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2014-04-12

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PHILOSOPHY
UDC 101
A.M. Rudenko Ph.D. of philosophy, professor assistant
Don state technical university
Shakhty, Russia
I.M. Grekov candidate of philosophy, professor assistant
O.N. Kamalova candidate of philosophy, professor assistant
Southern federal university
Rostov-on-Don, Russia
redaction-el@mail.ru
THEORETICAL-METHODOLOGICAL
AND PHILOSOPHIC ASPECTS OF CREATIVITY RESEARCH
[Теоретико-методологические и философские
аспекты исследования творчества]
It is considered theoretical and methodological and philosophical aspects of the study of the phenomenon of
creativity. It is analyzed the scientific developments and achievements in the study of this problem. It is identified and
refuted misconceptions about the phenomenon of creativity arising at the level of everyday consciousness. It is shown
that the creativity of the meaning of life has significance for human health and is its most important essential
characteristic.
Key words: creativity, people, culture and philosophy.
The urgency of addressing the problem of theoretical and methodological and philosophical
aspects of the study of the phenomenon of creativity is dictated, on the one hand, the meaning of
life importance of creativity, and, on the other hand - are constantly available and the need to focus
not only systematic account of developments and achievements in the study of this problem, but
also indicate to those areas that have yet to master. There is no doubt that creativity and creative
activity - is the most important essential characteristics of human life. Creativity is a universal
value, and that is true of any universal values, true in regard to the value of creativity. In turn,
human values "are not pure idealization, can not simply invent or impose on society, they are
created and understood by people, so that their life had purpose and to make sense of everyday life,
and thus, human values are existential fullness" [ 7, c. 128]. Without them the modern world would
not have had such a look of what we know today.
To date, research has accumulated considerable arsenal, one way or another related to the
theme of creativity, both in Russia and abroad. The peak of its study comes in the first half of the
twentieth century, when the works were published NA Berdyaev, AM Bloch, VM Spondylitis, PI
Walden, AG Gornfeld, SO Gruzenberg AM Yevlakhov, II Lapshin, IA Zatuleneva, PI Karpov, VY
Kurbatova, BA Lesina, GI Markelov, AP Nechayev, DN Ovsyaniko-Kulikovskogo, VL
Omelyanskogo, B. Oswald, VP Polonsky, Poincare, E. Ribot, VV Savich, PK Engel'meier PM
Jacobson et al. Much of this work has been focused on science and philosophical understanding of
the role of creativity as a tool for the development of nature and society.
It should be noted that during this period was probably the first attempts were made to create a
unified theory of creativity, of which the most successful to be considered the concept of PK
Engel'meier presented by him in his "Theory of Creativity" (1910), in which he focuses on the
understanding of creative mechanisms to study issues nature of the creative process in art, science,
art, religion and daily life. Assuming the continuation of human creativity creativity of nature, he
says: "How then, since both are single row, never interrupted, and anywhere, because creativity is
life and life is art" [14, c. 16]. Starting from the first minute even from birth, all subsequent human
activity is a manifestation and a consequence of his work. But signs of human creativity in the
theory Engelmeyera are artificiality, appropriateness, surprise and integrity.
Since the middle of the twentieth century, scientific and technological revolution has led to the
need to study the laws of scientists creativity in science, which is increasingly seen as a productive
force, affecting the economy. In the west (especially in the USA) there studies that identify the
criteria for creativity. There was a need to explore the essence of management creativity. In
addition, the search began for the algorithms for solving creative problems (for example, GS
Altshuller developed an algorithm for the inventors of Inventive Problem Solving). On this
occasion, VI Orlov said that "the great inventions are born not of the schemes, and in a mighty
stream and boiling of life" [10, c. 311]. Today we understand that the creative process in its
submission to certain laws still bears the mark of individuality.
In the late 70's - early 80's. The twentieth century. expanding subject area of research
creativity. We study various forms of creative activity of the individual, including scientific activity
and artistic creativity. At this time, write their work: JA Ponomarev (research in the psychology of
creativity), AN Bow (the study of intuition in scientific work), BE Lobanov (identification of
philosophical and sociological features of creativity), AS Maidan (the study methodology and the
logic of scientific creativity), and others. Among Western research in the field of creativity stand
out works of H. Selye (in the field of scientific work).
In the late 80's - early 90's. observed in studies of rethinking the meaning of work and
creativity of the person as the process of establishing an integrated and self-identity. In this vein,
should highlight research VI Agapov, NP Abovsky, AL Groisman et al.
To date, social and philosophical aspect of the problem of creativity is explored in the works
of VI Agapov, VG Afanasyev, A.M. Bushueva, EV Ilyenkov, AF Losev, IR Prigogine, NS
Sleptcova, I. Stengers and other intellectuals. Intuitive aspects of the phenomenon of creativity
revealed in the works of VF Asmus. The basic premises of the logical analysis of creative thinking
and the specific theoretical works were the subject of analysis VS Bibler. Philosophical,
sociological and cultural aspects of creativity are revealed: IA Butenko (issues of interaction of
scientific and everyday consciousness in empirical research), GN Volkov (sociological analysis of
scientific creativity), VG Kharcheva (sociological aspects of creativity), VA Yadov (creativity in
terms of self-regulation and predicting social behavior of the person), and others. Features elite in
modern Russia, it is important for the understanding of the specific socio-cultural environment as a
factor in the genesis and implementation of creative aspirations investigated LD Gudkov, BV Dubin
and Yu Levada.
Despite the large number of scientific and philosophical works devoted to the problem of
creativity, there is still not created a coherent philosophy of the concept, which would be integrated
philosophical-anthropological, psychological, pedagogical, sociological, cultural, kulturfilosofskij,
art research results. Few are designed with questions concerning the nature of creativity and the
creative process, questions about his sources and determinants. Almost no work on creativity in the
context of the evolutionary process or considering work as a mechanism for self-identity, the
meaning of life and ethical grounds, as well as philosophical and anthropological meaning of
creativity. Psychological studies aimed at exploring the role of intuition, imagination, emotions,
will, rational and emotional factors in the works often contradict each other and need to be further
developed, managing, and sometimes adapting it to new advances in science. Not fully understood
the essence of the phenomena of modern scholars of creativity, talent and genius, as well as features
of the development of the creative potential of the individual. And especially topical issues in
modern conditions is to study the phenomenon of creativity in context and characteristics of
creative activity in the culture of the twenty-first century.
To date, a very important and little studied is the question of the philosophical foundations of
creativity, in other words, the question of the nature of creativity. In this regard, there is a lot of
misconceptions, myths and stereotypes that are often encountered at the level of everyday
consciousness. Major misconceptions about the phenomenon of creativity, mostly limited to the
following:
1) creativity - is the prerogative of the people of so-called "artists" or geniuses. In fact, creativity
is at the same time as a universal universal (in the sense that is inherent in any person's mental health),
as well as a unique single-phenomenon (in the sense that each is manifested in its own way and in a
different degree, depending on the level of quality that will enable to overcome himself, search for
new and modify the surrounding objects, events and processes of the world). In this connection it is
necessary to agree with the OV Afanas'eva, which says: "Creativity - a unique and at the same time a
universal phenomenon of life" [1, c. 4]. It is in the works carried out fruitful synthesis of the personal
and social principles of human nature;
2) creativity - this is a special divine gift, the nature of which is a mystery that can not be
understood on the basis of socio-cultural reasons. For this assertion, which is a fallacy, yet there are
some arguments for the creative process is the result of interaction between the rational and irrational,
not only logic, but also intuition. Not fully explored in the creative process is the very birth of a new
idea. But we must not forget that the nature of creativity is largely determined by social and cultural
bases, as any work can be carried out only in specific socio-cultural conditions and based on specific
values. Among the core values of creativity considerable space devoted to the values of freedom and
responsibility. In this regard, the infringement of freedom is always a limit, not only the responsibility
but also the possibility of creative manifestation of personality. Conversely, an increase in freedom
inevitably leads to an increase in the degree of manifestation of creativity. In our previous work, we
have emphasized the idea that "the personal principle manifested in culture, indirectly expands the
boundaries of human existence, the content of which is determined by the productive and creative
activities in the society" [13, c. 10]. In the case of the social acceptability of creativity, it is interpreted
in terms of novatsionizma as a creation, a new product of creative activity, as in the case of socially
unacceptable - as an anomaly, crime, delinquency and deviant activity. All this leads to the conclusion
that there were similarities between the nature of the nature and mechanism of creative and criminal
activity, which, however, are not only varying degrees of awareness and responsibility, but also the
opposite direction (creativity is a positive, constructive social orientation, and crime - negative and
destructive);
3) The work has only immaterial, spiritual nature, and nature; intangible, spiritual absolutely
dominates the creative activity. Analysis of hundreds of thousands of biographies of famous creative
people, as well as basic common sense contradict this assertion. The existence of any non-pecuniary
nature of the phenomenon is unthinkable outside the shell material. The content does not exist outside
the mold, and vice versa. Manifestation of any creative act is always associated with preparation to
create the conditions for its implementation. The artist did not write the picture, if he will not have
paints, brushes, easels, work space corresponding to works of mental and physical condition, special
professional knowledge acquired during the training, as well as the complex motives and incentives
(not always with only intangible nature ), call-to-work, etc. Film composer would write the
soundtrack for the new film, if it will not have a piano, computer, special purpose equipment, video,
indicating personnel to accompany the music. Also, it is unlikely to work on the creation of original
music, if he did not promise to pay a fee for the work. Examples can be continued. Of course, it
should be noted that the mere existence of the conditions for creative activity, with the nature of the
material itself does not guarantee the emergence of a new and original product of creativity, because
without the realization of the creative design of the creator of this would have been impossible. But
without any of these conditions does not occur, and himself a creative idea. Russian film critic and
cultural studies KE Razlogov (b. 1946) noted that creativity and commerce today allies. Speaking of
the relationship between commercial and non-commercial art in Russia today, he said that there are
times when art and commerce are enemies, but today we live in a time when they are likely allies.
[11] In addition, true creativity is always the result of stepping beyond the boundaries of existing
within the region, which belongs to creation. In turn, without the knowledge of what lies within these
boundaries, that is, without taking into account of the experience of previous generations, it is
unlikely a new consciousness. And the introduction to this experience as a necessary stage in the
formation of creativity inevitably involves reference to the materialized artifacts of culture (any book,
picture, score, etc.). A striking example that demonstrates the truth of this assertion is the publication
of the three-volume "Lectures and reports of members of the Russian Academy of Sciences in
SPbGUP (1993 - 2003)," kulturfilosofskij potential and importance of which in historical retrospect,
perhaps, to compare with the publication of Enlightenment philosophers fundamental "Encyclopedia
of Science, arts and crafts "[9, c. 223]. This example shows that the results of their own creative
scientists may be available for future generations only if they do not materialize. In other words,
creativity as a phenomenon is manifested and realized on the basis of a non-synthetic unity and
integrity of both material and spiritual principles;
4) work can not be a learning disability, it can not be taught, because creative people are born,
not made. This statement is also a delusion, which, nevertheless, there is a grain of truth. Indeed, some
people are born more creative, others - not. But this does not mean that creativity can not be taught.
What you need to know and be able to be creative? As has been previously noted in our previous
works, it needs, first, broad-minded enough in that area of activity in which a person is going to say
something new; secondly, to have the courage and the courage to "cross the line"; Third, at the initial
stage of creating something new "to strangle a criticism" [12, c. 380]. Thus, creativity as the ability to
create and implement a new, original, unconventional and unique can and should be taught. Not
accidentally, this requirement is now increasingly voiced in the educational programs of educational
institutions at all levels. Another thing is that, in practice, the full realization of this requirement
would be the formation of individualized, critical, original and creative, nestereotipizirovannogo
thinking people on a massive scale, which would impede the implementation of mechanisms for the
implementation of power and governance in general. It is clear that the stereotypical, conservative,
traditional, standart and one-sided thinking man is easier to manipulate, control, incline to the desired
point of view. And this in turn is the key to the stability of the existing social order at the level of not
only small but also large social groups. Therefore, we can assume a rhetorical question that is actually
more important for the state: limit creativity of citizens as a guarantee of stability of existing sociopolitical foundation and consolidation of existing spheres of influence of the representatives of the
current elite, or the fostering of creative thinking as a condition of self-fulfillment through increase
social mobility, extending the boundaries of participation in the creative change of the social whole
within their chosen profession. Whatever it was, it's worth thinking about the fact that the creation of
conditions for full disclosure and use of personal creative potential of people, not just update the legal
and similar influence over the public mind, is the main way to prevent crime.
Furthermore, even the most traditional and eternal values must sooner or later be subject to
renewal: "Living in the present, it is difficult to limit ourselves to one tradition, much in the values
necessary to rethink and even radically change, or re-create, or borrow, so formed the traditional
values are not dead burden, but on the contrary, constantly updated property of culture "[2, c. 84].
Similarly, the re-examination and the ratio of the value of creativity, promote learning which should
result in the creation of the conditions for self-knowledge, self-development, ongoing personal
growth, expression and creativity disclosure by the demand of society in its performance, which is
only possible in the case of support by numerous socio-economic mechanisms.
In conclusion, it should be noted that all great, important, significant, valuable and outstanding,
which today is in the arsenal of modern humanity, was created as a result of creative activity. She is
not only a mechanism for achieving progress in various fields of human life, but also one of the
factors of awakening a man's specifically human essence. Not accidentally, NA Berdyaev
considered art only activity that makes a man a man by constantly stepping beyond the boundaries
of the self: "Creativity is always a self-transcendence, a way out of the limits of his personal being
closed ... Least of all creativity selfish" [2, c. 120]. Furthermore, it is creative abilities allow a
person to "navigate freely and to act in uncertain situations involving search and construction of
such modes of action that would be conformed logic of the future" [8, c. 113]. In any situation of
uncertainty person (he realizes it or not) becomes a creator, and how it will manifest itself in the act
of creation, the degree of success depends on its activities and the overall quality of personal
consistency. But the life of a man imbued with the true spirit and deed, creative work, is a source
not only for the sensation and awareness of personal happiness, but also the condition for sustained,
progressive development of society and the state.
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July, 19, 2014
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