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История Лондона

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 Sergienko
Roman Kydryavtsev
Egor
Roman London
Saxons and the Vikings
Anglo -
Saxon London
The tower of London
Content
-
1
Tudor London
Stuart
London
Plague and Fire
Content
-
2
Georgian London
Victorian London
The twentieth century
Content
-
1
Content
-
2
The second world war
Modern history
Millennium London
ROMAN LONDON The
Romans
invaded
England
in
43
AD
.
They
landed
in
Kent,
made
their
way
to
the
River
Thames
and
sailed
it
up
.
They
chose
a
spot
on
the
two
small
hills
where
the
river
became
narrower
.
They
built
a
bridge
over
the
Thames,
and
London
Bridge
is
at
the
same
plase
now
-
a
-
days
.
The
Romans
laid
out
buildings,
streets
and
a
port,
and
shortly
afterwards
they
built
a
bridge
.
They
called
the
settlement
Londinium
and
it
soon
became
the
capital
of
Roman
Britain
.
Next
ROMAN LONDON
In
AD
61
the
native
Iceni
tribe,
led
by
Queen
Boudicca,
rose
up
against
the
Romans
.
They
burnt
Londinium
to
the
ground
and
killed
all
its
inhabitants
.
The
Romans
regained
control
and
rebuilt
London,
that
time
anding
a
Forum
(market)
and
Basilica
(a
business
centre)
were
added,
and
then
they
began
building
of
a
wall
around
the
city
to
protect
it
from
further
invasion
.
The
Romans
ruled
in
Britain
until
410
.
The
population
of
Roman
London
rose
to
45
.
000
,
that
it
seems
small
to
us
but
it
was
the
largest
town
in
Britain
.
Content
-
1
Saxons and the Vikings
Later in the 5th century, Anglo
-
Saxons settled just to the west of Londinium and formed the town of Lundenwic. Saxon London consisted of many wooden huts with thatched rooves.
Disaster struck London in 842 when the Danish Vikings looted London. They returned in 851 and that time they burned a large part of the town. King Alfred the Great totally defeated the Danes in 878 and they split the country between them. The Danes took the eastern England included London while Alfred took the South and the West. Despite of the peace treaty Alfred’s men took London in 886. Alfred repaired the walls of the old Roman town. In 1016 the Vikings attacked London again but they were beaten by the Saxons. Content
-
1
Anglo
-
Saxon London The
Vikings
and
Saxons
ruled
united
England
until
1042
,
when
Edward
the
Confessor
became
the
King
of
both
nations
Until
1066
London
was
constantly
passed
from
hands
to
hands,
but
in
spite
of
such
severe
conditions
for
the
development
of
the
town,
its
construction
was
not
stopped
.
At
the
same
year
it
was
completed
Westminster
Abbey,
where
the
new
ruler
of
England,
William
the
Conqueror
was
crowned
.
By
the
end
of
the
XIth
century
by
order
of
the
King
The
Tower
of
London
was
built
.
It
was
used
as
a
fortress,
a
royal
residence
and
a
prison
.
Now
it
is
a
museum
and
also
the
place
where
the
Crown
Jewels
are
kept
.
Content
-
1
T
he
Tower of London
Content
-
1
Tudor London (1485 –
1603)
Henry
VII
became
the
King
in
1485
.
He
followed
Henry
VIII
.
They
were
the
first
Tudor
kings
.
London
grew
in
importance
under
the
Tudor`s
rule
.
It
became
the
centre
of
trade
and
goverment
.
By
the
end
of
the
Tudor`s
era
there
were
about
200
,
000
people
living
in
London
.
During
the
reign
of
Elizabeth
l,
London
was
wealth
and
successful
city
.
The
theatre
became
popular,
thank
to
the
arrival
of
the
playwrighter,
William
Shakespeare
.
It
was
between
1585
and
1593
.
Content
-
1
Stuart London (1603 –
1649) (1660 –
1714)
The
first
Stuart
King,
James
I
,
came
to
the
throne
in
1603
.
He
was
already
the
King
James
the
Sixth
of
Scotland
.
He
united
the
two
countries
under
the
rule
of
one
king
.
In
1625
Charles
II
came
to
the
throne
.
In
1635
he
opened
Hyde
Park
to
the
public
and
in
1637
it
was
created
Richmond
Park
for
hunting
.
After
the
civil
war
in
1642
between
supporters
of
the
king
and
the
parliamentary
forces,
Britain
became
a
republic
.
But
in
1660
the
monarchy
was
returned
.
Content
-
1
Plague and Fire
In
1665
,
during
the
Great
Plague,
nearly
70
,
000
Londoners
died
from
the
disease
during
the
period
of
a
year
.
The
epidemia
was
followed
by
the
Great
Fire
of
1666
,
which
destroyed
most
of
the
wooden
buildings
of
the
city
.
Because of the Rebuilding Act 1667, that said only stone and brick could be used, the new buildings rose from the ruins. Next
Great Fire of 1666
Content
-
1
Georgian London (1714 –
1837)
In
1714
,
George
I
became
king
.
He
began
the
line
of
Kings
and
Queens
called
the
Hanovers,
who
ruled
Britain
till
1837
.
At
that
time,
Britain
became
one
of
the
most
powerful
countries
in
the
world,
with
London
at
the
heart
of
its
trade
.
London
quickly
grew
in
size
and
population
during
the
Georgian
era
.
In
1801
the
population
reached
about
one
million
.
Merchants
and
bankers
grew
rich
and
many
of
them
lived
in
the
new
West
End
.
Other
people
suffered
terrible
poverty
.
Several hospitals were founded during the Georgian era including Westminster (1720), Guys (1724), St Georges (1733), London (1740) and Middlesex (1745).
Content
-
2
Victorian London (1837 –
1901)
In 1837, Victoria
became the Queen at the age of 18. The time while she was the Queen is called the Victorian era. London grew faster. Better lighting, plumbing and transport were developed, too. By the time Victoria died in 1901, London was a very prosperity city.
The building of railways
changed London for ever. The first underground railway was opened in 1863 between Paddington and the City.
Many of the buildings in London today were built in Victorian times. The most famous is probably the Houses of Parliament, built in 1834 after a fire destroyed the original buildings.
Content
-
2
The Twentieth Century
London
grew
even
bigger
in
the
twentieth
century
.
More
people
went
to
live
in
the
city
suburbs
and
got
to
work
by
train,
bus
or
by
car
.
The
city
changed
too,
with
new
buildings
replacing
those
damaged
by
bombs
during
the
war
years
.
Content
-
2
The Second World War
During World War I London was the object of frequent raids by German airplanes and zeppelins. The city was heavily bombed during World War II. About 10,000 persons were killed. Only the Tower of London, the British Museum, Houses of Parliament, St. Paul’s Cathedral, Buckingham palace, remained after bombing, many railway stations also were severely damaged
.
Content
-
2
Modern history
After
the
war,
by
the
end
of
the
1950
s
most
damaged
in
the
War
II
buildings
were
repaired
.
As
a
result
of
the
reconstruction
the
skyskrypes
began
to
build
.
The
London
StockExchange,
the
General
Post
Office
.
Homes,
shops,
schools
and
a
cultural
centers
were
built,
and
important
landmarks
were
preserved
.
Content
-
2
next
Modern history
Starting with the mid
-
1960s, London became a centre for the worldwide youth culture, such as the Swinging London subculture which made Carnaby Street a household name of youth fashion around the world. London's role as a trendsetter for youth fashion was revived strongly in the 1980s during the New Wave and Punk eras. In the mid
-
1990s this was revived to some extent with the emergence of the Britpop era.
Content
-
2
Millennium London
At the start of the new millennium, London continues to grow. Now it has a population of over seven million. The start of the millennium has been marked by the building of many new attractions and exhibitions, so there are much more to see and do in London today.
Content
-
2
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