www.siemens.com/pof Pictures of the Future The Magazine for Research and Innovation | Special Edition: Green Cities Infrastructures Sustainable Solutions for Buildings, Traffic and Energy Developing solutions that are both eco- nomical and sustainable Buildings and Mobility Energy-efficient and intelligent technologies for tomorrow’s cities Energy Technologies Innovative answers for a livable, low-carbon future Green Cities Pictures of the Future | Green Cities 3 Content Energy Technologies Buildings and Mobility Infrastructures Sections 10 8 Scenario 2020 Talk of the Town 1 10 Trends Urban Nature 1 13 European Green City Index What Makes a City a Winner? 1 16 Kopenhagen Wind, Wood & Two Wheels 1 18 Oslo Green Milestones 1 20 Paris Fast Tracks, Bright Lights 1 21 Study of a Carbon-Free Munich Paths to a Better Planet 1 24 Water Purification Singapore: Pooling Resources 1 26 Facts and Forecasts Trillions for the Infrastructures 1 27 Airports Flight from Carbon Dioxide 1 1 30 Scenario 2020 Master of Efficiency 1 32 Trends Simple Steps that Save a Bundle 1 34 LED Streetlights World Heritage in a New Light 1 36 Networking Plugging Buildings into the Big Picture 1 38 Smart Meters Transparent Network 1 40 Facts and Forecasts Greentech in the City 1 41 Rail Vehicle Optimization Tough Tests for Trams 1 42 Mobility Concept Vienna Exemplary Realization 1 43 Metro Nuremberg Driverless Subways 1 45 Hybrid Drives for Buses Next Stop: Bonus for Breaking 1 48 Tunnel Safety Danger Made Visible 1 49 Road Pricing A Toll Booth in Every Truck 1 51 Intelligent Traffic Management Faster Commuting 1 52 Electromobility From Wind to Wheels 1 55 Electric Vehicles Get a Charge! 1 58 Scenario 2030 The Electric Caravan 1 60 Trends Switching on the Vision 1 64 World’s Largest Gas Turbine Unmatched Efficiency 1 66 Virtual Power Plants Power in Numbers 1 68 Power Plant Upgrades New Life for Old Plants 1 71 Offshore-Wind High-Altitude Harvest 1 74 Energy Storage Trapping the Wind 1 77 Facts and Forecasts Highspeed for Mobility and Economy 1 78 Power Heat from Biomass What a Fireplace! 1 79 Solar Thermal Power Focus on the Sun 18 4 Train of Ideas European Tour for more Sustainability 18 6 Short Takes News from Siemens’ Labs 83 Feedback/Preview Pictures of the Future | Editorial A nna Kajumulo Tibaijuka, who was the Executive Director of the United Nati- ons Human Settlements Programme (UN- HABITAT) until 2010, summed up a crucial trend of our time when she said, “2007 was the year in which Homo sapiens beca- me Homo urbanus.” That year marked the first time in history that the worldwide number of city dwellers surpassed the number of people living in rural regions — and the urbanization process is far from fi- nished. It is primarily the cities of the deve- Brigitte Ederer is a member of the Managing Board of Siemens AG. She has special responsibility for the Economic Region Europe and is Head of Corporate Human Resources. many rivals to become the European Com- mission’s “European Green Capital 2011.” It owes its victory in large part to its extensi- ve utilization and expansion of renewable energies, climate-friendly renovation of buildings, and systematic expansion of its local public transport network. All of these are areas in which Siemens is active as a global provider of infrastruc- ture services ranging from smart building technology (p.32) to sustainable transpor- tation solutions, such as driverless subways Cover:Since 2007, more of the Earth’s population lives in cities than in rural areas. Making our cities more sustai- nable is one of our most important tasks. The Train of Ideas demonstra- tes how this can be achieved. It is tra- velling to 18 European cities to show- case sustainability ideas. In 12 of these cities, Siemens will be present. loping nations and emerging markets that will have to absorb almost the entire in- crease of the global population — approxi- mately 1.3 billion people — in the next two decades. This development poses tremen- dous challenges for forward-looking and sustainable urban development programs. In developing and industrialized countries alike, the quality of life depends on clean water and clean air, efficient transportati- on systems, a climate-conserving energy supply, and smart building technology. In Europe, 73 percent of the population already lives in cities — in China that figure is only about 47 percent. How are Europe- an cities dealing with this development? Siemens commissioned the Economist In- telligence Unit, an independent research and consulting company, to find an answer to this question. The result of its study is the European Green City Index (p.13), which ranks the European countries' lar- gest cities in terms of their CO 2 emissions, energy supply, buildings, transportation, water, air quality, waste disposal/land use, and environmental management. The ci- ties investigated range from Athens to Za- greb, from Paris (p.20) to Istanbul, and from Oslo (p.18) to Berlin. The index not only provides information about the investiga- ted cities' strengths and weaknesses but also aims to support their efforts to beco- me more sustainable. The initiative was a total success, and similar indices has now also been created for Asian and Latin Ame- rican cities. It will be followed by further indi- ces for North America, Africa, and Germany. In recent years the Hanseatic city of Hamburg has impressively demonstrated that urban ecological and economic goals can be harmonized. This port city beat A Sustainable Future for Cities 2 Pictures of the Future | Green Cities (p.43) and extremely fuel-efficient hybrid buses (p.45). The company also offers so- lutions for more efficient energy producti- on, including wind turbines at sea (p.71) and the world's most powerful gas turbine, which alone could satisfy the power require- ments of all Hamburg’s households (p.64). These examples show that available technologies can already help cities move toward their goal of generating zero CO 2 emissions (p.21). The use of such techno- logies is also worthwhile in business terms, because measures to enhance energy effi- ciency often quickly pay for themselves. In other words, they reduce costs and emissi- ons. For example, in fiscal 2010 alone, pro- ducts and solutions from Siemens' Environ- mental Portfolio helped customers reduce CO 2 emissions by about 267 million tons. That's equivalent to the combined annual CO 2 emissions of New York, Tokyo, Lon- don, Hong Kong, Berlin, and Rome. This is why Siemens has gladly suppor- ted Hamburg’s efforts to publicize innovative ideas for protecting the environment throug- hout Europe. The result is the "Train of Ide- as,"an interactive sustainability exhibition on rails. Six theme-based containers hou- sing many exhibits will impressively de- monstrate how cities can be designed to be sustainable and offer a high quality of life. Here, Siemens will be setting a good example as it quite literally powers the Train of Ideas — in the form of an energy- sa ving locomotive from the Eurosprinter fa mily. The locomotive’s technology enables it to travel the length and breadth of the continent without problems — despite the many different rail systems in operation. Re- gardless of where it stops, this train will sym bolize sustainability throughout Europe. Pictures of the Future | Green Cities 54 Pictures of the Future | Green Cities Destinations Train of Ideas Barcelona With about 1.6 million inhabitants, Barcelona is Spain’s second largest city. One of the city’s main goals is to expand public transportation and energy supplies. For instance, the city is thinking about to install a so- lution, which can supply the ships in the harbor with electricity from the city’s power supply system rather than from the ships’ own diesel gen- erators. The Catalan capital has al- ready managed to significantly reduce its energy consumption and emission rates by introducing low- emission hybrid buses, efficient de- salination plants for the creation of drinking water, fully-automated sub- ways, and the high-speed Velaro E train, which connects Barcelona with the capital Madrid. These solu- tions all make use of innovative Siemens technology. Zurich Zurich is Switzerland’s largest city with approximately 385,000 inhabi- tants. Its next steps toward becom- ing a sustainable city are centered on expanding public transportation and encouraging electromobility. Al- ready today, Siemens technology is contributing to reduced emissions through improved local trains, guid- ance and safety systems for road traffic, building systems for public buildings, and solutions for efficient power generation. Vienna The Austrian capital Vienna has an estimated 1.7 million inhabitants and is the country’s largest city. Its plans to become a “Smart City” with a sustainable infrastructure are based on solutions such as energy- saving ideas, smart grids, and elec- tromobility. The first steps have already been taken, many of them with the help of Siemens. They in- clu de energy-efficient building sys- tems for schools and swimming pools, solutions for environmentally friendly power generation, and sus- tainable subway and tram systems. (p.41) Munich With some 1.3 million inhabitants, Munich is Germany’s third-largest city. The southern German metropo- lis is aiming to reduce its carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions by 10 per- cent every five years and to slash pro-capita CO 2 emissions by 50 per- cent (compared to 1990 levels) by 2030. At the same time, Munich's municipal utility has set itself the target of generating enough green electricity to meet all the of city’s power requirements by 2025. With a portfolio that includes energy-effi- cient metro trains, high-efficiency hybrid buses, energy-saving building technologies and ecofriendly power generation solutions such as off- shore wind farms, Siemens is help- ing Bavaria’s capital city achieve its ambitious goals. (p.21) Brussels The Belgian capital has approxi- mately 1.1 million inhabitants. On its way towards a more sustainable future, the city is focusing on reduc- ing its energy consumption and, by extension, its emissions. This will apply to both its building sector and to road and rail traffic. Siemens will facilitate the city’s efforts to intro- duce over 300 regional trains, en- ergy-saving automated solutions for public buildings (e.g. for Belgium’s tallest buildings, the Belgacom Tow- ers), and with hybrid buses which use up to 40 percent less fuel than diesel-powered buses do. Paris Paris is France’s capital and has about 2.2 million inhabitants. For several years now, the city has placed its sus- tainability focus on public transporta- tion and energy-efficient building systems — and has done so with suc- cess. In 2011 the Paris metro turns 111 years old. For 30 years Siemens has equipped the subway with sig- nals and systems that aid subway drivers, resulting in shorter intervals between trains, a higher average speed, and lower maintenance costs. At the same time Siemens technol- ogy is helping to reduce energy con- sumption in buildings, for example with smart building systems for the Sofitel Hotel near the Arc de Triom- phe or a lighting system for the OECD headquarters that uses up to 70 per- cent less energy than before the re- furbishment. (p.20) Hamburg With approximately 1.8 million in- habitants, Hamburg is Germany’s second largest city and has been named the European Green Capital 2011 by the EU Commission. Over the past years the Hanseatic city has successfully demonstrated that eco- nomic development and environ- mental protection need not be mutually exclusive in large cities. Again Siemens has helped pave the way with efficient technology for public buildings and hotels, as well as electricity-saving LED technology that keeps the crypt of Hamburg’s famous St. Michael’s church beauti- fully lit up. Copenhagen Copenhagen has about 530,000 in- habitants and is the capital of Den- mark. According to the European Green City Index, Copenhagen is currently the most environmentally- friendly city in Europe. That’s mainly due to the number of energy-saving and climate protection measures which the city has introduced. The overall goal is to become completely carbon neutral by 2025 — aided in part by Siemens. This will be achieved through the production of carbon dioxide-free electricity by offshore wind turbines, the develop- ment of a smart grid infrastructure, and further research into electromo- bility together with the Technical University of Denmark. (p.16) Amsterdam Approximately 2.5 million inhabi- tants. Thanks in part to Siemens, the city and the surrounded conurbation Randstad have already laid the groundwork for a sustainable urban infrastructure. Measures include en- ergy-saving trams and solutions for the environmentally-friendly pro- duction of electricity — whether through biomass, wind or solar en- ergy. For instance, the roof of the Floriade building contains 19,000 solar panels that generate 2.3 megawatts of power. In the future, Amsterdam aims to start operating one of the most efficient fossil power plants in Europe, to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and to equip public buildings with sustain- able technology. Warsaw About 1.7 million inhabitants make the Polish capital the largest city in the country. What’s more, Warsaw continues to grow, and this will lead to greater energy demands and in- dustrialization. But the city never- theless intends to lower its emissions and energy consumption noticeably. Warsaw is already proving that these are achievable goals, thanks to con- structing of Poland’s largest waste- water treatment plant, implement- ing effective systems for road traffic, and solutions for the production of clean energy — all of which contain Siemens technology. Oslo With about 600,000 inhabitants Nor- way’s biggest city. The city’s goal is to reduce CO 2 emissions by 50 percent by 2030 and 100 percent by 2050. Therefor Norway’s capital is on the right track: Today the city already has one of Europe’s highest density of e- cars. Furthermore, the 250 new sub- way trains in Oslo delivered by Sie- mens captivate with their environmen- tal profile and energy efficiency. (p.18) Malmö With 285,000 residents the third biggest city in Sweden. The city has set a target to become by 2020 cli- mate neutral and by 2030 the whole municipality will run on 100 percent renewable energy. Many steps have already been taken and Siemens has helped with for example energy-effi- cient building systems for office buildings, schools and residential- buildings. (p.7) 15.09.-19.09. Amsterdam 07.09.-13.09. Brussels 29.09.-20.10. 01.05.-04.05. Malmö 06.05.-10.05. Göteborg 12.05.-15.05. Oslo 12.06.-14.06. Tallinn 07.06.-10.06. Riga 20.05.-22.05. Zurich 01.09.-04.09. Paris 15.04.-21.04. Hamburg 21.09.-25.09. Antwerpen 26.04.-29.04. Copenhagen Stops with Siemens-activities 24.05.-28.05. Munich 31.05.-04.06. Warsaw 20.06.-22.06. Vienna 02.07.-04.07. Marseille 25.06.-29.06. Barcelona 07.07.-10.07. Nantes Pictures of the Future | Short Takes Smart City E nergy efficiency rises immensely if building systems such as lighting, heating, and air conditioning are centrally controlled. An exam- ple of this is the Sihlcity shopping center and ho- tel in Zurich, where a Siemens energy manage- ment system controls all of the building technology. Tenants and hotel guests can set the room climate as desired. The control system uses sensors to determine current demand and adjust systems accordingly. It also measures the CO 2 concentration in the rooms and automati- cally regulates air circulation, thus increasing energy effi ciency by up to 30 percent. sw 16,000 LEDs T he 190-meter Turning Torso in Malmö, Sweden, marks a major achievement. The building’s ambitious architectural style led the New York Museum of Modern Art to induct it into its Hall of Fame of the world’s 25 most fascinating skyscrapers. Light is an important design element in the Turning Torso, and LEDs are used in- side the building to flood the corri- dors with a uniform white light. The Siemens subsidiary Osram installed around 16,000 energy-saving LEDs in the tower, marking the first mass ap- plication of such technology in archi- tecture. The diodes’ long service life also made them financially attractive to the skyscraper’s builders. sw T he European Commission has awarded Hamburg the title “European Green Cap- ital 2011,” thus providing a platform for the discussion of environmental issues and urban development between citizens, experts, and the business community. In line with this aim, Hamburg will launch the “Train of Ideas” in or- der to learn from other European cities and enter into a dialogue with people in Germany and abroad. The train will turn Hamburg into a Green Capital on wheels, featuring a state-of-the-art, interactive exhibition that shows visitors in an exciting and informative manner how the cities of the future may become sustainable with a high quality of life. Targeted at a gen- e ral, international audience, the exhibition ti- tled “Visions for Cities of the Future” will pro- vide a thrilling, easily understandable look at various topics. The exhibition showcases more than 100 city projects in Europe, presenting them in over 70 exhibits and on 26 touchscreens. Visitors 6 Pictures of the Future | Green Cities Pictures of the Future | Green Cities 7 The Future on Wheels will be able to walk through six exhibition con- tainers that show the city of the future from a variety of perspectives. The exhibition will take visitors from the personal and local lev- el up to a regional and a global perspective, extending, for example, from the “I” standpoint (Container 2) through “My World” (Contain- er 3) up to “The World of All” (Container 5). As the train’s official Premium-Partner, Siemens also has exhibits in the Train of Ideas. The company will, for example, present a va- riety of films that allow viewers to experience the smart grids of the future. At the push of a button, visitors will be able to see how smart grids differ from conventional power networks and what their advantages are. The Train of Ideas will stop at a total of 18 cities throughout Europe, including Hamburg, Copenhagen, Malmö, Oslo, Zurich, Munich, Warsaw, Vienna, Barcelona, Paris, Brussels, and Amsterdam. In all of these places, Hamburg is planning to cooperate with Siemens to hold events on the topic of sustainable cities. sw Onshore Power G ermany’s first onshore electrical power supply station for merchant ships went into operation in the city of Lübeck in August 2008. The facility enables ships to tap into the local grid for their electricity needs, rather than producing power themselves with pollu- tant-emitting diesel generators. At the heart of the Siemens solution is the Siplink system, which makes it possible for the first time to link ship and landside power networks, even if their frequencies differ. sw The CO 2 Catchers High Savings C oal as a fuel is going to re- main a cornerstone of the energy supply for a long time to come. New technologies are expected to free power station flue gases of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, thus mak- ing a decisive contribution to environmental protection. Ex- perts worldwide are working on concepts for generating power without releasing CO 2 into the atmosphere. Among the methods Siemens is focus- ing on is the IGCC process, in which the CO 2 is separated be- fore combustion, and flue-gas purification methods that sepa- rate CO 2 after combustion. For example, Siemens experts at a pilot facility in Freiberg, Ger- many, are studying how differ- ent types of coal behave in the gasifier. sw T he new Monte Rosa Hut in the moun- tains above Zermatt provides a foretaste of how smart building systems can help save costs. Situated at an altitude of 2,883 me- ters, the hut is largely self-sufficient, thanks to a concept developed by the ETH Zürich Siemens is developing and testing coal gasifiers in Freiberg. An unusual lighthouse: The Turning Torso. Interlocking: The train offers a look into the future.Green containers: The focus is also on nature. Sustainability on wheels: The Train of Ideas is a mobile exhibition about green cities. Clever: Energy management helps cut consumption. Savings: Plugging in reduces emissions and cuts costs. Pioneering project: The new Monte Rosa Hut demonstrates how weather forecasts can be used to save energy. and the Swiss Alpine Club (SAC). For exam- ple, the electricity for the water treatment fa- cility and the lighting is supplied by a photo- voltaic system, which is supplemented by a small power-heat-unit when necessary. The hut is equipped with a Siemens facility au- tomation system that takes weather fore- casts into account, enabling it to cut energy costs by up to one third. sw 13 Masters of Sustainability The Economist Intelligence Unit conducted a study to find out which European cities had done their „green“ homework best. The top markets went to Copenhagen, Oslo and Stockholm 20 To Petit Noir without a Driver Paris has one of the world’s most dense subway networks. New technologies from Siemens are helping city residents to reach their destinations even more quickly. 21 A CO 2 -free Future Cities today consume 75 percent of the world’s energy. They are also responsible for 80 percent of greenhouse gas emissions. Yet many existing technologies can help us make great strides toward CO 2 -free cities. 24 Wet Labor In Singapore, clean water is at the top of the agenda. Companies from around the world come to this small city-state to test their treatment innovations. This is also where Siemens coordinates its worldwide research in this field. 27 Frugal Airports Airports are the biggest energy consumers in large cities. However, relatively simply technologies can be deployed to significantly re- duce this energy consumption. Highlights 2020 Municipal manager John Gardiner is an expert on the efficiency of urban infra struc- tures. In response to questions from a stu- dent, he explains how the city they live in has dramatically reduced its energy con- sumption while also enhancing the quality of life. His apartment, which is also an example of efficiency, is equipped with energy-saving appliances and a multimedia display made of organic LEDs. Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2007 9 J ennifer, you’ll just have to stay for dinner,” says John Gardiner, looking over the edge of his glass. “I’m expecting a couple of important people who can contribute to our discussion on environmentally friendly urban planning.” “Thanks for the invitation,” replies Jennifer Miles, a student of applied ecology who had approached John after he gave a presentation at an international conference on energy effi- ciency. She had asked him a few questions, and he had spontaneously invited her to his apartment — in order to continue their inter- esting scientific discussion. “You wanted to tell me how you managed to more than halve en- ergy consumption,” Jennifer prompts. “Saving energy is very important, but it’s not every- thing,” John replies. “A city shouldn’t sacrifice any of its charm in the process. Its inhabitants have to enjoy living there.” John walks over to the panorama window. “Some 800,000 people live in my neighbor- hood. For years now, it’s been the most popu- Infrastructures | Scenario 2020 Talk of the Town It’s June 2020. Municipal ma- nager John Gardiner is explai- ning to a visiting student how he has improved the quality of life in his urban neighbor- hood while cutting energy consumption in half. 8 Pictures of the Future | Green Cities Parking guidance system Building technology LEDs and OLEDs Power plant technology Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009; Spring 2010 11 to tackle the most urgent environmental chal- lenges. These include improvements to local pub- lic transport, refurbishment of buildings, and re- newal of power and water infrastructures. Yet the battle to limit climate change could be fought most effectively in large population centers. Cities already account for 75 percent of the energy con- sumed worldwide and are responsible for 80 per- cent of greenhouse gas emissions. Today, ar- chitects such as Libeskind see a gradual change in attitude. “There’s a rethink taking place,“ he says. “Municipal authorities are now looking at more sustainable ways of shaping rapid urban- ization. That creates a lot of potential for inno- vation.“ The HSBC bank estimates that around 15 percent of current measures to stimulate the econ- omy worldwide are going into green infrastructure projects such as energy-efficient building systems. In Europe, there’s a particularly great need for green and liveable cities, as there already live 73 percent of the population in cities — compared to around 47 percent in China. The primary chal- lenge for European metropolises is therefore to make existing infrastructures more energy effi- cient and environmentally compatible. A study by Moran Stanley Investment Management es- timates the costs for the renewal of the water sup- ply up to 4.800 billions € in Europe until 2030 — beyond 1.000 billion € for energy supply and about 3.000 billion € for streets and tracks. In a report commissioned by Siemens, research and consulting company Economist Intelligence Unit has investigated which European cities are particularly progressive in terms of sustainabili- ty. “Heading the European Green City Index“ (p.13) is Copenhagen (p.16), followed by Stockholm, learn that life in confined spaces and sustainability are not mutually exclusive,” says U.S. architect and urban planner Daniel Libeskind. “Combining the two is currently the biggest challenge facing urban development.“ In fact, many of today’s megacities are seem- ingly endless concrete jungles that continue to devour space and resources. Forecasts indicate that the number of megacities - those with at least ten million inhabitants — will increase from 22 to 26 by 2015. The majority of these are to be found in emerging and developing countries, which absorb almost the overall growth of the world’s population between 2010 and 2030 — about 1.3 billion people. Particularly in those countries sustainability hasn’t always been as- signed top priority in the past. Here, the au- thorities often have limited means at their disposal I t would be difficult to imagine a greener city. Here, the inhabitants all live in one gigantic building that blends in perfectly with its imme- diate environment. Construction materials are all locally produced and fully biodegradable. A sophisticated arrangement of gangways, ven- tilation shafts, and layers of insulation ensures an agreeable climate inside, even when out- door temperature variations are extreme. What’s more, it does so without having to con- sume a single kilowatt- hour of energy. In fact, the building is situated in such a way that only its narrow side catches the midday sun, thus reducing the effects of solar heating. Deep within the structure itself, residents tend huge gardens, which provide food for the entire city. Here, the sum total of the greenhouse gases produced by the population is merely the re- sult of their digestive processes. Sounds like science fiction? For termites and other insects, it’s been a reality since the begin- ning of time. These ingenious creatures are veritable masters of green urban planning. Their nests, which can grow as tall as seven meters, not only provide a home to millions of fellow insects; they are also extremely energy-efficient and built in total harmony with nature. In this respect, at least, termites are far ahead of us. “We need to Infrastructures | Scenario 2020 lar of the city’s 20 districts. And from up here it’s clear why people like it so much.” Jennifer nods. “Do you know where most energy was being wasted ten years ago?” asks John. “In power plants?” Jennifer answers. “Back then they had much lower efficiency ratings, and lots of energy was lost in the form of heat.” “Al- most everyone gets that question wrong,” says John, smiling. “A lot more energy was wasted in buildings due to poor insulation. People vir- tually threw fuel out the window. In those days, heating systems accounted for 80 per- cent of household energy consumption! Build- ings were old, smart building technologies were practically nonexistent, there were hardly any combined heat and power plants — and fuel cell technology wasn’t affordable.” “And what did you do about it?” “Financial incentives,” John answers. “For one thing, car- bon dioxide emissions have been taxed for a long time now. That initially brought some re- lief to the homeowners and property owners who had modernized their buildings early on. And we introduced stricter regulations for new buildings. Then too, as a municipal manager I’ve strongly emphasized performance con- tracting.” “What’s that?” asks Jennifer. “We ap- pointed a team of energy savings detectives. They look at all energy users in private house- holds, businesses and public buildings, and make recommendations on modernization, which they also implement. The biggest ener- gy guzzlers were motors and ventilation and air-conditioning technology. Today we mostly use energy-saving motors, and ventilation sys- tems now have smart regulation systems. That cuts energy consumption by more than half.” “How did you get industry on board? Didn’t it cost a lot?” asks Jennifer. “That too is a miscon- ception,” answers John. “Of course invest- ments are necessary. But they’re usually bal- anced out quickly by the resulting savings. By the way, that’s ideal for local authorities, which usually have tight budgets.” “I can see a power plant in the distance,” says Jennifer. “In my courses I learned that power plants have become increasingly effi- cient over the last 30 years.” “That’s right,” says John. “And thanks to the savings, we were able to revise our requirements planning downward and close down older power plants with high emission levels. When we needed new power plants, we made sure there was a mix of geot- hermal energy, wind energy and conventional technology. We also ensured that our suppliers installed the best technology available. Effi- ciency wasn’t our only criterion for the tur- bines; we also had to fulfill strict noise regula- tions. Nowadays, people living near a gas turbine plant hardly notice anything. Our aim was not only to be the world’s most energy- efficient city — we also wanted to provide our citizens with the best possible quality of life.” John leans back in his chair. “I’ve also made that a top priority here in my apartment,” he says. “Take the lighting, for example. You have no idea how important lighting is for creating a sense of well-being. That OLED light panel over there is also my home movie theater. And the ceiling has a luminescent screen where I can make a romantic sunset appear every evening. You really must stay for dinner.” “Um...could be difficult, but now that you mention lighting, were you able to save energy there too?” asks Jennifer, walking toward the window. “Yes,” says John. “Thanks to LEDs, which need less than a fifth of the electricity required by incandescent bulbs or halogen lamps. The price of these tiny light sources has fallen significantly. They’re so economical and have such long lifespans that today we’re even inserting them into pedestrian pathways to ensure safety. I’ve got a few of them here in the columns and the furniture...” “Wow,” says Jennifer with a polite smile. “And what about road traffic? That was always the second biggest energy consumer, wasn’t it?” “Here we used a two-pronged strategy,” lectures John. “First, we used taxes and emis- sions certificates to promote hybrid and elec- tric cars. Then we expanded the public trans- portation system significantly. We also converted the entire fleet of city buses so that they could run on hybrid diesel engines — but that was just a symbolic measure. The buses and the subway system accounted for only one per- cent of the city’s total energy consumption.” “And what was the second step?” asks Jen- nifer. “Efficient traffic management,” answers John. “Of course, passenger car traffic has de- creased considerably, thanks to our outstand- ing subway system and the tolls on city traffic, but lots of commuters and suppliers still come here by car. But now we inform drivers about congestion risks while they’re still on beltways. Automatic guidance systems then direct them through the city to parking garages.” Jennifer’s cell phone rings, interrupting John’s enthusiastic lecture. “Hi, Mike,” Jennifer greets the caller and a smile lights up her face. “O.K., great, I’ll come down right away,” she says and folds up her phone. “John, what you’ve just said is absolutely true. The auto- matic guidance system directed my boyfriend to a free parking space right in front of your building. I asked him to pick me up.” She shakes hands with John and puts her half- empty glass on the counter. “Thanks for the drink and all the information. Bye!” Norbert Aschenbrenner 10 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2007 Urban Nature More and more people are moving to cities, which now account for 80 percent of greenhouse gas emissions. To steer this rapid urbanization toward a greener future, major cities are increasingly turning to new, energy-efficient technologies. | Trends Termite towers (left) have been examples of sustainable architecture for millions of years. The cities of the future are set to follow nature’s lead, as here, in a vision of Hong Kong’s vertical farms. Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2010 13 question gives us ample reason to take a closer look at Europe’s major cities. What efforts are they making to conserve resources? How are they try- ing to prevent environmental damage, reduce CO 2 emissions, and maintain urban areas as places worth living in? What exemplary environmental protection projects are they carrying out? To answer these questions, Siemens com- missioned the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), an independent research and consulting firm, to compare the environmental performance of 30 major cities in 30 European countries. From Athens to Zagreb, from Ljubljana to Istanbul, and from Oslo to Kiev, the study targeted the largest cities in the countries in question, in most cas- es their capitals. In order to illustrate their envi- ronmental and climate protection performance and objectives, each of the cities was assessed on the basis of 30 indicators divided into eight categories: CO 2 Emissions, Energy, Buildings, Transportation, Water, Air, Waste/Land Use, and Environmental Governance. The methodology for the study was developed by the EIU in cooper- ation with independent urban experts and Siemens. “The result is the European Green City Index — a ranking of the most important Euro- pean cities that is unique in terms of its broad scope,” says James Watson, managing editor of the study. “The European Green City Index provides in- sights into the strengths and weaknesses of each city,” says Stefan Denig, project manager at Siemens. “In this manner, it supports the efforts of these cities to develop more effective climate protection measures, and it also helps with pri- oritization of environmental activities.” Most important, however, is the fact that the study al- lows the cities to learn from each other, some- thing that is well worth the effort. Whether it’s Europe’s largest biomass power plant in Vienna, the continent’s most modern offshore wind power facility in Denmark, the recycling lottery system in Ljubljana, free rental bikes in Paris, land- fills with methane production facilities in Istan- bul, or buses equipped with systems that cause traffic lights to turn green faster in Tallinn, the T he facts speak for themselves: Half of the world’s population lives in cities, and in Eu- rope, where urbanization is even further ad- vanced, 73 percent of the population are city- dwellers. This situation has significant environ- mental consequences because urban centers ac- count for 75 percent of global energy con- sumption and 80 percent of the greenhouse gas emissions generated by human activity. Cities thus offer the potential of playing a greater role than ever in the battle against climate change. How are cities dealing with this responsibility? The substances such as methanol, which could be used as fuels. Organic light emitting diodes, Osram resear - chers are going to work on, could once be even used as exterior windows in buildings – the trans- parent tiles, enlightening itself, would allow sun- light in during the day and then emit light at night. Meanwhile, other visionary technologies are already in use. In the city of Regensburg, Ger- many, for example, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the street lighting is now provided — as of the end of 2009 — by highly efficient LEDs supplied by Siemens’ Osram subsidiary, which use only around half as much power as conventional street lamps (p.34)). Further more: In many cities around the globe, Siemens is equipping traffic light systems with state-of-the-art light-emitting diode (LED) technology that consumes 80 to 90 percent less electricity than conventional traffic lights, and also lasts at least ten times longer. The investment pays off, as a large city with around 700 intersections can save €1.2 million each year in energy costs just by replacing the lights. In this era of tight budgets, LED traffic lights offer a per- fect example of how ecological and economic goals can be achieved simultaneously. Technically, cities could therefore soon be en- ergy-saving champions. But sustainability contains more than just energy-saving technology. Solu- tions for a sustainable transport have to be es- tablished, too — for example for the foodstuff- transport. Today, oranges end up not only in local markets but often on supermarket shelves 1,000 km away. On the way there, they produce tons of CO 2 . According to scientists such as Dickson De- spommier, the time has come for city planners not least of all to turn to the example of termites in the long term in order to ensure sustainable urban development. In harmony with nature, sky- scrapers in the megacities of the future would then be able to serve as tremendous greenhouses in which vegetables, fruits, grains, and poultry are grown exclusively for local use. Florian Martini/Sebastian Webel Infrastructures | Trends Oslo (p.18), and Vienna. The Danish capital owes its top ranking to a host of energy-saving and cli- mate-protection measures, including an efficient district heating system, the use of wind power, and the introduction of electrically-powered buses in local public transport. These are elements of a plan by municipal authorities to turn Co pen ha gen into a completely CO 2 -free city by the year 2025. Why it Pays to be Green.The example on Copenhagen illustrates that environment and the economy need not be mutually exclusive. On the contrary, energy efficiency measures generally pay for themselves quickly — above all in the field of building technology and urban public trans- port (p.30 onward). The following example illustrates the type of savings that modern infrastructure solutions can generate: The ratio between a country’s gross domestic product — adjusted to take pur- chasing power into account — and the energy it consumes is a rough measure of how effi- ciently that nation utilizes energy. If we set the value for Germany at 100, the U.S. and China have values of about 70 and Russia has 33. In other words, if the U.S., China, and Russia managed to use energy as efficiently as Germany, that alone would reduce worldwide energy use by 15 per- cent. The situation is similar for carbon dioxide emis- sions. Here the values are 147 for the U.S., 179 for China, and 291 for Russia. In other words, for the same amount of GDP, the U.S. generates 47 percent more CO 2 than Germany, China 79 per- cent more, and Russia 191 percent more. If these three countries succeeded in reducing their rel- ative emissions to Germany’s level, global CO 2 emissions would decline by approximately 20 per- cent. Cutting CO 2 .A study by McKinsey on infra- structure in London and a study by the Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, and Energy regarding a CO 2 -free future for Munich indicate what the necessary sustainable long-term in- vestment might look like. Siemens participated in both studies. In London, for example, it would be possible to use currently-available tech- nology to reduce energy consumption, water con- sumption, waste, and emissions by over 40 percent by 2025. What’s more, it would be pos- sible to do so without negatively impacting the lifestyles of the city’s residents. The investment required over 20 years would be equal to less than 1 percent of London’s annual economic out- put. Munich, for its part, could reduce its CO 2 emis- sions by 80 to 90 percent by 2058 (p.21). Here the emphasis is on measures for increasing en- ergy efficiency. The list includes heat insulation and heat recovery systems in buildings; the ex- ploitation of energy-saving electrical devices and lighting systems; more extensive use of bus- es, trains, and electric cars; the construction of combined heat and power plants and renewable energy facilities; and the transmission of low-CO 2 electricity over long distances. There’s certainly no lack of creative ideas be- side the solutions already mentioned about how to realize this vision of the green city. Siemens researchers have plans for a special fa- cade coating that exploits the principle of pho- tosynthesis. Like plants, buildings would then be able to convert carbon dioxide from the air into 12 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009; Spring 2010 Energy-efficient buildings offer the quickest route to reducing cities’ greenhouse gas emissions — here Madrid’s Torre de Cristal. But also LEDs, for example in traffic lights, or modern trains are energy savers. The metropolis of Munich could reduce its CO 2 emissions by 80 to 90 percent until 2058. | European Green City Index Copenhagen’s extensive energy conservation and climate protection efforts make it the most eco-friendly city in Europe. The city plans to become completely CO 2 -free by 2025. What Makes a City a Winner? The European Green City Index, a study by the Economist Intelligence Unit in cooperation with Siemens, published in December 2009, compares the environmental compatibility of 30 European cities. Top- ping the list is Denmark’s capital, Copenhagen. Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2010 15 level of affluence. For example, nine of the cities that made it to the Top 10 have above- average gross domestic products (GDPs). These cities not only have better, more envi- ronmentally-friendly infrastructures than are found in less affluent cities; they also are pur- suing more ambitious climate and environ- mental protection goals — a surprising result given the fact that affluence and a higher level of development are often associated with higher energy consumption and emissions. Getting Involved. But money isn’t everything, as Berlin and Vilnius impressively demonstrate. Despite having the ninth-lowest GDP of all 30 cities, Berlin still managed to finish eighth in the overall rankings, ahead of other large and more affluent cities such as Paris, London, and Madrid. Berlin also shared the best ranking in the Buildings category with Stockholm. Vilnius, with the sixth lowest GDP in the index, leaves all other cities behind in the Air category and has the best overall ranking (13th place) among the Eastern European cities. A lot of this has to do with people, however. The environmental protection efforts of individual urban residents add up. The more residents get involved, the better a city’s ranking in the Euro- pean Green City Index. This opens up interesting possibilities for getting urban populations involved when it comes to climate and environmental pro- tection. One option here is citizen participation as it’s being practiced in Brussels, which launched an initiative known as Quartier Durable (sustainable neighborhood). The initiative calls on residents to develop green ideas for their neighborhoods. The most promising ideas receive technical and financial support from the city. Raising awareness of environmental and cli- mate-change issues and providing information are also indispensable elements in the battle against climate change. “Many decision-makers still don’t realize that investments in energy-ef- ficient technologies tend to pay off financially,” says Denig. Whether it’s better building insulation, energy-saving lighting systems, or efficient building management systems — most of these technologies require a higher initial investment, but it’s one that pays off in the form of lower en- ergy costs throughout product life cycles (see Pic- tures of the Future, Spring 2009, p. 35). “What’s more,” says James Watson, “if most of the resi- dents of a city use public transport, conserve wa- ter and energy, and make ‘green’ purchasing de- cisions, the change in their behavior can add up to far greater results than what can be achieved with restrictive city regulations.” Karen Stelzner year. What’s more, environmental awareness is increasing. Of the 30 European cities studied, 26 have developed their own environmental plan. Half of the cities also have firm, feasible CO 2 -reduction targets. Copenhagen is planning to be completely CO 2 -free by 2025, and Stock- holm intends to do the same by 2050. Still, all the cities are facing major challenges. For ex- ample, on average, renewable energy sources account for only around seven percent of their total energy supply — well under the EU tar- get of 20 percent by 2020. Less than 20 per- cent of the waste in the cities studied is cur- rently recycled, and one of every four liters of water is lost through leaky pipes. Clearly, one of the key indicators determin- ing a city’s ranking in the index is its relative cent of Amsterdam’s drinking water is lost due to leaky pipes. In addition, the city’s ever-present water meters motivate users to conserve. Ams- terdam can also be proud of its high recycling rate — one of the reasons it finished first in Waste/Land Use. A total of 43 percent of all mu- nicipal waste, double the European average, is separated and recycled in the city — while most of the remainder is used to produce enough energy to supply 75 percent of Amster- dam households with electricity. Just one percent of the city’s waste is disposed of in landfills. ‘ Vilnius is the top-ranking European city in the Air category. In addition to its very low levels of exhaust gas and emissions, the Lithuanian cap- ital also emphasizes expansion of green areas and forests — within and outside the city. Vilnius’ top ranking in the Air category is also due to its small size and lack of heavy industry. Focus on Environmental Protection. Most of Europe’s major cities are already leaders in environmental performance. Nearly all the 30 cities studied — which together have almost 75 million inhabitants and average per capita CO 2 emissions of 5.2 metric tons — lie below the average emissions figure for all EU countries, which is 8.5 metric tons. The top city, Oslo, pro- duces only 2.2 metric tons of CO 2 per capita and Infrastructures | European Green City Index study focuses attention on interesting projects in each city that can serve as model for the others. Some Key Findings from the Study: ‘ Copenhagen is the greenest city in Europe (see p.16). The host city of the 15th UN Climate Change Conference held in December 2009 performs very well in all eight categories. Second place in the overall rankings is Stockholm, and Oslo finishes third (see p.18), followed by Vien- na and Amsterdam. ‘ In general, the Scandinavian cities earn the highest rankings in the index, which should come as no surprise, given that environmental pro- tection has been a popular cause in the region for many years. The fact that Scandinavian countries are very affluent helps as well, and cities in the region thus make the most of their financial pow- er to promote investments in environmental protection measures. Energy-saving buildings, ex- tensive public transport networks, and energy pro- duction from renewable sources, especially wind and water, are widespread throughout the region. ‘ Eastern European cities are generally rated be- low average in the Green Cities Index, with the highest-ranked city, Vilnius, the capital of Lithua- nia, finishing in 13th place in the overall index. This result is in part due to the relatively low gross domestic product in the region and its history — after all, environmental protection was consid- ered unimportant for the most part during the Communist era. The latter fact is reflected in the region’s high energy consumption, particularly by buildings and other outdated infrastructures. But Eastern European cities generally perform above average when it comes to local public trans- port. The percentage of people who use public transport to get to work in Kiev, for example, which took 30th place in the index, is the high- est among all the cities studied. ‘ The top-ranked city in the CO 2 Emissions and Energy categories is Oslo. The Norwegian capi- tal benefits here from its use of hydroelectric pow- er to generate energy. Overall, renewable sources already account for 65 percent of the energy con- sumed in Oslo, which is also pursuing the very ambitious goal of reducing CO 2 emissions by 50 percent by 2030. In addition, the city is encour- aging more extensive use of district heating sys- tems and hybrid and electric vehicles. Oslo also operates a climate and energy fund financed by means of a local electricity tax. The fund has been used to support a large number of energy effi- ciency projects over the last 20 years. ‘ First place in the Buildings category is shared by Berlin and Stockholm. Following German re- unification, Berlin modernized a large share of its buildings in line with stringent energy efficien- cy guidelines. The result is CO 2 savings of between one and 1.5 metric tons per year in modernized buildings. Berlin also launched a public-private energy partnership program for its public build- ings, with companies including Siemens. The pri- vate firms in these partnerships assume the mod- ernization costs and pay back their up-front in- vestments based on the energy savings achieved. Stockholm stands out by virtue of its exempla- ry energy-efficiency guidelines and construction of houses and residential areas that use very lit- tle energy. These houses have a total energy con- sumption of less than 2,000 kilowatt-hours per year, despite the city’s cold climate. ‘ Stockholm also came out on top in the Trans- portation category. Thanks to a perfectly struc- tured bicycle path network, 68 percent of the city’s residents ride their bikes to work, or walk — three times the average of other European cities. An additional 25 percent of the population uses the public transport system. The Swedish capital also relies on state-of-the-art technology for its pub- lic transport system, which includes ethanol-pow- ered buses and intelligent traffic guidance sys- tems that ensure smooth traffic flows. ‘ Amsterdam led the field in the Water and Waste/Land Use categories. Average water con- sumption in the 30 cities studied is more than 100 cubic meters per capita per year, but residents of the Dutch capital only need 53 cubic meters. This is in part due to low water losses — only 3.5 per- 14 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2010 Scandinavia has invested in environmental protection for years — resulting in top rankings in the Index. Gross Domestic Product: A Major Factor Affecting the Ranking of almost all European Cities 10.000 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 European Green City Index Score 20.000 30.000 40.000 50.000 60.000 70.000 80.000 Vilnius Berlin Madrid Riga Prague Ljubljana Athens Warsaw Lisbon Bratislava Budapest Istanbul Zagreb Belgrade Bucharest Sofia Kiev Vienna Stockholm Zürich Amsterdam Paris Dublin London Helsinki Copenhagen Oslo Per capita GDP (euros) Value Norm Tallinn Rome Brussels Amsterdam, Netherlands London, United Kingdom Paris, France Dublin, Ireland Copenhagen, Denmark Oslo, Norway Stockholm, Sweden Tallinn, Estonia Vilnius, Lithuania Warsaw, Poland Helsinki, Finland Riga, Latvia Istanbul, Turkey Kiev, Ukraine Brussels, Belgium Zürich, Switzerland Madrid, Spain Lisbon, Portugal Belgrade, Serbia Berlin, Germany Prague, Czech Republic Vienna, Austria Bratislava, Slovakia Bucharest, Romania Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Zagreb, Kroatien Rome, Italy Sofia, Bulgaria Athens, Greece 21 18 12 14 25 22 29 27 26 19 17 20 24 4 8 28 3 7 23 15 13 30 16 5 9 6 1 2 11 10 Ranking of Europe’s- Greenest Cities In Stockholm, 68 percent of residents ride their bicycles to work. Berlin (right) modernized most of its buildings in accordance with strict energy efficiency criteria after 1990. Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2010 17 alistic. While CO 2 emissions in many other cities have increased, Copenhagen’s — already low to begin with — have been cut by 20 percent since 1990. The package of measures adopted by Copen- hagen also extends to transport. Buses on the city’s downtown routes, for example, are now electrically powered, which reduces exhaust fumes and noise levels in the narrow streets. The city also intends to fit its entire fleet of vehicles, 600 in all, with electric or hybrid drive systems. And all of Copenhagen’s publicly-owned real es- tate is to be brought up to the latest energy-ef- ficiency standards. Copenhagen’s approved plan of action for achieving carbon dioxide neutrality by 2025 in- cludes construction of a new subway ring, which will connect the southern area of the city to the rail network by 2018. Already, almost every- one in the city lives within 350 meters of a pub- lic transport station. In addition, a former harbor area is to make way for a new district by the name of Nordhavn, with homes for 40,000 people. Housing is to be built according to high standards of energy efficiency, and the new development itself will provide a balanced mix of residential, office, and retail space. The result will be a com- pact neighborhood in which people will be able to make many of their trips on foot. More LEDs and Fewer Cars. Lighting is an important part of every city’s carbon dioxide footprint. With this in mind, Siemens sub- sidiary Osram has equipped a refurbished commercial building in downtown Copen- hagen with light emitting diodes (LEDs). The new lighting will not only trim electric bills, but provide an intimate atmosphere for cultural Committed to Wind Power. Aside from rely- ing on its combined heat and power plant, Copenhagen also meets some of its electricity needs with wind energy, which today meets, on average, one-fifth of the country’s power requirements. The Middelgrunden offshore wind farm, located a few kilometers from the city, has been up and running for almost ten years now. The farm’s 20 wind turbines were manufactured by Bonus, today Siemens Wind Power. Each of these turbines has a capacity of two megawatts at full load. Collectively, the farm can supply around 40,000 households with ecofriendly electricity. Also nearby are the 48 turbines of the Lillgrund offshore wind farm, which was commissioned in 2008. The turbines are clearly visible from the Öre- sund Bridge, which spans the strait separating Denmark and Sweden. Lillgrund has a total ca- pacity of 110 megawatts. Siemens installed not only the wind turbines but also an associated off- shore transformer station, which rises above the waves like a huge drum. The transformer collects power from the turbines and feeds it into Swe- den’s national grid, which is connected to Den- mark’s. Copenhagen now has plans to build more wind farms, in the city and in the Baltic. “We have no intention of resting on our lau- rels,” said Ritt Bjerregaard (top left) , Copenhagen’s mayor until the end of 2009, at the presentation of the European Green City Index . She went on to announce an ambitious goal: “We intend to turn Copenhagen into a CO 2 -free city by the year 2025.” In concrete terms, carbon dioxide-free means two things. First, reducing the current emissions level of 2.5 million metric tons of carbon dioxide a year by 1.15 million metric tons by 2025 with measures that either have been already imple- mented or are scheduled. Secondly, offsetting the remaining CO 2 emissions by means of projects such as new wind farms and the planting of woodlands. As the improvements of recent years show, this ambitious target looks quite re- events planned for the location. A total of 144 LED lamps have been installed on the first floor. Together, the lamps consume 190 watts — only about half as much as conventional halogen spotlights. In the same part of town, lighting in one street is also provided by LED street lamps from Osram. During the Climate Change Conference, low- energy lighting projects could be found through- out the city, including a Christmas tree in front of City Hall (p. 16). The tree was illuminated by several hundred LEDs that were connected to ex- ercise bikes. The faster people pedaled, the brighter the lights became. During her opening speech, Mayor Bjerregaard jokingly referred to it as “the world’s greenest Christmas tree.” Copenhagen has plenty to do by 2025. It is es- sential, Bjerregaard explains, that city dwellers back environmental measures. “A lot of our CO 2 emissions are caused by the people of Copen- hagen themselves. If we want to reach our tar- get, city residents will have to change how they live. Publicity campaigns are one way to en- courage this, but we also want to make sure the people are directly involved in the development of solutions.” With one-fifth of all CO 2 emissions caused by transport, the plan is to encourage even more residents to use their bikes. The city is thus looking to improve conditions for cyclists even fur- ther, with facilities such as covered bike paths and bike parks. In fact, as of last fall, there are even special warning lights set into downtown roads to alert truck drivers turning right to the presence of cyclists in their rearview blind spot. If a cyclist approaches a the blind spot, the lamps start to flash. In other words, cyclists are taken very se- riously in Copenhagen — another good reason for switching to two wheels.Tim Schröder Infrastructures | Copenhagen 16 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2010 I f there’s one instantly recognizable sign of Copenhagen’s green credentials its the vast number of bicycles on its streets. A considerable number of the city’s 520,000 residents are avid bicyclists, even when clouds are low and the rain sets in. The city’s broad cycling lanes literally teem with bicycles, bikes with trailers, and even sporty-looking tricycles complete with trans- port box for carrying a child passenger or pack- ages. “If you look at photographs from the 1930s, you see a very similar picture,” says Pe- ter Elsman, deputy finance director of the city of Copenhagen. “Back then, not many people were able to afford a car; but today, having a bicycle is just part of the Copenhagen way of life. Almost 40 percent of the city’s population travels by bike every day to their place of work or study.” The bicycles are a perfect symbol of Copen- hagen, host of the 2009 UN Climate Change Con- ference, and of its current standing as Europe’s greenest city. This honor was conferred back in December, during the UN conference, when Siemens and the UK’s EconomistIntelligence Unit presented the European Green City Index (see p. 17). Copenhagen’s top position is, of course, a result of more than bicycles. It was made possi- ble by a package of measures that have placed the city just ahead of Stockholm, Sweden, in the green ranking. What makes Copenhagen the leader of the pack? For starters, its district heating system is unique worldwide. The system is very efficient and provides heating for 98 percent of all house- holds by means of a large combined heat-and- power (CHP) plant, rather than having each household produce its own heat. All in all, while eliminating the need for private heating systems, the city’s CHP plant is 90 percent efficient. Copenhagen started laying twin pipes for su- perheated steam as far back as 1925, initially to supply hospitals with steam to sterilize their op- erating instruments. Today, the city has 1,500 kilo- meters of twin pipes transporting superheated steam and hot water from the CHP plant to house- holds and back again. For many years, the plant, which also serves several communities in the surrounding area, was fired with coal. No longer. One of the cogener- ation units is now fired with environmentally- friendly bio material, and a second is scheduled to be converted to this fuel in the near future. “We intend to turn Copenhagen into a carbon dioxide- free city by the year 2025.” Support for public transportation, energy-efficient buildings, and a focus on wind power have turned Denmark’s capital to the winner of the European Green City Index. Wind, Wood & Two Wheels With its first-place ranking in the European Green City Index, Copenhagen outshines 29 other major municipalities. Its title as Europe’s most environmentally-friendly city is the result of a wide range of climate-protection measures, such as pellet-powered district heating, wind parks, bike paths and integrated public transit. Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2010 19 per day for a year now — and that eliminates many people’s need to drive.” Another Oslo green milestone is near the city center just a few minutes from the Jern- banetorget subway station. Resembling a giant iceberg transformed into concrete, the new opera house rises up out of the harbor. The im- posing building, which opened in 2008, is one of the most energy-efficient opera houses in the world — a feat made possible in part by an innovative lighting system concept that relies on light-emitting diodes (LEDs). “We equipped the entire concert hall with LEDs — there’s nothing else like it in the world,” says Cato Jo- hannessen, who is managing the project for Osram Norway. Johannessen is particularly proud of the eight-ton chandelier that hangs 16 meters above the seats. “That chandelier contains 8,100 LEDs,” he says. “We’ve also got special dimmers for individually adapting the LED modules to the most diverse lighting require- ments.” The small LEDs are highly efficient, with an output of 45 lumens per watt as com- pared to a maximum of 12 lumens per watt for conventional incandescent lamps. At maxi- mum brightness, the 8,100 LEDs consume just 14 kilowatts. They are as powerful as they are robust, says Johannessen. “On average, only one out of every million LEDs fails during its six-year service life, and so far we haven’t had to replace a single unit,” he says. Johannessen believes Oslo will step up its use of energy-efficient lighting in the future. Small and flexible LEDs in particular offer great potential with regard to climate protection — and not just in magnificent buildings like the new opera house. “Oslo has drawn up initial plans to show that LEDs can also make street- lights greener,” he says.Florian Martini above ground, which negatively impacts its en- ergy balance, especially in winter. “The heating system still accounts for nearly 20 percent of required energy — so we need to keep work- ing on that,” says Hasselknippe. Engineers at Siemens Mobility in Vienna, Austria, are look- ing at ways to reduce the energy consumption of heating and climate control systems. “We’ve developed a heating control unit that regulates the system in line with real-time require- ments,” says project manager Dr. Walter Struckl. “The unit is linked to a carbon dioxide sensor that determines how many passengers are in a car based on the principle that the CO 2 content rises with the number of people pres- ent.” According to Struckl, the unit can heat up air from the outside in line with actual heating needs. By contrast, conventional systems con- tinually heat subway cars, regardless of whether or not passengers are on board. “Our technology should generate heat-energy sav- Infrastructures | Oslo M ost people wouldn’t be thrilled about having to get underneath a subway train. But Tor Hasselknippe views it as a wel- come challenge. Every day Hasselknippe, a technical manager at Oslo’s Vognselskap pub- lic transport company, inspects the Siemens trains that since 2006 have gradually been re- placing the more than 30-year-old subway trains previously used in the Norwegian capi- tal. At the maintenance center, the subway cars are jacked up on rail platforms in a vast hall. Technicians work on the underbodies and put the finishing touches on the cars before sending them out into the city’s approximately 84-kilometer-long subway network. “This is one of the electric motors,” Hasselknippe says, pointing to a large rectangular block under- neath one of the cars. “The complete drive unit of a train has an output of 1,680 kilowatts and is also very energy-efficient. When the driver brakes, the motor goes into generator mode and sends the electricity it produces back into the grid.” Hasselknippe then knocks on the white out- er wall of a car. “The entire shell is made of alu- minum,” he says. “This makes the train ex- tremely light.” As a result, the new subway trains consume 30 percent less energy than the old ones. “And that’s not all,” says Has- selknippe as he climbs into a passenger cabin and runs his hands over the seat covers. “These textiles are made of a very sophisticated mate- rial that not only meet all fire protection re- quirements but can also be recycled — which is true of 95 percent of the components in these trains. All of this makes our subway one of most sustainable systems in the world.” Heating on Demand. It isn’t always easy to combine sustainability with the effective oper- ation of the new subway. For one thing, around 80 percent of Oslo’s subway system is 18 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2010 ings of up to 30 percent,” says Struckl. Sustain- ability and energy efficiency have been top pri- orities in Oslo for some time. In 2002 the city, which has a population of 550,000, launched its ambitious Urban Ecology Program to cut pollutant emissions and improve its citizens’ quality of life. Among other things, the associ- ated plan calls for a 50 percent reduction of Oslo’s 1990 greenhouse gas emission levels by 2030. This green program is already producing results. A sustainability study of 30 European cities for the European Green City Index (p. 17) ranked Oslo third behind Stock holm and Copenhagen. The study even gave the Norwe- gian capital a top ranking for CO 2 emissions, as the city produces only slightly more than two tons of the greenhouse gas per capita — main- ly because Oslo covers around 60 percent of its electricity requirement with power from Nor- way’s large hydroelectric plants. But there’s still work to be done, so the Ur- ban Ecology Program, scheduled to run until 2014, also focuses on expanding the local pub- lic transport network. Studies have shown that road traffic is responsible for the lion’s share of Oslo’s CO 2 emissions. Despite high tolls for en- tering the city center, some 360,000 vehicles continue to drive through Oslo every day. The city government believes that improving the bus and subway system will get more com- muters to leave their cars at home. Indeed, the new subway system has already demonstrated that the government may be right. “Polls show that passengers are extremely satisfied,” says Hasselknippe. “Since the introduction of the new trains, ridership has increased by around 10 percent to 73 million in 2008.” He thinks even more people will switch to the subway in the future, especially now that intervals be- tween trains have been cut in half. “Trains have been running every seven minutes 20 hours Green Milestones According to a study conducted for the European Green City Index, Oslo is one of the greenest cities in Europe. The city’s sustainable approach is made possible by numerous environmentally- friendly technologies, some of them from Siemens. The latter include an economical subway and high-efficiency lighting in the opera house. Hydroelectric power plants and an energy-efficient new metro have helped reduce Oslo’s per capita CO 2 emissions to just two tons. Small things such as an LED chandelier in the city’s Opera House also help. Paragon of Efficiency Even a country like Norway can become greener.Trondheim lies 500 kilometers north of Oslo. With 170,000 inhabitants, it is the country’s third-largest city. In 2001 local au- thorities declared war on CO 2 . Since then, the city has introduced a range of green measures — for which it was commended by Norway’s Environment Ministry in 2008. The target is a 20 percent reduction in CO 2 emissions com- pared to 1991 levels by the year 2012. To help to achieve this goal, Trondheim authorities in- tend to expand local public transport and improve the energy efficiency of the city’s buildings. There is a lot of potential in the latter area according to a joint study conducted by Siemens, the city au- thorities, and the environmental organization Bellona as part of a pilot project entitled “Energy Smart City.” The study looks at ways to save energy in the areas of residential and commercial real estate, street lighting, the power grid, and industry. It shows that by using technology already available, Trondheim could cut its energy consumption of five terawatt-hours per year by 22 percent without compromising the quality of life of its citizens. “We will realize most of these potential savings in one or two years,” says Rita Ottervik, Mayor of Trondheim. A good way of cutting power consumption is to install new building management systems that intelligently control lighting, heating, and ventila- tion systems. In Trondheim’s office properties alone, this would save as much electricity as is con- sumed over the same period by 4,000 households. Street lighting also offers big savings potential, despite the fact that the 22,000 streetlamps are already very efficient. Dimming them by 50 percent, for example, would cut their annual power consumption by over five gigawatt-hours (GWh) and save around €700,000 a year. Even greater savings could be achieved by upgrading the city’s power grid, where every year five percent of the electricity is lost as heat while being transmitted to the consumer. Efficient high-voltage systems could cut these losses by as much as 50 GWh, thus saving around €3 million a year. According to Ottervik, before the installation of energy-efficient technology can start, it is essential to ensure that Trondheim’s inhabitants back the measures. “We have to encour- age our citizens to save energy,” she says. Here too, Trondheim is on the right path. The project has been publicized in a wide-ranging campaign since Fall 2009. Energy saving is being promoted in the media, at symposia, in school competitions, on buses, and in messages printed on roadways. Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009 21 the question that has occupied researchers from Germany’s Wuppertal Institute for Cli- mate, Environment and Energy with the sup- port of Siemens in 2009. Their study “Munich — Paths toward a Carbon-free Future” presents a detailed look at what the city can do to mini- mize its environmental footprint between now and 2058. The study concludes that it is possi- ble to transform a city like Munich into a practi- cally carbon-free area. This, it says, will require close cooperation between municipal authori- ties, energy companies, and the population, along with a clear commitment to efficient technologies, ranging from energy-saving re- frigerators to power plants, as well as a general willingness to invest in greater use of renew- able energy sources such as wind, solar power, biomass, and geothermal energy. Cutting CO 2 by 80 to 90 Percent. The study sketches two alternative scenarios for Munich. The so-called “target scenario” adopts the very optimistic view that the vision of a carbon-free future can be more or less achieved over the 50-year span under consideration in the study. Another scenario — the so-called bridge scenario — is somewhat more conservative and assumes, for example, that increased effi- ciency in power generation will be offset by rises in demand and that individual transporta- tion will remain similar to its present-day form. Nevertheless, the results are impressive in both cases. The optimistic target scenario predicts lighting system from Siemens’ subsidiary Os- ram was installed. The system comprises around 1,000 lamps with sensors that deter- mine how much light is actually required and then tailor the lamps’ output accordingly. The lamps have replaced conventional ceiling light- ing that provided each workstation with con- stant illumination throughout the day. When- ever employees leave their offices for a longer period, the lights now go off automatically. Similarly, when it’s cloudy and less natural light enters through the windows, the lamps auto- matically brighten. Independent measurements have shown that energy consumption for lighting has fallen by as much as 70 percent compared to before the refurbishment. Bernard Balia, former head of fa- cility management at OECD, was responsible for the project. “The system makes us more adapt- able. Instead of everyone having uniform light- ing, employees can now help to determine the right amount of light for their needs. And the sys- tem is economical, since lights only get switched on when they are actually needed,“ he says. Outside, on café terraces, patio heaters con- tinue to singe the Parisian air whether anyone is there or not. Perhaps one day they too will be fit- ted with sensors, allowing them to blaze into life only when actually needed. After all, when it comes to preserving the French way of life, some small sins should be permissible — if, that is, real crimes against the environment are avoided. Andreas Kleinschmidt Infrastructures | Paris I n Paris the air is burning — literally. As you stroll through the city, it’s impossible to miss the many small mushroom heaters blazing away on café terraces and inside poorly-insulated brasserie conservatories. Even though they only burn for a few hours a day during the chilly months of the year, each one of them generates as much car- bon dioxide per year as a mid-sized automobile. Yet who would be so mean as to forbid the Parisians to use their patio heaters? After all, when temperatures fall, how else can they enjoy a pe- tit noir outdoors, either after work or on the go? For many Parisians, saving energy is impor- tant but should not compromise the French way of life. Public transport is a good example of how this can work out. Here, too, comfort is the prime motivation, though there’s good reason for that. Only 20 percent of commuters travel by foot or bike, compared to 68 percent in Stockholm. At first that seems surprising. After all, there is a wide- spreadnetwork of bike paths in Paris, and autho - rities created a bike rental system in 2007, with 20,000 bikes at 1,450 automatic stations, all free of charge for the first 30 minutes. One of the main reasons Parisians prefer not to use pedal power is the superb subway system right at their doorstep. It is not only one of the densest metro networks in the world but also, at 214 kilometers, one of the longest. The first sta- tion opened in July 1900 to mark the World’s Fair. In fact, many of the stations are showing their age and can hardly cope with today’s rush-hour passenger volumes. One way of raising throughput is to reduce in- tervals between trains. This is now being done on Line 1 — the oldest and, with 750,000 pas- sengers a day, one of the most frequented routes — in a joint project between the Paris trans- port authority RATP and Siemens. In fact, Siemens has been supplying the Paris Metro lines with sig- naling technology and advanced driver assistance systems for the past 30 years. Now there are plans to introduce driverless trains on Line 1 — with Siemens technology. At present, stations are being fitted with glass walls to separate platforms from tracks. These will incorporate automatic doors that open to let pas- sengers safely enter trains. This will help to re- duce maintenance costs and cut the current in- tervals between trains from 105 to around 85 sec- onds, as well as increasing flexibility and reliability. Such fully automatic subway trains with Siemens- technology have been in service on Line 14 of the Paris Metro for 12 years. With an average speed of 40 km/h, it is substantially faster than the oth- er lines, which operate at around 25 km/h. Seventy Percent Less for Lighting. Energy saving continues after the daily Metro ride to work — at least for employees at the Parisian headquarters of the OECD, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Although parts of the building are 50 years old, it is now able to adapt automatically to prevailing weather conditions. In the course of general refurbishment, a Dali Multi intelligent 20 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2010 Fast Tracks, Bright Lights Paris has one of the world’s densest and oldest subway networks. Automation technology from Siemens is making the system more energy efficient. Meanwhile, light sensors are helping buildings to cut power consumption. The Metro is Paris’ most important mode of transport. Glass walls between platforms and trains and new Siemens driverless systems will increase throughput on overloaded lines. | Study of a Carbon-Free Munich sumption and 80 percent of greenhouse gases, not least carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). As such, they are storing up trouble for themselves, since ex- perts expect cities to be seriously affected by climate change. Shanghai, for example, is like- ly to suffer from storms and heavy rains, and Germany’s Federal Environment Agency pre- dicts that by the end of the century Munich will see a significant increase in the number of hot days and “tropical” nights each year. Is there any good news about cities? Well, yes. The very fact that they are not only the biggest culprits in climate change, but that they are so concentrated offers a good oppor- tunity to tackle the problems they cause, since the key levers for climate protection have their biggest impact here. The major metropolitan areas of the world are thus in a unique position to lead the way to more environmentally- friendly modes of living and doing business. How can a modern city, despite population growth, reduce carbon emissions without hav- ing to compromise on living standards or risk- ing a slowdown in economic growth? This is C ities are attractive places to live. They promise work, a vibrant cultural life, and a host of leisure activities. All of which is very true of Munich, Bavaria’s capital. From here, it’s only a short hop to go climbing or skiing in the Alps, to reach crystal-clear lakes, or to drive to Italy and the Mediterranean. Little wonder then that Munich is one of the few cities in Germany that is set to grow in the coming decades. Although an exception in Germany, the city is, however, very much in line with the trend toward ever-larger metropolitan areas. In the world’s newly industrializing and de- veloping countries people flock to cities in search of work and education and in hope of a better life. And in 2008 a watershed was reached. For the first time ever, half of the world’s population lived in cities. By 2050 this figure is forecast to grow to 70 percent. This will result in huge urban sprawls that consume resources and pollute environments. Although metropolitan areas cover only one percent of the earth’s surface, they are respon- sible for 75 percent of the world’s energy con- Munich’s Energy Requirements in 2008 CO 2 emissions from energy sector 8.2m t CO 2 per annum Losses resulting from power generation and transmission as well as energy consumption in the energy sector: 11.4 TWh = 30% Total energy requirements: 29.0 TWh per annum From coal 2.4m t From natural gas 3.2m t From crude oil 2.6m t Primary energy 40.4 TWh per annum Coal 7.4 TWh Space heating and process heat 7.5 TWh Electricity 4,3 TWh Space heating 9.5 TWh Electricity 2.5 TWh Electricity 0.3 TWh Natural gas 15.8 TWh Crude oil 9.7 TWh Renewables 1.0 TWh Trade + Industry 11.8 TWh Households 12.0 TWh Transportation 5.3 TWh Fuel 5.0 TWh 1 TWh = 3,6 PJ = 122.700 t SKE Nuclear power 6.5 TWh Paths to a Better Planet Cities are responsible for four fifths of all greenhouse emissions. That means that effective steps to cut emissions in urban areas can have profound effects on the environment. A new study based on the city of Munich shows how a major metropolitan area could make itself virtually carbon-free within a few decades. Source: City of Munich, 2008; Stadtwerke München; estimates by Wuppertal Institute, 2008 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009 23 othermal systems. The study assumes that electricity will be increasingly generated on a decentralized basis — for example, by CHP plants for individual areas of the city or even micro CHP units for individual buildings, which supply not only heat but also electricity for res- idents (Pictures of the Future, Fall 2008, p. 78). According to the study, if all the opportuni- ties to save electricity were rigorously exploit- ed — from stoplights to tumble driers — the power consumption of a city like Munich could be largely satisfied by renewable sources. The study assumes that the city will continue to ob- tain electricity from larger power plants in the region as well as further afield in Germany and abroad. Such power could be generated essen- tially by large offshore and onshore wind farms in northern Europe or by solar-thermal power plants in southern Europe or northern Africa and then transported to the cities of central Europe via low-loss HVDC transmission lines. Some of this power could also be gener- ated in low-carbon power plants equipped with technology for carbon capture and stor- age. Plugging Cars into the Picture. One of the most striking changes investigated by the study is the massive shift to electric cars. It is likely that by the middle of the century most car trips in the Munich area will be made in electric vehicles. For longer trips, people will probably still use hybrid or highly efficient diesel or gasoline cars that consume on aver- age less than five liters of fuel per 100 kilome- ters. The large number of electric vehicles in Munich will also become an important link within the power supply chain, helping to buffer fluctuating loads from photovoltaic and wind sources, whose output of electricity dif- fers according to the weather and the time of day. When power is plentiful (and therefore cheap), electric car batteries will serve as an in- termediate storage system. At times of high demand (and peak rates), they will feed some of their power back into the grid. At the same time, better town planning can help reduce the amount of traffic in Munich and therefore reduce its CO 2 emissions. Both scenarios are based on reduced travel require- costs of approximately €200 a year per inhabi- tant — around one third of an average annual gas bill. By 2058, however, this additional in- vestment would be offset by energy savings of between €1.6 and €2.6 billion per year, which translates into an annual sum of between €1,200 to €2,000 per inhabitant. The refur- bishment of existing and construction of new housing in line with the Passive House stan- dard would — according to the study — result in energy savings of more than €30 billion by 2058. Moreover, this scenario also applies to other areas, since the study comes to the con- clusion that measures designed to enhance ef- ficiency generally pay for themselves over their lifetime. Home Power. Of course, insulation is by no means the end of the story. More has to be done if CO 2 emissions are to be cut to almost zero. Greenhouse gas emissions can also be re- duced by the use of combined heat and power (CHP) systems. Such heating systems are par- ticularly efficient, since they utilize around nine tenths of the energy contained in their primary fuel. Both Munich scenarios also as- sume that the use of district heating will rise from the current figure of 20 percent to 60 percent. This is not an unrealistic proposition. In Copenhagen, for example, around 70 per- cent of all households are heated this way. Other measures designed to reduce CO 2 emissions include the use of economical elec- tric appliances and lighting as well as renew- able and low-carbon energy sources such as photovoltaic systems, solar collectors, and ge- also conform to this standard. This includes the use of not only the best insulation and vacu- um-insulated windows but also ventilation sys- tems that recover residual heat from the hous- es’ exhaust air before it is blown outside. Based on the above steps, the study finds that it should be possible to reduce heating re- quirements for existing buildings from the cur- rent figure of around 200 kilowatt-hours per square meter per annum (kWh/m 2 a) to be- tween 25 and 35 kWh/m 2 , while new housing will require only between 10 to 20 kWh/m 2 a. At the same time, new buildings are to be fitted with solar power systems, so that most of them will be able to cover their remaining energy requirements autonomously and even feed excess energy into the grid. In order to en- sure that the energy efficiency of most build- ings is raised to the requisite level over the next 50 years, the rate at which such refurbish- ment is being carried out must increase from the current figure of 0.5 percent to 2.0 percent per annum. This means that four times as many homeowners must implement such en- ergy improvements than is currently the case. The idea of improving the energy efficiency of a city like Munich on a more or less whole- sale basis over 50 years sounds like a major challenge. Yet such efforts are worthwhile. Al- though it is more expensive to build according to the Passive House standard than to imple- ment the Energy Conservation Act of 2007, the additional costs involved in such refurbish- ment and the construction of new housing would amount to around €13 billion for the entire city of Munich. That would mean extra Infrastructures | Study of a Carbon-Free Munich metric tons per capita. Both of the Munich sce- narios undercut this target substantially. The Munich study analyzes in detail which measures will achieve the greatest reduction in CO 2 emissions and whether they are economi- cal. Almost half of Munich’s CO 2 emissions are the result of energy used to heat the city’s homes and buildings. Improving the insulation of roofs, facades, and basements would thus yield significant savings. It is therefore crucial not to scrimp in this area. In fact, the study as- sumes that the refurbishment of existing hous- ing in Munich will conform to the Passive House standard and that all future housing will 22 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009 Improving the energy efficiency of buildings will cost €13 billion but result in energy savings of €30 billion. that through the implementation of compre- hensive efficiency measures the average CO 2 emissions per inhabitant can be curbed by around 90 percent to 750 kilograms per an- num by the middle of the century. The more conservative bridge scenario, on the other hand, results in a average CO 2 reduc- tion of almost 80 percent to approximately 1.3 metric tons. In comparison, on the basis of the IPCC World Climate Report of 2007, the Euro- pean Union’s environmental ministers came up with a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions worldwide by over 50 percent and thereby to an average figure of less than two Sources of Munich’s Energy Mix 0 Reference (2008) Target (2058) Bridge (2058) TWh per annum 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Total: 8.03 Total: 5.28 Total: 7.44 Coal-fired power plant with CCS Solar-thermal electricity generation Wind power on-/offshore Biomass Geothermal Hydroelectric Photovoltaic Decentralized CHP Centralized CHP 0.16 0.79 1.18 0.37 0.68 0.38 0.28 1.44 2.75 LPT electricity LPT biofuel LPT fuel (fossil) MIT electricity MIT biofuel MIT fuel (fossil) TWh per annum 0 Reference (2008) Target (2058) Bridge (2058) 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 Total: 4.32 Source: Wuppertal Institute, 2008 Power generation: Accounts for 40.3% of CO 2 emissions in Munich (2008) 40.3% Public transport: Accounts for 12.6% of CO 2 emissions in Munich (2008) 12.6% Munich’s Transport Energy Mix MIT: Motorized Individual Transport LPT: Local Public Transport CCS: Carbon Capture & Storage -54% -32% Total: 1.99 Total: 2.92 Percentage of CO 2 emissions in Munich (2008) resulting from heating of buildings: 46.5% 46.5% 20% 20% 60% 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 22% Total: 17.0 Source: Wuppertal Institute, 2008 Building Heating by Source TWh per annum Reference (2008) Target/Bridge (2058) 1% 77% District heating Decentralized CHP Direct supply of heat -79% Total: 3.5 CHP: Combined heat and power CO 2 Emissions by Sector Source: Estimate by Wuppertal Institute, 2008 Thousands of metric tons CO 2 p.a. 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 Target (2058) Bridge (2058) Reference (2008) -87% -79% Passenger transport Commercial transport Power and heat from CHP (coal) Power and heat from CHP (natural gas) Heat from CHP (natural gas) Power from CHP (natural gas) Power generation (coal with CCS) Direct heat generation (heating oil) Direct heat generation (natural gas) Source: Estimate by Wuppertal Institute, 2008 CO 2 Emissions Per Capita Annual CO 2 per capita (in kg) 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 Reference (2008) Target (2058) Bridge (2058) 6,549 -89% -80% 750 1,300 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2008 25 In June 2008, Singapore staged the first “In- ternational Water Week” exhibition that in the future will bring the entire industry together each year. During this year’s exhibition, the Sin- gapore government announced it was provid- ing US $3 million in research funding for the “Singapore Innovative Technology Challenge.” The goal was to find a technology capable of cutting in half the cost of converting seawater into drinking water. Many companies submit- ted concepts, with Siemens emerging as the winner. Instead of desalinating seawater by means of energy-intensive heating and vapor- izing processes, the Siemens concept involves channeling water through an electric field. This reduces energy consumption per cubic meter of water from the ten kilowatt hours (kWh) common at conventional facilities to just 1.5 kWh. Even the best of the previous technolo- gies based on reverse osmosis used twice this. “That’s a major breakthrough,” says the manager Lukas Loeffler. “Because of this development, we’ll be seeing more seawater desalination in the future.” Hungry Cannibals. Winning the Singapore Innovative Technology Challenge was a big boost for Siemens researchers at the Water Hub. “It serves as a confirmation by the world’s leading independent experts that Siemens is on the right track with its development proj- ects,” says Knauf, who is already preparing to address the next challenge. His researchers are now working on a new technique for an ener- gy-neutral and biological waste water treat- ment. The decomposition process could be managed in such a manner that methane gas is created, which in turn could be used to pro- duce electric power. Such a waste water treat- ment is energy efficient and creates a mini- mum of sewage sludge. This is one of the technology’s most important benefits, as these are the major problems facing water treatment plant operators. “People don’t realize just how much of this stuff accumulates,” says Knauf. “You need a convoy of trucks just to remove the sludge from a single plant.” Before the sludge residue can even be transported, however, it has to be dehydrated and often dried in gigantic hea - ters, which consume a great deal of energy. „The procedure for this is currently in the pilot phase, one of the numerous projects on which we are working closely with PUB, the National Water Agency Singapore.“ Bernhard Bartsch plans were ambitious from the beginning, but we’re still growing faster than even we expect- ed,” says Knauf, the director of the new center. Pure Water for Singapore. That’s not surpris- ing, given that the Singapore government has given a boost to international research efforts in water processing and treatment technolo- gies that amazes even veteran R&D experts. As a result, Singapore is now the global center for the water purification industry. It realized much earlier than others that water technolo- gy would be a future growth industry. “Singa- pore’s government and research institutes were quicker than their counterparts in recog- nizing the urgency surrounding water man- agement issues and associated technologies, so they are very proactive in promoting them,” says Loeffler. “That makes Singapore an ideal location for us.” Singapore, as an island nation with an area of only 700 square kilometers, has had to cope with scarce resources for years. That’s why more than ten years ago the government be- gan to investigate new techniques for safe- guarding the water supply for the country’s 5.1 million inhabitants. Among other things, the city-state built one of the world’s first large plants for processing wastewater and convert- ing it back into drinking water (see Pictures of the Future,Spring 2006, p. 22). The plant processed 40,000 cubic meters of water per day in 2006. Plans call for this figure to be in- creased to 210,000 cubic meters by 2012. Most of the processed water is used by various branches of industry that require pure water, and Siemens has been supplying the necessary processing technology. Desalination Power. Recycling is just one possibility for safeguarding Singapore’s water supply. Another approach is to use seawater. Here again — as with all other processes relat- ed to the water cycle — the key question is: How can such a system be organized in an in- expensive, environmentally sound, and energy efficient manner? To help answer this ques- tion, Singapore’s government provided innova- tive companies with $300 million in research funding. It also networked the country’s lead- ing research institutes and administrative bod- ies, including Nanyang University, the A*Star development agency, and the Public Utilities Board, which established the Water Hub. This network has ensured availability of state-of-the- art labs,access to well-trained personnel, and opportunities to conduct field tests. Siemens has been joined in Water Hub by other compa- nies, and around 400 people now work at the site. 12 projects and around 20 processes here — everything from simulations of fluid dynamics over biological waste water treatment to refin- ing our advanced membrane technology,” says Rüdiger Knauf, who is responsible for world- wide R&D at Siemens Water Technologies. „Be- cause the tightness, we just had to expand our laboratory by more than 500 square meters.“ A key partner in the Water Hub, Siemens es- tablished its global headquarters for water technology R&D here in 2007. Siemens Corpo- rate Technology also operates a lab at the site. “Singapore will be the center and expansion springboard for all our innovation-related ac- tivities,” says Siemens Water Technologies Managing Director Dr. Lukas Loeffler. The Wa- ter Hub location will thus supplement existing R&D facilities at six locations in the U.S., Ger- many, and Australia. The 45 scientists who work in the new laboratories registered more than 20 patents after three years of operations. “Our Infrastructures | Water Purification ments. Instead of building shopping malls on green field sites that can only be reached by car, the study favors the creation of urban neighborhoods in which homes, workplaces, and stores are close to one another. That way, many more trips can be completed on foot or by bicycle. The authors likewise advocate mak- ing public transit more comfortable in order to encourage its increased use. This includes the provision of individual services to inform pas- sengers about fares and connections via mo- bile terminals. Why Savings Offset Expenses. In addition to analyzing Munich as a whole, the study pre- sents a detailed plan of how to improve energy efficiency in an actual district on the periphery that contains both old and new housing. Here a 30-year period is considered. The authors conclude that it would be possible to create a low-carbon neighborhood within this relatively short period of time. Moreover, they say that the cost of refurbishing existing structures and building new ones in line with the Passive House standard would be offset by savings in energy that would have been consumed for heating within a 30-year timeframe. The sav- ings would be sufficient to fund the creation of a carbon-free district heating distribution sys- tem powered by geothermal energy. In other words, investment in a carbon-free supply of heating would not only reduce emissions sub- stantially but would also save the district an av- erage of €4 to €6.5 million per annum over the lifetime of the systems. It must be remembered that private individ- uals and the business sector also have a role to play in boosting energy efficiency, since in many cases it is they who must choose be- tween traditional technology and a more effi- cient but often, at the outset, more expensive alternative. This applies equally to the con- struction of housing, electric appliances, and industrial motors. Yet the study emphasizes that this often involves merely a change in be- havior, not a compromise in the quality of life. Frequently it is high costs that prevent a wholesale shift in attitudes and the wide- spread use of low-energy technology. And fre- quently this is because consumers fail to ap- preciate the potential savings in energy costs over a full product lifetime. However, experi- ence clearly shows that people’s behavior can be nudged in the right direction by the use of appropriate financial assistance and incentives combined with targeted information cam- paigns. The study therefore concludes that greater energy efficiency is chiefly interesting when it makes sound financial sense. And that is almost always the case. Tim Schröder T he building on Toh Guan Road is a func- tional structure with a plain facade, plenty of parking, and a foyer straight out a typical high school. And in fact schoolchildren often visit on class trips. But the people who actually study here are older. They are researchers from around the world who have come to Singa- pore’s “Water Hub” to develop solutions to one of the century’s greatest challenges — how to provide everyone with clean water, and to do so inexpensively, with the minimum of energy and in an environmentally responsible way. The answer to this question just might be right here in this building, in a large hall that houses dozens of devices — networks of water tanks, tubes, hoses, new water purification technologies and blinking instruments for analysis. Monitors in the hall display measure- ment data, and in one corner a laser camera shoots bright flashes of light through a glass cylinder filled with water. “We’re working on 24 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2009 Singapore: Pooling Resources Singapore has established itself as the world’s “Water Hub” — a perfect place for Siemens Water Technologies, with its world wide water R&D activities. An innovative desalination technology from Siemens requires only half as much energy as the best previous systems to turn salt water into pure, potable water. Siemens develops high-precision processes for water analysis and purification at its Singapore water lab. An ultraviolet reactor (right) kills germs in water — without chemicals. A new desalination system from Siemens cuts energy consumption per m 3 processed from 10 kWh to 1.5. Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 27 as the use of alternative energy generation sys- tems. These can achieve immediate high carbon dioxide reductions, but pay for themselves only after a long period. To help the airport operator with its decisions, the study lists the cost of each individual measure, as well as the associated en- ergy reduction and its amortization period. A good example of how to achieve a major ef- fect at relatively low cost is offered by systems that control terminal ventilation in line with uti- lization. The installation of these systems, which employ CO 2 sensors and intelligent ventilation control units, would cost $215,000 — but would lead to annual energy-cost savings of $425,000. Such an investment would thus pays for itself af- ter only six months. Another relatively simple way to save energy is to install energy-saving lamps and LED lighting systems. Lights in the passen- ger terminal at Denver International are left on | Airports 26 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 A well-developed, properly functioning infrastructure is the prerequisite for prosperity and sustainable growth. Roads in disrepair, data and power networks with inadequate capacity, and defective sewer networks cripple the economy. Modernizing the infrastructure and providing roads, rail lines, water and power supply sys- tems in emerging economies will require investments to- taling $41 trillion worldwide in the next 20 years. That’s what experts from Morgan Stanley Investment Manage- ment conclude in a February 2009 study. The European Union sees a need for $900 billion for expansion of transport infrastructure alone — from high- speed rail lines to satellite navigation. The EU is planning to realize a cross-border network of rail, highway and wa- ter infrastructures by 2020, with a growing number of seaports and airports. A major portion of the stimulus programs intended to invigorate the European economy in coming years encompasses infrastructure projects for transport and communication networks, energy effi- ciency, building modernization, and hospitals. These measures add up to a total of about €42 billion in Ger- many, France, and Italy. The single most important factor in reducing energy consumption and costs will be improving the energy effi- ciency of buildings. This is because the largest share by far — 95 percent — of the energy used to provide heat, hot water, air conditioning, lighting, and ventilation for buildings in Europe is consumed by structures that were built before 1980, says an analysis developed by TH Pro- jektmanagement GmbH in Berlin. The U.S. stimulus package — the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act — calls for infrastructure expendi- tures amounting to the equivalent of about €253 billion for energy, transport, buildings, health, water supply net- works, security, and IT. Development of intelligent energy networks, known as smart grids will be supported along with expansion of high-speed rail lines and digitization of data and processes in healthcare. The government of China has also launched various programs for infrastructure measures — with total fund- ing equal to €250 billion, including €166 billion from pro- grams that existed before the economic crisis, and €84 billion in the form of additional economic stimulus ele- ments. China is earmarking €73 billion for development of the nation’s rail system alone. Also slated for extensive upgrading are the drinking water and waste removal in- frastructures in Chinese cities and the energy efficiency of buildings. Market experts from Morgan Stanley predict Trillions of Dollars for the Modernization of Infrastructures Siemens is developing measures to save energy for Denver Airport (below). Thanks to Siemens tech nolo- gies, further worldwide Airports have already cut their energy bill by around 40 percent. Rising energy prices, growing environmental awareness, and increasingly stringent legal requirements are forcing airports to sustainably reduce their energy consumption. Solutions from Siemens demon- strate the kinds of energy savings that are possible if complex airport infrastructures are looked at holistically. Siemens already serves as an energy manager at many airports worldwide. Flight from Carbon Dioxide $41 Trillion Will Be Needed for Infrastructure Expenditures between 2005 and 2030 Trillions of U.S.$ North America Central/South America Africa Middle East Asia/Oceania Europe Water ($22.61 trillion) Energy ($9.00 trillion) Highways / rail ($7.80 trillion) Air / sea transport ($1.59 trillion) 3.62 1.53 0.94 0.43 4.82 1.08 3.12 0.43 9.04 4.23 2.11 0.51 4.97 1.46 1.01 0.08 0.23 0.54 0.31 0.02 0.23 0.18 0.31 0.14 Stimulus Spending U.S. 253 China 250 Brazil 60 Germany 18 Italy 16 Spain 10 France 8 UK 3 India 5 Rest of world 77 Government funding for infrastructure in stimulus packages Siemens’ markets affected by stimulus packages Approx. €700 billion Approx. €150 billion Share of investment in green infrastructure U.S. 85 China 25 Germany 5 Remaining countries 35 26 13 3 14 Source: Morgan Stanley, “The Infrastructure Opportunity, 2009” Source: Siemens, June 2009 that China will account for approximately 80 percent of the total infrastructure expenditures in East Asia. Worldwide, stimulus programs for recovery from the economic crisis of 2008 with a total volume of about €2 trillion have been announced and are already being im- plemented in part. Roughly one third of this sum — €700 billion — will be in the form of infrastructure invest- ments, with the rest to be used for measures such as tax breaks for private households. For Siemens, analyses show that the market volume relevant to the company in terms of planned spending on infrastructure in the three fiscal years from 2010 to 2012 is about €150 billion. The largest share of this total, more than €85 billion, will be spent in the U.S., followed by China with €25 billion and Germany with about €5 billion. In all these countries, plans call for devoting major shares of the stimulus pro- grams to green technologies. In China the figure is about 52 percent, in Germany it amounts to 60 percent, and in the U.S. it adds up to 31 percent. Based on Siemens’ cur- rent share of the global market, calculations indicate that the markets served by Siemens could generate a poten- tial contract volume of approximately €15 billion for the company, including about €6 billion, or 40 percent, for environmental technology.Sylvia Trage by 10 percent and electricity consumption by 12 percent. For its study, BT examined the terminal, waiting halls, and office and equipment buildings. Along with energy-saving considerations, the study also took into account the impact the pro- posed measures would have on the environment, operating capacity, and on passenger comfort. The study produced a total of 26 proposals, the most effective of which involve measures that would address heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, and baggage transport systems, which together account for more than 80 percent of to- tal energy consumption. “Naturally, airports are looking to achieve extensive savings in terms of not only costs but also energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions—and to do so as sim- ply as possible and at a low level of investment,” says Uwe Karl, head of Airport Solutions at BT. There are also more expensive measures, such D enver International Airport is a majestic fa- cility. The roof of its passenger terminal is adorned with 34 pinnacles made of translucent Teflon as a tribute to the nearby Rocky Mountains. With 51 million passengers in 2008 [2010 num- bers are available from ACI], the airport is one of the world’s busiest. Its passenger traffic is the 11th-highest in the world, and its number of flights is the fifth-highest. However, its complex infrastructure also makes it a huge consumer of energy. In 2007 it used 216 millions kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity, or more than 4 kWh per passenger. In early 2008, the airport’s operating company therefore asked Siemens’ Building Technologies (BT) division to draw up concepts to cut airport energy consumption. In mid-2009 BT released a study offering optimization proposals aimed at reducing the airport’s overall natural gas demand Infrastructures | Facts and Forecasts pacity at Münster/Osnabrück Airport since 2001. Here, savings were achieved with systematic op- timization. The operation of the cogeneration plant, for example, was continuously improved in response to the prices of electricity and nat- ural gas. Many unnecessary lights were shut off completely, incandescent bulbs were replaced with LEDs, and the switch points of the lighting circuits were optimized with respect to time and brightness. Siemens BT is also active at Stuttgart Airport where it is responsible for efficient energy man- agement on the basis of values calculated from the counting pulses of roughly 500 water meters and 400 heat and cooling meters. The setpoints as well as the controller settings from the au- tomation and field level are also documented and processed by the airport’s energy management system. In addition to monthly, quarterly, and yearly reports, hourly values also play a key role in assessing the efficiency of the systems. The pro- gram for analyzing the energy data compares cur- rent values with the building’s numerical mod- el. Energy savings of up to 40 percent can thus be achieved. These examples illustrate how major energy savings can be achieved through smart mod- ernization and optimization. At the same time, more pleasant temperatures and lighting plus bet- ter air quality make the time spent at airports more comfortable for passengers and employees. In new buildings, the energy required for heat- ing and air conditioning can be reduced by up to 40 percent just through architectural measures and new insulation and ventilation concepts. CO 2 emissions can be reduced by 70 percent or even more if alternative energy sources, such as wind, solar, and hydroelectric are used to gen- erate the required energy, if geothermal energy, biomass and biogas, and cogeneration are used, if equipment is replaced with devices that use lit- tle energy, and if this equipment is operated only on an as-needed basis. “A lot can be achieved if you look at an airport and its complex infrastructure from a holistic per- spective,” says Karl. Siemens is in an ideal posi- tion to do just that, as it can serve as a single source for all the required services and solutions needed by airport authorities from its various Groups. This brings the green, i.e. CO 2 -free, air- port almost within reach, which is the stated goal of Airports Council International (ACI), an inter- national association of airport operators with 567 members operating in more than 1,650 airports in 176 countries. “If the political and public en- vironment demanded it, CO 2 -neutral airports could already be in operation today. Even the CO 2 - free airport does not have to remain a vision if we take advantage of all the opportunities avail- able to us,” says Karl. Gitta Rohling In Brief More and more people are moving to cities, which now account for 80 percent of greenhouse gas emissions. To steer this rapid urbanization to- ward a greener future, major cities are increa- singly turning to new, energy-efficient technolo- gies of a sustainable urban development. (p.10) The European Green City Index, a study by the Economist Intelligence Unit in cooperation with Siemens, compares the environmental compatibi- lity of 30 European cities. Topping the list are for instance the Scandinavian Copenhagen and Oslo. (p.13, 16, 18) Paris has one of the world’s densest and oldest subway networks. Automation technology from Siemens is making the system more energy effi- cient. Meanwhile, light sensors are helping buil- dings to cut power consumption. (p.20) Cities are responsible for four fifths of all greenhouse emissions. That means that effective steps to cut emissions in urban areas can have profound effects on the environment. A new study based on the city of Munich shows how a major metropolitan area could make itself virtu- ally carbon-free within a few decades. Most of the technology that’s needed is already available — and putting it to work would save money. (p.21) Singapore has established itself as the world’s „Water Hub“ — a perfect place for Siemens Water Technologies, with its worldwide water R&D acti- vities. Working with local partners, the company is developing energy-efficient water treatment technologies there. (p.24) Rising energy prices, growing environmental awareness, and increasingly stringent legal requi- rements are forcing airports to sustainably reduce their energy consumption. Solutions from Siemens demonstrate the kinds of energy savings that are possible if complex airport infrastructures are loo- ked at holistically. Siemens already serves as an energy manager at many airports in Europe and US. (p.27) PEOPLE: City-Studies: Karen Stelzner, Siemens Issue Management email@example.com Copenhagen: John Finnich Pedersen, CC Denmark John.firstname.lastname@example.org Tanja Thorsteinsson, CC Denmark email@example.com Oslo and Smart City Trondheim: Gry Rohde Nordhus, CC Norway Gry.firstname.lastname@example.org Christian Jahr, CC Norway email@example.com Paris: Valérie Rassel, CC France firstname.lastname@example.org Catherine Mach, CC France email@example.com Waterhub Singapur: Dr. Rüdiger Knauf, Industry firstname.lastname@example.org Energy-saving Airports: Uwe Karl, Industry email@example.com Links: Green City Indices: www.siemens.com/greencityindex Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environ- ment and Energy: www.wupperinst.org Studie München: http://www.wupperinst.org/uploads/tx_wi- projekt/Carbon_Free_Munic.pdf Pictures of the Future | Green Cities 29 being taken at Detroit Airport, where Siemens has been serving as an “energy manager” since 2001. “Our objective here is to increase the com- fort and safety of existing systems and reduce en- ergy and maintenance costs — and to do so with as little expenditure as possible,” says Karl. The airport operator therefore sought out a compa- ny that had the comprehensive expertise that was necessary and could also offer energy perform- ance contracting. With this form of financing, the vendor contractually guarantees the savings, de- cides which measures will be implemented, and finances them. In return, the saved energy costs are paid to the vendor until its expenses for financing, planning, and monitoring are paid in full. With energy performance contracting, the cus- tomer doesn’t have to spend any of its own mon- ey, but benefits from the savings once the in- vestment has been paid off. The operator of De- troit Airport assessed numerous energy service companies, and two remained in the running fol- lowing the call for bids. Siemens offered the low- est price and guaranteed the greatest energy sav- ings — and was awarded the contract. In addition to new centrifugal chillers, pumps, lines, and flow sensors, the control equipment was also replaced. A new computer control sys- tem is the new nerve center of the system. Ad- ditionally, the lighting systems were modernized and numerous smaller measures were imple- mented. The cost of the complete energy- sav- ing project totaled $15 million. The project re- duces energy costs by 23 percent each year, which corresponds to an $2 million in savings. How to Exploit Savings Potential.Siemens Building Technologies is also active as an ener- gy manager in Germany, having served in this ca- Infrastructures | Airports 18 hours a day, seven days a week; those in the parking garages and on the runways and apron burn even longer. Use of energy-efficient light- ing systems could reduce electricity consumption by more than 11 million kWh per year, which, giv- en the U.S. energy mix, corresponds to around 10,000 tons of CO 2 . Another measure involves the provision of heat and hot water using bio- mass, which can cover all requirements in the summer and serve as a supplementary energy source in the winter. Installation costs for such a system would total approximately $3.5 million, while savings would add up to almost $500,000 per year, with an associated CO 2 reduction of around 7,000 tons. Such a measure would pay for itself after about seven years. After conducting a detailed analysis of the pro- posals, the Denver International Airport operat- ing company will decide which measures it will implement, and at which times. The fact is that airports need to take steps to increase their en- ergy efficiency, since their complex infrastructures make them major energy consumers. After all, thousands of airports around the world are used by billions of passengers and airport em- ployees every year. In addition, studies conducted by Airports Council International (ACI), the In- ternational Air Transport Association (IATA), and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) show that passenger volumes are rising at a consistent average rate of between 3.5 and 5.8 percent per year. IT Solution for Energy-Hungry Systems. “Our energy-saving measures are implemented in three areas,” says Uwe Karl. The first area in- volves finding out which devices can be turned off or modernized, as old machines are often the biggest energy wasters. It therefore makes sense at any airport to use energy-saving lamps that op- erate in accordance with ambient light conditions and utilization requirements. “In many cases you’re dealing with just one main switch for all the lights,” says Karl. “But if you optimize lighting sys- 28 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 tems to function in line with ambient light con- ditions and the utilization of specific areas, you can cut costs substantially.” The second area addresses the use of re- newable environmental-friendly energy sources such as wind, biomass/biogas, geothermal sources, and fuel cells. “Here, decisions have to be made based on individual circumstances,” says Uwe Karl. “Denver’s airport covers almost 140 square kilometers, for example, making it by far the largest in the United States in terms of area; so it makes sense to consider the use of bio- mass/biogas and wind energy.” The Siemens study thus proposes such measures as well. The third area focuses on solutions in the fields of power generation, alternative energy, baggage and freight logistics, IT services, and building tech- nologies. The goal here is to manage the many energy-hungry systems in use with the help of intelligent IT solutions aligned with airport processes, and to regularly monitor and compare energy consumption over time. “Many airports have distributed and independent systems, how- ever, which makes it difficult to gain a good overview,” Karl explains. Here as well, the key is to implement intelligent controls that eliminate the problem of constant energy consumption. Investments that Pay for Themselves.The comprehensive analysis of energy consump- tion patterns at an airport forms the basis for the generation and implementation of energy- sav- ing measures by specialists. This is the approach A CO 2 -free airport is possible if a facility’s complex infrastructure is looked at holistically. Siemens is responsible for the efficient energy management of the Airport Stuttgart (below). In addition to monthly, quarterly, and yearly reports, hourly values also play a key role for reducing the consumption. 32 Intelligence is their Model Buildings are coming to life. Thanks to automated manage- ment systems that ensure optimal lighting and ventilation via sophis- ticated sensors, building ener gy consumption can be reduced im- mense. The pays are based on en- ergy savings – as Siemens is aready demonstrating with its Perform- ance-Contracting. Pages 32, 36 38 Meters that Stabilize the Grid By allowing customers to benefit from flexible electricity rates, in- telligent meters can reduce grid loads and save users money. 49 A Toll Booth in Every Truck Road pricing for trucks, phased traffic lights, hybrid buses and dri- verless subways are major trends that are set to transform the way we travel. Pages 43, 45, 49, 51 52 From Wind to Wheels Electric cars could play a stabi- lizing role in tomorrow’s power grid, as mobile electricity storage units. Siemens is investigating how vehicles, the grid, and renewable energy sources interact. 55 Get a charge! Siemens researchers are develop- ing technologies that will make it possible to recharge electric vehi- cles in just a few minutes Highlights 2020 Fun Jie Fan explains to his friend Tan Xiao the sophisticated efficiency features of a high-rise in a district of London that he helped modernize. Now that the project has been completed, residents are not only puri- fying their own wastewater but also need to buy 90 percent less drinking water. The use of distributed power systems has also low- ered their dependence on externally-pro- duced energy to practically zero. Air-flow simulations for optimized climate conditions Membrane filters for drinking water purificationv Small home energy units for cogeneration Intelligent meters for flexible heat and electricity rates Gas and odor sensors for build- ing management systems Light sheets and empyreans made of organic LEDs F un Jie, I’m thrilled — it’s exactly as you de- scribed it on the phone,” says Tan Xiao, who clearly cannot believe what his friend Fun Jie Fan, a famous efficiency planner in Eng- land, has done with the smallest neighbor- hood of the british capital London. “This neigh- borhood is really thriving and beautiful now,” Tan remarks. “There’s no noise, no smog, you’ve got a light rail system instead of all those cars, and there are parks where streets used to be. I can hardly recognize it any more.” Summer 2020. Efficiency planner Fun Jie Fan is showing his friend and mentor Tan Xiao his latest successfully completed project — the modernization and efficiency optimization of a district in London in which Tan Xiao lived for many years before moving to Beijing. Master of Efficiency B ui l d i ng s a nd Mo b i l i t y | Scenario 2020 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2008 31 30 Pictures of the Future | Green Cities Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2008 33 “However, many building owners are con- cerned by the initial investment for installing efficient solutions. They often prefer less ex- pensive technologies that consume more ener- gy,” explains Ulrich Brickmann, an expert on energy efficiency solutions for buildings who works at the Siemens Building Technologies (BT) division in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. With regard to residential buildings, an addi- tional factor is that the person who usually has to make the investment — the landlord — is not the one who will benefit from reduced ad- ditional costs, i.e. the tenant. “These circum- stances tend to limit buildings from achieving maximum energy efficiency. That has to change,” says Brickmann. Electricity-saving technologies and equip- ment with quick amortization due to low oper- ating expenses have already been developed, and, for the most, part they are already avail- able on the market (see Pictures of the Future, Spring 2007, p. 86). Simple measures such as the correct setting of the technical facilities and electricity-saving lighting based on ener- gy-saving lamps or LEDs can dramatically in- crease building efficiency. Other measures in- clude equipment for combined heat and power that generates electricity and heat on site, as well as solutions that utilize sensors and building management systems, for in- stance, to ensure optimal air and light condi- tions automatically. Big Savings. How effective can the installa- tion of energy-saving technologies be for a major city? In London, for instance, buildings account for two thirds of the city’s total CO 2 emissions. But by 2025 the British capital could cut its CO 2 emissions by ten million tons by im- plementing currently-available technologies. Associated energy savings alone would be suf- ficient to pay for nearly 90 percent of the solu- tions used. In Sydney, Australia, the office complex at 30 The Bond, illustrates the extent to which emissions can be decreased using a combina- tion of energy-saving measures. Optimal air conditioning inside the office complex is achieved through integrated building manage- ment systems and a specialized cooling system that works with cold water instead of an air conditioning unit. The complex produces around 30 percent less greenhouse emissions than conventional office buildings of a similar size and has correspondingly lower energy costs. Abu Dhabi would like to prove that it is pos- sible to save even more. In 2016 solar sails with solar panels will provide shade and gener- ate electricity at the same time for the newly established Masdar City, which will boast a population of 50,000. Narrow shaded alleys will provide natural cooling, and electric trains will almost make cars unnecessary. The Emi- rates’ ambitious target is to create a CO 2 -neu- tral city. These examples illustrate the growing awareness of buildings’ potential for cutting energy costs and protecting the environment — not least because efficient solutions are ex- periencing increased demand due to rising prices for raw materials. Political decision-mak- ers are also backing legislation that promotes Buildings and Mobility | Scenario 2020 Fun Jie grins sheepishly. “I’m pleased to hear those words from you, my friend,” he says. “Another thing that makes me proud is that the government has acknowledged the success of our pilot project by awarding us new contracts for the gradual modernization of the rest of the city.” “A city of 12 million consisting of… Fun Jie, please excuse me, but I’m an old man and I for- get things quickly,” Tan says. Fun Jie laughs. “You mean energy-self-sufficient buildings — like the one we’re standing in front of now.” The two men look up at the skyscraper above them. “The government issued strict guidelines,” Fun Jie explains. All the energy used by every building has to come from re- newable sources, and each building also has to purify its own water and reduce its need to buy drinking water from external sources by at least 90 percent. The government also wanted the neighborhood to have a better quality of life.” “But I know this building from back when I used to work in the area,” says Tan. “It looks the same — only the glass facade is darker.” “That’s because of the solar foils mounted on the front of the glass,” Fun Jie explains. “The foils not only produce electricity but also cool the building by shading it from the sun. But you’re right — you can’t see most of the tech- nology we use because it does its work inside the building. For example, we’ve got an anaer- obic biogas plant that transforms organic waste into combustible gas that’s used to fire the cogeneration units we installed in the of- fices and apartments, which in turn generate electricity and heat.” While Fun Jie continues his explanation, Tan makes a discovery as he looks at the upper floors of the skyscraper. “Am I seeing things?” he says. “Every other floor is missing on the top stories of the building.” “Oh, sorry,” says Fun Jie, “I almost forgot that. We gutted some of the floors at the top, left the elevator shafts in place, statically stabi- lized the free-standing floors, and installed flat-lying windmills that optimally harness the wind up there to produce electricity. In this sense, the building is also a power plant that not only meets its own energy needs but also transfers power to the local grid. For example, if a building like this needs more electricity during peak hours than it can produce, it sim- ply obtains the energy from the surplus in oth- er buildings. This system actually reduces the neighborhood’s need for externally-produced energy to more or less zero. We also installed special meters on each floor. Anybody who’s interested can simply push a button on one of these meters and see not only how much elec- tricity has been consumed but also how much has been transferred — and sold — to the grid. This motivates the building’s occupants to re- duce their energy consumption. The city gov- ernment is even thinking about running a competition for a prize for the most efficient building.” Tan looks a little confused. “But what about in the summer, when the air condition- ing is running in all of these buildings all day? Is the energy they produce themselves enough to cover demand?” he asks. “We came up with solutions for that issue as well,” Fun Jie replies. “For example, the win- dows don’t open, which means no hot air from outside can get into the building. Instead, out- side air is channeled through ducts into the basement, where it cools off before being fed into the ventilation system. We’ve also got small sensors that create a balanced climate by adjusting temperature, light, and fresh air lev- els precisely to predefined values. For lighting, we use both efficient LEDs and OLEDs, which are flat, luminous, flexible plastics that can illu- minate entire walls inside a building. So, as you can see, despite all the conservation meas- ures we’ve taken, no sacrifices were made in terms of comfort or convenience. Our auto- matic fresh air intake system makes for an ide- al climate, and this has led to greater produc- tivity among office workers. The effect is further enhanced by air flows that were opti- mized using simulations. To ensure that the air in the building remains either warm or cool for the longest possible time — depending on the season, of course — all the floors were fitted with a combination of a double-layered facade and vacuum windows. In the winter, we also use special heat accumulators installed in the ceilings. These absorb heat during the day and emit it again at night.” “And how have you reduced the residents’ need to buy drinking water from outside?” Tan asks. “Oh, that’s simple,” says Fun Jie. “We uti- lize proven membrane technology that we’ve been employing for years. This technology is now so versatile that we can desalinate and purify water from the nearby sea without us- ing much energy at all. We no longer use steam here but instead desalinate the water with the help of the membranes.” Tan makes a face. “So that’s why I had that stale taste in my mouth after I had a drink of water.” “What do you mean?” Fun Jie says with a look of surprise. “Fun Jie, you haven’t changed a bit,” Tan laughs. “Even after all these years, it’s still so easy to pull your leg. By the way, all this tech- nology talk has made me hungry — let’s go get something to eat. Hey, I see someone selling food from a grill over there — fired up with good old charcoal. He must be the only one left in the neighborhood who’s still producing greenhouse gases.” Sebastian Webel 32 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2008 energy supply, while industry and transport ac- count for approximately 30 percent. The corre- sponding figures for greenhouse gas emissions in buildings, industry, and transport were 21, 34, and 14 percent respectively. The rest was due to agriculture and forestry (see Pictures of the Future,Spring 2007, p. 83). The good news is this: Buildings have the greatest energy-saving potential. The 2007 re- port of the Intergovernmental Panel on Cli- mate Change (IPCC) estimates that more effi- cient technologies could reduce CO 2 emissions from houses by up to 40 percent by 2030. | Trends Efficient building technologies save money and reduce the burden on the environment. In London, such technologies reduce the amount of CO 2 emitted annually by millions of tons. Simple Steps that Save a Bundle M any a reader may have been astonished by an article about the future of con- struction in a July 2008 issue of the German current affairs magazine Der Spiegel. It claimed that “buildings are climate killer Num- ber One, worse even than the huge fleet of cars on the road worldwide.” To laymen this might seem to be a bold theory, as up to now cars and factories have been branded as the main energy gobblers. The facts, however, tell a different story. High-rises, residential build- ings, old buildings, office buildings and the like burn up around 40 percent of the total primary Buildings account for about 40 percent of energy con- sumption worldwide, and ap- proximately 21 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions. Simple measures can make it relatively easy to save at least a quar ter of energy in most bu ildings. Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2010 35 lm/w. “However, sodium’s energy efficiency comes at a cost. The quality of light is inferior,” says Matthias Fiegler, who is responsible for Os- ram’s global product portfolio for outdoor light- ing. People often find it difficult to recognize col- ors and contrasts in yellow light, which also of- ten gives them an uneasy feeling. This is why these lamps are less suitable for residential areas. Among conventional technologies, ceramic metal halide lamps are now leading the way. The powerful beams of white light produced by these lamps reproduce colors very well. They are mostly used in areas requiring a tremendous amount of light, such as stadiums. Today’s LEDs, with their 100 lm/w energy efficiency and a col- or rendering index of 80, are almost on a par with ceramic metal halide lamps. The index measures the extent to which a lamp can reproduce colors in comparison to natural daylight (index 100). Nevertheless, there‘s still room for improve- ment with LEDs. Researchers hope to achieve 150 lm/w and are working on reaching a color ren- dering index of 90. All in all, LEDs offer the great- est potential for savings. Compared to the old- Buildings and Mobility | Trends the efficient use of energy. For instance, from 2009 on, all houses in Germany will require an Energy Performance Certificate that docu- ments their energy consumption. This, in turn, is expected to put pressure on building owners whose prospective tenants will be comparing the energy costs of different properties. In January 2008 the European Union (EU) also put forward a package of laws in its “20- 20-20 to 2020,” legislation according to which the EU should reduce greenhouse gas emis- sions by 20 percent by 2020. At the same time, the total proportion of renewable energy should increase to 20 percent and energy effi- ciency should rise by 20 percent. In Brickmann’s opinion, however, such po- litical leverage is not enough to introduce effi- ciency solutions in buildings. “Saving energy through technologies that require a high initial investment is often a real dilemma for the managers of public buildings. They need new system solutions to cut their electricity bills and to take pressure off of their budgets, but in many cases they can’t get over the investment hurdle,” he says. Selling Efficiency. An answer to the energy- investment challenge is Siemens’ combination of consulting, installation service, and financ- ing models. Here, the customer does not need to make any preliminary investment. In stead, it pays for improvements over a contracted pe- riod based exclusively on energy savings. By way of such so-called Energy Saving Contracts, Siemens has renovated over 1,600 buildings to date in Germany alone. According to Brickmann, this has been a huge success. “We have invest- ed in efficient technologies with a contract val- ue of around €120 million in total, thus saving over €160 million in energy costs,” he says. With this success in the bag, Siemens is looking for partners and platforms with which it can continue to promote energy efficiency to the public. One platform that the company is already involved in is the EU’s Green Building Program, which has been in operation since 2005. Through the program, the European Commission gives advice on energy efficiency to the owners of commercial premises all over Europe and works with them to develop action plans for greater energy efficiency. The aim is to reduce their use of primary energy by at least 25 percent. If a participant reaches this target, it is awarded the status of a Green Building Partner, which it can use in its own advertising. By now, more than 70 European companies and institutions have joined the program as building owners. As one of more than 30 “backers of technol- ogy” for the Program, Siemens has committed itself to supporting a plan for promoting the Green Building Program. Siemens informs building owners about the program and helps participants to successfully implement their ac- tion plans with the aid of technologies and En- ergy Saving Contracts. “The program allows us to kill two birds with one stone,” says Brickmann. “For one thing, our Energy Saving Contracts generally allow us to fulfill the Green Building Initiative’s energy-saving criteria from the outset. For an- other, the EU is offering our partners an incen- tive — their environmental activities can be publicized with the help of the Green Building Certificate.” The Berlin University of the Arts and Italian banking giant UniCredit are two of the most prominent partners to hold the certificate thanks to Siemens. After a comprehensive “technology facelift,” the bank’s headquarters in Milan today uses up to 32 percent less elec- trical energy per year. These and a lot of other examples show that energy-efficieny truly pays off.Sebastian Webel 34 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2008 | LED Streetlights ventional lighting. LEDs are immediately bright when turned on and can be continuously dimmed down to full darkness. With many oth- er lamps, the gas discharge that produces light stops working if it drops below a certain level. And in the future it will be possible to automatically regulate the color of LED streetlights by, for ex- ample, mixing light from a white LED with that of a red one. All this makes the little diodes ide- al partners for smart controls. Their longevity also makes them very attractive for municipalities. At over 50,000 hours of light, their service life is twice that of conventional lamps, and they need to be replaced only every ten years. Energy-efficient street lighting has become an important issue in many cities — especially fol- lowing the European Union’s regulation that in 2009 heralded the end of incandescent lamps. The regulation will also progressively phase out less ef- ficient streetlight lamps by 2015, including wide- ly-used mercury vapor lamps, which only deliver 50 lumens of cool white light per watt (lm/W). An alternative is the high-efficency sodium lamp, which illuminates many highways with 120 A stroll after dark in the historic city center of Regensburg, Germany, raises a question. Do modern LED streetlights fit in harmoniously in the narrow medieval lanes of a World Heritage Site city? The light comes from quite a variety of lamps. Some alleys are bathed in a yellowish, almost oth- erworldly light. Then, just a few steps away, nar- rowly-focused light cones create a pattern of light and darkness on the cobblestones. Illuminating narrow lanes, streets and squares are cylinders with many tiny points of light — lamps with light- emitting diodes (LEDs) developed by Osram Opto Semiconductors. The lamps were manufac- tured by Siemens in Regensburg and are designed to be screwed directly into the streetlight sockets. Up to 54 individual LEDs fit into one cylinder. The warm light cast by LEDs on the city’s his- toric facades makes the city appear every bit as picturesque by night as by day. The alleys are also more brightly lit, with hardly any dark corners. That’s because many of the LEDs create long light cones along the narrow streets, while a few also focus light downward. The LEDs that light the op- posite walls are adjusted to use only 30 percent of the electricity required for lighting sidewalks. This is another reason why the lamps require only 40 watts compared to the 90 watts required by their predecessors. “Another advantage of LEDs is that their light can be directed at specific points,” explains Dr. Martin Moeck, Project Manager at Os- ram. “This isn’t possible with conventional lamps, so they often have to be overly bright in order to illuminate areas they otherwise couldn’t reach. LED lamps can focus their light more effective- ly, so they’re a lot more energy-efficient.” Alfons Swaczyna, Head Construction Manager and Di- rector of the Civil Engineering Office of the mu- nicipality of Regensburg, also likes the new lamps. “The LEDs have reduced light pollution, meaning light that used to glare into residents’ windows or up into the sky,” he says. LEDs stand out due to their high energy effi- ciency and their light’s excellent color repro- duction. And they can do much more than con- Low energy consumption can be achieved by all, regardless of age, whether at the Berlin University of the Arts (left) or Masdar City in Abu Dhabi (right). World Her itage in a New Light Streetlights that use light-emitting diodes (LEDs) cut electricity consumption by up to 80 percent. Not only are LEDs efficient; their light can also be optimally directed. est systems based on mercury vapor lamps, LEDs could reduce energy consumption by up to 80 per- cent, says Fiegler. “And LEDs can be combined with control systems that can exploit their ide- al dimming characteristics,” he adds. “But the key factors for LED use in long-term street lighting will be standardization and modularization, for in- stance in the form of exchangeable light mod- ules.” Osram, in cooperation with international committees, is moving forward in these areas. Cutting Costs in Half. Procurement costs for LED lamps, however, are two to three times as high as those of conventional light sources. The amount cities could save by using LEDs de- pends on the technologies they are currently using. Experts forecast, on average, a 50 per- cent reduction in electricity use and amortiza- tion periods of between ten and 20 years. To ease the transition, Osram is developing “con- tracting models” in cooperation with munici- palities, energy providers, and financing part- ners like Siemens Financial Services. Such models enable cities to use energy savings to pay for the investment in installments. Osram also plans to cut lamp costs by half, so that the purchase prices of future LED systems will be at most only 50 percent more than those of conventional lighting systems. Many projects are now being financed through funding programs, as is the case in Regensburg. The city won first prize with its LED lighting concept in Germany’s “Energy-Efficient City Lighting” competition. It will therefore receive a refund of 60 percent of the costs incurred if it replaces all 250 lanterns in the historic city center with LEDs within two years. In the future, Regensburg’s soft LED lighting will enchant visitors and inhabitants at night — while using only half as muchelectric- ity as it did in the past. Christine Rüth New LED street lamps from Osram light Regensburg’s historic center. The lamps cut electricity consumption by 80 percent and have twice the lifespan of conventional lamps. dict demand, and thus offer new products, in- cluding dynamic rates, which can change every 15 minutes. Entire grids will benefit as it will be easier to spread energy consumption. In fact, experts pre- dict a savings potential of up to 20 percent. Small cogeneration plants in buildings (Pic- tures of the Future, Fall 2008, p. 78) could also be better integrated into power networks in the future. “If electricity demand is high, a co- generation plant will deliver energy to the net- work, while the waste heat will be fed into a lo- cal heat storage system or into the thermal ca- pacity of the building,” predicts Christoff Wittwer from the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE) in Freiburg, Germany. “This heat can be used later by residents.” Well-insulated water tanks capable of acting as heat stores are already available. In contrast, heat storage based on phase change is still at the R&D stage. Here, for example, surplus heat is used to melt a salt. Later, when demand for heat increases, the melted salt releases its stored heat and solidifies. Yield is very high: “These types of cogeneration plant have an overall efficien- cy of over 90 percent,” says Wittwer. “In terms of primary energy, that’s much more productive than large-scale fossil fuel power plants that don’t exploit waste heat.” Managing Demand. Conversely, consumers can also selectively switch off devices at peak times to ease network loads. The key is to know when rates are lower. For example, washing machines and driers can be run at night when electricity is cheaper. But which hours offer the best prices? “Many appliances are already capa- ble of determining this through signals in pow- er lines,” says Dragon. “On and off times can be determined by a smart meter.” This scenario would give utilities the advan- tage of being able to manage demand within their networks. It would also help them to pre- vent sudden peak loads from occurring — for ex- ample, when large numbers of consumers turn on appliances at the same time. However, consumers would have to consent to having their appliances turned on or off by a utility depending on the network’s load — based on the premise that they would be pay- ing less for their power. Ultimately, both parties have an interest in a flat load curve, which is achieved by leveling demand over each 24-hour period. The challenge is to coordinate each building’s sub-systems with one another and control their communication with their surroundings. In other words, all isolated solutions should be combined. “That is not a trivial matter because these sys- tems have developed independently over many measures are expected to dramatically reduce that figure in Masdar. Masdar, which was developed by Sir Norman Foster, is scheduled to be completed in 2016. If it proves a success, urban developers and architects from around the world may orientate their plans according to the techno lo gies that prove themselves here. Sie mens is involved in the proj- ect. “The Masdar initiative is not only a fascinating project; it also fits in very well with our energy efficiency program and the solutions offered by our Environmental Portfolio,” says Tom Ruyten, who manages Siemens’ activities in Dubai. T he environmentally-friendly city of the future is being built in a desert in the United Arab Emirates. Not far from Abu Dhabi, workers from all over the world are building Masdar City. When complete, the city is expected to have 50,000 inhabitants, meet its energy require - ments entirely from renewable sources, and pro- duce zero carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas (Pictures of the Future, Fall 2008, p. 76). Pow- er is to be generated primarily by solar-thermal power plants and photovoltaic facilities. City planners expect improved efficiency to offset the high cost of implementing advanced energy solutions. In fact, the energy required per Masdar resident is projected to be only one fifth of today’s consumption. This goal can be achieved if forward-looking planning and modern technology complement each other. In line with this philosophy, buildings in Masdar will be built close together, thereby providing each other with shade and thus re- ducing air conditioning requirements. In addi- tion, buildings will be built on concrete pedestals, thus helping to maintain cool temperatures by allowing air to circulate beneath them. Today, 70 percent of the energy consumed in Abu Dhabi is used to cool buildings. Planned architectural Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 37 years,” says Dragon. “We therefore need inter- faces that allow control systems to communicate with one another.” Software solutions that address this challenge are being developed by Siemens Building Tech- nologies under the name “Total Building Solu- tions” (TBS). Here, a variety of systems are be- ing linked into one unit. They include building control and security technologies, heating, ven- tilation, air conditioning, refrigeration, room au- tomation, power distribution, fire and burglary protection, access control, and video surveillance. “Only if all of these systems harmonize per- fectly can their economic potential be fully re- alized,” says Dragon. “Whether in a stadium, an office complex, a hospital, a hotel, an industri- al complex or a shopping mall — TBS will ensure that the facility is working productively, users are being reliably protected, and energy is being used optimally.” Large Savings Potential. The amount of en- ergy that can be saved through the intelligent networking of power utilities and consumers varies from case to case. However, experts generally agree that savings of 20 to 25 per- cent are realistic. “This figure fluctuates de- pending on the type of building,” says Dragon. “Shopping malls and office buildings often have a savings potential of up to 50 percent. For hospitals, we’re talking about five to ten percent.” These differences depend on how buildings are used. For instance, in Europe many shopping malls are open ten to 12 hours a day and closed on Sunday. But a hospital op- erates around the clock. “That’s why hospitals don’t have much scope for saving large amounts of energy. The heating can be turned off in an office but not in a hospital,” says Dragon. Advanced technologies not only save ener- gy in hot and temperate zones; they can also do so in icy areas. Take the new Monte-Rosa Hut of the Swiss Alpine Club, for instance, which is perched at an altitude of 2,883 meters. It is large- ly self-sufficient — thanks to sophisticated building technology and components supplied by Siemens (p.7). Power is supplied by a pho- tovoltaic system, supported when necessary by a cogeneration unit. In order to maximize efficiency, the building’s control system will use weather forecasts and in- formation on guest bookings, thus helping it to coordinate its power and heating systems as well as energy storage and applicate power de- mand. A smart algorithm will periodically cal- culate the best end temperature, so that the de- sired room climate can be realized with the least resources — thereby ensuring that not even the smallest amount of energy is wasted. Christian Buck Buildings and Mobility | Networking 36 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 ciency at Siemens’ Building Technologies Division in Zug, Switzerland. “Intelligent electric meters – the smart meter – will usher in a lot of change in this area.” These small boxes will not only measure en- ergy consumption, but will also be able to communicate with household appliances and utilities (p. 38). Starting in 2010, a European Union directive and legal regulations in Germany will require all new and modernized buildings to be equipped with smart meters. Customers will have better insight into their electricity costs, while utilities will be able to more accurately pre- In the future, buildings will actively participate in the grid. In Masdar City (small pictures) narrow spaces between and under buildings will enhance cooling. Plugging Buildings into the Big Picture Masdar is, of course, unique. After all, how often do you have the opportunity to build a com- plete city with a focus on minimizing its envi- ronmental footprint right from the start? How- ever, intelligent building management tech- nology is in demand everywhere. In industrial- ized countries, for example, buildings are being transformed from mere energy consumers to ac- tive participants in the electricity market, where they offer self-generated power for sale. “More and more buildings have photovoltaic or small wind power plants on their roofs,” says Volker Dragon, who works in the area of energy effi- Around 40 percent of the energy consumed worldwide is used in buildings to provide heating and lighting. But in the future, intelligent building management systems will ease the load on power and heat networks — and even feed self-generated electricity into the grid. and such information only shows the sum of the electricity used over a specific period of time. Having such data made available in some- thing closer to real time would conserve re- sources, as consumption could then be flexibly adjusted, prices for consumers lowered or raised in line with peak loads, and power generation capacity stepped down when less electricity is needed. Meters capable of such real-time data deliv- ery were not available to the average con- sumer until recently — but now, more and more power suppliers are installing smart meters that electronically measure electricity con- sumption. Alexander Schenk, head of the AMIS Business Segment at Siemens’ Power Distribu- tion Division, explains. “Smart meters don’t Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 39 regions are now being supplied with electricity for the very first time. A total of 150,000 vil- lages in India alone will be hooked up to the grid over the next few years. As smart metering technology will be used here from the start, inte- grating it into existing systems won’t be a prob- lem. More developed markets — like Brazil, for ex- ample, where the vast majority of households already have electricity — will have to modernize their systems to reduce electricity theft and in- crease supply reliability. Smart meters will thus also be installed in many areas in these markets. Finally, in many of the most developed countries, legislation enacted as part of electricity market deregulation is leading to the rapid introduction of smart meters. The European Union, for ex- ample, has an energy efficiency and services di- rective that stipulates that all conventional me- ters be replaced by smart meters by 2020. In- deed, all new buildings built today have to have such meters. According to Knaak, smart meters represent just a small component of a much larger project: the smart grid. With this energy network, it will be easier to incorporate renewable sources of en- ergy. In addition, electricity storage will one day play a major role here and with improved network load planning it will be possible to reduce the oc- currence of the sort of major blackouts that have caused havoc in Europe and the U.S. over the last few years. “Without smart meters, there would never be a smart grid,” says Knaak. “Together with Siemens, we, in our little town of Arbon, have laid part of the foundation for this flexible net- work of the future.” Andreas Kleinschmidt just substitute a digital display for mechanical cogs; they also automatically forward con- sumption data to a control center and have a feedback channel.” Among other things, this en- ables suppliers to send price signals to customers, who can then reduce consumption during peak times in order to save money. One smart meter now on the market is the AMIS model from Siemens. It got installed 20,000 times until today. Some 100,000 of which are scheduled to be installed in Upper Austria by early 2012 (see Pictures of the Future,Fall 2008, p.63). More and more residents of Arbon in the Alpine country Switzerland, on the shores of Lake Constance will also soon be enjoying the benefits offered by the Siemens intelligent elec- tricity meter. Buildings and Mobility | Smart Meters W hen asked about the electricity meters in the Swiss municipality of Arbon, Jürgen Knaak, head of the local power utility, Arbon En- ergie AG, says, “It’s time to get out of the dark!” What Knaak is referring to is the fact that for a very long time nearly all electricity customers and suppliers around the world have suffered from a huge lack of information. Consumers know nearly nothing about their electricity consump - tion habits, while suppliers know very little about the state of their grids at any given — including such basic information as whether loads in certain sections are dangerously high, or whether the supply voltage has dropped dramatically in particular areas. That’s because data from elec- tricity meters generally doesn’t become available until months after power is actually consumed, 38 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 ample, has been able to automatically carry out 210 million meter readings. The initial in- vestment of €2.1 billion can be amortized rel- atively quickly through savings of around €500 million per year, while service costs per customer and year have been reduced from €80 to €50. EnBW ODR, which supplies electricity to the region east of Stuttgart, Germany, is now re- placing its conventional meters with Siemens AMIS units along with the complete meter data management system. Ninety percent of the com- pany’s new meters communicate with a central server that processes the huge amounts of data, with most of this data transfer occurring via power line communication — in other words, the grid itself. Siemens prepared itself well for such new types of cooperation models for smart metering systems by partnering with U.S.-based eMeter, one of the world’s leading providers of meter data processing services. Such partnerships require a high degree of flexibility, however, since the business logic behind smart metering projects differs greatly from region to region. By 2030, global electricity production is expected to in- crease by 63 percent over its 2008 level to ap- proximately 33,000 terawatt hours (TWh). Whereas today’s poorer countries are expected to expand their annual production by around four percent, electricity production in the most de- veloped regions will grow by only about 1.3 per- cent per year. Time for Smart Meters. Completely new grid structures are now being set up through- out large parts of India and China, and many “The near-real-time transmission of data from households, special contract customers, and the power distribution structure gives us the kind of insight we need as to what’s going on in the grid,” says Arbon Energie’s Knaak. “This allows us as a supplier to make more precise forecasts of peak load times, and thus plan more effi- ciently.” Arbon residents are the first in Switzer- land to know exactly how much electricity they’re using every month, instead of having to pay estimated fees, as was the case in the past, and then receiving a huge bill at the end of the year. So living in the dark about one’s own elec- tricity consumption will soon no longer be an is- sue, at least not in Arbon. The benefits that smart energy meters offer utility companies go far beyond improved grid load planning. For one thing, the manual read- ing of conventional meters is subject to errors that generate additional costs, such as the need for a second readings. These require disproportionate amounts of time and energy in comparison with standard reading trips. Smart meters, on the other hand, are read automatically. “On average, around three percent of the readings of conventional meters are erroneous and need to be repeated,” says Dr. Andreas Heine, head of Services at Power Dis- tribution. “Smart meters reduce this error rate to nearly zero. So, if you’ve got an area with a mil- lion customers, you can save more than €1.6 mil- lion per year, which corresponds to 53 percent of the previous cost for readings.” No More Flying Blind. Most smart meters are now being used in highly developed coun- tries, with dozens of projects currently under way in the U.S. and Europe. Direct economic benefits are generated in such nations mainly through a decrease in blackouts and efficiency gains in service processes. By installing around 30 million smart meters with feedback channels, Italian energy supplier ENEL, for ex- Power companies worldwide have begun installing electronic smart meters that allow customers to monitor consumption practically in real time and thus conserve energy. Such companies benefit from better grid load planning and lower costs. Siemens offers complete solutions that include everything from hardware to software. Transparent Network Smart meters enable consumers to monitor and manage their power use. Utilities also save money and, for the first time, gain detailed insight into network dynamics. Completely new business models based on smart metering will arise in coming years. I t’s a summer day and Vienna's trams are packed. The air conditioning is running full blast. “In extreme cases, heating, air condition- ing, and ventilation systems (HVAC?) can ac- count for 30 to 40 percent of a tram's energy use,” says Dr. Walter Struckl, an expert on sus- tainable public transport systems at Siemens. That's ample reason to think about energy con- servation. But how can climate control be made energy efficient while at the same time keeping costs under control and satisfying pas- sengers? Since March 2010 the Ecotram re- search project has looked at this challenge. In- volved are Siemens, the Vienna University of Technology, local Vienna transport-related com- panies, the rail infrastructure company, and cli- mate control system manufacturer Vossloh Kiepe. The project will run for 18 months and is being funded by Austria’s Climate and Ener- gy Fund. The partners cover all pertinent tech- nologies – from air conditioning units to cli- matic test labs and the production and operation of rolling stock. Thereby the railways’ efficiency together with their systems should be analyzed and – where possible – optimized. Climate and ventilation systems for a state- of-the-art tram use about 100,000 kilowatt air-conditioning to its surroundings and cool less in tunnels, are on trial. Carbon dioxide sensors for air regulation, since CO 2 content provides an indication of how many passen- gers are on board also seem promising to Struckl. He's also thinking about the color of the light used to illuminate the trams – that’s important for the felt temperature. “Using the type of lighting provided by LEDs, for example, would conserve a lot of energy because it would enable you to alternate between warm and cold-white colors as needed,” Struckl says. hours of electricity per year. The Ecotram proj- ect would like to reduce this figure. Günter Steinbauer, the managing director of the city's transportation authority, anticipates at least a 10 percent reduction. Applying that figure to the city's 300 modern trams would allow an- nual savings of over 3,000 megawatt hours. This corresponds to the electricity consumed by 1,200 households. Ecotram partners plan to study the effec- tiveness of 20 energy-saving ideas. For exam- ple, forward-looking regulators which adapt efficient technologies. Using Munich as an example, the Wuppertal Institute and Siemens conducted a study that showed that energy-efficient solutions could transform a city with some one million inhabitants into an almost completely CO 2 -free area (Pictures of the Future,Spring 2009, p. 6). Major reductions in CO 2 emissions could be achieved by expanding local mass transit systems and in- troducing technologies such as state-of-the-art building systems, traffic management systems, and electric vehi- cles. Growing demand for electricity could also be met in an environmentally-friendly manner by boosting energy efficiency. The systems that could be employed here range from combined heat and power plants to smart grids and techniques for transmitting electricity with min- imal losses. The German Environmental Ministry (BMU) estimates that the global market for environmental technologies will more than double between now and 2020, to over €3 tril- lion. This development will be boosted by the financial cri- sis. For example, London-based investment company HSBC estimates that around €300 billion or about 15 per- cent of the amount being spent on economic stimulus programs worldwide is flowing into the creation of green infrastructures, with about 68 percent of this sum being invested in energy-efficient technologies. The energy-savings potential from buildings is particu- larly large, as they account for about 40 percent of global energy demand. Around 30 percent of this demand could be eliminated through improved insulation, controlled air- Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2010 41 Buildings and Mobility | Facts and Forecasts 40 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2010 Tough Tests for Trams conditioning, and efficient heating systems. According to the BMU, these measures would suffice to give the global market for building systems a major boost and increase its volume by more than €400 billion by 2030. The Federa- tion of German Industries (BDI) expects the worldwide market for power plant technology to grow by five to ten percent a year. Demand is particularly high for more effi- cient and low-CO 2 plants. At the same time, the global market for renewable sources of energy is expected to grow three-fold or even six-fold over the next 15 years, expanding from €45 billion to as much as €250 billion. To create “green” cities, city managers will have to in- vest huge sums in complex projects. Because municipal budgets will often not suffice for such tasks, cities will have to work with private investors. Each year, the private sector accounts for up to 15 percent of the investments made in infrastructure projects worldwide. Such invest- ments are frequently made in the form of public-private partnerships (PPP), whereby companies not only supply products and services, but also conduct project manage- ment and provide long-term financing for a part of the costs. Siemens’ energy-saving performance contracting represents a special kind of PPP. Here, the use of environ- mental technologies is financed solely through the sav- ings achieved in energy costs. To date, Siemens has imple- mented more than 1,900 such projects for buildings worldwide with guaranteed savings of €2 billion and a re- duction of 2.4 million tons of CO 2 . For the affected cities this means greener buildings — for free. Anette Freise How can you reduce the electricity use of a tram’s climate control system without making the vehicle less comfortable? Siemens and its partners in the Ecotram research project are develop- ing effective energy-saving measures that require no sacrifices in terms of passenger comfort. | Rail Vehicle Optimization Whether in an ice chamber (below left), under UV exposure, or undergoing passenger simulations using heated pads, Vienna’s trams are subjected to extreme tests to optimize their systems. C ities are growing at a breathtaking pace worldwide. More than half of the world’s population already lives in cities, and this figure is set to grow to 70 percent by 2050. This trend is creating huge challenges for city man- agers, who will have to greatly expand municipal infra- structures because 6.4 billion city residents will need elec- tricity, water, and transportation services in 2050, compared to 3.3 billion today. At the same time, cities will have to reduce their energy consumption and CO 2 emis- sions. At present, they already account for 75 percent of the energy consumed worldwide and are responsible for 80 percent of greenhouse gas emissions. Climate protec- tion measures thus promise to be particularly effective in cities — and will open up market opportunities for green urban-infrastructure solutions. The potential in this regard is huge. After all, a large part of the infrastructure in emerging markets and devel- oping countries will have to be completely renewed, as these countries account for 95 percent of the world’s pop- ulation growth. Many industrialized countries will also have to modernize their infrastructures. Business consult- ing firm Booz Allen Hamilton estimates that the world’s cities will have to spend around €27 trillion over the next 25 years to modernize and expand their infrastructures. Of this amount, €15 trillion will be spent on water man- agement systems, €6 trillion on power grids, and €5 tril- lion on road and rail networks. To allow cities to satisfy their infrastructure needs in a climate-friendly manner, they will have to employ energy- Huge Growth Market for Green Urban-Infrastructure Solutions The Global Market for Environmental Technologies will Grow to over €3 Trillion 1030 155 94 35 538 805300 615 335 53 Billions of euros, by sector 2007 2020 Energy efficiency Sustainable water management Sustainable mobility Environmentally-friendly energies and energy storage Resource and material efficiency Recycling economy 200 361 Total market in 2007: €1,383 billion Total market in 2020: €3,138 billion Economic Stimulus Programs Include €300 Billion for Green Solutions Worldwide Billions of euros, by sector Energy efficiency Water Renewable energies Other Low CO 2 -emission vehicles 11 Buildings 46 Rail systems 84 Power grids 63 56 26 14 Total: €300 billion Source: HSBC Source: BMU, Roland Berger S ündersbühl subway station in Nuremberg: a red and white test train pulls in. You get on and the train heads out. At first, it looks like any other modern subway train. But then you take a second look and notice that there’s no driver’s cab. All you see is the subway tunnel stretching out ahead of the train’s windshield. “The view from the front car is the only visible difference for a passenger traveling in a driver- less train,” says Georg Trummer, who heads Siemens’ activities in Germany’s first driverless subway. Trummer’s team managed the imple- mentation of the project together with the many test-drives. And today, the driverless sub- way – known as Rubin (Realisierung einer auto- matischen U-Bahn in Nürnberg) – has revolu- tionized Nuremberg’s transit. ranging from — 20 to +32 °C. Tram doors have been opened and closed during tests, and dif- ferent speeds have been simulated to account for the fact that heat escapes to the outside more rapidly at higher speeds. Heating pads were put on the seats to simulate body heat and a varied number of passengers. As during normal operations, the climate control and ventilation systems automatically adjusted temperatures to target values. Richter continu- ally monitored external and internal tempera- ture, wind speed, sunlight, and the power in- put of climate control and ventilation com-po- nents. “For the first time we are seeing how much energy individual systems use,” he says. Richter has already devised initial energy-sav- ing approaches. “Sometimes it gets cooler than it should in the trams because the air condi- tioning doesn't step down until it actually reg- isters temperatures that are too low,” he says, Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2008 43 don, and — since 2006 — Turin for more than 25 years. Nevertheless, what Siemens did in Nuremberg was unique. The new U3 line ran initially on part of the route used by the con- ventionally operated U2 line. This means that conventional and driverless subways shared one and the same route. No other subway in the world had such mixed operations of trains with and without drivers till this time. The Nuremberg project was pioneering in another respect as well. In January 2010, the U2 line was also converted to driverless opera- tion over its entire length, thus ending the mixed operation. And all of these changeovers took place without any interruption of normal subway service. “Nobody’s ever done that be- fore,” says Trummer as he opens a door at the adding that this can be solved by optimizing the control software. On-the-Job Testing.After leaving the test fa- cility in May 2010, Ecotram entered regular service for several months of evaluation. Dur- ing that period, its sensors have been collect- ing data 24 hours per day. Photoelectric de- vices register the number of people entering and leaving the tram at each stop. Passenger comfort has been measured by analyzing tem- perature, air velocity and carbon dioxide con- tent (Pictures of the Future, Spring 2006, p. 68). While the tram is in service, Kozek is devel- oping a thermal behavior simulation model. It's based on a physical model—for example, heat losses caused by airstreams. Results ob- tained under real conditions will be compared with the measurements from wind tunnel tests. Data from the field tests will help the program simulate operation, including tunnel segments, tram stops, and varying passenger counts. The completed software will send trams on virtual runs and calculate the impact on use and comfort. Siemens will be able to use the model to demonstrate which measures are most eco- nomical. “I expect that this will help to provide evidence against the preconception that ener- gy efficiency drives up costs and reduces com- fort,” says Struckl. “The model will also boost energy transparency under a range of condi- tions. Many tram operators scale their systems in line with extreme situations such as a rush of festival-goers in the summer, but forget that the tram has to pay for the overweight for the rest of the year” he says. The results will be incorporated into an eco- tram prototype in the follow-up project Eco- tram II as of October 2011, and will be com- pared to the projected energy savings. Passenger reactions will then show if all the work was worth it. “The key is to save energy in such a way that nobody notices,” says Struckl. What might the energy-efficient streetcar of the future look like? “The trend is toward high-efficiency climate control and ventilation systems, lightweight design, and onboard en- ergy storage,” says the mobility-expert Walter Struckl. “The latter involves regaining energy released by braking and waste heat from cli- mate control units. This is already possible in some places. That's why the intelligent power grids now being developed in conjunction with renewable energy systems are a key issue for rail traffic. If you combine all possible ener- gy-saving measures for the vehi- cle and infra- structure, tram energy consumption could be cut in half by 2030.” Christine Rüth Buildings and Mobility | Rail Vehicle Optimization | Driverless Subways Climatic Chambers for Trams.Rail Tec Arse- nal is a unique climatic test facility for rail vehi- cles. Experts have fitted Vienna's latest tramway model with measurement systems at the facility, which is co-owned by Siemens (see Pictures of the Future, Spring 2009, p. 4). In the site's two chambers (100 and 34 m long) entire trains are exposed to extreme weather conditions. Here, giant rotors generate air- streams, and powerful halogen lamps simulate hot summer days. Technicians can alter humid- ity, and even make it rain or snow. Even a storm is possible, which is also used by com- petitive athletes like the ski jumpers from the Austrian national team in the climate test labo- ratory, says Gregor Richter, a project manager at Rail Tec Arsenal. Thanks to the facility's weather simulation capabilities, Ecotram has been tested under typical Vienna conditions, at temperatures 42 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009; Fall 2010 Exhaustive training is devoted to operations such as automatic starting, braking, and pre- cise stopping, opening the doors, securing the tracks, switching and automatic coupling as well as putting trains into and taking them out of service. Final test operations have been run- ning since November 2006 — in close harmo- ny with the future timetable, but as yet with- out passengers. Official commissioning took place on June 14, 2008. At the end of 2001, the city of Nuremberg and VAG Nürnberg — the local public transport operator — decided to equip the U3, and later the U2, subway lines for driverless operations. Automated subway systems are nothing new. Driverless subway trains have been operating in European cities such as Lille, Toulouse, Lon- More and more driverless trains are travelling through Europe’s cities. These trains run at short- er intervals, while at the same time increasing flexibility and reliability. Siemens is providing the technology, systems and trains worldwide. Also in Nuremberg, where the subway system is the first in Germany which use trains without drivers. Driverless in Nuremberg Driverless subway trains entered service in Nurem- berg in summer 2008. Today, the seats with the best views of the tunnel are the most popular ones. The trains are monitored from a control center. Mobility Concept Vienna Vienna, the Danube metropolis, is a model city for modern mobility. This is established by the research report “Vienna: A Complete Mobility Study” carried out by the UK transport consultants MRC McLean Haze. According to this study, Vienna, already a key transport and logistics hub at the heart of Europe, is currently reaping the rewards of a long-term strategy that embraces all modes of transport. What’s more, the city plans to expand its public transport infra- structure while assigning a low priority to automobile traffic in the city center and promoting the interests of cyclists and pedestrians. Vienna is putting a consistent focus on the expansion of the urban public transport (ÖPNV).“The study shows how suc- cessful Vienna has been in implementing an efficient transport strategy that could serve as a model for cities everywhere,” says Dr. Hans-Jörg Grundmann, CEO of the Siemens Mobility Division, in refer- ence to Vienna’s “Transport Master Plan 2003,” which covers the period until 2020. Today, the Aus- train capital has 227 kilometers of streetcar tracks, one of the largest streetcar networks in the world. The transit network run by transport operator Wiener Linien is over 960 km in length, including 116 subway, streetcar, and bus lines with 4,559 stops, from which any location in the city can be reached within 15 minutes on foot. On weekdays, public transport accounts for up to 35 percent of total traf- fic, one of the highest mass transit quotients in the world. Vienna plans to increase this share to 40 percent by 2013 with capital expenditures of €1.8 billion, some of which will be used to extend exist- ing subway lines and to build new streetcar lines in outlying districts. Siemens is supporting this ef- fort by providing high-speed trains, 40 subway trains as well as the associated control signaling. Fur- thermore, Vienna ordered 300 ultra-low-floor streetcars, which Siemens is delivering to the city’s transport operator at the rate of 15 to 20 per year. Last but not least, Siemens is supplying a system to control traffic lights on the basis of traffic volumes, with a view to smoothing traffic flow and to preventing gridlock. In addition, the system for controlling traffic lights and the overall traffic man- agement system, which 200,000 commuters benefit from daily, regulates transportation throughout the metropolis. The system is fed by traffic data, most of which is collected by Siemens’ sensor solu- tions. With the Siemens complete mobility approach, different transport systems can be networked with one another as effectively as possible. The “Ptnova” pilot project, which can connect all ticket ma- chines, ticket printers, and point-of-sale systems, is helping to automate all sales-related processes such as ticketing, customer management and the administration of season tickets. Nikola Wohllaib This wasn’t possible in Nuremberg due to the former mixed automatic/driver operation, and because the platforms of some stations are curved,” explains Trummer. Absolute safety is ensured by video moni- toring and a new high-frequency transponder system that sends a dense grid of sensing beams out over the tracks from transmitter and receiver rails installed underneath the platform edge. If a person or object falls onto the track or between a train coupling, the sys- tem will immediately stop all trains in the area. Solid sills extend from doors when trains are in stations to ensure that no one can get caught in the gap between train and platform. When it’s time to go, an infrared sensor in the rubber edges of the door halves registers even the slightest pressure — the seam of a coat stuck in between is all it takes to keep the train from leaving the station. The control cen- ter monitors train-car interiors via video cam- eras. Passengers who activate an alarm are au- tomatically put into direct contact with the control center via digital voice radio. Control center staff can immediately dispatch mainte- nance or rescue services to the train. “In general,” says the former leader of the overall project, Trummer, “the trend in Europe is toward fully automated systems — at least for closed systems like subways. Unlike street- cars or buses, subway trains don’t have imme- diate contact with street traffic, which means it’s much easier to monitor and secure them.” The “driverless future” is already reality in Nuremberg — and the seats with the best view of the tunnel are the most popular ones. Dagmar Braun Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2010 45 the human respiratory system. But there is an- other reason for retiring the combustion en- gine. More than half of the world’s population already lives in cities, and traffic is becoming denser and denser. This, in conjunction with environmental concerns, explains why even more buses will have to take to the streets in the future. After all, fuel consumption per pas- senger in a full bus is as much as one-third less than the equivalent figure for a full car. Many people already use buses to get around big cities, and not just in developing countries, where a privately-owned vehicle is a luxury. Even in industrialized nations like Germany, buses account for roughly half of all public transportation — every second mass transit kilometer is driven by a bus. The more densely populated big cities become, the greater the Buildings and Mobility | Driverless Subways putting additional trains into service, for exam- ple for major events. “Although investment costs are higher, the new system is more eco- nomical. One reason for this is that it takes less time to get trains moving in the opposite direc- tion at terminal stations, which means we need fewer trains and we don’t need to hire additional personnel,” says Konrad Schmidt, who headed the project for VAG Nürnberg. Experience in other cities with automated systems has confirmed this. In Paris, for exam- ple, where Metro line 14 has been in driverless operation since 1998, the system has proved itself primarily through improved capacity and safety. As a result, the Paris Metro’s historic Line 1 was also to automated by 2010. Anoth- er driverless subway line was under construc- tion in Barcelona, and a third took shape in Ui- jeongbu, Korea — all of them with technology from the Siemens Mobility Division. The VAG Nürnberg control center is located just a few kilometers from the line U2 and U3. Staff at the space center-like facility can moni- tor all automated operations on computer screens in semicircle formation and on large wall monitors, so that they can intervene in the event of an emergency. In such a case, the various computers will provide diagnostic in- formation and video images. Control center staff can then take over control of the system. The control center also monitors messages from the safety systems, which represent pioneering joint developments from Siemens and Honeywell. “Normally, automated sub- ways are equipped with platform doors that block the dangerous area at the edge of the platform until the train has stopped. 44 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2008 end of the platform. Behind the door are key components of the ATC (Automatic Train Con- trol) system developed by Siemens: computers for the routes and the signal boxes. These com- puters continually exchange data with those in the higher-level control system, as well as with train computers, via fiber optic cables and induc- tive loops embedded in the tracks. The data in- clu des the train’s destination and speed, track switching information, and the side of the train that will face the platform in the next station. Digital Drivers. An onboard computer (Auto- matic Train Operation) in the subway train it- self uses this data to control the entire driving process. A second computer (Automatic Train Protection) monitors the actions of the first and makes corrections if necessary. The ATC system registers all train movements via a re- transmission channel, which means it always knows where each train is at any given mo- ment and how fast it is moving. The latter ca- pability is made possible by Siemens’ two-car train sets equipped with navigation units and transmission and reception antennas, among other things. Thanks to these, the ATC system can monitor and control subway train move- ments completely autonomously. Passengers need not be aware of any of this. What they will be aware of, however, is that the train begins moving smoothly as if guided by a magical hand, brakes slightly, then accelerates once again to its top speed of 80 kilometers per hour, and seems to float to a stop at the next station. “The trains travel at an optimal speed in accordance with the time - table and the distance between the stations. That’s one reason they drive so smoothly,” explains Trummer. The result is greater com- fort, along with a unique view into the subway tunnel. Other benefits of the driverless system include shorter train intervals — 100 seconds instead of 200 — and the possibility of quickly Nuremberg was the first place where conventional and driverless subway trains shared a track. I f it were up to the environment, the good old combustion engine would have been put out to pasture long ago — for a number of rea- sons. For example, the unbridled use of gaso- line and diesel fuel is depleting oil reserves. And, of course, engine exhaust contains car- bon dioxide, which is heating up the earth’s at- mosphere. And let’s not forget the fact that fine particulates and oxides of nitrogen irritate | Hybrid Drives for Buses The first City Hybrid buses from MAN are now on the road in Munich. Equipped with drive technology from Siemens, they use up to 30 percent less fuel than conventional buses. Next Stop: Bonus for Braking With a view to helping big cities get a handle on their traffic problems while reducing fuel consumption, engineers are working on environmentally-compatible means of mass transit. Buses, for instance, could operate more efficiently if their diesel drives were supplemented with an electric motor that charges itself with braking energy. With its highly efficient “ELFA” hybrid drive, Siemens now has a leading role in hybrid bus technology. Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2010 47 together” by a combining gearbox. If synchro- nous machines based on permanent magnets are used instead, less electricity has to be fed into the machine to generate the magnetic field that then turns the motor. This reduces losses, the machine has a higher efficiency and transfers more energy to the axle, which results in an additional 10 percent savings of diesel fuel. In addition, such a setup also reduces wear. Granted, a hybrid bus is still more expensive than a conventional diesel bus that costs around €250,000. Schmidt estimates the added cost for the hybrid bus to be around €100,000. However, he is convinced that economies of scale resulting from mass pro- duction will cut the added cost in half, in which case the price would be only about 20 percent above the normal price. The subject of hybrid buses is picking up steam. If the Chinese capital city Beijing man- ages to follow through on its announcement and replace half of its bus fleet with hybrids by 2015, this alone would represent tremendous demand for the vehicles. “Interest around the world is already extremely high,” says Schmidt. “In fact, we can hardly keep up with orders.” Siemens in Nuremberg is working with numer- ous bus manufacturers, with ELFA orders com- ing not only from MAN, but also from Mer- cedes, Belgian commercial vehicle manufacturer Van Hool, and Indian transporta- tion giant Tata Motors. In Use around the World. Wrightbus, a bus manufacturer from Northern Ireland, has or- dered Siemens’ drive technology for double- decker buses in London. When London Mayor Boris Johnson presented the plan for the new vehicles in May 2010, he raved not only about the slick design, but also about “innovative green technology.” Johnson said that London- ers would have every reason to be proud of their new, fuel-efficient, and quiet means of transportation. He predicted that hundreds of these hybrid buses would be ferrying passengers around the streets of the United Kingdom’s capital in the future. ELFA buses are now in operation throughout Europe in Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Italy. In addition, they can also be seen in Turkey, the U.S. and Brazil. In Germany, Hamburg’s municipal transport com- pany is planning to deploy ELFA-based Mercedes hybrid buses that use a combination of batteries and fuel cells. Beginning in 2020, every new bus in Hamburg is to be a hybrid model. “The development of Emission-free inner city areas is a political issue,” says Schmidt. In this case, even garbage trucks would be suit- able candidates for the hybrid drive. MAN al- ready developed a 12-ton truck with a 220-hp four-cylinder engine and 60 kW electric motor. The vehicle is primarily suited for longer distri- bution runs with frequent stops. And Faun, a German company, offers a garbage truck with ELFA. The “Roto press Dualpower” is currently hauling waste to a disposal facility in Leipzig. “Hybrid buses,” says Schmidt, “are just a stop along the way to zero-emission transpor - tation.” After all, the goal is zero-emission traffic. Schmidt sees two possible ways to achieve this: with battery-powered buses, whose energy sto rage devices are charged at the terminal sta tion or at the depot, or with a hybrid model that uses both a battery and a fuel cell for moti ve power. The fuel cell would be used to charge the battery during operation. However, Schmidt is reluctant to predict when and where which buses will be used. “Whether hydrogen or elec- tricity is ultimately used as fuel will depend on how and where we produce our electricity in the future,” he says.Jeanne Rubner constraints. “As a result, up to two-thirds of the valuable braking energy is wasted and the sav- ings effects are relatively slight,” says Schmidt. With a serial hybrid bus, on the other hand, fuel savings as great as one-third can be achieved — with a corresponding reduction in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Depending on the number of hills and bus stops on a route, a typical bus consumes between 40 and 60 liters of fuel per 100 kilometers. Assuming roughly 60,000 kilometers per year, this amounts to 30,000 liters of diesel fuel. With a hybrid, how- ever, this figure is just 20,000 liters. Because the combustion of one liter of diesel fuel pro- duces 2.6 kilograms of carbon dioxide, a hy- brid bus can save around 26 metric tons of car- bon dioxide each year compared with a conventional bus. Siemens engineers employ a trick to throt- tle back this diesel fuel consumption even fur- ther. The drive typically includes two three- phase, asynchronous machines that are “linked teries. When the UltraCap is depleted, the diesel engine springs to life and powers a gen- erator, which in turn produces electricity for the energy storage unit. A hybrid bus of this type can generally drive an average of 200 me- ters from a bus stop before its UltraCap is emp- ty. The UltraCap is then ready to store all of the energy generated during the next braking phase. Added up over the course of the day, that amounts to major fuel savings. More Storage. Hybrid technology enables more braking energy to be fed in than is the case with conventional parallel systems “be- cause the dimensions of the electric motor can be larger,” explains Schmidt. When a bus brakes, it typically provides around 150 kilo- watts of power. In a parallel hybrid drive, the electric motor is too small to deal with this lev- el of power. Typically, it can only handle be- tween 50 and 80 kilowatts. Ultimately the mo- tor cannot be made any larger due to space Buildings and Mobility | Hybrid Drives for Buses desire for clean and quiet vehicles. London, for example, has been restricting access to its downtown since 2003. There and in Stock- holm, Sweden, cars have to pay a toll, and gas- guzzlers are charged an extra levy. In Munich, Germany, trucks are no longer permitted to drive in the inner-city zone. It’s very plausible that many communities will decide to issue even stricter emissions regulations for inner cities in the future. In such a case, only extremely fuel-efficient vehicles or vehicles with electric drives would be permitted to travel in city center areas. But buses drive two to three hundred kilometers a day and thus require many times more energy than an electric car. “A battery capable of pow- ering a bus all day long is still very heavy and expensive,” says Manfred Schmidt of Siemens Industry’s Drive Technologies division in Nuremberg, Germany, where electric drives are developed. That’s why Siemens is putting its faith in the hybrid bus. Hybrid means the combination of a combustion engine with an electric drive. The bus doesn’t have to be plugged in, though. Whenever the driver steps on the brakes, the energy that would otherwise be lost as heat is fed into an electrical storage system. This is the same principle that hybrid cars have been us- ing since the late 1990s. Schmidt is convinced that “hybrid technolo- gy makes even more sense in a bus than it does in a car.” Not only is a bus in operation all day long, it also spends between 25 and 40 percent of its time standing still at bus stops and red lights. It is thus constantly braking and starting. For the latter, buses can use stored braking energy to quietly accelerate without producing any emissions. MVG, Munich’s public transport company, currently operates two hybrid buses on its routes. One of these is the Lion’s City Hybrid from MAN, for which Siemens supplies the drive technology. “We want to test and compare dif- ferent hybrid buses,” says Herbert König, who heads MVG. “By doing so, we are supporting the manufacturers as they strive to develop this innovative vehicle technology.” Drivers and passengers are enthusiastic everywhere hybrid buses are in operation. There is no reving up noise while the bus is starting off, and in con- trast to the sometimes jerky ride typical of con- ventional vehicles, hybrid buses seem to glide. What makes ELFA, as the Siemens drive technology is known, so special is its serial hy- brid solution. With the parallel hybrids typically used today, both a combustion engine and an electric motor drive the axle via the drive shaft. But with a serial hybrid the drive shaft is turned solely by the electric motor that preferentially draws its energy from a storage device called an UltraCap — a high-performance capacitor installed on the roof of the bus. The UltraCap’s high energy density and high efficiency make it superior to a conventional battery (see Pictures of the Future, Fall 2007, p. 74). The UltraCap can therefore store a lot of en- ergy in a small package. It is also largely main- tenance-free and has a substantially longer service life than conventional lithium-ion bat- 46 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2010 Too quiet? Some passengers still react skeptically when a silent bus approaches. Nevertheless, the City Hybrid isn’t just quiet. It is also economical and comfortable. A hybrid bus emits up to 26 tons less carbon dioxide per year than a conventional bus. T he driver of the tanker truck doesn’t know that he’s heading for disaster. He’s unaware that the braking system on one of his rear wheels is blocking and beginning to glow red hot. There’s a tunnel coming - in three kilome- ters - but the potential catastrophe doesn’t have a chance to unfold thanks to safety systems that have already detected the rolling time bomb and triggered an alarm in the tunnel operator’s control center. This is still a future vision. Nevertheless, the three-year research project “Protection of Critical Bridges and Tunnels on Roads” (German acronym: SKRIBT) is moving closer to making this vision a reality. Ten partners from govern- ment agencies, industry, and research institutes, including Siemens Corporate Technology (CT) and the Mobility Divison, are participating in the project, which is being funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research. Most major accidents in tunnels are caused by trucks with burst tires or defective engines. That’s why Alla Heidenreich, infrastructure proj- ect manager at Siemens CT, has been working with her team since 2008 on two safety systems that can identify defective trucks and those transporting hazardous materials - before they enter a tunnel. The researchers, who are from Munich and Princeton, New Jersey (USA), came up with the idea of combining video images with thermal imaging technology to determine if certain vehicle components are overheating. A video processing program linked to surveillance cameras identifies a passing truck. The thermal image of the truck, which is recorded using an infrared camera, is linked C hristoph Wondracek needs just a few moves to start the system. First he uses suction cups to fasten a small non-descript box to the windshield, after which he inserts a plug into his vehicle’s cigarette lighter. “Now we can get going,” he says as he turns the key. The car Wondracek is now driving through the streets of Vienna is a laboratory on wheels. Siemens is using the vehicle to test its latest ideas for mak- ing future road traffic more economical and more environmentally friendly. “This onboard unit contains all the technol- ogy we need,” Wondracek explains. The unit’s navigation system utilizes satellite signals to pinpoint the vehicle’s current location, and then sends the positioning data to a central computer via GSM technology familiar to cell phone users. This technology can be employed to set up a highway toll system for trucks or an inner-city congestion charge system for reduc- ing traffic during rush hours. Siemens is developing these state-of-the- art solutions in Vienna, Austria, where it oper- ates a Toll Systems Competence Center that it established in 2006. “We were already working on toll systems before that,” says the center’s director, Dr. Karl Strasser, “but developments didn’t start moving toward extensive complex systems until a few years ago.” That’s why Siemens is utilizing the center as a base for pooling the required expertise from through- out its worldwide organization. As a result, ex- perts from the fields of satellite navigation, mobile data transfer, traffic guidance, and oth- er areas are now working together in Vienna. Research at the center’s labs is both virtual and physical. Specialists not only design on- board units that incorporate the latest naviga- tion and data transfer technologies but also develop software that enables the reliable col- lection of hundreds of thousand of data sets. Whenever an urban congestion charge or highway toll system is being planned any- where in the world, technicians in Vienna go to work on customized solutions that are in- cluded in the company’s bids. No Toll Plazas Required. Strasser’s core team comprises 40 specialists. Once a project is up and running, the teams are expanded to in- clude experts from related areas. The acid test involved the introduction of a state-of-the-art truck toll system in Slovakia in the spring of 2010, for which Siemens supplied the onboard units and software. “One hundred of our peo- ple refined the various technologies before the system was launched,” Strasser reports. Toll fees in Slovakia vary depending on whether a truck travels on a major highway or a state road. In similar projects, such as in the with a 3D image, after which an analysis pro- gram searches for anomalies that could indicate components susceptible to fire, such as wheels, brakes, axles or engines. It does this using knowledge gained from models that provide in- formation on things such as how hot one axle may get in relation to the others. In a next step Siemens researchers will test whether infrared images alone are able to discover risky parts such as tires, brakes and axles. Dr. Andreas Hut- ter, an expert in real time image processing: “This might reduce costs significantly.” The situation becomes high-risk when it comes to material transports. Some materials like gasoline may only be transported through certain tunnels. Although trucks carry orange stickers bearing coded information on how dan- gerous their freight is. But it can’t be controlled automatically and reliably if they only travel through specified tunnels. However, using Siemens’ RFID-Chips (Radio Frequency Identifica- tion) information on the load can be selected. Transmission-Enabled Stickers.Such a sys- tem would function roughly as follows. When a truck transporting hazardous materials passes a reading point approximately three kilometers before a tunnel, its cargo data would be regis- tered by the RFID system and forwarded to a control center. Only one truck would be permit- ted in the tunnel at a time. Should an accident occur, firefighters would tackle the blaze using precisely the right extinguishing agent. Any truck attempting to enter a tunnel with prohib- ited freight would be stopped by a red light in front of the entrance. Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2010 49 Buildings and Mobility | Tunnel Safety 48 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2010 The CT team is particularly proud of its newly developed RFID transponder system’s ability to meet extremely high demands. The chip can transmit its signal to the unit’s reading device over a distance of around 50 meters - and send the data at least twice within two seconds. “Conventional passive radio chips without a built-in energy source have a range of only six meters,” says Daniel Evers, an RFID expert at CT. “That’s why we use an active chip that has a built-in battery and transmits in the high-fre- quency range of 2.45 gigahertz. To ensure the battery lasts as long as possible, the transmitter in the transponder sleeps until it’s woken by a radio pulse issued by the reading device at the checkpoint.” To ensure this is the case, Siemens researchers employ an encryption technique they previously developed for passive RFID chips (Pictures of the Future, Spring 2009, p.45). “Pre- vious solutions needed too much energy,” says Hermann Seuschek, an IT security expert at CT. “However, our cryptochip is so energy efficient that the transponder can run for at least three years without needing a replacement battery.” Research activities were followed by road tests in mid-2010, when Siemens researchers installed truck detection system components at the Aubinger Tunnel near Munich. Plans call for the tunnel safety system to be tested until the end of July 2011. “Up until now, activities have focused on improving safety within the tunnel,” says Heidenreich. “But in the future, we’re going to be able to detect and prevent danger before a vehicle gets there. Video, RFID, and infrared technologies will play a key role in this process.” Rolf Sterbak | Road Pricing Danger Made Visible Trucks with defective engines, faulty brakes or hazardous freight can trigger an inferno in a tunnel. Siemens researchers are investigating hoe to use RFID technology, video analysis, and thermal imaging cameras to spot vehicles that are at risk. Cameras that combine thermal and video images can identify otherwise invisible sources of danger. CT researchers (right) check the functions of an RFID chip designed to detect trucks carrying hazardous freight. A Toll Booth in Every Truck Siemens is developing a toll collection system that utilizes state-of-the-art satellite technology. The system opens the door to flexible, real-time, international tracking and charging of commercial vehicles depending on their route, weight, and emissions, thus helping to reduce congestion and increase safety. demonstrations with his vehicle and its equip- ment. France is planning a toll system similar to the one in Slovakia, as are Poland, Slovenia, the Netherlands, and Belgium. “Demand is so high we can barely keep up with the work,” says Wondracek. Highway toll systems are one of two areas that Siemens experts in Vienna specialize in; the other is city toll systems, the most well- known of which is to be found in London. Every vehicle that enters the center of the UK capital now has to pay a flat fee. As a result, traffic congestion in the City declined by ap- proximately 26 percent shortly after the sys- tem was introduced, and public transport has become a more attractive option. This, in fact, was precisely the effect officials wanted to achieve. In addition, Siemens has provided the London congestion fee authority with an auto- matic license plate recognition feature and var- ious communication and computer systems (for more, see Pictures of the Future, Spring 2007, p. 28). Strasser’s business trips to major cities around the world have given him a sense of just how important such systems are. “Take Paris,” he says. “There’s so much traffic in the center of that city that the average traveling speed is now as low as it was when the streets were filled with horse-drawn carriages.” Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2010 51 minutes in line with traffic levels, which are measured using induction loops. “Every traffic light responds to induction loop data and switches to red, for example, if no cars have passed from a certain direction for a given peri- od of time,” explains Mück. “At the same time, Motion MX also tells each traffic light how long it should remain switched to green and how long the cycle should take in between two green lights in the same lane.” Achieving a green wave was a complex mathematical optimization task for Mück. “It's about minimizing waiting times and the num- ber of stops,” he says. Even if vehicles can only drive in two directions along a route with ten traffic lights, there are so many possible ways of changing the green phases, waiting times, and other variables that it would take the world's best computer millions of years to cal- culate all the combinations of solutions. This is why other control systems haven't differentiated between cars on the main route and vehicles on side streets, to simplify the math involved. To ensure that drivers on the main route can travel unimpeded, Mück's team developed a new method. “To do that, you need to depict the cars together as a group at several signaling stations,” he says. A study by Ruhr University in Bochum, Ger- many showed that the new system reduces the time drivers lose at traffic lights on Albersloher Weg by up to a third and that, on average, 20 to 30 percent of the traffic light stops during a trip can be eliminated. Public transit also benefits from the system, because transit buses can now stick to their schedules even during rush hour. According to Mück, the control system could cut CO 2 emissions by several hundred tons a year. “A cautious estimate revealed that bet ween 25,000 and 30,000 stops are eliminated on workdays.” As a result of this success, Münster is equipping another main road with the adap- tive control system. Using adaptive control, Mo- tion MX is now also smoothing the flow of traf- fic in other cities, including Warsaw, Vilnius, and parts of Copenhagen. Ute Kehse And the same goes for thousands of other cities. Around the globe, metropolitan areas are growing so fast that a large portion of their infrastructure can’t keep up with traffic vol- ume. But intelligent toll system technology of the type Siemens offers can help cities flexibly manage traffic in response to real-time de- mand, and thus reduce travel times while cut- ting air and noise pollution. There are a number of customized city toll systems from Siemens. One involves dividing a city into segments and charging drivers a set fee to enter each one. This setup is similar to the system used in London. It’s also possible to charge tolls based on the number of kilometers driven. That’s the principle behind the on- board-unit system. The third possibility is a combination of the first two in which individu- alized tolls are charged depending on the time of day, type of vehicle, and route . Which system is the best? Siemens and the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) used various traffic parameters to simulate three toll system options for Copenhagen. The result is a special “Eco Care Matrix” that allows re- searchers to determine which system is best for the environment and which one is the most economical. The researchers found that both the combined system and the distance-based version produced the best result forecasts at a relatively short amortization period for the Danish capital. “The results differ from city to city, however, because many factors are at Buildings and Mobility | Road Pricing | Intelligent Traffic Management Czech Republic, toll plazas used to be set up along roads in a complicated and expensive process. Devices at the plazas receive a mi- crowave signal transmitted via a small box in vehicles that use the roads. But in Slovakia, Siemens embarked on a dif- ferent approach — one that, for the first time, made it possible to eliminate the high level of investment required for toll plazas. Instead, trucks that travel on toll roads must now be equipped with an onboard unit like the one in Wondracek’s car. This system can precisely measure the distance traveled, and thus the amount each shipping company will be charged for each vehicle. There are other po- tential benefits. For example, a country could decide to track the exact location of shipments of hazardous goods or animals in real time. “The flexibility of this technology is unri- valled,” says Wondracek. For example, an on- board unit can be programmed in line with a truck engine’s emission class and whether or not a trailer is being used. The toll fee can then be adjusted according to the vehicle’s impact on the environment and road surface. A simple alteration to the software on the central com- puter is all that’s required if a government de- cides to extend the system to other roads. The Slovakian system has been successfully launched and 220,000 onboard units equipped with Siemens technology are now on the road in that country, which has to ac- commodate a high volume of international transit traffic. Domestically-registered trucks have a built-in onboard unit, while trucks pass- ing through are issued a mobile device at the border. “This is a breakthrough,” says Won- dracek, who has already been invited by gov- ernments all over Europe to carry out driving 50 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2010 An Affordable Track-and-Charge System Satellite-based toll system Source: Siemens AG Route is determined Satellite Central computer Invoice Virtual toll plaza Truck with onboard unit Route? Road and vehicle type? Hazardous materials? = Charges Identifies vehicle *”Electronic Tolling Back Office” computer ETBO* ID A satellite-supported onboard unit (left) enables a toll system to calculate the length of trips not only on major highways but also on minor roads. A minor alteration to central computer software is all it takes to expand the toll system to additional roads. work,” explains Dieter Geiger from Siemens’ Mobility Division. “Factors include road capaci- ty, weather and population and traffic density.” Tolls that Shape Behavior. Another trial be- ing carried out by Siemens — this one in Den Haag in the Netherlands — shows how pre- cisely traffic flows might be controlled in the future using toll system data. Siemens has equipped several hundred passenger cars with an onboard unit in a test designed to simulate the influence tolls have on driving behavior. Do, for example, test subjects avoid rush hours to reduce their tolls? Do many of them switch to public transport? “I believe this is the wave of the future,” says Dr. Alexander Renner, head of Develop- ment at the Vienna Competence Center. “If cer- tain roads became expensive during peak traf- fic periods, we could ease congestion. That in turn would speed up traffic flows and lower emissions.” The onboard unit Wondracek is us- ing on his trip through Vienna demonstrates that such technically-complex solutions can al- ready be implemented today. Back in his office, Wondracek points to a screen. “The onboard unit sent my trip data to this computer,” he says. The system software can reconstruct the route down to individual lanes, thereby providing the basis for toll calcu- lation. Nor is privacy a problem, according to Wondracek, because all data is sent to a cen- tral computer that collects the information in accordance with the onboard units’ anony- mous registration numbers. This computer for- wards only information on the number of kilo- meters driven on toll roads to a second computer center, which then calculates the toll for the user based on the device number. “Our goal is to merge the different systems and achieve European-wide compatibility over the next few years,” says Renner. Satellite- based systems could play the key role here. “In the long run, every car and truck will be equipped with an onboard unit,” Renner says. At that point, many of the different approach- es used today will be combined into a single system, which means the same devices used to determine highway tolls for trucks will also do the same for city toll systems and those used for bridges, tunnels, and mountain pass roads. Because Siemens’ system can be used across borders, drivers won’t need a different onboard unit for each country. “It will thus be possible to regulate personal transport so that it is more economical and less polluting,” says Renner. “Moreover, the combination of differ- ent features in a single system will make life easier than ever before as far as drivers are concerned.” Kilian Kirchgeßner Faster Commuting The average driver in Germany spends 60 hours a year in traffic jams, and much of it takes place in cities. Engineers at Siemens are developing advanced information systems and traffic light management systems that reduce congestion. E nvironmentally-compatible mobility is a primary concern for transportation plan- ners in the northern German city of Münster. The city has started to modernize its traffic light control system, parts of which are several decades old. City planners would like to create the perfect “green wave,”: “Fewer stops mean reduced fuel consumption, air pollution, and noise. Creating a wave of green lights is essen- tial for sustainable urban traffic management,” explains Jürgen Mück, a technical cybernetics engineer at Siemens Mobility. The city decided to test the system on Al- bersloher Weg, a major thoroughfare with 24 traffic light intersections along a 6 km route that had already been outfitted with Siemens' Sitraffic Motion MX adaptive network control system back in 2008. “Now, however, a mathe- matical method is being used here for the first time to calculate a green wave. It's a key inno- vation that sets us apart from our competi- tors,” says Mück. As an “adaptive” control system, Motion MX adjusts traffic light intervals every five to 15 Münster Moves Faster Traffic light stops for all road users Source: Ruhr University Bochum, Lehrstuhl fur Verkehrswesen Morning peak 7:00 to 9:00 a.m. Afternoon peak 4:00 to 6:00 p.m. With fixed-time control With conventional optimization With adaptive control Reduction in % 0 10 20 30 32 35 28 20 26 22 -13% -38% -26% -37% W hen the west wind rises and the North Sea begins to churn and send its heavy break- ers crashing against the dunes of Jutland, thou- sands of windmills go into action on the Danish coast. Today, 20 percent of Denmark’s electrici- ty is produced by wind power, making it the world leader in this area, and this figure is set to rise to 50 percent by 2025. Still, the good feeling about so much renewable energy is dampened by the fact that when the wind blows too strongly, the wind-turbine rotors already gener- ate more electricity than Denmark’s grid can han- dle. Until now, Danish power utilities have had 400 volts. Charging times will depend mainly on what type of output the outlet offers. Develop- ers expect to see an initial charging power of around 10 kilowatts (kW), and up to 43 kW over the medium term, which corresponds to a charg- ing time of between 20 minutes and two hours. Charging will take place via an electrical con- nection under the fuel tank flap. In the spring of 2009 at the Geneva Motor Show in Switzerland, Ruf and Siemens present- ed a Porsche 911 Targa-styled model that had been converted into an electric car known as the eRuf Roadster (see Pictures of the Future, Spring 2009, p. 96). This vehicle, with a capacity of 270 kW of power, impresses with high acceleration and impressive torque right from the start. Whereas a combustion engine needs some time in order to fully develop its power, an electric mo- tor delivers its full performance immediately. The eRuf Roadster is a demonstration vehicle that shows just how chic electromobility can be. Still, because the model was developed in only three months, its individual components were not all part of a new component approach but instead represent a combination of available standard components. “Within the ongoing project of the German Environment Ministry (BMU) ‘emotion without emission’ the new eRuf Roadster mod- el will have optimally matched components,” says Prof. Gernot Spiegelberg, head of the concept de- velopment Electromobility at Corporate Tech- nology (CT). Such components include a fast- charge unit and precisely tuned components for motor control, and charging electronics. A small test fleet of the eRuf Roadster 2 will be completed in May 2011. Standardized Charging.At the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, the eRuf Stormsters were charged with wind power and used in a shuttle service between the conference center and the airport. The Stormster concept in- cludes a “power pump” from Siemens that com- municates with the vehicle’s electronics. This is arate buildings. After all, if 10,000 vehicles si- multaneously tap the grid for 20 kW each, the re- sulting required output will be 200 MW — a medi- um power plant. Batteries on Wheels.The energy specialists for “Inside Car” and “Outside Car” are currently par- ticipating in Denmark’s EDISON project, which stands for “Electric vehicles in a Distributed and Integrated market using Sustainable energy and Open Networks.” EDISON, the world’s first and most extensive project of its kind, will bring a pool of vehicles to power outlets and connect them to the fluctuating power of the wind. The asso- ciated technology for vehicles and the grid will be developed and prepared for use in 2011. Practical testing will begin in 2011 on the Dan- ish island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea. There, test vehicles will be charged with wind power from the public grid. When demand in the grid rises — at breakfast time, for example — parked cars will feed electricity back into the network. The Danes are hoping that a fleet of thousands of vehicles will be able to offset fluctuations in the wind-power supply in the near future. Instead of having separate electricity storage units to buffer against the fluctuations, the cars and their batteries would provide additional storage ca- pacity, which is why EDISON will focus on achieving a bidirectional flow of electricity from the grid into vehicles and back. The results could be significant. If, for instance, 200,000 ve- hicles, each rated at 40 kW, are connected to the grid, a total output of 8 GW would be available at short notice — more than Germany requires as a cushion against consumption peaks. In addition to Siemens, the EDISON consor- tium includes the Technical University of Denmark one of the key challenges for electromobility — and not just in Denmark. After all, drivers will want to recharge their electric vehicles at any location — be it a garage, supermarket, or company park- ing lot. In a manner similar to cell phone invoicing, the electricity used will be billed by a provider. However, for such a system to work it will be nec- essary to identify the vehicle and exchange data between its onboard electronics and the charge pump. Siemens is pursuing the development of electromobility through a comprehensive ap- proach involving not only automotive engi- neering — as is the case with Roadster and Storm- ster — but also systems for connecting vehicles to the power grid. Here, both the charging process and communications are being ad- dressed. Siemens refers to these two areas as “In- side Car” and “Outside Car.” “We’ve started our own corporate project named ‘Smart Grid Ap- plications and Electromobility’,which covers all facets of electromobility,” says Richard Hausmann, head of the cross-sectoral project. Meanwhile across the group, more than 300 experts from all sectors and Corporate Technology are address- ing the issue. This does not only apply to elec- trocars, but especially to charging infrastructure, the modernization of the power grid, and the communication of all components with one another. It will, for example, be necessary to in- stall systems that can accommodate the total elec- tricity requirements of the individual vehicles in public areas such as inner-city parking garages and sports stadiums. This means several dozen such transformers have to be linked via medium- voltage switchgear. Having several thousand cars parked in one place will require major facilities, and these will perhaps have to be installed in sep- to send this surplus electricity to neighboring countries — and pay for doing so. It is therefore not surprising that Denmark is a pioneer in the development of storage tech- nologies to accommodate excess electricity, with researchers focusing mainly on the batter- ies used in electric vehicles. Current plans call for one out of ten cars in Denmark to run on elec- tricity from wind power in ten years. Although this goal may seem ambitious, given that there are hardly any electric vehicles on European roads today, Denmark is moving ahead rapidly with elec- tric mobility through a broad range of projects— Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 53 Buildings and Mobility | Electromobility 52 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 and Siemens is providing support as a develop- ment partner in two areas: connecting vehicles to the grid and automotive engineering. Road to the Climate Summit. For example, to- gether with Ruf, a German company that spe- cializes in custom vehicles, Siemens presented three electrically-powered Stormster automobiles at the UN World Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2009. These vehicles are based on the Porsche Cayenne chassis and have an integrated charging system, including electronics, with which they can be charged from any power outlet that provides 230– Tomorrow’s electric vehicles will redefine mobility. Not only will they recharge in only minutes at fast- charge stations. They will also function as mobile power storage units for the smart grid. Siemens covers all facets of electromobility — from vehicle technology to power grid integration. From Wind to Wheels Industrial companies and energy suppliers are working closely together to make the vision of electric mobility a reality. Along with automotive engineering, the focus here is on the interaction between ve- hicles, the power grid, and the technologies needed for storing and bidirectionally transmitting energy derived from renewable sources. various new components for different drive sys- tems will be integrated into the e-cars and then tested. The ideas range from central-motor, au- tomatic two speed gear box to a double-motor with a so-called Torque Vectoring. These concepts opens a new dimension in driving dynamics. The double-motor concept uses an electron- ic control system that ensures optimal propulsion of the right and left wheels, which are exposed to different loads in a curve. It’s thanks to this phe- nomenon that a driver can still handle a vehicle perfectly in extreme situations. With a central mo- tor concept, all the power must be transferred via a bulky and heavy differential, which adds weight to the car. With the double motor concept, however, a small control unit is all that’s need- ed to send commands by wire to the individual electric motors. It’s already clear to Spiegelberg what will hap- pen next. “The coming years will see the devel- opment of electric vehicles whose four wheels will each be equipped with their own small drive unit,” he says. These motors will recover brake en- ergy and eliminate the need for a large central motor and the transmission and axle shafts, there- by creating more space. Moreover, unlike axle shafts, electronic com- ponents can be installed anywhere in the car and don’t necessarily have to be located near the elec- tric motors. This will offer designers complete- ly new possibilities for things like side-mounted wheels that also hold the drive units. In addition, vehicle entry and exiting could be facilitated in large multi-passenger cars by removing the cen- ter console and installing active fold-out seats. In general, the interior could be completely re- designed and made even safer — for example, by getting rid of the hard steering column and replacing it and the pedals with levers or joysticks for operating the car. Completely new func- tionalities are conceivable. It is hard to imagine what type of revolutionary breakthroughs elec- tromobility will lead to.Tim Schröder S parks can sometimes fly in the Siemens En- ergy Sector labs in Erlangen and Fürth, both of which are located in southern Ger- many. When several hundred amps flow through testing systems consisting of large in- verters, capacitors, and transformers, techni- cians have to be extremely careful — in order to protect not only themselves but also the components they’re testing. “We develop stationary direct-current (DC) chargers with an output of between 12 and 100 kW,” says Dr. Heike Barlag, who manages the tests. “The devices are designed for trac- tion batteries in electric vehicles.” Barlag’s goal: A charging unit for use at highway rest stops or parking lots that all drivers will be able to use safely and easily as a filling station. “Here, we’re using components that Siemens normally manufactures for industrial applica- tions and are finally adapting them to our re- quirements,” explains Barlag. But why DC? Wouldn’t a conventional alter- nating current (AC) socket like those found in households suffice? “No, because charging times would be much too long,” the project manager says. A normal 230 volt,16 amp Euro- pean household socket supplies an output of around 3.7 kW. That would take more than eight hours to charge a 30 kWh traction bat- tery — in other words, overnight. This would be sufficient for an average electric car to trav- el up to 200 km - is enough for city use but not for longer trips. Automakers around the world are trying to increase the charging power of chargers in electric vehicles — for example, through the use of currents of up to 63 amp (44 kW). This would enable a 30 kWh battery to be charged in less than 45 minutes. “Basically, charging with AC from a plug is feasible for everyday use,” says Sven Holthusen, a Siemens product manager specializing in electric mobility infra- structures. Automakers have announced that they will begin introducing electric vehicles in large volumes by 2014. When they do so, such technologies will usher in a new age. Energized Tanks.AC technology also has drawbacks. For one thing, the inverters it re- quires become larger and heavier as output in- creases, which in turn drives up energy con- sumption and operating costs. That’s why Siemens is pursuing a different goal, namely that of having vehicles “fill up” directly with DC rather than converting AC inside the vehicle to the DC. The heavy equipment required for AC- DC conversion would be housed in the charg- ing station itself. Holthusen explains the bene- fits of this approach: “It enables us to achieve very high charging powers of several hundred in mind, Holthusen and his colleagues are work- ing on a fast-charge function that operates with much higher voltages and currents — initially with 400 volt and 63 ampere. Holthusen’s approach is considered to be realistic since every household already has a 400 volt connection. Holthusen: “We go a great deal further in our tests, however, in order to determine what’s pos- sible,” says Holthusen. More specifically, he wants to raise charging power to as much as 300 kW so that batteries can be recharged in six min- utes. Electrics would then be on a par with con- ventional vehicles. Lithium-ion batteries with such fast charging capability are expected to be ready for market launch in the near future. However, new battery technologies will have to be devel- oped if a car is to be charged in as little as three minutes. Siemens’ testing activities are not limited to Denmark, of course. The company’s researchers are also active in Germany where, for example, they are working with Harz.EE.mobility in a project designed to determine how distributed wind, solar, and biogas power systems can be bet- ter aligned with the grid. Therefore Siemens supplies for example a charging point, the energy management, the in- tegration of the electrocars into the smart grid communication solutions. Where Motors Are Going.While the eRuf Road- ster 1 was a concept car, the Roadster 2 will be produced for a test fleet as part of the BMU-pro- ject “emotion without emission”. In this process Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2010 55 which is why today’s standard batteries with an energy capacity of 30 kWh are only charged at a rate of 1/3 C per hour. In this case, that means a power of 10 kW, which increases the charging time to three hours. Holthusen: “We need batteries that are de- signed for higher temperatures, exhibit lower power losses or have better cooling properties.” Buildings and Mobility | Electromobility | Electric Vehicles (DTU) and its Risø-DTU research center, as well as Denmark’s Dong Energy and Østkraft power utilities, the Eurisco research and development center, and IBM. In the EDISON project, various working groups are responsible for developing all the technologies needed for electromobility. Here, Siemens is mainly responsible for fast- charge and battery replacement systems. “Siemens’ portfolio already contains many com- ponents that we are now adapting and repro- gramming,” says Sven Holthusen, who is re- sponsible for the EDISON project at Siemens’ En- ergy Sector. Contaminated Grid?One of Holthusen’s jobs is to study how the grid will be affected when mil- lions of electric vehicles are plugged into it and disconnected every day. He is therefore carrying out his research at the Risø research campus, which has its own electricity grid. “This enables us to monitor the effects of such a situation on a small scale,” he explains. In this context, things become particularly tricky if harmonics oc- cur when batteries are hooked up to the 50 hertz grid, as these can resonate and unbalance the grid frequency. Such disturbances, which are re- ferred to as “grid-quality contamination,” can lead to failure of the entire network if large waves form. There are no quick fixes for such a scenario yet, but Holthusen is working on answers. In his tests, he connects up to 15 batteries, each of which weighs 300 kg and has an energy content of 25 kilowatt hours (kWh). By comparison, a mid-range vehicle requires around 18 kWh to travel 100 km. Holthusen then uses software to measure how the batteries affect the grid and to cushion the results of connection. Another major obstacle to electromobility is the length of battery recharging times. With this 54 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 kilowatts, which means an electric car could be recharged in only a few minutes.” However, this puts a great strain on the bat- tery - the higher the charging power, the faster the electrons and ions in the battery move around. Cells begin to heat up, increasing power losses . Rising temperatures then dis- rupt the chemical processes in the battery, Below: Prof. Gernot Spiegelberg hooks up an electric car with a charging station in a Siemens lab. The charging process of the battery is closely monitored by the electromobility-experts. We can’t even begin to imagine the type of revolution- ary breakthroughs that electromobility will lead to. With the eRuf-Roadster, Siemens and the German car manufacture Ruf are demonstrating just how at- tractive electric cars can be. When used as grid-con- nected storage units, they can even earn money with their batteries. It still takes hours to recharge an electric-vehicle battery. Obviously, at the charging stations of the future, this process will need to be much faster. Siemens researchers are therefore developing devices that will make it easy for drivers to recharge their car batteries within minutes. Get a Charge! It remains to be decided which communica- tion channel will be used to exchange data be- tween chargers and batteries. There are basi- cally three possibilities. The first involves the CAN (Controller Area Network) bus technology already used in cars to digitally link their con- trol devices. The second option is to utilize a communication standard known as Powerline Communication (PLC), which would allow per- tinent information to be transmitted “piggy- back” on the charging current by low or high- frequency signals of up to 30 MHz. Siemens is now testing this concept in sev- eral projects, including one since September 2010 with BMW and the Munich municipal utility. For this project, a prototype DC charging unit is being used with a modified BMW 1 Se- ries model. The third option is wireless communication via a system such as Bluetooth. “We’re looking into all of the possibilities,” says Barlag. “The standardization commission will decide which one will ultimately be utilized, but Siemens al- ready has the expertise required for all three technologies.” Despite the extensive work being carried out on charging technologies with cables and plugs, specialists like Barlag and the members of her team are also exploring other charging techniques, such as battery replacement at fill- ing stations, a process that could be carried out by robot-controlled devices within just a few minutes. Siemens experts already have a con- cept for such an approach. Electricity in the Air.It’s also possible that the electricity needed for recharging tomor- row’s cars might be delivered wirelessly — in other words, inductively via electrical and magnetic fields. This is already possible at the low powers that are needed to recharge electric tooth- brushes, for example. Holthusen also finds this idea appealing because inductive charging would be much more convenient for drivers, who would no longer have to handle plugs and could enjoy the benefits of a largely automat- ed charging procedure. On the other hand, this alternative is ex- pensive compared to the plug-in model. “There still aren’t any sufficiently advanced solutions for higher outputs in the kilowatt range,” says Barlag, “but we’re working on initial ideas in the lab.” These ideas are already flowing into the “Contactless Charging of Battery-Electric Vehicles” project with BMW. The project is fo- cusing on the development of inductive charg- ing stations that are scheduled to undergo testing at the end of 2011 in Berlin. Rolf Sterbak electricity from pumped storage or gas-turbine power plants. “Different ideas are being ex- plored to address this problem,” says Holthusen. “For example, we could use a setup in which several DC charging stations are not directly connected to the grid but instead oper- ate via a large interim battery that acts as a buffer. This solution would make DC charging more expensive, however. So we’ve got a lot of development work to do, especially because we still have almost no standardized proce- dures and technologies for DC charging.” Stan- dards will be required, however, if DC charging is to become the established international norm. Siemens is therefore working with the auto- mobile industry in various standardization commissions. Among other things, these bod- ies focus on safety concepts designed to pre- vent drivers from starting their vehicles or pulling out plugs during the charging process, for example. The key thing here is that com- munication between charging units and vehi- cle batteries should function properly. For ex- ample, the charger needs to know what power level the battery can handle — information that it will receive from the battery manage- ment system. This procedure therefore also needs to be standardized, given the variety of electric vehicles that will be on the road in the future. Buildings and Mobility | Electric Vehicles Such developments will take some time to achieve, according to experts. Until the break- through comes, Siemens researchers are look- ing to further optimize the charging process — for example, by participating in a Danish re- search project known as EDISON. The acronym stands for “Electric vehicles in a Distributed and Integrated market using Sustainable energy and Open Networks.” Other EDISON project partners include the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and its Risø research center, as well as Denmark’s Dong Energy and Østkraft power utilities, the Eurisco research and development company, and IBM. The goal of the partnership is to de- termine how frequently unused wind energy in Denmark can be temporarily stored in elec- tric car batteries and later returned to the grid. Siemens is responsible here for fast charging technologies, among other things. Battery Management.The experts who work for Barlag and Holthusen enjoy ideal test conditions at Risø. “We can test all components individually in a closed power grid,” Barlag ex- plains. “We want to find out which charging al- gorithms can be used to optimally charge bat- teries in various states,” she says. That’s because the speed at which a battery can be charged depends on both the charging power and the state of the battery, whereby a com- pletely discharged battery can generally ac- commodate a higher power than one that is partially charged. Researchers are therefore testing the most diverse types of charging techniques, one of which is known as pulse charging. The battery is charged at a high current for a short time, af- ter which the heated cells are cooled down and the charging process begins anew. “Our rapid charging tests in Risø will show us if we can save time and transfer a higher output with pulse charging, or whether a continuous charging curve would be better,” says Barlag. ”We’re hoping to achieve a charging rate of two to three C.“ Managing Charging Peaks.In addition to determining how quickly batteries can be charged, Siemens researchers are also striving to evaluate what effect charging will have on the grid infrastructure. This is important be- cause the German federal government expects one million electric vehicles to be on the road by 2020. Because these cars will obtain their energy from the power grid, there’s a risk that load peaks will occur — for example when hundreds of vehicles simultaneously recharge fat airports or stadiums. To ensure the power grid doesn’t fail, energy suppliers will have to compensate for such peaks with expensive 56 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2010 One of the things being tested in the EDISON project is how wind energy can be integrated into the power grid. Electric car batteries could be the ideal intermediate storage medium. Communication between external charging units and a vehicle’s battery management system will be a must. In Brief Buildings account for about 40 percent of energy consumption worldwide, and approximately 21 per- cent of all greenhouse gas emissions. However, the implementation of a number of simple measures can make it relatively easy to save at least a quarter of energy in most buildings. And in the future, intel- ligent building management systems will ease the load on power and heat networks—and even feed self-generated electricity into the grid. (p.32, 37) Streetlights that use light-emitting diodes (LEDs) cut electricity consumption by up to 80 percent. Not only are LEDs efficient; their light can also be optimally directed, as an example in Regensburg shows. (p.35) Power companies worldwide have begun instal- ling electronic smart meters that allow customers to monitor consumption practically in real time and thus conserve energy. Such companies benefit from better grid load planning and lower costs. Siemens offers complete solutions that include everything from hardware to software. (p.38) To reduce traffic-related pollution in cities, engi- neers are developing green mass transportation sys- tems. In particular, buses could operate more effi- ciently if their diesel drives were augmented with electric motors. Siemens engineers are also develo- ping smart solutions that reduce traffic congestion while preserving the environment. These solutions include toll systems that utilize cutting-edge satellite technology to reduce traffic in metropolitan areas. (p.43, 45, 49, 50) Industrial companies and energy suppliers are working closely together to make the vision of elect- ric mobility a reality. Along with automotive engi- neering, the focus here is on the interaction bet- ween vehicles, the power grid, and the technologies needed for storing and directionally transmitting energy derived from renewable sources. (p.52) It still takes hours to recharge an electric-vehicle battery. Obviously, at the charging stations of the future, this process will need to be much faster. Siemens researchers are therefore developing devices that will make it easy for drivers to recharge their car batteries within minutes. (p.55) PEOPLE: Performance-Contracting: Ullrich Brickmann, Industry Ullrich.firstname.lastname@example.org LED Regensburg: Dr. Martin Möck, Osram email@example.com Buildings in a Smart Grid: Volker Dragon, Industry firstname.lastname@example.org Smart Meters: Alexander Schenk, Energy email@example.com Ecotram Vienna: Walter Struckl, Industry firstname.lastname@example.org Hybrid buses: Manfred Schmidt, Industry email@example.com Satellite-based toll systems: Christoph Wondracek, Industry firstname.lastname@example.org Electromobility: Prof. Gernot Spiegelberg, CT email@example.com Michaela Stolz-Schmitz, Energy firstname.lastname@example.org LINKS: Rubin Nuremberg: www.rubin-nuernberg.de Osram Opto Semiconductors: www.osram-os.com Vienna Climatic Wind Tunnel: www.rta.co.at Pictures of the Future | Green Cities 57 64 Colossus with a world record The world’s largest turbine en- tered trial service in December 2007. It will help to ensure that the power plant in Irsching achie - ves a record-braking efficiency in 2011. 66 Virtual Power Plants In order to link decentralized pow- er plants and renewable energy sources to the power grid, they are being integrated into power station networks. 68 Fine-tuning Power Plants There are hundreds of fossil fuel power plants throughout the world that can dramatically increase their efficiency by modernizing. Siemens has the necessary solutions at the ready. 74 Trapping the Wind In the future, fluctuations in wind power will have to be balanced by storage systems in order to prevent power grids from being overloaded. One option could be gigantic underground hydrogen storage centers. 79 The Desert lives The goal of the Desertec initiative is to help Europe meet its future energy requirements by supplying solar power from North Africa. The necessary technology exists already today. Highlights 2030 Harvesting electricity in 2030. A solar ther- mal power plant in the Moroccan desert cov- ers 100 square kilometers, which makes it the world’s largest installation of its kind. Using HVDCT lines, the electricity is transmit- ted as direct current at 1000 kilovolts to the coast, where it transforms salt water into pure drinking water. From there, it is trans- mitted across the sea to Europe, where it provides clean power to many countries. T he reflected image of the man walking past the glittering parabolic mirrors is oddly dis- torted. It wanders like a mirage through the seemingly endless row of mirrors, stops briefly and then continues on its way. There’s not a breath of wind, and even though the sun is now low, the temperature is still over 30 de- grees Celsius. Karim is in a hurry, because he Morocco in 2030. Karim works as an engineer in the world’s largest solar thermal power plant, which transmits energy from the desert to faraway Europe. Every evening he takes the time to admire the sunset above the countless rows of parabolic mirrors. But today he’s not doing it alone. The Electric Caravan E n e r g y T e c h n o l o g i e s | Scenario 2030 doesn’t want to miss the daily evening show. Before the sun sets he wants to reach the hill above the “frying pan” — his colleagues’ name for a huge solar thermal installation in the Mo- roccan desert. In the glow of sunset, the level field of countless mirrors is transformed into a sea of red flames. It’s a spectacle Karim has never yet missed in the five years since he was sent here to help manage the world’s biggest solar ther- mal power plant. Together with his colleagues, he lives and works in a small settlement on the edge of the installation. With the help of thousands of sen- sors, solar thermal power experts here monitor the power plant, which covers 100 square kilo- Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 59 58 Pictures of the Future | Green Cities Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 61 for the general distribution of power to popu- lation centers or large industrial sites, where, de- pending on the region, the voltage is stepped down again to between six and 30 kV for the medium-voltage grid. This is followed by local dis- tribution. Here, substations reduce the voltage to 230 and 400 volts and send the power into the low- voltage grid, which feeds consumers’ outlets. Needed: Electricity Highways. Until now, electrons have flown relatively smoothly through Europe’s grids, despite the fact that many of the continent’s power lines are now over 40 years old. Gridlock is inevitable, how- ever, as traffic continues to increase. Accord- ing to the International Energy Agency, the European Union generated roughly 3,400 ter- a watt hours (TWh) of electricity in 2008. This is expected to reach 4,500 TWh by 2030. In addition, the energy mix is getting more environmentally friendly. In 20 years, some 30 percent of the world’s electricity is expected to come from renewable sources. Today the figure is only 18 percent. But as the percentage of elec- tricity generated by renewables grows, so does the instability of the network (p.71). Because eco- friendly electricity is primarily generated by wind farms much more energy than can be used is pumped into high voltage network in stormy weather, while supply cannot be guaranteed on calm days. In addition to being able to accom- modate a fluctuating supply of wind-generat- ed electricity, tomorrow’s grids will have to in- corporate a growing number of small, regional power producers. “The generation of electrici- ty will become increasingly decentralized, in- corporating small solar installations on rooftops, biomass plants, mini cogeneration plants and much more,” says Dr. Michael Weinhold, CTO of Siemens Energy. “As a result, the previous flow of power from the transmission to the distribu- tion grid will be reversed in part or for periods of time in many regions.” According to Weinhold, our grid infrastructure is not yet prepared for that. Grid operators and governments agree on how the challenge should be met. In addition to a massive expansion of electricity highways, the grids must undergo a fundamental change. “Right now they are not very intelligent,” says Weinhold. “The level of automation for the sys- tem as a whole is very low.” The low-voltage dis- tribution grid, in particular, is often a total mystery to utilities. Because it includes hardly any components capable of communication in its Energy Technologies | Scenario 2030 meters. As soon as these tiny digital assistants register a defect, Karim and the rest of his maintenance crew go to work. Karim, a true son of the desert, moves through the heat very slowly and carefully — and in contrast with his European colleagues, who rush around sweating, his shirts always re- main dry. But now he too is in a hurry, and he’s relieved when he has reached the garage with the off-roaders. Trained as an engineer, Karim is a calm and deliberate man. He seldom uses bad language — only in the rare cases when there isn’t enough sugar in his tea or when one of his col- leagues has forgotten to “tank up” the off- roader, as has just happened. The electric vehicle wasn’t plugged into an electrical socket — sockets that are supplied with power from the solar thermal installation. Nevertheless, Karim gets into the driver’s seat and presses the starter button. The vehicle’s 150 kilowatt electric motor starts up with a soft purr. A pictogram on the control panel indicates that the battery only has 10 percent of its full capacity. When fully charged, the vehicle has a range of 350 kilometers — and ten percent is not enough to get him up the hill. But the off-roader is equipped with a small, highly efficient gasoline engine for emergen- cies, which works like a generator and gives the vehicle an additional range of 300 kilometers. And the gas tank is still full. Karim is satisfied, steps on the gas pedal, and the off-roader jolts off almost silently along the sandy trail toward the hill. The final meters are the most difficult ones. The electric off-roader pushes through the sand with great effort, but eventually it reaches its goal. Karim climbs out of the vehicle and hur- ries to the top of the hill. The sun has already reached the horizon, and the temperature has dropped noticeably. A gentle breeze is coming from the sea. But Karim doesn’t notice it, be- cause he now smells something burning. Nearby he finds a small campfire. In front of it sits a nomad holding a teapot above the crackling flames. The old man greets him with the traditional “Salam” and motions for him to come closer. Karim hasn’t seen any nomads in this area for a long time now — but he knows that they’re always on the go. He gives the old man a friendly nod and sits down beside him at the campfire. “My name is Hussein,” says the nomad as he hands Karim a glass of tea. “What brings you here?” Karim shovels several spoonfuls of sugar into his tea. He points down the hillside. “Do you see those countless mirrors that are just now reflecting the last rays of the sun? They are generating electricity from the sun’s heat. This power plant produces enough electricity to sup- ply all of Morocco. My job is to make sure everything runs smoothly.” Hussein looks down at the installation, which is starting to glow red in the sunset. “A power plant? I’d say it looks like a work of art created by some crazy European.” Karim grins. “You’re not too far off the mark. This technology was in fact developed in Eu- rope. Installations like this one are being built all over North Africa. They’ve been going up for years. The mirrors automatically swivel so that they’re always facing the sun. They capture the sun’s beams and focus them on a pipe that is filled with a special salt. The salt is heated to as much as 600 degrees Celsius and generates steam, which in turn drives a turbine that pro- duces electricity.” Hussein points to the west, where the sun is dipping beneath the horizon. “And what hap- pens after it gets dark?” he asks. “The power plant is equipped with storage systems that contain the same kind of salt that’s in the pipes,” explains Karim. “This salt stores so much heat that the plant can also produce electricity at night.” The nomad looks thoughtful. “But what do we need all that electricity for?” he asks. “There’s only dust and gravel here wherever you look, and Casablanca is far away.” Karim points to a gigantic high-voltage overhead line leading northward from the installation through the desert until it is lost from sight. “We use some of the power to change seawater into drinking water,” he says. Hussein nods. This makes sense to him. Karim likes explaining things to people and is now hitting his stride. “But we also sell a lot of it at good prices to European countries that want to become less dependent on oil, natural gas, and coal. The energy is transported to them via electricity highways like this one. It works like a caravan — the electricity travels across distances as great as 3,000 kilometers to European cities that use enormous amounts of power. However, by transmitting it at 1,000 kilovolts hardly any electricity is lost in transit.” Karim sips his tea with satisfaction. “The desert holds our past and also our future,” he muses. “In the old days we pumped petroleum out of the ground and today we’re harvesting solar energy.” The old man lays a hand gently on Karim’s shoulder. “The sun gives us everything we need to stay alive — our forefathers already knew that,” he says with a smile as he hands a warm blanket to his guest. “But the night is coming on quickly. Here, take this. In spite of your gi- gantic power plant down there you’re shivering like a sick camel.” Florian Martini 60 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 M otorists who venture into the maze of a major city are part of a larger whole. Tens of thousands of vehicles stream along highways from all directions and find their way through a dense network of roads. But keeping that net- work flowing is no easy task. Already hopelessly clogged under the best of circumstances, such networks can easily face gridlock. All it takes is a few fender benders — to say nothing of cir- cumstances such as a subway strike or a snow storm. As a result, sooner or later, every city gov- ernment must decide whether to expand its transportation infrastructure or face collapse. The situation with our power grid is similar. Electricity flows on copper “highways” from power plants to centers of demand. Along the way, it passes through various “road networks” that are separated by substations. These facili- ties function as traffic lights or railroad switch- es while also adjusting the electricity before for- warding it to the next grid. In the highest volt- age alternating current lines, electricity flows at 220 to 380 kilovolts (kV) across hundreds of kilo- meters from power plants to substations, where the voltage is reduced to 110 kV before the elec- tricity is then fed into the what is called the dis- tribution or high-voltage grid. This grid is used | Trends More and more electricity will be generated in the future. However, old grids can scarcely handle the electricity generated today. Electric “gridlock” is a real threat. Switching on the Vision Our power grids are facing new challenges. They will not only have to integrate large quantities of fluctuating wind and solar power, but also incorporate an increasing number of small, decentralized power producers. Today’s infrastructure is not up to this task. The solution is to de- velop an intelligent grid that keeps electricity production and distribution in balance. Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 63 could be used to transport enormous quantities of solar energy from Northern Africa to Europe, as described in the Desertec project. “Electricity will draw the world together,” predicts Weinhold. In addition to new electricity highways, to- morrow’s grid will need more buffers to stop it from bursting at the seams. Intermediate stor- age is needed for the excess power fed into the grid by fluctuating energy sources (p.74). Traditionally, this has relied on pumped stor- age power plants, but there is hardly any ca- pacity for further expansion in Central Europe. As a result, wind farms will either have to be shut down to prevent them from overloading the grid during periods of overproduction or producers will have to pay someone to take the electricity. One future solution could be electric cars, which temporarily store excess energy and lat- er return it to the grid when needed — at a higher price (p.52). For example, 200,000 electric cars connected to the grid could make eight gigawatts of power available very quick- ly. That would be more than is currently re- quired in Germany. As part of the EDISON project, in which Siemens is also participating, testing will begin on the electric cars concept and other solutions in Denmark in 2011. It is abundantly clear to Weinhold that we are moving full speed ahead into a new era. “Just yes- terday the big issue was oil, but climate change is moving things in a different direction,” he says. Weinhold believes that we are currently on the threshold of a new electric age. Electricity is in- creasingly becoming an all-encompassing energy carrier. This is good for the climate, because elec- tricity can be generated ecologically and trans- mitted very efficiently.Florian Martini Virtual Networks. Another component of the smart grid is the “virtual power plant” (p.66). Here, the idea is that small energy pro- ducers such as cogeneration plants, wind, so- lar, hydro or biomass plants, which have previ- ously fed their power into the grid individually and inconsistently, could be connected to form a virtual network. “This would allow them to bundle their power and sell it in a marketplace that is inaccessible to small sup- pliers,” says Günther. The grid would benefit too. “Consolidated into a virtual power plant and acting as a flexible unit, small plants could make balancing power available and thus help to stabilize the grid,” says Günther. Balancing power is provided in addition to the base load to cover peaks in demand. As this type of power requires power plants that can begin producing energy quickly, the price for a kWh of balancing power is much higher than for a kWh of base load power. Base load power is generally provided by the workhorses of power generation — coal-fired or nuclear power plants that run around the clock. Stability will be crucial to tomorrow’s grid. But intelligent systems alone will not be enough to manage the large amounts of energy provided by the growing numbers of wind farms or solar- thermal power plants. “There is also work to be done on the hardware side,” says Weinhold. “We need to greatly expand the number of power lines, as physics limits the transmission of elec- trical energy to wires or cables.” According to the German Energy Agency (DENA) study, some 400 kilometers of high-volt- Energy Technologies | Trends present configuration, a lot of important infor- mation remains concealed, such as the actual amount of energy being used by consumers and the condition and efficiency of the line system. According to an Accenture study, up to ten percent of energy disappears from the grid ei- ther due to inefficiency or electricity theft with- out being noticed by power providers. In large cities in some developing nations, as much as 50 percent of electricity disappears this way, and power providers are often unaware of outages — at least until the first complaint is received. With a view to heading off impending prob- lems, in 2005 the European Union came up with a concept, which it called the “smart grid” — a vision of an intelligent, flexibly controllable electrical generation and distribution infra- structure. “The energy system plus information and communications technology all enter into a symbiosis in the smart grid,” says Weinhold. “Not only does this make the grid transparent and thus observable, it also makes it easier to mon- itor and control.” Governments and companies are committing large amounts of money to en- sure that this vision becomes reality. The U.S. De- partment of Energy, for instance, has provided roughly $4 billion in subsidies for smart grid proj- ects in the U.S. German energy utilities are plan- ning to invest roughly €25 billion in smart grid technology by 2020. Key components for the power grid of the future are already available and have even been installed on a limited basis in some countries. One example is smart meters — intelligent, electronic electric meters. “Smart metering is a key technology for the smart grid,” says Eckardt Günther, who heads the Smart Grid Competence Center at Siemens En- ergy in Nuremberg, Germany. “With smart me- tering, energy providers and consumers can for the first time record in detail where and how much electricity is being used and fed into the grid.” The advantage is obvious: If electricity con- sumption is precisely recorded, flexible rates can be used to match consumption to supply. This lowers electric bills and CO 2 emissions. In con- trast, at present if more electricity is being consumed than was forecast, the production of electricity must be increased. Shedding some light on the distribution grid isn’t the only ad- vantage associated with smart meters. “Smart meters heighten energy use awareness and help to better control it,” adds Günther. “In addition, they are a prerequisite for actively participating in electricity markets.” Sebnem Rusitschka of Siemens Corporate Technology is also convinced that tomorrow’s grid will have to be smart. As part of the E-DeMa (de- velopment and demonstration of locally-pro- duced energy marketplaces) project, which is sub- sidized by the German federal government, Rusitschka is responsible for developing the in- formation and communication interface be- tween smart meters, the system for meter data management, and the electronic marketplace. “Among the things we are investigating is how these digital links need to be configured, i.e. what data should be transmitted and how can we ob- tain useful information from it,” she explains. The interfaces will connect both private and com- mercial electricity customers within model re- gions to an electronic marketplace and link them to energy traders, distribution grid operators, and other participants. The project is scheduled for completion in 2012. Rusitschka believes that proj- ects like E-DeMa will boost the smart grid’s prospects. “The technology is available and it works,” she says. This is shown by the project of the Energy AG Upper Austria, which gets sup- ported by Siemens, apart of provision of control and supervisory techniques, with more than 20,000 intelligent electricity meter. With these, the Energy AG will provide an electricity tarrif which arrange different price brackets in 2011 (p.38). 62 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 age grid needs to be reinforced and an additional 850 kilometers of lines need to be erected by 2015 simply to transmit the wind energy that will be generated in Germany. Super Grids. The steadily increasing distances between power generation sites and consumers must also be bridged. One element of a solution to this problem could be high-voltage direct cur- rent (HVDC) transmission, which is capable of transporting large amounts of electricity across thousands of kilometers with low losses. Siemens has put the world’s highest capacity HVDC trans- mission systemin China with a voltage of 800 kV into operation. Since the end of 2010 the sys- tem transmits electricity generated at hydro- electric plants with a record voltage of 800 kV across a distance of 1,400 kilometers by 2010. Weinhold believes that these electricity highways will not only cross borders in the future, but will link entire continents. “We will see the estab- lishment of super grids in regions that can be in- terconnected across climate and time zones,” he says, adding that this would allow seasonal changes, times of day and geographical features to be used to their optimal benefit. Super grids “In the future, electricity highways will not just cross borders but will link entire continents.” Most of tomorrow’s electricity will be generated from renewables such as wind. With HVDC tech- nology, the power can be transmitted over long distances (here an 800 kV transformer). ERP Billing Call center CRM etc. Asset management Energy management systems (EMS) System integrity protection Solar power Distribution management systems (DMS) Meter data management (MDM) Industrial consumers Condition monitoring Substation automation and protection HVDC and FACTS technology Wind power Distributed energy resources Electric cars (batteries) Distribution automation and protection Smart meters and demand response Intelligent buildings Electric cars (batteries) Distribution grid Transmission grid Smart generation Smart consumption Smart grid The Smart Grid will Optimize Interconnections between Producers and Consumers Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2007 65 to test all systems. It seemed like a final check be- fore a space mission—and the countdown was under way, with ignition scheduled for mid-De- cember, 2007. There’s good reason for Siemens’ and E.ON’s decision to use the giant turbine: “The price per megawatt of output and efficiency correlate with the size of the turbine—in other words, the big- ger it is, the more economical it will be,” explains Willibald Fischer, who is responsible for devel- opment of the turbine. Engineers at Siemens Energy overcame two challenges while designing the turbine. They in- creased the amount of air and combustion gas- es that flow through the turbine each second, which causes output to rise more than the loss- es in the turbine, and they raised the tempera- ture of the combustion gases, which increases ef- ficiency. “It’s tricky when you send gas heated to 1,200 to 1,500 degree across metal turbine blades,” says Fischer, “that’s because the highest temperature the blade surfaces are allowed to be exposed to is 950 degrees, at which point they begin to glow red. If it gets any hotter, the ma- terial begins to lose its stability and oxidizes.” Ceramic Coating.Siemens engineers have been creative in tackling this problem. One thing they did was lower the heat transfer from the combustion gas to the metal by applying a protective thermal coating consisting of two lay- ers: a 300 micrometer-thick undercoating directly on the metal and a thin ceramic layer on top of that, which provides heat insulation. The blades are also actively cooled, as they are hollow inside and are exposed to cool airflows generated by the compressor. The blades at the front also have fine holes, from which air is released that then flows across the blades, covering them with a thin in- sulating film, like a protective shield. As turbine blades spin, massive centrifugal forces come into play. The end of each blade is exposed to a maximum force of 10,000 times the earth’s gravitational pull, which is the equivalent of each cubic centimeter of such a blade weigh- ing as much as an adult human being. Now the blades on the giant turbine in Irsching contain al- loys that have mostly been grown as single crys- tals through the utilization of special cooling processes. They are therefore extremely resistant to breaking, as there are no longer any grain bound- aries between the crystallites in the alloy that can rupture. Engineers also optimized the shape of the blades with the help of 3D simulation pro- grams, whereby the edges were designed to keep the gap between the blades and the turbine wall as small as possible. As a result, practically all the gas passes across the blades and is utilized. Each off the measures produces only a frac- tional increase in operational performance. But taken together they add up to a new record. Fi- nally the 18-month trial period proved that everything worked as planned. The go-ahead for the launch was given in August 2009. Meanwhile engineers installed an additional steam turbine on the shaft at the end of the gen- erator. The turbine makes use of the generator’s 600°C gas to generate steam in a heat ex- changer. Only through this combined cycle process can the energy in the gas be so effectively exploited as to achieve the record efficiency of 60 percent. Thereby the Irsching 4 power plant will set a new world record for efficiency and en- vironmental friendliness when it commences op- eration in the summer of 2011. The turbine is also slated to be used at a num- ber of other locations besides Irsching. In 2013, six of the record-setting systems will be operat- ing in Florida, where Florida Power & Light is mod- ernizing its power plants in order to achieve net savings of almost $1 billion over the life cycle of the turbines. A company in South Korea also ordered one of the turbines in early 2011, making the sys- tem a very successful export item for increasing sus- tainability.Bernhard Gerl ten years, more than 800 Siemens employees from around the world were involved in the de- velopment and subsequent testing of this mas- terpiece of engineering. “Block 4 is our project at the moment,” says Winter. Siemens will use the existing infrastruc- ture here, purchase gas from E.ON-Ruhrgas, and sell the electricity it produces at the plant. That was not that important in 2007, however, as the turbine first had to be tested over the fol- lowing 18 months. To this end, the unit has been equipped with 3,000 sensors that measure just about everything modern technology can register. Efficiency Record.Winter points to one of the walls and explains that it is the connection to the air intake unit, which will draw in fresh air from the outside. Equipped with a special housing, fil- ters, and sound absorbers, the unit channels in 800 kilogram of air per second when the facili- ty operates at full capacity. But it will be worth the effort because the gas turbine and a down- stream steam turbine will set a new world record: This technology reduces the fuel costs on average by one third compared to the currently installed fleet of gas and steam power stations. At the same time, compared to the average coal- fired plant, the new facility in Irsching can reduce CO 2 emissions by nearly two thirds. What’s more, the turbine can be started up within five minutes from standby mode and delivers full out- put after just 15 minutes. This makes it ideally suit- ed for offsetting the natural fluctuations asso- ciated with the rapidly growing sector of re- newable energies such as wind and solar. There was still plenty of work to do even af- ter the plant was built in 2007, as technicians had Siemens has now built a combined cycle plant at the Bavarian facility (Block 5) for E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH. The plant includes two small gas turbines and a steam turbine. Siemens has also built the plant’s new Block 4, where the gi- ant turbine is used. The new turbine’s output of 375 MW, which equals that of 17 jumbo jet en- gines, is enough to supply power to the popu- lation of a city the size of Hamburg. At the same time, the turbine’s size and weight (444 metric tons — as much as a fully fu- eled Airbus A380 jet) have earned it an entry in Guinness World Records. Over a period of about Energy Technologies | World’s Largest Gas Turbine I n 2007, residents of the town of Irsching in Bavaria, came out in large numbers to witness the traditional raising of their white and blue may- pole. Three weeks later, they appeared in droves again — this time out of concern for the pole, as an oversized trailer had shown up carrying a new turbine for the town’s power plant. The residents were worried that the turbine, which measured 13 meters in length, 5 meters in height, and weighed 444 tons, could pose a threat to their beloved maypole. This was not the case, however; specialists supervising the transport were actu- ally more concerned about a bridge at the en- trance to the town, which they renovated as a pre- cautionary measure prior to the turbine’s arrival. The world’s largest turbine, which was built at Siemens’ Power Generation plant in Berlin, trav- eled 1,500 kilometers to get to Irsching — initially by water to Kelheim, where it was loaded onto a truck for the final 40 kilometers. This odyssey was undertaken because the only way to test such a powerful turbine is to put it into operation at a power plant. “It was a nice coincidence that the energy company E.ON was planning to expand the power station in Irsching,” says Wolfgang Win- ter, Siemens project manager in Irsching. 64 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2007 After assembly at Siemens’ gas turbine plant in Berlin (below), the world’s largest gas turbine hits the road. Right: The turbine arrives on a flatbed trailer at its destination. The turbine can produce enough electricity to supply the population of a city the size of Hamburg. The world’s largest turbine, with an output of 375 megawatts (MW), entered trial service in December 2007. In combination with a downstream steam turbine, it will help ensure that a new combined cycle power plant achieves a record-breaking efficiency of more than 60 percent when it goes into operation in 2011. Unmatched Efficiency T he many hiking trails around the village of Niederense in the state of Westphalia, Ger- many, offer tranquility, bird songs, the Möhne River and unspoiled nature. As idyllic as this set- ting is, a small hydroelectric power station built in 1913 does not look out of place here. With an output of 215 kilowatts, the facility is one of the region’s smaller power plants. Yet its Siemens-Halske generators have been tireless- ly producing electricity for nearly 100 years. And now these hardworking old-timers have become a key part of a much larger, innovative high-tech plan. Since October 2008 they have been in- terconnected with eight other hydroelectric plants on the Lister and Lenne Rivers in a rural part of Westphalia known as Sauerland as part of ProViPP, the Professional Virtual Power Plant pilot project of RWE (a power plant operator) and Siemens. Just about everybody stands to gain from the project — power plant owners, electricity traders, power grid operators, and of course the end customer, who could profit from more in- tense competition. The virtual power plant concept complements the big utility companies with their large, central power plants by creat- ing new suppliers with small, distributed pow- er systems linked to form virtual pools that can be operated from a central control station. Such a pool can unite wind power, cogeneration, photovoltaic, small hydroelectric, and biogas sys- tems as well as large power consumers such as aluminum smelters and large process water pumps to function as a single supplier. With the Sauerland project Siemens and RWE have achieved the technological and economic util- ity of virtual power plants and expanded their knowledge base for further applications. “The project and the technology worked so well that we’ve connected some additional power plants ,” says Martin Kramer, RWE Project Manager for Dis- tributed Energy Systems. Externally, the nine small hydroelectric plants in the project function as a single large one. At first, their total initial output for pilot operation was 8.6 megawatts. Meanwhile, further plants like cogeneration units or emergency generators were added. The bundling of the distributed gen- erating plants has established a key prerequisite for new forms of marketing. “Individually, such plants are too small to market their capacities through energy traders on the energy ex- change, or as a balancing reserve for load fluc- tuations to power grid operators,” says Kramer. “To market electric power on the energy markets for minute reserves — the power that must be available on demand within 15 minutes — a vir- tual power plant is required to have a minimum capacity of 15 megawatts at present.” Today, since the nine-member virtual power plant does not reach that level, a part of it feeds its energy into the grid in accordance with Ger- many’s Renewable Energy Law (EEG). Following a planned expansion, however, its power will be sold directly in the energy market. Cool Controls. At the heart of Sauerland’s virtual power plant is Siemens’ Distributed En- ergy Management System (DEMS). The sys- tem displays the present status of systems, generates prognoses and quotations, and controls electric power generation as sched- uled. The system overview is subdivided into producers and loads, contracts, and power storage. Conveniently positioned at the cen- ter of the display is the “balance node” (the sum of the incoming and outgoing power must equal zero). Additional information is provided on “forecasting and usage planning” and “monitoring and control.” As a result, a portfolio manager can view color bar graphs showing which power stations are currently running at peak load or at base load and how much power they are producing. Using plant status information, such as elec- tric power output, and combining it with mar- ket forecasts, DEMS generates a forecast that also takes into account the next day’s prices and the with the control center via wireless communica- tion modems. The advantage of this approach is that it requires no costly cables or rented landlines. The virtual plant is highly distributed. Its DEMS computer is in a control center in Plaidt near Koblenz, the operator stations are located at ano - ther site near the headquarters and the power plants are in the Sauerland and in the northern Ruhr area. In spite of this complex mix, no standards exist yet for distributed power plant communications. “Uniform interfaces and protocols have yet to be defined,” says Werner, who points out that each virtual plant therefore requires tailored so- lutions. “We need open standards to substantially simplify the design of virtual power plants,” he adds. Lucrative Reserve Power. Existing business models for virtual power plants already prom- ise attractive profits. As a case in point, power grid operators need to maintain a constant balance in the power grid despite fluctuations in consumption and electric power genera- tion. This is where the virtual power plant’s operator can sell reserve power and make a specific capacity available as a minute reserve. When needed, the purchaser places an order for the agreed-on power for a fee. The seller then starts up or shuts down generators as specified in the contract within the agreed-on timeframe to stabilize the net frequency at 50 or 60 hertz. Prof. Christoph Weber of Duisburg-Essen University estimates that an energy trader with a virtual power plant can increase earnings by several hundred thousand euros by paying less to the power grid operator for “compensation power.” Such payments are due when less or more power is fed into the grid than had been total power available. Even weather data is fac- tored into the energy management system to pro- vide a forecast of the power available from sources with fluctuating availability, such as wind and sun. Before a quotation is placed on the energy market through an energy trader, it is checked and approved by the portfolio manager. Once it has been approved and accepted by the market, DEMS generates an operating schedule for the individual power plants in the virtual plant. The schedule specifies exactly when and how much power must be available from which plant. “DEMS does such a good job of modeling that its schedules can be run exactly the way it de- fines them,” says Dr. Thomas Werner, Product Manager, Smart Grid Solutions at Siemens En- ergy. No manual corrections are needed. Martin Kramer of RWE agrees. “The system is working extremely well. Once a schedule has been generated, the energy management sys- tem controls the entire process — including the requirements of the individual power plants — fully automatically.” DEMS was developed by Siemens when it be- came evident how the electric power grid and the electric power market would be affected by increasing supply from distributed and renewable energies (Pictures of the Future,Fall 2007, p. 90). In the background, communication systems ensure reliable connections between the control center and individual power plants. Communi- cations devices in power stations link the stations Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 67 Energy Technologies | Virtual Power Plants 66 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 Hydroelectric plants in Germany like those at Ahausen and Niederense (below) have been in operation for decades. They are now enjoying new significance as part of a virtual power plant. As part of a virtual plant, even small energy producers can sell their power on the electricity market. Distributed Energy Management System software shows the current status of all systems included in a virtual power plant and generates an operating schedule (right) for its power generation. This schedule is controlled in the demand mode (left). Power in Numbers Small, distributed power plants, fluctuating energy sources such as wind and sunlight, and the deregulation of electric power markets have one thing in common. They increase the need for reliable and economical operation of electric power grids. The virtual power plant is an intelligent solution from Siemens. It networks multiple small power stations to form a large, smart power grid. A ccording to Dr. Oliver Geden, an expert for EU climate policy at the German Institute for International and Security Affairs in Berlin, ef- fective climate protection begins when “many people consume in an environmentally sus- tainable way, without having to think twice about what they’re doing.” For this to happen, says Geden, it will take huge structural changes in how we generate and consume electricity, in- cluding expanded use of renewable energy, and more efficient conventional power plants. Significant progress has already been made in the construction of new power plants. Over the period from 1992 to the present, the effi- ciency of the latest coal-fired power plants in the industrialized West has risen from 42 to 47 per- cent. This amounts to a huge advance in climate protection. For instance, for a 700-megawatt (MW) generating unit, an increase in efficiency of five percentage points translates into a re- duction in annual CO 2 emissions of around 500,000 metric tons. This is particularly impor- tant for the Middle Kingdom China, where, ac- cording to the International Energy Agency, one new coal-fired power plant with an efficiency of over 44 percent enters commercial service every month. When it comes to upgrading existing power plants, however, there is still massive untapped potential, both in economic and environmental terms. The average efficiency of Europe’s coal- fired power plants is a mere 37 to 38 percent. Only about one in 10 plants tops the 40 percent mark. That’s hardly surprising, given that steam turbines in Europe are, on average, almost 29 years old. Gas turbines, on the other hand, are usually of a more recent vintage, with an aver- age age of just under 12 years. Nevertheless, the German Association of Energy and Water In- dustries (BDEW) estimates that around one-quar- ter of Germany’s power plants will need to be modernized in the immediate future. As Ralf Hendricks from Siemens Energy ex- plains, the increasing exploitation of alternative energy sources is also accelerating the pace of modernization. “In Europe, power companies have to convert a lot of older combined-cycle pow- er plants from base- to peak-load operation,” says Hendricks, who is responsible for so-called lifetime management and thus for power plant upgrades. The reason for the conversions is that Europe is ramping up use of land-based and offshore wind farms. When winds are strong, these farms generate lots of electricity, which means conventional plants can scale back output. But when winds die down, the latter have to be able to reach peak load rapidly to compensate for load tual power plants could also be “produced” from less obvious components, such as by in- terconnecting the emergency power generators in hospitals and factories with the battery stor- age systems common in telephone and Internet communications centers. Virtual power plants also have a macroeco- nomic advantage. “The benefit of a power sta- tion network extends far beyond its present ap- plications,” says Werner. At present consumption rates, for example, global copper reserves will be exhausted in 32 years (Pictures of the Future, Fall 2008, p. 22). And if the infrastructures of countries such as India and China consume as much copper as the industrial countries, short- ages and price increases of this scarce metal are likely to occur even sooner. But if newly-industrializing countries base the expansion of their energy infrastructures on in- telligent power grids and virtual power plants that generate electricity near where it will be used, i.e. in a distributed system, fewer power lines will have to be built to transport electricity, and the limited copper reserves will last longer. Harald Hassenmüller Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 69 an additional 15 to 20 years. As a rule, Siemens also renews the control system for the turbine set or the power plant as a whole (Pictures of the Future, Spring 2009, p. 27). According to Dr. Nor- bert Henkel, responsible at Siemens for the mod- ernization of fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants, it costs between €20 million and €60 mil- lion to comprehensively upgrade a steam turbine system for a medium-sized power plant. “By mod- ernizing the turbine, we can tease an extra 30 to 40 megawatts out of the plant. As a result, the initial capital expenditure is amortized within just a few years,” he explains. Power generator Energie Baden-Württemberg (EnBW), for example, has invested around €30 Energy Technologies | Virtual Power Plants | Power Plant Upgrades specified in the operating schedule. To avoid this, the electric power producer needs to adhere as closely as possible to the agreed-on operating schedule — and that’s the purpose of an ener- gy management system such as DEMS. An in- teresting alternative to generating additional power is for the central control station to briefly shut down large-scale consumers such as alu- minum smelters. Another useful alternative is to sell electric power at the European Energy Ex- change (EEX) in Leipzig, provided that the cost of producing one megawatt hour is lower than the current exchange price. There are other uses of virtual power plants, as was shown in the case of a municipal power plant in Germany’s Ruhr district. Augmenting electric power lines to supply energy for a new residential area would have required a large cap- ital investment. So instead of new lines, the area’s electric power needs were met by installing dis- tributed, gas-powered,mini block-type cogen- eration plants and interconnecting them to form a virtual power plant that delivers electric power and heating. This made it possible to post- pone a huge investment for several years. Vir- 68 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 fluctuations. The ability to react rapidly not only secures a power company high prices on the power market; an upgraded power plant also reaches its operating point more quickly, which cuts CO 2 emissions. Siemens is a specialist in upgrading steam tur- bines, a job that primarily involves replacing the rotor and the inner casing. The latest in turbine blade technology and enlarged flow areas boost the efficiency and performance of the turbine. In addition, the use of new seals in high- and in- termediate-pressure turbines reduces clearance losses, which likewise increases efficiency. These measures lengthen the service life of the turbine, allowing it to remain in operation for The average age of steam turbines in the industrialized world is around 30 years. Replace- ment, upgrading, and new control systems (left) can boost efficiency substantially. New Life for Old Plants Worldwide, there are hundreds of fossil fuel-fired power plants that could, if modernized, improve their efficiency by 10 or even 15 percent. Such upgrades would reduce CO 2 emissions accordingly, which would be a major contribution to climate protection. The biggest potential lies in North America as well as parts of Europe and Asia. Energy exchange Invoicing Weather service Influenceable loads Communications unit Remote meter reading Distributed loads € Distributed mini block-type cogeneration and photovoltaic systems Wind farm PV system Block-type cogeneration power plant Biomass power plant Network management system Communications network Concentrator Fuel cell Advanced IT is the Core Element of a Virtual Power Plant Energy management system E As part of a virtual plant, even small energy producers can sell their power on the electricity market. 1,500 rpm. The generator is hidden at the back and can produce 2.3 megawatts (MW) of elec- trical power once the wind speed exceeds eleven meters a second — but only if no visitors are present in the nacelle. “When anyone is vis- iting, the wind turbines are switched off for safe- ty reasons,” says Møller, who heads Offshore Technology at Siemens Wind Power division in Denmark. However, this is small consolation for visitors. Even though you are standing on a se- cure grid, you can’t help but feel there’s very lit- tle between you and the abyss beneath your feet. A nybody visiting Jesper Møller at his fa- vorite workplace needs to have a head for heights, good sea legs, and no inclination toward claustrophobia. Secured with ropes, we climb nar- row ladders and ride unsteady freight elevators in order to get to the top of a windowless tow- er. On arrival, Jesper Møller invites his guests into the inner sanctum: the approximately six me- ter-long cylinder that forms the head of a wind power plant. A neon tube lights up the long shaft containing the gearbox, which transforms the rotation of the blades into a generator speed of least-efficient power plants. In Europe, there are over 500 steam turbine plants that are older than 25 years and in urgent need of modernization. This figure includes all the aging plants in Cen- tral Europe and is unrivaled anywhere else in the world. In India, for example, exists a consider- able modernization need for 200 megawatt-class plants of a similar vintage. Also in China, on the other hand, still has a lot of coal-fired power plants rated at efficiency levels of between 26 and 30 percent. To cover the rapidly-growing de- mand for electricity from industry and house- holds, China is currently building a raft of new power plants, 60 percent of which are ultra- modern facilities. According to the IEA, China has been able to radically reduce construction costs for such plants, which feature extremely heat- resistant steam turbines, by building a large num- ber of them at the same time and thus exploit- ing the effects of standardization. China, which tends to close unprofitable power plants rather than upgrade them, has been decommissioning around 50 GW of older fossil generating capacity since 1997 — a process that is due to be com- pleted by 2010. Rewarding Efficiency. Back in Europe, pow- er companies in the western member states are rapidly upgrading their facilities. In this sector, climate protection is still largely a cor- porate affair. Unlike its stance on the automo- bile industry, the European Union is prepared to let market forces, rather than regulation, bring about power plant modernization. That said, climate expert Geden foresees a major upheaval in the power plant market from 2013 onward, when CO 2 emission certificates in this sector will all be auctioned. Power companies will therefore have to pay for a percentage of their CO 2 emissions through the purchase of emission certificates. An ex- ception, however, has been made for many Cen- tral and Eastern European countries, giving them until 2020 to catch up. During this time, the most efficient power plants will set the benchmark there too. Power plants meeting this standard will receive emis- sion permits free of charge. Emissions trading will thus ensure that old power plants become increasingly unprofitable. And once the last in- efficient plant has been decommissioned, each electricity consumer will have become a little bit easier on the environment — without even think- ing about it.Katrin Nikolaus Energy Technologies | Power Plant Upgrades million on upgrading its cogeneration plant in Altbach, near Stuttgart, a measure that will keep it in action for the next 30 years. Siemens re- newed the plant’s control systems and upgrad- ed its steam turbine, replacing the blades and seals, which boosted its output by 11 MW. The entire outer casing could be retained. With around 4,000 operating hours at full load per year, the plant has benefitted from the upgrade with a reduction in its annual CO 2 emissions of 50,000 metric tons. As a result, the plant is now classified as one of EnBW’s “green” facilities and may, if required, rack up additional operating hours. North America’s power plants are even old- er than Europe’s, with an average of 34 years for steam turbines in the U.S. and Canada, and 17 years for gas turbines. Siemens is involved in a number of major upgrades in this area. Some of these cover more than just the turbines: Siemens renewed the complete control system for a num- ber of plants, including a coal-fired facility in Car- neys Point, New Jersey, a combined-cycle plant in Redding, California, and combined-cycle in- stallations in Syracuse and Beaver-Falls, New York, all of which are being fitted with the SPPA-T3000 web-based instrumentation and control system. This system integrates the power plant and tur- bine control functions in a common, easy-to-use platform. For the operators of Carneys Point, for example, this will provide greater flexibility to tai- lor operation of the individual generating units to actual demand, along with greater reliabili- ty and reduced maintenance costs. In contrast to fossil-fired power plants, many of which were commissioned over the last few decades, most of the world’s nuclear plants date from the 1970s and 1980s. “The conventional components of these plants, including the turbines, all need upgrading at around the same time,” Henkel ex- plains. At present, in a contract awarded by Flori- da Power and Light (FPL), Siemens is overhaul- ing the generator and renewing a high-pressure turbine and two low-pressure turbines at the St. Lucie nuclear plant in Florida. This will increase the output of each of the two reactors by 100 MW. In addition, Siemens is installing new high-pressure turbines and modernizing the gen- erator at FPL’s Turkey Point nuclear plant, which will boost its output by around 100 MW. Both projects are scheduled for completion by 2012. With the exception of France, which gener- ates the lion’s share of its power using nuclear plants, the energy mix in Europe still includes a major share of coal. This applies particularly to Central European countries, including Poland, which meets over 90 percent of its power needs from coal. At the same time, these countries have the 70 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 71 In Europe alone, there are over 500 steam turbine plants that now require modernization. | Offshore Wind The construction of the world’s largest offshore wind farm — the Horns Rev II off Denmark — is a challenge from the production of rotors and trans-shipment at the harbor to assembly on the open sea. Siemens is building the world’s largest offshore wind farm 30 kilometers from the Danish coast. The project is both a technical and logistical challenge because the individual components are huge, weigh dozens of tons, and must operate flawlessly in the windy North Sea — even during a hurricane. What’s more, they have to do all this for 20 years or more. The North Sea swell is lapping at the foundations 60 meters below. At the same time, the struc- ture sways lightly in the wind — despite its weight of over 300 tons. “It’s designed to do that,” says Møller, “because flexibility is what provides our wind power plants with their tremendous sta- bility. Even severe storms haven’t caused any problems.” Møller presses a switch and two roof wings open up above the nacelle to unveil a view of the North Sea. Dozens of wind turbines extend out in a row toward the horizon like a string of pearls. Some are rotating energetically in the High-Altitude Harvest A new control system and upgraded steam turbine from Siemens boost output at EnBW’s cogeneration plant in Altbach, Germany by 11 MW and reduce CO 2 emissions by 50,000 metric tons a year. Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 73 a kind of “sandwich.” The bottom and top sec- tions are subsequently joined and a vacuum is created inside. The vacuum sucks liquid epoxy resin through the fiberglass mats and the balsa wood. Here, the resin finds its way through all of the layers and evenly joins the two sides of the blade. Fi- nally, the blades are “baked” in a gigantic oven at a temperature of 70 degrees Celsius for eight hours. “At the end of this process we have a seam- less rotor blade with no weak points,” says Nielsen. Weaknesses are unacceptable because maintenance costs must be kept to a minimum during the 20 years in which the blades must withstand wind and weather. “Repairs on the open sea cost about ten times as much as repairs on land,” says Nielsen. To further increase their resilience, all the blades are equipped with a light- ning conductor. “Statistically, each blade will be struck at least once by lightning.” Swimming Packhorse. By the time a blade begins its life on a mast at Horn Rev II, it will have an amazing journey behind it. First of all, blades are strapped onto articulated trucks for the 280-kilometer journey to Esbjerg harbor, one of Siemens’ transport hubs for wind farms in Europe. Here, the individual blades are attached to ro- tors and loaded — together with the nacelles and the masts — onto the “Sea Power,” an assembly ship that transports the components of three sep- arate wind power plants to their destinations in the North Sea. Gigantic cranes lift the 60-ton ro- tors onto the deck of the ship, stacking three huge propellers per rotor on top of one another, be- fore placing the tower sections and the nacelle beside them. This swimming packhorse then transports its freight, which weighs over 1,000 tons, 50 kilometers to Horns Rev II. From his nacelle 60 meters above the North Sea, Jesper Møller has spotted the Sea Power. “It takes six to eight hours to completely assemble a wind power plant,” the wind power-expert says. The assembly ship’s crane lifts the steel tower, the nacelle, and finally the rotor onto a yellow pedestal — a steel foundation that was driven 20 meters into the sandy seabed some time ear- lier. The components are then bolted together by hand. “Naturally, this is possible only with good weather. As soon as the height of the waves ex- ceeds 1.5 meters the work is called off. And this can happen quite often on the North Sea, which is renowned for being rough,” says Møller. He points at an old ferry that is anchored not far from the wind farm. “That’s our so called hotel ship. It’s home for the workers who are responsible for the installation and cabling of the wind mills. They spend two weeks at a time here at sea.” In contrast, stays in the nacelles above the sea, which are far from comfortable, are of course much shorter. The limit is three days. In case evac- uation is impossible in the face of a rapidly-de- veloping storm, each tower is outfitted with emergency storage facilties for fresh water and energy bars. On the other hand, there are visitors who have climbed the tower with Jesper Møller who have indicated that they would rather stay a little longer because, even when there is no emer- gency, the cramped nacelle seems preferable to the idea of climbing back down to a swaying boat at the foot of the mast — especially when you’ve forgotten your seasickness pills. Florian Martini experts can detect anomalies and prevent dam- age from occurring. Only the most observant visitors notice that the nacelle and blades incline slightly upwards at an angle of seven degrees “We have to main- tain a safe distance between the blades and the mast,” says Møller. “They are so flexible that they bend inward considerably in stormy conditions.” Robust Blades. Søren Kringelholt Nielsen and his 800 employees at Siemens Rotor Blade Manufacturing, which is located 230 kilome- ters away in Aalborg, ensure that the huge blades are flexible. All the blades for the Euro- pean market are produced here. The floor of the factory is covered with neat rows of the gi- gantic rotor blades, each of which is bigger than the wing of a jumbo jet. The surface of the blades is so smooth that you can’t see or feel a single seam, while the edges at the tips are nearly as sharp as knives. Despite their size, the aerodynamic blades can be bent by several centimeters using nothing more than your hand. “This apparent fragility is deceiving,” says Nielsen, who heads Rotor Blade Manufactur- ing in Aalborg. “The blades are extremely ro- bust. Imagine placing a mid-sized car at the end of a three-kilometer beam. The forces that are being placed on the other end of the beam are the same as those a rotor blade needs to withstand during strong winds,” explains Nielsen. The secret of the blades’ stability can be found in the 250-meter-long production hall where they are manufactured using “Integral Blade Tech- nology,” a patented process (see Pictures of the Future, Fall 2007, p. 60). What’s remarkable is that the rotor blades are manufactured as a sin- gle component without seams — a method that only Siemens has mastered. At the start of the process, workers roll out long alternate layers of fiberglass mats and balsa wood in a form to make seven percent. Perhaps the figures aren’t so surprising when you consider that Denmark is a windy country and enjoys only ten calm days a year. On really windy days, the wind- mills can produce half of the country’s elec- tricity, and on a stormy night, this figure can even rise to 100 percent. However, this bounty of green energy does have its downside. Because such plants rely on the wind, long-term energy production plans are out of the question. As a result, these white giants can play only a limited role when it comes to meeting the fluctuating de- mand for grid power. In contrast, other types of power plants, such as gas and cogeneration plants, can be run up or run down according to demand. That’s why Energinet.dk, the state-run network operator, uses a sophisticat- ed energy management system that is partial- ly based on several weather forecasting sys- tems to get the best out of variable wind energy. In order to quickly respond to fluctuations, excess wind-generated electricity is diverted to Norway’s pumped storage power plants to be used later during calm weather. Although currently capable of coping with peak loads and stabilizing the network, this arrangement may not be equal to future demands — partic- ularly as the Danish government plans to sub- stantially expand its use of wind power in coming years. And that’s just fine as far as Møller is concerned. He has been building wind farms for the last ten years and has de- veloped a special bond with his turbines. “Al- though the work is routine,” he says. “I experi- ence something special every time I ascend a windmill and look out over the North Sea.” Just in front of him, the huge 45-meter rotor blades stretch into the sky, their tips roaring through the air at 220 kilometers per hour and producing enough energy to boil six liters of wa- ter every second. Depending on the strength of the wind, it’s possible to alter the white blades’ angle of attack so that they operate in the most efficient manner. The 82 ton-nacelle can also turn on its own axis in the wind — courtesy of a computer-con- trolled system. A host of sensors, both inside and outside the compartment, continuously meas- ure the vibrations of the machine parts. Using this data, experts from Siemens can remotely rec- ognize when a problem is brewing, because each unusual reading triggers an alarm. In this way Energy Technologies | Offshore Wind World Record for Wind Power. Such su- perlatives are nothing special by Denmark’s standards because they are already multiple world record holders. This small kingdom is not only the largest producer of wind power plants, but also generates 20 percent of its en- ergy requirements with wind power. In com- parison, Germany, has so far only managed 72 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 A wind turbine produces enough energy to boil six liters of water in just one second. How to Become a Windmill Builder In August 2009, Siemens opened one of Europe’s most up-to-date training centers for wind energy in Bremen, Germany. Aptly named the Wind Pow- er Training Center, it has a floor area of about 1,100 square meters, and is situated between the European and Industrial harbors of the north Ger- man Hanseatic city, where it serves primarily as a training center for service technicians. Prospec- tive assembly workers are not only offered theory courses covering the construction and operation of wind power plants, but are also given the op- portunity to carry out practical maintenance work on real objects. A hall measuring about 600 square meters forms the heart of the building, which houses a 2.3MW wind turbine from Siemens, a simulator for the control technology, ladder constructions, a scaf- folding, and crane and tower models. “In this El- dorado for technicians, our employees can demonstrate their knowledge of the technical processes in a wind turbine, as well as the rele- vant safety aspects of wind turbine construction, management, and servicing — all in a practical setting,” says project manager Nils Gneiße. “Thanks to this experience, they will be able to perform maintenance work for customers faster and more efficiently.” Wind power plant opera- tors particularly benefit because the maintenance requirements and costs fall, while the reliability of the turbines increases. According to Gneiße, the ten-meter turbines, which weigh some 80 tons, are more than just training objects that provide hands-on experience. “With the help of these turbine nacelles, we want to in- crease safety for our technicians,” he says. That’s why the training program offers emergency exercis- es under real-life conditions — up to now a first for this type of training center. “Regardless of whether an employee becomes stuck during maintenance work or simply gets cramps — at a height of a hundred meters even minor incidents are considered emergencies that call for swift action,” says Gneiße. Along with training facilities in Brande, Denmark, Newcastle, UK, and Houston, Texas, the center in Bremen covers global training needs in terms of wind power. Every year some 1,000 techni- cians, most of whom will come from Central and Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean region and the Asia-Pacific region, are to be trained here, as are Siemens customers. Sebastian Webel “Repairs on the open sea cost about ten times as much as repairs on land.” breeze; others are waiting to be commissioned, while a few more are mere foundations pro- truding out of the sea. Horns Rev II is the name of this wind farm, which is situated on a sand- bank about 30 kilometers off the Danish coast. The park is still under construction but when completed in Fall 2009, it will be the largest off- shore wind farm in the world. A total of 91 tur- bines from Siemens will then be able to pump around 210 MW of electrical power into the net- work — enough to supply over 136,000 house- holds with electricity. T he wind blows when and where it will, and it rarely heeds our wishes. These days, that can have a serious impact on our power supply, to which wind energy is now making an in- creasingly important contribution. In 2007, wind power accounted for 6.4 percent or 39.7 terawatt-hours (TWh) of gross power con- sumption in Germany, and this proportion, ac- cording to a projection by the German Renew- able Energy Federation (BEE), could rise to as much as 25 percent (149 TWh) by the year 2020. By then, Germany should have wind farms with a total output of 55 gigawatts (GW), com- pared to 22 GW at the end of 2007. Germany already accounts for approximate- ly 20 percent of the world’s total wind power gen- erating capacity. Until recently, it was the pace- Oversupply can likewise pose problems. Ger- many’s Renewable Energy Act stipulates that Ger- man network operators must give preference to power from renewable sources. But an abun- dance of wind power means that conventional power plants have to be ramped down. This ap- plies particularly to gas- and coal-fired plants, which are responsible for providing the inter- mediate load — in other words, for buffering pe- riodic fluctuations in demand. For the power plants assigned to provide the base load — pri- marily nuclear power and lignite-fired plants — ramping up and down is relatively complicated and costly. On windy days, this can have bizarre conse- quences. For example, it may be necessary to sell surplus power at a giveaway price on the Euro- pean Energy Exchange (EEX) in Leipzig. In fact, the price of electricity may even fall below zero. Such negative prices actually became a reality on May 3, 2009, when a megawatt-hour (MWh) was briefly traded at minus €152. In other words, the operator of a conventional power plant chose to pay someone to take the power rather than to temporarily reduce output. Storing Power with Water. By far the best solution is to cache the surplus electricity and then feed it back into the grid whenever the wind drops or skies are cloudy. Here, a proven method is to use pumped-storage power plants. Whenever demand for electricity falls, the surplus power is used to pump water up to a reservoir. As soon as demand increases, the water is allowed to flow back down to a lower reservoir — generating electricity in the process by means of water turbines. It’s a beautifully simple and efficient idea. Indeed, pumped-storage power plants have an effi- ciency of around 80 percent, reflecting the proportion of energy generated in relation to the energy used in pumping the water to the top reservoir. At present, no other type of stor- will take another route when it encounters an obstruction,” explains Dirk Ommeln from EnBW. Batteries and Compressed Air. Other major industrialized countries such as the U.S. and China also make significant use of pumped- storage power plants. In addition, major ef- forts are being made to find alternative meth- ods worldwide. The best-known of all electricity storage devices is the rechargeable battery, which can be found in every mobile phone and digital camera. Although the amounts of energy involved here are tiny by comparison, this has not stopped some coun- tries from using batteries as a cache facility for the power network. “In Japan, for example, this method is used practically throughout the country,” says Dr. Manfred Waidhas from Siemens Corporate Technology (CT). “Batteries the size of a shipping container can store about 5 MWh of electrical energy and are in- stalled in the grid close to the consumer.” They are used as an emergency power supply, as a reserve at times of peak load, and as a buffer to balance out fluctuations from renew- able sources of energy. Sodium-sulfur batter- ies, which have an efficiency of as much as 70 to 80 percent, are used for this purpose. Similarly, in a method known as V2G (vehi- cle to grid), electric vehicles could also serve as local cache facilities for electricity in the future, provided they are connected to the grid via a power cable. Although their battery capaci- ty is small in comparison with the amounts of energy required in the grid, the sheer number of such vehicles and the relatively high powers involved — e.g. 40 kilowatts (kW) per vehicle — could make up for this. “As few as 200,000 ve- hicles connected to the grid would produce 8 GW. And that’s enough balancing energy to im- prove grid stability,” says Prof. Gernot Spiegel- berg from Siemens CT. age facility is capable of supplying power in the GW range over a period of several hours. In fact, more than 99 percent of the energy- storage systems in use worldwide are pum - ped-storage power plants. Germany’s largest pumped-storage power plant is in Goldisthal, about 350 km southwest of Berlin. The facility has an output of 1,060 megawatts (MW) and could, in an extreme sit- uation, supply the entire state of Thuringia with power for eight hours. In all, 33 pumped- storage facilities operate in Germany, providing a combined output of 6,700 MW and a capaci- ty of 40 gigawatt-hours (GWh). Each year, they supply around 7,500 GWh of so-called balanc- ing power, which covers heightened demand at peak times — in the evenings, for example, when people switch on electric appliances and lights. The energy held in reserve by pumped-stor- age power plants can be called up within a mat- ter of minutes. In Germany, however, simply increasing the number of pumped-storage power plants isn’t such a simple option. There is a lack of suitable locations, and such projects often trigger protests. As a result, Germany’s power plant op- erators coordinate their activities with their counterparts in neighboring countries. Energie Baden-Württemberg (EnBW) in Karlsruhe, for ex- ample, uses pumped-storage facilities not only in Germany, but also in the Vorarlberg region of Austria. Norway, too, which has a long history of hydropower, is now looking to market its po- tential for electricity storage. However, the cap- ital expenditure for doing so would be sub- stantial. Such a project would involve more than just laying a long cable to Norway. The grid ca- pacity at the point of entry in both countries would also have to be increased in order to avoid bottlenecks in transmission capability. “Such a step would be necessary because electricity al- ways looks for the path of least resistance and setter, but has now been pushed into second place in this particular world ranking by the U.S. Although this is all excellent news as far as the climate is concerned, it presents the power companies with a problem. Wind power isn’t al- ways generated exactly when consumers need it. As a rule, wind generators produce more pow- er at night, and that’s exactly when demand bot- toms out. With conventional power plants, out- put can be adjusted in line with consumption, merely by burning more or less fuel. With fluc- tuating sources of energy, however, this is only possible to a limited degree. And that goes for both wind and photovoltaic power, which, ac- cording to the BEE, will together account for sev- en percent of gross power consumption in Ger- many by the year 2020. Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 75 Energy Technologies | Energy Storage 74 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 The ideal solution is to cache the surplus elec- tricity and feed it back into the grid as re- quired. The power network itself is unable to as- sume this function, since it is a finely balanced system in which supply and demand have to be carefully matched. If not, the frequency at which alternating current is transmitted deviates from the stipulated 50 hertz, falling in the case of excess demand, or rising in the case of over- supply. Both scenarios must be avoided, as there would otherwise be a danger of damage to con- nected devices such as motors, electrical appli- ances, computers and generators. For this rea- son, power plants are immediately taken offline whenever an overload pushes the grid fre- quency below 47.5 hertz. Pumped-storage power plants are used to stockpile surplus power (here an 80 MW plant in Wendefurth, Germany). Underground storage systems (below) could also be a solution. Trapping the Wind Power produced from renewable sources such as wind and sunlight is irregular. Experts are therefore looking at ways of storing surplus energy so that it can be converted back into electricity when required. One option is underground hydrogen storage, which is inexpensive, highly efficient, and can feed power into the grid quickly. Source: KBB Underground Technologies GmbH Comparative Energy Stored per Unit of Volume kWh/m 3 Pumped-storage power plant 1 Compressed air energy storage 2 Lead-acid battery NaS battery Lithium-ion battery Hydrogen storage 3 1 Height difference: 100 meters 2 pressure: 2 MPa (= 20 bars) 3 pressure: 20 MPa, efficiency 58% 0 100 200 300 400 0.28 2.7 70 150 300 350 Wolf from Siemens Energy Sector in Erlangen, Germany, leakage is not a problem. “Typically, each year, less than 0.01 percent is lost,” he say. “This is because the rock-salt walls of such caverns behave like a liquid, and any leaks seal up automatically.” For this reason, says Wolf, any of the caverns already used for the short- term storage of natural gas would also be suit- able for hydrogen. Around 60 caverns are now under con- struction in Germany. “If we were to use only 30 of these for hydrogen storage, we would be able to cache around 4,200 GWh of electrical ener- gy,” Wolf points out. Hydrogen has such a high energy density that as much as 350 kilowatt-hours (kWh) can be squeezed into every cubic meter of available storage space. This significantly ex- ceeds CAES (2.7 kWh/m 3 ) and is only matched by lithium-ion batteries. Whenever the demand for electricity rises, hy- drogen is removed and used to power a gas tur- bine or a fuel cell. “At present, underground hy- drogen storage is unmatched by any other en- ergy-storage system,” says Wolf. “Each cavern is capable of providing more than 500 MW for clear- ly more than a week in base-load operation. That’s the equivalent of 140 GWh. By way of compar- ison, all the pumped-storage power plants in Ger- many only have a combined capacity of 40 GWh.” What’s more, underground hydrogen storage fa- cilities can supply power quickly to the grid and are as flexible as a combined-cycle power plant. Hydrogen also compares well in terms of costs. According to a study by the German Association for Electrical, Electronic & Informa- tion Technologies (VDE), the costs of long- term storage — to compensate for unfavorable “On the other hand, we need to remember that such batteries will be relatively expensive due to their compactness, safety specifications, and low weight,” warns Dr. Christian Dötsch from the Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology (UMSICHT) in Oberhausen, Germany. “What’s more, their service life — the number of times they can be recharged — is still very limited. At present, the extra recharging and discharging for the purposes of load balancing would seriously reduce battery life.” Another concept is to warehouse potential ki- netic energy underground by a technique known as compressed air energy storage (CAES). This involves pumping air, which has been pressur- ized to as much as 100 bar, into underground cav- ities such as exhausted salt domes with a volume of between 100,000 and a million cubic meters. “This compressed air can be used in a gas tur- bine,” says Waidhas. “You still need a fossil fuel such as natural gas, but energy is saved because the compressed air for combustion is already available.” There are two CAES pilot projects worldwide: the first went into operation in Huntorf, Germany, in 1978; the second in McIntosh, Alabama, in 1991. The basic idea behind CAES is simple, but there are drawbacks. “In both projects, the gas turbines are custom made, and that kind of spe- cial development costs money,” says Waidhas. “CAES only gives you storage capacity of around 3 GWh.” Hydrogen: Ideal Storage Medium? An in- teresting alternative to the methods already mentioned is hydrogen storage. Here, surplus electricity is used to produce hydrogen by means of electrolysis. The gas is then stored in underground caverns at a pressure of between 100 and 350 bar, where, according to Erik 76 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2009 weather situations and seasonal fluctuations — will be under €0.10 per kWh. In contrast, the cost of CAES is estimated to be around €0.20 per kWh. At the same time, underground hydrogen stor- age facilities can help cover short-term peaks in demand and therefore boost the existing capacity provided by pumped-storage power plants. Siemens has been conducting research into this technology for the last four years, and most of the components required, including the elec- trolyzers and gas turbines, are now available — as are safe caverns for hydrogen storage. Engi- neers from Siemens are currently working on higher performance electrolyzers and gas tur- bines that are specially modified for use with hy- drogen. “The first patent applications have al- ready been filed, and a larger-scale pilot plant could be up and running within three to five years,” says Wolf. Hydrogen has other advantages too. Apart from storing energy for generating power or heat, it can also be mixed with syngas (synthe- sis gas) — from, for example, biomass plants — to produce fuel in a biomass-to-liquid (BtL) process. “Hydrogen gives us a whole range of op- tions, and significant progress has been made here in recent years,” says Stephan Werth- schulte, an energy expert from management con- sultants Accenture. By way of example, he points to an exciting pilot project in Brandenburg, Germany. In April of this year, Enertrag, a company specializing in wind-power generators, laid the foundation stone for a new test facility in Prenzlau. This will be the world’s first hydrogen-wind-biogas hybrid power plant capable of producing hydrogen from surplus wind power. The hydrogen will be used to power hydrogen vehicles or mixed with bio- gas to produce electricity and heat in two block- type cogeneration plants with a total output of 700 kW. Christian Buck Energy Technologies | Energy Storage In the future, electric vehicles could provide temporary storage of electricity, which could be fed back into the grid as required, thereby improving the network’s stability. Highspeed for Mobility and Economy G lobal demand for energy will continue to rise sharply. The International Energy Agency (IEA) esti- mates that global energy consumption will be around 36 percent higher by 2035 than it was in 2008. This develop- ment is being driven by expanding economies in the emerging markets in particular, as well as by world popu- lation growth. Fossil resources are limited, however, and using them to provide energy causes the biggest share of CO 2 emissions. The IEA believes this dilemma can be solved through more efficient use of energy and greater utilization of electrical power in applications where fossil fuels contin- ue to dominate — assuming such electricity is produced without emissions. “We believe electricity produced from renewable sources will be the most important form of fi- nal energy in the future,” says Prof. Ulrich Wagner, mem- ber of the Executive Board of the German Aerospace Cen- ter (DLR). The range of future application possibilities for clean electricity is enormous, from household appliances, lighting, and machines to heat pumps, desalination facili- ties, and electric vehicles. A study conducted by the Ger- man Physical Society (DPG) in 2010 concluded that “elec- tricity is easy to generate and transmit, and it can also be used very conveniently and flexibly.” The IEA adds that for “no other form of final energy” will there be such a sharp increase in demand as for electricity. In fact, global elec- | Facts and Forecasts tricity consumption could likely rise by around 70 percent by 2035, with most of the increase to be accounted for by emerging markets such as China. Many homes and of- fices around the world are still heated with gas or oil. If electricity is to be produced in the future with low CO 2 emissions, though, it makes sense to implement the nec- essary heating system upgrades in older buildings by in- stalling electrical systems, according to the DPG. Because of this — and also due to higher demand for electrical de- vices in countries outside the OECD — annual electricity consumption in buildings will rise by 1.5 percent between now and 2035, despite energy conservation measures. The share of global final-energy consumption accounted for by electricity will then likely rise from 27 percent today to 37 percent. The potential for using electricity in automobiles is also tremendous: “Electric mobility can reduce petroleum consumption and prevent emissions of climate-damaging CO 2 and other pollutants, provided no fossil sources are used to generate the electricity,” according to the DPG. The German government plans to put one million electric vehicles on the road by 2020, and have five million in op- eration by 2030 (including plug-in hybrids equipped with both an electric motor and a combustion engine). Plans in the U.S. and China are even more ambitious. Both of these countries want to have one million electric cars in operation by as early as 2015. A study conducted by the investment bank HSBC in 2010 estimates that the market volume for electric vehicles will total $473 billion by around 2020. By that time, there will be 8.7 million pure electric cars and 9.2 million plug-in-hybrids on the road. The key to launching the new age of electricity is to ensure rapid de-carbonization of power generation. The IEA anticipates that the share of the world’s electricity pro- duced with coal, gas, and oil will fall from 68 percent to- day to about 55 percent by 2035. During the same peri- od, the proportion of power from renewable sources including water, wind, and the sun will rise from 19 per- cent to 32 percent. And these forecasts are reflected in the outlook for the market: Siemens experts believe that in 2020 more than half of total global investment in the power plant market will be accounted for by renewable energy facilities. HSBC expects the global market volume for low-CO 2 energy production to increase from $422 bil- lion in 2009 to $1.043 trillion in 2020. Alongside hydropower, the main sources of CO 2 -free electricity in the future will be energy from the wind — and to a lesser extent solar energy. HSBC expects that in 2020 the wind-power industry will boast the lion’s share of the renewable energy market with a stake of $285 bil- lion. Solar power will follow with a $116 billion share of the market. Anette Freise Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2011 77 2020: Nearly 18 million new electric vehicles worldwide Source: HSBC Wind power to cover over half the world renewables market Source: HSBC 2020: More than $1 trillion for low-CO 2 energy production worldwide Source: HSBC Source: IEA Pure electric vehicles Plug-in hybrids Biofuels 18 2009 8 0 192 203 93 2020e 368 7 368 544 Heat from renewable sources CCS Nuclear power Electricity from renewable sources 2009 5 657 8,650 9,226 2020e 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 in thousands of units in billions of US$ in % 2009 2020e Declining share of fossil energy sources in the global electricity production mix Geothermal 0.3 Wind 1 Biomass and waste 1.3 Water 16 Nuclear 14 Gas 21 Oil 5.4 Coal 41 Sea 0 Sea 0 2008 2035e Coal 32 Geothermal 1 Wind 8 Solar PV 2 CSP 1 Biomass and waste 4 Water 16 Nuclear 14 2020e Water (“small hydro”) 49 Biomass 71 Solar 116 Geothermal 23 Wind 285 Gas 21 Oil 1 in billions of US$ emi ssion-trading system are other me cha nis ms.” This means that users of fossil fuels are subject to three different disincentives in Sweden. The Swedish carbon tax was introduced in 1991 and currently adds about 50 percent to the cost of each kilowatt of energy produced with fossil fuels. And when the EU-wide emission trading system was introduced, the carbon al- lowances allocated to electricity producers covered only some 70 percent of their require- ments; they had to buy the rest. Since 2003, in parallel with these restric- tions, Sweden’s national electricity certificate system has also been in force. Such certificates are allocated for free to producers that use re- newable energies (one certificate for each MWh produced). All suppliers of electricity must acquire such certificates in line with their total sales of electricity. The quota is set by the state and increases over time; for 2010 it is 17.9 percent. The certificates are freely traded; their prices rise as demand increases. In this way, the “invisible hand” of the mar- ket is used to promote those types of green en- ergy that can be produced most economically. But not all emission-free technologies are part of the national certificate system. Nuclear power and existing large hydroelectric plants are excluded, for example. Haglund sees this state regulation in Sweden as a model to be emulated. “The state stepped in and removed an assumed market dysfunction, the relative underpricing of fossil fuels. The results speak for themselves. Without this system, Igelsta would most likely have been designed to burn gas rather than wood waste,” he explains With their biomass-enthusiasm, the Swedes are both pioneers and traditionalists. During excavation for the Igelsta power plant’s foun- dations, workers found a Stone Age fireplace. To keep themselves warm, the people are burn- ing wood just as their ancestors did thousands of years ago. But thanks to the technology, they are doing it efficiently. Andreas Kleinschmidt Shuman’s attempt, the Israeli company Luz de- veloped new parabolic trough power plants. Nine plants from this period are still generat- ing energy today in California’s Mojave Desert. But as the price of oil began to fall again, inter- est in solar thermal systems also waned. Power station projects were postponed or canceled, and Luz went bankrupt. Now, almost 100 years after Shuman’s first project, the day finally seems to have come for solar thermal technology. Avi Brenmiller is one of the authors of this success. He remembers well the disappointments of the past decades: “In the 1980s, I was working on special coat- ings for the receiver tubes in which thermal oil is heated with concentrated solar energy. Our vision at the time was to master the whole chain —in other words, everything from the capture of solar energy and the steam cycle generation T here is nothing more powerful, the saying goes, than an idea whose time has come. Solar thermal technology — the generation of energy from the heat of the sun — has tried to get off the ground three times already. In 1912, the American Frank Shuman built a par- abolic reflector system in Egypt that was ex- pected to produce 55 kilowatts (kW) of power. “Twenty thousand square miles of collectors in the Sahara,” he wrote, “could permanently supply the world with the 270 million horse- power it needs.” But the world did not wait; it needed more and more horsepower and in- creasingly drew its power from oil and other fossil fuels. Solar thermal energy seemed to become a footnote in the history of power generation. It was only the huge increase in the price of oil in the 1970s that aroused new interest in the technology. Sixty years after Energy Technologies | Power and Heat from Biomass regions, the overall efficiency of this technolo- gy is unbeatable (Pictures of the Future,Spring 2010, page 32). Like Igelsta, more and more of these plants are using biomass as a fuel. Mats Strömberg, the project manager re- sponsible for the development of the power plant at power company Söderenergi, had al- ready worked on a similar project in Gävle, north of Stockholm. As in Södertälje, a Siemens SST- 800 steam turbine is in use there. Three quar- ters of the fuel for Igelsta consists of biomass, mainly residual products from forest clearing; the other quarter consists of recovered waste materials from offices, shops, and industry. From this fuel mix, the plant produces 200 megawatts (MW) of heat and 85 MW of elec- tricity. “Siemens made the best offer in Gävle and Igelsta,” says Strömberg. “Performance is the key aspect, because the power plant is de- signed to operate for 40 years. Our efficiency gains over that period will be enormous.” In 2003, a system of trading in green certifi- cates was introduced in Sweden, promoting the use of renewable energies and making fos- sil fuels more expensive. “These certificates are one of the regulatory measures applied to the ener gy mix,” says Jan-Erik Haglund, environmen- tal manager at Söderenergi. “A carbon tax and the consistent application of the pan-European 78 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Fall 2010 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2010 79 | Solar Thermal Power of electrical power. It was depressing to see how this technology suddenly lost support.” But Brenmiller was persistent. In the course of a buyout, Luz became Solel, one of the lead- ing suppliers of components for power genera- tion systems using concentrated solar power (CSP) - and Brenmiller became CEO. In the first six months of 2009, Solel posted sales of al- most $90 million. Then, in late 2009, Siemens purchased the company. With its staff of more than 500, Solel subsequently became Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd. Brenmiller’s dream has come true. Now, thanks to the acquisition, the key components, systems and solutions for solar thermal power stations covering the entire conversion chain can be supplied from a single source. Siemens Renewable Energy Division offers everything from parabolic mirrors to Focus on the Sun T he King of Sweden expressed his pride when the Igelsta biomass power plant en- tered service in Södertälje, west of Stockholm in March 2010. “The time has never been bet- ter for an investment like this,” stated Carl XVI Gustaf. “The plant we have built sets an exam- ple for Sweden, for Europe and for the whole world.” Compared with a conventional power plant fired by fossil fuels, the new biomass fa- cility saves as much carbon dioxide as is emit- ted by 140,000 cars per year. To promote green energies, the Swedish government de- cided in favor of the “carrot and stick” approach years ago. Economic incentives for renewable energies and financial sanctions for conven- tional technologies make the construction of new coal-fired power plants unprofitable. Swedish utilities reacted quickly by investing in power plants that burn biomass or waste in- stead of fossil fuels. Sweden’s targets are ambitious. By 2020, fossil fuels are to be eliminated from electricity generation. But nature is helping here. Hydro power already covers nearly half of Sweden’s electricity needs; nuclear power provides a sig- nificant share; and two percent was generated by wind turbines in 2009. More than eleven percent is generated in combined heat and power plants (CHP) and this proportion is ex- pected to rise to 15 percent by 2015. Waste heat is used in industrial processes or fed into district heating systems. Particularly in cooler Engineers have been striving to generate power from solar thermal energy for a century. Now, the technology is finally about to come of age. With the acquisition of Solel, Siemens has become a market leader at the cutting edge of several key solar-thermal technolo- gies: parabolic mirrors, receiver tubes and steam turbines. Solar thermal power plants with parabolic mirrors that track the sun are an established technology for the production of electricity. Below: Siemens’ Lebrija 1 pant near Seville. What a Fireplace! In order to accelerate a planned phaseout of coal and gas, Sweden utilizes market-oriented incentive systems and innovati- ve technologies. The country’s biggest biomass power plant was recently opened in Södertälje. A Siemens turbine is helping to enhance its efficiency. Waste wood is the most important fuel at Sweden’s Södertälje power plant, where a steam turbine from Siemens sharply cuts carbon dioxide output. Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2010 81 Siemens Corporate Technology. This will help us to further enhance the technology. We ex- pect to be able to achieve not only an efficien- cy of more than 25 percent at peak load but also an average overall yearly efficiency of more than 16 percent.” Perfect Curves.Other components influence the economic efficiency of solar thermal pow- er plants as well. By using larger parabolic mir- rors, for instance, fixed costs per square meter can be driven down. Additional mirror-related improvements will help to reduce the final cost of energy based on initial investment, opera- tions and maintenance, and the cost of capital. “By combining our strengths and optimizing the solar field and power block subsystems we are using an additional lever to raise the effi- ciency of CSP facilities,” says René Umlauft, CEO of the Siemens Renewable Energy Divi- sion. “It’s our target that the costs of producing electricity in solar-thermal power plants should not exceed the market price of electricity in the mid term.” The individual mirrors that make up para- bolic troughs are manufactured near the town of Nazareth in the north of Israel. Siemens project manager Ehud Epstein puts on safety goggles that protect his eyes from flying shards and opens a second button on his shirt. The closer he gets to the oven, the hotter it gets. At approximately 1,500 degrees Celsius, the special-purpose silicate in the oven melts into glass. “At other times, glass for armored vehicles is made here. We do a separate shift for parabolic mirrors,” says Epstein. “In this case, we use glass with a low iron content. This ensures that they absorb only a minimal amount of solar energy and therefore reflect most of it.” The hot liquid glass flows out of the oven over steel rollers in a river of molten light. Sheets measuring 1.6 by 1.7 meters in diame- ter are broken out, ground down at the edges and then heated again. The glass sheets are placed on stainless steel mats and then passed through another oven that was specially built for this purpose. Here, in the course of about 1.5 hours, they slowly take on the desired “The most important objective for the com- ing years is to further reduce the cost of elec- tricity produced at CSP plants,” says Eli Lipman, Vice President of Research and Development at Siemens Concentrated Solar Power. “The real breakthrough for solar thermal technology will come as soon as it allows power generation at competitive prices — in other words, when it can do without subsidies.” The influence of the receiver tubes on the overall efficiency of a solar thermal plant is greater than that of any other individual com- ponent. One priority is therefore to make this link in the chain even more efficient. At the end of 2009, Siemens Concentrated Solar Power introduced what is currently the most efficient receiver on the market. Its efficiency derives from a combination of high solar ab- sorption and reduced thermal loss. The latter is dependent on the extent to which absorbed solar energy is re-radiated. The improvement is partly due to special thin film coatings, ex- plains Lipman: “We can now capitalize on syn- ergies in research and development with steam turbines. “This vertical integration is es- sential,” says Brenmiller. “The most important driver for maximizing efficiency is the perfect interaction of all components.” A Vision Becomes Reality.A power plant to consist mainly of Siemens components is now being built in Lebrija, Andalusia. The plant il- lustrates what a visionary project called De- sertec might one day look like (see Pictures of the Future, Fall 2009, p. 19). The vision of the Desertec Industrial Initiative (Dii) is ambitious. It calls for a network of solar thermal power plants and wind farms in the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and in North Africa to not only meet local demand, but to generate 15 percent of Europe’s electricity require- ments. The industry consortium driving Dii, which began its work in 2009, is currently de- veloping economically viable strategies for the construction of a network of plants. Construction work on the Lebrija 1 CSP plant in southern Spain began in 2008. The majority of its most important components are shipped from Israel and arrive at Cádiz harbor. The contents of the sea-freight containers des- tined for Lebrija, however,are sensitive. Up to 7,000 mirrors arrive each week. Almost 170,000 are needed to fit out what will soon be a 50-megawatt (MW) power plant. All in all, the mirrors account for approximately six per- cent of the plant’s total cost of almost €300 million. Receiver tubes - pipes that receive so- lar radiation from the mirrors and transfer it to a fluid - are another major expense. The components are assembled on-site in Lebrija in a specially-built hall. “When we ar- rived, we found a cotton plantation at the site,” says Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Vice President Moshe Shtamper, who is responsible for the construction of the thermal solar facili- ty at Lebrija 1. His project team first had to re- move the cotton and then have drains laid in the marshy delta of the Guadalquivir River. Now there are concrete pillars extending down as far as 40 meters into the ground, and the 6,048 parabolic troughs are mounted on top of these. Each trough consists of 28 individual mirrors that focus light onto the receivers. The parts are now being put together in the assem- bly hall by former plantation workers. Using hydraulic hoisting cranes, they are combining individual mirrors to create parabolic troughs, which are then transported to the solar field by a tractor and trailer. There, cranes hoist the two-ton troughs into position. The plant will go online in 2011 and, with the help of a steam turbine from Siemens, is expected to supply over 50,000 Spanish households with electricity (see box). Energy Technologies | Solar Thermal Power 80 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2010 | Solar Thermal Power Im Fokus: Die Receiverrohre Das Grundprinzip der solarthermischen Stromerzeugung ist einfach: Die Energie der Sonne erhitzt – direkt oder indirekt über ein Wärmeträgermedium – Wasser. Dieses verdampft, und der Dampf treibt mit hohem Druck eine Turbine an (Pictures of the Future, Herbst 2009, S.23). Parabolspiegel bündeln das Sonnenlicht dazu auf kleiner Fläche, um ausreichend hohe Temperaturen zu erzielen. In der Brennlinie der halb offenen Spiegel ist ein Receiverrohr fixiert. Durch dieses zirkuliert eine Flüssigkeit, das Wärmeträgermedium, derzeit meist synthetisches Spezialöl oder flüssiges Salz. Es erhitzt sich auf knapp 400 Grad Celsius – Flüssigsalze erlauben sogar Temperaturen von bis zu 550 Grad und arbeiten daher effizienter – und gibt dann die Hitze an Wasser ab, das verdampft und die Turbine und den Stromgenerator treibt. Die Receiver haben erheblichen Einfluss auf den Gesamtwirkungsgrad der Anlage. Siemens forscht daher intensiv an einer weiteren Verbesserung der Hightech-Rohre (Bilder oben). Oberstes Ziel ist es, möglichst viel Sonnenstrahlen zu absorbieren, aber zugleich eine Abstrahlung der im Träger- medium gespeicherten Wärme zu verhindern. Der Aufbau der Receiver ist komplex: „Entscheidend ist die Beschichtung. Mehrere Schichten unterschiedlicher Materialien, unter anderem ein Keramik- Metall-Gemisch, vermindern die Abstrahlungsverluste”, erklärt Eli Lipman, Leiter für Forschung und Entwicklung bei Siemens Concentrated Solar Power. Das Wärmeträgermedium fließt durch ein Edel- stahlrohr. Dieses wird von einem Glaskolben umschlossen, im Zwischenraum befindet sich ein Vaku- um, das die Abstrahlung reduziert. Ein Receiverrohr ähnelt damit einem Treibhaus: Möglichst viel Sonnenlicht soll nach innen dringen, die dort entstehende Wärme aber nicht nach außen. Je besser dies gelingt, desto effizienter und profitabler gerät das Solarfeld. Die große Hitze bringt aber auch Probleme mit sich: Mit der steigen- den Temperatur dehnen sich die unterschiedlichen Materialien verschieden stark aus. Eine Art Faltbalg, der das Metallrohr mit dem äußeren Glasrohr verbindet, gleicht die dabei entstehenden Spannungen flexibel aus. Das neueste Modell von Siemens ist der derzeit effizienteste Receiver auf dem Markt. Für eine 50 MW-Anlage bedeutet sein Einsatz im Vergleich zu herkömmlichen Receivern einen zusätzlichen Ertrag von etwa 6.500 Megawattstunden pro Jahr, Strom für zusätzlich 1.500 Haushalte. Das ent- spricht einer fünfprozentigen Steigerung der Effizienz der gesamten Anlage – allein durch Verbes- serungen am Receiver. With parabolic mirrors, getting just the right curve is essential to maximizing efficiency. Meticulous quality control takes place in a plant in Israel, helping to ensure at least 25 years of operation. Why Receiver Tubes Are Hot Stuff The basic principle of solar-thermal power generation is simple. Energy from the sun heats water, ei- ther directly or indirectly through a heat transfer medium. The water turns to steam, and the steam drives a turbine at high pressure (see Pictures of the Future,Fall 2009, p. 23). Parabolic mirrors focus the needed sunlight onto a small surface in order to achieve sufficiently high temperatures. A receiv- er tube is fixed in the focal line of a row of concave mirrors. A liquid flows through these tubes as a heat transfer medium — synthetic oil and molten salt are the most commonly used substances to- day. The heat transfer medium is heated to approximately 400 degrees Celsius — molten salts allow temperatures of up to 550 degrees and are therefore more efficient — and in a second step releases the heat via a heat exchanger to water, which turns to steam and ultimately drives a turbine. The receivers have a considerable influence on the overall efficiency of the plant. Siemens is there- fore pursuing intensive research on further improvements to these high-tech tubes (photograph above). The highest priority is absorbing as much solar radiation as possible while simultaneously preventing emission of the heat stored in the transfer medium. The structure of the receivers is com- plex. “The coating is crucial: multiple layers of various materials, including a ceramic-metal mixture, reduce the re-radiation losses,” says Vice President of Research and Development at Siemens Con- centrated Solar Power, Eli Lipman. The heat transfer medium flows through a stainless steel tube. This is enclosed in a glass cylinder, and in the space in between there is a vacuum that further re- duces re-radiation. A receiver tube is therefore similar in principle to a greenhouse. The maximum amount of sunlight must get inside, but the heat produced there should not get outside. The better this is accomplished, the more efficient and profitable the solar installation becomes. But great heat also poses significant challenges. As temperature increases, the various materials used for the receiver expand at different rates. A sort of bellows connecting the metal tube with the outer glass pipe flexibly compensates for the resulting stresses. The latest Siemens receiver tubes are currently the most efficient ones on the market. In a 50 MW plant, the use of this model instead of conventional receivers would mean yield an extra 6,500 MWh per year, or enough power for an additional 1,500 households. That represents a five-percent in- crease in the efficiency of the plant as a whole — just from improvements to the receiver. Israel: Perfect Place for PV Israel is an ideal location for harvesting the sun’s energy — not only in the form of solar thermal power plants, but also with photovoltaic systems that promise big yields. Siemens has taken a 40- percent stake in Arava Power, Israel’s leading developer of photovoltaic systems. Siemens is also the general contractor on a project to build the first PV power plants in the desert — including one at Kibbutz Ketrua in the south of Israel. Here, in this desert region between the Red Sea and the Dead Sea, the conditions for solar power couldn’t be better. In 2011, the Kibbutz Ketrua could be feeding energy from a five-megawatt photovoltaic facility into the grid. Apart from solar panels themselves, which are being supplied by Suntech, almost all the components of this first plant will come from Siemens. Mike Green, Chief Electrical Engineer at Arava Power, is proud to be a pioneer for green en- ergy in Israel. “My big hope is that this will mark the beginning of a lucrative future for renewable energy in Israel,” he says. Siemens’ Lebrija 1 plant in southern Spain is designed to generate electricity for at least 25 years. In Brief Our power grids are facing new challenges. They will not only have to integrate large quanti- ties of fluctuating wind and solar power, but also incorporate an increasing number of small, de- centralized power producers. Today’s infra- structure is not up to this task. The solution is to develop an intelligent grid that keeps electricity production and distribution in balance.(p.60) The world’s largest turbine, with an output of 375 megawatt (MW), has entered trial service in December 2007. In combination with a downst- ream steam turbine, it will help ensure that a new combined cycle power plant achieves a re- cord-breaking efficiency of more than 60 per- cent when it goes into operation in 2011. (p.64) Small, distributed power plants, fluctuating energy sources such as wind and sunlight, and the deregulation of electric power markets have one thing in common. They increase the need for reliable and economical operation of electric power grids. The virtual power plant is an intelli- gent solution from Siemens. It networks multi- ple small power stations to form a large, smart power grid. (p.66) Power produced from renewable sources such as wind and sunlight is irregular. Experts are the- refore looking at ways of storing surplus energy so that it can be converted back into electricity when required. One option is underground hy- drogen storage, which is inexpensive, highly efficient, and can feed power into the grid quickly. (p.74) Engineers have been striving to generate power from solar thermal energy for a century. Now, the technology is finally about to come of age. With the acquisition of Solel, Siemens has become a market leader at the cutting edge of several key solar-thermal technologies: parabolic mirrors, receiver tubes and steam turbines. (p.79) PEOPLE: Gas turbine Irsching: Gerda Gottschick, CC Energy email@example.com Virtual Power Plants: Dr. Thomas Werner, Energy firstname.lastname@example.org Power Plant Modernization: Dr. Andreas Feldmüller, Energy email@example.com Dr. Norbert Henklel, Energy firstname.lastname@example.org Offshore Wind: Henrik Stiesdal, Energy email@example.com Energy Storage: Erik Wolf, Energy firstname.lastname@example.org Biomass Igelsta: Lynne Anderson, Energy email@example.com LINKS: Webpage Power Plant Irsching: www.kraftwerk-irsching.com European Energy Exchange: www.eex.com Webpage Söderenergi: www.soderenergi.se/web/English-web- site.aspx Siemens Solar Power: www.energy.siemens.com/hq/en/power- generation/renewables/solar-power Siemens Wind Power: www.energy.siemens.com/hq/en/power- generation/renewables/wind-power curved shape needed for perfectly focusing so- lar radiation. “During this stage, it’s important that there be no stresses left in the material that could later lead to fractures. After all, we guarantee a service life of 25 years.” A single parabolic trough consists of 28 in- dividual mirrors. Since the trough must be able to reflect sunlight in such a way as to perfectly focus it on a nearby receiver tube, each mirror must have a curvature of a fraction of a degree in order to minimize scattering losses. What’s more, the mirrors themselves must absorb as little solar radiation as possible. As is the case with receiver tubes, coatings play a key role in terms of maximizing desirable characteristics and minimizing undesirable ones. Thus, Ep- stein’s team ensures that a silver solution, as well as a coating of copper and several layers of corrosion-inhibiting paint are sprayed on the back of each mirror Epstein walks past a long line of finished mirrors. Depending on how they are standing, he seems to become either widened to comical proportions or extended vertically into a skinny giant with thin limbs. “This is my hall of carnival mirrors,” he jokes. “After a long day, you just have to stand in front of the right one, and suddenly you’ve gotten rid of all those extra pounds for a few seconds. That puts you in better spirits.” Competitive Production.While some solar thermal power plants have entered service in Spain and the U.S. state of Arizona, plans are only now being made for the first facilities in Israel. “The irradiance data for Israel are per- fect. The whole Negev Desert is an ideal area for CSP plants,” says Brenmiller. “And if the plants were also equipped with gas turbines, you could generate power competitively right now in Israel, even without any subsidies.” The downstream steam turbine in such gas-solar hybrid power plants can be powered by solar heat, and by the waste heat produced by the gas turbine. This means that the power plant can also generate electricity during the hours of darkness. At least for a transitional period, solar energy and fossil fuels will coexist to maximize each other’s strengths. However, the energy mix as a whole will increasingly shift toward renewable energies, Brenmiller be- lieves. If for no other reason, this development will definitely take place simply because of dwindling oil reserves. In retrospect, then, it al- most seems an irony of history that solar ther- mal technology should have made one of its grand entrances right at the start of the oil age, approximately 100 years ago. After all, it is now making another, just as that particular age appears to be nearing its twilight. Andreas Kleinschmidt 82 Reprinted (with updates) from Pictures of the Future | Spring 2010 | Solar Thermal Power Would you like to know more about Siemens and our latest developments? 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As we confront challenges like these, the creativity of researchers and engineers is more essential than ever before. Solar power plants in the desert, floating wind turbines, computers ser- ving as medical assistants, robots in homes, electric cars with sensory abilities — all this is almost within reach at laboratories throughout the world. In his book Life in 2050, Ulrich Eberl has assembled the most important knowledge that has appeared in the publication Pictures of the Future over the past de- cade and describes, in clear and vivid terms, the trends that will shape our lives as we approach the year 2050. www.siemens.com/innovation/lifein2050 www.siemens.com/pof © 2011 by Siemens AG. All rights reserved. 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