasic
oftheseICTs–computers–accountsfor
largedifferencesinlabourproductivity
betweenirms.Furthermore,variations
intheintensityofcomputeruseresulted
inlargerproductivitydifferentials,for
example,a10percentincreaseinthe
shareofemployeesusingcomputerswas
associatedwitha3.8percentriseinlabour
productivity(UNCTAD,2007b).
161.Thestudy’sindingssupportthehypothesis
thatbusinessesindevelopingeconomies
canbeneitfromtheuseofICT,even
simpleICTssuchascomputers.While
furtheranalysisisneededtoidentify
thecomplementaryfactorsthatleadto
productivitygainsfromICT,theimportance
ofimpactmeasurementindeveloping
economiesisevident.
162.Individualeconomiesthatareinterested
inincludingimpactsmeasuresinsurveys
shouldconsideritatthesurveydesign
stage.Forinstance,microdataanalysis
canbeperformedusingdatafromasingle
surveysource,providedthatthesource
collectstherequisiteICTandperformance
data.ThepossibilityoflinkingICTdata
withdatafromothersourcessuchas
taxationdataordatafromotherbusiness
surveysshouldalsobeconsideredat
thedesignstage(UNCTAD,2007a).An
importantfactorhereisthatthematchrate
ofunitsfromthedifferencesourcesshould
bemaximizedformeaningfulanalysis.
Forexample,ifthematchiswithtaxation
data,itisusefuliftaxationrecordsareused
asthebasisofthepopulationframeused
forthesurvey.Ifthematchiswithdata
fromothersurveys,maximumoverlapof
92
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
unitsbetweensurveysandacommonunit
identiierarenecessary.Whilethisoften
occursforlargerunits,arguably,thereis
moreinterestintheICT-productivitylink
forsmallandmediumsizedbusinesses.
1
163.OtherareasofICTimpactsmeasurement
thatstatisticalagenciescouldexplore
aredescribedinOECD(2007b).Inthe
economicarea,theyinclude:
•CompilationofanICTsatelliteaccount
(pertheworkofAustraliaandChile)
basedonSystemofNationalAccounts
(SNA93)standardsandICTstatistical
standards(forexample,thedeinition
ofICTgoods);and
•Impactperceptionsmeasures;theseare
simplequestionsthatcanbeincluded
inabusinesssurvey;examplesare
includedinmodelquestionnairesofthe
OECDandEurostat.
164.Inthesocialarea,countriescouldconsider
thefollowing(alsofromOECD,2007b):
•Includingquestionsontheperception
ofICTimpactsonhouseholdsurvey
questionnaires;
•Usingtimeusesurveystocollect
informationontimespentonICT
activitiesbyindividuals;
•Useofhouseholdexpendituresurveys
tocollectinformationonhouseholdICT
budgets;and
•Useoflabourforceorotherhousehold
surveystocollectstatisticson
‘teleworking’andotherchangesinwork
patternsthataredrivenbyICT.
165.Inalltheseareas,statisticalagencies
shouldconsiderissuesofharmonization.
Whereinternationalstandardsexist(for
instance,theSNA,ICTstatisticsstandards,
methodologiesandclassiicationsfor
timeuseandhouseholdexpenditure
surveys),theseshouldbeutilizedinorder
tomaximizethepotentialforcomparing
resultsacrosseconomies.
93
Chapter 7. Measuring the impact of ICT
166.Althoughpolicymakershopetoachieve
positiveoutcomesfromapplyingICTto
education,thereisstillnotmuchwidespread
evidenceofpositiveimpactsofICTon
educationalgoals–andoftensuchevidence
isqualiiedbyreferencetoparticular
conditions(forinstance,thataccessto
ICTatschoolalonemaybeinsuficient
toaffectstudentachievement).However,
theintroductionofICTintheeducation
sectorcanbequitecostly,intermsofboth
thecapitalcostsofbasicinfrastructure
(hardware,softwareandconnectivity)and
therecurrentcostsofmaintenanceand
humanresourcesdevelopment.Therefore,
anycredibleevidenceofimpacts–positive
ornegative–wouldplayanessentialrole
indecision-makinginthisarea.
167.AsearchofexistingliteraturebyUIS
revealsthatalotmoreneedstobelearned
aboutthecost-effectivenessofinvestment
inthisareaforachievingeducational
goals.Evenfordevelopedeconomies,
hardevidenceofpositiveimpactofICTon
students’achievementisscant,although
someexists.Forinstance,the1999TIMSS-
Rstudy
2
showedthatstudentproiciencyin
mathematicsislowerwhenteachersusea
computerbutthatstudentswithInternet
accessathomehadahigheraverage
proiciencyinsciencethanthosewithout
Internetaccess(thosewithInternetaccess
athomeaswellasschoolhadevenhigher
averageproiciency).
3
168.TheOECD’sProgrammeforInternational
StudentAssessment(PISA)surveyswere
conductedin2000,2003and2006.They
assesstheperformanceof15-yearold
studentsintheprincipalindustrialized
economies.The2003surveyassessed
proiciencyinmathematics,reading,
scienceandcross-curricularproblem
solving.However,themainfocuswason
mathematics.Analysisofresultsshows
that,forallcountriesinthesurvey,the
mathematicsperformanceofstudents
withoutaccesstocomputersathomewas
signiicantlybelowthatofthosewith
homeaccess.Importantly,in23outofthe
31countriesinthestudy,aperformance
advantageremainedevenafteraccounting
fordifferentsocio-economicbackgrounds
ofstudents.Thereisalsoaperformance
advantageassociatedwithschoolaccessto
computersthough,formostcountries,itis
lessmarked.
169.Thehighestperformancesinboth
mathematicsandreadingtendedtobefrom
studentswithamediumlevelofcomputer
use,whichsuggeststhatexcessivecomputer
usecouldhaveanegativeimpactonschool
performance(OECD,2005a).The2003
PISAstudyalsorevealedthatstudents
withInternetaccessathomehadahigher
proiciencyinreadingthanthosewhodo
not(seeChart17below).
3. The impact of ICT in education
94
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Chart 17. Link between Internet access at home and student proiciency
Source: UIS, original source PISA 2003 (OECD).
Notes
1
NSOsoftenprefertominimizeoverlapbetweenthesampledsectorsofbusinesssurveysinordertoreduce
respondentburden.Whereoneofthesurveystobematchedisacensus,thissituationdoesnotapply(thiswillbe
thecaseforsomeeconomicsurveyswhichareconductedasperiodiccensuses).
2
ThirdInternationalMathematicsandScienceStudy-Repeat:TIMSS1999,alsoknownasTIMSS-Repeat(TIMSS-
R),measuredprogressineighth-grademathematicsandsciencearoundtheworld.TIMSS1999providedcountries
thatparticipatedinthe1995testingwithtrenddataatGrade8.Thefour-yearperiodbetweentheirstandsecond
datacollectionsawthepopulationofstudentsoriginallyassessedasfourthgradersmoveontoGrade8.This
developmentallowedcountriesthatparticipatedin1995atGrade4tocomparetheperformanceoffourth-graders
inthatyearwiththeirperformanceaseighth-gradersin1999.Asinthe1995study,TIMSS1999alsoinvestigated,
throughbackgroundquestionnaires,thecontextforlearningmathematicsandscienceintheparticipatingcountries.
Informationwascollectedabouteducationalsystems,curriculum,instructionalpractices,andcharacteristicsof
students,teachers,andschools.
3
Giventhattheseresultspredatemuchofthedevelopmentoftheinformationsociety,arguably,theirimportancelies
inprovidinganindicationofthetypeofanalysisthatispossibleratherthanrelevantinformation.
T
unisi
a
I
ndonesi
a
Serbia
M
exico
Braz
il
Thailan
d
Russi
a
Urugua
y
Greece
Icelan
d
Ital
y
Luxembourg
Spai
n
Denm
ar
k
Portuga
l
Slovak Repub
l
Maca
o
Norway
US
Latvia
Turkey
Austri
a
Cz
ech
Switzerlan
d
Hong Kong
German
y
Hungary
UK
France
Japan
Sweden
Netherlands
Poland
Irelan
d
Belg
iu
m
Liechtenstei
n
Australi
a
New Zealan
d
Canada
Kore
a
Finlan
d
Mean Test Scores (Reading)
M
ean T
est Score (Reading) of students wi
th an Internet link at hom
e
M
ean T
est Score (Reading) of students w
ho do not have an Internet link at hom
e
Non-OECD Countries
OECD Av
erage:
51
7
OECD Av
erage:
45
6
60
0
550
50
0
45
0
40
0
35
0
95
Chapter 8. Conclusions and future work
170.Thereisastrongpolicyinterestworldwide
inICTanditsimpactsonsociety.The
importantroleofhighqualityand
comparableICTstatisticsininforming
policymakingisacknowledgedatthe
globallevel,forinstancethroughthe
GenevaandTunisphasesofWSIS.Atthe
countrylevel,thisrolemaybelessclear
anditishopedthatthispublicationwill
encouragemoreengagementbyNSOs
withtheinternationalorganizationsthat
areguidingdevelopmentsinthisield.
1.1 The state of the information society
171.The41coreindicatorspresentedinthe
statisticalsummariesofthispublication,
togetherpresentaviewoftheglobal
informationsociety–andthepicture
theypresentisahighlyconsistentone.
Developedeconomiesingeneral,along
withseveraldevelopingeconomiesinAsia,
arewelladvancedasusersandproducers
ofICT.Theyhavegoodinfrastructureat
reasonablecost,andpenetrationofICTin
theirbusinessesandhouseholdsishigh.
UseofICTbybusinessesandindividualsin
theseeconomiesisgrowingandbecoming
moresophisticated(nodoubtdueto
increasingaccesstobroadbandInternet).
TheyspendalotofmoneyimportingICT
goodsandmanyofthemaresigniicant
producersofICTgoodsand/orservices.
Inthiscontext,theriseofsomeofthe
developingeconomiesofAsia(China,in
particular)asexportersofICTgoodsis
notable.
172.Whiledataforothereconomiesisscarcer,it
isclearthattheirlevelsofICTinfrastructure
andaccessaregenerallylowerand,ona
per capitabasis,moreexpensive.Despite
this,thereareencouragingsigns,including
stronggrowthinmobilephoneuseand
internationalbandwidth
per capita,strong
growthinICTimports,andrelativelyhigh
levelsofuseofcommercialInternetaccess
facilitiesinmanycountries.
173.RegardingICTineducation(Chapter6),
theoverallpictureisnotasclearasfor
otherindicators,thoughthereisadisparity
betweendevelopedandmanylessdeveloped
economies,especiallyconcerningInternet
connectioninschools.Aswiththeother
indicators,somedevelopingeconomiesare
relativelyadvanced,especiallywithregard
totertiarylevelenrolmentsinICTstudies.
Chapter 8. Conclusions and future work
1. Conclusions
96
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
1.2 Data gaps and deiciencies
174.Inadiscussionofthestateofinformation
societymeasurement,itisirstnecessary
todistinguishthosecoreindicatorsthatare
basedonreasonablyavailabledatasources,
fromthosethatrequiretheconductof
statisticalsurveys.Intheformercategory
aretradedata(providingdatafortheICT
tradeindicators,ICT3andICT4)andthe
infrastructuredatacollectedbytheITU(A1
toA12).Theotherindicatorsareusually
collectedusinghouseholdorbusiness
surveysandarethereforeexpectedtobe
lessavailable,becauseofthesigniicant
resourcesandstatisticalinfrastructure
requiredtoconductsurveys.
175.Aquickreviewoftheglobalmeasurement
statustablesineachchaptershowsthe
clearrelationshipbetweendataavailability
andtherequirementtoconductsurveys.
Mostoftheinfrastructureindicators(Table
2)andboththeICTtradeindicators(Table
21)areavailableforahighproportion
ofcountries,irrespectiveoftheirlevel
ofdevelopment.Infact,formostofthe
infrastructureindicators,availabilityis
higherforleastdevelopedeconomiesthan
fordevelopedeconomies.Forthetwo
tradeindicators,availabilityissimilarfor
alllevelsofdevelopment.Tradestatistics
havebeencompiledformanyyearsandare
readilyavailable.
176.Itisalsolikelythattheinfrastructureand
tradeindicatorsareofhigherqualityand
moreinternationallycomparablethanthe
otherindicators.Thisisbecausetheyare
basedonlongestablishedconceptsand
deinitionsand,especiallyfortradedata,a
standardizedcollectionframework.
177.Thepredominantconcernhereismorefor
thosecoreICTindicatorsthataresurvey-
basedandthereforepresentcollection
challengesforcountries(collecting
theseindicatorsimplieseitheradding
ICTquestionstoexistingsurveysor
developingnewstand-aloneICTsurveys,
whichisresourceintensive).Areview
oftheglobalmeasurementstatustables
forthoseindicatorsshowsthatmostof
thehouseholdindicators(HH1toHH13)
arereasonablyavailablefordeveloped
economiesbut,sofar,havelowavailability
forotherlevelsofdevelopment(Table
7).Inparticular,formostoftheleast
developedeconomies,noindividualICT
useindicatorsareavailableyet.With
respecttothebusinessuseindicators(B1
toB12),todate,fewdevelopingeconomies
collectanyoftheindicatorsandnoleast
developedeconomiescollectthem(Table
15).Thesituationfordevelopedand
transitioneconomiesismoreadvanced,
withabouttwothirdsofdeveloped
economies,andaboutaquartertoathird
oftransitioneconomies,collectingmostof
thehouseholdandbusinessindicators.
178.ICTsectorindicators(ICT1andICT2)are
usuallycollectedviaindustrysurveysthat
aredesignedtocollectnationalaccounts
dataandarethereforenotICT-speciic.
Unfortunately,thedeinitionoftheICT
sectorrequiresdatacollectionatthe
detailed(4-digit)industrylevelandthis
levelofdetailisnotrequiredfornational
accountspurposes.Theresultisthatmany
countriesarenotabletoprovideICT
sectordataandthosethatdo,frequently
cannotprovidedataaccordingtothe
internationalstandarddeinitionoftheICT
sector.DataavailabilityfortheICTsector
indicatorsisshowninTable20andreveals
similarpatternstotheothersurvey-based
indicators.Abouttwothirdsofdeveloped
economiesareabletoprovidedataforthe
ICTsectorindicators.Thisreducesfor
subsequentlevelsofdevelopment,with
noneoftheleastdevelopedeconomiesable
toprovideeitheroftheindicators.
179.However,progresshasbeenmadeinthe
collectionofthesurvey-basedindicators.
Theworkofthe
Partnershipinproviding
standardizedindicatorsandrelated
metadatahasencouragedmorecountries
tostartcollectionwork.Thesigniicant
97
Chapter 8. Conclusions and future work
workofthepartnersinbuildingcapacityis
payingdividendsandwillcontinuetodoso
inthefuture(seeChapter1foradescription
oftheseefforts).
1
Theworkbeingdonein
someregionsisalsoveryencouraging,
especiallybycountriesofLatinAmerica
andtheCaribbean(seeboxes2and3for
moreinformation).
180.Clearly,moreworkisrequiredtobetter
harmonizethesurvey-basedindicators.
Currently,thereareseveralsourcesof
incompatibilityfortheseindicators;these
canbeviewedatthesurveyandtheitem
(question)level.Regardingtheformer,
differencesinsurveyscopemayhavea
largeimpact,especiallywherethescopeis
eithermuchbroaderornarrowerthanthe
scopesuggestedforthecoreindicators.
VariationsinthescopeoftheICTsector
werediscussedinChapter5andare
particularproblematic.Thesameissue
appliestobusinessuseindicators,where
surveyscopemayvaryintermsofbusiness
sizeand/orindustry.Forhousehold
surveys,scopedifferencesrelatingtoage
ofindividualsincludedinthesurveymay
besigniicantwhere,forinstance,the
scopeofaparticularsurveyincludesmore
highlevelusersandfewerlowlevelusers.
181.Differencesindeinitionsorresponse
categoriesdirectlyaffectcomparability
foranumberofindicators.Thosethatare
apparentlymostaffectedaretheICTaccess
anduseindicatorsinvolvingactivities
(HH10andB12)andtypeofInternetaccess
(HH12andB9).Foractivitiesresponse
categories,thereareoftendifferencesin
whatisincludedineachcategory.Forthe
Internetaccessindicators,thereisvariation
inhowthecategoriesaredeined.A
particularproblemisthatitisstilldificult
forcountriestocreatecategoriesthat
enabletheaggregationofInternetaccess
servicestobroadbandandnarrowband.
Itshouldbenotedthatitispossibleto
havenarrowerresponsecategoriesthan
thoserecommendedaslongastheydonot
overlapthecoreindicatorcategories.
2
182.InChapter7,wedescribedthepolicy
interestintheimpactofICTandoutlinedthe
complexitiesofitsmeasurement.Clearly,
moreworkisrequiredondevelopmentof
impactsconceptsandmeasurementmodels
aswellasondatacollection.Anareaof
particularinterestismeasurementofthe
impactofICTonbusinessperformance
andproductivity.Evidencefromanumber
ofstudiesindicatespositiveeffectsfor
businessesfromusingICT.Effortsby
Europeancountriestodevelopcomparable
modelsformeasuringirmlevelimpactsof
ICTattheirmlevelwillbefollowedwith
interestbythoseinterestedinthisieldof
statistics.
183.Onthesocialside,thepictureismuchless
clear.Thereislittlestatisticalinformation
availableandanecdotalevidenceindicates
bothpositiveandnegativeimpactsfor
individualsandsocietythroughgreateruse
ofindividualICT.Anexampleisaccess
tobroadband,whichwouldusuallybe
consideredasbeneicialbytheindividuals
whouseitforvariouspurposes.However,
someofthosepurposes,suchasillegal
downloadingofmusicormovies,are
negativeinabroadersense.Othernegative
effectsaresuggestedbythe2003PISA
study(OECD,2005a)whichfoundthatthe
highestperformancesinmathematicsand
readingwereassociatedwithamedium,
ratherthanhigh,levelofcomputeruseby
students.
1.3 Recommendations
184.Closeradherencetothecoreindicators
deinitionsandmethodologicalrecommen-
dationswouldsolvealargenumberof
thecomparabilityissuesthataffectthe
statistics.Countriesareurgedtocarefully
considerthecoreindicatorswhendesigning
orre-designingICTsurveys.
185.Itshouldbenotedthatthecoreindicators,
andtheirassociatedmetadata,aresubjectto
change.Someminorchangeshavealready
occurredsincetheywereirstreleasedat
98
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
theendof2005.Thesehavemainlybeen
duetochangesintechnologies;seeannexes
3and4fordetails.Otherchangestothe
coreindicatorscouldbeconsidered,based
onchangingpolicyinterestsandcollection
experiences.Anexampleofthelatteristo
changethedenominatorusedtocalculate
theICTsectorindicators;thiswasdiscussed
inChapter5.Animportantconsideration,
whencontemplatingchangestothecore
indicatorconceptsanddeinitions,ishow
besttoretainthetimeseriesvalueof
existingdata.
186.Somechangestothecoreindicators
willoccurbecauseofotherstatistical
developments,notablytheintroductionof
ISICRev.4andtheCPCVer.2.Thesewill
affectthedeinitionsoftheICTsectorand
ICTgoodsrespectively,therebychanging
thedeinitionsofICT1toICT4.Arevised
deinitionoftheICTsectorbasedonISIC
Rev.4alreadyexists(seeOECD,2007afor
details)butisunlikelytobeimplemented
bycountriesforsometime.Asdiscussed
inChapter5,theimplementationofISIC
Rev.4presentsanopportunityforcountries
tore-designtheirindustrystatistics
programsand,intheprocess,changetheir
measurementpracticesfortheICTsector.
187.Whilemostdevelopedeconomies
incorporateICTstatisticsintheirongoing
statisticalprograms,thesamegeneralization
isnottrueoflessdevelopedeconomies,
manyofwhichrunsurveysonan
ad hoc
basis.Thisissuboptimalforseveralreasons
3
anditissuggestedthatthoseeconomies
attempttoincorporateICTsurveysinto
theirmainstreamstatisticalprograms.
188.Itisstronglysuggestedthatcountriesuse
theresourcesofthe
Partnershipandits
partnerstoprogressdevelopmentwork
inICTstatistics.Anumberofuseful
referenceshavebeendiscussedinthis
publicationandinclude:
•PartnershiponMeasuringICTfor
Development(2005c),
Core ICT Indicators,NewYork/Geneva,http://
measuring-ict.unctad.org;
•OECD(2007a),
Guide to Measuring the Information Society,Paris,www.
oecd.org/sti/measuring-infoeconomy/
guide;
•UNCTAD(2007a),
Manual for the Production of Statistics on the Information Economy,Geneva,http://
measuring-ict.unctad.org/;and
•Eurostat(2007a),
Methodological Manual for Statistics on the Information Society, Survey year 2007 v2.0,Luxembourg,http://europa.
eu.int/estatref/info/sdds/en/isoc/isoc_
metmanual_2007.pdf.
189.TheITUisdevelopingamanualfor
measuringhousehold/individualICT
accessanduse,whichisexpectedtobe
releasedintheirsthalfof2008.
99
Chapter 8. Conclusions and future work
190.Insettinganagendaforthefuture,the
Partnershipisguidedbytheobjectivesofits
secondphase.Importantamongsttheseare
theextensionofthecoreICTindicatorsto
includecoreindicatorsforICTineducation
(Chapter6)ande-governmentindicators
(seebelow).Thecoreindicators,including
theproposededucationindicators,will
beconsideredatthe2008
Global Event on Measuring the Information Society
organizedbythe
Partnershipfrom27-29
May2008inGeneva.
191.Activitiessuchascapacity-buildingand
provisionoftechnicalresourceswill
continueandwillprobablyexpand.In
addition,itislikelythatmoreeffort
willbedevotedtoraisingawarenessof
theimportanceofICTindicatorsfor
policymaking.
2.1 Creation of an ICT indicators database
192.Anotherimportantobjectiveofthe
PartnershipistohaveanInternet-based
platformfordisseminationofcore
indicatordata.In2006,aTaskGroupon
DataDevelopment(TGDD)wasformedto
pursuethisobjective.TheTGDDisledby
theWorldBank,whichhadstartedwork
onconceptualizingaglobalICTdatabase,
withanintendedreleaseaboutmid2008.
193.However,thoseplansarenowbeingrevised
inthelightofUNSDdevelopmentworkon
adataportalthatwillincludearangeofUN
data,includingtheICTindicatorsfortarget
18oftheMillenniumDevelopmentGoals
(ixedtelephonelines,mobilecellular
subscribersandInternetusers).Discussions
aboutincludingothercoreICTindicators
intheUNdataportalareplanned.Themain
beneitstothe
PartnershipofusingtheUN
portalarethegreatervisibilityandtechnical
infrastructureofferedbysuchaplatform.
2.2 Development of e-government indicators
194.AsdiscussedinChapter1,thecurrent
Partnershipcorelistisnotintendedtobe
ainallist,asitdoesnotcoverallareas
oftheinformationsociety.Membersof
the
Partnershiphaveagreedtofurther
developspeciicareasincludinge-
government.UNECAhasagreedto
coordinatedevelopmentofe-government
indicatorsandleadstheTaskGroupon
eGovernment.
195.BasedonvariouskeyfunctionsofICT,
thefollowingtopicsareproposedby
UNECAasastartingpointfordeiningan
exhaustivelistofe-governmentindicators
forthe
Partnership
:
•Publicsectormanagement;
•Deliveryofpublicservices;
•Legalandjudicialreforms;
•Policy,legalandregulatory
frameworks;
•Strengtheningthecapacityof
parliaments;and
•Empoweringlocalauthorities.
2. Future work
100
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
196.FutureplansaretoworkwiththeUnited
NationsDepartmentofEconomicand
SocialAffairs(UNDESA)tofurther
developtheindicators,includingtheir
scopeanddeinitions.UNECAexpects
topresenttheindicatorsattheAfricanas
wellasinternationallevelsforreviewby
Partnershipmembersandothers.
2.3 Regional plans
2.3.1 Africa
197.InevaluatingPhaseIofScan-ICTinAfrica
(seeChapter1),regulatorsandstatisticians
foundtheprocessandoutcomesuseful
forimplementationonalargerscale.This
indingconcordswiththeoutcomesfrom
PhaseIofWSIS,whichurgedcountries
toregularlyreviewactivitiesrelatedto
ICTdeployment,developmentanduse.In
PhaseIIoftheScan-ICTinitiative,NSOs,
nationalobservatoriesforICTandICT
ministriesfromparticipatingcountries
havebeenidentiiedaspartneragencies
toundertakecountrystudies.Currently,
theprogrammeisbeingimplementedin
ivecountries:Cameroon,Gambia,Ghana,
MauritiusandRwanda.Theultimategoal
ofScan-ICTistocreateapan-AfricanICT
networkthatwouldcollect,analyseand
disseminateICT4D(ICTfordevelopment)
indicators.
298.Scan-ICTIIcountriesareexpectedto
developadocumentonmethodologywhich
willinclude:prioritythemeareas;selected
indicators;datacollectionandanalysis;
developmentofsurveyinstruments;
geographicalcoverage;andpublication
anddissemination.Inaddition,theywill
developcountryproileswithbaselinedata
andconductqualitativeanalysisonICTuse
andimpactintheprioritythemeareas.The
outcomeswillbepublishedonanational
Scan-ICTwebsiteanddatabase.The
processhasbeenlaunchedwithnational
consultationworkshopsinallparticipating
countries,whichhaveidentiiedthecore
ICT4Dindicatorsandmethodology.
199.InScan-ICTPhaseII,UNECAdeveloped
acomprehensiveframeworkforthe
developmentofinformationsociety
measurementindicators.Atoolkitwas
builtonthemethodologydeveloped
aspartoftheScan-ICTPhaseIpilot
project.Itincorporatesaframeworkfor
thedevelopmentofsuitableindicatorsfor
assessingthestatusofthedevelopment,
deploymentanduseofICTinAfrican
countries.
200.Themethodologyisbasedontheso-called
‘CUT’model
4
andincorporatesspeciic
frameworksfor:
•DevelopmentofICT-relatedindicators
fortheICTsector;services,industry
andcommerce,agriculture,education,
health,andthepublicsector;
•Developingindicatorstargetedat
measuringthestatusoftheuseofICT
toimplementapplicationareassuchas:
e-government,e-commerce,e-business,
e-education,e-healthandtelemedicine;
•Classifyingindicatorsintermsof
ICT4Dpolicyfocusareasincluding
infrastructuredevelopment,universal
accessandservices,legaland
regulatoryinstitutionalframeworksand
environment;and
•Classifyingindicatorsintermsof
featuresoftheinformationand
knowledgeeconomyandsociety(e.g.
highincomeeconomydominatedby
tradinginICTproductsandservices).
201.ECA’sAcademiaResearchNetwork(ARN)
hasdevelopedanevolvingandmodular
conceptualframeworkforimpactindicators
inAfricancountries.Futureworkwillfocus
onimplementationofimpactindicators
atcountryandinstitutionlevelsinorder
toaddressthebasicfactorshinderingor
stimulatingtheuseandimpactofICT.
2.3.2 Latin America and the Caribbean
5
202.TheObservatoryfortheInformation
SocietyinLatinAmericaandthe
101
Chapter 8. Conclusions and future work
Caribbean(OSILAC)iscurrentlycreating
aninformationsystem
6
designedtostore
datafromalltheLACcountriesthatcollect
informationonICT.Itisintendedthat
thesystemwillbecomeaninstrumentto
assistnationalandregionalpolicymaking,
withtheultimategoalbeingthebeneitof
societyasawhole.
203.OSILACplanstoexaminetheeconomic
andsocialimpactofICTonpeople’slives,
andonirms’organizationaldevelopment
andproductivity.Individualcountries,
throughtheirNSOs,arealsoperforming
analysesofICTaccessanduse(examples
aretheBrazilian,DominicanRepublicand
Uruguayanstatisticalagencies).
7
204.Theimportanceofharmonizingvariables
andmethodologiesisrecognized.Issues
stillpendingincludetheperiodtobe
coveredbyICTquestions,relevantage
bracketsforquestionsonindividualICT
use,thedenominatorusedtocalculate
indicatorsforICTuse(e.g.thewhole
populationorthein-scopepopulation)
andthecomparabilityofstatisticalunitsin
differentlydesignedsurveys(inparticular,
businesssurveys).
205.Thereisalsoemphasisontheneedto
improvemeasurementofICTaccessand
useineducationalinstitutions,health-
careorganizations,andnationalandlocal
governmentinstitutions.Measurementof
useinsportsinstitutions,culturalcentres
andpublicInternetaccessestablishments
hasbeenproposedinordertodetermine
theextenttowhichindividualsareusing
theInternetinpubliclyavailablelocations.
206.Countriesoftheregionarebeingurged
toincreasemeasurementoftheICT
sector,includingtheimpactofthesector’s
productiononjobcreation,valueadded,
importsandexports.Somecountriesare
alreadytakingsuchsteps,withChile,
notably,beingoneoftheveryfewcountries
intheworldtocompileanICTsatellite
account.
207.AthirdphaseofOSILAC(2008to
2010)willextendworkonICTstatistics,
including:
•Furtheranalysisofdeterminantsfor,
andimpactsof,ICTaccessanduse;
•Expansionoftheon-lineinformation
systemreferredtoabove,inorderto
facilitatepublicaccesstoindicatorsand
projectoutputs;and
•Continuationandexpansionof
workoncapacity-buildingthrough
methodologicalguidesandtraining.
208.OSILACalsohasamonitoringrolein
respectofpoliciesandprojectsconnected
totheimplementationoftheRegional
ActionPlaneLAC.Itrecentlypresentedits
thirdmonitoringexerciseoftheRegional
PoliticalActionPlan(OSILAC,2007),
8
in
anattempttooutlinetheregion’ssituation
anddelineatethechallengesremainingin
theareaofICT.Thecurrentmonitoring
methodologyisbasedonthelessonslearned
inthetwopreviousexercises(Hilbertand
Olaya,2005;OSILAC,2005).
9
2.3.3 Western Asia and the Arab region
209.Thestatisticalpublication
Regional Proile of the Information Society in Western Asia
(UNESCWA,2007c)willhelpUNESCWA
membercountriestomonitorprogressin
theadoptionanduseofICTandtomake
comparisonswithothercountriesinthe
region.Thisshouldpromotecooperation
andregionalintegrationopportunitiesin
anincreasinglyknowledge-basedglobal
economy.
210.UNESCWAisplanningastudyonthe
impactofICToncommunitydevelopment
inUNESCWAmembercountries.The
studywillbebasedonmeasurementofthe
impactofICToncommunitydevelopment;
itsresultsshouldassistmembercountries
todevelopprogrammesforimprovingICT
accessinruralandremoteareas.Statistics
willbecollectedviasurveystargeting
102
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
ICTaccesscentresinvariousUNESCWA
membercountries.
211.Aconference,
Regional Follow-up on the Outcome of the World Summit on the Information Society,isplannedfor
October/November2008.Themainaimof
theconferenceistoassessprogressmade
intheimplementationoftheWSISGeneva
PlanofActionandTunisAgenda,the
UNESCWAregionalplanofaction(RPoA)
forbuildingtheinformationsocietyandthe
ArabStrategyonICT.Targetswillbesetfor
narrowingthedigitaldivideintheregion
andrevisingtheRPoAaccordingly,for
example,byaddingnewprogrammesand/
orprojectsandstrengtheningpartnership
mechanisms.
212.UNESCWAisworkingtowards
developmentofawebportalonmeasuring
theinformationsocietyintheUNESCWA
region.Theportalisexpectedtobe
operativebymid2008,providingacrucial
tooltoassistUNESCWAmembercountries
todeineandcollectICTindicators,build
statisticalcapacity,follow-uponprogressin
theimplementationoftheRPoAandshare
experiences.Theportalwillbeabilingual
(EnglishandArabic)anddynamictoolfor
measuringprogresstowardsbuildingthe
informationsocietyinWesternAsiaand
theArabRegion.Itwillprovideaccessto
RPoAstatusandpartnerships,information
societyindicators,publications,country/
regionalproilesandcommunications/
networkingtools.
Notes
1
The
Partnershipactivelyseekscontributionsfromdonorstosupportcapacity-buildingindevelopingcountries.
Donorsinterestedincontactingthe
Partnershipareinvitedtosendane-mailtoemeasurement@unctad.org.
2
Narrowercategoriescanbeaggregatedbycountingthenumberofrespondents(businesses,householdsor
individuals)whichundertakeanyoftheactionsofinterest,forinstance,fortheindicator‘businessesusingthe
Internetforprovidingcustomerservices’componentcategoriescouldbeusingtheInternetfor‘facilitatingaccessto
on-linecatalogues’,for‘providingaftersalessupport’andfor‘enablingordertracking’.Theindicator‘businesses
usingtheInternetforprovidingcustomerservices’wouldbeconstructedbytakingallrespondentswhodidany
ofthose‘componentactivities’.Thisavoidsthedoublecountingwhichwouldoccurif,forinstance,thenumber
undertakingeachactivityweresimplyaddedtogether.
3
ThesearediscussedinUNCTAD’s
Manual(UNCTAD,2007a).
4
TheCUTmodelclassiiesICT4Dindicatorsintothreecategories:Capacityindicators:targetedatmeasuringthe
levelandtheextentofdevelopmentanddeploymentofICTinfrastructureandrelatedresources;Usageindicators:
aimedatassessingandmeasuringtheextentofuseoftheICTinfrastructureandrelatedresourcesbyhouseholds,
businessesandgovernmententities;andTransformationorimpactindicators:indicatorstargetedatmeasuringthe
socialandeconomicimpactofICTinfrastructureandusewithintheeconomyandsociety.
5
MostofthecontentofthissectionhasbeentakenfromOlaya(2007)andfromaninternalUNECLACdocument
dealingwithaproposedOSILACphaseIII.
6
Seehttp://www.eclac.cl/tic/lash/default.asp?idioma=IN.
7
Seehttp://www.eclac.cl/id.asp?ID=30206.
8
Seehttp://www.eclac.cl/id.asp?ID=29951.
9
Seehttp://www.eclac.cl/SocInfo/OSILAC.
103
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Abbreviations
ADSLAsymmetricdigitalsubscriberline
CPCCentralProductClassiication(UN)
DSLDigitalsubscriberline
EDIElectronicdatainterchange
EUEuropeanUnion
GDPGrossdomesticproduct
106
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
GSMGlobalsystemformobilecommunications
HSHarmonizedSystem(WCO)
ICTInformationandcommunicationtechnology
IDRCInternationalDevelopmentResearchCentre(Canada)
IPInternetprotocol
ISDNIntegratedservicesdigitalnetwork
ISICInternationalStandardIndustrialClassiicationofAllEconomicActivities(UN)
ISPInternetserviceprovider
ITUInternationalTelecommunicationUnion
Kbit/sKilobitspersecond
LANLocalareanetwork
Mbit/sMegabitspersecond
NACENomenclatureGeneraledesActivitiesEconomiquesdansL`UnionEuropeenne
NAICSNorthAmericanIndustryClassiicationSystem
NSONationalstatisticalofice
OECDOrganisationforEconomicCo-operationandDevelopment
SDSLSymmetricdigitalsubscriberline
SMESmallandmediumenterprise
SNASystemofNationalAccounts
UISUNESCOInstituteforStatistics
UNCTADUnitedNationsConferenceonTradeandDevelopment
UNECAUnitedNationsEconomicCommissionforAfrica
UNECLACUnitedNationsRegionalCommissionforLatinAmericaandtheCaribbean
UNESCAPUnitedNationsEconomicandSocialCommissionforAsiaandthePaciic
UNESCOUnitedNationsEducational,ScientiicandCulturalOrganization
UNESCWAUnitedNationsEconomicandSocialCommissionforWesternAsia
UNIDOUnitedNationsIndustrialDevelopmentOrganization
UNSCUnitedNationsStatisticalCommission
UNSDUnitedNationsStatisticsDivision
URLUniformresourcelocator
VDSLVeryhighspeeddigitalsubscriberline
WCOWorldCustomsOrganization
WPIISWorkingPartyonIndicatorsfortheInformationSociety(OECD)
WSISWorldSummit/sontheInformationSociety
WWW(the)WorldWideWeb
107
Bibliography
107
Bibliography
Annexes
109
Annex 1 Availability of core ICT indicators
Notes on the Annex
1.ThisannexshowstheavailabilityofthecoreICTindicatorsforindividualeconomies.Notall
ofthedatawhichareavailableareincludedinthepublication(thoughmostare).Somedata
wereomittedforstatisticalreasons(forinstance,deinitionsofcategoriesorindicatorsdiffered
considerablyfromthecoreICTindicatorstandards).
2.Availabilityisdeinedasknownavailabilityatthetimeofcompilation.Itispossiblethatsome
indicatorsareavailableformoreeconomiesthanshowninthisannex.
3.Dataarearrangedby‘levelofdevelopment’and‘region’accordingtothe2007versionoftheUN
StatisticalDivision’sStandardcountryorareacodesforstatisticaluse,seehttp://unstats.un.org/
unsd/methods/m49/m49.htm.TheclassiicationwasrevisedinJanuary2008andisnowslightly
differentfromtheversionusedinthispublication.Themaindifferencesare:Croatiahasmoved
fromDevelopedtoTransitioneconomies,andBulgariaandRomaniahavemovedfromTransition
toDevelopedeconomies.
4.Taiwan,ChinahasbeenaddedtotheUNSDlistbecausesomeorganizationscollectrelevant
informationforthiseconomy(thenameoftheeconomyfollowsITUpractice).
5.NotationusedintheAnnexisasfollows:
AAvailableandyearoflatestdata(forexample,A05meansthattheindicatorisavailable
inrespectof2005).PAisusedfortheICTsectorcoreindicators,ICT1andICT2,and
indicatesavailabilityforthemanufacturingsectoronly.
NAApparentlynotavailableinrespectoftheyear2002orlater.
NCDatanotcollectedfromthiseconomybytherelevantagency.
Annex 1 Availability of core ICT indicators
110
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Developed economies
Asia
JapanA06A06A05NAA06A05A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
Europe
ÅlandIslandsNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
AndorraA05A05NANAA05A05A06NANAA06NANANANA
AustriaA06A06A05A06A06A05A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
BelgiumA06A06A05A06A05A04A05A06A06A06A06NANAA05
ChannelIslandsNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
CroatiaA06A06A05A06A06A05A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
CzechRepublicA05A06A05A04A06A05A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
DenmarkA06A06A05A06A06A05NAA06A06A06A06NANANA
EstoniaA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
FaeroeIslandsA05A05NAA04A05A05A06NANAA06NANAA04A04
FinlandA06A06A05A04A06A05A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
FranceA06A06A05A06A06A05A05A06A06A06A06NANAA05
GermanyA06A06A05NAA06A05A05A06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
GibraltarA04A04NANANAA05A04NANANANANANANA
GreeceA06A06A05A06A06A05A04A06A06A06A06NANANA
GuernseyNAA04NANANAA05NANANANANANANANA
HolySeeNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
HungaryA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NANAA05
IcelandA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NANAA05
IrelandA06A06A05A06A06A05A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
IsleofManNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
ItalyA05A05A05A04A06A05A06A06A06A06A06NANANA
JerseyA06A04NANANAA05NANANANANANANANA
LatviaA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
LiechtensteinA05A05NAA04A05A05NANANANANANANAA05
LithuaniaA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NANAA04
LuxembourgA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NANAA05
MaltaA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NANAA04
MonacoA05A05A05NAA05A05NANANANANANAA02/3A05
NetherlandsA05A05A05A04A06A05A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
NorwayA06A06A05A06A06A05NAA06A06A06A06NANANA
Availability of the core indicators on ICT infrastructure and access
Levelofdevelopment,
regionandeconomy
A1.Fixedtelephone
linesper100
inhabitants
A2.Mobilecellular
subscribersper100
inhabitants
A3.Computersper
100inhabitants
A4.Internet
subscribersper
100inhabitants
A5.BroadbandInternet
subscribersper100
inhabitants
A6.International
Internetbandwidth
perinhabitant
A7.Percentageof
populationcoveredby
mobilecellulartelephony
A8a.Internetaccess
tariffs(20hoursper
month),inUS$
A8b.Internetaccess
tariffs(20hoursper
month),asapercentage
of
per capitaincome
A9a.Mobilecellular
tariffs(100minutesof
usepermonth),inUS$
A9b.Mobilecellulartariffs
(100minutesofuseper
month),asapercentageof
per capitaincome
A10.Percentageoflocalities
withpublicInternetaccess
centres(PIACs)bynumber
ofinhabitants(rural/urban)
A11.Radiosetsper
100inhabitants
A12.Televisionsets
per100inhabitants
111
Annex 1 Availability of core ICT indicators
PolandA06A06A05A06A06A05A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
PortugalA06A06A05A06A06A05A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
SanMarinoA05A05A05A04A05A05NANANANANANANAA05
SlovakiaA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NANAA05
SloveniaA06A06A05A06A06A05A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
SpainA06A06A05A06A06A05A05A06A06A06A06A06NAA04
SvalbardandJan
MayenIslandsNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
SwedenA06A06A05A06A06A05A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
SwitzerlandA06A06A05A06A06A05A05A06A06A06A06NANAA05
UnitedKingdomofGreat
BritainandNorthernIrelandA06A06A05A06A06A04A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
Northern America
BermudaA05A05NAA05A05A05A04NANAA06NAA04NANA
CanadaA05A05A05A04A06A05A05A06A06A06A06NANAA04
GreenlandNANANANANAA05NANANAA06NANANANA
SaintPierreandMiquelonNANANANANAA05NANANANANANAA02/3NA
UnitedStatesofAmericaA06A06NANAA06A04A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
Oceania
AustraliaA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NAA05A05
NewZealandA05A05A05NAA06A05A05A06A06A06A06NANAA05
Transition economies
Asia
ArmeniaA05A05A05A04A05A04A06A06A06A06A06NANANA
AzerbaijanA06A06A05A04A05A05A05A06A06A06A06NANAA05
GeorgiaA06A06A05A06A06A05A06A06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
KazakhstanA06A06NAA06A06A06NAA06A06A06A06A06NANA
KyrgyzstanA05A05A05A05A05A05A05A06A06A06A06NANAA05
TajikistanA05A05A05NAA05A05A06A06A06A06A06NANANA
TurkmenistanA05A05A05NANAA05A06A06A06A06A06NANANA
UzbekistanA05A05A06NAA05A06NAA06A06A06A06NANAA05
Europe
AlbaniaA05A05A05NAA05A05A06A06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
BelarusA06A06A05A06A06A06A06A06A06A06A06NAA04NA
BosniaandHerzegovinaA06A06A05A06A06A05A05A06A06A06A06NANAA05
BulgariaA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06A06NANA
MontenegroA06A06NAA06A06A06A05NANANANANANANA
RepublicofMoldovaA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NAA04A04
RomaniaA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
RussianFederationA05A05A05NAA06A05NAA06A06A06A06NANANA
SerbiaA06A06A06A06A06A06A06NANANANANANAA06
TheformerYugoslav
RepublicofMacedoniaA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
UkraineA06A06A06NANAA05A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
Level of development, region and economy
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8a A8b A9a A9b A10 A11 A12
112
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Developing economies
Africa
AlgeriaA06A06A05NAA05A05A05A06A06A06A06NAA02/3A05
BotswanaA06A06A05NAA05A06A06A06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
CameroonA05A05A05NAA05A05A05A06A06A06A06NAA02/3A05
CongoA05A05A05A04NAA05A05A06A06A06A06NANAA05
Coted’IvoireA06A06A05A05NAA05A06A06A06A06A06NAA02/3A05
EgyptA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06A06NAA05
GabonA06A06A05A06A06A06A06A06A06A06A06A06A05A05
GhanaA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
KenyaA06A06A05A06NAA06NAA06A06A06A06NANANA
LibyanArabJamahiriyaA06A06A05A06NAA06A06A06A06A06A06NANAA04
MauritiusA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
MayotteNAA04NANANAA05NANANANANANANANA
MoroccoA06A06A05A04A05A06A05A06A06A06A06NANAA04
NamibiaA06A05A05A04NAA05A05A06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
NigeriaA06A06A05NAA05A05A05A06A06A06A06NAA05NA
RéunionNAA04A04NANAA05NANANANANANAA02/3NA
SaintHelenaA05NAA05A04A05A05NANANANANANAA05A05
SeychellesA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06A06A02/3NA
SouthAfricaA05A05A05NAA05A05A05A06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
SwazilandA06A06A05NANAA05NAA06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
TunisiaA06A06A06A06A06A06A06A06A06A06A06A06NAA05
WesternSaharaNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
ZimbabweA06A06A06A06A06A06NAA06A06A06A06NAA05A06
Asia
BahrainA06A06A05A06A06A05A06A06A06A06A06NANAA04
BruneiDarussalamA06A06A05A06A06A06NAA06NAA06NANANANA
ChinaA06A06A05A06A06A06NAA06A06A06A06NANANA
CyprusA06A06A05A06A06A05A05A06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
DemocraticPeople’s
RepublicofKoreaNANANANANAA05NANANANANANANANA
HongKongSpecial
AdministrativeRegion
ofChinaA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06A06NAA05
IndiaA05A06A05A06A06A06A06A06A06A06A06NANANA
IndonesiaA06A06A05NAA05A05A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
Iran,IslamicRepublicofA06A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
IraqA04A04NANANAA05A06NANAA06NANANANA
IsraelA06A06A05A04A06A05A06A06A06A06A06NANANA
JordanA06A06A05A06A06A05A05A06A06A06A06NANAA04
KuwaitA05A05A05A04A05A05A06A06A06A06A06NANAA04
LebanonA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NANAA05
MacaoSpecialAdministrative
RegionofChinaA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NAA05A04
Level of development, region and economy
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8a A8b A9a A9b A10 A11 A12
113
Annex 1 Availability of core ICT indicators
MalaysiaA06A06A05A06A06A05NAA06A06A06A06NANANA
MongoliaA05A05A05NAA05A05NAA06A06A06A06A04A02/3A05
OccupiedPalestinianTerritoryA05A05A05A04A05A05A05A06A06A06A06NAA02/3A04
OmanA06A06A05A06A06A06A06A06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
PakistanA06A06A05NAA05A05A06A06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
PhilippinesA06A06A05A04A05A05A05A06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
QatarA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06NAA06NANANAA04
RepublicofKoreaA06A06A05A06A06A06NAA06A06A06A06NANAA05
SaudiArabiaA06A06A05A06A06A06A06A06A06A06A06NANAA04
SingaporeA06A06A05A06A06A05A05A06A06A06A06A06NAA05
SriLankaA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
SyrianArabRepublicA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
Taiwan,ChinaA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06NAA06NAA06A05A05
ThailandA06A06A05NAA05A06A06A06A06A06A06NANANA
TurkeyA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
UnitedArabEmiratesA06A06A05A06A06A06A06A06A06A06A06NANAA04
VietNamA05A06A05A06A06A06NAA06A06A06A06NANANA
Latin America and the Caribbean
AnguillaA05A05A05NAA05A05NANANANANANANANA
AntiguaandBarbudaA05A05A05NAA05A05A06A06A06A06A06NANANA
ArgentinaA06A06A05A06A06A06NAA06A06A06A06NANAA05
ArubaA05A05A05NAA05A05A05NANAA06NANANANA
BahamasA05A05A05A04NAA05A05A06A06A06A06A04NANA
BarbadosA05A05A05NAA05A05A05A06NAA06NANAA04A04
BelizeA06A06A05A06A06A06NAA06A06A06A06NANANA
BoliviaA06A06A05A04A05A05NAA06A06A06A06NANAA05
BrazilA05A05A05NAA05A05A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
BritishVirginIslandsA06NANANANAA05NANANANANANANANA
CaymanIslandsA06A04NANANAA05A05NANANANANANANA
ChileA06A06A05A06A06A05A05A06A06A06A06NAA02/3A05
ColombiaA06A06A05A06A06A06NAA06A06A06A06A04A05A05
CostaRicaA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06A06A05A05
CubaA06A06A05A06NAA06A05A06A06A06NANANAA05
DominicaA04A04A04A04NAA04NAA06A06A06A06NANANA
DominicanRepublicA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NAA05A05
EcuadorA06A06A05A04A05A06A05A06A06A06A06A04A04A05
ElSalvadorA06A06A05A04A05A06A05A06A06A06A06NANAA05
FalklandIslands(Malvinas)A05A05A05NANAA05A05NANANANAA06NANA
FrenchGuianaA06A04A04NANAA05NANANANANANANANA
GrenadaA05A05A04NANAA04NAA06A06A06A06NANANA
GuadeloupeA06A04A04NANAA05A05NANANANANANANA
GuatemalaA06A06A05NAA05A05NAA06A06A06A06NANAA05
GuyanaA05A05A05A04A05A05A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
HondurasA06A06A05A06NAA05NAA06A06A06A06NANAA05
JamaicaA05A05A05NAA05A05A05A06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
MartiniqueA06A04A04NANAA05A05NANANANANANANA
Level of development, region and economy
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8a A8b A9a A9b A10 A11 A12
114
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
MexicoA06A06A05A06A06A05A05A06A06A06A06A04NAA04
MontserratA06A04NANANAA05NANANANANANANANA
NetherlandsAntillesA06A04NANANAA05NANANAA06NANANANA
NicaraguaA06A06A05A06A06A05NAA06A06A06A06NANAA05
PanamaA06A05A05A04A05A05A05A06A06A06A06NANAA05
ParaguayA06A06A05A06A06A06A06A06A06A06A06A06NAA05
PeruA06A06A05A06A06A05NAA06A06A06A06A06NANA
PuertoRicoA05A05A05NAA05A05A05NANANANANANANA
SaintKittsandNevisA04A04A04NANAA05NAA06A06A06A06NANANA
SaintLuciaA06A05A04NANAA05A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
SaintMartin(Frenchpart)NCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
SaintVincentandthe
GrenadinesA06A06A05A04A05A06A04A06A06A06A06NAA05NA
Saint-BarthélemyNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
SurinameA06A06A05A06A06A06NAA06A06A06A06NANANA
TrinidadandTobagoA06A06A05A06A06A05NAA06A06A06A06NANANA
TurksandCaicosIslandsA04A04NAA04NAA05NANANANANANANANA
UnitedStatesVirginIslandsA06A05A05NAA05A05NANANANANANANANA
UruguayA06A06A05A06A06A05A04A06A06A06A06NANANA
Venezuela(Bolivarian
Republicof)A06A06A05A06A06A05NAA06A06A06A06NANAA05
Oceania
AmericanSamoaA04A04NANANAA05NANANANANANANAA04
CookIslandsA05A05NAA05A05A05NANANANANANAA02/3A05
FijiA05A05A05NAA05A05A05A06A06A06A06NAA04A05
FrenchPolynesiaA06A06A05A04A05A06A05NANAA06A06A06NAA05
GuamNAA04NANANAA05NANANAA06NANANANA
MarshallIslandsNAA04A04NANAA05NANANAA06A06NANANA
Micronesia,Federated
StatesofA06A05A05A04A04A05NANANAA06A06NAA02/3A05
NauruNANANANANAA05NANANANANANANANA
NewCaledoniaA06A05A05A04A05A05NANANAA06A06NAA02/3A05
NiueA06A04NANANAA05NANANANANANANAA04
NorfolkIslandNANANANANAA05NANANANANANANANA
NorthernMarianaIslandsNAA04NANANAA05NANANANANANANANA
PalauNANANANANAA05NANANANANANANANA
PapuaNewGuineaA06A06A05NANAA05NAA06A06A06A06NAA02/3A04
PitcairnNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
TokelauA04NAA04NANAA05NANANANANANANANA
TongaA06A06A05NAA05A05A04A06A06A06A06NAA02/3A05
WallisandFutunaIslandsA04NANANAA04A05NANANANANANANANA
Least developed economies
Africa
AngolaA06A06A05NAA04A06NAA06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
BeninA06A06A05A06A06A06NAA06A06A06A06NAA05A05
Level of development, region and economy
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8a A8b A9a A9b A10 A11 A12
115
Annex 1 Availability of core ICT indicators
BurkinaFasoA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NAA04A05
BurundiA05A05A05NAA04A05NAA06A06A06A06NAA02/3A05
CapeVerdeA06A06A05A06A06A06NAA06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
CentralAfricanRepublicA05A05A05A04NAA05NAA06A06A06A06NAA02/3A05
ChadA06A06A05A04NAA06NAA06A06A06A06NAA02/3A05
ComorosA05A05A05NAA05A05NAA06A06A06A06NAA02/3A05
DemocraticRepublicof
theCongoA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06A06A02/3A05
DjiboutiA05A05A05A04A05A05NAA06A06A06A06NAA02/3A05
EquatorialGuineaA05A05A05NAA05A05A05A06A06NANANANANA
EritreaA06A06A05A06A04A06NAA06A06NANANAA05A05
EthiopiaA06A06A05A06A05A05NAA06A06A06A06NANANA
GambiaA06A06A05NAA05A05NAA06A06NANANANANA
GuineaA05A05A05NAA04A05NAA06A06A06A06NAA02/3A04
GuineaBissauA05A05A05NAA04A06NAA06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
LesothoA05A05A05NAA05A05A05A06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
LiberiaNAA05NANANAA05NANANANANANANANA
MadagascarA06A06A05A06A04A06NAA06A06A06A06NAA02/3A05
MalawiA05A05A05A04A05A05NAA06A06A06A06NAA02/3A05
MaliA06A06A05A06A06A06NAA06A06A06A06A06A02/3A04
MauritaniaA06A06A05A06A06A06NAA06A06NANAA06A02/3A04
MozambiqueA06A06A05NAA04A05NAA06A06A06A06NANANA
NigerA05A05A05A04A05A05A05A06A06A06A06NAA02/3A05
RwandaA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NAA02/3A04
SaoTomeandPrincipeA06A06A05A06A06A06NAA06A06A06A06A06A02/3NA
SenegalA06A06A05A06A06A06A04A06A06A06A06NAA04A04
SierraLeoneNANANANANAA05NAA06A06A06A06NANANA
SomaliaA05A05A05A04A04A05NANANAA06NANANANA
SudanA06A06A05A06A06A06NAA06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
TogoA06A06A05NAA04A06A05A06A06A06A06NAA02/3A06
UgandaA06A06A05A04A06A06A06A06A06A06A06NAA02/3A06
UnitedRepublicofTanzaniaA06A06A05NAA04A05NAA06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
ZambiaA06A06A05A06A06A06A05A06A06A06A06NAA02/3NA
Asia
AfghanistanA06A06A05A06A06A06NANANAA06A06NAA05A06
BangladeshA06A06A05A06A04A06A06A06A06A06A06A04NAA06
BhutanA05A05A05A04A04A05A06A06A06A06A06A04A04A04
CambodiaA06A06A05A06A05A05NAA06A06A06A06NANANA
LaoPeople’sDemocratic
RepublicA05A05A05A04A05A05A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
MaldivesA06A06A04A06A06A04A06A06A06A06A06NANANA
MyanmarA05A06A05A06A06A06NAA06NANANANAA04A04
NepalA06A06A05A06A04A06A06A06A06A06A06A04NANA
Timor-LesteA06A06NAA06A06A06A06NANANANAA06NANA
YemenA05A05A05A04NAA05A05A06A06A06A06NANANA
Level of development, region and economy
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8a A8b A9a A9b A10 A11 A12
116
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Latin America and the Caribbean
HaitiA05A05A05A04A04A05NAA06A06A06A06NANANA
Oceania
KiribatiNAA04A04NANAA05NANANAA06A06NAA02/3NA
SamoaA05A05A05NAA05A05NAA06A06A06A06NAA02/3A05
SolomonIslandsA05A05A05NAA05A05NAA06A06A06A06NAA02/3A05
TuvaluA05A05A05NAA04A05NANANANANANANANA
VanuatuA05A05A05A04A05A05A05A06A06A06A06NANAA05
Source: ITU
Level of development, region and economy
A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8a A8b A9a A9b A10 A11 A12
117
Annex 1 Availability of core ICT indicators
Developed economies
Asia
JapanNAA04A05A05A05A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
Europe
ÅlandIslandsNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
AndorraNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
AustriaNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
BelgiumNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
ChannelIslandsNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
CroatiaA04A04A04NAA04NANANANANANANANAA04
CzechRepublicNANAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
DenmarkNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
EstoniaA04A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
FaeroeIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
FinlandNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
FranceNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
GermanyNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
GibraltarNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
GreeceNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
GuernseyNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
HolySeeNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
HungaryA05A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
IcelandNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
IrelandNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
IsleofManNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
ItalyNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
JerseyNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
LatviaNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
LiechtensteinNANANANAA02/3NANANANANANANANANA
LithuaniaNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A04
LuxembourgNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
MaltaNANANAA02/3A02/3A02/3A02/3NANANANANANANA
MonacoNAA02/3A02/3A02/3A02/3NAA02/3NANANANANANAA02/3
NetherlandsNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
NorwayNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
Availability of the core indicators on access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals
Levelofdevelopment,
regionandeconomy
HH1.Proportionof
householdswitharadio
HH2.Proportionof
householdswithaTV
HH3.Proportionof
householdswithafixed
linetelephone
HH4.Proportionof
householdswithamobile
cellulartelephone
HH5.Proportionof
householdswitha
computer
HH6.Proportionof
individualswhouseda
computer(fromanylocation)
inthelast12months
HH7.Proportionof
householdswithInternet
accessathome
HH8.Proportionof
individualswhousedthe
Internet(fromanylocation)
inthelast12months
HH9.Locationof
individualuseofthe
Internetinthelast12
months
HH10.Internetactivities
undertakenbyindividuals
inthelast12months
HH11.Proportionof
individualswithuseofa
mobiletelephone
HH12.Proportionof
householdswithaccess
totheInternet,bytypeof
access
HH13.Frequencyof
individualaccesstothe
Internetinthelast12
months(fromanylocation)
HR1.Proportionof
householdswithelectricity
118
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
PolandNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
PortugalNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
SanMarinoNANANANAA04NANANANANANANANANA
SlovakiaA05A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
SloveniaNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
SpainA05A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
SvalbardandJan
MayenIslandsNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
SwedenNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
SwitzerlandNANANANAA06/7NAA06/7A06/7NANANANANANA
UnitedKingdomofGreat
BritainandNorthern
IrelandNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
Northern America
BermudaA04A04A04A04A04A02/3A04A02/3NAA02/3A02/3NAA02/3A04
CanadaA05A05A05A05A05NAA05A05A05A05NAA05A05NA
GreenlandNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
SaintPierreandMiquelonNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
UnitedStatesofAmericaNANANANAA02/3A05A02/3A05A02/3A02/3NANANAA02/3
Oceania
AustraliaNANANAA02/3A06/7A02/3A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NAA06/7A06/7NA
NewZealandNAA04A04A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A04
Transition economies
Asia
ArmeniaA05A04A05A04A04NAA04NANANANANANANA
AzerbaijanA05A02/3NAA02/3A05A06/7A02/3A06/7A06/7A06/7NAA06/7A06/7A06/7
GeorgiaA04A04A04NAA04NANANANANANANANAA04
KazakhstanNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
KyrgyzstanNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
TajikistanNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
TurkmenistanNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
UzbekistanNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
Europe
AlbaniaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
BelarusNAA06/7A06/7NAA06/7NAA06/7NANANANANANAA06/7
BosniaandHerzegovinaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
BulgariaNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
MontenegroNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
RepublicofMoldovaNAA04A04NAA04NANANANANANANANANA
RomaniaNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
RussianFederationNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
SerbiaNANANANAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
TheformerYugoslavRepublic
ofMacedoniaA04A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
Level of development, region and economy
HH1 HH2 HH3 HH4 HH5 HH6 HH7 HH8 HH9 HH10 HH11 HH12 HH13 HR1
119
Annex 1 Availability of core ICT indicators
UkraineNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
Developing economies
Africa
AlgeriaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
BotswanaA04NAA04NAA04NAA04A04NANAA04NANANA
CameroonA04A04A04A04NANAA04NANANANANANANA
CongoA05A05A05NANANANANANANANANANANA
Coted’IvoireNANANAA02/3NANANANANANANANANANA
EgyptA05A05A05NAA05NANANANANANANANANA
GabonNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
GhanaA02/3A02/3A02/3A02/3NANANANANANANANANANA
KenyaA02/3A02/3A02/3NANANANANANANANANANANA
LibyanArabJamahiriyaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
MauritiusNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NAA06/7A06/7A02/3
MayotteNANAA02/3NANANANANANANANANANANA
MoroccoA05A05A05A05A05A05A05A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NAA06/7NA
NamibiaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
NigeriaA04A04A02/3NANANANANANANANANANANA
RéunionNANANANAA04NAA04NANANANANANANA
SaintHelenaNANANANAA04NANANANANANANANANA
SeychellesNAA05NANAA05NANANANANANANANANA
SouthAfricaA04A04A04A04NANANANANANANANANAA04
SwazilandNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
TunisiaNANAA05NANANANANANANANANANANA
WesternSaharaNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
ZimbabweNANANANAA05NANANANANANANANANA
Asia
BahrainNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
BruneiDarussalamNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
ChinaNANANANANANANAA06/7A06/7A06/7NAA06/7NANA
CyprusNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
DemocraticPeople’s
RepublicofKoreaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
HongKongSpecial
AdministrativeRegion
ofChinaNANANANAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NANAA06/7NA
IndiaA05A05NAA05A05NANANANANANANANANA
IndonesiaA04A04A04NAA04NANANANANANANANAA02/3
Iran,IslamicRepublicofNANANANAA02/3NANANANANANANANANA
IraqNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
IsraelNAA04A04A04A04A04A04A04NANAA04NANANA
JordanNAA02/3A02/3A02/3A02/3NAA02/3NANANANANANAA02/3
KuwaitNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
LebanonNAA04A04A04A04NANANANANANANANAA04
MacaoSpecial
AdministrativeRegion
ofChinaNANANANAA02/3A06/7A02/3A06/7A06/7A06/7NANANAA02/3
Level of development, region and economy
HH1 HH2 HH3 HH4 HH5 HH6 HH7 HH8 HH9 HH10 HH11 HH12 HH13 HR1
120
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
MalaysiaNANANANAA04NANANANAA06/7A04NAA06/7NA
MongoliaA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NAA06/7NANANANANANAA06/7
OccupiedPalestinian
TerritoryNAA04A04A04A04A06/7A04A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
OmanA02/3A02/3A02/3A02/3A02/3A02/3A02/3A02/3NANAA05NANAA02/3
PakistanNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
PhilippinesA02/3A02/3A02/3A02/3A02/3NANANANANANANANAA02/3
QatarNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
RepublicofKoreaNANANANAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NA
SaudiArabiaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
SingaporeNAA02/3NAA02/3A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NAA06/7NA
SriLankaNANANANAA04NAA04NANANANANANANA
SyrianArabRepublicNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
Taiwan,ChinaNAA02/3A02/3A02/3A04NAA06/7A05A06/7NANAA06/7NANA
ThailandNANAA05NAA05A06/7A05A06/7A06/7NAA04A06/7NANA
TurkeyNAA05NAA05A05A05A05A04NANANANANANA
UnitedArabEmiratesNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
VietNamA02/3A02/3A04A04A02/3NANANANANANANANAA02/3
Latin America and the Caribbean
AnguillaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
AntiguaandBarbudaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
ArgentinaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
ArubaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
BahamasNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
BarbadosNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
BelizeNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
BoliviaA05A05A05A05A05NAA05NANANANANANAA05
BrazilA05A05A05A05A05NAA05A05A05A05A05A05A05A05
BritishVirginIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
CaymanIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
ChileNAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NANANA
ColombiaA05A05A05NANANAA04NANANANANANANA
CostaRicaA05A05A05A05A05NAA05A05A05A05A05A05NAA05
CubaA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NAA06/7A06/7
DominicaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
DominicanRepublicA05A05A05A05A05A05A05A05A05A05A05NAA05A05
EcuadorA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NAA05A06/7NANAA06/7NANAA06/7
ElSalvadorA04A04A05A05A05NAA05NANANANANANAA02/3
FalklandIslands(Malvinas)NANANANAA02/3NANANANANANANANANA
FrenchGuianaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
GrenadaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
GuadeloupeNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
GuatemalaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
GuyanaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
HondurasA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NANAA06/7
JamaicaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
Level of development, region and economy
HH1 HH2 HH3 HH4 HH5 HH6 HH7 HH8 HH9 HH10 HH11 HH12 HH13 HR1
121
Annex 1 Availability of core ICT indicators
MartiniqueNANANANAA02/3NAA02/3NANANANANANANA
MexicoA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A05NAA06/7NA
MontserratNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
NetherlandsAntillesNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
NicaraguaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
PanamaA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NANAA06/7
ParaguayA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NANANAA06/7
PeruA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NAA06/7A02/3NANANANANAA06/7
PuertoRicoNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
SaintKittsandNevisNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
SaintLuciaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
SaintMartin(Frenchpart)NCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
SaintVincentandthe
GrenadinesNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
Saint-BarthélemyNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
SurinameNANAA04A04NANANANANANANANANAA04
TrinidadandTobagoNANANAA05A05A02/3A05A05NANAA05NANANA
TurksandCaicosIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
UnitedStatesVirginIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
UruguayA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NANAA06/7NA
Venezuela(Bolivarian
Republicof)A05A05A06/7A05A05NAA06/7NANANANANANAA06/7
Oceania
AmericanSamoaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
CookIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
FijiNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
FrenchPolynesiaNANANANAA04NANANANANANANANANA
GuamNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
MarshallIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
Micronesia,Federated
StatesofNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
NauruNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
NewCaledoniaNANAA02/3A02/3NANAA02/3NANANANANANANA
NiueNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
NorfolkIslandNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
NorthernMarianaIslandsA02/3NAA02/3NAA02/3NAA02/3NANANANANANANA
PalauNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
PapuaNewGuineaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
PitcairnNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
TokelauNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
TongaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
WallisandFutunaIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
Least developed economies
Africa
AngolaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
Level of development, region and economy
HH1 HH2 HH3 HH4 HH5 HH6 HH7 HH8 HH9 HH10 HH11 HH12 HH13 HR1
122
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
BeninNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
BurkinaFasoA02/3A02/3A02/3NAA02/3NANANANANANANANANA
BurundiNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
CapeVerdeNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
CentralAfricanRepublicNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
ChadA04A04A04NANANANANANANANANANANA
ComorosNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
DemocraticRepublicof
theCongoNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
DjiboutiNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
EquatorialGuineaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
EritreaA02/3A02/3A02/3NAA05NANANANANANANANANA
EthiopiaA05A05A05NANANAA04NANANANANANANA
GambiaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
GuineaA05A05A05NAA02/3NANANANANANANANANA
GuineaBissauNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
LesothoA04A04A04NANANANANANANANANANANA
LiberiaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
MadagascarA02/3A02/3A02/3NAA04NAA04NANANANANANANA
MalawiA04A04A04NANANANANANANANANANANA
MaliNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
MauritaniaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
MozambiqueA02/3A02/3A02/3NANANANANANANANANANANA
NigerNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
RwandaA05A05A04NANANANANANANANANANANA
SaoTomeandPrincipeNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
SenegalA05A05A05NANANANANANANANANANANA
SierraLeoneNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
SomaliaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
SudanA05A05NANAA05NANANANANANANANANA
TogoNANANANAA02/3NANANANANANANANANA
UgandaA02/3A02/3A02/3A02/3A04NANANANANANANANANA
UnitedRepublicofTanzaniaA04A04A04NANANANANANANANANANAA04
ZambiaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
Asia
AfghanistanNANANANANANANAA05NANANANANANA
BangladeshA04A04A04NANANANANANANANANANAA04
BhutanA02/3A02/3NANAA04NAA02/3A02/3NANANANANANA
CambodiaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
LaoPeople’sDemocratic
RepublicNANANANAA02/3NANANANANANANANANA
MaldivesA05A06/7A05A06/7A06/7NAA06/7NANANANANANANA
MyanmarNANANANAA02/3NANANANANANANANANA
NepalNANAA02/3NANANANANANANANANANAA02/3
Timor-LesteNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
YemenNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
Level of development, region and economy
HH1 HH2 HH3 HH4 HH5 HH6 HH7 HH8 HH9 HH10 HH11 HH12 HH13 HR1
123
Annex 1 Availability of core ICT indicators
Latin America and the Caribbean
HaitiNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
Oceania
KiribatiNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
SamoaNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
SolomonIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
TuvaluNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
VanuatuNANANANANANANANANANANANANANA
Source: ITU and Eurostat (extracted from 30 November 2007 version).
Level of development, region and economy
HH1 HH2 HH3 HH4 HH5 HH6 HH7 HH8 HH9 HH10 HH11 HH12 HH13 HR1
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Developed economies
Asia
JapanNANAA05NAA05A05A05A05A05A05A05NA
Europe
ÅlandIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANA
AndorraNANANANANANANANANANANANA
AustriaA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
BelgiumA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
ChannelIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANA
CroatiaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
CzechRepublicA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
DenmarkA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
EstoniaA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
FaeroeIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANA
FinlandA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
FranceA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NAA06/7A06/7
GermanyA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
GibraltarNANANANANANANANANANANANA
GreeceA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
GuernseyNANANANANANANANANANANANA
HolySeeNANANANANANANANANANANANA
HungaryA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
IcelandA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
IrelandA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
IsleofManNANANANANANANANANANANANA
ItalyA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
JerseyNANANANANANANANANANANANA
LatviaA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
LiechtensteinNANANANANANANANANANANANA
LithuaniaA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
LuxembourgA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
MaltaA05NAA06/7NAA06/7A05A05A05A05NAA05A05
MonacoNANANANANANANANANANANANA
NetherlandsA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
NorwayA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
Availability of the core indicators on use of ICT by businesses
Levelofdevelopment,
regionandeconomy
B1.Proportionof
businesesusing
computers
B2.Proportionof
employeesusing
computers
B3.Proportionof
businesesusingthe
Internet
B4.Proportionof
employeesusingthe
Internet
B5.Proportionof
busineseswithaWeb
presence
B6.Proportionofbusineses
withanintranet
B7.Proportionofbusineses
receivingordersoverthe
Internet
B8.Proportionofbusineses
placingordersoverthe
Internet
B9.Proportionof
businessesusingthe
Internetbytypeofaccess
B10.Proportionof
busineseswithaLocal
AreaNetwork(LAN)
B11.Proportionofbusineses
withanextranet
B12.Proportionof
businessesusingtheInternet
bytypeofactivity
125
Annex 1 Availability of core ICT indicators
Level of development, region and economy
B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12
PolandA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
PortugalA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
SanMarinoNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SlovakiaA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
SloveniaA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
SpainA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
SvalbardandJanMayen
IslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SwedenA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
SwitzerlandA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
UnitedKingdomofGreat
BritainandNorthernIrelandA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
Northern America
BermudaA05A05A05A05A05NAA05A05NANANANA
CanadaNANAA06/7NAA06/7NAA06/7A06/7A06/7NAA06/7A06/7
GreenlandNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SaintPierreandMiquelonNANANANANANANANANANANANA
UnitedStatesofAmericaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
Oceania
AustraliaA05NAA05NAA05NAA05A05A05NANAA05
NewZealandA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
Transition economies
Asia
ArmeniaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
AzerbaijanA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A05NANAA06/7A06/7A05A06/7
GeorgiaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
KazakhstanA05NAA05NAA05NAA05A05NAA05NAA05
KyrgyzstanNANAA05NAA05NANANANANANANA
TajikistanNANANANANANANANANANANANA
TurkmenistanNANANANANANANANANANANANA
UzbekistanNANANANANANANANANANANANA
Europe
AlbaniaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
BelarusA05NAA05NAA05NANANANAA05NANA
BosniaandHerzegovinaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
BulgariaA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
MontenegroNANANANANANANANANANANANA
RepublicofMoldovaNANANANAA02/3NANANANAA02/3NANA
RomaniaA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
RussianFederationA05A05A05A05A05NAA05A05NAA05NAA05
SerbiaA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
TheformerYugoslav
RepublicofMacedoniaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
UkraineNANANANANANANANANANANANA
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The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
Developing economies
Africa
AlgeriaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
BotswanaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
CameroonA05NAA05NAA05A05NANAA05A05A05A05
CongoNANANANANANANANANANANANA
Coted’IvoireNANANANANANANANANANANANA
EgyptA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
GabonNANANANANANANANANANANANA
GhanaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
KenyaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
LibyanArabJamahiriyaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
MauritiusA06/7NAA06/7NAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NANANA
MayotteNANANANANANANANANANANANA
MoroccoNANAA05A05A05A05A05A05A05NANAA05
NamibiaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
NigeriaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
RéunionNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SaintHelenaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SeychellesNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SouthAfricaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SwazilandNANANANANANANANANANANANA
TunisiaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
WesternSaharaNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
ZimbabweNANANANANANANANANANANANA
Asia
BahrainNANANANANANANANANANANANA
BruneiDarussalamNANANANANANANANANANANANA
ChinaNANAA05NAA05NAA05A05A05A05NAA05
CyprusA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
DemocraticPeople’sRepublic
ofKoreaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
HongKongSpecial
AdministrativeRegion
ofChinaA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
IndiaA02/3NANANANANANANANANANANA
IndonesiaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
Iran,IslamicRepublicofNANANANANANANANANANANANA
IraqNANANANANANANANANANANANA
IsraelNANANANANANANANANANANANA
JordanNANANANANANANANANANANANA
KuwaitNANANANANANANANANANANANA
LebanonNANANANANANANANANANANANA
MacaoSpecialAdministrative
RegionofChinaA02/3NAA02/3NAA02/3NAA02/3A02/3A02/3NANAA02/3
MalaysiaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
Level of development, region and economy
B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12
127
Annex 1 Availability of core ICT indicators
MongoliaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
OccupiedPalestinianTerritoryNANANANANANANANANANANANA
OmanNANANANANANANANANANANANA
PakistanNANANANANANANANANANANANA
PhilippinesNANANANANANANANANANANANA
QatarA05A05A05A05A05A05A05A05NANANANA
RepublicofKoreaA05NAA05NAA05A05A05A05A05A05NAA05
SaudiArabiaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SingaporeA06/7NAA06/7NAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
SriLankaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SyrianArabRepublicNANANANANANANANANANANANA
Taiwan,ChinaNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNC
ThailandA06/7NAA06/7NAA06/7NAA06/7A06/7A06/7NANAA06/7
TurkeyA05A05A05A05A05A05NANAA05NANAA05
UnitedArabEmiratesNANANANANANANANANANANANA
VietNamA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NANANANANAA06/7NANA
Latin America and the Caribbean
AnguillaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
AntiguaandBarbudaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
ArgentinaPA05PA05PA05A05A05A05A05A05A05A05A05A05
ArubaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
BahamasNANANANANANANANANANANANA
BarbadosNANANANANANANANANANANANA
BelizeNANANANANANANANANANANANA
BoliviaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
BrazilA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
BritishVirginIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANA
CaymanIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANA
ChilePA05NAPA05NAA05NAA05A05A05A05A05A05
ColombiaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
CostaRicaA04NAA04NAA04NANANANANANAA04
CubaA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NANANA
DominicaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
DominicanRepublicNANANANANANANANANANANANA
EcuadorNANANANANANANANANANANANA
ElSalvadorNANANANANANANANANANANANA
FalklandIslands(Malvinas)NANANANANANANANANANANANA
FrenchGuianaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
GrenadaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
GuadeloupeNANANANANANANANANANANANA
GuatemalaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
GuyanaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
HondurasNANANANANANANANANANANANA
JamaicaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
MartiniqueNANANANANANANANANANANANA
MexicoA02/3NAA02/3NAA02/3NANANANAA02/3NANA
Level of development, region and economy
B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12
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MontserratNANANANANANANANANANANANA
NetherlandsAntillesNANANANANANANANANANANANA
NicaraguaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
PanamaA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7NAA06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7A06/7
ParaguayNANAA02/3NANANANANANANANAA02
PeruNANANANANANANANANANANANA
PuertoRicoNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SaintKittsandNevisNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SaintLuciaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SaintMartin(Frenchpart)NANANANANANANANANANANANA
SaintVincentandthe
GrenadinesNANANANANANANANANANANANA
Saint-BarthélemyNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SurinameNANANANANANANANANANANANA
TrinidadandTobagoNANANANANANANANANANANANA
TurksandCaicosIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANA
UnitedStatesVirginIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANA
UruguayNANANANANANANANANANANANA
Venezuela(Bolivarian
Republicof)NANANANANANANANANANANANA
Oceania
AmericanSamoaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
CookIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANA
FijiNANANANANANANANANANANANA
FrenchPolynesiaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
GuamNANANANANANANANANANANANA
MarshallIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANA
Micronesia,FederatedStatesofNANANANANANANANANANANANA
NauruNANANANANANANANANANANANA
NewCaledoniaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
NiueNANANANANANANANANANANANA
NorfolkIslandNANANANANANANANANANANANA
NorthernMarianaIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANA
PalauNANANANANANANANANANANANA
PapuaNewGuineaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
PitcairnNANANANANANANANANANANANA
TokelauNANANANANANANANANANANANA
TongaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
WallisandFutunaIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANA
Least developed economies
Africa
AngolaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
BeninNANANANANANANANANANANANA
BurkinaFasoNANANANANANANANANANANANA
BurundiNANANANANANANANANANANANA
CapeVerdeNANANANANANANANANANANANA
Level of development, region and economy
B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12
129
Annex 1 Availability of core ICT indicators
CentralAfricanRepublicNANANANANANANANANANANANA
ChadNANANANANANANANANANANANA
ComorosNANANANANANANANANANANANA
DemocraticRepublicoftheCongoNANANANANANANANANANANANA
DjiboutiNANANANANANANANANANANANA
EquatorialGuineaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
EritreaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
EthiopiaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
GambiaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
GuineaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
GuineaBissauNANANANANANANANANANANANA
LesothoNANANANANANANANANANANANA
LiberiaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
MadagascarNANANANANANANANANANANANA
MalawiNANANANANANANANANANANANA
MaliNANANANANANANANANANANANA
MauritaniaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
MozambiqueNANANANANANANANANANANANA
NigerNANANANANANANANANANANANA
RwandaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SaoTomeandPrincipeNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SenegalNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SierraLeoneNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SomaliaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SudanNANANANANANANANANANANANA
TogoNANANANANANANANANANANANA
UgandaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
UnitedRepublicofTanzaniaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
ZambiaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
Asia
AfghanistanNANANANANANANANANANANANA
BangladeshNANANANANANANANANANANANA
BhutanNANANANANANANANANANANANA
CambodiaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
LaoPeople’sDemocraticRepublicNANANANANANANANANANANANA
MaldivesNANANANANANANANANANANANA
MyanmarNANANANANANANANANANANANA
NepalNANANANANANANANANANANANA
Timor-LesteNANANANANANANANANANANANA
YemenNANANANANANANANANANANANA
Latin America and the Caribbean
HaitiNANANANANANANANANANANANA
Oceania
KiribatiNANANANANANANANANANANANA
Level of development, region and economy
B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12
130
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
SamoaNANANANANANANANANANANANA
SolomonIslandsNANANANANANANANANANANANA
TuvaluNANANANANANANANANANANANA
VanuatuNANANANANANANANANANANANA
Source: UNCTAD and Eurostat (extracted from 7 December 2007 version).
Level of development, region and economy
B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12
131
Annex 1 Availability of core ICT indicators
Developed economies
Asia
JapanA05A05A06A06
Europe
ÅlandIslandsNANANCNC
AndorraNANAA04A04
AustriaA04A04A06A06
BelgiumA04A04A06A06
ChannelIslandsNANANCNC
CroatiaPA04NAA06A06
CzechRepublicA04A04A06A06
DenmarkA04A04A06A06
EstoniaA04A04A06A06
FaeroeIslandsNANAA06A06
FinlandA04A04A06A06
FranceA04A04A06A06
GermanyA04A04A06A06
GibraltarNANANCNC
GreeceA04A04A06A06
GuernseyNANANCNC
HolySeeNANANCNC
HungaryA04A04A06A06
IcelandA05A05A06A06
IrelandA04A04A06A06
IsleofManNANANCNC
ItalyA04A04A06A06
JerseyNANANCNC
LatviaA05A05A06A06
LiechtensteinNANANCNC
LithuaniaA04A04A06A06
LuxembourgA02/3A02/3A06A06
MaltaA02/3A02/3A06A06
MonacoNANANCNC
NetherlandsA04A04A06A06
NorwayA04A04A06A06
PolandA04A04A06A06
PortugalA04A04A06A06
SanMarinoNANANCNC
SlovakiaA04A04A06A06
SloveniaA04A04A06A06
SpainA04A05A06A06
SvalbardandJanMayen
IslandsNANANCNC
SwedenA04A04A06A06
SwitzerlandNANAA06A06
UnitedKingdomofGreat
BritainandNorthernIrelandA04A05A06A06
Northern America
BermudaA05A05NANA
CanadaA05A02/3A06A06
GreenlandNANAA02/3A02/3
SaintPierreandMiquelonNANANANA
UnitedStatesofAmericaA06A06A06A06
Oceania
AustraliaA05A05A06A06
NewZealandA06A05A06A06
Transition economies
Asia
ArmeniaNANAA06A06
AzerbaijanPA04NAA06A06
GeorgiaNANAA06A06
KazakhstanA05NAA06A06
Availability of the core indicators on the ICT sector and trade in ICT goods
Levelofdevelopment,ICT1.ProportionoftotalICT2.ValueaddedintheICT3.ICTgoodsimportsICT4.ICTgoodsexports
regionandeconomybusinesssectorworkforceICTsector(asapercentageasapercentageofasapercentageof
involvedintheICTsectoroftotalbusinesssectortotalimportstotalexports
valueadded).
132
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
KyrgyzstanPA04NAA06A06
TajikistanNANANANA
TurkmenistanNANANANA
UzbekistanNANANANA
Europe
AlbaniaNANAA06A06
BelarusNANAA06A06
BosniaandHerzegovinaNANAA06A06
BulgariaPA04PA04A06A06
MontenegroNANANCNC
RepublicofMoldovaNANAA06A06
RomaniaA05A05A06A06
RussianFederationA05A05A06A06
SerbiaNANAA06A06
TheformerYugoslavRepublic
ofMacedoniaNANAA06A06
UkrainePA02/3NAA06A06
Developing economies
Africa
AlgeriaNANAA06A06
BotswanaNANAA06A06
CameroonNANAA06A06
CongoNANANANA
Coted’IvoireNANAA06A06
EgyptPA02/3NAA05A05
GabonNANAA06A06
GhanaNANAA06A06
KenyaNANAA04A04
LibyanArabJamahiriyaNANANANA
MauritiusA06A06A06A06
MayotteNANAA06A06
MoroccoPA04PA04A06A06
NamibiaNANAA06A06
NigeriaNANAA02/3A02/3
RéunionNANANCNC
SaintHelenaNANANCNC
SeychellesNANAA06A06
SouthAfricaPA02/3NAA06A06
SwazilandNANAA05A05
TunisiaNANAA05A05
WesternSaharaNCNCNCNC
ZimbabweNANAA05A05
Asia
BahrainNANAA06A06
BruneiDarussalamNANAA06A06
ChinaNANAA06A06
CyprusA05A05A06A06
DemocraticPeople’s
RepublicofKoreaNANANANA
HongKongSpecial
AdministrativeRegion
ofChinaA04A04A06A06
IndiaPA02/3PA02/3A06A06
IndonesiaPA02/3PA02/3A06A06
Iran,IslamicRepublicofPA02/3PA02/3A06A06
IraqNANANANA
IsraelA06A06A06A06
JordanNANAA06A06
KuwaitNANANANA
LebanonNANAA04A04
MacaoSpecialAdministrative
RegionofChinaNANAA06A06
MalaysiaA04NAA06A06
MongoliaNANAA06A06
OccupiedPalestinianTerritoryNANANCNC
OmanNANAA06A06
PakistanNANAA06A06
PhilippinesNANAA06A06
QatarNANAA06A06
Level of development, region and economy
ICT1 ICT2 ICT3 ICT4
133
Annex 1 Availability of core ICT indicators
RepublicofKoreaA02/3PA02/3A06A06
SaudiArabiaNANAA06A06
SingaporePA02/3PA02/3A06A06
SriLankaNANAA05A05
SyrianArabRepublicNANAA06A06
Taiwan,ChinaNCNCA06A06
ThailandA06NAA06A06
TurkeyNANAA06A06
UnitedArabEmiratesNANANANA
VietNamNANAA05A05
Latin America and
the Caribbean
AnguillaNANAA04A04
AntiguaandBarbudaNANAA05A05
ArgentinaNANAA06A06
ArubaNANAA04A04
BahamasNANANANA
BarbadosNANAA06A06
BelizeNANAA06A06
BoliviaNANAA06A06
BrazilA04NAA06A06
BritishVirginIslandsNANANCNC
CaymanIslandsNANANCNC
ChileA05A05A06A06
ColombiaNANAA06A06
CostaRicaNANAA06A06
CubaA06A06A04A04
DominicaNANAA06A06
DominicanRepublicNANANANA
EcuadorNANAA06A06
ElSalvadorNANAA06A06
FalklandIslands(Malvinas)NANANCNC
FrenchGuianaNANANCNC
GrenadaNANAA05A05
GuadeloupeNANANCNC
GuatemalaNANAA06A06
GuyanaNANAA06A06
HondurasNANAA06A06
JamaicaNANAA06A06
MartiniqueNANANCNC
MexicoNANAA06A06
MontserratNANAA06A06
NetherlandsAntillesNANANANA
NicaraguaNANAA06A06
PanamaA06NAA06A06
ParaguayNANAA06A06
PeruNANAA06A06
PuertoRicoNANANCNC
SaintKittsandNevisNANAA06A06
SaintLuciaNANAA05A05
SaintMartin(Frenchpart)NANANCNC
SaintVincentandthe
GrenadinesNANAA06A06
Saint-BarthélemyNANANCNC
SurinameNANAA05NA
TrinidadandTobagoNANAA06A06
TurksandCaicosIslandsNANAA04A04
UnitedStatesVirginIslandsNANANCNC
UruguayNANAA06A06
Venezuela(Bolivarian
Republicof)NANAA06A06
Oceania
AmericanSamoaNANANANA
CookIslandsNANAA05NA
FijiNANAA06A06
FrenchPolynesiaNANAA06A06
GuamNANANANA
MarshallIslandsNANANANA
Micronesia,FederatedStatesofNANANANA
NauruNANANANA
NewCaledoniaNANAA06A06
Level of development, region and economy
ICT1 ICT2 ICT3 ICT4
134
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
NiueNANANANC
NorfolkIslandNANANCNC
NorthernMarianaIslandsNANANCNC
PalauNANANCNC
PapuaNewGuineaNANAA02/3A02/3
PitcairnNANANCNC
TokelauNANANANA
TongaNANANANA
WallisandFutunaIslandsNANAA02/3NA
Least developed economies
Africa
AngolaNANANANA
BeninNANAA05A05
BurkinaFasoNANAA04A04
BurundiNANAA05A05
CapeVerdeNANAA06A06
CentralAfricanRepublicNANAA05A05
ChadNANANANA
ComorosNANANANA
DemocraticRepublicof
theCongoNANANANA
DjiboutiNANANANA
EquatorialGuineaNANANANA
EritreaNANAA02/3A02/3
EthiopiaNANAA06A06
GambiaNANAA06A06
GuineaNANAA02/3A02/3
GuineaBissauNANANANA
LesothoNANAA02/3A02/3
LiberiaNANANANA
MadagascarNANAA06A06
MalawiNANAA06A06
MaliNANAA04A04
MauritaniaNANAA06NA
MozambiqueNANAA06A06
NigerNANAA05A05
RwandaNANAA02/3A02/3
SaoTomeandPrincipeNANAA06A06
SenegalNANAA06A06
SierraLeoneNANAA02/3A02/3
SomaliaNANANANA
SudanNANAA06A06
TogoNANAA05A05
UgandaNANAA06A06
UnitedRepublicofTanzaniaNANAA06A06
ZambiaNANAA06
A06
Asia
AfghanistanNANANANA
BangladeshNANAA04A04
BhutanNANANANA
CambodiaNANAA04A04
LaoPeople’sDemocratic
RepublicNANANANA
MaldivesNANAA06A05
MyanmarNANANANA
NepalNANAA02/3A02/3
Timor-LesteNANAA05A05
YemenNANAA06A06
Latin America and the Caribbean
HaitiNANANANA
Oceania
KiribatiNANAA05NA
SamoaNANAA04A04
SolomonIslandsNANANANA
TuvaluNANANANA
VanuatuNANANANA
Source:UNCTAD,UNIDO,OECDandUNCOMTRADE.
Level of development, region and economy
ICT1 ICT2 ICT3 ICT4
135
Annex 2. Core indicators on ICT infrastructure and access
Indicator
Deinitions
Basiccoreindicators
A1
Fixedtelephone
linesper100
inhabitants
Fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitantsiscalculatedbydividingthenumberofixed
telephonelinesbythepopulationandthenmultiplyingby100.
Fixed telephone linesrefertotelephonelinesconnectingasubscriber’sterminalequipment
tothepublicswitchedtelephonenetwork(PSTN)andwhichhaveadedicatedportona
telephoneexchange.
A2
Mobilecellular
telephone
subscribersper100
inhabitants
Mobile cellular telephone subscribers per 100 inhabitantsisobtainedbydividingthe
numberofmobilecellularsubscribersbythepopulationandthenmultiplyingby100.
Mobile cellular telephone subscribersrefertousersofportabletelephonessubscribingto
apublicmobiletelephoneserviceusingcellulartechnology,whichprovidesaccesstothe
PSTN.Thiscanincludeanalogueanddigitalcellularsystems.Thisshouldalsoinclude
subscriberstoIMT-2000(ThirdGeneration,3G).Usersofbothpost-paidsubscriptions
andpre-paidaccountsareincluded.
A3
Computersper100
inhabitants
Computers per 100 inhabitantsisobtainedbydividingtheestimatednumberofcomputers
installedinacountrybythepopulationandthenmultiplyingby100.
Computersmeasuresthenumberofcomputersinstalledinacountry.Thestatisticincludes
PCs,laptops,notebooksetc,butexcludesterminalsconnectedtomainframeandmini-
computersthatareprimarilyintendedforshareduse,anddevicessuchassmart-phones
thathaveonlysome,butnotall,ofthecomponentsofaPC(e.g.theymaylackafull-sized
keyboard,alargescreen,anInternetconnection,drivesetc.).
A4
Internetsubscribers
per100inhabitants
Internet subscribers per 100 inhabitantsisobtainedbydividingthenumberofInternet
subscribersbythepopulationandthenmultiplyingby100.
Internet subscribersrefertousersoftheInternetsubscribingtopaidixedaccesstothe
publicInternet(aTCP/IPconnection),includingdial-upandixedbroadband.Itexcludes
subscriberswithaccesstodatacommunications(includingtheInternet)viamobile
cellularnetworks.Onlyactivesubscribersthathaveusedthesystemwithinareasonable
periodoftimeareincluded.
Annex 2. Core indicators on ICT
infrastructure and access
136
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
A5
BroadbandInternet
subscribersper100
inhabitants
Broadband Internet subscribers per 100 inhabitantsisobtainedbydividingthenumberof
broadbandInternetsubscribersbythepopulationandthenmultiplyingby100.
Broadband Internet subscribersrefertousersoftheInternetsubscribingtopaidhigh-
speedixedaccesstothepublicInternet(aTCP/IPconnection),atspeedsequalto,or
greaterthan,256Kbit/s,inoneorbothdirections.Itexcludessubscriberswithaccessto
datacommunications(includingtheInternet)viamobilecellularnetworks.
A6
International
Internetbandwidth
perinhabitant(bits)
International Internet bandwidth per inhabitantisobtainedbydividingtheamountof
bandwidthbythepopulation.
International Internet bandwidthreferstothetotalcapacityofinternationalInternet
bandwidth.Ifcapacityisasymmetric(i.e.moreincomingthanoutgoing),theincoming
capacityisused.
A7
Percentageof
populationcovered
bymobilecellular
telephony
Percentage of population covered by mobile cellular telephonyreferstothepercentageofa
country’sinhabitantsthatlivewithinareasservedbyamobilecellularsignal,irrespective
ofwhetherornottheyaresubscribers.Notethatthismeasuresthetheoreticalabilityto
usemobilecellularservicesifonehasacellulartelephoneandasubscription.
A8
Internetaccess
tariffs(20hoursper
month),inUS$,and
asapercentageof
percapitaincome
The Internet access tariffincludesthetariffcomponentsofmonthlylinerental,lineusage
chargeandInternetaccesscharge,plusanytaxthatmaybelevied(asthisisaserviceused
bybothresidentialandbusinessconsumers).Thetariffchosenforaparticularcountry
wouldbethepackagefor20hourspermonththatisthecheapest,thatiswidelyavailable
(or,inthecaseofregionalserviceproviders,isavailableinthecapitalcity)andisavailable
tothegeneralpublicwithoutrestriction(e.g.excludingin-companyorlimitedtimeoffers,
andexcludingoffersthatarebundledwithsomeotherservice).Thepricecomparisonis
expressedinUS$.Theindicatorshouldbecompared,asfaraspossible,forthesamedate
betweencountries.
As a percentage of per capita incomeinvolvesdividingtheInternetaccesstariffbythe
averagemonthlygrossnationalincomepercapitaofthecountry.
A9
Mobilecellular
tariffs(100minutes
ofusepermonth),
inUS$,andasa
percentageofper
capitaincome
The
Mobile cellular tariffincludesthetariffcomponentsofmonthlyservicerental(if
relevant),50minutesoflocalpeaktimecallingand50minutesoflocaloff-peakcalling,
plustax.Differencesinthedistanceofcalls,whichmaybeapplicableinsomecountries,
arenottakenintoaccount,norareinternationalcallsorSMSmessages.Thepossibleone-
timechargeforconnectionisnottakenintoaccount,exceptwherethisisbundledintothe
costsofapre-paidaccount.Countriesshouldcalculatethetariffeitheronapost-paidora
pre-paidservice,whicheveroneismorepopularlyused.Ifmorethan50%ofthemobile
cellularsubscribersusepre-paid,thenthetariffshouldalsobebasedonthepre-paid
service,andviceversa.ThepricecomparisonisexpressedinUS$.Theindicatorshould
becompared,asfaraspossible,forthesamedatebetweencountries.
As a percentage of per capita incomeinvolvesdividingthemobilecellulartariffbythe
averagemonthlygrossnationalincomepercapitaofthecountry.
A10
Percentageof
localitieswith
publicInternet
accesscentres
(PIACs)
Percentage of localities with public Internet access centres (PIACs)iscomputedby
dividingthenumberoflocalitieswithatleastonePIACbythetotalnumberofthe
country’slocalitiesandthenmultiplyingby100.Theindicatormaybebrokendownby
rural/urban.
A public Internet access centre (PIAC)isasite,location,orcentreofinstructionatwhich
Internetaccessismadeavailabletothepublic,onafull-timeorpart-timebasis.Thismay
includetelecentres,digitalcommunitycentres,Internetcafés,libraries,educationcentres
andothersimilarestablishments,whenevertheyofferInternetaccesstothegeneralpublic.
AllsuchcentresshouldhaveatleastonepubliccomputerforInternetaccess.Localities
refertoacountry’svillages,townsandcities.
NotethatthisindicatorisusedtomeasuretheWSIStarget
“to connect villages with ICTs and establish community access points”by2015.
137
Annex 2. Core indicators on ICT infrastructure and access
Extendedcoreindicators
A11
Radiosetsper100
inhabitants
Radio sets per 100 inhabitantsisobtainedbydividingthenumberofradiosetsinuseby
thepopulationandthenmultiplyingby100.
A
radio setisadevicecapableofreceivingbroadcastradiosignals,usingpopular
frequencies,suchasFM,AM,LWandSW.Aradiosetmaybeastand-alonedevice,orit
maybeintegratedintoanotherdevice,suchasaWalkman,acar,oranalarmclock.
A12
Televisionsetsper
100inhabitants
Television sets per 100 inhabitantsisobtainedbydividingthenumberofsetsinusebythe
populationandthenmultiplyingby100.
A
television setisadevicecapableofreceivingbroadcasttelevisionsignals,usingpopular
accessmeanssuchasover-the-air,cableandsatellite.Atelevisionsetmaybeastand-
alonedevice,oritmaybeintegratedintoanotherdevice,suchasacomputeroramobile
phone.
Source: Core ICT Indicators (
Partnership
, 2005c) and Telecommunication Indicators Handbook (ITU, 2007a).
139
Annex 3. Core indicators on access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals
Indicator
Deinitions
Basiccoreindicators
HH1
Proportionofhouseholds
witharadio
The proportion of households with a radioiscalculatedbydividingthe
numberofin-scopehouseholdswitharadiobythetotalnumberofin-
scopehouseholds.
A
radioisadevicecapableofreceivingbroadcastradiosignals,using
popularfrequencies,suchasFM,AM,LWandSW.Aradiosetmaybea
stand-alonedevice,oritmaybeintegratedintoanotherdevice,suchasa
‘Walkman’,acaroranalarmclock.
HH2
Proportionofhouseholds
withaTV
The
proportion of households with a TViscalculatedbydividingthe
numberofin-scopehouseholdswithaTVbythetotalnumberofin-scope
households.
A
TV(television)isadevicecapableofreceivingbroadcasttelevision
signals,usingpopularaccessmeanssuchasover-the-air,cableandsatellite.
Atelevisionsetmaybeastand-alonedevice,oritmaybeintegratedinto
anotherdevice,suchasacomputeroramobilephone.
HH3
Proportionofhouseholds
withaixedlinetelephone
The
proportion of households with a ixed line telephoneiscalculatedby
dividingthenumberofin-scopehouseholdswithaixedlinetelephoneby
thetotalnumberofin-scopehouseholds.
A
ixed telephone linereferstoatelephonelineconnectingacustomer’s
terminalequipment(e.g.telephoneset,facsimilemachine)tothepublic
switchedtelephonenetwork(PSTN)andwhichhasadedicatedportona
telephoneexchange.
HH4
Proportionofhouseholds
withamobilecellular
telephone
The
proportion of households with a mobile cellular telephoneiscalculated
bydividingthenumberofin-scopehouseholdswithamobilecellular
telephonebythetotalnumberofin-scopehouseholds.
A
mobile cellular telephonereferstoaportabletelephonesubscribingtoa
publicmobiletelephoneserviceusingcellulartechnology,whichprovides
accesstothePSTN.Thisincludesanalogueanddigitalcellularsystems,as
wellasIMT-2000(3G).Usersofbothpost-paidsubscriptionsandpre-paid
accountsareincluded.
Annex 3. Core indicators on access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals
140
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
HH5
Proportionofhouseholds
withacomputer
The
proportion of households with a computeriscalculatedbydividing
thenumberofin-scopehouseholdswithacomputerbythetotalnumberof
in-scopehouseholds.
A
computerincludes:adesktop,portableorhandheldcomputer(e.g.a
personaldigitalassistant).Itdoesnotincludeequipmentwithsome
embeddedcomputingabilitiessuchasmobilephonesorTVsets.
1
HH6
Proportionofindividuals
whousedacomputer(from
anylocation)inthelast12
months
The
proportion of individuals who used a computeriscalculatedby
dividingthetotalnumberofin-scopeindividualswhousedacomputer
fromanylocationinthelast12monthsbythetotalnumberofin-scope
individuals.
HH7
Proportionofhouseholds
withInternetaccessat
home
The
proportion of households with Internet access at homeiscalculated
bydividingthenumberofin-scopehouseholdswithInternetaccessbythe
totalnumberofin-scopehouseholds.
The
Internetisaworld-widepubliccomputernetwork.Itprovidesaccess
toanumberofcommunicationservicesincludingtheWorldWideWeband
carriesemail,news,entertainmentanddatailes.Accessisnotassumedto
beonlyviaacomputer−itmayalsobebymobilephone,gamesmachine,
digitalTVetc.
HH8
Proportionofindividuals
whousedtheInternet(from
anylocation)inthelast12
months
The
proportion of individuals who used the Internetiscalculatedby
dividingthetotalnumberofin-scopeindividualswhousedtheInternet
(fromanylocation)inthelast12monthsbythetotalnumberofin-scope
individuals.
HH9
Locationofindividualuse
oftheInternetinthelast12
months
Forinternationalcomparability,outputismostsimplypresentedasthe
proportionofin-scopeindividualsusingtheInternetateachlocation,for
instance,theproportionofindividualsusingtheInternetathome,atwork
etc.AnalternativepresentationistheproportionofInternetusersusing
theInternetfromeachlocation.Individualscanrespondinrespectofmore
thanonelocation.
Athome
Atwork
Whereaperson’sworkplaceislocatedathis/herhome,thenhe/shewould
answeryestothehomecategoryonly.
Placeofeducation
Atanotherperson’shome
CommunityInternetaccess
facility
Includesaccessatcommunityfacilitiessuchaspubliclibraries,publicly
providedInternetkiosks,digitalcommunitycentres,othergovernment
agencies;accessistypicallyfreeorlowcostandisavailabletothegeneral
public.
CommercialInternetaccess
facility
IncludespubliclyavailableaccessatInternetorcybercafés,hotels,airports
etc;eventhoughthevenueiscommercial,thecostisnotnecessarilyatfull
marketprice.
Otherplaces
HH10
Internetactivities
undertakenbyindividualsin
thelast12months
Forinternationalcomparability,outputismostsimplypresentedasthe
proportionofin-scopeindividualsundertakingeachactivity,forinstance,
theproportionofindividualsusingtheInternettogetinformationabout
goodsorservices.AnalternativepresentationistheproportionofInternet
usersundertakingeachactivity.
Notethattheseactivitiesarerestrictedtoprivatepurposesandtherefore
excludeactivitiessuchaspurchasingovertheInternetundertakenaspart
ofaperson’sjob.Individualscanrespondinrespectofmorethanone
activityandactivitiesarenotmutuallyexclusive.
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Annex 3. Core indicators on access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals
Forgettinginformation:
Aboutgoodsorservices
Relatedtohealthorhealth
services
Healthinformationcoversinjury,disease,nutritionandimprovinghealth
generally.
Fromgovernment
organizations/public
authoritiesviawebsitesor
email
Governmentorganizations/publicauthoritiesarepreferablydeinedperthe
SNA93(http://unstats.un.org/unsd/sna1993/glossform.asp?getitem=219).
Theyincludegovernmentorganizationsatlocal,regionalandnational
level.
Otherinformationsearches
orgeneralwebbrowsing
Forcommunicating
Includessendingorreceivingemail,usingchatrooms/sites,message
boards,instantmessaging,telephoningviaInternet.
Forpurchasingorordering
goodsorservices
Includespurchasinganddownloadingofdigitizedproducts,suchasmusic,
fromtheInternet.
ForInternetbanking
Foreducationorlearning
activities
Thisreferstoformallearningactivitiessuchasstudyassociatedwithschool
ortertiaryeducationcoursesaswellasdistanceeducationinvolvingon-
lineactivities.(Amorenarrowinterpretationislikelytobelessmeaningful
asitcouldincludearangeofactivitiessuchasusingtheInternettosearch
forinformation.)
Fordealingwith
governmentorganizations/
publicauthorities
Governmentorganizations/publicauthoritiesarepreferablydeinedperthe
SNA93(http://unstats.un.org/unsd/sna1993/glossform.asp?getitem=219).
Theyincludegovernmentorganizationsatlocal,regionalandnational
level.
Forleisureactivities:
Playing/downloadingvideo
orcomputergames
Includesilesharinggamesandplayinggamesonline.
Internetactivities
undertakenbyindividualsin
thelast12months
Downloadingmovies,music
orsoftware
Includesilesharingandusingwebradioorwebtelevision.Forsoftware,
includesdownloadingofpatchesandupgrades.
Reading/downloading
electronicbooks,
newspapersormagazines
Includesaccessingnewswebsites.
Otherleisureactivities Includesgambling.
Extendedcoreindicators
HH11
Proportionofindividuals
withuseofamobile
cellulartelephone
The
proportion of individuals with use of a mobile cellular telephoneis
calculatedbydividingthetotalnumberofin-scopeindividualswithuseof
amobiletelephonebythetotalnumberofin-scopeindividuals.
Use of a mobile telephonedoesnotmeanthatthetelephoneisownedor
paidforbythepersonbutshouldbereasonablyavailablethroughwork,
afriendorfamilymember,etc.Itexcludesoccasionaluse,forinstance,
borrowingamobilephonetomakeacall.
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HH12
Proportionofhouseholds
withaccesstotheInternet
bytypeofaccess
Forinternationalcomparability,outputismostsimplypresentedasthe
proportionofin-scopehouseholdsusingeachtypeofaccessservice,for
instance,theproportionofhouseholdsaccessingtheInternetbyDSL.
Additionally,outputshouldbeavailablefortheaggregations,theproportion
ofhouseholdswithbroadband/narrowbandaccesstotheInternet.
Alternatively,outputcanbepresentedasaproportionofhouseholdswith
Internetaccess.
Categoriesshouldallowaggregationtonarrowbandandbroadband.
Ashouseholdscanusemorethanonetypeofaccessservice,multiple
responsesarepossible.
Analoguemodem(dial-up
viastandardphoneline)
Dial-upisaconnectiontotheInternetviaananaloguemodemand
telephoneline,whichrequiresthatthemodemdialaphonenumber
whenInternetaccessisneeded.Themodemconvertsadigitalsignalinto
analoguefortransmissionbytraditional(copper)telephonelines.Italso
convertsanaloguetransmissionsbacktodigital.
ISDN(IntegratedServices
DigitalNetwork)
ISDNisatelecommunicationservicethatturnsatraditional(copper)
telephonelineintoahigherspeeddigitallink.ISDNisusuallyconsidered
tobenarrowband.
DSL(DigitalSubscriber
Line,includesADSL,
SDSL,VDSL,etc.)
DSL(digitalsubscriberline)lineisatechnologyforbringinghigh-
bandwidthinformationtohomesandsmallbusinessesoverordinary
coppertelephonelines.Speedshouldbeequalto,orgreaterthan,256
Kbit/s,inoneorbothdirections.
Cablemodem AcablemodemusescableTVlinesforconnectingtotheInternet.
Othernarrowband
Includesmobilephoneandotherformsofaccesswithanadvertised
downloadspeedoflessthan256Kbit/s,inoneorbothdirections.
NarrowbandmobilephoneaccessservicesincludeCDMA1x(Release0),
GPRS,WAPandi-mode.
Otherbroadband
Includeshighspeedleasedlines,ibre-to-the-home,somemobilephone
access(3Gand3.5G),powerline,satellite,ixedwireless,WiMAXetcwithan
advertiseddownloadspeedofequalto,orgreaterthan,256Kbit/s,inoneor
bothdirections.BroadbandmobilephoneaccessservicesincludeWideband
CDMA(W-CDMA),knownasUniversalMobileTelecommunications
System(UMTS)inEurope;High-speedDownlinkPacketAccess(HSDPA),
complementedbyHigh-SpeedUplinkPacketAccess(HSUPA);CDMA2000
1xEV-DOandCDMA2001xEV-DV.
HH13
Frequency of individual access to the Internet in the last 12 months (from any location)
For international comparability, output is most simply presented as the proportion of in-scope individuals using the Internet with each frequency, for instance, the proportion of individuals using the Internet at least once a day. An alternative presentation is the proportion of Internet users
using the Internet with each frequency.
It is recommended that countries collect this information in respect of a typical period; therefore, respondents should ignore weekends (if they only access the Internet from work) and breaks from their usual routine, such as holidays.
At least once a day
At least once a week but not every day
At least once a month but not every week
Less than once a month
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Annex 3. Core indicators on access to, and use of, ICT by households and individuals
Reference indicator
HHR1
Proportion of households with electricity
Electricity is not an ICT commodity, but is an important prerequisite for using many ICTs. It is therefore included in the core list as a reference indicator.
Source: Core ICT Indicators (
Partnership
, 2005c). Updates have been applied to some definitions (radios, community Internet access facilities, mobile phone and Internet access service technologies) based on the Telecommunication Indicators Handbook (ITU, 2007a). The updates are not expected to affect statistical time series.
Classiicatory variables
Forthehouseholdaccessindicators(HH1,HH2,HH3,HH4,HH5andHH7)sub-indicatorsmaybe
constructedusingthehouseholdclassiicatoryvariables,
household compositionand
household size
.
Thesearedeinedin
Partnership(2005c)asfollows:
•Householdcomposition(two-wayclassiication:householdswith/withoutchildrenunder16);
and
•Householdsize(numberofmembers,includingthoseoutsidetheagescope).
Fortheindividualuseindicators(HH6,HH8,HH9,HH10,HH11,HH12andHH13),sub-indicators
maybeconstructedusingtheindividualclassiicatoryvariables,age,gender,highesteducationlevel,
employmentstatusandoccupation.Thesearedeinedin
Partnership(2005c)asfollows:
•Age:toshowthedifferencesbetweenagegroupings,reasonablyineandequal-sizedrangesare
proposed:16to24;25to34;35to44;45to54;55to64;65to74;
•Gender;
•Highesteducationlevelreceived:afour-wayclassiicationisproposed:Noformaleducationor
primaryeducation(ISCED0,1);Lowersecondaryeducation(ISCED2);Uppersecondaryor
post-secondarynon-tertiary(ISCED3,4);Tertiary(ISCED5,6);
•Employmentstatus(four-wayclassiication:paidemployee;self-employed,unemployed;notin
thelabourforce);and
•Occupation(usingISCO88majorgroupswherepossible).
1
NotethatthisisadifferentdeinitionofacomputerfromtheoneusedforindicatorA3,withthemaindifference
beingthatpersonaldigitalassistants(PDA)areincludedherebutexcludedfromA3.Therearepracticaland
historicalreasonsforthisdifferencebut,forthepurposesofindicatorsHH5andHH6,thefunctionalityofPDAs,
whichmayincludeInternetconnectivity,isofinterest.
145
Annex 4. Core indicators on the use of ICT by businesses
Indicator
Deinitions
Basiccoreindicators
B1
Proportionofbusinesses
usingcomputers
The
proportion of businesses using computersiscalculatedbydividing
thenumberofin-scopebusinessesusingcomputersduringthe12-month
referenceperiodbythetotalnumberofin-scopebusinesses.
A
computerincludes:adesktop,portableorhandheldcomputer(e.g.a
personaldigitalassistant),minicomputerandmainframe.Acomputer
doesnotincludeequipmentwithsomeembeddedcomputingabilities,
suchasmobilephonesorTVsets,nordoesitincludecomputer-controlled
machineryorelectronictills.
B2
Proportionofemployees
usingcomputers
The
proportion of employees using computersiscalculatedbydividing
thenumberofemployeesusingcomputers(inallin-scopebusinesses)by
thetotalnumberofemployees(inallin-scopebusinesses).
Employeesrefertoallpersonsworkingforthebusiness,notonlythose
workinginclericaljobs.Theyincludeworkingproprietorsandpartners,
aswellasemployees.
B3
Proportionofbusinesses
usingtheInternet
The
proportion of businesses using the Internetiscalculatedbydividing
thenumberofin-scopebusinessesusingtheInternetbythetotalnumber
ofin-scopebusinesses.
The
InternetreferstoInternetprotocol(IP)basednetworks:WWW(the
WorldWideWeb),anextranetovertheInternet,EDIovertheInternet,
InternetaccessedbymobilephonesandInternetemail.
B4
Proportionofemployees
usingtheInternet
The
proportion of employees using the Internetiscalculatedbydividing
thenumberofemployeesusingtheInternet(inallin-scopebusinesses)by
thetotalnumberofemployees(inallin-scopebusinesses).
Annex 4. Core indicators on the use
of ICT by businesses
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The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
B5
Proportionofbusinesses
withawebpresence
The
proportion of businesses with a web presenceiscalculatedby
dividingthenumberofin-scopebusinesseswithawebpresencebythe
totalnumberofin-scopebusinesses.
A
web presenceincludesawebsite,homepageorpresenceonanother
entity’swebsite(includingarelatedbusiness).Itexcludesinclusioninan
on-linedirectoryandanyotherwebpageswherethebusinessdoesnot
havesubstantialcontroloverthecontentofthepage.
B6
Proportionofbusinesses
withanintranet
The
proportion of businesses with an intranetiscalculatedbydividing
thenumberofin-scopebusinesseswithanintranetbythetotalnumberof
in-scopebusinesses.
An
intranetreferstoaninternalcompanycommunicationsnetworkusing
Internetprotocolallowingcommunicationwithintheorganization.Itis
typicallysetupbehindairewalltocontrolaccess.
B7
Proportionofbusinesses
receivingordersoverthe
Internet
Forinternationalcomparability,the
proportion of businesses receiving orders over the Internetismostsimplycalculatedbydividingthenumber
ofin-scopebusinessesreceivingordersovertheInternetbythetotal
numberofin-scopebusinesses.Alternatively,outputcanbepresentedas
theproportionofin-scopebusinessesusingtheInternet.
Orders receivedincludeordersreceivedviatheInternetwhetherornot
paymentwasmadeonline.Theyincludeordersreceivedviawebsites,
specializedInternetmarketplaces,extranets,EDIovertheInternet,
Internet-enabledmobilephonesandemail.Theyalsoincludeorders
receivedonbehalfofotherorganizations–andordersreceivedbyother
organizationsonbehalfofthebusiness.
Orders receivedexcludeordersthatwerecancelledornotcompleted.
B8
Proportionofbusinesses
placingordersoverthe
Internet
Forinternationalcomparability,the
proportion of businesses placing orders over the Internetismostsimplycalculatedbydividingthenumber
ofin-scopebusinessesplacingordersovertheInternetbythetotal
numberofin-scopebusinesses.Alternatively,outputcanbepresentedas
theproportionofin-scopebusinessesusingtheInternet.
Orders placedincludeordersplacedviatheInternetwhetherornot
paymentwasmadeonline.Theyincludeordersplacedviawebsites,
specializedInternetmarketplaces,extranets,EDIovertheInternet,
Internet-enabledmobilephonesandemail.
Orders placedexcludeordersthatwerecancelledornotcompleted.
Extendedcoreindicators
B9
Proportionofbusinesses
usingtheInternetbytypeof
access
Forinternationalcomparability,outputismostsimplypresentedasthe
proportionofin-scopebusinessesusingeachtypeofaccessservice,
forinstance,theproportionofbusinessesaccessingtheInternetby
DSL.Additionally,outputshouldbeavailablefortheaggregations,the
proportionofbusinesseswithbroadbandandnarrowbandaccessto
theInternet.Alternatively,outputcanbepresentedasaproportionof
businessesusingtheInternet.
Categoriesshouldallowaggregationtonarrowbandandbroadband,
wherebroadbandexcludesslowertechnologies,suchasdial-up,ISDN
andmost2Gmobilephoneaccess.Broadbandwillusuallyhavean
advertiseddownloadspeedofatleast256Kbit/s,inoneorbothdirections.
Asbusinessescanusemorethanonetypeofaccessservice,multiple
responsesarepossible.
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Annex 4. Core indicators on the use of ICT by businesses
Analoguemodem(dial-up
viastandardphoneline)
Dial-upisaconnectiontotheInternetviaananaloguemodemand
telephoneline,whichrequiresthatthemodemdialaphonenumber
whenInternetaccessisneeded.Themodemconvertsadigitalsignalinto
analoguefortransmissionbytraditional(copper)telephonelines.Italso
convertsanaloguetransmissionsbacktodigital.
ISDN(IntegratedServices
DigitalNetwork)
ISDNisatelecommunicationservicethatturnsatraditional(copper)
telephonelineintoahigherspeeddigitallink.ISDNisusuallyconsidered
tobenarrowband.
DSL(DigitalSubscriber
Line,includingADSL,
SDSL,VDSL,etc.)
DSL(digitalsubscriberline)lineisatechnologyforbringinghigh-
bandwidthinformationtohomesandsmallbusinessesoverordinary
coppertelephonelines.Speedshouldbeequalto,orgreaterthan,256
Kbit/s,inoneorbothdirections.
Cablemodem A
cable modemusescableTVlinesforconnectingtotheInternet.
Othernarrowband
Includesmobilephoneandotherformsofaccesswithanadvertised
downloadspeedoflessthan256Kbit/s,inoneorbothdirections.
NarrowbandmobilephoneaccessservicesincludeCDMA1x(Release
0),GPRS,WAPand
i-mode
.
Otherbroadband
Includeshighspeedleasedlines,ibre-to-the-home,somemobilephone
access(3Gand3.5G),powerline,satellite,ixedwireless,WiMAXetcwith
anadvertiseddownloadspeedofequalto,orgreaterthan,256Kbit/s,in
oneorbothdirections.
Broadbandmobilephoneaccessservicesinclude
Wideband CDMA(W-
CDMA),knownas
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)
inEurope;High-speedDownlinkPacketAccess(HSDPA),complemented
byHigh-SpeedUplinkPacketAccess(HSUPA);CDMA20001xEV-DO
andCDMA2001xEV-DV.
B10
Proportionofbusinesses
withalocalareanetwork
(LAN)
The
proportion of businesses with a LANiscalculatedbydividingthe
numberofin-scopebusinesseswithaLANbythetotalnumberofin-
scopebusinesses.
A
local area network(LAN)referstoanetworkconnectingcomputers
withinalocalizedareasuchasasinglebuilding,departmentorsite;it
maybewireless.
B11
Proportionofbusinesses
withanextranet
The
proportion of businesses with an extranetiscalculatedbydividing
thenumberofin-scopebusinesseswithanextranetbythetotalnumber
ofin-scopebusinesses.
An
extranetisaclosednetworkthatusesInternetprotocolstosecurely
shareabusiness’informationwithsuppliers,vendors,customersorother
businessespartners.Itcantaketheformofasecureextensionofan
Intranetthatallowsexternaluserstoaccesssomepartsofthebusiness’
Intranet.Itcanalsobeaprivatepartofthebusiness’website,where
businesspartnerscannavigateafterbeingauthenticatedinaloginpage.
1
B12
Proportionofbusinesses
usingtheInternetbytype
ofactivity
Forinternationalcomparability,outputismostsimplypresentedasthe
proportionofin-scopebusinessesundertakingeachactivity,forinstance,
theproportionofbusinessesusingtheInternetforsendingorreceiving
emails.AnalternativepresentationistheproportionofbusinessInternet
usersundertakingeachactivity.
Forgettinginformation
aboutgoodsorservices:
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Forgettinginformation
fromgovernment
organizations/public
authoritiesviawebsitesor
email
Government organizations/public authoritiesarepreferablydeined
pertheSNA93(http://unstats.un.org/unsd/sna1993/glossform.asp?
getitem=219).Theyincludegovernmentorganizationsatlocal,regional
andnationallevel.
Forsendingorreceiving
email
ForperformingInternet
bankingoraccessingother
inancialservices
Forinteractingwith
governmentorganizations/
publicauthorities
Interactingwithgovernmentorganizationsincludesdownloading/
requestingforms,completing/lodgingformsonline,makingon-line
paymentsandpurchasingfrom,orsellingto,governmentorganizations.
Itdoesnotincludegettinginformationfromgovernmentorganizations.
2
Government organizations/publicauthoritiesarepreferablydeinedper
theSNA93(http://unstats.un.org/unsd/sna1993/glossform.asp?getitem
=219).Theyincludegovernmentorganizationsatlocal,regionaland
nationallevel.
Forprovidingcustomer
services
Customerservicesincludeprovidingon-lineoremailedproduct
cataloguesorpricelists,productspeciicationorconigurationonline,
aftersalessupport,andordertrackingonline.
Fordeliveringproductson
line
DeliveringproductsonlinereferstoproductsdeliveredovertheInternet
indigitizedform,e.g.reports,software,music,videos,computergames;
andon-lineservices,suchascomputer-relatedservices,information
services,travelbookingsorinancialservices.
Forotherinformation
searchesorresearch
activities
Source: Core ICT Indicators (
Partnership
, 2005c). Updates have been applied to definitions of Internet access service technologies based on the Telecommunication Indicators Handbook (ITU, 2007a). Other changes have been made based on the UNCTAD Manual for the Production of Statistics on the Information Economy (UNCTAD, 2007a) and are shown in the endnotes. The updates are not expected to affect statistical time series.
1
Thedeinitionofanextranethaschangedsinceoriginallypublishedin
Core ICT Indicators(
Partnership,2005c).
2
Notethattheresponsecategoryanddeinitionrelatingtodealingwithgovernmentorganizationshavechanged
slightlysinceoriginallypublishedin
Core ICT Indicators(
Partnership,2005c).
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Annex 4. Core indicators on the use of ICT by businesses
Classiicatory variables
Sub-indicatorsmaybeconstructedforthebusinessuseindicatorsusingtheclassiicatoryvariables,
employmentsizeandindustry(oftenreferredtoas
economic activity).Thesearedeinedin
Partnership
(2005c)asfollows:
•AminimalproposedbroadindustryoutputclassiicationbasedonISICRev.3.1is:manufacturing
(ISICD),construction(ISICF),wholesaleandretailtrade(includingrepairofmotorvehicles,
motorcyclesandpersonalandhouseholdgoods)(ISICG),hotelsandrestaurants(ISICH),
transport,storageandcommunications(ISICI),andrealestate,rentingandbusinessservices
(ISICK).Notethatmanyeconomiescollectdataforabroaderindustryscopethanthis;and
•Thesizeclassiicationproposedis:
10-49 employees;
50-249 employeesand
250 or more employees.Aswithindustry,manyeconomiescollectinformationforabroaderscopethanthis
(commonlyincludingsmallerbusinesses).
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Annex 5. Core indicators for the ICT sector and trade in ICT goods
Indicator
Deinitions
ICT1
Proportionoftotalbusiness
sectorworkforceinvolved
intheICTsector(usually
expressedasapercentage)
ICT workforce(orICTemployment)consistsofthosepersonsemployed
inbusinessesthatareclassiiedasbelongingtotheICTsector.Total
businessworkforcerepresentsallpersonsengagedindomesticproduction
inthebusinesssector.Inanationalaccountsframework,employmentcan
bemeasuredintermsofheadcounts,jobs,full-timeequivalents(FTE)
orhoursworked.Currently,totalheadcountsorjobsareusedformost
countries.
ICT2
ValueaddedintheICT
sector(asapercentageof
totalbusinesssectorvalue
added).
Value addedforaparticularindustryrepresentsitscontributionto
nationalGDP.ItissometimesreferredtoasGDPbyindustryandisnot
directlymeasured(butisestimatedinanationalaccountsframework).
Ingeneral,itiscalculatedasthedifferencebetweenproduction(gross
output)andintermediateinputs(theenergy,materialsandservices
requiredtoproduceinaloutput).SeealsoTable19.
ICT3
ICTgoodsimportsasa
percentageoftotalimports
ICT goodsaredeinedbytheOECD’sICTgoodsclassiicationinterms
ofthe1996and2002HSclassiication(seeAnnex6).
Otherconceptsareperthe
UN COMTRADEdatabasee.g.re-exports
andre-importsarenotnettedout,anddataarepresentedinUSdollars
(convertedbytheUNfromcountrycurrencies).
ICT4
ICTgoodsexportsasa
percentageoftotalexports
Source: Core ICT Indicators (
Partnership
, 2005c).
Annex 5. Core indicators for the ICT sector and trade in ICT goods
153
Annex 6. OECD list of ICT goods (2003)
HS 2002 HS 1996 Telecommunications equipment Notes
851711851711Linetelephonesetswithcordlesshandsets
851719851719Othertelephonesets,videophones
851721851721Facsimilemachines
851722851722Teleprinters
851730851730Telephonicortelegraphicswitchingapparatus
851750851750Otherapparatus,forcarrier-currentlinesystemsorfordigitallinesystems
851780851780Otherelectricalapparatusforlinetelephonyorlinetelegraphy
851790851790Partsforotherelectricalapparatusforlinetelephonyorlinetelegraphy
852020852020Telephoneansweringmachines
852510852510Transmissionapparatusforradio-telephony,radio-telegraphy,
radio-broadcastingortelevisionnotincorporatingreceptionapparatus
852520852520Transmissionapparatusforradio-telephony,radio-telegraphy,
radio-broadcastingortelevisionincorporatingreceptionapparatus
852530852530Televisioncameras
852610852610Radarapparatus
852790852790Receptionapparatusforradio-telephony,radio-telegraphyor
radio-broadcasting,whetherornotcombined,inthesamehousing,with
soundrecordingorreproducingapparatusoraclock,n.e.s
852910852910Aerialsandaerialrelectorsofallkinds;partssuitableforusetherewith
853110853110Burglarorirealarmsandsimilarapparatus(1)
854420854420Co-axialcableandotherco-axialelectricconductors
854470854470Opticalibrecables
HS2002HS1996Computerandrelatedequipment
847110847110Analogueorhybridautomaticdataprocessingmachines
847130847130Portabledigitalautomaticdataprocessingmachines,weighingnotmore
than10kg,consistingofatleastacentralprocessingunit,akeyboard
andadisplay
847141847141Digitalautomaticdataprocessingmachinescomprisinginthesame
housingatleastacentralprocessingunitandaninputandoutputunit,
whetherornotcombined
847149847149Otherdigitalautomaticdataprocessingmachines,presentedintheform
ofsystems
847150847150Digitalprocessingunitsotherthanthoseofsubheadings8471.41
and8471.49,whetherornotcontaininginthesamehousingoneortwo
ofthefollowingtypesofunit:storageunits,inputunits,outputunits
847160847160Automaticdataprocessingmachines,inputoroutputunits,whetheror
notcontainingstorageunitsinthesamehousing
Annex 6. OECD list of ICT goods (2003)
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The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
HS 2002 HS 1996 Telecommunications equipment Notes
847170847170Automaticdataprocessingmachines,storageunits
847180847180Otherunitsofautomaticdataprocessingmachines
847190847190Magneticoropticalreaders,machinesfortranscribingdataontodatamedia
incodedformandmachinesforprocessingsuchdata,notelsewhere
speciiedorincluded
847330847330PartsandaccessoriesofthemachinesofheadingNo.84.71
HS 2002 HS 1996 Electronic components Notes
850431850431Electricaltransformershavingapowerhandlingcapacitynotexceeding1kVA(1)
850450850450Inductors(1)
850490850490Partsof:electricaltransformers,staticconverters(forexample,rectiiers)
andinductors(1)
852330852330Cardsincorporatingamagneticstripe,unrecorded(1)
852460852460Cardsincorporatingamagneticstripe,recorded(1)
852990852990Partssuitableforusesolelyorprincipallywiththeapparatusofheadings
Nos.85.25to85.28exceptaerialsandaerialsrelectors
853221853221Capacitors,ixed,tantalumhavingareactivepowerhandlingcapacityof
lessthan0.5kvar
853224853224Capacitors,ixed,ceramicdielectric,multilayerhavingareactivepower
handlingcapacityoflessthan0.5kvar
853230853230Variableoradjustable(pre-set)capacitors
853310853310Fixedcarbonresistors,compositionorilmtypes
853321853321Electricalresistors,ixed,(includingrheostatsandpotentiometers),
otherthanheatingresistors,forapowerhandlingcapacity<=20W
853329853329Electricalresistors,ixed,(includingrheostatsandpotentiometers),
otherthanheatingresistors,n.e.s.
853331853331Wirewoundvariableresistors,forapowerhandlingcapacity<=20W
853339853339Resistors,wirewound,variable,n.e.s.
853340853340Othervariableresistors,includingrheostatsandpotentiometers
853390853390Partsforelectricalresistors(includingrheostatsandpotentiometers),
otherthanheatingresistors
853400853400Printedcircuits
854011854011Cathode-raytelevisionpicturetubes,includingvideomonitortubes,colour
854012854012Cathode-raytelevisionpicturetubes,includingvideomonitortubes,black
andwhiteorothermonochrome
854020854020Televisioncameratubes;imageconvertersandintensiiers;other
photo-cathodetubes
854040854040Data/graphicdisplaytubes,colour,withaphosphordotscreenpitch
smallerthan0.4mm
854050854050Data/graphicdisplaytubes,blackandwhiteorothermonochrome
854060854060Othercathode-raytubes
854071854071Microwavetubes,magnetrons,excludinggrid-controlledtubes
854072854072Microwavetubes–klystrons,excludinggrid-controlledtubes
854079854079Microwavetubes,other,excludinggrid-controlledtubes
854081854081Receiverorampliiervalvesandtubes
854089854089Valveandtubes,n.e.s.
854091854091Partsofcathode-raytubes
854099854099Partsofthermionicorphoto-cathode,valveandtubes,otherthan
cathode-raytubes
854110854110Diodes,otherthanphotosensitiveorlightemittingdiodes
854121854121Transistors,otherthanphotosensitive,dissipationrate<1W
854129854129Transistors,otherthanphotosensitivetransistors,n.e.s.
854130854130Thyristors,diacsandtriacs,otherthanphotosensitivedevices
854140854140Photosensitivesemiconductordevices,includingphotovoltaiccellswhether
ornotassembledinmodulesormadeupintopanels;lightemittingdiodes
854150854150Othersemiconductordevices
854160854160Mountedpiezo-electriccrystals
854190854190Partsforsemiconductordevices
155
Annex 6. OECD list of ICT goods (2003)
HS 2002 HS 1996 Electronic components Notes
854210854212Cardsincorporatingelectronicintegratedcircuits(‘smart’cards)(2)
854221854213-19Digitalmonolitihicintegratedcircuits(2)
854229854230Othermonolithicintegratedcircuits(2)
854260854240Hybridintegratedcircuits(2)
854270854250Electronicmicroassemblies(2)
854290854290Partsforelectronicintegratedcircuitsandmicroassemblies
HS 2002 HS 1996 Audio and video equipment Notes
851810851810Microphonesandstandstherefor
851821851821Singleloudspeakers,mountedintheirenclosures
851822851822Multipleloudspeakers,mountedinthesameenclosure
851829851829Otherloudspeakers,n.e.s
851830851830Headphonesandearphones,whetherornotcombinedwithamicrophone,andsets
consistingofamicrophoneandoneormoreloudspeakers
851840851840Audio-frequencyelectricampliiers
851850851850Electricsoundampliiersets
851890851890Partsofmicrophones,loudspeakers,headphones,earphones,combinedmicrophone/
loudspeakersets,audio-frequencyelectricampliiersandelectricsoundampliiersets
851910851910Coin-ordisc-operatedrecord-players
851921851921Record-players,withoutloudspeaker
851929851929Record-players,n.e.s.
851931851931Turntableswithautomaticrecordchangingmechanism
851939851939Turntables,n.e.s.
851940851940Transcribingmachines
851992851992Pocket-sizecassette-players
851993851993Othersoundreproducingapparatus,cassette-type
851999851999Soundreproducingapparatus,notincorporatingasoundrecordingdevice,n.e.s.
852010852010Dictatingmachinesnotcapableofoperatingwithoutanexternalsourceofpower
852032852032Othermagnetictaperecordersincorporatingsoundreproducingapparatus,Digitalaudio
type
852033852033Othermagnetictaperecordersincorporatingsoundreproducingapparatus,cassette-type
852039852039Othermagnetictaperecordersincorporatingsoundreproducingapparatus
852090852090Magnetictaperecordersandothersoundrecordingapparatus,whether
ornotincorporatingasoundreproducingdevice,n.e.s.
852110852110Videorecordingorreproducingapparatus,whetherornotincorporating
avideotuner–magnetictape-type
852190852190Videorecordingorreproducingapparatus,whetherornotincorporating
avideotuner–othertype
852210852210Partsandaccessoriessuitableforusesolelyorprincipallywiththeapparatus
ofheadingsNos.85.19to85.21–pick-upcartridges
852290852290Partsandaccessoriessuitableforusesolelyorprincipallywiththeapparatus
ofheadingsNos.85.19to85.21–other
852311852311Magnetictapes,unrecorded,width<=4mm(1/6in.)(1)
852312852312Magnetictapes,unrecorded,width>4mm(1/6in.)but<=6.5mm(1/4in.)(1)
852313852313Magnetictapes,unrecorded,width>6.5mm(1/4in.)(1)
852320852320Magneticdiscs,unrecorded(1)
852390852390Otherpreparedunrecordedmediaforsoundrecordingorsimilarrecording
ofotherphenomena,otherthanproductsofChapter37(1)
852540852540Stillimagevideocamerasandothervideocamerarecorders,digitalcameras
852712852712Pocket-sizeradiocassette-playerscapableofoperatingwithoutanexternal
sourceofpower
852713852713Radio-broadcastreceivers,capableofoperatingwithoutanexternal
sourceofpower,combinedwithsoundrecordingorreproducingapparatus
852719852719Otherradio-broadcastreceivers,capableofoperatingwithoutanexternal
sourceofpower,notcombinedwithsoundrecordingorreproducingapparatus
852721852721Radio-broadcastreceiverswithsoundrecordingorreproducingapparatus,
formotorvehicles,requiringexternalsourceofpower
852729852729Otherradio-broadcastreceiversformotorvehicles,notcombinedwithsound
recordingorreproducingapparatus
156
The Global Information Society: a Statistical View
HS 2002 HS 1996 Audio and video equipment Notes
852731852731Otherradio-broadcastreceivers,includingapparatuscapableofreceiving
alsoradio-telephonyorradio-telegraphy,combinedwithsoundrecording
orreproducingapparatus
852732852732Otherradio-broadcastreceivers,includingapparatuscapableofreceiving
alsoradio-telephonyorradio-telegraphy,notcombinedwithsoundrecording
orreproducingapparatusbutcombinedwithaclock
852739852739Otherradio-broadcastreceivers,includingapparatuscapableofreceiving
radio-telephonyorradio-telegraphy,n.e.s.
852812852812Receptionapparatusfortelevision,whetherornotincorporating
radio-broadcastreceiversorsoundorvideorecordingorreproducing
apparatus,colour
852813852813Receptionapparatusfortelevision,whetherornotincorporating
radio-broadcastreceiversorsoundorvideorecordingorreproducing
apparatus,blackandwhiteorothermonochrome
852821852821Videomonitors,colour
852822852822Videomonitors,blackandwhiteorothermonochrome
852830852830Videoprojectors
HS 2002 HS 1996 Other ICT goods Notes
846911846911Word-processingmachines
847010847010Electroniccalculatorscapableofoperationwithoutanexternalsource
ofelectricpowerandpocket-sizedatarecording,reproducingand
displayingmachineswithcalculatingfunctions
847021847021Otherelectroniccalculatingmachinesincorporatingaprintingdevice
847029847029Otherelectroniccalculatingmachines
847040847040Accountingmachines
847050847050Cashregisters
847310847310Partsandaccessories(otherthancovers,carryingcasesandthelike)suitable
forusesolelyorprincipallywithmachinesofheadingNo.84.69
847321847321Partsandaccessoriesoftheelectroniccalculatingmachinesofsubheading
No.8470.10,8470.21or8470.29
847350847350Partsandaccessoriesequallysuitableforusewithmachinesoftwoor
moreoftheheadingsNos.84.69to84.72
852691852691Radionavigationalaidapparatus
852692852692Radioremotecontrolapparatus
901041901041Apparatusfortheprojectionordrawingofcircuitpatternsonsensitised
semiconductormaterials–directwrite-on-waferapparatus(1)
901042901042Apparatusfortheprojectionordrawingofcircuitpatternsonsensitised
semiconductormaterials–stepandrepeataligners(1)
901049901049Apparatusfortheprojectionordrawingofcircuitpatternsonsensitised
semiconductormaterials–other(1)
901410901410Directionindingcompasses
901420901420Instrumentsandappliancesforaeronauticalorspacenavigation(other
thancompasses)
901480901480Othernavigationalinstrumentsandappliances
901490901490Partsandaccessoriesofdirectionindingcompasses,othernavigational
instrumentsandappliances
901540901540Photogrammetricalsurveyinginstrumentsandappliances
901580901580Othersurveyinginstrumentsandappliances
901811901811Electro-cardiographs(1)
901812901812Ultrasonicscanningapparatus(1)
901813901813Magneticresonanceimagingapparatus(1)
901814901814Scintigraphicapparatus(1)
901819901819Otherelectro-diagnosticapparatus(includingapparatusforfunctional
exploratoryexaminationorforcheckingphysiologicalparameters)(1)
902212902212Computedtomographyapparatus(1)
902213902213OtherapparatusbasedontheuseofX-rays,fordentaluses(1)
902214902214OtherapparatusbasedontheuseofX-rays,formedical,surgicalor
veterinaryuses(1)
157
Annex 6. OECD list of ICT goods (2003)
HS 2002 HS 1996 Other ICT goods Notes
902219902219OtherapparatusbasedontheuseofX-rays,forotheruses(1)
902410902410Machinesandappliancesfortestingthehardness,strength,compressibility,
elasticityorothermechanicalpropertiesofmaterials,metals
902480902480Othermachinesandappliancesfortestingthehardness,strength,
compressibility,elasticityorothermechanicalpropertiesofmaterials
902490902490Partsandaccessoriesformachinesandappliancesfortestingthehardness,
strength,compressibility,elasticityorothermechanicalpropertiesofmaterials
902620902620Instrumentsandapparatusformeasuringorcheckingthepressureofliquids
orgases,excludinginstrumentsandapparatusofheadingNos.9014,9015,
9028or9032
902710902710Instrumentsandapparatusforphysicalorchemicalanalysis,gasorsmoke
analysisapparatus
902730902730Spectrometers,spectrophotometersandspectrographsusingopticalradiations
(UV,visible,IR)
902740902740Instrumentsandapparatusformeasuringorcheckingquantitiesofheat,
soundorlight,exposuremeters
902750902750Otherinstrumentsandapparatususingopticalradiations(UV,visible,IR)
902780902780Otherinstrumentsandapparatusforphysicalorchemicalanalysis
902810902810Gasmeters
902820902820Liquidmeters
902830902830Electricitymeters
902890902890Partsforgas,liquidorelectricitysupplyorproductionmeters,including
calibratingmeterstherefor
902910902910Revolutioncounters,productioncounters,taximeters,mileometers,
pedometersandthelike
902920902920Speedindicatorsandtachometers;stroboscopes
902990902990Partsandaccessoriesforrevolutioncounters,productioncounters,taximeters,
mileometers,pedometersandthelike;speedindicatorsandtachometers,
otherthanthoseofheadingNo.90.14or90.15;stroboscopes
903010903010Instrumentsandapparatusformeasuringordetectingionisingradiations
903020903020Cathode-rayoscilloscopesandcathode-rayoscillographs
903031903031Multimeterswithoutarecordingdevice
903039903039Otherinstrumentsandapparatusformeasuringorcheckingvoltage,current,
etc.withoutarecordingdevice
903040903040Otherinstrumentsandapparatus,speciallydesignedfortelecommunications
(forexample,cross-talkmeters,gainmeasuringinstruments,distortionfactor
meters,psophometers)
903082903082Otherinstrumentsformeasuringorcheckingsemiconductorwafersordevices
903083903083Otherinstrumentsformeasuringorcheckingsemiconductorwafersordevices
witharecordingdevice
903110903110Measuringorcheckinginstruments,appliancesandmachinesn.e.s,machines
forbalancingmechanicalparts
903120903120Measuringorcheckinginstruments,appliancesandmachinesn.e.s,testbenches
903130903130Measuringorcheckinginstruments,appliancesandmachinesn.e.s,
proileprojectors
903141903141Otheropticalinstrumentsandappliances,forinspectingsemiconductor
wafersordevicesorforinspectingphotomasksorreticlesusedin
manufacturingsemiconductordevices
903180903180Othermeasuringorcheckinginstruments,appliancesandmachines,n.e.s.
903190903190Partsandaccessoriesformeasuringorcheckinginstruments,appliances
andmachines,n.e.s.
903210903210Thermostats
903220903220Manostats
903289903289Otherautomaticregulatingorcontrollinginstrumentsandapparatus,n.e.s.
903290903290Partsandaccessoriesforautomaticregulatingorcontrollinginstruments
andapparatus
Source: Guide to Measuring the Information Society 2005 (OECD, 2005b).
Notes: Titles are according to the 2002 Harmonized System. Some have been changed slightly in the interests of clarity and space.
(1) Industry of origin not in the OECD ICT sector (2002).
(2) HS 1996 and HS 2002 codes differ.
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