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Cm6. 385, 422. 2. CAt.: WcmopuR npeonpwLUAtameJLbcmBa B Poccuu: B 2 KH. Kn. 1. Om cpeoneBeKOBbfl oo cepeOU1lbt XIX BeKa I OmB. peo. A. B. CeAtenoBa. M., 2000. C. 12- 44. 3.lf3AtaiJ.JLOB lf. JI. 1183 zoo: KpecmOBblU noxoo Ha BoJLze II Poouua. 2000, M 3. c. 38-43. 4. lJ,eBu,a, lfcaObl - maKUX 1ta3BaHUU Ha Kapma.;r; nem. Jlo OOHOU U3 Bepcuu, JLemonUC1lafl Il,eBu,a - 3mo p. Ee30Ha, JleBbtU npumoK Bo!lzu (KyttKun B. A. 0 Atapwpymax noxoOoB opeBuepycCKUX Kll5l3eu Ha zocyoapcmeo BOJ!J/CCKUX 6yJLzap B XII - nepeou mpemu XIII B. I I WcmoputJecKafl zeozparjJUfl Poccuu, XII - 1ta1Ja.JW XX B. M., 1975. C. 43 ). 5. IICPJI. T I. Cm6. 389. 6. IICPJI. T. I. Cm6. 389-390. 7. IICPJI. T. II. WnambeBCKafl Jtemonucb. M., 2001. Cm6. 625. 8. IICPJI. T. VII. Jlemonucb no BocKpecencKo.Aty cnucKy. M., 2001. C. 38. 9. IICPJI. T. VII. C. 97. 10. TuxoAtupoB M. H. t(peBnepyccKue zopooa. M., 1956. C. 138- 139. 11. IICPJI. T. I. Cm6. 390. 12. IICPJI. T. II. Cm6. 626. 13. Kapa-~t 3 un H. M.lfcmopuR zocyoapcmea Poccuucxozo B f2 moAtaX. T. II- III. M., 1991. C.389. 14. IICPJI. T. VII. C. 97. 15. IICPJI. T. II. Cm6. 619. 16. CAt.: JlrommBaK 3. H. Cmpamezwt Bu3a1tmuucKou UAtnepuu I Ilep. c anz. M., 2010. c. 583- 586. 17. W3AtaiJ.JLOB lf. JI. 3aw,um11UKU <~CmeubtlfcKaHOepa>.>. Ka3aHb, 2008. C. 150. 18. IICPJI. T. I. Cm6. 390. 19. P1yorj. H.,jeffreys E. M. The Age of the ~ P O MO N. The Byzantine Navy ca 500- 1204. Brill Academic Publishers, 2006. P. 423. 20. Codice diplomatico della Republica Genova. Roma, 1939, v. 3, act. 50,p. 112 (u,um. no: Ky3neu,oB B. A. XpucmuaucmBo 11a CeBep1to.ilf KaBJ<:a3e oo XV eeKa. B!laOuKaBKa3, 2002). 21. Tamuw,eB B. H. lfcmopU5l PoccuUCKafl c Ca.AtblX opeBueuwux Bpe . .tte1l. Ku. 3. M., 1774. C.465. 22. IICPJI. T. I. Cm6. 390. 23. C!loBo o noJtKy lfzopeBe. M.; JI., 1950. C. 13. 24. Tpaouu,uonuaJI oamupoBKa <ICJLoBa>.>- 1187 z. (A. A. FopCKUU OK01t1Jame!lbllY10 Bepcwo npoU3BeOeHUfl omnocum K oce11u 1188 z.) 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CiliA HCITb!TbJBaJta so BbeTHaMe 7,62-MM .nsyxnyJtbl tbiM naTpoH HATO M198, rrpi1H5!TbiM Ha BOOpyJKCHI1C aMepHKaHCKOl! apM1 1H B 1964 r. )lyrrneKCHblll naTpOil, B KOTO[)OM TIYJII1 paCITOJJaraJJHCb ITO CXCMC ┬лTaH,l(CM >>, 6biJI pa3pa6oTaH cpHpMOl l ┬лBHH'!CCTep-BCCTCp111>. fipOl(CCC pa3BI1Tl15! ,l(ByxnyJi bHblX 6oenpHnaCOB np~!BeJI K C03,l(aHHIO naTpOita C TpCM5! nyJI5JMH. l1.3BCCTI-Ibl OllbiTHbiC o6pa3Ubl naTpOJJa- TpHITJICKCa cepC,l(HHbl 60-x rr., B KOTOpblX ,l(OHL(C BTOpOH 11. TpCTbCM rryJt l1 TaK)I<C 11MCJII1 CITCU11aJJbHblH CKOC OTHOCI1TCJibHO HX llpO,l(OJlbHOif OCH- ,l(JI5! paCCCI !BaHI15! Ha TpaeKTO[)HH. B 70-e rr. 6biJII1 C03,l(aHbl Oflb!Tllb!C o6pa3ll,bi fl5JTI1ITYJibHb!X ITCHTa- naTpOHOB KaJtH6pa .15 11 .30. Ha116oJice 3KCTpcMaJibHOe BOTIJIOll.(CHI1e H,l(C5! MI-IOronynMroro naTpoHa Hauuta B pa3MCll.(CHHI1 B naTpOHC Hp11HU11TII1aJibHO JJOBOll KOJJ CTpyKl\ 1111 <<,l(JIHHIIOM 0' JC- pe,l(H1> 113 o6bt'!ltbiX nyJJb c O,l(HHM o6ll.(aM MeTaTC Jibl tbiM 3ap5!,l(OM (!). B fepMaii HIтИЩI so speMH BTopoi1 M11posoi1. HeKTO UcTTCJib 3aHvtMaJrcH opyJKI-reMтИЩ, M3BCCTI!biM no.n Hll,l(CKCOM HF15. Pa6oTbr BeJtHCb Ha cpHpMc << fycTJtOB-BepKe1> B 3yJte.M.cnoJtb30- Bam1Cb rryJIJ J OT naTpoHa K 15-MM nyJieMeTy MG.151. CeMb nynh pa3MCLL(aJtHCb B CITH.paJtbJLO-Btl!ITOBOM KaHaJte (nyJtCBOH KaMCpe), OKpyJKaBlUHM UCI!Tpa J ibllblH MHoronynbHble naTpOHbl - 2, 3 M 5-nynbHble. 1950-70-e rr. Puc. Muxawza ll1Ml1.TOBA 3annOBbl il nMCTOneT (6 napannenbHblX CTBOflOB) c YA3PHbiM 33MKOM , XVIII B. 3annoBbl il nMcroner ┬лPyKa CMepTM ┬╗ pyCCKO M pa60Tbl , YA3PHbl il 3aMoK , 5 Beepoo6pa3HO pacnonOlKeHHbiX CTBOflOB , XVIII B. narpoH c 25 crpenoBMAHbiMM nynAMM, pa3pa60T3HHblil no nporpaMMe SPIW . CWA. 1962 r. :' тАв I ~ "::T 2. ~ Q. & }B 2: 2 HI nyJiesoi1 KauaJ I, cooCHhiM c KaHaJIOM CTBOJia. ITepmm nyJm pa3Mema ; racb B !lenT- paJibllOM Kal!aJie 1-tarrpOnlB OTBe pcnm B ,llHe KaMepbL ,Usa OTBepCTtl5! IIOMeHbUle BblriOJ IWIJJI1Cb B ,llae KaMephr ua nep11cpeptt11 KattaJia. ITopox B rHJib3e YKJra,llbTBaJI- c5! ceMbTO rrocJie,lloBaTeJibiiO aocnJiaMeH5!BWHMHC5! p5I,llaMH. ITocJie npo,llBH:>Keim5! Hepaoi1 nyJII1 B KaHaJI CTBoJra ,llasJTeJ- IHe HopoxoBhiX ra30B npo,llBMraJTo cJie.llyro- lilHe K !leiiTpy . TeMn CTpCJib6bl O,llH11M naTpOHOM COCTaBJT5IJT 25000 BblCTpj M111L B 1977 r. aMepuKaiiell cDpeHK EcJIJI 3anaTeHToBaJI % BHHToBKY c 6oJihlll 1 1M -reM noM CTpeJih6bi > >, OCHOBOMKOTOpoi1: 6b!JI aHaJ IOfH'Uiblll naTpoll. Cl>aKTH'-!eCK11 3TO ,llCl)f(e He naTpOH, a CTIHpaJibHblll Mara3Hil eMKOCTblO 10- 20 (!) 11YJib C O,llHI1M 06ll1HM Me- TaTeJibHblM 3ap5!,lloM. CTporo roaop5!, noJiy'raeTC5I He 3aJin, Ho LITo-To oLJer-tb K HeMy 6JII13KOe, TaK KaK BbiCTpeJI-TO BCero Q,lli1H! ,llpyroMKOHCTpyKTHBHOM Kpai1:noCTbiO 11 npoTI1BOllOJIO/KHblM flO,llXO,llOM I< npo- 6neMe 3aJif!OBOfO BbiCTpeJTa CTaJI O,llHo3ap5I,llHblM flHCTOJieT aMepHKaJ-ll[eB fapp11 Y::~nxenMa 11 MapKa MeJIJIMna 1970 r. 3,llecb TaroKe 11CnoJih3yeTC5I cnellHaJJbHoe opy:11me 11 cne116oerrpwnac. CTBoJt npe,llcTaBJI5IeT co6oi1: nJiocKwi1: rop113oHTaJibHbri1: pacTpy6 c yrJioM pacKpbiTH5! 60'. KapTe'-IHhri1: naTpoH BbmoJIHen B BM,lle rrJiocKoro napanJieJienMne,lla c o,llHoi1: BhiiiYKJicii1 cTopoHoi1:. IT prr BhtCTpeJie KapTe'Ih pa3Jie- TaeTC5! wrrpoKMM aeepoM, rapanTMPY5! rropaJKeHHe 11eJI11 ,llaJKe rrpw caMoi1 rpy6oi1: naBO,llKe opyJKH5!. C 1962 r. B CIIIA pa3pa6aTbiBaJracb %BI1HToBKa cpe,llnei1 ,llaJihHOCTHi> no npoer<- TY SALVO. ITo3,llnee 3TY rrporpaMMY c-raJIH Ha3biBaTb %HH,lli1BI1.llYaJ ibHoe opy:11me C!lellHaJTbHoro Ha3HaLieHI15Ii> - %C!lbiOi> (SPIW). 0,llrroi1: H3 f<OHI~eTT!lHM CTaJio noJiyaaToMaTH'-!ecrwe opyJKI1e, KoTopoe np11 naJKaTMI1 r- ra cnycr<oaoi1: KpTo'-loK o,ll- noapeMeJ-mo ,lloJIJKHo 6brJio BhmycKaTb oT 3 JJ,o 25 cTpeJioBM.llHhiX nyJih. EMKoCTb Mara3!1Ha - J],O 200 naTpOHOB. ITym1 6bJJTI1 BblfiOJTHeHbl B BH,lle CTpeJI ,llMaMeTpoM 1,5 MM 11 J],JTHHoK25 MM. ITaKeT CTpeJI pa3MewaJIC51 B f!JTaCTMaCCOBOM flO,ll,llO!-Ie, 3a- KperrJieHHOM B Jl.YJlblle fHJlb3bl. IT pH BbiJieTe H3 CTBOJTa f!OJ],,llOH OT,lleJ J5IJ IC5!, a CTpe- Jlbl JJeTeJIH anepe,ll. O.llnaKo TOYHOCTb cTpeJib6bJ 3THMH rraTpoHaMM O'-!eHb HH3Ka5t rr, rrecMoTp5! ua 6oJ iblllHe pacxo,llhi no nporpaMMe ,.cnhJO> >, :JKeJiaeMhte pe3yJihTaTbT He 6hiJII1 rroJiy'-IeHbT. C 1969 r. B CIIIA Be;:J,yTc5! aKTHBHbre pa6oTbl no npHHllHHH- aJJbHo rroaoMy opy:JK11ro IDW 150, cTpenb6a 11.3 KoToporo JJ,oJIJKna necn1cb ue ny- JI5!MI1, a 115lTbfO CTpeJiaMH BeCoM 0,6 r KCl)f(Jl,a5! npvt eMKOCTI1 Mara3HI - Ia 30 naTp0HOB (T.e 150 CTpeJT). }b JlOCJie,llHHX pa3pa6oTOK TaKofo po;:J,a Ha!160JJee H3BeCTIIa CXeMa aBCTpaJIHi:i- CKOfO r<oHCTpyr<Topa O',llyaiiepa. ITyJirr l1 MeTaTeJibHhre nopoxoabre 3ap5!Jl.hi pac- rroJiararoTC5! a 3apaHee cnap5I:JKaeMoM CTBoJTe rrocJie,lloBaTeJihHo, 3ap5IJJ,br cHa6- :JKeHhr ::~nernpoKanc t oJJ5!MH. 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KaK BH,llHM, 3aJinoBbri1: np11H!111H CTpeJih6hr or<a3aJIC5! oYeHh nno;:J,oTBopHhiM KaK C TBOP'IeCKOM, TaK 11 C rrpaKTI1'-IeCKOM TO'-IKH 3peHHH. AneKcei1 APJJAWEB , 11H>KeHep MHoronynbHbiil naTpoH ┬л BHHTOBKH C Bb!COKHM TeMnOM CTpenb6bi┬╗. cJlp3HK 6enn. CWA . 1977 r. Py'IHOe opylKIIe CHCTeMbl ┬л CTanbHDii WTOPM ┬╗. O'llyaiiep. AacTpamtA . 1990-e rr. 0AH033PAAHblil KapTe'IHblil nllcToneT AnA nopalKeHIIA rpynnoaoii llenlt . rappll Y3nxenM 11 MapK 11ennMH. CWA. 1970 r. q pe3Bbl'lai1Hb!H 11 TIOJ!HOM0'-1- Ilblii TIOCOJ! POCCI111 B 6e3BeC'r- JIO}r acpp11KaHCKOH pecny6J!H- Ke, o6pa30BaBI!let!C~ Ha BOJIHe 1 !a!ji10HaJiblib!X peBOJIIOI!HH llleCTH.necll:Tbrx ro.nos npolllnoro seKa, IOp11i1 ITeTpoawr Yconhues OTKpbiJI sapoTa rapa.JKa 11 OTBa.JKHO 3af.ID!HJ'll BHyTpb. ITocne ll:pi<o- ro COJIHUa, CBepKaBI!lefO Ha 6eJib!X flJII1TKax .l.(Op0)KKJ1, cyMpaK B rapa.JKe flOKaJaJIC5! eMy MpaKOM KpOMeiiiHblM. 11 B 3TOM Mpai<e flOJI- 3aJIH OrpOMHble 30JIOTHCT0-3eJiellble aMe6bJ. 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  • Дата публикации: 23 Август 2012
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