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Usability, user centred design and persuasion, and how these increase customer loyalty

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Usability, user centred design and persuasion, and how these increase customer loyalty
Dr Jon Dodd
May 16th 2012
2
Founder in 1999 of UK‟s leading specialists in
Customer (user) experience
User centred design
Usability
Persuasion
Accessibility
Eye tracking
Web
Apps & Touchscreens
Mobile
Software &
Games
Interactive TV
Print
E
-
mail
3
We help organisations across all sectors communicate with their customers...
4
How should we design
for our customers (users)?
5
How should we design
for our customers (users
)?
You will benefit from using principles of
Evidence based design
...and I will cover 3 areas
6
Usability
7
User centred design
8
Persuasion
9
Good design is not easy to produce
Common objects are often highly frustrating Other villains include:
•
doors
•
light switches
•
taps
•
sinks
•
.....
10
Sometimes it‟s more important than frustration 11
Often simple solutions will be known
12
So if even simple things like doors can go wrong we need all the help we can get with designing stuff that runs on these... Ipad
, website, ipod
...and as the lines increasingly blur between digital and non
-
digital, on and off
-
line we also need to understand environments and highly complex interactions
13
There are „rules for usability‟
14
If you only ever read one book on it...
15
The COI usability toolkit http://usability.coi.gov.uk
Published April 2009 written by Bunnyfoot –
the source for the basics of usability in a simple to digest format (example based and interactive)
15
16
Usability and loyalty?
It is a no brainer really
... But also the academics have looked into it
[1]
L. Casaló, C. Flavián, and M. Guinalíu, “The role of perceived usability, reputation, satisfaction and consumer familiarity on the website loyalty formation process,” Computers in Human Behavior
, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 325
–
345, Mar. 2008.
[2]
C. Flavián, M. Guinalíu, and R. Gurrea, “The role played by perceived usability, satisfaction and consumer trust on website loyalty,” Information & Management
, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 1
–
14, Jan. 2006.
[3]
M. Xue, “Website efficiency, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty: A customer value driven perspective,” Citeseer, 2000.
[4]
T. Jokela, “When good things happen to bad products: where are the benefits of usability in the consumer appliance market?,” interactions
, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 28
–
35, Nov. 2004.
17
especially in an online joined up world...
Treat customers poorly and they will go elsewhere
Good usability increases trust, loyalty (and converts)
Especially in a joined up wold
18
But adhering to rules is not enough
We are not our customers
19
Test with real customers
20
Lets look at some videos
21
Eyetracking data from our clients...
22
It works „offline‟ too e.g. TV ads
23
Print ads
24
In store / POS
25
User centred design
How we get beyond fixing broken stuff
26
Usability –
has always been understood to be more than tactical....
Looks a bit dry on first read but unpacking it:
Effectiveness
-
can they do it?
Efficiency
–
how quickly can they do it?
Satisfaction
–
what do they think/feel about the experience?
Specified set of users –
you need to know your customers intimately (research!)
Specified set of tasks –
you need to match these to your customers goals & your business goals
Particular environment –
much more important to understand now e.g. mobile, social media, iPad –
different devices, modes and contexts of use influence the experience
effectiveness
, efficiency
and satisfaction
with which a specified set of users can achieve a specified set of tasks in a particular environment
ISO 9241 definition
We can measure all of these
They can be used tactically & strategically
27
For digital...
28
29
30
31
Nowdays
we talk about „UX‟ or „customer experience‟
Customer experience is the sum of all experiences a customer has with a supplier of goods or services, over the duration of their relationship with that supplier
The combination of rational and emotional factors of using a company’s online services which influences customers perceptions of a brand online
Dr Dave Chaffey
Good or even perfect functional usability is expected...
... but no longer enough to differentiate at the top
32
A successful framework: User Centred Design (UCD)
An established process from the software industry
–
applies equally to web (and indeed any communication channel)
The important thing is
Engaging with and testing users (customers) at each stage of development
33
This focus on the customer ensures you drive the desired behaviour from your customer interactions
Evidence based design
34
and some of the other benefits too...
Avoid design by committee
Avoid the HiPPO
effect
Spark insight and explore freely
Avoid „me to...‟ competitor copies
So how do you do it?
Data –
model -
prototype –
test –
test -
test
36
User Centred Design
Long term
Support
Regular
Monitoring
Ongoing
Optimisation
Research
Creative concepts
Evolve and Develop the creative
Develop
Design guides / assets
Learn about your
Business
Learn about
Competitors
Learn about your
Customers
Define
Customer Models
Explore
Customer interaction
Develop
Testable concepts
Define the Information architecture
Develop the
Interaction design
Document with
Blueprints/instructions
37
Research
Model
Architect
Design
Optimise
The backbone of the process is platform independent
–
insight and direction for joined up marketing communications
Web
Interactive TV
Print
E
-
mail
Apps & Touchscreens
Mobile
Software & Games
Research
& model can be reused for different platforms
Platforms
38
A scary number of potential activities
you are not meant to be able to read all these by the way
Learn about your
Business
Business requirements / stakeholder workshops
Participatory design / concept testing
Requirement analysis planning
Business to customer uncovery
Learn about your
Competitors
Competitor research / benchmarking
Best practice analysis / feature analysis
Digital marketing strategy
Learn about your
Customers
Behavior observation
Observed browsing
Contextual Inquiry Ethnography
Competitor testing
Diary studies
Audience surveys
Depth interviews
Behavioral analytics
Define
Customer models
Persona development
Scenario and use case setting
Explore
Customer interaction
Content audit and analysis
Ideation / concepting
Participatory design workshop
Mental model / content model Develop
Testable concepts
Concept rationalization
Information architecture concept generation
Storyboarding
Lo
-
fi
prototype sketching
Define the Information architecture
Information architecture development
Content strategy
Develop the
Interaction design
Paper prototyping
Iterative wireframe development
Clickable prototype development Document with
Blueprints/instructions
Information architecture blueprints
Interaction design documentation
Wireframes
Templates
Elements
Research
Creative concepts
Creative research exploration
Mood/concept boards
Competitor / brand analysis
Creative workshop
Evolve and Develop the creative
Creative concept generation
Creative application Templates
Elements
Develop
Design guides/assets
Design guide production
Design asset production
Layered psd, png, etc,
Presentation layer code
Long term
Support
‘Rent
-
a
-
guru’ ongoing ‘on call’ immediate access to our experts
Workshop, training and seminars
Policy documentation
Regular
Monitoring
Advanced visitor analysis
Benchmark quantitative testing
Competitor monitoring / trend spotting
Social media monitoring
Satisfaction surveys and interviews Ongoing
Optimisation
A/B testing
Multivariate testing
Maintain & update customer intelligence
Design modification updates
Persuasion audits
Test & evaluate Expert evaluation
User testing
Accessibility audit
Prototype testing
Eye tracking
Card sorting
Navigation testing
Look and feel testing
Remote testing
Analytics
Multivariate testing
…and more 39
A scary number of potential activities
you are not meant to be able to read all these by the way
Learn about your
Business
Business requirements / stakeholder workshops
Participatory design / concept testing
Requirement analysis planning
Business to customer uncovery
Learn about your
Competitors
Competitor research / benchmarking
Best practice analysis / feature analysis
Digital marketing strategy
Learn about your
Customers
Behavior observation
Observed browsing
Contextual Inquiry Ethnography
Competitor testing
Diary studies
Audience surveys
Depth interviews
Behavioral analytics
Define
Customer models
Persona development
Scenario and use case setting
Explore
Customer interaction
Content audit and analysis
Ideation / concepting
Participatory design workshop
Mental model / content model Develop
Testable concepts
Concept rationalization
Information architecture concept generation
Storyboarding
Lo
-
fi
prototype sketching
Define the Information architecture
Information architecture development
Content strategy
Develop the
Interaction design
Paper prototyping
Iterative wireframe development
Clickable prototype development Document with
Blueprints/instructions
Information architecture blueprints
Interaction design documentation
Wireframes
Templates
Elements
Research
Creative concepts
Creative research exploration
Mood/concept boards
Competitor / brand analysis
Creative workshop
Evolve and Develop the creative
Creative concept generation
Creative application Templates
Elements
Develop
Design guides/assets
Design guide production
Design asset production
Layered psd, png, etc,
Presentation layer code
Long term
Support
‘Rent
-
a
-
guru’ ongoing ‘on call’ immediate access to our experts
Workshop, training and seminars
Policy documentation
Regular
Monitoring
Advanced visitor analysis
Benchmark quantitative testing
Competitor monitoring / trend spotting
Social media monitoring
Satisfaction surveys and interviews Ongoing
Optimisation
A/B testing
Multivariate testing
Maintain & update customer intelligence
Design modification updates
Persuasion audits
Test & evaluate Expert evaluation
User testing
Accessibility audit
Prototype testing
Eye tracking
Card sorting
Navigation testing
Look and feel testing
Remote testing
Analytics
Multivariate testing
…and more How should we get inside this and obtain evidence?
41
People lie, they don‟t know what they want, but they want to look good
The healthy hamburger?
42
Another example
If I asked you what you looked
at –
would you lie?
Be truthful!
43
Which is from 30 men?
Which is from 30 women?
44
Its just past midday...
45
Fill in the blanks
46
47
Ultimately...
People make decisions in the unconscious...
People don’t remember...
People lie (confabulate)...
People post rationalise...
People hate to appear stupid...
People are bad at introspection...
People will be kind to you and tell you what they think you want to hear
47
48
A scary number of potential activities
you are not meant to be able to read all these by the way
Learn about your
Business
Business requirements / stakeholder workshops
Participatory design / concept testing
Requirement analysis planning
Business to customer uncovery
Learn about your
Competitors
Competitor research / benchmarking
Best practice analysis / feature analysis
Digital marketing strategy
Learn about your
Customers
Behavior observation
Observed browsing
Contextual Inquiry Ethnography
Competitor testing
Diary studies
Audience surveys
Depth interviews
Behavioral analytics
Define
Customer models
Persona development
Scenario and use case setting
Explore
Customer interaction
Content audit and analysis
Ideation / concepting
Participatory design workshop
Mental model / content model Develop
Testable concepts
Concept rationalization
Information architecture concept generation
Storyboarding
Lo
-
fi
prototype sketching
Define the Information architecture
Information architecture development
Content strategy
Develop the
Interaction design
Paper prototyping
Iterative wireframe development
Clickable prototype development Document with
Blueprints/instructions
Information architecture blueprints
Interaction design documentation
Wireframes
Templates
Elements
Research
Creative concepts
Creative research exploration
Mood/concept boards
Competitor / brand analysis
Creative workshop
Evolve and Develop the creative
Creative concept generation
Creative application Templates
Elements
Develop
Design guides/assets
Design guide production
Design asset production
Layered psd, png, etc,
Presentation layer code
Long term
Support
‘Rent
-
a
-
guru’ ongoing ‘on call’ immediate access to our experts
Workshop, training and seminars
Policy documentation
Regular
Monitoring
Advanced visitor analysis
Benchmark quantitative testing
Competitor monitoring / trend spotting
Social media monitoring
Satisfaction surveys and interviews Ongoing
Optimisation
A/B testing
Multivariate testing
Maintain & update customer intelligence
Design modification updates
Persuasion audits
Test & evaluate Expert evaluation
User testing
Accessibility audit
Prototype testing
Eye tracking
Card sorting
Navigation testing
Look and feel testing
Remote testing
Analytics
Multivariate testing
…and more 49
Personas, flows and models
50
A scary number of potential activities
you are not meant to be able to read all these by the way
Learn about your
Business
Business requirements / stakeholder workshops
Participatory design / concept testing
Requirement analysis planning
Business to customer uncovery
Learn about your
Competitors
Competitor research / benchmarking
Best practice analysis / feature analysis
Digital marketing strategy
Learn about your
Customers
Behavior observation
Observed browsing
Contextual Inquiry Ethnography
Competitor testing
Diary studies
Audience surveys
Depth interviews
Behavioral analytics
Define
Customer models
Persona development
Scenario and use case setting
Explore
Customer interaction
Content audit and analysis
Ideation / concepting
Participatory design workshop
Mental model / content model Develop
Testable concepts
Concept rationalization
Information architecture concept generation
Storyboarding
Lo
-
fi
prototype sketching
Define the Information architecture
Information architecture development
Content strategy
Develop the
Interaction design
Paper prototyping
Iterative wireframe development
Clickable prototype development Document with
Blueprints/instructions
Information architecture blueprints
Interaction design documentation
Wireframes
Templates
Elements
Research
Creative concepts
Creative research exploration
Mood/concept boards
Competitor / brand analysis
Creative workshop
Evolve and Develop the creative
Creative concept generation
Creative application Templates
Elements
Develop
Design guides/assets
Design guide production
Design asset production
Layered psd, png, etc,
Presentation layer code
Long term
Support
‘Rent
-
a
-
guru’ ongoing ‘on call’ immediate access to our experts
Workshop, training and seminars
Policy documentation
Regular
Monitoring
Advanced visitor analysis
Benchmark quantitative testing
Competitor monitoring / trend spotting
Social media monitoring
Satisfaction surveys and interviews Ongoing
Optimisation
A/B testing
Multivariate testing
Maintain & update customer intelligence
Design modification updates
Persuasion audits
Test & evaluate Expert evaluation
User testing
Accessibility audit
Prototype testing
Eye tracking
Card sorting
Navigation testing
Look and feel testing
Remote testing
Analytics
Multivariate testing
…and more Iterative development With many points during the lifecycle of a design to collect evidence
A spectrum of testing and insight methods
54
Persuasion
apply the proven scientific principles
measure the effects
55
Why I like it...
It is proper proven science
not just based on hand waving... ...but at the same time makes sense
56
A number of authors have written „popularly‟ on the subject
5
6
57
A brief look at Bob Caldini‟s
6 main principles and how to design them in…
Reciprocity
Free…
Give -
> give back
Scarcity
Only 3 left. Time running out
Authority
Awards, professional acknowledgement, ratings by objective trusted sources
Commitment
Foot in door -
leads to more
Public support statements
Social Proof
After looking at this book, most people bought… Likability
That picture looks just like me and my friends. I like this photo tool
There are many other
factors but these are for another day….
58
Persuasion & loyalty
Reciprocity
Basis of loyalty programs
Commitment
Sign up
Redeem early
Engage early
Social Proof
Reaching critical mass
Evidencing this
Social networking
Reputation/sentiment
59
You need to use evidence and not just common sense, assumption or rules to create winning customer experiences
User centred design is a good framework for developing good customer interactions
Persuasion principles can be applied to support the aims of a site/service and avoid procrastination
60
Oxford Office (Head office)
Harwell Innovation Centre
173 Curie Avenue
Harwell, Oxfordshire
OX11 0QG T: 0845 644 0650 T: +44 (0)1235 838 514 F: 0845 644 0651
Sheffield Office
Electric Works Sheffield Digital Campus
Sheffield, S1 2BJ T: 0845 456 2205 T: +44 (0)114 286 6224
London Office
Westbourne Studios 242 Acklam
Road
London, W10 5JJ T: 0845 643 0650
T: +44 (0)208 968 9376
Reading Office
7
-
11 Station Road
Reading, Berkshire
RG1 1LG T: +44 (0)118 959 9882
®
Contact details
For more information please do not hesitate to contact me:
jon@bunnyfoot.com
01235 838 514
@jonbunnyfoot
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