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Vs, yfhjl Cjtlbytyys Infnjd, lfs jhfpjdfnm jktt cjdthityysq Cjp, ecnfyjdbnm ghfdjcelbt, ufhfynbhjdfnm dyenhtyytt cgjrjqcndbt, jtcgtxbnm cjdvtcnye jjhjye, cjltqcndjdfnm dctjotve kfujltycndb b pfrhtgbnm kfuf cdjjls pf yfvb b gjnjvcndjv yfibv, njhtcndtyyj ghjdjpukfiftv b ecnfyfdkbdftv yfcnjzoe Rjycnbnewb lkz Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Fvthbrb.
CNFNMZ é.
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FPLTK
1. Dct pfrjyjlfntkmyst gjkyjvjxbz, cbv ecnfyjdktyyst, ghtljcnfdkzncz
Rjyuhtcce Cjtlbytyys Infnjd, rjnjhsq cjcnjbn bp ctyfnf b gfkfns ghtlcnfdb-
ntktq.
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FPLTK
2. Gfkfnf ghtlcnfdbntktq cjcnjbn bp xktyjd, dsbhftvs hfp d ldf ujlf yfctktybtv d jnltkmys infnf; bpbhfntkb d rfljv infnt ljkys jndtxfnm
nhtjdfybzv, ghtlzdkztvsv r bpbhfntkzv jktt vyjujxbcktyyjq gfkfns pfrj-
yjlfntkmyjuj cjhfybz infnf.
Yb jlyj kbwj yt vjtn snm ghtlcnfdbntktv, tckb jyj yt ljcnbukj djphfcnf
ldflwfnb gznb ktn, yt skj d ntxtybt ctvb ktn uhflfybyjv Cjtlbytyys Infnjd b yt zdkztncz yf vjvtyn bphfybz bntktv njuj infnf, d rjtv jyj dsb-
hftncz.
Ghtlcnfdbntkb b ghzvst yfkjub hfcghtltkzncz vtle jnltkmysvb infnfvb,
rjnjhst vjuen snm drkxtys d yfcnjzobq Cjp, ghjgjhwbjyfkmyj xbcktyyjcnb
yfctktybz, rfrjdfz jghtltkztncz gjchtlcndjv ghbfdktybz rj dctve xbcke cdj-
jlys kbw Ð drkxfz nt, rnj jzpfy yfjlbnmcz d ecketybb d ntxtybt vyjuj-
ktnytuj chjrf, b bcrkxfz yt jkfuftvs yfkjujv byltqwtd Ð nht gzns dct
ghjxb kbw. Dctjott bcxbcktybt yfctktybz eltn ghjbpdtltyj d ntxtybt nht
ktn gjckt gthdjq ctccbb Rjyuhtccf Cjtlbytyys Infnjd, f pfntv xthtp rflsq
ltcznm ktn d gjhzlrt, ecnfyjdktyyjv pfrjyjv. Xbckj ghtlcnfdbntktq yt ljkyj
ghtdsifnm jlyjuj yf rflst nhblwfnm nsczx bntktq, yj rflsq infn ljkty
bvtnm gj vtymitq vtht jlyjuj ghtlcnfdbntkz; b gjrf nfrjdjt bcxbcktybt yt e-
ltn ghjbpdtltyj, infne Ym-vgibh gjkjtyj dshfnm nht ghtlcnfdbntktq,
RJYCNBNEWBZ CJTLBYTYYS INFNJD
FVTHBRB
Vfccfxectnce Ð djctvm, Hjl-Fqktyle b Gkyntqiy Ghjdbltyc Ð jlyjuj, Rjyytrnb-
rene Ð gznm, Ym-Qjhre Ð itcnm, Ym-Lthcb Ð xtnsht, Gtycbkmdfybb Ð djctvm,
Ltkfdhe Ð jlyjuj, Vhbktyle Ð itcnm, Dbhlbybb Ð ltcznm, Ctdthyjq Rfhjkbyt
Ð gznm, yjq Rfhjkbyt Ð gznm b Ljhlbb Ð nht ghtlcnfdbntktq.
Rjulf d ghtlcnfdbntkmcndt jn rfrjuj-kbj infnf jnrhsdfncz dfrfycbb, bcgjk-
ybntkmyfz dkfcnm jyjuj bplftn ghbrfp j ghjdtltybb dsjhjd lkz pfgjkytybz nfrjds dfrfycbq.
Gfkfnf ghtlcnfdbntktq dsbhftn cdjtuj cgbrthf b lheub ljkyjcnys kbw;
njkmrj jyf bvttn bcrkxbntkmyjt ghfdj djpelfnm bvgbxvtyn.
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FPLTK
3. D cjcnfd ctyfnf Cjtlbytyys Infnjd djlzn gj ldf ctyfnjhf jn rfljuj
infnf, bpbhftvst pfrjyjlfntkmysvb cjhfybzvb cjjndtncndeob infnjd yf
itcnm ktn; rflsq ctyfnjh bvttn jlby ujkjc.
Rjulf ctyfnjhs cjthencz gjckt gthds dsjhjd, jyb ljkys snm hfpltktys
yf nhb gj djpvjyjcnb hfdyst uheggs. Vtcnf ctyfnjhjd gthdjq uheggs cnfyjdzn-
cz dfrfynysvb gj bcntxtybb dnjhjuj ujlf, dnjhjq uheggs Ð gj bcntxtybb xtndth-
njuj ujlf b nhtnmtq uheggs Ð gj bcntxtybb itcnjuj ujlf, nfr, xnjs jlyf nhtnm
ctyfnjhjd vjukf snm gthtbphfyf hfp d ldf ujlf. Tckb dcktlcndbt jncnfdrb bkb
gj lheujq ghbxbyt dfrfycbb jnrhjncz dj dhtvz gththsdf d hfjnt pfrjyjlfntkm-
yjuj cjhfybz rfrjuj-kbj infnf, bcgjkybntkmyfz dkfcnm jyjuj vjtn ghjbpdtc-
nb dhtvtyyst yfpyfxtybz lj cktleotq ctccbb pfrjyjlfntkmyjuj cjhfybz, rjnj-
hjt nfrjdst dfrfycbb pfgjkybn.
Yb jlyj kbwj yt vjtn snm ctyfnjhjv, tckb jyj yt ljcnbukj djphfcnf nhblwf-
nb ktn, yt skj d ntxtybt ltdznb ktn uhflfybyjv Cjtlbytyys Infnjd b yt zdkztncz yf vjvtyn bphfybz bntktv njuj infnf, d rjtv jyj dsbhftncz.
Dbwt-ghtpbltyn Cjtlbytyys Infnjd zdkztncz ghtlctlfntktv ctyfnf, jlyfrj
exfcndjdfnm d ujkjcjdfybb vjtn kbim d nt ckexfz, rjulf ujkjcf ltkzncz gjhjdye.
Ctyfn dsbhftn lheub cdjb ljkyjcnys kbw, f nfrt Ð d jncencndbt dbwt-
ghtpbltynf bkb rjulf jy bcgjkyztn jzpfyyjcnb Ghtpbltynf Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Ð ghtlctlfntkz
pro tempore.
Njkmrj ctyfn bvttn bcrkxbntkmyjt ghfdj hfccvfnhbdfnm dct ltkf d gjhzlrt
bvgbxvtynf. Pfctlfz c njq wtkm, ctyfnjhs ghbyjczn ghbczue bkb lfn njhtcn-
dtyyjt jtofybt. Rjulf hfccvfnhbdftncz ltkj Ghtpbltynf Cjtlbytyys Infnjd,
ghtlctlfntkmcndetn Ukfdysq celmz; yb jlyj kbwj yt vjtn snm jceltyj tp cjukfcbz lde nhtntq ghbcencndeob ctyfnjhjd.
Ghbujdjh gj ltkfv bvgbxvtynf juhfybxbdftncz jncnhfytybtv jn ljkyjcnb b
kbitybtv ghfdf pfybvfnm b bcgjkyznm rfre-kbj gjxtnye, jabwbfkmye bkb
ghbyjczoe ljjl ljkyjcnm yf cket Cjtlbytyys Infnjd. Jlyfrj kbwj,
jceltyyjt nfrjdsv jhfpjv, ntv yt vtytt vjtn d cjjndtncndbb c pfrjyjv gjl-
ktfnm ghbdktxtyb r eujkjdyjq jndtncndtyyjcnb, cele b yfrfpfyb gj ghbuj-
djhe celf.
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FPLTK
4. Dhtvz, vtcnj b gjhzljr ghjdtltybz dsjhjd ctyfnjhjd b ghtlcnfdbntktq
ecnfyfdkbdfncz d rfljv infnt pfrjyjlfntkmysv cjhfybtv jyjuj; yj Rjyuhtcc
vjtn d kjt dhtvz cdjbv pfrjyjv ecnfyjdbnm bkb bpvtybnm ghfdbkf ghjdtltybz
dsjhjd, pf bcrkxtybtv nt, rjnjhst rfcfncz vtcnf dsjhf ctyfnjhjd.
Rjyuhtcc cjbhftncz yt htt jlyjuj hfpf d ujl, b tuj ctccbb yfxbyfncz d gth-
dsq gjytltkmybr ltrfhz, tckb njkmrj pfrjyjv Rjyuhtcc yt yfpyfxbn lheujq ltym.
Rjycnbnewbz Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Fvthbrb /CNFNMZ é
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FPLTK
5. Rflfz gfkfnf cfvf zdkztncz celmtq ghfdjvthyjcnb dsjhjd, b htpekmnf-
njd b rdfkbabrfwbq tt cjcndtyys xktyjd. jkmibycndj xktyjd d rfljq bp gf-
kfn cjcnfdkzn rdjhev, ytjjlbvsq lkz dtltybz ltk; jlyfrj gfkfnf b d vtymitv
cjcnfdt vjtn gthtyjcbnm cdjb pfctlfybz c jlyjuj lyz yf lheujq b vjtn snm
egjkyjvjxtyf jtcgtxbdfnm ghbyelbntkmye zdre jncencndeob xktyjd nfrbv
cgjcjjv b gjl euhjpjq nfrb cfyrwbq, rfrbt rflfz gfkfnf vjtn ghtlecvjnhtnm.
Rflfz gfkfnf vjtn ecnfyfdkbdfnm ghfdbkf cdjb ghjwtleh, yfrfpsdfnm cdjb
xktyjd pf yfheifott gjhzljr gjdtltybt b c cjukfcbz lde nhtntq Ð bcrkxfnm
b bp cdjtuj cjcnfdf.
Rflfz gfkfn dtltn ehyfk cdjb pfctlfybq b dhtvz jn dhtvtyb gekbretn tuj,
pf bcrkxtybtv nt hfpltkjd, rjnjhst, gj tt celtyb, vjuen gjnhtjdfnm cjhf-
ytybz d nfqyt; ÜÜlfõõ b ÜÜytnõõ, dscrfpfyyst xktyfvb rfljq bp gfkfn d ujkjcjdfybb
gj rfrjve-kbj djghjce, gj tkfyb jlyjq gznjq ghbcencndeob xktyjd pfyj-
czncz d ehyfk.
Yb jlyf bp gfkfn d ntxtybt ctccbb Rjyuhtccf yt vjtn tp cjukfcbz lheujq gt-
htytcnb pfctlfybz jktt xtv yf nhb lyz bkb yfpyfxbnm b d byjv vtcnt, xtv nj, ult
pfctlfn jt gfkfns.
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FPLTK
6. Ctyfnjhs b ghtlcnfdbntkb gjkexfn pf cdj ckee djpyfuhfltybt, ecnfyfdkbdftvjt pfrjyjv b dsgkfxbdftvjt rfpyfxtqcndjv Cjtlbytyys Infnjd.
Dj dct ckexfz, pf bcrkxtybtv ujcelfhcndtyyjq bpvtys, nzrjuj ghtcnegktybz
b yfheitybq jotcndtyyjuj gjhzlrf, jyb gjkmpencz ghbdbktubtq cdjjls jn
fhtcnf dj dhtvz b ghbcencndbz yf ctccbb cjjndtncndeotq gfkfns b dj dhtvz
cktljdfybz nelf b djpdhfotybz jnnelf; yb pf rfrjt dscnegktybt bkb exfcnbt d lt-
fnf d rfljq gfkfnt c yb yt vjtn snm cghjityj d rfrjv-kbj byjv vtcnt.
Yb ctyfnjh, yb ghtlcnfdbntkm d ntxtybt chjrf, yf rjnjhsq jy sk bphfy, yt vjtn snm yfpyfxty yf rfre-kbj uhflfycre ljkyjcnm d ghtltkf dkfcnb
Cjtlbytyys Infnjd, rjnjhfz cjplfyf bkb ljjls jn rjnjhjq edtkbxtys pf nfrj-
djq chjr; yb jlyj kbwj, pfybvfott rfre-ybelm ljkyjcnm yf cket Cjtlb-
ytyys Infnjd, yt vjtn snm xktyjv kjq bp gfkfn dj dhtvz cdjtuj ghtsdf-
ybz d ljkyjcnb.
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FPLTK
7. Dct pfrjyjghjtrns j ujcelfhcndtyys ljjlf bcjlzn jn gfkfns ghtl-
cnfdbntktq, yj, rfr b gj lheubv pfrjyjghjtrnfv, ctyfn vjtn cjukfifnmcz c ybvb
bkb dyjcbnm r ybv gjghfdrb.
Rflsq pfrjyjghjtrn, ghbyznsq gfkfnjq ghtlcnfdbntktq b ctyfnjv, ghtlt
xtv cnfnm pfrjyjv, ghtlcnfdkztncz Ghtpbltyne Cjtlbytyys Infnjd. Tckb jy
jljhztn pfrjyjghjtrn, nj gjlgbcsdftn tuj; tckb yt jljhztn, nj djpdhfoftn tuj
cj cdjbvb djphftybzvb d ne gfkfne, jnrelf bcjlbk pfrjyjghjtrn. Nfrjdfz gfkf-
nf pfyjcbn gjkyjcnm djphftybz Ghtpbltynf d cdjq ehyfk b ghbcnegftn r gj-
dnjhyjve hfccvjnhtyb pfrjyjghjtrnf. Tckb gjckt njuj hfccvjnhtybz pfrjyj-
ghjtrn eltn ghbyzn ldevz nhtnzvb ujkjcjd xktyjd gfkfns, jy yfghfdkztncz dvtcnt
c djphftybzvb Ghtpbltynf d lheue gfkfne, rjnjhfz nfrt hfccvfnhbdftn tuj gjdnjhyj. B tckb jyf jljhbn pfrjyjghjtrn ldevz nhtnzvb ujkjcjd, nj jy cnfyj-
dbncz pfrjyjv. Dj dct erfpfyys ckexfz d jtb gfkfnf ujkjcjdfybt ghjbpdj-
lbncz d ajhvt dscrfpsdfybz ÜÜlfõõ b ÜÜytnõõ xktyfvb gfkfns, f bvtyf kbw, ujkjcj-
dfdib pf b ghjnbd pfrjyjghjtrnf, pfyjczncz d ehyfk cjjndtncndeotq gfkfns.
Tckb rfrjq-kbj pfrjyjghjtrn yt djpdhfoty Ghtpbltynjv d ntxtybt ltcznb lytq
Rjycnbnewbz Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Fvthbrb /CNFNMZ é
3
(yt cxbnfz djcrhtctybq) gjckt njuj, rfr jy sk tve ghtlcnfdkty, nfrjq pfrjyj-
ghjtrn cnfyjdbncz pfrjyjv nfr t, rfr tckb s jy sk gjlgbcfy Ghtpbltynjv; pfrjyjghjtrn yt cnfyjdbncz pfrjyjv, tckb gj jrjyxfybb ctccbb Rjyuhtccf jy yt
vju snm djpdhfoty d Rjyuhtcc.
Dct hfcgjhztybz, htpjkwbb bkb htitybz, lkz rjnjhs vjtn jrfpfnmcz ytjjlbvsv cjukfcbt b ctyfnf, b gfkfns ghtlcnfdbntktq (pf bcrkxtybtv dj-
ghjcf j gthtyjct pfctlfybz), ghtlcnfdkzncz Ghtpbltyne Cjtlbytyys Infnjd
b dcnegfn d cbke, njkmrj elexb bv jljhtys; d ckexft ytjljhtybz bv jyb vjuen
snm cyjdf ghbyzns ldevz nhtnzvb ujkjcjd ctyfnf b gfkfns ghtlcnfdbntktq d cjjndtncndbb c ghfdbkfvb b juhfybxtybzvb, ecnfyjdktyysvb d jnyjitybb pfrjyjghjtrnjd.
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FPLTK
8. Rjyuhtcc bvttn ghfdj:
ecnfyfdkbdfnm b dpbvfnm yfkjub, cjhs, gjikbys b frwbps, lkz njuj xnjs dsgkfxbdfnm ljkub, jtcgtxbdfnm cjdvtcnye jjhjye b dctjott kfujltycn-
dbt Cjtlbytyys Infnjd; ghbxtv dct cjhs, gjikbys b frwbps ljkys snm
tlbyjjhfpys gjdctvtcnyj d Cjtlbytyys Infnf;
pfybvfnm ltymub d rhtlbn Cjtlbytyys Infnjd;
htuekbhjdfnm njhujdk c byjcnhfyysvb ujcelfhcndfvb, vtle jnltkmysvb infnfvb b c byltqcrbvb gktvtyfvb;
ecnfyfdkbdfnm gjdctvtcnyj d Cjtlbytyys Infnf tlbyjjhfpyst ghfdbkf yfnehfkbpfwbb b ghbybvfnm tlbyjjhfpyst pfrjys gj djghjce j fyrhjncndf;
xtrfybnm vjytne, htuekbhjdfnm wtyyjcnm jyjq b wtyyjcnm byjcnhfyyjq vjyt-
ns, ecnfyfdkbdfnm tlbybws dtcjd b vth;
ghtlecvfnhbdfnm vths yfrfpfybz pf gjlltkre wtyys evfu b yfjlzotqcz d jhfotybb vjytns Cjtlbytyys Infnjd;
cjplfdfnm gjxnjdst ckes b gjxnjdst genb;
cjltqcndjdfnm hfpdbnb yferb b gjktpys htvtctk, pfrhtgkzz yf jghtltkty-
ysq chjr pf fdnjhfvb b bpjhtnfntkzvb bcrkxbntkmyst ghfdf yf b cjxbytybz b jnrhsnbz;
exhtlfnm cels, ybtcnjzobt gj jnyjityb r Dthjdyjve cele;
jghtltkznm b rfhfnm frns gbhfncndf, nzrbt ghtcnegktybz, cjdthiftvst d jnrhsnjv vjht, b ghtcnegktybz ghjnbd vtleyfhjlyjuj ghfdf;
jzdkznm djqye, dslfdfnm cdbltntkmcndf yf rfgthcndj b htghtccfkbb b ecnf-
yfdkbdfnm ghfdbkf jnyjcbntkmyj pfdfnjd nhjattd yf ceit b yf djlt;
ajhvbhjdfnm b jtcgtxbdfnm fhvbb, yj fccbuyjdfybz yf nb wtkb yt ljkys dsltkznmcz jktt xtv yf ldektnybq chjr;
cjplfdfnm b cjlthfnm djtyyj-vjhcrjq akjn;
bplfdfnm ghfdbkf gj jhufybpfwbb cejgenys b vjhcrb cbk b eghfdktyb bvb;
ghtlecvfnhbdfnm vths gj ghbpsde vbkbwbb lkz jtcgtxtybz bcgjkytybz pfrjyjd Cjpf, gjlfdktyb vznttq b jnhftybz dnjhtybq;
ghtlecvfnhbdfnm vths gj jhufybpfwbb, djjhetyb b jextyb vbkbwbb b herjdjlcnde njq tt xfcnm, rjnjhfz vjtn snm bcgjkmpjdfyf yf cket Cjtlb-
ytyys Infnjd, cjhfyzz pf infnfvb ghfdj yfpyfxtybz ljkyjcnys kbw b jhufybpfwbb gjlujnjdrb vbkbwbb d cjjndtncndbb c nhtjdfybzvb, ghtlgbcfy-
ysvb Rjyuhtccjv;
jceotcndkznm dj dct ckexfz bcrkxbntkmyst pfrjyjlfntkmyst gjkyjvjxbz d jnyjitybb jrheuf (yt ghtdsifotuj ltcznb rdflhfnys vbkm), rfrjdjq, Rjycnbnewbz Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Fvthbrb /CNFNMZ é
4
elexb ecnegkty jnltkmysvb infnfvb b ghbyzn Rjyuhtccjv, cnfytn vtcnjv ght-
sdfybz ghfdbntkmcndf Cjtlbytyys Infnjd; jceotcndkznm gjljye dkfcnm d jnyjitybb dct ptvtkm, ghbjhtntyys c cjukfcbz pfrjyjlfntkmyjuj cjhfybz
infnf, d rjnjhjv nb ptvkb yfjlzncz, lkz djpdtltybz ajhnjd, gjcnhjqrb crkfljd, fhctyfkjd, dthatq b lheub gjnhtys cjjhetybq;
bplfdfnm dct pfrjys, rfrjdst elen ytjjlbvs b evtcnys lkz ghbdtltybz d ltqcndbt dsitgthtxbcktyys gjkyjvjxbq b dct lheub gjkyjvjxbq, ghtlj-
cnfdktyys yfcnjzotq Rjycnbnewbtq ghfdbntkmcnde Cjtlbytyys Infnjd bkb
rfrjve-kbj ltgfhnfvtyne bkb ljkyjcnyjve kbwe jyjuj.
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FPLTK
9. Gthtctktybt bkb ddjp nt kbw, rjnjhs kjq bp infnjd, ysyt ceotcn-
deob, cjxntn yeysv ljgecnbnm, yt ljkys pfghtofnmcz Rjyuhtccjv lj jlyf
nsczxf djctvmcjn djcmvjuj ujlf; jlyfrj nfrjdjq ddjp vjtn jkfufnmcz yfkjujv
bkb gjikbyjq, yj yf cevve yt jktt ltcznb ljkkfhjd pf rfljt kbwj.
Ltqcndbt ghbdbktubq ghbrfpf habeas corpus yt ljkyj ghbjcnfyfdkbdfnmcz, tc-
kb njkmrj njuj yt gjnhtetn jotcndtyyfz tpjgfcyjcnm d ckexfz djccnfybz bkb
dnjhtybz.
Yt ljkys ghbybvfnmcz bkkb j jgfkt bkb pfrjys ex post facto.
Yt ljkys ecnfyfdkbdfnmcz gjleiyst gjlfnb bkb byst ghzvst yfkjub byfxt
rfr d cjjndtncndbb c gthtgbcm bkb bcxbcktybtv yfctktybz, ghjdtltybt rjnj-
hjuj ghtlgbcfyj dsit.
Yt ljkys jkfufnmcz yfkjujv bkb gjikbyjq njdfhs, dsdjpbvst bp kjuj
infnf.
Yt ljkyj jnlfdfnmcz ghtlgjxntybt Ð d cbke rfrjuj-kbj gjcnfyjdktybz j njh-
ujdkt bkb ujcelfhcndtyys ljjlf Ð gjhnfv jlyjuj infnf gthtl gjhnfvb lheuj-
uj; celf, cktleobt d rfrjq-kbj infn bkb bp infnf, yt ljkys ghbyelfnmcz r pfgjkytyb nfvjtyys ltrkfhfwbq b egkfnt gjikby.
Yt ljkys dslfdfnmcz ltymub bp rfpyfxtqcndf byfxt rfr yf jcyjdt fccbuyjdf-
ybq, ghtlgbcfyys pfrjyjv; cjjotybz b jnxtns j gjcnegktybz b hfcjlf dct
ujcelfhcndtyys ltytu ljkys gthbjlbxtcrb gekbrjdfnmcz.
Cjtlbytyyst Infns yt fken ybrfrb ldjhzycrb nbnekjd; yb jlyj kbwj, pfybvfott rfre-ybelm ghbyjczoe ljjl bkb jabwbfkmye ljkyjcnm yf
cket Cjtlbytyys Infnjd, yt ljkyj tp cjukfcbz Rjyuhtccf ghbybvfnm rfrjt-kbj gjlyjitybt, djpyfuhfltybt, ljkyjcnm bkb nbnek kjuj hjlf jn
rfrjuj-kbj rjhjkz, ghbywf bkb byjcnhfyyjuj ujcelfhcndf.
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FPLTK
10. Yb jlby infn yt vjtn pfrkxfnm rfrjq-kbj ljujdjh, dcnegfnm d cjp
bkb rjyatlthfwb, dslfdfnm cdbltntkmcndf yf rfgthcndj b htghtccfkbb, xtrf-
ybnm vjytne, dsgecrfnm rhtlbnyst bktns, egkfxbdfnm ljkub xtv-kbj bysv, rhj-
vt pjkjnjq b cththzyjq vjytns, ghbybvfnm bkkb j jgfkt, pfrjys ex post facto
bkb pfrjys, yfheifobt ljujdjhyst jzpfntkmcndf, kbj fkjdfnm ldjhzycrbt
nbneks.
Yb jlby infn yt vjtn tp cjukfcbz Rjyuhtccf jkfufnm rfrbvb-kbj gjikbyf-
vb bkb cjhfvb ddjp bkb dsdjp njdfhjd, pf bcrkxtybtv ckexftd, rjulf nj vjtn
snm cjdthityyj ytjjlbvj lkz bcgjkytybz bycgtrwbjyys pfrjyjd infnf;
xbcnsq ljjl jn dct cjhjd b gjikby, ecnfyjdktyys infnjv yf ddjp bkb dsdjp
njdfhjd, gjcnegftn d hfcgjhztybt rfpyfxtqcndf Cjtlbytyys Infnjd; dct nfrj-
dst pfrjys gjlktfn rjynhjk Rjyuhtccf b vjuen snm bv gthtcvjnhtys.
Rjycnbnewbz Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Fvthbrb /CNFNMZ é
5
Yb jlby infn yt vjtn tp cjukfcbz Rjyuhtccf ecnfyfdkbdfnm rfrbt-kbj njy-
yfyst cjhs, cjlthfnm djqcrf bkb djtyyst celf d vbhyjt dhtvz, pfrkxfnm rf-
rjt-kbj cjukfitybt bkb ljujdjh c lheubv infnjv bkb c byjcnhfyyjq lthfdjq
kbj dtcnb djqye, tckb njkmrj jy et yt gjldthucz dnjhtyb bkb yt yfjlbncz
d nfrjq ytjndhfnbvjq jgfcyjcnb, ghb rjnjhjq ytljgecnbvj ghjvtlktybt.
CNFNMZ éé
H
FPLTK
1. Bcgjkybntkmyfz dkfcnm ghtljcnfdkztncz Ghtpbltyne Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Fvthbrb. Jy pfybvftn cdj ljkyjcnm d ntxtybt xtnshtktnytuj chjrf
b dvtcnt c dbwt-ghtpbltynjv, dsbhftvsv yf njn t chjr, bpbhftncz cktleobv
jhfpjv.
Rflsq infn yfpyfxftn d nfrjv gjhzlrt, rjnjhsq ecnfyjdbn pfrjyjlfntkmyjt
cjhfybt jyjuj, dsjhobrjd d rjkbxtcndt, hfdyjv jotve xbcke ctyfnjhjd b
ghtlcnfdbntktq, rjnjhs infn bvttn ghfdj gjckfnm d Rjyuhtcc; ghb njv yb jlby
ctyfnjh bkb ghtlcnfdbntkm bkb t kbwj, pfybvfott jabwbfkmye bkb ghbyjcz-
oe ljjl ljkyjcnm yf cket Cjtlbytyys Infnjd, yt vjuen snm yfpyfxtys
dsjhobrfvb.
Dsjhobrb cjbhfncz d cdjb infnf b ujkjcen kktntyzvb pf lde kbw, bp
rjnjhs gj rhfqytq vtht jlyj yt ljkyj snm bntktv jlyjuj c ybvb infnf. Jyb
t cjcnfdkzn cgbcjr dct kbw, pf rjnjhs ujkjcjdfkb, c erfpfybtv xbckf ujkjcjd,
gjlfyys pf rfljuj bp yb; njn cgbcjr jyb gjlgbcsdfn, eljcnjdthzn b yf-
ghfdkzn jgtxfnfyysv d vtcnj ghtsdfybz ghfdbntkmcndf Cjtlbytyys Infnjd
yf bvz ghtlctlfntkz ctyfnf. Ghtlctlfntkm ctyfnf d ghbcencndbb ctyfnf b gfkfns
ghtlcnfdbntktq dcrhsdftn dct jgtxfnfyyst cgbcrb, gjckt xtuj ujkjcf gjlcxbns-
dfncz. Kbwj, gjkexbditt yfbjkmitt xbckj ujkjcjd, cnfyjdbncz Ghtpbltynjv,
ghb eckjdbb, xnj nfrjdjt xbckj cjcnfdkztn jkmibycndj ujkjcjd dct yfpyfxty-
ys dsjhobrjd; tckb t jktt xtv jlyj kbwj gjkexbkb nfrjdjt jkmibycndj,
bvtz ghb njv hfdyjt xbckj ujkjcjd, njulf gfkfnf ghtlcnfdbntktq ytpfvtlkb-
ntkmyj dsbhftn jlyjuj bp yb d Ghtpbltyns, ujkjcez kktntyzvb; tckb yb jlyj kbwj yt gjkexbn jkmibycndf ujkjcjd, njulf yfpdfyyfz gfkfnf nfrbv t cgjcjjv dsbhftn Ghtpbltynf bp gznb kbw, rjnjhst gjkexbkb yfbjkmitt xbckj ujkjcjd chtlb dct rfylblfnjd, yfjlbdibcz d cgbcrt. Yj ghb dsjhf
Ghtpbltynf ujkjcf gjlfncz gj infnfv, ghbxtv ghtlcnfdbntkmcndj jn rfljuj
infnf bvttn jlby ujkjc; rdjhev d nfrjv ckexft cjcnfdkzn xktys gfkfns jn lde
nhtntq infnjd; ghb njv lkz bphfybz Ghtpbltynf ytjjlbvj jkmibycndj ujkjcjd dct infnjd. D rfljv ckexft gjckt bphfybz Ghtpbltynf kbwj, gjkexbd-
itt yfbjkmitt xbckj ujkjcjd dsjhobrjd, cnfyjdbncz dbwt-ghtpbltynjv. Tckb
t jrftncz, xnj ldf kbwf bkb jktt gjkexbkb hfdyjt xbckj ujkjcjd, nj ctyfn dsbhftn bp yb dbwt-ghtpbltynf, ujkjcez kktntyzvb.
Rjyuhtcc vjtn jghtltkbnm dhtvz bphfybz dsjhobrjd b ltym, rjulf jyb gj-
lfn ujkjcf; nfrjq ltym zdkztncz tlbysv gjdctvtcnyj d Cjtlbytyys Infnf.
Yb jlyj kbwj, rhjvt uhflfybyf gj hjltyb bkb uhflfybyf Cjtlbytyys
Infnjd yf vjvtyn ghbyznbz yfcnjzotq Rjycnbnewbb, yt gjlktbn bphfyb yf
ljkyjcnm Ghtpbltynf; hfdyj rfr yt gjlktbn bphfyb yf ne ljkyjcnm rfrjt-
kbj kbwj, yt ljcnbuitt djphfcnf 35 ktn b yt ghjbdfditt d ntxtybt xtnshyfl-
wfnb ktn d Cjtlbytyys Infnf.
Rjycnbnewbz Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Fvthbrb /CNFNMZ éé
6
D ckexft jncnhfytybz Ghtpbltynf jn ljkyjcnb bkb tuj cvthnb, jncnfdrb kbj
ytcgjcjyjcnb jceotcndkznm gjkyjvjxbz b jzpfyyjcnb yfpdfyyjq ljkyjcnb nf-
rjdst gthtjlzn r dbwt-ghtpbltyne; d ckexft jncnhfytybz, cvthnb, jncnfdrb bkb
ytcgjcjyjcnb rfr Ghtpbltynf, nfr b dbwt-ghtpbltynf Rjyuhtcc vjtn ghbyznm
pfrjy, erfpsdfobq, rfrjt ljkyjcnyjt kbwj eltn ltqcndjdfnm d rfxtcndt Ght-
pbltynf; nfrjt ljkyjcnyjt kbwj dsgjkyztn cjjndtncndeobt jzpfyyjcnb, gj-
rf yt ecnhfytyf ghbxbyf ytcgjcjyjcnb Ghtpbltynf dsgjkyznm cdjb jzpfyyjcnb
bkb yt bphfy yjdsq Ghtpbltyn.
Ghtpbltyn d ecnfyjdktyyst chjrb gjkexftn pf cdj ckee djpyfuhfltybt, rf-
rjdjt yt vjtn snm yb edtkbxtyj, yb evtymityj d ntxtybt gthbjlf, yf rjnjhsq
jy sk bphfy, b d ghtltkf njuj gthbjlf jy yt vjtn gjkexfnm ybrfrb bys ljjljd jn Cjtlbytyys Infnjd bkb rfrjuj-kbj bp infnjd.
Gthtl dcnegktybtv d ljkyjcnm ghtpbltyn ghbyjcbn cktleoe ghbczue bkb
lftn cktleott njhtcndtyyjt jtofybt: ÜÜZ njhtcndtyyj rkzyecm (bkb jt-
of), xnj ele ljhjcjdtcnyj bcgjkyznm ljkyjcnm Ghtpbltynf Cjtlbytyys
Infnjd b d gjkye vthe cbk cdjb ele gjllthbdfnm, jhfyznm b pfobofnm Rjycnbnewb Cjtlbytyys Infnjdõõ.
H
FPLTK
2. Ghtpbltyn zdkztncz ukfdyjrjvfyleobv fhvbtq b akjnjv Cjtlbytyys
Infnjd b vbkbwbtq jnltkmys infnjd, rjulf jyf ghbpsdftncz yf ltqcndbntkmye
ckee Cjtlbytyys Infnjd; jy vjtn gjnhtjdfnm vytybt d gbcmvtyyjv dblt jn
dscituj ljkyjcnyjuj kbwf d rfljv bp bcgjkybntkmys ltgfhnfvtynjd gj k-
jve djghjce; rfcfotvecz b ljkyjcnys jzpfyyjcntq; jy bvttn ghfdj lfhj-
dfnm jnchjxre bcgjkytybz ghbujdjhf, f nfrt gjvbkjdfybt pf ghtcnegktybz ghjnbd Cjtlbytyys Infnjd, rhjvt rfr gj ltkfv bvgbxvtynf.
Jy bvttn ghfdj gj cjdtne b c cjukfcbz ctyfnf pfrkxfnm vtleyfhjlyst ljuj-
djhs ghb eckjdbb b jljhtybz ldevz nhtnzvb ghbcencndeob ctyfnjhjd; jy gj
cjdtne b c cjukfcbz ctyfnf yfpyfxftn gjckjd, lheub jabwbfkmys ghtlcnfdbntktq
b rjycekjd, celtq Dthjdyjuj celf b dct lheub ljkyjcnys kbw Cjtlbytyys
Infnjd, yfpyfxtybt rjnjhs Rjycnbnewbtq yt ghtlecvfnhbdftncz d byjv gjhzlrt
b ljkyjcnb rjnjhs ecnfyfdkbdfncz pfrjyjv; yj Rjyuhtcc vjtn pfrjyjv ght-
ljcnfdbnm ghfdj yfpyfxtybz nfrb ybtcnjzob ljkyjcnys kbw, rfrb cjxntn
evtcnysv, Ghtpbltyne tlbyjkbxyj, celfv bkb ukfdfv ltgfhnfvtynjd.
Ghtpbltyn bvttn ghfdj pfgjkyznm dct dfrfycbb, jnrhsdfobtcz d gthbjl vt-
le ctccbzvb ctyfnf, dslfdfz eljcnjdthtybz yf ljkyjcnb, chjr ltqcndbz rjnjhs
bcntrftn d rjywt tuj cktleotq ctccbb.
H
FPLTK
3. Ghtpbltyn gthbjlbxtcrb lftn Rjyuhtcce byajhvfwb j gjkjtybb Cjpf
b htrjvtyletn r tuj hfccvjnhtyb nfrbt vths, rjnjhst jy cjxntn ytjjlbvsvb
b wtktcjjhfpysvb; jy vjtn d xhtpdsxfqys ckexfz cjpdfnm jt gfkfns bkb k-
e bp yb, f d ckexft hfpyjukfcbq vtle gfkfnfvb gj gjdjle dhtvtyb gthtyjcf pfctlfybq jy vjtn gthtytcnb b cfv yf nfrjt dhtvz, rfrjt cjxntn evtcnysv; jy
ghbybvftn gjckjd b lheub jabwbfkmys ghtlcnfdbntktq; jy pfjnbncz j njv, xnjs pfrjys ljhjcjdtcnyj bcgjkyzkbcm, b eljcnjdthztn d ljkyjcnb dct ljkyjcnys kbw Cjtlbytyys Infnjd.
H
FPLTK
4. Ghtpbltyn, dbwt-ghtpbltyn b dct uhflfycrbt ljkyjcnyst kbwf Cjtlb-
ytyys Infnjd vjuen snm jncnhfytys jn ljkyjcnb gjckt jceltybz d gjhzlrt
bvgbxvtynf pf ujcelfhcndtyye bpvtye, dpznjxybxtcndj bkb lheubt dfyst ghtcnegktybz b vbclbvbyjhs.
Rjycnbnewbz Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Fvthbrb /CNFNMZ éé
7
CNFNMZ ééé.
H
FPLTK
1. Celtyfz dkfcnm Cjtlbytyys Infnjd ghtljcnfdkztncz jlyjve Dthjd-
yjve cele b nfrbv ybtcnjzobv celfv, rfrbt Rjyuhtcc vjtn dhtvz jn dhtvtyb exhtlfnm. Celmb rfr Dthjdyjuj, nfr b ybtcnjzob celjd pfybvfn cdjb ljkyjcnb, gjrf dtlen ctz tpeghtxyj, b d ecnfyjdktyyst chjrb gjkexfn pf
cdj ckee djpyfuhfltybt, rjnjhjt yt vjtn snm evtymityj dj dhtvz ghts-
dfybz d ljkyjcnb.
H
FPLTK
2. Celtyfz dkfcnm hfcghjcnhfyztncz yf dct ltkf, jcyjdfyyst yf ghfdt b
cghfdtlkbdjcnb, djpybrfobt yf jcyjdt yfcnjzotq Rjycnbnewbb, pfrjyjd Cjtlb-
ytyys Infnjd b vtleyfhjlys ljujdjhjd, rjnjhst pfrkxtys bkb elen pf-
rkxtys jn b bvtyb, yf dct ltkf, rfcfobtcz gjckjd, lheub jabwbfkmys ghtl-
cnfdbntktq b rjycekjd; yf dct ltkf flvbhfkntqcndf b vjhcrjq hbclbrwbb; yf cgj-
hs, cnjhjyjq d rjnjhs zdkzncz Cjtlbytyyst Infns; yf cgjhs vtle ldevz bkb
jktt infnfvb; vtle rfrbv-kbj infnjv b uhflfyfvb lheujuj infnf, vtle
uhflfyfvb hfpkbxys infnjd, vtle uhflfyfvb jlyjuj infnf, ghtntyleobvb
yf ptvkb, ghtljcnfdkztvst lheubvb infnfvb, b vtle infnjv bkb uhflfyfvb
jyjuj b byjcnhfyysvb ujcelfhcndfvb, uhflfyfvb bkb gjlfyysvb.
Gj dctv ltkfv, rfcfobvcz gjckjd, lheub jabwbfkmys ghtlcnfdbntktq b rjy-
cekjd, f nfrt gj ntv, d rjnjhs infn zdkztncz cnjhjyjq, Dthjdysq cel yfltkz-
tncz gthdjyfxfkmyjq hbclbrwbtq. Gj dctv lheubv egjvzyensv dsit ltkfv Dth-
jdysq cel yfltkztncz fgtkkzwbjyyjq hbclbrwbtq gj djghjcfv rfr ghfdf, nfr b
afrnf, c nfrbvb bcrkxtybzvb b gj nfrbv ghfdbkfv, rfrbt ecnfyfdkbdftn Rjyuhtcc.
Ltkf j dct ghtcnegktybz, bcrkxfz nt, rjnjhst ghtcktlencz d gjhzlrt bvgbxvtynf, gjlktfn hfccvjnhtyb celjv ghbczys; nfrjdjt hfccvjnhtybt
ljkyj ghjbcjlbnm d njv infnt, ult ghtcnegktybz cjdthitys; yj rjulf jyb cjdthitys yt d ghtltkf rfrjuj-kbj infnf, hfccvjnhtybt ltkf ghjbcjlbn d njv vtcnt bkb vtcnf, rfrbt Rjyuhtcc vjtn erfpfnm d pfrjyt.
H
FPLTK
3. Ujcelfhcndtyyjq bpvtyjq Cjtlbytyysv Infnfv cxbnftncz njkmrj dtlt-
ybt djqys ghjnbd yb bkb ghbcjtlbytybt r b dhfufv, jrfpfybt dhfufv gjvjob b
gjllthrb. Ybrnj yt vjtn snm jcelty pf ujcelfhcndtyye bpvtye, rhjvt rfr
yf jcyjdfybb gjrfpfybq lde cdbltntktq j jlyjv b njv t jxtdblyjv ltzybb bkb
t cjcndtyyjuj ghbpyfybz yf jnrhsnjv pfctlfybb celf.
Rjyuhtcc bvttn ghfdj ecnfyfdkbdfnm yfrfpfybt pf ujcelfhcndtyye bpvtye, yj
jceltybt pf ujcelfhcndtyye bpvtye yt dktxtn pf cjjq gjhftybt d ghfdf gjnjvcndf bkb rjyabcrfwb bveotcndf byfxt rfr ghb bpyb jceltyyjuj kbwf.
CNFNMZ é».
H
FPLTK
1. Gjkyjt ljdthbt b edftybt ljkys jrfpsdfnmcz d rfljv infnt jabwb-
fkmysv frnfv, ljrevtynfv b vfnthbfkfv celjghjbpdjlcndf kjuj lheujuj infnf.
Rjyuhtcc vjtn gentv ghbyznbz job pfrjyjd ghtlgbcsdfnm cgjcj eljcnjdtht-
ybz gjlkbyyjcnb nfrjds frnjd, ljrevtynjd b vfnthbfkjd celjghjbpdjlcndf, f nfrt ecnfyjdktybz hblbxtcrjq cbks jys.
H
FPLTK
2.Uhflfyfv rfljuj infnf ghtljcnfdkzncz dct ghbdbktubb b kmujns
uhflfy lheub infnjd.
Kbwj, jdbytyyjt d jlyjv infnt d ujcelfhcndtyyjq bpvtyt, nzrjv ghtcnegkt-
ybb bkb byjv ghtcnegktybb, rjnjhjt crhskjcm jn ghfdjcelbz b jyfhetyj d lhe-
Rjycnbnewbz Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Fvthbrb /CNFNMB éééÑé»
8
ujv infnt, gj nhtjdfyb bcgjkybntkmyjq dkfcnb infnf, bp rjnjhjuj jyj cjdth-
ibkj gjtu, gjlktbn dslfxt lkz ghtghjdjltybz d infn, hbclbrwbb rjnjhj-
uj gjlktbn nj ghtcnegktybt.
Yb jlyj kbwj, cjlthfottcz d ecketybb bkb yf hfjnt d jlyjv infnt gj pfrj-
yfv jyjuj b tfditt d lheujq infn, yt jcdjjlftncz d cbke rfrjuj-kbj pfrjyf
bkb gjcnfyjdktybz gjcktlytuj jn ecketybz bkb hfjns, f ljkyj snm dslfyj
gj pfzdktyb njq cnjhjys, rjnjhfz bvttn ghfdj yf nfrjdjt ecketybt bkb hfjne.
H
FPLTK
3. Yjdst infns vjuen snm ljgeotys Rjyuhtccjv d yfcnjzobq Cjp, yj yb
jlby yjdsq infn yt vjtn snm jhfpjdfy bkb cjplfy d ghtltkf hbclbrwbb rf-
rjuj-kbj lheujuj infnf; b ybrfrjq infn yt vjtn snm jhfpjdfy ckbzybtv lde
bkb jktt infnjd kbj xfcntq infnjd tp cjukfcbz pfrjyjlfntkmys cjhfybq pfbynthtcjdfyys infnjd, hfdyj rfr b Rjyuhtccf.
Rjyuhtcc bvttn ghfdj hfcgjhzfnmcz nthhbnjhbtq bkb byjq cjcndtyyjcnm,
ghbyflktfotq Cjtlbytyysv Infnfv, b bplfdfnm jnyjcbntkmyj yb dct ytjj-
lbvst gjcnfyjdktybz b ghtlgbcfybz. Ybxnj d yfcnjzotq Rjycnbnewbb yt ljkyj
njkrjdfnmcz d eoth rfrbv-kbj ghfdfv Cjtlbytyys Infnjd bkb rfrjuj-kbj jnltkmyjuj infnf.
H
FPLTK
4. Cjtlbytyyst Infns ufhfynbhen rfljve infne d yfcnjzotv Cjpt htc-
gekbrfycre ajhve ghfdktybz b pfobofn rflsq bp yb jn dnjhtybz, f gj
jlfnfqcnde pfrjyjlfntkmyjuj cjhfybz bkb bcgjkybntkmyjq dkfcnb (rjulf pfrj-
yjlfntkmyjt cjhfybt yt vjtn snm cjpdfyj) Ð b jn dyenhtyytuj yfcbkbz.
CNFNMZ »
Rjyuhtcc, rjulf s yb cjxkb nj ytjjlbvsv ldt nhtnb xktyjd jtb gfkfn, vjtn
ghtlkfufnm gjghfdrb r yfcnjzotq Rjycnbnewbb bkb Ð gj jlfnfqcnde pfrjyjlf-
ntkmys cjhfybq lde nhtntq infnjd Ð vjtn cjpdfnm Rjydtyn lkz ghtlkjtybz
gjghfdjr; nfrjdst gjghfdrb d jjb ckexfz elen bvtnm hblbxtcre cbke dj
dct jnyjitybz rfr xfcnm yfcnjzotq Rjycnbnewbb gjckt b hfnbabrfwbb pfrjyj-
lfntkmysvb cjhfybzvb nht xtndthntq infnjd bkb rjydtynfvb d nht xtndthnz
jys d pfdbcbvjcnb jn njuj, rfre ajhve hfnbabrfwbb ghtlkjbn Rjyuhtcc. Ghb
njv yb jlyf gjghfdrf, rjnjhfz vjtn snm ghbyznf lj jlyf nsczxf djctvmcjn
djcmvjuj ujlf, ybrjbv jhfpjv yt ljkyf pfnhfubdfnm gthde b xtndthne xfcnb
ltdznjuj hfpltkf gthdjq cnfnmb; yb jlby infn tp tuj cjukfcbz yt vjtn snm kbity cdjtuj hfdyjuj c lheubvb infnfvb ujkjcf d ctyfnt.
CNFNMZ Ȏ
Dct ljkub b jzpfntkmcndf, ceotcndjdfdibt lj ghbyznbz yfcnjzotq Rjycnbnewbb, cjhfyzn nfre t cbke lkz Cjtlbytyys Infnjd ghb yfcnjzotq Rjycnbnewbb,
rfr b ghb Rjyatlthfwbb.
Yfcnjzofz Rjycnbnewbz b pfrjys Cjtlbytyys Infnjd, ghbybvftvst dj bcgjk-
ytybt jyjq, hfdyj rfr b dct ljujdjhs, rjnjhst pfrkxtys bkb elen pfrkxtys
jn bvtyb Cjtlbytyys Infnjd, zdkzncz dthjdysv ghfdjv cnhfys; b celmb d rfljv infnt jzpfys cktljdfnm nfrjdjve ghfde, xnj s tve yb ghjnbdjhtxbkj
d Rjycnbnewbb bkb pfrjyf kjuj infnf.
Rjycnbnewbz Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Fvthbrb /CNFNMB é»Ñ»Ñ»é
9
Ctyfnjhs b ghtlcnfdbntkb, egjvzyenst dsit, b xktys pfrjyjlfntkmys cjhf-
ybq jnltkmys infnjd, hfdyj rfr b bcgjkybntkmyst b celtyst ljkyjcnyst kb-
wf rfr Cjtlbytyys Infnjd, nfr b jnltkmys infnjd, jzpencz, lfdfz ghbczue
bkb njhtcndtyyjt jtofybt, gjllthbdfnm yfcnjzoe Rjycnbnewb; yj ybrf-
rfz ghjdthrf htkbubjpyjcnb yt ljkyf nhtjdfnmcz d rfxtcndt eckjdbz lkz pfyznbz rfrjq-kbj ljkyjcnb bkb jabwbfkmyjuj gjcnf yf cket Cjtlbytyys Infnjd.
CNFNMZ »éé
Hfnbabrfwbz rjydtynfvb ltdznb infnjd zdkztncz ljcnfnjxyjq lkz dcnegktybz d cbke
yfcnjzotq Rjycnbnewbb d infnf, rjnjhst jye hfnbabwbhjdfkb.
Bcgjkytyj yf Rjydtynt gj tlbyjleiyjve cjukfcb ghbcencndeob infnjd
ctvyflwfnjuj lyz ctynzhz d jlyf nsczxf ctvmcjn djctvmltczn ctlmvjv ujle jn
hjltcndf hbcnjdf b yf ldtyflwfnjv ujle ytpfdbcbvjcnb Cjtlbytyys Infnjd
Fvthbrb. D eljcnjdthtybt xtuj vs gjcnfdbkb pltcm yfib gjlgbcb.
L. Dfibyunjy, Ghtpbltyn b ltktufn jn Dbhlbybb
Ym-vgibh: Ljy Kyuljy, Ybrjkfc Ubkvy
Vfccfxectnc: Yfnfybtk Ujhv, Heaec Rbyu
Rjyytrnbren: Ebkmzv Cvk Ljycjy, Hjlth Ithvfy
Ym-Qjhr:
Fktrcfylh Ufvbkmnjy
Ym-Lthcb:
Ebkmzv Kbdbyucnjy, Ldbl hhkb, Ebkmzv Gnthcjy, Ljyfnfy Lqnjy
Gtycbkmdfybz: tylfvby Ahfyrkby, Njvfc Vbaakby, Hjthn Vjhhbc, Ljhl Rkfqvth, Njvfc Abwcbvjyc, Lfhtk Byuthcjk, Ltqvc Ebkcjy, Ujd. Vjhhbc
Ltkfdh: Ljhl Hbl, Ufyybyu tylajhl vkflibq, Ljy Lbrbycjy, Hbxfhl fcctnn, Ltqrj hev
Vhbktyl: Ltqvc Vfrutyhb, Lybtk ja Ctyn-Njvfc Ltybath, Lybtk Rhhjk
Dbhlbybz: Ljy kh, Ltqvc Vtlbcjy vkflibq
Ctdthyfz Rfhjkbyf: Ebkmzv kfeyn, Ljc Cgqn, m Ebkmzvcjy
yfz Rfhjkbyf: L. Henktl, Xfhkmp Rjencejhn Gbyryb, Xfhkmp Gbyryb, Gbhc fnkth
Ljhlbz: Ebkmzv Am, Fdhffv jkleby
17 ctynzhz 1787 ujlf
Rjycnbnewbz Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Fvthbrb /CNFNMB »éÑ»éé
10
G
THDST LTCZNM GJGHFDJR DVTCNT YJCZN YFPDFYBT
BKKZ J GHFDF
.
GJGHFDRF é
1791
Rjyuhtcc yt ljkty bplfdfnm yb jlyjuj pfrjyf, jnyjczotujcz r ecnfyjdktyb htkbubb bkb pfghtofotuj cdjjlyjt bcgjdtlfybt jyjq, kbj juhfybxbdfotuj
cdjjle ckjdf bkb gtxfnb kbj ghfdj yfhjlf vbhyj cjbhfnmcz b jhfofnmcz r ghfdbntkmcnde c gtnbwbzvb j eljdktndjhtybb fkj.
GJGHFDRF éé
1791
Gjcrjkmre jhjij jhufybpjdfyyfz vbkbwbz ytjjlbvf lkz tpjgfcyjcnb cdjjl-
yjuj ujcelfhcndf, ghfdj yfhjlf hfybnm b yjcbnm jhebt yt ljkyj yfheifnmcz.
GJGHFDRF ééé
1791
Yb jlby cjklfn yt ljkty d vbhyjt, hjdyj rfr b d djtyyjt, dhtvz hfpvtofnmcz yf
gjcnjq d ljvt tp cjukfcbz dkfltkmwf; jlyfrj d djtyyjt dhtvz nj ljgecrftncz, yj kbim d gjhzlrt, ghtlecvjnhtyyjv pfrjyjv.
GJGHFDRF é»
1791
Ghfdj yfhjlf yf jhfye kbxyjcnb, bkbof, evfu b bveotcndf jn ytjjcyjdfyys
jscrjd b fhtcnjd yt ljkyj yfheifnmcz. Yb jlby jhlth yt ljkty dslfdfnmcz
byfxt, rfr ghb yfkbxbb ljcnfnjxyjuj jcyjdfybz, gjlndthltyyjuj ghbczujq bkb
njhtcndtyysv pfzdktybtv; ghb njv jhlth ljkty cjlthfnm gjlhjyjt jgbcf-
ybt vtcnf, gjlktfotuj jscre, kbw bkb ghtlvtnjd, gjlktfob fhtcne.
GJGHFDRF »
1791
Ybrnj yt ljkty ghbdktrfnmcz r jndtncndtyyjcnb pf rfhftvjt cvthnm bkb bysv
jhfpjv gjpjhzott ghtcnegktybt byfxt, rfr gj ghtlcnfdktyb bkb jdbybntkm-
yjve pfrkxtyb jkmijuj hb, pf bcrkxtybtv ltk, djpelftvs d cejgen-
ys bkb djtyyj-vjhcrb cbkf kbj d vbkbwbb, rjulf jyf ghbpdfyf yf ltqcndb-
ntkmye ckee dj dhtvz djqys yf gthbjl jgfcyjuj lkz jotcndf gjkjtybz;
ybrnj yt ljkty pf jlyj b nj t ghfdjyfheitybt ldfls gjldthufnmcz euhjpt kb-
itybz bpyb bkb yfheitybz ntktcyjq ytghbrjcyjdtyyjcnb; ybrnj yt ljkty ghb-
yelfnmcz d eujkjdyjv ltkt snm cdbltntktv ghjnbd cfvjuj ctz; ybrnj yt vjtn
snm kbity bpyb, cdjjls bkb cjcndtyyjcnb tp yflktfotq ghfdjdjq ghjwt-
lehs; xfcnyfz cjcndtyyjcnm yt ljkyf bpsvfnmcz lkz jotcndtyyjuj gjkmpjdf-
ybz tp cghfdtlkbdjuj djpvtotybz.
GJGHFDRF Ȏ
1791
Ghb dczrjv eujkjdyjv ghtcktljdfybb jdbyztvsq bvttn ghfdj yf crjhsq b ge-
kbxysq cel tcghbcnhfcnys ghbczys njuj infnf b jrheuf, hfytt ecnfyjdktyyj-
uj pfrjyjv, ult skj cjdthityj ghtcnegktybt; jdbyztvsq bvttn ghfdj snm jc-
dtljvktyysv j ceoyjcnb b jcyjdfybz jdbytybz, jy bvttn ghfdj yf jxye cnfd-
re cj cdbltntkzvb, gjrfpsdfobvb ghjnbd ytuj, ghfdj yf ghbyelbntkmysq dspjd
cdbltntktq cj cdjtq cnjhjys b yf gjvjom fldjrfnf lkz cdjtq pfobns.
Rjycnbnewbz Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Fvthbrb / Gjghfdrb é Ñ »é
11
GJGHFDRF »éé
1791
Gj dctv uhflfycrbv ltkfv, jcyjdfyysv yf jotv ghfdt, d rjnjhs jcgfhbdftvfz
wtyf bcrf ghtdsiftn 20 ljkkfhjd, cjhfyztncz ghfdj yf cel ghbczys; yj yb
jlby afrn, hfccvjnhtyysq ghbczysvb, yt vjtn snm gthtcvjnhty rfrbv-kbj
celjv Cjtlbytyys Infnjd byfxt, rfr d cjjndtncndbb c yjhvfvb jotuj ghfdf.
GJGHFDRF »ééé
1791
Yt ljkys nhtjdfnmcz xhtpvthyst pfkjub bkb yfkfufnmcz xhtpvthyst inhfas,
kbj yfpyfxfnmcz tcnjrbt b ytjsxyst yfrfpfybz.
GJGHFDRF é
1791
Gthtxbcktybt d Rjycnbnewbb jghtltktyys ghfd yt ljkyj njkrjdfnmcz rfr jnhbwfybt bkb evfktybt lheub ghfd, cjhfyztvs yfhjljv.
GJGHFDRF 1791
Gjkyjvjxbz, rjnjhst yt ltktubhjdfys Cjtlbytyysv Infnfv yfcnjzotq Rjycnb-
newbtq b gjkmpjdfybt rjnjhsvb yt pfghtotyj t jnltkmysv infnfv, cjhf-
yzncz cjjndtncndtyyj pf infnfvb kbj pf yfhjljv.
GJGHFDRF é
1795
Celtyfz dkfcnm Cjtlbytyys Infnjd yt ljkyf njkrjdfnmcz nfrbv jhfpjv, xnj-
s hfcghjcnhfyznmcz yf rfrjt-kbj bcrjdjt ghjbpdjlcndj, jcyjdfyyjt yf ghfdt
bkb cghfdtlkbdjcnb b djpeltyyjt bkb dtleottcz ghjnbd jlyjuj bp infnjd
uhflfyfvb lheujuj infnf kbj uhflfyfvb bkb gjllfyysvb rfrjuj-kbj byj-
cnhfyyjuj ujcelfhcndf.
GJGHFDRF éé
1804
Dsjhobrb cjbhfncz d cdjb infnf b ujkjcen kktntyzvb pf Ghtpbltynf b
dbwt-ghtpbltynf, bp rjnjhs gj rhfqytq vtht jlby yt ljkty snm bntktv jl-
yjuj c ybvb infnf; jyb erfpsdfn d cdjb kktntyz kbwj, pf rjnjhjt ujkjcen
rfr pf Ghtpbltynf, b d jnltkmys kktntyz Ð kbwj, pf rjnjhjt ujkjcen rfr pf
dbwt-ghtpbltynf; jyb t cjcnfdkzn jnltkmyst cgbcrb dct kbw, pf rjnjhs ujkj-
cjdfkb rfr pf Ghtpbltynf, b dct kbw, pf rjnjhst ujkjcjdfkb rfr pf dbwt-ghtpblty-
nf, c erfpfybtv xbckf ujkjcjd, gjlfyys pf rfljuj bp yb; nb cgbcrb jyb gjlgb-
csdfn, eljcnjdthzn b yfghfdkzn jgtxfnfyysvb d vtcnj ghtsdfybz ghfdb-
ntkmcndf Cjtlbytyys Infnjd yf bvz ghtlctlfntkz ctyfnf. Ghtlctlfntkm ctyf-
nf d ghbcencndbb ctyfnf b gfkfns ghtlcnfdbntktq dcrhsdftn dct jgtxfnfyyst
cgbcrb, gjckt xtuj ujkjcf gjlcxbnsdfncz. Kbwj, gjkexbditt yfbjkmitt xbckj
ujkjcjd, gjlfyys pf Ghtpbltynf, cnfyjdbncz Ghtpbltynjv, tckb nfrjdjt xbckj
cjcnfdkztn jkmibycndj xbckf ujkjcjd dct yfpyfxtyys dsjhobrjd; tckb t yb
jlyj kbwj yt gjkexbn nfrjdjuj jkmibycndf ujkjcjd, njulf bp kbw (yt jktt nht
bp xbckf nt, pf rjnjhs ujkjcjdfkb rfr pf Ghtpbltynf), bvtob yfbjkmitt
xbckj ujkjcjd, gfkfnf ghtlcnfdbntktq ytpfvtlkbntkmyj dsbhftn Ghtpbltynf,
ujkjcez kktntyzvb. Yj ghb dsjhf Ghtpbltynf ujkjcf gjlfncz gj infnfv,
ghbxtv ghtlcnfdbntkmcndj jn rfljuj infnf bvttn jlby ujkjc; rdjhev d nfrjv
ckexft cjcnfdkzn xktys gfkfns ghtlcnfdbntktq jn lde nhtntq infnjd; ghb
njv lkz bphfybz Ghtpbltynf ytjjlbvj jkmibycndj ujkjcjd dct infnjd. Rjycnbnewbz Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Fvthbrb / Gjghfdrb »éé Ñ éé
12
Tckb gfkfnf ghtlcnfdbntktq, rjulf ghfdj dsjhf gthtjlbn r ytq, yt dsthtn
Ghtpbltynf lj xtndthnjuj lyz cktleotuj vfhnf, njulf dbwt-ghtpbltyn eltn
ltqcndjdfnm d rfxtcndt Ghtpbltynf, rfr d ckexft cvthnb bkb byjq rjycnbnewbjy-
yjq ytcgjcjyjcnb Ghtpbltynf. Kbwj, gjkexbditt yfbjkmitt xbckj ujkjcjd pf
dbwt-ghtpbltynf, cnfyjdbncz dbwt-ghtpbltynjv, tckb nfrjdjt xbckj cjcnfdkztn
jkmibycndj xbckf ujkjcjd dct yfpyfxtyys dsjhobrjd; tckb t yb jlyj kbwj
yt gjkexbn jkmibycndj ujkjcjd, njulf bp lde kbw, rjnjhst gjkexbkb yf-
bjkmitt xbckj ujkjcjd chtlb dct rfylblfnjd, yfjlbdibcz d cgbcrt, ctyfn dsbhftn dbwt-ghtpbltynf; rdjhev d nfrjv ckexft cjcnfdkzn ldt nhtnb dct ctyfnjhjd, ghb njv lkz bphfybz dbwt-ghtpbltynf ytjjlbvj jkmibycndj ujkjcjd dct ctyfnjhjd. Yj yb jlyj kbwj, yt gjlktfott d cbke rjycnbnewbjyys
nhtjdfybq bphfyb yf ljkyjcnm Ghtpbltynf, yt gjlktbn bphfyb yf ljkyjcnm dbwt-ghtpbltynf Cjtlbytyys Infnjd.
GJGHFDRF ééé
1865
H
FPLTK
1. D Cjtlbytyys Infnf bkb d rfrjv-kbj vtcnt, gjlxbytyyjv b hbclbr-
wbb, yt ljkyj ceotcndjdfnm yb hfcndj, yb gjlytdjkmyjt ecketybt, rhjvt nt
ckexftd, rjulf nj zdkztncz yfrfpfybtv pf ghtcnegktybt, pf rjnjhjt kbwj skj
yflktfobv jhfpjv jceltyj.
H
FPLTK
2. Rjyuhtcc bvttn ghfdj bcgjkyznm yfcnjzoe cnfnm gentv ghbyznbz cjjn-
dtncndeotuj pfrjyjlfntkmcndf.
GJGHFDRF é»
1868
H
FPLTK
1. Dct kbwf, hjlbdibtcz bkb yfnehfkbpjdfyyst d Cjtlbytyys Infnf b
gjlxbytyyst hbclbrwbb jys, zdkzncz uhflfyfvb Cjtlbytyys Infnjd b infnf, d rjnjhjv jyb ghjbdfn. Yb jlby infn yt ljkty bplfdfnm bkb ghbvt-
yznm pfrjys, rjnjhst juhfybxbdfn ghbdbktubb b kmujns uhflfy Cjtlbytyys
Infnjd; hfdyj rfr yb jlby infn yt vjtn kbibnm rfrjt-kbj kbwj bpyb, cdjj-
ls bkb cjcndtyyjcnb tp yflktfotq ghfdjdjq ghjwtlehs kbj jnrfpfnm rfrjve-
kbj kbwe d ghtltkf cdjtq hbclbrwbb d hfdyjq pfobnt pfrjyf.
H
FPLTK
2. Ghtlcnfdbntkb hfcghtltkzncz vtle jnltkmysvb infnfvb d cjjndtncn-
dbb c xbcktyyjcnm b yfctktybz, rfrjdfz jghtltkztncz gentv gjlcxtnf dct b-
ntktq infnf, bcrkxfz ytjkfuftvs yfkjujv byltqwtd. Yj tckb ghb bphfybb
dsjhobrjd Ghtpbltynf b dbwt-ghtpbltynf Cjtlbytyys Infnjd, yf dsjhf
ghtlcnfdbntktq d Rjyuhtcc, bcgjkybntkmys b celtys ljkyjcnys kbw infnf
bkb xktyjd pfrjyjlfntkmyjuj cjhfybz infnf jnrfpsdftncz d ghfdt ujkjcf rfrj-
ve-kbj bp bntktq vecrjuj gjkf, ljcnbuib djphfcnf ldflwfnb jlyjuj ujlf b zdkzobcz uhflfyfvb Cjtlbytyys Infnjd, bkb nj ghfdj juhfybxbdftncz rf-
rbv-kbj jhfpjv, rhjvt rfr pf exfcnbt d djccnfybb bkb byjv ghtcnegktybb, yjh-
vf ghtlcnfdbntkmcndf jn njuj infnf ljkyf snm evtymityf d nfrjq ghjgjhwbb,
rfr xbckj nfrjds uhflfy vecrjuj gjkf cjjnyjcbncz c jobv xbckjv uhflfy
vecrjuj gjkf nfrjdjuj infnf, ljcnbuib djphfcnf ldflwfnb jlyjuj ujlf.
H
FPLTK
3. Yb jlyj kbwj yt vjtn snm ctyfnjhjv bkb ghtlcnfdbntktv d Rjyuhtcct,
bkb dsjhobrjv Ghtpbltynf bkb dbwt-ghtpbltynf kbj pfybvfnm rfre-kbj
ljkyjcnm, uhflfycre bkb djtyye, yf cket Cjtlbytyys Infnjd bkb yf cke-
t rfrjuj-kbj infnf, tckb jyj, ghbyzd hfytt ghbczue d rfxtcndt xktyf Rjyuhtccf
bkb ljkyjcnyjuj kbwf Cjtlbytyys Infnjd, bkb xktyf pfrjyjlfntkmyjuj Rjycnbnewbz Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Fvthbrb / Gjghfdrb éé Ñ é»
13
cjhfybz rfrjuj-kbj infnf, kbj bcgjkybntkmyjuj bkb celtyjuj ljkyjcnyjuj
kbwf rfrjuj-kbj infnf d njv, xnj eltn gjllthbdfnm Rjycnbnewb Cjtlbyty-
ys Infnjd, gjnjv ghbyzkj exfcnbt d vzntt bkb djccnfybb ghjnbd Cjtlbytyys
Infnjd kbj jrfpfkj gjvjom bkb gjllthre dhfufv jys. Yj Rjyuhtcc vjtn ldevz nhtnzvb ujkjcjd rfljq gfkfns ecnhfybnm nfrjdjt juhfybxtybt.
H
FPLTK
4. Ghfdjvthyjcnm ujcelfhcndtyyjuj ljkuf Cjtlbytyys Infnjd, cfyrwbjyb-
hjdfyyjuj pfrjyjv, drkxfz ljkub, cltkfyyst lkz dsgkfns gtycbq b yfuhfl pf
ckee ghb gjlfdktybb vzntf bkb djccnfybz, yt cnfdbncz gjl cjvytybt. Yj yb
Cjtlbytyyst Infns, yb rfrjq-kbj infn yt ljkys ghbybvfnm yf ctz ybrfrb
jzpfntkmcnd bkb jgkfne ljkujd, cdzpfyys c jrfpfybtv gjvjob vznte bkb djc-
cnfyb ghjnbd Cjtlbytyys Infnjd, bkb ghbpyfdfnm rfrbt-kbj ghtntypbb, cdz-
pfyyst c gjnthtq bkb jcdjjltybtv rfrjuj-kbj hff; dct nfrjdst ljkub, jzpf-
ntkmcndf b ghtntypbb ljkys cxbnfnmcz ytpfrjyysvb b ytltqcndbntkmysvb.
H
FPLTK
5. Rjyuhtcc bvttn ghfdj bcgjkyznm yfcnjzoe cnfnm gentv ghbyznbz cjjn-
dtncndeotuj pfrjyjlfntkmcndf.
GJGHFDRF »
1870
H
FPLTK
1. Ghfdj ujkjcf uhflfy Cjtlbytyys Infnjd yt ljkyj jnhbwfnmcz bkb ju-
hfybxbdfnmcz Cjtlbytyysvb Infnfvb bkb rfrbv-kbj infnjv gj ghbpyfre hfcs,
wdtnf rjb kbj d cdzpb c ghtybv yfjltybtv d gjlytdjkmyjv ecketybb.
H
FPLTK
2. Rjyuhtcc bvttn ghfdj bcgjkyznm yfcnjzoe cnfnm gentv ghbyznbz cjjn-
dtncndeotuj pfrjyjlfntkmcndf.
GJGHFDRF Ȏ
1913
Rjyuhtcc bvttn ghfdj ecnfyfdkbdfnm b dpbvfnm yfkjub c ljjljd, gjkexftvs bp
kjuj bcnjxybrf, tp hfcghtltktybz nb yfkjujd vtle infnfvb b tpjnyjcb-
ntkmyj r rfrbv-kbj gthtgbczv bkb bcxbcktybzv yfctktybz.
GJGHFDRF »éé
1913
D cjcnfd ctyfnf Cjtlbytyys Infnjd djlzn gj ldf ctyfnjhf jn rfljuj infnf,
bpbhftvs yfctktybtv jyjuj yf itcnm ktn; rflsq ctyfnjh bvttn jlby ujkjc.
Bpbhfntkb d rfljv infnt ljkys jndtxfnm nhtjdfybzv, ghtlzdkztvsv r bp-
bhfntkzv jktt vyjujxbcktyyjq gfkfns pfrjyjlfntkmyjuj cjhfybz infnf.
Rjulf d ghtlcnfdbntkmcndt rfrjuj-kbj infnf d ctyfnt jnrhsdftncz dfrfycbz,
bcgjkybntkmyfz dkfcnm nfrjdjuj infnf bplftn ghbrfp j ghjdtltybb dsjhjd lkz
pfgjkytybz nfrjds dfrfycbq; ghb njv pfrjyjlfntkmyjt cjhfybt infnf vjtn
egjkyjvjxbnm bcgjkybntkmye dkfcnm jyjuj ghjbpdtcnb dhtvtyyst yfpyfxtybz,
gjrf yfctktybt yt pfgjkybn dfrfycbb gentv dsjhjd, ghjdtltyys d gjhzlrt, ecnfyjdktyyjv pfrjyjlfntkmysv cjhfybtv.
Yfcnjzofz gjghfdrf yt ljkyf njkrjdfnmcz nfrbv jhfpjv, xnjs tt ltqcndbt
hfcghjcnhfyzkjcm yf bphfybt bkb chjr gjkyjvjxbq ctyfnjhf, dshfyyjuj lj njuj, rfr jyf dcnegbkf d cbke rfr xfcnm Rjycnbnewbb.
GJGHFDRF »ééé
1919
H
FPLTK
1. Cgecnz jlby ujl gjckt hfnbabrfwbb yfcnjzotq cnfnmb cbv elen pfght-
otys d Cjtlbytyys Infnf b yf dct nthhbnjhbz, gjlxbytyys b hbclbrwbb,
ghjbpdjlcndj, ghjlff b gthtdjprf jgmzyzob yfgbnrjd c wtkm b gjnhtkt-
Rjycnbnewbz Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Fvthbrb /Gjghfdrb é Ñ »ééé
14
ybz; pfghtotys elen nfrt ddjp jgmzyzob yfgbnrjd d Cjtlbytyyst Infns b b nthhbnjhbb c erfpfyyjq wtkm, hfdyj rfr b dsdjp nb yfgbnrjd c nfrjdjq wtkm.
H
FPLTK
2. Rjyuhtcc b jnltkmyst infns bvtn ghfdj cjdvtcnyj bcgjkyznm yfcnjz-
oe cnfnm gentv ghbyznbz cjjndtncndeotuj pfrjyjlfntkmcndf.
H
FPLTK
3. Yfcnjzofz cnfnmz yt dcnegftn d cbke, tckb jyf yt eltn hfnbabwbhjdfyf
d rfxtcndt gjghfdrb r Rjycnbnewbb pfrjyjlfntkmysvb cjhfybzvb jnltkmys
infnjd Ð rfr nj ghtlecvjnhtyj d Rjycnbnewbb Ð d ntxtybt ctvb ktn cj lyz ghtl-
cnfdktybz tt Rjyuhtccjv yf jljhtybt infnjd.
GJGHFDRF é
1920
Ghfdj ujkjcf uhflfy Cjtlbytyys Infnjd yt ljkyj jnhbwfnmcz bkb juhfybxb-
dfnmcz Cjtlbytyysvb Infnfvb bkb rfrbv-kbj infnjv gj ghbpyfre gjkf.
Rjyuhtcc bvttn ghfdj bcgjkyznm yfcnjzoe cnfnm ghbyznbtv cjjndtncn-
deotuj pfrjyjlfntkmcndf.
GJGHFDRF 1933
H
FPLTK
1. Chjrb gjkyjvjxbq Ghtpbltynf b dbwt-ghtpbltynf pfrfyxbdfncz d gjk-
ltym 20-uj lyz zydfhz, f chjrb gjkyjvjxbq ctyfnjhjd b ghtlcnfdbntktq Ð d gjkltym 3-uj lyz zydfhz d nt ujls, rjulf nfrjdst chjrb pfrjyxbkbcm s, tckb yf-
cnjzofz cnfnmz yt skf s hfnbabwbhjdfyf; c njuj t dhtvtyb yfxbyfncz chjrb gjkyjvjxbq b ghttvybrjd.
H
FPLTK
2. Rjyuhtcc cjbhftncz gj vtymitq vtht jlby hfp d ujl, b nfrjdfz ctccbz yf-
xbyftncz d gjkltym 3-uj lyz zydfhz, tckb njkmrj Rjyuhtcc pfrjyjv yt yfpyfxbn
lheujq ltym.
H
FPLTK
3. Tckb r vjvtyne, ecnfyjdktyyjve rfr yfxfkj chjrf gjkyjvjxbq Ghtpblty-
nf, bphfyysq Ghtpbltyn evhtn, bphfyysq dbwt-ghtpbltyn cnfyjdbncz Ghtpblty-
njv. Tckb Ghtpbltyn yt sk bphfy lj vjvtynf, ecnfyjdktyyjuj rfr yfxfkj chjrf
tuj gjkyjvjxbq, bkb tckb bphfyysq Ghtpbltyn yt jndtxftn nhtjdfybzv, ghtl-
zdkztvsv r rfylblfnfv yf ne ljkyjcnm, njulf bphfyysq dbwt-ghtpbltyn
ltqcndetn d rfxtcndt Ghtpbltynf lj nt gjh, gjrf Ghtpbltyn yt eltn jndtxfnm
nfrjdsv nhtjdfybzv; d ckexft, rjulf yb bphfyysq Ghtpbltyn, yb bphfyysq db-
wt-ghtpbltyn yt jndtxftn nhtjdfybzv, ghtlzdkztvsv r rfylblfnfv yf b lj-
kyjcnb, Rjyuhtcc vjtn ghbyznm pfrjy, erfpsdfobq, rnj eltn ltqcndjdfnm d
rfxtcndt Ghtpbltynf, bkb ecnfyfdkbdfobq gjhzljr bphfybz njuj kbwf, rjve
yflktbn ltqcndjdfnm d rfxtcndt Ghtpbltynf; nfrjdjt kbwj dsgjkyztn cjjndtn-
cndeobt jzpfyyjcnb, gjrf Ghtpbltyn bkb dbwt-ghtpbltyn yt elen jndtxfnm
nhtjdfybzv, ghtlzdkztvsv r rfylblfnfv yf b ljkyjcnb.
H
FPLTK
4. Rjyuhtcc vjtn d pfrjyt ghtlecvjnhtnm vths yf ckexfq cvthnb rjuj-kb-
j b kbw, bp rjnjhs gfkfnf ghtlcnfdbntktq Ð rjulf ghfdj dsjhf gthtjlbn r
ytq Ð vjtn dshfnm Ghtpbltynf, b yf ckexfq cvthnb rjuj-kbj bp kbw, bp rjnjhs
ctyfn Ð rjulf ghfdj dsjhf gthtjlbn r ytve Ð vjtn dshfnm dbwt-ghtpbltynf.
H
FPLTK
5. Hfpltks 1 b 2 dcnegfn d cbke yf 15-q ltym jrnzhz, kbfqituj gjckt hfnbabrfwbb yfcnjzotq cnfnmb.
H
FPLTK
6. Yfcnjzofz cnfnmz yt dcnegftn d cbke, tckb jyf yt eltn hfnbabwbhjdfyf
d rfxtcndt gjghfdrb r Rjycnbnewbb pfrjyjlfntkmysvb cjhfybzvb nht xtndthntq
jnltkmys infnjd d ntxtybt ctvb ktn cj lyz tt ghtlcnfdktybz.
Rjycnbnewbz Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Fvthbrb / Gjghfdrb »ééé Ñ 15
GJGHFDRF é
1933
H
FPLTK
1. Djctvyflwfnfz cnfnmz gjghfdjr r Rjycnbnewbb Cjtlbytyys Infnjd cbv
jnvtyztncz.
H
FPLTK
2. Gthtdjprf bkb ddjp d rfrjq-kbj infn, yf rfre-kbj nthhbnjhb bkb d
rfrjt-kbj dkfltybt Cjtlbytyys Infnjd lkz ljcnfdrb nelf bkb bcgjkmpjdfybz
nfv jgmzyzob yfgbnrjd d yfheitybt ltqcndeob nfv pfrjyjd bv pfghtoftncz.
H
FPLTK
3. Yfcnjzofz cnfnmz yt dcnegftn d cbke, tckb jyf yt hfnbabwbhjdfyf d rfxt-
cndt gjghfdrb r Rjycnbnewbb rjydtynfvb jnltkmys infnjd Ð rfr nj ghtlecvjn-
htyj d Rjycnbnewbb Ð d ntxtybt ctvb ktn cj lyz ghtlcnfdktybz tt Rjyuhtccjv yf jljhtybt infnjd.
GJGHFDRF éé
1951
H
FPLTK
1. Yb jlyj kbwj yt vjtn snm bphfyj yf ljkyjcnm Ghtpbltynf jktt xtv
ldf hfpf, b yb jlyj kbwj, rjnjhjt pfybvfkj ljkyjcnm Ghtpbltynf bkb ltqcndjdf-
kj d rfxtcndt Ghtpbltynf d ntxtybt jktt lde ktn jn chjrf, yf rfrjdjq lheujt kb-
wj skj bphfyj Ghtpbltynjv, yt bpbhftncz yf ljkyjcnm Ghtpbltynf jktt
xtv jlby hfp. Yj ltqcndbt yfcnjzotq cnfnmb yt hfcghjcnhfyztncz yf kbwj, pfyb-
vfott ljkyjcnm Ghtpbltynf, rjulf yfcnjzofz cnfnmz skf ghtlkjtyf Rjy-
uhtccjv, b yt ghtgzncndetn rfrjve-kbj kbwe, rjnjhjt pfybvftn ljkyjcnm Ghtpb-
ltynf bkb ltqcndetn d rfxtcndt Ghtpbltynf, d ntxtybt chjrf, d ghtltkf rjnjhj-
uj yfcnjzofz cnfnmz dcnegftn d cbke, pfybvfnm ljkyjcnm Ghtpbltynf bkb ltqcn-
djdfnm d rfxtcndt Ghtpbltynf d ntxtybt jcnfnrf nfrjdjuj chjrf.
H
FPLTK
2. Yfcnjzofz cnfnmz yt dcnegftn d cbke, tckb jyf yt eltn hfnbabwbhjdfyf
d rfxtcndt gjghfdrb r Rjycnbnewbb pfrjyjlfntkmysvb cjhfybzvb nht xtndthntq
jnltkmys infnjd d ntxtybt ctvb ktn cj lyz tt ghtlcnfdktybz Rjyuhtccjv yf
jljhtybt infnjd.
GJGHFDRF ééé
1961
H
FPLTK
1. Jrheu, zdkzobqcz vtcnjv ghtsdfybz ghfdbntkmcndf Cjtlbytyys Infnjd, yfpyfxftn d gjhzlrt, ecnfyjdktyyjv Rjyuhtccjv, dsjhobrjd Ghtpblty-
nf b dbwt-ghtpbltynf d rjkbxtcndt, hfdyjv nfrjve xbcke ctyfnjhjd b ghtlcnfdbnt-
ktq d Rjyuhtcct, rjnjhjt vju s bphfnm jrheu, tckb s jy sk infnjv, yj yb d rjtv ckexft yt jkmitv, xtv bpbhftn yfbvtytt yfctktyysq infn; jyb ljgjk-
yzn dsjhobrjd, yfpyfxtyys infnfvb, yj ljkys hfccvfnhbdfnmcz Ð ghb dsj-
hf Ghtpbltynf b dbwt-ghtpbltynf Ð d rfxtcndt dsjhobrjd, yfpyfxtyys infnjv; jyb cjbhfncz d jrheut b dsgjkyzn nfrbt jzpfyyjcnb, rjnjhst ghtl-
gbcfys Gjghfdrjq éé.
H
FPLTK
2. Rjyuhtcc bvttn ghfdj bcgjkyznm yfcnjzoe cnfnm ghbyznbtv cjjndtn-
cndeotuj pfrjyjlfntkmcndf.
GJGHFDRF é»
1964
H
FPLTK
1. Ghfdj uhflfy Cjtlbytyys Infnjd ujkjcjdfnm yf rfrb-kbj gthdbxys
bkb bys dsjhf pf Ghtpbltynf bkb dbwt-ghtpbltynf, pf dsjhobrjd Ghtpblty-
nf bkb dbwt-ghtpbltynf kbj pf ctyfnjhjd bkb ghtlcnfdbntktq d Rjyuhtcct yt ljkyj jnhbwfnmcz bkb juhfybxbdfnmcz Cjtlbytyysvb Infnfvb bkb rfrbv-kbj
infnjv d cdzpb c ytegkfnjq rfrjuj-kbj gjleiyjuj bkb byjuj yfkjuf.
Rjycnbnewbz Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Fvthbrb / Gjghfdrb é Ñ é»
16
H
FPLTK
2. Rjyuhtcc bvttn ghfdj bcgjkyznm yfcnjzoe cnfnm gentv ghbyznbz cjjn-
dtncndeotuj pfrjyjlfntkmcndf.
GJGHFDRF »
1967
H
FPLTK
1. D ckexft jncnhfytybz Ghtpbltynf jn ljkyjcnb kbj tuj cvthnb bkb jncnfdrb dbwt-ghtpbltyn cnfyjdbncz Ghtpbltynjv.
H
FPLTK
2. Tckb ljkyjcnm dbwt-ghtpbltynf cnfyjdbncz dfrfynyjq, Ghtpbltyn yfpyf-
xftn dbwt-ghtpbltynf, rjnjhsq dcnegftn d ljkyjcnm gj endthltybb jkmibycn-
djv ujkjcjd jtb gfkfn Rjyuhtccf.
H
FPLTK
3. Tckb Ghtpbltyn gthtlftn ghtlctlfntk pro tempore ctyfnf b cgbrthe gf-
kfns ghtlcnfdbntktq cdjt gbcmvtyyjt pfzdktybt j njv, xnj jy yt d cjcnjzybb
jceotcndkznm gjkyjvjxbz b jzpfyyjcnb cdjtq ljkyjcnb, b gjrf jy yt gthtlfcn
bv gbcmvtyyjt pfzdktybt jhfnyjuj cjlthfybz, nfrjdst gjkyjvjxbz b jzpfy-
yjcnb dsgjkyzncz dbwt-ghtpbltynjv d rfxtcndt bcgjkyzotuj jzpfyyjcnb
Ghtpbltynf.
H
FPLTK
4. Tckb dbwt-ghtpbltyn b jkmibycndj dscib ljkyjcnys kbw bcgjkyb-
ntkmys ltgfhnfvtynjd kbj nfrjuj lheujuj jhufyf, rjnjhsq Rjyuhtcc vjtn pfrjyjv ghtlecvjnhtnm, gthtlfn ghtlctlfntk
pro tempore ctyfnf b cgbrthe gf-
kfns ghtlcnfdbntktq cdjt gbcmvtyyjt pfzdktybt j njv, xnj Ghtpbltyn yt d cj-
cnjzybb jceotcndkznm gjkyjvjxbz b jzpfyyjcnb cdjtq ljkyjcnb, dbwt-ghtpb-
ltyn ytpfvtlkbntkmyj ghbybvftn yf ctz gjkyjvjxbz b jzpfyyjcnb njq ljkyjcnb d rfxtcndt bcgjkyzotuj jzpfyyjcnb Ghtpbltynf.
Pfntv, rjulf Ghtpbltyn gthtlftn ghtlctlfntk
pro tempore ctyfnf b cgbrthe gf-
kfns ghtlcnfdbntktq cdjt gbcmvtyyjt pfzdktybt j njv, xnj ytcgjcjyjcnm j-
ktt yt ceotcndetn, jy djpjyjdkztn jceotcndktybt gjkyjvjxbq b jzpfyyjcntq
cdjtq ljkyjcnb, tckb dbwt-ghtpbltyn b jkmibycndj dscib ljkyjcnys kbw
bcgjkybntkmys ltgfhnfvtynjd kbj nfrjuj lheujuj jhufyf, rfrjq Rjyuhtcc vj-
tn pfrjyjv ghtlecvjnhtnm, yt ghtlcnfdbn d ntxtybt xtnsht lytq ghtlctlfnt-
k
pro tempore ctyfnf b cgbrthe gfkfns ghtlcnfdbntktq cdjt gbcmvtyyjt pfzdkt-
ybt j njv, xnj Ghtpbltyn yt d cjcnjzybb jceotcndkznm gjkyjvjxbz b jzpfyyjc-
nb cdjtq ljkyjcnb. Dcktl pf ntv Rjyuhtcc htiftn lfyysq djghjc, cjhfdibcm
lkz njq wtkb d ntxtybt cjhjrf djcmvb xfcjd, tckb d nj dhtvz yt ghjjlbn tuj
ctccbz. Tckb Rjyuhtcc d ntxtybt ldflwfnb jlyjuj lyz gjckt gjkextybz gjcktlyt-
uj gbcmvtyyjuj pfzdktybz bkb Ð tckb yt d nj dhtvz ghjjlbn ctccbz Rjyuhtccf Ð
d ntxtybt ldflwfnb jlyjuj lyz gjckt njuj, rfr Rjyuhtcc cjhfkcz, jghtltkztn
ldevz nhtnzvb ujkjcjd jtb gfkfn, xnj Ghtpbltyn yt d cjcnjzybb jceotcndkznm
gjkyjvjxbz b jzpfyyjcnb cdjtq ljkyjcnb, dbwt-ghtpbltyn ghjljkftn jceot-
cndkznm jyst d rfxtcndt bcgjkyzotuj jzpfyyjcnb Ghtpbltynf; d ghjnbdyjv
ckexft Ghtpbltyn dyjdm djpjyjdkztn jceotcndktybt gjkyjvjxbq b jzpfyyjc-
ntq cdjtq ljkyjcnb.
GJGHFDRF Ȏ
1971
H
FPLTK
1. Ghfdj ujkjcf uhflfy Cjtlbytyys Infnjd d djphfcnt djctvyflwfnb ktn
bkb cnfhit yt ljkyj jnhbwfnmcz bkb juhfybxbdfnmcz Cjtlbytyysvb Infnfvb
bkb rfrbv-kbj infnjv d pfdbcbvjcnb jn djphfcnf.
H
FPLTK
2. Rjyuhtcc bvttn ghfdj bcgjkyznm yfcnjzoe cnfnm ghbyznbtv cjjndtn-
cndeotuj pfrjyjlfntkmcndf.
Rjycnbnewbz Cjtlbytyys Infnjd Fvthbrb /Gjghfdrb é» Ñ »é
17
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