АСТРОНОМИЧЕСКАЯ ОРИЕНТАЦИЯ ПИРАМИД ЕГИПТА И НОВАЯ ХРОНОЛОГИЯ ЦАРЕЙ ДРЕВНЕГО ЦАРСТВАкод для вставкиСкачать
ТАЙНА ШНУРА СЕШАТ АСТРОНОМИЧЕСК ОЕ ДАТИРОВАНИЕ ПИРАМИД И ДИНАСТИЙ ДРЕВНЕГО ЕГИПТА 2 СОДЕРЖАНИЕ Полюс мира - прецессия 5 Метод Спенс 10 Метод Хака 15 Метод Бельмонте 21 Критика методов 40 Шнур Сешат 53 Строительные метки 58 Коронация царя Нейт и Сешат 72 История метода 79 Египетские пирамиды 82 Ориентация египетских пирамид 87 Метод Поллукса 90 Радиоуглеродный анализ пирамид 94 Ступенчатая пирамида Джосера 98 Слоеная пирамида Сехемхета 105 Пирамида Хаба 109 Пирамида Хуни 111 Ломаная пирамида Снофру 117 Красная пирамида Снофру 121 Великая пирамида Хуфу 124 Пирамида Абу Роаш Джедефра 134 3 Пирамида Хаф ра 139 Пирамида Завиет эль - Ариан Небкара 146 Пирамида Менкаура 158 Мастаба эль - Фараун Ше псескафа 164 Пирамида Джедефптаха - Униса 167 Пирамида Усеркафа 175 Пирамида Сахура 178 Пирамида Нефериркара 183 Солнечный храм Ниусерра 186 Пирамида Пепи II 189 Пирамида Шепсескафа - Аменемхета III 191 Пирамида Аменемхета I в Лиште 200 Мастаба 17 204 Пирамида Лепсиуса №1 206 Туринский царский канон 210 Генеалогическое древо династий 213 Гипотеза Берлева 214 Гипотеза Штадельмана 223 Хронология Miroslav Verner 224 Хронология McClellan 267 Новая хронология династий 275 Заключение 280 4 G ewidmet meiner geliebten Mutter . Автор попытался восстановить утраченную первоначальную процедуру ориентации пирамид Древнего царства Египта , которая позволяла ориентировать ритуальные сооружения с точностью в одну астрономическ ую минут у . Метод Поллукса дает н овые возможности , позволяю щие датировать точную дату и год начала строительства пирамиды. Этим методом были ориентированы все пирамиды Древнего царства. Полученные результаты не только сдвинули принятые датировк и пирамид, но и прекрасно состыковались с известными цифрами в радиоуглеродном анализе пирамид. Выстроенная новая хронология времени постройки пирамид позволила синхронизировать её с известной длительность ю времени правления царей и получить новую хронологию династий Древнего царства с точностью в один год. Это и есть та тайна , которую поведал шнур богини С е шат . Кисточка, которой она записывала годы жизни и правления фараонов на листья х дер ева "ишед" , теперь написала новую историю Древних пирамид и их Ц арей. [ от автора ,2012 ] 5 Полюс мира - п рецессия Точка весеннего равноденствия, кульминация которой определяет начало звездных суток, не находится постоянно в одном и том же месте небесной сферы. Полярная звезда не всегда была в полюсе мира и ее роль исполняли и будут исполнять в разное время другие звез ды, например Тубан или Вега. Движения точки равноденствия и полюса мира — это два видимых следствия одного и того же явления, называемого предварением равноденствий или прецессией. Это явление было открыто еще в 125 г. до н. э. греческим астрономом Гиппар хом, но только через восемнадцать столетий Исаак Ньютон сумел его объяснить. 6 Полюс мира — точка на небесной сфере, в которую направлена ось нашей вращающейся планеты. Наблюдателю кажется, что именно вокруг этой точки движется небосвод. Если бы Земля был а идеально круглым шаром, то напр авление ее оси вращения всегда оставалось бы одинаковым. Однако Земля не является точным шаром, а слегка сплюснута у полюсов и чуть - чуть вытянута у экватора. Вследствие этого ось вращения Земли прецессирует так же, как ось обыкновенного вращающегося волчка. В то время как наклон оси к плоскости земной орбиты остается постоянным (отклонение от вертикали равно 23.5 градуса), ось Земли движется вокруг вертикали по поверхности конуса, совершая один оборот приблизительно за 25 8 00 лет. Если представить земную ось в виде длинного тонкого карандаша, то за это время он опишет на небесной сфере окружность, показанную в верхней части рисунке, а звезды, лежащие на этой окружности или около нее, поочередно будут полярными. 7 Предва рение равноденствий (лат. praecessio aequinoctiorum) — историческое название для постепенного смещения точек весеннего и осеннего равноденствий (то есть точек пересечения небесного экватора с эклиптикой) навстречу видимому годичному движению Солнца. Другим и словами, каждый год весеннее равноденствие наступает немного раньше, чем в предыдущем году. Основная причина предварения равноденствий — прецессия, периодическое изменение направления земной оси под влиянием притяжения Луны, а также (в меньшей степени) Солнца. Как выяснил Ньютон в своих «Началах», сплюснутость Земли у полюсов приводит к тому, что притяжение внешних тел поворачивает земную ось, которая описывает конус с периодом (по современным данным) примерно 25 776 лет. При этом наклон земной оси к эклиптике сохраняется неизменным. Поворот земной оси смещает и связанные с Землёй экваториальные с истемы небесных координат, примерно на 20,1" в год. Существуют и другие причины смещения земной оси — нутация, апериодическое «блуждание полюсов» и т. п., однако их вклад в результат по сравнению с прецессией невелик. 8 Аналогичные явления происходят и н а других планетах. Например, ось Юпитера под влиянием его многочисленных спутников и Солнца смещается примерно на полградуса в течение юпитерианского года. Смещение северного полюса мира - п оворот оси нашей планеты имеет разнообразные последствия. Прежде всего, он сокращает продолжительность тропического года, который становится на 20 минут короче звёздного. Поскольку долготы звёзд отсчитываются от точки равноденствия, они постепенно увеличиваются — именно этот эффект и привёл к открытию данного явления. В процессе прецессии вид звёздного неба, видимый в тех или иных широтах, меняется, так как меняются склонения тех или иных созвездий, и даже время года их наблюдения. Некоторые созвездия, видимые сейчас в средних широтах северного полушария Земли (например, Орион и Большой Пёс), постепенно опускаются под горизонт и через несколько тысяч лет будут почти недоступны из средних широт северного полушария, зато на северном небе появятся созвездия Центавр и Южный Крест, а также ряд других. Однако не все созвездия южного полушария будут доступны в результате прецессии, к примеру, выше всех поднимется современное «летнее» небо, меньше — «осеннее» и «весеннее», зимнее небо не поднимется вовсе, так как в настоящее время оно уже максимально поднято. Схожие процессы буду т и в Южном полушарии. Многие созвездия Северного полушария, которые в настоящее время недоступны, будут доступны, причём выше всего поднимется современное «зимнее» небо, которое видно из Южного полушария как летнее. Спустя 6 тысяч лет будет доступно из ср едних широт Южного полушария для наблюдения созвездие Большая Медведица, а 6 тыс. лет назад была видна Кассиопея. Полюс мира сейчас почти совпадает с Полярной звездой; в древнем Египте он находился вблизи звезды Тубан (α Дракона), а в V тысячелетии перейдё т в созвездие Цефея. Орбита Земли слегка вытянута, и ближе всего Земля подходит к Солнцу в январе, когда в северном полушарии зима. Из - за этого климат северного полушария Земли несколько мягче, чем южного (зима мягче, а лето несколько прохладнее). Через 10 000 лет сезоны из - за прецессии сдвинутся, и мягче станет климат южного полушария 9 10 Метод Спенс 11 12 13 14 15 Метод Хака 16 17 18 19 20 21 Метод Бельмонте 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Критика методов A brief evaluation of Kate Spence's article in NATURE Vol. 408, 16 November 2000, pp. 320 - 324 Ancient Egyptian Chronology and the Astronomical Orientation of Pyramids. © Robert G. Bauval, 6 January 2001 The findings in the above titled paper, which was supported in the same Nature issue by an article from Dr. Owen Gingerich, the veteran astronomer from Harvard  , have been vented in the international press in at least 20 countries and in hundreds of dot.com news - lists as a major Egyptological event. In the paper the author, Dr. Kate Spence of the Faculty of Oriental Studies at the University of Cambridge, well - known to British viewers for her appearance on BBC Horizon 'Atlantis Reborn ' and other a ncient history programmes, makes the following claims: a. Dating the Giza Pyramids : That the Egyptian pyramids at Giza have never been accurately dated. b. Simultaneous Transit Method : That the method used by the ancient builders in their attempt to determine true north was by aligning a plumb - line to the 'invisible line' formed by the great circle passing through the star Kochab ( b Ursa Minor) and Mizar ( z Ursa Major) and to the north - south axis of the west or east side of each pyramid. c. Misalignments of Pyramids as a Function of Precession : That this method produced a misalignment 'error' of the west or east side of each pyramid which can be explained as a function of the precessional drift of the 'invisible line' away from the north cel estial pole. d. Anchoring the Old Kingdom chronology : That the date for the start of construction of the Great Pyramid can be fixed by her dating method to 2478 BC +/ - 5 years and can serve as an anchor for the Old Kingdom chronology. One of the great appeals of Spence's thesis, especially concerning item (c) above, is that it offers a mathematical 'model' showing on X - Y graphs the relationship between precessional drift and the misalignment of the pyramids which can be evaluated per se. At first sight the two neatly parallel lines, which represent respectively the misalignments of the pyramids and the Precessional Drift plotted against time, appear to confirm her theory in a way that clinches the deal for the scientifically - minded. On closer examinatio n, however, the paper reveals flaws and errors, inconsistencies and unjustified assumptions that undermine the originality and validity of the claims that Spence was allowed to make in Nature . Let us examine these claims: Dating the Giza Pyramids : First, the claim that the pyramids at Giza have never been accurately dated before is not correct. Spence simply ignores the scientists and researchers who came before her. As one eminent astronomer put it to me, this was not very 'polite'. In 1838 Sir Joh n Herschel was the first to use precession to attempt to date the Great Pyramid by using the pole star, Thuban; and was followed by the Scottish astronomer Charles Piazzi Smyth in 1865 who used the same method  . More recently, in 1964, astronomer Virginia Trimble and Egyptologist Alexander Badawy used precession to determine the stellar alignments of the so - called air - shafts of the "King’s Chamber" of the Great Pyramid by refe rring to data from Petrie's 1881 survey, and computed that these shafts were sloped to Delta Orionis in the south and Alpha Draconis in the north at about 2600 BC  . In 1990, I also used the same data to compute that the southern shaft of the Queen's Chamber was sloped towards Sirius in c. 2750 41 BC  . However, in 1993 the slopes of these shafts were more accurately measured by the German engineer Rudolf Gantenbrink, and with this new data I obtained a date of 2450 BC +/ - 25 years for all four shafts  . This date was conf irmed in 1995 by the Scottish astronomer, Dr. Mary Bruck, although she assumed a +/ - 60 years margin of error  . A simple calculation shows that this estimate falls within the 2478 BC +/ - 5 years date claimed by Kate Spence. Adding a brief paragraph or footnote to her paper to cover this historical background would have given it the scholarly ethics it sorely lacks on this specific issue, but as I understand it, it was apparent ly the referees of Nature that advised against it. It must be remembered that the Pyramids of Giza are, astronomically speaking, equinoctial monuments and thus any methods using the azimuth change of stars are bound to be fraught with much uncertainty. This , inter alia, is because the misalignment error could very simply be due to surveying and constructionalproblems, and/or naked - eye limits of resolution, rather than the result of the precessional drift. In any case, Spence's method is by no means novel. Se veral years ago, in 1984, the astronomer Steven C. Haack of Nebraska University introduced the idea of using the precessional drift of stars to define a new chronology for the Pyramid Age  . And although Haack used the azimuth at the horizon rather than azimuth at the celestial pole, the method is fundamentally the same. It also must be mentioned that Haack's method was used again by French astronomer Karine Gadre in 1998  . Using the east horizon rather than the pole region is, in fact, more justified (if perhaps less accurate), for it is well - known that the south and north sides of the pyramid are more accurately aligned to the cardinal directions than the east and west sides  . For example, the south side is only 1' 57" S of W as opposed to a 2' 30" W of N for the wes t side which Spence's used  . The real problem, however, with azimuth methods such as proposed by Haack and Spence is that the accuracy required for naked - eye observations is, in practice, almost impossible to achieve  . The astronomer Brad Schaefer from Texas University rightly pointed out that the scatter about Spence’s theoretical curve is ~ 2 arc - minutes on the X - Y graphs displayed, yet the stars she uses are faint enough that their perceived naked - eye appearance is about the same size  . Schaefer also pointe d out that the accuracies of naked - eye sightings required by Kate Spence are theoretical and cannot be achieved in practice 'because with the perceived size of the stars and the speed of motion, it is impossible for the human eye to get the 25 second timin g accuracy required'  . Furthermore, there is a mathematical error in Spence’s paper pointed out by the astronomer Dennis Rawlins of Baltimore and his colleague Keith Picker ing of DIO magazine. In their own words, "Spence (or Stephenson [the astronomer whose calculations Spence used]) correctly computed that the inter - star linebetween Kochab and Mizar moves past the North Celestial Pole at 27' per century, but that is not the rate at which the azimuth of the vertical line between them changes. To get the rate of azimuth, you must divide by the cosine of the latitude, which in this case yields an azimuth change of 31' per century." Pickering and Rawlins suggested a better solut ion: "to wait until Thuban (the 'classical' Egyptian pole star) and nearby star 10 Draconis are at equal altitude, and bisect the small angle between them. This method yields a change of 27.4 arcmin/century, which is much closer to the 28 arcmin per centur y change of the pyramids themselves."  I asked the astronomer Dr. Ed Krupp of the Griffith Observatory what he made of this error, and this was his comment: "I know Dennis Rawlins well enough to figure he is likely to be right on this count. If my understanding of the error is correct, Kate Spence's use of pyramid construction chronology can no longer be used in support of her pyramid alignment proposal."  This elementary error has, in fact, been now acknowledged by Dr. Owen Gingerich, the Harvard astronomer who originally promoted Kate Spence's paper. Gingerich confirmed that "there is a smal l error in Kate Spence's paper on this point, which compresses the time scale on each side of the zero point by about 15%."  For the record, in 1995 the astronomer Dr. Mary Bruck pointed out that although in archaeoastronomy the dating of ancient monuments is generally performed from azimuth observations, this cannot be satisfactorily applied to the Egyptian pyramids because they 'are oriented towards the cardinal points of the sky, directions which do not alter with time. The visible effect of precession, if it exists, must be looked for in evidence of stellar altitudes rather than azimuth.'  . Thus the change in declination, not of azimuth, of stars measured at the meridian is the correct method to be used. Fortunately the Great Pyramid contains numerous tunnels and shafts inclined towards the meridian. If any of these were directed to stars, and if we know which stars might have been used, then we are provided with the correct means to attempt to date this monument. This is precisely the 42 reason why in 1964 Dr. Trimble and Dr. Badawy used the so - called ‘air - shafts’ of the Great Pyramid for dati ng purposes. Among Egyptologists and, later among astronomers, the possible stellar links of the shafts received serious attention because of the well - known association of Orion to the rebirth cult of the Pyramid Age  . The fact that the 'astral shafts' were not used as actual sighting devices because of various features that impeded such a possibility, was not seen as an obstacle to this theory, since pyramid specialists suc h as Dr. I.E.S. Edwards rightly argued that, like many other features in Egyptian monuments, the shafts essentially served a symbolic and magical function. And although these days there are the occasional voices raised in protest against this conclusion (c hief among them Rudolf Gantenbrink and Dr. Zahi Hawass  ), there is nonetheless overwhelming support for the stellar association of the shafts coming from both the Egyptolog ical and astronomical professions  . In any case, for Kate Spence to have completely ignored in her paper this important issue and the eminent scientists who had worked on i t, is not just a reflection of some inexplicable 'oversight' or academic 'impoliteness' but also highlights a very worrying trend amongst scientific editors and referees to opt for 'economy and simplicity' in an article at the expense of historical facts, irrespective of the validity or acceptance of the theory. Kate Spence, however, apparently now claims that her paper in Nature was intended to merely 'test' her views in the scientific community, but this is a very lame excuse for ignoring or being economic al with the facts in such a blatant manner. At any rate such a motive was most certainly not made explicit or implicit in her original article, hence the huge reaction by the scientific media, which, upon seeing the supporting article in Nature by Dr. Owen Gingerich, readily accepted Spence’s findings as scientifically proven facts. The Simultaneous Transit Method: Spence claims to have started with a blank - slate approach to find the stars that could be used for the so - called Simultaneous Transit Method . Apparently after a series of trials and errors she happened on the stars Kochab in Ursa Minor and Mizar in Ursa Major and noted that these two stars were directly above each other in c. 2467 BC. She then called the imaginary line that joined these two st ars the 'invisible chord'. In actual fact, however, the idea of an 'invisible chord' between Kochab and Mizar is depicted in several diagrams of my earlier publications, albeit not for the same purpose but rather in connection with the simultaneous rising of Orion's belt 43 in the east and the Great Pyramid only  . It should be pointed out that although there is ample evidence in the ancient Egyptian texts that Orion was observe d at rising, there is, in contrast, absolutely no textual support to suggest that Kochab or Mizar, simultaneously or otherwise, were used for aligning pyramids to true north. To be entirely honest about this, the ancient methods are unknown, and if these w ere indeed stellar, we simply cannot tell which stars they used. In my opinion single star transits using a star in Orion or the star Sirius (which are mentioned in the texts) could have done just as well as the northern stars in simultaneous transit propo sed by Spence. As for the Simultaneous Transit Method itself, there is a logic that escapes me in Spence's paper. Her reasoning, if I understand it well, shows that the Great Pyramid (Khufu) at Giza was the best aligned to true north using the 'invisible c hord' in c. 2478 BC +/ - 5 years on the west side (running south to north). Spence arrived at this conclusion by matching the 2.8 arc - minutes westerly misalignment of this side of the pyramid to the westerly angular distance of her so - called 'invisible chor d' measured from the north celestial pole. She then reasoned that the pyramids that were built earlier would have greater westerly misalignments than Khufu's, and that those built later would have greater easterly misalignment. She then goes on to say that there is evidence that shows that the techniques and precision of sighting and fixing the alignment of pyramids were the same throughout the Pyramid Age, and also states that such precision should have improved after the Great Pyramid. But surveying and s etting - out precision, however, goes hand in hand with construction standards. And here, contrary to what Spence assumed, there is considerable evidence that the standards of engineering of pyramid - building were lower before Khufu's reign, and deteriorated very rapidly again after the 4th Dynasty. Thus to ignore this and then to consider only the surveying aspect is, to me, being 'selective' with the evidence. There are also religious and cultic issues to consider in this matter. It must be appreciated that the astronomical alignment of pyramids was essentially a religious matter, carried out according to strict religious rituals and fixed religious dates . A pyramid project was, after all, an enterprise that would require many years to plan and several decade s to construct, and thus the site preparation including the astronomical alignments were carefully and meticulously implemented according to a long - established tradition. Now according to Spence, in order for her theory to work, she had to assume that some of the alignments on the 'invisible chord' were taken with Kochab at upper culmination and Mizar at lower culmination; and others taken in reverse, that is with Mizar now at upper culmination and Kochab at lower culmination. The astronomer R.H. Van Gent p ointed out, however, that 'there is no period in the year when both situation can be clearly viewed on the same night' [HASTRO - L Sat.18 Nov. 2000]. Furthermore also for the theory to work, Spence had to also assume that in some cases it was the north - south axis of the west side of the pyramid that was aligned to the 'invisible chord' and that in other cases it was the north - south axis of the east side. Such assumptions, however, would have required radical changes in the rituals and also radical changes in the religious dates between the successive reigns of Khufu and Khafre, which would be somewhat inconsistent with how religious bodies normally behave on such matters, especially in antiquity. Even today, for example, Islamic priests would be extremely relu ctant to alter the astronomical computations related to the feast of Ramadan, as much as Roman Catholics abhor any change the astronomical calculations for dating Easter each year. There is, too, another 'Catch - 22' reasoning by Kate Spence that does not se em to add up, and it is this: in order for the ancient Egyptian priest - astronomers to know which stars culminated simultaneous on and/or near the great circle going through the celestial north pole (meridian), they obviously had to know beforehand where th e north celestial pole was in the first place. This would imply that they already had a means to establish true (or near - true north)! Misalignments as a function of Precession : Most of the objections are dealt with in items (a) and (b) above. Apart fro m these, there are other miscellaneous factors that undermine Spence's method. For example, the problem of parallax has been mentioned. Aiming a plumb - line at an 'invisible chord' adjoining two stars which are some 22° away from each other is rather a tric ky business to say the least, as just a slight uneven blinking of the viewers eyelids can cause a parallax effect on the plumb - line, especially in the pitch - dark conditions such as required by Spence's method  . On the other hand, the measuring of the declination of a single star using a simple inclinometer for aligning the shafts or tunnels in the Great Pyramid does not carry this parallax problem. 44 45 46 47 Всем известно, что главные пирамиды Четвертой династии фараонов (три пирамиды в Гизе и две пирамиды Снофру в Дашуре) ориентированы по четырем сторонам света с очень высокой точностью. Отклонение восточной грани пирамид от истинного направления на север составляет: Медум - 20' + 1,0'; наклонная пирамида - 17,3' + 0,2'; красная пирамида - 8,7' + 0,2'; Гиза 1 (Хуфу) - 3,4' + 0,2'; Гиза 2 (Хафра) - 6,0' + 0,2'; Гиза 3 (Менкаура) - 12,4' + 1 ,0'. Достигнутая строителями пирамид точность настолько велика, что не приходится сомневаться, что метод ориентации, которым они пользовались, был связан со звездами, а не с измерением длины тени (недавно французская экспедиция под руководством М. Валлогиа выяснила, что ошибка ориентации пирамиды в Абу Руаше [Матье, 2001], которая, по всей вероятности, была построена Джедефрой, правившим между Хуфу и Хафрой, составляет 48,7', но эта ошибка настолько выбивается из общего ряда, что заставляет предположить дру гую церемонию ориентации пирамиды, возможно, по солнцу). Методы ориентации по звездам, предложенные в прошлом, то есть наблюдение за восходом и заходом звезды, не подвержены воздействию прецессии. Тем не менее, как уже отмечал Хаак (1984), имеющиеся данные указывают на зависимость систематической погрешности от времени, которая обусловлена прецессией. Эта проблема побудила Кейт Спенс (2000) предложить метод ориентации - "метод одновременного переноса"? - состоящий в фиксации шнура, протянутого между двумя о колополярными звездами, а именно между Кохабом 48 (Малая Медведица) и Мицаром (Большая Медведица), в положении, перпендикулярном к горизонту. Из - за прецессионного движения земной оси шнур не всегда указывает на истинный север: он медленно перемещается слева н аправо. Начертив график временной зависимости отклонения от направления на север, Спенс демонстрирует, что получившаяся прямая линия достаточно точно совпадает с отклонением ориентации пирамид относительно истинного севера, если, к примеру, "церемония орие нтации" для 1 - й пирамиды Гизы проводилась в 2467 году до н. э. + 5 лет (несмотря на отсутствие письменных свидетельств существования церемонии ориентации для пирамид Древнего Царства, изображение "церемонии протягивания шнура" уже присутствует на стеле той эпохи, получившей название "палермский камень"). Если считать, что египтяне действительно пользовались этим методом, то полученный график можно применить для оценки времени строительства всех пирамид Четвертой династии, что дает датировку на восемьдесят л ет позже общепринятой. В развитие идеи Спенс Бельмонте (2001) высказал предположение, что использовавшийся египтянами метод также состоял в измерении взаимного расположения звезд (как в гипотезе Спенс), только не находившихся по разные стороны полюса - воз можно, это были Мегрец (дельта Большой Медведицы) и Фекда (гамма Большой Медведицы). Поэтому полюс располагается на продолжении линии, соединяющей звезды, - выше или ниже. Это выглядит более естественным (по крайней мере для современных наблюдателей, не ис пользующих оптические приборы) и примиряет астрономическую хронологию с общепринятой. Следует, однако, заметить, что астрономическая датировка так называемых вентиляционных шахт в 1 - й пирамиде Гизы (Тримбл, 1964, Бадеви, 1964, Бьювэл, 1993) свидетельствует в пользу хронологии Спенс. Решение, предложенное Спенс для ориентации 2 - й пирамиды Гизы, совпадает с калибровочной прямой только в том случае, если соответствующую точку "поднять" в область положительных значений. Чтобы преодолеть эту трудность, Спенс предполагает, что ориентация этой пирамиды выполнялась в противоположное время года (летом, а не зимой) по отношению к другим пирамидам (эта же проблема возникала в гипотезе Бельмонте, и для ее разрешения он предположил особую процедуру ориентации для 2 - й пирамиды Гизы). Мне кажется, что такая важная религиозная церемония, как ориентация гигантской гробницы царя, не могла проводиться когда угодно - время ее проведения определялось скрупулезными астрономическими вычислениями, как в обрядах, связанных с цикло м Сириуса. Поэтому я предположил, что погрешность в ориентации второй пирамиды свидетельствует о том, что она была построена раньше первой, а если точнее, то оба сооружения проектировались одновременно (можно показать, что эта гипотеза не противоречит бесс порным археологическим фактам: см. Магли, 2003). В любом случае для нас здесь интересно то, что погрешности ориентации пирамид формируют набор экспериментальных данных, из которых можно вычислить эффект прецессии. Причина этого неизвестна, но прецессионный эффект абсолютно трансферабелен для самых больших и совершенных пирамид, то есть 1 - й и 2 - й пирамид Гизы. Можно, однако, возразить, что сравнение ориентации пирамиды 3 с ориентацией пирамиды 2 дает прецессионный эффект 18,4' или около 0,3 градуса. Как бы т о ни было, мне хотелось бы подчеркнуть, что связанные с астрономией данные из Гизы (ориентация вентиляционных шахт и пирамид), а также многие астрономические ссылки в "Текстах пирамид", вне всякого сомнения, указывают на присутствие астрономии как важной с оставляющей мышления (религиозного и научного) в эпоху Древнего Царства. Anchoring existing chronologies The dating discrepancy between the two sets of results is caused by the fact that while stellar positioning at a given time can be predicted with great precision, existing Egyptian chronologies of this period based primarily on cumulative reign lengths can only be considered accurate to about 6100 years , although the chronology of line b generated by astronomical data can be conside red ®xed, the chronol ogy accord ing to which the archaeological data are plotted (line a) is not anchored in time. However, the point at which line a crosses zero on the y - axis can now be ®xed at 2467 BC from the results of the astronomical modelling. This gives a date of 2478 BC for the alignment of Khufu's pyramid which would require the lowering of von Beckerath's lower estimate of chronology by a further 74 years. In reconstructing accession dates from dates of pyramid alignment ceremonies, potential for error theoretically exists in the assumption made here that this ceremony was held in the second year of each reign. However, it is exceptionally unlikely in this period that the error involved is more than 61 year. At present, a total of 65 years can be considered an adequat e error allowance for the reigns of Khufu and Khafre (F. R. Stephenson and T. van Albada, personal communications) given the accuracy of the archaeological data available for these reigns and the 49 precision of the astronomical modelling. Future research The ability to ®x the reigns of Khufu and Khafre to 65 years represents an advance in establishing a reliable absolute chronology for the second half of the third millennium BC in Egypt, but it does not solve all the problems. It is not possible simply to shift existing chronologies forward by the requisite number of years as ®xed astronomical dates soon after 2000 BC mean that these existing chronologies will also have to be compressed. To achieve this, a process of careful reanalysis of the historical dat a will be necessary to make suitable adjustments. For this reason, the recalibrated acces sion dates given in the last column of Table 1 show error margins which increase over time as the possibility of numerous minor errors in cumulative reign lengths is c ompounded. I intend to undertake ®eldwork to collect more accurate data for those pyramids that have not been recently and reliably surveyed. From this and through more detailed mathematical modelling I hope to re®ne the error margin for dating the pyramid s of Khufu and Khafre to 61±2 years. More accurate data for the period around the reigns of Sahure and Neferirkare will reduce the error margins for the dates of these later kings and will assist in the process of re®ning the overall chronology of the peri od. Several years ago, in 1984, the astronomer Steven C. Haack of Nebraska University introduced the idea of using the precessional drift of stars to define a new chronology for the Pyramid Age . And although Haack used the azimuth at the horizon rathe r than azimuth at the celestial pole, the method is fundamentally the same. It also must be mentioned that Haack's method was used again by French astronomer Karine Gadre in 1998 . Using the east horizon rather than the pole region is, in fact, more jus tified (if perhaps less accurate), for it is well - known that the south and north sides of the pyramid are more accurately aligned to the cardinal directions than the east and west sides . For example, the south side is only 1' 57" S of W as opposed to a 2' 30" W of N for the west side which Spence's used . The real problem, however, with azimuth methods such as proposed by Haack and Spence is that the accuracy required for naked - eye observations is, in practice, almost impossible to achieve . The astronomer Brad Schaefer from Texas University rightly pointed out that the scatter about Spence‚Äôs theoretical curve is ~ 2 arc - minutes on the X - Y graphs displayed, yet the stars she uses are faint enough that their perceived naked - eye appearance is abo ut the same size . Schaefer also pointed out that the accuracies of naked - eye sightings required by Kate Spence are theoretical and cannot be achieved in practice 'because with the perceived size of the stars and the speed of motion, it is impossible f or the human eye to get the 25 second timing accuracy required' . Furthermore, there is a mathematical error in Spence‚Äôs paper pointed out by the astronomer Dennis Rawlins of Baltimore and his colleague Keith Pickering of DIO magazine. In their own words, "Spence (or Stephenson [the astronomer whose calculations Spence used]) correctly computed that the inter - star line between Kochab and Mizar moves past the North Celestial Pole at 27' per century, but that is not the rate at which the azimuth of the vertical line between them changes. To get the rate of azimuth, you must divide by the cosine of the latitude, which in this case yields an azimuth change of 31' per century." Pickering and Rawlins suggested a better solution: "to wait until Thuban (the ' classical' Egyptian pole star) and nearby star 10 Draconis are at equal altitude, and bisect the small angle between them. This method yields a change of 27.4 arcmin/century, which is much closer to the 28 arcmin per century change of the pyramids themselv es."  I asked the astronomer Dr. Ed Krupp of the Griffith Observatory what he made of this error, and this was his comment: "I know Dennis Rawlins well enough to figure he is likely to be right on this count. If my understanding of the error is correct , Kate Spence's use of pyramid construction chronology can no longer be used in support of her pyramid alignment proposal."  This elementary error has, in fact, been now acknowledged by Dr. Owen Gingerich, the Harvard astronomer who originally promoted Kate Spence's paper. Gingerich confirmed that "there is a small error in Kate Spence's paper on this point, which compresses the time scale on each side of the zero point by about 15%."  For the record, in 1995 the astronomer Dr. Mary Bruck pointed o ut that although in archaeoastronomy the dating of ancient monuments is generally performed from azimuth observations, this cannot be satisfactorily applied to the Egyptian pyramids because they 'are oriented towards the cardinal points of the sky, directi ons which do not alter with time. The visible effect of precession, if it exists, must be looked for in evidence of stellar altitudes rather than azimuth .' . 50 51 52 53 Шнур Сешат 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 Строительные метки 69 70 71 72 Коронация царя Нейт и Сешат Нил (египетское название — Эль - Бахр) берет начало на Восточно - Африканском плоскогорье и несет свои воды к Средиземному морю. Лишь в прошлом веке географам удалось обнаружить два истока этой величайшей водной артерии мира. Самый длинный нильский исток — Белый Нил начинается в горах Бурунди, а Голубой Нил — вытекает из озера Тана. В самом центре Хартума — столицы Судана — оба источника, сливаясь, образуют собственно Нил. Преодолевая расстояние в 6 671 км, река несет свои воды сре ди песков и каменистых возвышенностей, где воздух раскален до 50°С и дожди бывают не каждый год. Окруженный с двух сторон знойными пустынями, Нил в разгар лета не только не мелеет, но, наоборот, становится более полноводным, образуя длинную «ленту» нильск ой долины. В сентябре уровень воды поднимается на 10 метров, превращая долину в огромное озеро, так как на это время приходится период ливневых дождей в верховьях Голубого Нила, а Белый Нил подпитывается дождями вообще круглый год. К началу октября вода сп адает и река входит в берега. Прибрежные зоны, где ранее была вода, покрываются густым слоем плодородного красного ила. С этого момента начинают посевные работы. Для древних египтян разлив Нила означал обильный урожай, обеспечивавший пищей миллионы жителей долины. Именно это время и было для них началом нового года. Праздновали его пышно, принося богатые жертвоприношения богу Нила — Хапи, чтобы тот не скупился на разливы. В Древнем Египте Новый год отмечали во время разлива Нила, когда восходила священная з везда Сириус (точную дату указать сложно – разброс где - то с июля по сентябрь), и начинался первый сезон древнеегипетского года – "ахет". Разлив Нила назывался приходом Хапи - бога Верхнего и Нижнего Нила, дарующего изобилие. Это было священное время для Ег ипта, ведь засуха поставила бы под угрозу само существование этого земледельческого государства. Поэтому с восходом Сириуса начинался новый период жизни древних египтян, которые к тому времени оканчивали посев. Нейт или Нефтида — о дна из древнейших боги нь египетского пантеона, праматерь богов, культовый центр которой находился в городе Саисе (Дельта, совр. Са эль - Хагар). Ее символ, состоящий из двух стрел, перекрещенных на щите, встречается уже на памятниках I династии: погребальных стелах и табличках из раннединастических погребений, амулете из гробницы в Наг эль - Дейр. Богиня присутствует и в теофорных именах двух выдающихся цариц эпохи I династии — Нейтхотеп, супруги царя Аха, и Мернейт, матери царя Дена. 73 Деревянная табличка, обнаруженная также в Абидосе , возможно свидетельствует об основании святилища Нейт при личном участии царя Аха (ок. 3100 г. до н. э.). Нейт была тесно связана с военным делом, приносила ему удачу на охоте и покровительствовала войне. Символ Нейт часто встречается на внутренней сторон е капюшона священной кобры — урея, что, возможно, свидетельствует о раннем отождествлении богинь Нейт и Уаджет, повелительниц древних городов Дельты — Саиса и Буто, в которых в архаическую эпоху проходили обряды связанные с погребением царя. Нейт обыч но изображалась в дешрет — красной короне Нижнего Египта, области, с которой она была наиболее тесно связана; даже само имя богини иногда выписывалось с детерминативом в виде этого головного убора. Существовали даже особые «святилища короны Нейт», связанны е с ритуалом царской коронации . Как богиня эпохи Древнего царства (2707 - 2170 гг. до н. э.) богиня стала почитаться как супруга Сетха и матерью бога - крокодила Себека, отождествлявшегося с фараоном. Как богиня - мать, связанная с небом, Нейт имела эпитет «Ве ликая корова» и отождествлялась с другими небесными богинями, прежде всего Нут и Хатхор. Тексты эпохи Нового царства (1550 - 1078 гг. до н. э.) говорят о том, что Нейт входила в число божеств, почитаемых в пер ну — «доме огня», архаическом первохраме Нижне го Египта, который вместе с пер ур «домом великим», архаическим первохрамом Верхнего Египта, составлял зал в Карнаке, где проводилась церемония коронации . В Римское время, тексты храма Хнума в Эсне говорят о Нейт как о верхнеегипетской богине - создательнице, позже обосновавшейся в Саисе. Известный храм богини Нейт в эпоху Нового царства существовал и в Мемфисе. В качестве творца вселенной Нейт часто изображалась как лишенная пола сущность, подобная хаотическому океану Нуну, предшествовавш ему созданию мира. Согласно легендам, Нейт, призвала мир к существованию семью изречениями, которые в более поздней магической традиции, трансформировались в семикратный смех бога - творца. С Древнего царства Нейт также ассоциировалась с погребальным ритуал ом. Тексты пирамид (Pyr. 606) упоминают о бдениях Нейт над телом усопшего Осириса вместе с Исидой, Нефтидой и Селкет. Каждая из этих четырех богинь изображалась с одной стороны саркофага и покровительствовала одному из четырех «сыновей Хора» — духов, покро вителей каноп. Нейт представала на восточной стороне саркофага и была защитницей шакалоголового Дуамутефа. Как легендарная богиня ткачества, Нейт также была связана с изготовлением погребальных пелен, изготовлением амулетов. Издревле Нейт считалась защитни цей царя на протяжении всей его жизни — от рождения, когда она присутствует в момент зачатия царицей - матерью сына от бога Амона (маммизи Хатшепсут в Дейр эль - Бахри, Аменхотепа III в Луксоре и Рамсеса II в Рамессеуме), и вплоть до его смерти, когда она пред стает на росписях в его гробницы и изображается на предметах погребального инвентаря. Культ Нейт приобрел особенную значимость во время правления XXVI династии, когда Саис стал столицей Египта. Здесь, в ее храме, знаменитом своей уникальной библиотекой, находилась, согласно Страбону, могила Псамметиха I, основателя этой династии. При храме росли священные деревья Нейт, из которых изготовлялось священное оружие богини, которое она отдавала царю при коронации. Увы, в настоящее время от святилища не 74 осталось ничего, кроме кирпичной стены и разрозненных блоков с именами царей - строителей и фрагментами изображений ритуалов и церемоний, описанных в бесценном труде Геродота. Также Нейт почиталась как охранительница спящих, богиня, охраняющая человека от сглаза и п орчи, могла изображаться вместе с богиней Хатхор в облике двух золотых рыб, плывущих в бирюзовом озере перед ладьей солнечного бога и защищающих его от опасностей мира иного. Развалины храма богини, основанного царем Амасисом, который в своей титулатуре да же именовал себя «сыном Нейт», сохранились в греческом торговом поселении Навкратис, где Нейт отождествлялась с Афиной. Коронация нового царя проходила в первый день нового года, следовавшего за восходом Сириуса и разливом Нила. Первый день Новыго года в Древнем Египте совпадает с 19 июля . Упоминание богини Нейт или Нефтиды ,олицетворением которой была звезда Процион ,связанной с коронацией царя не случайна ,т.к. Процион восходит немного раньше ,чем Сириус . Так как это достаточно плавающая дата ,попада ющая в диапазон между началом августа и концом октября, установить время то чной даты не имеется возможности . Однако последовательность довольна проста – после восхода Проциона и Сириуса ,начинался разлив Нила, праздновался Новый год ,происходила корона ция нового царя. После восшествия на престол он отдавал указ о строительстве себе новой усыпальницы – пирамиды. Начинались поиски места для ее строительства и после этого происходил обряд под названием протягивание «Шнура Сешат».Это и есть тот день ,в кот орый закладывалась ориентация будущей пирамиды. Все пирамиды укладываются в возможность закладки с августа по октябрь. ,но ориентация граней пирамиды проводится перед рассветом точно в день 15 декабря. . Р оль Сешат в церемонии "протягивания шнура" - "Ещ е одной ее [Сешат] функцией считалась запись имени царя на листьях Дерева Жизни , чтобы это имя сохранялось вечно. Нo поскольку самый первый из известных нам жрецов Сешат, ужасный Ка - бау - Секер из Мемфиса, был также жрецом Анубиса и Сета и, значит, имел отн ошение к смерти воплощенного бога (царя), то вполне возможно, что именно богиня Сешат определяла срок жизни царя". Одна из ролей Сешат состояла в определении срока жизни царя, а другая заключалась в том, что богиня помогала царю "протягивать шнур", орие нтируя гробницу в направлении околополярных звезд, и особенно созвездия Бедро Быка (Плуг). Это созвездие, называлось также "Бедро Сета", и состоит оно из семи звезд. По мнению Уэйнрайта, Сешат вручала фараону власть на семь лет. Было бы странным не увидеть в семи звездах созвездия Плуг общий знаменатель двух ролей Сешат. Как бы то ни было, богиня Сешат всегда изображалась в 75 одежде из леопардовых шкур, облегавшей ее стройное тело. Желтые пятна на леопардовой шкуре, иногда имевшие форму звезд, вероятно, сим волизировали способность леопарда и Сешат видеть в темноте . На голове богиня носила золотую тиару с увенчанным семи - конечной звездой. В египетском пантеоне она считалась супругой Тота, бога мудрости, изобретателя священных иероглифов и основоположника на ук, особенно астрономии. Неудивительно, что многочисленные пышные эпитеты Сешат указывали на их близкие отношения с Тотом: «Первейшая в Библиотеке», «Госпожа Письма в Доме Жизни», «Хранительница Царских Записей» и так далее . Очень часто Сешат и Тот изобра жались вместе — они вели записи юбилеев и коронаций царей на веерообразных пальмовых листьях. В этом качестве они были равными по значимости божественными хранителями времени и астрономами, записывавшими ежегодный небесный цикл и календарь. 76 77 78 79 История метода Метод ориентации по северным звездом прослеживается ко временам Джосера и по всей видимости , п ридуман Имхотепом . Первоначально он был использован по восходу Сириуса на востоке 15 декабря и звезде Аль каид из Большой Медведицы. Направление оверстия в сердабе Ступенчатой пирамиды говорит об этом,как и сама ориентация всего комплекса. Сехемхет сохранив принцип выбора направления ,но изменил метод выбора пары звезд ,выбрав впервые момент закат а Сириуса на западе и Полярную звезду . На рубеже Хабы или Хуни происходит его дальнейшее уточнение и появляется пара Поллукс и Полярная звезда .После этого момента сам метод и пара звезд оста ются не изменым и до рубежа 2000ВС. Э кспериментальные пирамиды Хуни и Снофру показывают поиски выбора ориентации пирамиды по зимнему и летнему солнцестоянию и возможно ,что храмы тех времен построены по солнечному ,а не звездному направлению. П а ра Полярной и Поллукса просуществовал а до Первого Переходного Периода ,в который не строилось ритуальных пирамид. В п е риод дливше йся около двухсот лет в истории Египта , когда почти все пирамиды и усыпальницы наследников престола и высоких сановников были разграблены и опустошены , этот первоначальный метод был полностью утрач ен по двум причинам - его обладатели или носители жрецы храмов умерли ,а так же из - за физической не возможности выбора этой пары звезд в определенный момент года .Методом последний раз пользовались в 22 6 7 ВС при Пепи2 . После 2000 ВС года возможности ориент ироваться этим методом уже не имеется возможности из - за простой причин ы - Солнце на рас с вете восходит раньше момента , при котором Поллукс остается видим ым и успевает достигнуть и пересечь линию горизонт а . В последствии все цари ориентировали их культовые сооружения по солнцу ,луне, звездам Большой медведицы и Сириусу ,но никогда больше по паре Поллукса и Полярной . Последующие династии сохраняли традицию ритуала при начале сооружения строений ,но под внешней одинаковостью процедуры , стоял выбор уж е совершенно другого направления от истинного севера . Метод существовавший около тысячи лет канул в не бытие . According Lehner and Verner 7 small provincial step pyramids have been found. They are relatively small in size, and seemingly were not constructed for the purpose of burial. Five of the pyramids are thought to possibly date to the reign of Huni who ruled at the end of the 3 rd dynasty, while at least the pyramid at Seila may have been constructed during the reign of Snefru, the first king of the 4 th dynasty. 80 Location Ruler Dimensions of the base Sinki Huni ? ca 18.2 m X 18.2 m Ombos Huni ? ca 18.2 m X 18.2 m Kula Huni ? ca 18.2 m X 18.2 m Edfu Huni ? ca 18.2 m X 18.2 m Elephantine Huni ? ca 23.4 m X 23.4 m Seila Snefru ? ca 25 m X 25 m Zawiyet el - Meiyitin Unknown ca. 22.4 m X 22.4 m http://webpages.ull.es/users/irguezh/articulos_present_oral/arqueoastronomia.pdf http://www.kch42.dial.pipex.com/pdf/egyptian_temple_orientation.pdf http://www.kch42.dial.pip ex.com/egyptarticle_temple_orient2.html 81 82 Египетские пирамиды 83 84 Пирамиды третьей династии Пирамиды четвертой династии 85 Пирамид ы пятой династии Пирамиды шестой династии 86 Пирамиды двенадцатой династии 87 Ориентация египетских пирамид According to figures provided by astronomer Karine Gadre , the alignment of Sekhemkhet is about 11° west of Due North, and the alignment of Djoser is about 3° east of Due North . 88 89 90 Метод Поллукса Полярная звезда Поля рная звезда (α Малой Медведицы , также Киносура ) — звезда +2,0 m звёздной величины , расположенная вблизи Северного полюса мира . Это сверхгигант спектрального класса F7Ib. Расстояние до Земли — 431 световой год . В настоящую эпоху Полярная находится менее, чем в 1° от Северного полюса мира, и поэтому почти неподвижна при суточном вращении звёздного неба. Она очень удобна для ориентирования — направление на неё практически совпадает с направлением на север , а высота над горизонтом равна географической широте места наблюдения. Из - за прецессии земной оси положение Северного полюса мира меняется, ближе всего Полярная звезда подойдёт к нему около 2100 г. — на расст ояние приблизительно 30'. В южном полушарии нет яркой полярной звезды. Полярная является ярчайшей и ближайшей к Земле пульсирующей переменной звездой типа дельта Цефея с периодом 3,97 дней. Но Полярная — очень нестандартная цефеида : её пульсации затухают за время порядка десятков лет: в 1900 изменение яркости составляло ±8 %, а в 2005 г. — приблизительно 2 %. Кроме того, за это время звезда стала в среднем на 15 % ярче. 91 Полярная звезда, на самом деле, представляет собой тройную звёздную систему. В центре системы располагается свер хгигант (Полярная А), в 2000 раз превосходящий по яркости наше Солнце. Полярная B расположена на приличном удалении от Полярной А, поэтому разглядеть её в телескопы нетрудно даже с поверхности Земли. Однако карликовый компаньон центральной звезды — Полярна я Ab — располагается к гиганту настолько близко, что сфотографировать его удалось лишь « Хабблу », и то, толь ко после перенастройки оборудования. Приблизительный период обращения Полярной Ab составляет около 30 лет. Поллукс (звезда) Поллу кс (β Gem / β Близнецов / Бета Близнецов) — ярчайшая звезда в созвездии Близнецов и одна из ярчайших звёзд неба . Она ярче, чем α Близнецов (Кастор), хотя и помечена Байером как «β». Поллукс является оранжевым гигантом спектрального класса K0 IIIb. Звезда уже сошла с «главной последовательности» диаграммы Герцшпрунга — Рассела и находится на ветви красных гигантов. В течение бл ижайших 100 миллионов лет запасы гелия в недрах звезды иссякнут, Поллукс сбросит газовую оболочку и превратится в тусклый белый карлик. Предполагается, что Поллукс — переменная звезда с колебаниями блеска от 1,10m до 1,17m.Поллукс был назван по имени одног о из мифических близнецов Диоскуров — Полидевка, матерью которого была красавица Леда, а отцом — Зевс.Древние арабы называли звезду Al - Ras al - Taum al - Mu’ahar, «голова второго близнеца». Касто р (α Gem / α Близнецов) — вторая по яркости звезда созвездия Бли знецов, одна из ярчайших звёзд неба. Хотя она была помечена Байером как «α», ярчайшей звездой созвездия является Поллукс, имеющий меньшую эклиптическую широту и потому помеченный Байером как β Близнецов. После выбора места под строительство пирамиды и про ведения первичных действий по созданию базы пирамиды наступает момент для ориентации грани пирамиды на Полярную звезду. Проводится эта процедура перед рассветом 15 декабря одним человеком с использованием двух клиньев и одной веревки . Метод Поллукса состо ит из двух процедур. Первое это натягивание веревки , с одной стороны привязанной к вбитому в землю клину и её ведение с другой стороны , в натянутом состоянии , строго соблюдая прямую линию по веревке в направлении на Полярную звезду. Вторая часть состоит из наблюдения за звездой Поллукс из созвездия Близнецов. Человеческий глаз способен отличать сдвиг звезды на небосклоне в одну астрономическую минуту. Н еобходимо дождаться момента , когда звезда Поллукс скроется за линией горизонта и перестанет бы ть видим ым . Рефракция в данном случае не имеет значения. После этого ведение шнура останавливается и вбивается втрой клин ,к которуму привязывается веревка со второй стороны . Линия проложенная по веревке указывает точно на Полярную звезду в определенный момент времени и её азимут дает отклонение от истинного севера. Процедура закончена и теперь вдоль веревки будут сделаны метки, по которым будут выравнивать грань пирамиды по окончанию строительства. Заложенное направление и азимут остается неизменным даже спустя десятилетия, необходимое для постройки пирамиды. Имея цифры азимута можно проделать эту процедуру в обратную сторону и из - за прецессионного сдвига звезд получить точный год в который её проводили. 92 93 http://www.stellarium.org/ A Поллукс скрывается за горизонтом B Полярная звезда дает азимут 94 Радиоуглеродный анализ пирамид http://digitalcommons.arizona.edu/objectviewer?o=http%3A%2F%2Fradiocarbon.library.ariz ona.edu%2FVolume43%2F Number3%2Fazu_radiocarbon_v43_n3_1297_1320_v.pdf http://www.adamwalanus.pl/Kalib14C.html http://digitalcommons.arizona.edu/objectviewer?o=http%3A%2F%2Fradiocarbon.library.arizon a.edu%2FVolume44%2F Number3%2Fazu_radiocarbon_v44_n3_739_754_v.pdf http://c14.arch.ox.ac.uk/embed.php?File=calibration.html#curves http://hbar.phys.msu.ru/gorm/dating/berger2.pdf 95 96 97 98 Ступенчатая пирамида Джосера 2800ВС 99 План заупокойного храма фараона Джосера. 6 - вход в храм, 7 - двор - сердаб со статуей фараона Джосера 100 101 Saqqara was the principal necropolis for the ancient city of Memphis where, from 1st Dynasty onwards, the Egyptian elite built their tombs. The area is best known today as being the site of the first stone pyramid, built for a king of 3rd Dynasty whose Horus name was Netjerikhet. The pyramid has been attributed to a King Djoser since the New Kingdom, but only the name Netjerikhet has been found on the monument.The pyramid structure rises above the plateau in a series of six stepped 'mastabas' and was surrounded by a co mplex of dummy buildings enclosed within a niched limestone wall over 10m high. Beyond the wall was a rectangular trench measuring 750m by 40m and although it is now filled by sand, it can be clearly seen on aerial photographs. The high limestone walls of the enclosure were decorated with niches and false doors which were carved into the wall after it was built - quite an enormous task! Some archaeologists believe that the enclosure wall may have represented the earthly residence of the King and so the term 'palace façade' became used for this type of decoration. It is thought that the design imitates the wooden framework 102 covered by woven reed mats which would have been used in earlier structures although it has also been suggested that the motif may origina te in Mesopotamia. The wall has been reconstructed on the southern rampart and near the entrance and this is the best place to examine the construction. The single entrance to the enclosure is the southernmost doorway on the eastern side of the wall (the o nly one of the 15 doorways which is not a false door) and leads to the entrance colonnade. 20 pairs of engaged columns, resembling bundles of reeds or palm ribs line the corridor. Between the columns are 24 small chambers, thought perhaps to represent the nomes of Upper and Lower Egypt, which may once have contained statues of the King or deities. The roof of the entrance colonnade was constructed to represent whole tree trunks. This is one of the places where the challenging experiment of copying natural m aterials in stone is most evident. The columns were not yet trusted to support the roof without being attached to the side walls and the small size of the stone blocks used in the construction reflects the fact that previous structures were built from mudb ricks. At the end of the entrance hall two false stone doorleaves rest against the side walls of a transverse vestibule which has been reconstructed. Several statue fragments were found in the entrance colonnade but the most important was a statue base (no w in Cairo Museum) inscribed with the Horus name and titles of Netjerikhet and also with the name of a High Priest of Heliopolis and royal architect, Imhotep. Imhotep, who may have been a son of Djoser, is credited with the invention of building in dressed stone and the design and construction of the Step Pyramid complex. He was deified as a god of wisdom in the Ptolemaic Period and worshipped as Asklepios, god of medicine, by the Greeks. Netjerikhet's name is directly linked to his predecessor Khasekhemy b ecause mud sealings bearing his name were found in 1996 in Khasekhemy's Abydos tomb. Immediately to the north of the entrance colonnade, on the eastern side of a large open courtyard, is a series of reconstructed buildings thought to have been connected wi th the King's heb - sed, or jubilee festival. A rectangular building known as Temple 'T' is suggested to have been a model of the King's palace and contains an entrance colonnade, antechamber and three inner courts leading to a square chamber decorated with a frieze of 'djed' symbols. This structure leads into the southern end of the 'Jubilee Court', which is lined with dummy buildings representing Upper Egypt (on the eastern side) and Lower Egypt (on the western side). These buildings are purely symbolic str uctures. There were originally 12 chapels on the east with curved vaulted roofs representing the shape of Lower Egyptian shrines each having a statue niche which would have contained statues of the King. The 13 western chapels are modelled on the shrines o f Upper Egypt with three fluted half - columns and simulated doorleaves at the entrances, topped by an arched vaulted roof. The two chapels at the south had a staircase leading to a statue niche, while the other western buildings had more simple façades and may have been robing rooms or other buildings connected with the sed festival. A model fence imitating wooden palings separated the shrines. All of the structures represent, in stone, the earlier building materials of wood and reed mats and it is thought t hat the columns would have been painted red to simulate wood. At the southern end of the Jubilee Court there is a large elevated dais which would have held the thrones of Upper and Lower Egypt where the King may have been symbolically crowned during the ce remonies. North of the Jubilee Court there are two mysterious buildings commonly called the 'House of the North' and the 'House of the South' and it is thought that these structures were originally partially buried, which would have given them a funerary s ignificance. They each stand in their own courtyards and are currently believed to represent the archaic shrines of Nekhbet (from Hierakonpolis in the south) and Wadjet (from Buto in the north), although there have been many other theories suggesting their significance. The two buildings are again constructed with stone fashioned to represent organic materials. In the House of the South there is a continuous 'khekher' frieze over the entrance and the walls inside contain many New Kingdom graffiti, written i n ink by ancient visitors, naming Djoser as the owner of the complex. The House of the North contains a shaft, 20m deep, with an underground gallery which led Lepsius to believe that the two buildings were pyramids when he first investigated them. Djoser's mortuary temple lies against the northern wall of the pyramid, unlike later pyramids which usually had the mortuary temples on the eastern side. This was the cult centre of the King but now is badly ruined and only the entrance wall is preserved. It is di fficult to see the ground - plan of the temple, which seems to differ considerably from other pyramid mortuary temples. The original entrance shaft into the Step Pyramid can still be seen in the floor of the 103 mortuary temple where it emerged to run through th e structure above the ground. In excavations of the temple, clay sealings were found bearing the name of a King Sanakht, previously thought to have been a predecessor of Djoser, and these may provide evidence that he actually ruled after Djoser's time.On t he north - eastern corner of the pyramid is a court, which contains a small structure known as a 'serdab'. Inside this tiny sealed chamber, which is tilted upwards at an angle of 30 degrees, a life - sized painted statue of the King, sat on his throne and gaze d out through a peep - hole towards the northern stars and the land of Osiris. Today the original statue can be seen in Cairo Museum but you can peep into the serdab and see a replica statue of Djoser, disconcertingly staring back you. The statue would have represented the King's 'ka' emerging from his burial chamber in the pyramid. The Step Pyramid itself was thought to have been built in several stages, beginning with an initial square mastaba and that its plan was changed several times during construction. Scholars now doubt this theory and suggest that the whole structure was planned as a pyramid from the outset. Earlier mastaba tombs were always rectangular. Recent excavations at Abydos have shown that earlier enclosures contained a 'mound' of sand covere d with mudbricks (possibly symbolising the 'mound of creation') and perhaps acting as a prototype for Djoser's structure. It would seem from recent study that the Step Pyramid was first constructed as a square mastaba which was enlarged and expanded in six stages, eventually becoming a 4 - step mastaba and then a 6 - step structure which was no longer square, but had become a rectangle oriented east - west. The limestone blocks were laid in courses which were inclined towards the centre of the pyramid.Below groun d the Step Pyramid contains a maze of more than 5.5km of shafts, tunnels and chambers. A large central shaft to the burial chamber descends to a depth of 28m, while above ground the pyramid's six steps rise to a height of 60m. Inside the burial chamber, th e pink granite blocks may have replaced original blocks of limestone or 'alabaster' - a theory based on Lauer's discovery of numerous fragments of limestone nearby. Some limestone blocks carved with stars were found to have been re - used with their decorati on hidden and it is thought that Djoser's burial chamber may have contained the first example of a star ceiling. Little was found inside the granite burial vault - only a few small fragments of bone wrapped in linen in Old Kingdom style, including a left f oot and part of an arm. These have now been radiocarbon dated and prove to be from a burial much later than Djoser's reign. In a passage north - west of the burial chamber a wooden box was found inscribed with Netjerikhet's name. Many galleries and magazines surround the central burial vault. In one of the galleries on the eastern side, three false doors were carved from limestone and the walls were decorated with exquisite tiny blue faience tiles inter - spaced with rows and motifs of limestone to represent wa ll - hangings of natural reed matting. A reconstruction of one of the panels is now displayed in the Cairo Museum. Reliefs of the King wearing the red crown and the white crown, and running or walking, probably depict the heb - sed rituals. Other walls were al so found to be decorated with blue tiles, although some of the chambers were left unfinished. It is suggested that the decoration of these chambers was inspired by the King's private apartments in his palace at Memphis.Another series of galleries extended westwards from 11 shafts on the eastern side of the pyramid. These were thought to be for the burial of the King's wives and children. One of the galleries was found to contain an empty alabaster sarcophagus as well as a wooden coffin belonging to a small boy and Netjerikhet's name was found on a seal - impression in one of the shafts. In other shafts vast quantities of stone vessels were found (around forty thousand in total) in a wide variety of shapes and materials and many bearing inscriptions of Djoser's ancestors. The reason for these 'heirlooms' being in Djoser's tomb is still unexplained today and is the source of much debate among archaeologists. In front of the southern face of the Step Pyramid is a large open courtyard measuring 180m by 100m. In the centre of the court are two curious buildings whose low walls are shaped like the letter 'B' and are thought perhaps to have been associated with the heb - sed ceremonies. A limestone block was also found here bearing a text of Prince Khaemwaset (son of Ram eses II) who was known to have restored many of the Old Kingdom monuments in his role of High Priest of Memphis.The court is bounded on the southern side by the south wall of the enclosure. At the south - west corner is an enigmatic building known as the 'So uth Tomb', which appears to be a miniature replica of the subterranean chambers of the Step Pyramid. The South Tomb contains similar decoration to the pyramid including the same blue faience tiles and false doors, but better preserved than in the pyramid g alleries. Its purpose is unclear, the burial chamber is too small to have ever contained a sarcophagus. Many theories have been put forward by archaeologists as to its use, but the 'tomb' will perhaps always remain a mystery. 104 105 Слоеная пирамида Сехемхета 2781 ВС 106 Almost everything we know about Sekhemkhet ("Powerful in Body"), we know because of his unfinished (Buried) pyramid at Saqqara, and it seems to give us little facts about his life.The only evidence outside of this tomb is a scene depi cted at Wadi Maghara in the Sinai which bears his name. It is a military scene, classical in that it probably shows Sekhemkhet, with his raised mace, about to smite his desert enemies. This relief actually shows a procession of Sekhemkhets. In front of the smiting king, who is wearing the White Crown is a second depiction of the king wearing the Red Crown, and in front of him, another of Sekhemkhet back in the White Crown. However, we are not really sure of much about this king. According to the Turin King - list, Djoser's immediate successor was identified by his personal name Djoser - Ti (Djoserty), and ruled for only six years. It now seems that most Egyptologists believe Djoser - Ti and Sekhemkhet were one and the same person, though some might still argue oth erwise. His reign would have been from about 2649 until 2643 BC.Judging from an inscription on his pyramid at Saqqara, and from its very design, we can also tentatively guess that the great Imhotep survived Djoser, his predecessor, and was again the mind b ehind the funerary complex works. Also, because of his short reign, and particularly his truncated pyramid, many believe he came to a sudden and unexpected death, though we have no idea what might have caused it.Another possible building project of Imhotep may have been the pyramid of Sekhemkhet. Also located at Saqqara, it would be rather remarkable for this pyramid to have been designed by anyone else, or to have belonged to someone other then Sekhemkhet. In many ways, it duplicated elements from the Step Pyramid of Djoser. Sekhemkhet's step pyramid was perhaps first noticed by a young Egyptian archaeologist named Zakaria Goneim while he was working at Saqqara excavating the pyramid of Unas, just before World War II. When the war erupted, he set out that p eriod in Luxor, but afterwards returned to Saqqara to further investigate the huge, rectangular structure barely visible beneath a sand dune. It was only about one hundred meters to the southwest of the site Goneim had been working before the war, and he c ould tell that it was roughly oriented north - south.As he began to uncover the structure, he found that the four corners he had seen beneath the sand dune were actually the walls of an enclosure, and inside were the ruins of a previously unknown pyramid. So on it was clear that this was a 3rd Dynasty pyramid, because the facade of the perimeter wall, with its facade ornamented with deep niches, was so very similar to the wall that Djoser had built for his complex. The pyramid was built upon an uneven rock sur face, so the builders were forced to level the terrain, building large terraces, of which some were more then ten meters high. Why the king chose this site for his pyramid is a bit of a mystery, though there are some nearby royal tombs from the 2nd Dynasty that may have lured him there.The perimeter wall was built in to phases. In the first phase, it was a much less radical rectangle. Later it was extended south, and particularly north. With these extensions, it was close to the size of Djoser/s complex. Li ke Djoser's complex, it has rows of niches alternating in a regular intervals with false doors, though there was probably only one real door in the entire complex, which has never been found. The wall was cased in fine, white Tura limestone. The wall proba bly stood about ten meters tall, with a walkway and sentry posts just as in the complex of Djoser. It has been difficult to determine whether the core was originally planned as six or seven steps, but apparently, the pyramid itself was never completed, hav ing only reached a height of about 26 feet. It was built using the accretion layer method with the stones laid inwards at a 15 degree slope. These stones were laid at right angles to the incline. Since the pyramid was unfinished, there was never any casing applied. The pyramid probably had a square floor plan, with sides about 119 meters in length. According to Lehner, if the pyramid was built in seven steps, it would have been higher then Djoser's, rising some 70 meters (230 ft) above its base.An entrance to the pyramid was found in front of the north wall, leading into a corridor that eventually communicated with the burial chamber. However, this corridor was bisected by a vertical shaft that extended up into the masonry of the pyramid itself. This was a t ype of security system also found in other Egyptian tombs, specifically at Beit Khallaf, dating to this period. Within the shaft, Goneim found the bones of various animals, including cattle, rams and gazelles, that were doubtless offerings to the deceased. he also found 62 papyri from the 26th Dynasty written during the reign of Ahmose II. Below these were some seven hundred stone vessels and remarkably a gold treasure cache from the 3rd Dynasty.These artifacts included 21 bracelets, small mussel shells, an d faience corals covered with gold leaf. The items are, so far, the oldest gold ornamentation discovered in Egypt. It was no doubt a part of Sekhemkhet's funerary goods, but how it ended up at the bottom of the shaft rather then stolen with the rest of the tomb's content remains a mystery. 107 About 47 meters before reaching the burial chamber, a U shaped passage leads off to the east, and is lined with a series of narrow, long storage annexes. After the entrance to this auxiliary passage, the main corridor con tinues. It was between here, and the burial chamber that clay vessel stoppers were discovered bearing Sekhemkhet's name, which is another reason why we attribute the pyramid to him. The main corridor continues to descend down until reaching first a transve rse corridor, and then to the burial chamber just to the other side, some 100 feet below the base of the pyramid. The burial chamber is lined up precisely with the pyramid's vertical axis. The walls within this north - south oriented burial chamber were left unfinished. Inside there apparently remains a highly polished alabaster sarcophagus cut from a single stone. This is very rare, for the only other alabaster we know of used in such a way was in the coffins of Queen Hetephere I, of the 4th Dynasty, and Set i I, of the 19th Dynasty. It also had no cover, but rather a sliding partition.There is an interesting story related to this sarcophagus and its unique sliding partition. When found, the partition to the sarcophagus was sealed, and even the remains of what he believed to be dried flowers (later determined to be bark and decomposed wood) lay atop it. Furthermore, Goneim also claims that the entrance to the pyramid was blocked by an in tact wall. Goneim was sure he had discovered an in tact sarcophagus still bearing the remains of its owner. Though he was warned by other Egyptologists, notably Lauer, that the substructure had been robbed, he nevertheless created a media sensation. he invited high state officials, journalists, reporters and film teams to the op ening. Then came the shock of an empty sarcophagus. He apparently managed to survive this embarrassment, for after all, he had made a reasonably important discovery by finding the pyramid of Sekhemkhet. Many Egyptology professionals throughout the world ha d considerable interest in what was probably only the second pyramid built in Egypt.Just outside of the entrance to the burial chamber, the transverse corridor leads off the the right (westerly) and to the left, and then each makes a 90 degree tern back to the south past the burial chamber. These galleries were also unfinished, and may have been intended to lead to a larger mortuary apartment, similar to the one in Djoser's complex. Outside of the pyramid within the complex on the south, just as in the case of Djoser's complex, there is also a symbolic south tomb. The superstructure of the tomb consisted of a mastaba built of limestone blocks. It had an entrance on the west side, also like Djoser's complex. From there, a long corridor descended to the east, and like in the pyramid, was interrupted by a vertical shaft. Further down the main corridor, though this tomb had probably not been meant for a burial, the excavators found the fragments of a small coffin that had held the remains of about a two year old child. The burial chamber in the south tomb was small, but found within it were fragments of thin gold leaf impressed with a pattern imitating reed matting. Also found were animal bones and stone vessels.Unfortunately, Goneim would never finish excavating the pyramid. Having achieved some amount of fame, he went off to the United States on a lecture tour, and even wrote a book about his discovery named The Buried Pyramid. The book was successful, and even translated into different languages, but when he ret urned to Egypt, everything fell apart. He was accused of smuggling a large, valuable vessel that Quibell and Lauer had found two years earlier near in the Djoser complex out of the country. There was no hard evidence, only accusations and slander, but it d evastated Goneim, who one must remember is also Egyptian. He was repeatedly interrogated by the police.It was his friend Lauer who attempted to finally help him. In 1957, he tracked the missing vessel to a corner of the Egyptian Museum's depository. But li ke an Egyptian tragedy, even as Lauer was hurrying back to Saqqara to redeem his friend, Goneim was jumping into the Nile to commit suicide. In fact, it was Lauer who returned to the site in about 1963 for a hurried search for answers. It was he who discov ered the south tomb, along with the south side of the perimeter wall. But unfortunately, no one yet has excavated the mortuary temple or the rest of the grounds. Many questions remain about this pyramid. For example, was Sekhemkhet ever buried, here, and i f he was not, what happened to this king. The sealed sarcophagus seems to indicate, though not with certainty, that it never held his remains. By all indications, he came to an abrupt end, if we consider his attempted pyramid as evidence. In fact, most Egy ptologist seem to agree that he probably only ruled for about six years. Perhaps he died in some remote expedition, his body never again seen. On the other hand, some future excavation may give us real answers to these questions. According to figures provid ed by astronomer Karine Gadre , the alignment of Sekhemkhet is about 11° west of Due North, and the alignment of Djoser is about 3° east of Due North . 108 109 Пирамида Хаба 2775ВС 110 The pyramid at the southern end of the site is known as the 'Layer Pyramid' and has been attributed to king Khaba of 3rd Dynasty, probably a successor of Sekhemkhet. The pyramid was investigated by the Italian archaeologist Alessandro Barsanti in 1900, but the owner of the structure was unknown until Reisner's American Ex pedition excavated the pyramid and some of the mastaba tombs in the area in the early part of the 20th century. Here he found fragments bearing the name of Khaba as well as some pieces of pottery bearing the name of Narmer, which led him to suggest a 2rd D ynasty date for the structure. The southern pyramid at Zawyet el - Aryan is locally called 'Haram el - Meduwara' or the 'round pyramid', due to its ruined condition and diminutive size. The base of the pyramid was about 84m square and the subtructure is very s imilar to that of Sekhemkhet's unfinished pyramid at Saqqara. Khaba's pyramid was conceived as a step pyramid with a core built with sloping layers of masonry. Only the lower part of the first step remains of what may have been intended to be a five, six o r seven stepped structure, its height today rising to only 16m. No trace of a limestone casing from the pyramid has been found which tends to support the view that the pyramid was never completed. The subterranean chambers were entered near the north - east corner where a staircase continues in a westwards direction as a passage which then turns south at the bottom of a vertical shaft. Another unfinished passage leads from higher in the shaft in the same direction. The lower passage leads to another staircase and an empty burial chamber. On the northern side of the vertical shaft there were thirty two store - rooms which also proved to be empty. The area has never been thoroughly investigated and is now inaccessible because it is within a military zone. Reisner' s American team excavated a large mastaba to the north of the Layer Pyramid, identified as Mastaba Z - 500 and it was here that the Horus name of Khaba was found on alabaster vases. Although these artefacts, in addition to the stylistic dating of the pyramid lead many Egyptologists to attribute the monument to Khaba, the owner is by no means certain. 111 Пирамида Хуни 2769 ВС 112 113 Just across from the Faiyum in the Nile Valley, south of Cairo, situated alone on the edge of the Western Desert above the lush green fields at Meidum is a tower shaped structure some sixty - five meters high that was once a pyramid that we believe was built by the 4th Dynasty King, Sneferu (Snefru, Snofru). However, there is no sure agreement on this among Egyptologists. Some believ e that the early phases of construction were done by Huni, his predecessor, and that Sneferu was only responsible for the completion of the Pyramid. However, Huni's name was not found at the pyramid, and various written documents suggest that it and the ne arby residential city belonged to the reign of Sneferu. Also, many of the nearby tombs also belong to the family of Sneferu. In may ways, Meidum is the most mysterious of all the great Pyramids. When Sneferu came to the throne around 2575 BC, Djoser's complex at Saqqara was the only large royal pyramid that stood complete. But Sneferu would become the greatest pyramid builder in Egyptian history by completing not one but three of them.The early locals of this century called the Meidum Pyramid el - haram e l - kaddab, meaning "false pyramid" and because of its form, it attracted attention as early as the Middle Ages from travelers. At the beginning of the fifteenth century, the famed Arab historian Taqi ad - Din al - Maqrizi thought it looked like a huge, five ste pped mountain. However, it eroded so badly that when Frederik Ludwig Norden visited it in the eighteenth century, the pyramid seemed to have only three levels. But it was not weather that eroded it so, but human beings.When Napoleon's expedition passed by Meidum in 1799, his well known draftsman, Denon, had only enough time to make a few sketches and prepare a short description of the pyramid. Later, Perring made a much better investigation of it, including making measurements in 1837. Afterwards, the Lepsi us expedition of 1843 studied it in some detail. Nevertheless, its internal structure remained a mystery. Then, in an extensive effort to discover and document the pyramid texts, Maspero was finally able to open it, along with some mastabas in the area, bu t archaeological investigation would not start for another ten years. It was Petrie, the founder of modern Egyptology, in collaboration with Egyptologist Percy Newberry and the architect, George Fraser, who led this excavation. They were responsible for no t only fully investigating the inside of the pyramid, but also unearthing the pyramid temple, an approach causeway and a series of private tombs in the area around the pyramid. However, this would not be the last that the pyramid would see of Petrie.After a long interruption, Petrie returned to Meidum with the Egyptologists, Ernest MacKay and Gerald Wainwright. This time they conducted excavations at the northeast corner of the pyramid, in the so - called South Pyramid, and in other places. They tunneled into the pyramid, showing that its core consisted of five accretion layers with an outer surface built of carefully dressed limestone blocks. However, as thorough as Petrie's work always was, his research into this pyramid seems to have raised more questions t han it answered.In the mid - 1920s, Borchardt made his way to Meidum and after mere days in the field, accumulated so much information on the pyramid that it filled an entire book which is still highly regarded today (Die Entstehung der Pyramide an der Bauge schichte der Pyramide bei Mejdum nachgewiesen). He spent considerable time reconstructing, on the basis of the ruins, a corridor leading toward the pyramid from the southeast, which Petrie had earlier discovered in 1910. In Borchardt's opinion, it was used to transport construction material to the pyramid. There was a ramp that had a gradient of ten degrees which made it possible to construct the lower half of the pyramid, consisting of about 88.5 percent of the total volume of masonry. The ancient builders increased the gradient of the upper half of the ramp, and on these assumptions, everything about the construction strategy seemed to be explained. Only a few years later, still in the 1920s, an American expedition visited the ruins under the leadership of the British archaeologist, Alan Rowe, but then there was a long period during which the pyramid received little attention. When, a half century later, another expedition visited the pyramid, this time it was an Egyptian effort led by Ali el - Kholi. They co ncentrated on the huge gravel mound at the foot of the pyramid.Because of the marshy terrain and the high water level, the valley temple belonging to this pyramid has not yet been found. Snefru's residential city of Djedsnefru (which means "Sneferu endures ") was probably located east of it.There was an unroofed causeway that stretched more than two hundred meters and which almost certainly linked the pyramid's enclosure wall with a valley temple on the edge of the valley. There was actually another "approac h" that Petrie excavated, that may have been originally intended as for use as a causeway.The pyramid was surrounded by a single, high perimeter wall made of limestone blocks. To the east, another huge mastaba lay adjacent to the enclosure wall, which may have been built for the crown prince, though no owner has been identified. It is therefore known only as Mastaba No.17 on maps of the necropolis. However, it is 114 remarkable that stone rubble from the pyramid was used to construct it, and that its mudbrick m antle was originally plastered and whitewashed. Within the enclosure wall, the large, open courtyard that it enclosed had a floor made of dried clay. Within this courtyard, near the southwest corner of the main pyramid, was a second, though much smaller py ramid, probably originally built as a step pyramid. This is almost certainly the oldest known example of a cult pyramid. It has a substructure that was accessible from the north through a descending corridor. Within its ruins was unearthed a fragment of a limestone stela bearing a depiction of the falcon god Horus. On the opposite side of the courtyard are the remains of a mastaba that was probably intended for a royal consort.At the center of the east side of the pyramid, Petrie discovered a mortuary templ e built of limestone blocks, also within the enclosure wall. It is so small that it might have been a commemorative chapel to the king rather than a true mortuary temple. It is unique in many ways, above all because it was the first one to be built on the east rather than the north side of the pyramid. It is also the most intact and well preserved temple from the Old Kingdom. Even the limestone ceiling slabs remain in place. It is also very simple, and almost certainly connected with the whole conceptual tr ansformation of this pyramid complex during the E3 stage of construction. The floor plan of this temple is almost square. It consists of three sections that include an entry corridor with a double bend in the southeast corner, an open courtyard and a room with two stelae. The Stelae, which stand close to the foot of the pyramid, consists of pieces of smooth sided limestone that are rounded at the top, but they bear neither inscriptions nor images. Between them stands an offering table. The lack of decoratio ns would seem to indicate that the temple was never really used for any cult activity.Nevertheless, the temple appears to have had a profound effect on later visitors, as various graffiti show. Dating mainly from the 18th Dynasty, some of the writers prais e the temple. Ankhkheperreseneb, who visited it in the 41st year of Thutmose III's reign, says that he came "to see the marvelous temple of Horus Sneferu. He saw it, as if heaven were in it and in it the sun rose." He further exclaims that, "May cool myrrh rain down from the heavens and fragrant incense drip onto the temple roof of Horus Sneferu!" Yet, by the time of his visit it was already in poor condition, for sometime during the First and Second Intermediate Periods herdsmen actually lived there.As for the Pyramid itself, the explanation of the strange form that it takes today and the many riddles that surround it lies in the complicated transition from the 3rd Dynasty step Pyramids into the true, smooth sided pyramids of the 4th Dynasty. When Wainwrigh t dug into the inside of the pyramid, he showed that the core of the pyramid was constructed of accretion layers of limestone blocks inclined at an angle of about seventy - five degrees. They stood on a square base measuring thirty - eight meters per side.That the ancient Egyptians used the accretion method to build the pyramid came as no surprise to Egyptologists even in Petrie's time, because that was a fairly widespread construction method. What did surprise them was the smooth outside surface of each level, which seemed illogical and must have considerably decreased the cohesion of the layers and that of the structure as a whole. The answer to this particular riddle came later from Borchardt, who demonstrated that the Medium Pyramid was built in three stages , during which its outward appearance changed significantly. The pyramid was originally a seven step structure built on a rock foundation, but perhaps even before it was finished, an eighth step was added. Each of these first two stages, designated E1 and E2, was intended to be the final structure. Yet, the pyramid was eventually rebuilt in order to transform it into a true, smooth sided pyramid. However, in contrast to E1 and E2, the extension designated E3 did not rest on a solid bedrock foundation, but o n three layers of limestone blocks laid on sand.Even more strangely, while the E1 and E2 stage blocks were angled toward the middle of the pyramid, as in the case of Djoser's Step Pyramid complex at Saqqara, thus significantly increasing the structure's st rength, the E3 blocks were laid horizontally. This fact had been noticed by Borchardt, but Kurt Mendelssohn, who visited Meidum as a tourist, published a best selling book in 1986 on his theory that the method used to build the E3 stage resulted in a catas trophic slippage that buried the workers who built the pyramid under the rubble that now surrounds the structure. However, Mendelssohn's theory has not at all been excepted by Egyptologists, because it contradicts the archaeological discoveries that Petrie had already described and that remain obvious today. The stratification of the massive gravel mounds on all four sides of the pyramid shows that the erosion of the structure took place gradually over a long period of time. However, the change in construct ion methods did make it much easier for the work of stone thieves. Borchardt 115 pointed this out, and explained that the rings of rough masonry bound the individual layers of the core more strongly and were simply laid bare when those layers were destroyed.Mo reover, archaeological investigations have also shown that the pyramid was probably destroyed at the end of the New Kingdom, since in the piles of rubble at its foot secondary graves from the 22nd Dynasty were found at a height of between seven and ten met ers above the temple floor. It is assumed that the removal of the casing blocks had already begun during the reign of Ramesses II.More recently, the American, George Johnson, offered his opinion on the large gravel mound around the pyramid. In his opinion, the wall concealed the remains of a construction ramp that ran around the pyramid and was built in connection with the transformation from the second (E2) to the third (E3) stage. He points to the unused limestone blocks that had not been part of the maso nry that el - Kholi found during his investigation of the mound on the northwest corner of the pyramid. The builder's marks on some of the blocks from which the pyramid was built are interesting. Among them are stylized images of two, three and four step Pyr amids that led some scholars to assume that they show the original, gradually altered form of the pyramid. However, we know know that the images determined the placement of the blocks on the corresponding levels. No less interesting are the inscriptions th at include dates and designations of the work groups. They come from the seventh through the eighteenth cattle counts of an unnamed ruler, though it was probably Snefru. Similar mason's inscriptions can be found on the pyramid of Sneferu at Dahshur.In addi tion, the actual significance of the alteration of the structure during stage E3 has not yet been fully explained. The monument's step - shaped form was abandoned in favor of a true pyramid form, and the north - south orientation in favor of an east - west orien tation. This seems to reflect an important shift in religious ideas that occurred during the transition from the 3rd to the 4th Dynasty. Ricke believed this to be the time that the Osiris myth was incorporated into the worship of the dead king. The king be came identified with Osiris, the ruler of the netherworld, and his death became a mythical event. However, according to another interpretation, the change in the tomb's form and orientation was connected with the decline of the astral religion and the rise of the solar religion. Similarly, the German Egyptologist Dietrich Wildung argued that the pyramid complex in Meidum was a predecessor of the later sun temples of the 5th Dynasty. We might also add that some scholars believe that the last stage of the con struction may have occurred many years after the completion of the first two stages, after Snefru had already moved to Dahshur. These scholars seem to believe that he may have finished the pyramid as a cenotaph rather than a true tomb.The entrance to the p yramid is on the north - south axis, in the north wall, about fifteen meters above ground level. This is a unique placement of an entrance to a step pyramid, so high above ground level. From here, a corridor runs down until it reaches a few meters below the base of the pyramid, where it turns into a horizontal passage that leads to the burial chamber. There are niches on the east and west sides of the horizontal section of the corridor, though their purpose is not certain. They may have been used to make it e asier to move the blocks used to seal the corridor after the burial.The burial chamber itself, which was never finished was entered through a vertical shaft that led upward from the south end of the corridor and came out in the northeast corner of the buri al chamber floor. When Maspero entered the pyramid for the first time, he discovered ropes and beams there, which made him think that the shaft was what remained of a tunnel built by grave robbers to facilitate their work. He dated the this structure to th e period when the burial chamber was plundered. However, some Egyptologists believe it was part of the original structure, used in raising the king's sarcophagus into the burial chamber, though there was apparently never a sarcophagus in the burial chamber and no one seems to have been interred there. Also, why would workers have made it so complicated when the sarcophagus could have been placed in the burial chamber during construction? In the tradition of the Step Pyramids of the 3rd Dynasty, the burial c hamber is aligned with the pyramid's north - south axis. The so - called false vault constructed of large limestone blocks is worth noting. The idea behind it is very ancient and draws on the brick architecture of the Early Dynastic Period. Its purpose was to prevent the enormous weight of the pyramid from shattering the ceiling of the burial chamber. Apparently the builders chose this method over the granite ceiling slabs that they were also familiar with.There are also rooms to the north of the burial chamber and above the horizontal section of the corridor that were probably the result of alterations in the pyramid's construction plan. Apparently, Snefru abandoned this pyramid complex, though why he did so continues to be unresolved. Afterwards, he founded a new residence and a new pyramids necropolis near Dahshur. Perhaps he wanted to be closer to the fortress 116 of the White Walls (Memphis), or maybe he wanted to found a new, more strategically located residential city. Stadelmann, who believes that the pyramid in Meidum was built for Sneferu from the outset, thinks that the complex and surrounding tombs belonged to the queen mother and the princes of a so - called first generation. According to him, only a later generation of Sneferu's family was buried in Dahshu r. 117 Ломаная пирамида Снофру 2755ВС http://www.dainst.org/en/project/dahshur?ft=all The Bent Pyramid was probably the first planned from the outset to be a true pyramid, with smooth sides. This represents a glorious period in the evolution of the pyramid, comparable to that when Djsoer's architect, Imhotep, built the Step Pyramid at Saqqa ra. The Bent Pyramid was probably either the first or second of Sneferu's pyramids, depending on who built the Medium Pyramid. It was almost certainly built prior to his other project at Dahshur, the Red Pyramid. The pyramid is also sometimes called the Rh omboidal, False, or Blunt Pyramid. The ancient Egyptians called it "Sneferu Shines - South (pyramid)". As one of the most unusual pyramids in Egypt, as well as one of the best preserved (much of its casing remains), it has attracted considerable attention o ver the centuries. Early visitors included European travelers such as Richard Pococke, Robert Huntington, Robert Wood and Edward Melton. Yet strangely, a serious archaeological investigation of the structure was not made until the 19th Century, when the gr eat pyramid explorers Perring, Lepsius and later still, Petrie came to explore the structure. Later still, after World War II, Abdel Salam Hussain and Alexandre Varille further investigated the Bent Pyramid, but regrettably their work was lost.Modern archa eological studies of the Bent Pyramid began under the direction of Ahmad Fakhry in the first half of the 1950s, and his 118 information was added to by important observations and measurements made by Maragioglo and Rinaldi, as well as Josef Dorner, an Austrian geodesist. Even with all of this investigation, some Egyptologists believe that the pyramid may still hold a few secrets. Some question whether all of the pyramid's chambers have actually been located. Investigation of the pyramid was sometimes difficult, because wind created a strong draft blowing through the passageways. This so hindered the archaeological studies that work was sometimes interrupted. However, these problems occurred even prior to the discovery of the walled in western entrance, so some c urrent Egyptologists wonder how the draft was vented, and leading them to speculate that other rooms or passageways might remain undiscovered.The remains of the pyramid complex's valley temple lie about a kilometer west of the Nile Valley, about half way b etween between the pyramid and the Nile river. There may have in fact been a second causeway that lead down to a dock or landing stage. It is the first valley temple we know of to be connected to a pyramids complex, and so it has been fairly well investiga ted archaeologically. However, it may have been preceded by a valley temple that at Medium, though the investigation of that structure is hampered by high water levels. In reality, the Bent Pyramid's prelude to the valley temple is in fact part valley temp le and part mortuary temple, containing elements of both types of structures. The Bent Pyramid valley temple is rectangular and north - south oriented. It was built of fine white limestone, with an entrance in the middle of the south facade. The entrance was framed with wooden pillars with pennants. During the Middle Kingdom, a limestone stele from the tomb of Sneferu's son, Netjeraperef was used to frame the entrance doorway.This temple has three sections of equal size. In the southern section, are located f our storerooms. Here, the side walls are decorated with scenes depicting representations of personified mortuary estates. On the east wall Upper Egyptian sources are displayed, while on the west wall we find Lower Egyptian funerary estates. These reliefs a re considered to be some of the best artwork of the 4th Dynasty, and are the earliest known examples of such estate scenes. A portico with ten, undecorated limestone pillars arranged in two rows occupied the northern part of the valley temple. These pillars were all painted red. Here we find the walls decorated with bas - reliefs portraying the ruler participating in the rituals of the Sed - festival. At the rear of the portico was six deep niches, originally each provided with wooden doors, that held six statues of Sneferu in a walking pose. Their north walls were built from large limestone monoliths decorated with the figure of the king in half sculpture. Here, we find the king represented at least twice wearing the crown of Upper Egypt, and at least onc e wearing the crown of Lower and Upper Egypt.Apparently uncommon in later structures, the Bent Pyramid's valley temple was enclosed within a huge perimeter wall made of mudbrick. Within the wall apparently the temple priests of Snefru's mortuary cult, whic h lasted into the Middle Kingdom, made their homes. The causeway to the main pyramid and complex led out of the southwest corner of the valley temple and enclosure wall. The causeway to the main pyramid complex followed an irregular path leading from the v alley temple It had no roof, but was paved with limestone blocks. Along the causeway ran low, fine white limestone walls that were rounded at the top and slightly inclined on the outside.The pyramids complex was surrounded by a huge wall built probably of local yellowish, gray limestone. This wall enclosed a large, square courtyard to which the causeway connected on the northeast corner.A cult chapel, consisting of fine white limestone walls and roof, stood at the foot of the east wall of the pyramid direct ly on the east - west axis. Here, an altar was located, also in the form of the hetep symbol, but this time constructed of three limestone block with two nine meter high fine white limestone monoliths (stele) to its north and south sides. On the southern mon olith Sneferu's name and titles were engraved in bas - relief (part of which may now be found in the Egyptian Antiquity Museum in Cairo). Over time, this chapel was surrounded by mudbrick walls and eventually it was made into a small temple. Because of Snefe ru's later deification and worship during the Middle Kingdom, some renovations in this structure were still being made for many years. It is not unusual for us to find pyramids in Egypt that are mere ruins, often because of a poor foundation. It seems that some pyramid architects took the foundation very seriously, while others did not. The Bent Pyramid, though largely intact, owes its preservation to the builder's realization of their errors soon enough to make changes to their initial building plans. 119 The relatively soft layer of slaty clay that the core rests upon seriously compromised the stability of the whole structure. The structure was further weakened by the internal masonry being laid with little care, leaving substantial gaps that were then filled with limestone rubble. However, one reason that so much of the fine white limestone casing remains is that they built an artificial foundation that it rests atop.The pyramid actually went through about three different alterations away from the original pla ns, which called for the structure to have an angle of almost 60 degrees. The was changed to a less steep slope of almost 55 degrees, requiring that the base be enlarged. This first alteration can be clearly seen in the ceiling and the side walls of the no rth access corridor, about twelve meters from the entrance. These early stages of construction used the traditional method of laying the courses of the core with the stones sloping inward. However, this adjustment in slope proved to be inadequate.When the pyramid was about 45 meters high, the angle of the slope was reduced to 45 degrees (later pyramid usually had a slope of between 52 and 53 degrees), which had the effect of reducing the mass of the upper part of the pyramid and thus reducing the load on th e substructure. At this point in the pyramid's construction, the builders began laying the stone courses horizontally (rather than with the stones sloping inwards). Apparently the builders had learned that the inward sloping layers of the core, rather than adding stability, actually increased the stresses within the structure. It should also be noted that other structural changes were incorporated into the Bent Pyramid. For example, both the core stones and the casing stones were larger than those used in 3 rd Dynasty pyramids. In act, the casing stones were much larger.However, it should also be noted that a very few scholars believe that the pyramid was intentionally planned to have its odd shape for various religious reasons. This theory is dismissed by mo st Egyptologists. There are actually two entrances to the substructure. A north entrance is aligned with the pyramid's north - south axis about twelve meters above ground level. The entrance leads to a descending corridor and then to an underground antechamb er with a high, corbel vault ceiling made of large limestone slabs. A steep ladder (stairway) leads up into a burial chamber that also has a corbel vault ceiling. From here, a short passage leads out of the southwest corner to a vertical shaft, which today is partly destroyed. This shaft, referred to by archaeologists as the chimney, is precisely aligned with the vertical axis of the pyramid.The second entrance to the pyramid is much higher up the west face of the structure. Again, it leads to a descending corridor, but here we find two portcullis barriers. The corridor ends in an "upper chamber", which also has a corbel vault ceiling made of rough limestone slabs. In the openings of side walls were found the remains of cedar beams (also to be found in his p ossible pyramid at Meidum). The lower part of the chamber was filled with rough limestone masonry, some of which was bound with mortar and some of which was laid dry. The function of the masonry and beams is unknown. Maragioglio and Rinaldi believed that t his formed a structure intended to either serve as a base of the sarcophagus, or to help protect it. Stadelmann, on the other hand, thinks that the material was perhaps to prevent the side walls from cracking, or possibly to finish off the vault. It seems that other Egyptologists such as Lehner agree with him.Fakhry believes that Sneferu was actually buried in this chamber. Within the chamber, crudely written in red pigments is an inscription that bears the courtouche of Sneferu, but most Egyptologists beli eve the pyramid was never used for its intended purpose, and some also believe that it was the upper north chamber that was originally intended to be the burial chamber of Sneferu. The chambers of the pyramid accessed by the northern entrance are lower tha n those accessed by the western entrance, but both substructures are connected by one narrow, irregular tunnel roughly cut through the core masonry of the pyramid. This passage communicates with the lower chamber and connected to the western substructure b etween the two barriers, but was almost certainly built after the completion of both substructures.Egyptologists speculate that the underground substructure and the passage connecting the two systems, with the rooms all oriented north - south, was an effort by the builders to harmonize traditional theology with the emerging sun worship inspired east - west orientation of the pyramid complex as a whole. Others, though the arguments are somewhat similar, believe that the western substructure acted similarly to th e South Tomb of Djoser. Attached to the north face of the pyramid was a small mudbrick "north chapel". Though little of this remains, from other pyramid we can probably assume that there would have been a sacrificial table with the hieroglyphic sign for he tep (offering, or offering table), cut into its upper side.A small cult pyramid stands off further to the south side, but still along the pyramid axis. It has an substructure with an entrance on the north side at ground level. This entrance 120 leads to a corr idor that first descends, and then ascends to communicate with a small chamber with a corbel vaulted ceiling just under seven meters above the floor. Many scholars see this corridor as the model for the Great Gallery in Sneferu's son's (Khufu) pyramid at G iza. On the east side of the cult pyramid was another small chapel with an alabaster altar with five meter high limestone monoliths bearing the king's name and titles to either side. 121 Красная пирамида Снофру 2727ВС 122 The severe structural probles encountered while building the Bent Pyramid at Dahshur South, led Sneferu to build yet another pyramid, at a small distance to the North. Stripped from its limestone casing, this new pyramid is has a redish colour, hence its modern - day name, the Red Pyram id. Its Ancient Egyptian name was The Shining One. An inscription found at the base of this pyramid has shown that work had started during the year of the 15th cattle count of Sneferu's reign. Since the cattle counts were held at irregular intervals during this reign, this refers to somewhere between Sneferu's 15th and 30th year. Interestingly, a second inscription was found 30 courses of stones higher. it is dated 2 to 4 years later than the inscription found at the base. This gives an idea about the speed at which the Egyptians were able to build a monument like this pyramid. The work on this pyramid probably started when structural problems encountered when building the Bent Pyramid forced the builders to temporarily abandon this project. The Red Pyramid was built with a slope of only 43°22'. Its base length is 220 metres, that is 32 metres more than the Bent Pyramid. Its height is the same as the Bent Pyramid in its final state: 105 metres. The broader base and lower slope were intended to better spread t he mass of this pyramid and thus avoid the structural problems that had temporarily halted works on the Bent Pyramid. The internal structure of this pyramid is a further continuation of the pyramid at Meidum and the Bent Pyramid. Contrary to this latter mo nument, however, there is only one internal structure, making it a lot more simple. The entrance is located high up in the Northern face of the pyramid. A descending passage leads down for 62.63 metres to a short horizontal corridor. This is followed by tw o almost identical antechambers with corbelled roofs. Both antechambers measure 3.65 by 8.36 metres and are 12.31 metres high. 123 The burial chamber can only be reached via a short passage which opens high up in the wall of the second antechamber. The burial chamber measures 4.18 by 8.55 metres. Its corbelled roof goes up to a height of 14.67 metres. It is located well above groundlevel, in the core of the pyramid. The chapel built against the Eastern face of the pyramid was finished hastily, probably after t he death of Sneferu. It is somewhat more elaborate than the eastern chapel of the Red Pyramid or the pyramid at Meidum in that it houses an inner sanctuary, flanked by two smaller chapels. There is no trace of a causeway leading down to the Valley Temple, of which few remains were found at the end of the 19th century. There is little doubt that Sneferu was finally buried in this pyramid, although the fragments of human remains found inside the burial chamber are not certain to have been his. Interestingly, during the reign of Pepi I of the 6th Dynasty, this pyramid along with its southern neighbour, the Bent Pyramid, was considered as one estate. 124 Великая пирамид а Хуфу 2706 ВС 125 The Great Pyramid of Giza, also called Khufu's Pyramid or the Pyramid of Khufu, and Pyramid of Cheops, is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It is believed the pyramid was built as a tomb for 4th Dynasty Egyptian pharaoh Khufu (Cheops in Greek) and constructed over a 20 year period concluding around 2560 BC. The Great Pyramid was the tallest man - made stru cture in the world for over 3,800 years. Visibly all that remains is the underlying step - pyramid core structure seen today. Many of the casing stones that once covered the structure can still be seen around the base of the Great Pyramid. There have been va rying scientific and alternative theories regarding the Great Pyramid's construction techniques. Most accepted construction theories are based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place.Great Pyramid of Giza / Khufu's Pyramid was the tallest man - made structure in the world for over 3,800 years.There are three known chambers inside the Great Pyramid. The lowest chamber is cut into the bedrock upon which the pyramid was built and was unfinished. A passage from the Grand Gallery leads to the Queen's Chamber, while an antechamber leads from the Grand Gallery to the King's Chamber. Despite precautions such as covering the entrance hole with casing and the portcullises, even before the Old Kingdom end ed thieves simply bypassed all the barriers, digging through the soft limestone and breaking a corner of Khufu's red granite sarophagus while removing the lid. This sarcophagus of the King's Chamber was hollowed out of a single piece of Red Aswan granite a nd has been found to be too large to fit through the passageway leading to the chamber. Both the King's Chamber and the Queen's Chamber contains small shafts that ascend out of the pyramid. Egyptologists now conclude they were instead used for ceremonial p urposes. The Great Pyramid is the only pyramid known to contain both ascending and descending passages. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the main part of a complex setting of buildings that included two mortuary temples in honor of Khufu (one close to the pyra mid and one near the Nile), three smaller pyramids for Khufu's wives, an even smaller "satellite" pyramids, a raised causeway connecting the two temples, and small mastaba tombs surrounding the pyramid for nobles. It is believed the pyramid was built as a tomb for 4th Dynasty Egyptian pharaoh Khufu and constructed over a 20 year period concluding around 2560 BC. Khufu's vizier, Hemon, or Hemiunu, is believed by some to be the architect of the Great Pyramid. It is thought that, at construction, the Great Pyr amid was 280 Egyptian royal cubits tall, 146.6 meters, but with erosion and the loss of its pyramidion, its current height is 138.8 m. Each base side was 440 royal cubits, with each royal cubit measuring 0.524 meters. The total mass of the pyramid is estim ated at 5.9 million tonnes. The volume, including an internal hillock, is believed to be roughly 2,500,000 cubic metres. The first precision measurements of the pyramid were done by Egyptologist Sir Flinders Petrie in 1880 - 82 and published as The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh. Almost all reports are based on his measurements. Petrie found the pyramid is oriented 4' west of North and the second pyramid is similarly oriented. The Great Pyramid was the tallest man - made structure in the world for over 3,800 yea rs, unsurpassed until the 160 metre tall spire of Lincoln Cathedral was completed c. 1300. The accuracy of the pyramid's workmanship is such that the four sides of the base have a mean error of only 58 mm in length, and 1 minute in angle from a perfect squ are. The base is horizontal and flat to within 15 mm. The sides of the square are closely aligned to the four cardinal compass points to within 3 minutes of arc and is based not on magnetic north, but true north. The design dimensions, as confirmed by Petr ie's survey and all those following this, are assumed to have been 280 cubits in height by 4x440 cubits around originally, and as these proportions equate to 2p to an accuracy of better than 0.05%, this was and is considered to have been the deliberate des ign proportion by Petrie, I. E. S. Edwards, and Miroslav Verner. Verner wrote "We can conclude that although the ancient Egyptians could not precisely define the value of p, in practise they used it". With its 146.59m in height, Khufu's pyramid has indeed deserved its modern - day nick - name of The Great Pyramid.Khefren's adjacent pyramid appears to be somewhat higher, but this is only because it was built on a higher part of the Giza platform. It is, in fact, slightly over 3m "smaller".The original entrance t o the Khufu's pyramid is on the North face, 15m high and surmounted by a double vault.Like the pyramids at Dahshur, built by Khufu's father Sneferu, the Great Pyramid consisted of huge core blocks, laid in horizontal courses, encased in fine limestone.As w ith most pyramids, the outer casing has been removed over the centuries to be reused in other buildings, leaving only the pyramid's naked core. What does remain of the outer casing shows a high degree of craftsmanship and precision. The pyramidion of this monument is, like with so many other pyramids, missing as well. A wooden structure was put on top 126 of the pyramid in modern days, to give the many visitors of this monument an impression of its original height.Like Sneferu's pyramids at Dahshur, a part of t he Great Pyramid's internal structure was built inside the pyramid's core, rather than underneath it; a practice that would be abandonned by later pyramid builders. Khufu's internal structure, however, is somewhat less complex than that of Sneferu's pyrami ds at Dahshur.From the entrance, traditionally located slightly off - centre in the northern face of the pyramid, sloping at an angle of 26° 34' 23", leads down to a subterranean chamber. The first 28.8m of the passage run through the pyramid's core, an then another 30.3m through the natural rock of the plateau. The subterranean chamber is roughly hewn and gives the impression of not being finished. It has longtime been assumed to have been intended as the burial chamber in the pyramid's original plan, before Khufu and his architects had decided to go for a completely different internal structure. It was planned to measure 14m by 7.2 and a height of 5.3m. From its southern corner, a roughly cut passage leads further south to a dead end. As the king's burial ch amber was always the last chamber of a series, it seems unlikely that the subterranean chamber would have been intended as such. This is confirmed by the fact that the descending passage leading to the chamber is too small to allow a sarcophagus the size o f the one found in the King's Chamber, to be entered. A more recent theory has suggested that this chamber was built below the ground level on purpose, for it represented the underworld. Its unfinished state suggests it was the last chamber that was built, rather than the first and that it was not completed at the time of the king's death. It could also be that it was left unfinished deliberately, to symbolically mark the coming into being of creation out of the primeval, subterranean waters.Several metres before the descending passage plunges into the the natural bedrock, a second passage leads up to the rooms inside the pyramid's core. The first room is named Queen's Chamber, a name which is the result of an old misinterpretation that once the king's wife was buried in this room. The chamber is entered via a horizontal passage that connects with the ascending passage from just before the Grand Gallery. It measures 5.8m by 5.3 and a height of 6m. A corbelled niche, 4.7m high, in the east wall may once have h oused a Ka - statue of the king. If so, the purpose of the so - called Queen's Chamber was the same as that of the serdabs found connected to private mastabas and to the Step Pyramid of Netjerikhet: it marked the place where the deceased king could come and co llect his daily offerings. At the point where the ascending passage connects to the horizontal passage leading to the Queen's Chamber, a low narrow passage connects to the Grand Gallery, a monumental passage of 46.7m by 2.1 and a height of 8.7m, leading fu rther up to the King's Chamber. The corbelling of its roof does not run op entirely to the top, which is covered by slabs. Regular holes in the walls are believed to have been sockets for large beams that were to hold back the blocks which sealed the ascen ding passage. The Grand Gallery eventually leads up to a relatively small antechamber which, in turn, opens on to the Kings' Chamber, the actual burial chamber of Khufu. This rectangular chamber, made entirely out of red granite, measures 10.5 by 5.2m and a height of 5.8m. The king's sarcophagus is traditionally located in the west of this room. It is slightly larger than the passages leading to the chamber where it was located, which means that it put in place as the pyramid was being built around it.Above the King's Chamber, there are five equally size stress - relieving chambers. The topmost chamber has a pented roof to distribute the weight and stressed of the pyramid's core above. Grafitti left behind in these chambers give us the names of the teams that built them. Interesting is the fact that Khufu's name is also present in the grafitti. As these chambers were completely sealed off since they were built only to be accessed again for the first time in the 19th Century, the grafitti provide the ultimate pr oof that this pyramid was indeed built for Khufu. Both the Queen's and the King's chambers have so - called air - shafts leading up from the northern and southern walls through the pyramid's core, a unique feature of Khufu's pyramid.The air - shafts of the King' s Chamber lead all the way up to the outside, but as the outer casing is missing, it is not certain if the casing stones locked these shafts or not.The shafts of the Queen's Chamber stop somewhere inside the pyramid. A small camera riding up one of these s hafts stumbled upon what looked like a stone door. A hole drilled in that stone door, revealed that the shaft continued after it, only to be blocked again by another stone door.It should also be remarked that the northern air - shafts point to the circumpola r stars, while the southern ones were oriented towards the stars that form what we call the belt of the constellation Orion. The circumpolar stars where visible every night of the year and were considered to be 127 indestructable stars. It was hoped that the k ing's spiritual remains would travel to these stars after his burial, and share in their indestructability. The shafts pointing to Orion's belt may have played an important part in the king's burial ritual . To the southeast of the main pyramid, there are t hree Queens' Pyramids, G 1a, G1 b and G1 c. The foundations of the these three pyramids were not leveled out, causing their bases not to be completely square and level. Each pyramid had a stepped core, which was then encased in limestone to complete the py ramid shape. The entrance was located in the northern face of the pyramids, with a descending passage leading down to a subterranean burial chamber. The identity of the queens for whom these monuments were built, is not known for certain. The presence of a cache just north of the northernmost pyramid containing objects that belonged to Hetepheres I, the mother of Kheops, has led to the assumption that she may have been buried in this pyramid.An inscription found in the chapel of the mastaba of Kawab, one of Khufu's sons, may indicate that the middle pyramid was built for Kawab's mother,a queen Meretites.The mortuary chapel that was built to the east of the southernmost pyramid, was converted into a temple for Isis during the Late Dynastic Period. Henutsen, w hose name is known only from Late Dynastic sources, may perhaps have been the queen buried in this third pyramid.A satellite pyramid, measuring only 20m per side and almost totally demollished, was found next to the southeastern corner of the pyramid itsel f. It has a descending passage that ends in a small room that may, at one time, have housed a Ka - statue of the king.The funerary chapels that Snofru built to the east of his pyramids, was extended into a small, squarish Mortuary Temple. Unfortunately, this temple has been almost entirely destroyed over time, which makes it hard to identify the different elements that originally made up the temple. The general shape of the temple, however, does make it clear that this was just an intermediate monument betwee n the funerary chapels of Sneferu, and the traditional mortuary temple, as it would be defined just one generation later, during the reign of Khafra. Khufu's mortuary temple was entered via a doorway in the eastern wall. Sockets in the basalt pavement mark the location of megalithic granite pillars that once surrounded an open court. Beyond the open court, there was an inner sanctuary, but no trace of a false door or perhaps a statue of the king, have been found. Only a vague outline of both the 739.8m long causeway and of the Valley Temple now remain. Several long and narrow pits were found south and east of the king's pyramid, north of the causeway and between the queens' pyramids as well. Some pits were found to contain the dismantled remains of the boats which were presumably used in the king's last journey, his burial. Boat pits: There are several boat pits near the pyramid of Khufu, 5 to the east and 2 to the south. One boat, buried in one of the southern pits, has been rebuilt and can now be seen in th e Boat Museum, next to the king's pyramid. The reassembled boat, made of cedar wood that was imported from the Lebanon, measures 43.3m in length. Its prow and stern were shaped like papyrus stalks. The other southern boat pit was examined in the 1980s and was also found to contain a dismantled boat, which was left in situ. Contrary to the eastern pits, the two southern pits are located outside of the now lost enclosure wall that marked the boundaries of the pyramid complex. This seems to imply that the boat s of the eastern pits may once have been part of the deceased king's funerary cult, for his transportation in the hereafter, while the southern boats were not. The southern pits also differ from the eastern pits, in that they were rectangular rather than b oat - shaped. The fact that they were dismantled is seen as an indication that they had been part of the royal funeral. Any objects that participated in the royal funeral were considered improper for further use and appear to have been ritually taken apart, as opposed to destroyed, and buried. If this also applies to the two boats in the southern pits, then we may well have here the two boats that once carried the mortal remains of the king, along with some of the objects that he would need in his afterlife, to their final resting place. 128 129 130 The Shafts of the Queen's Chamber Described The openings of both shafts are located at the same level in the chamber, at the joint at the top of the second course of granite wall - stone; the ceilings of the shafts are level with the joint. The northern shaft runs horizontally for just over six feet ( 76"), then turns upward at a mean angle of 37º 28'. The shaft terminates about 20 feet short of the outside of the pyramid. The total length of the northern shaft is about 240 feet and rises at an angle of 38º for the majority of its length. The southern s haft also runs horizontally for just over six feet (80"), then turns upward at a mean angle of 38º 28'. The total length of the southern shaft is about 250 feet and, as its northern counterpart, ascends at an angle of 38º for the majority of its length and comes to an end about 20 feet short of the outside of the pyramid. The Shafts of the King's Chamber Described The openings of both shafts are located at roughly the same level in the chamber, at the joint at the top of the first course of granite wall - s tone. The northern opening is slightly lower, its ceiling being level with the joint, while the floor of the southern opening is roughly level with the joint. The northern shaft is rectangular, about 7 inches wide by 5 inches high, a shape it maintains thr oughout its length. The shaft begins on the horizontal for about 6 feet then takes a series of four bends. While maintaining its general upward angle, it shifts first to the north - northwest then back to north, then to north - northeast, and finally back to t rue north. It has been speculated by some that this unexplained semicircular diversion might have been necessary to avoid some heretofore undiscovered feature of the pyramid. The total length of the northern shaft is about 235 feet and rises at an angle of 31º (with a variation of between 30º 43' and 32º 4') for the majority of its length. Though the first eight feet of the northern shaft is intact, the next thirty or so fe et have been excavated by treasure seekers, presumably following the direction of the shaft in search of treasure. The breach to the shaft was made in the west wall of the short passage leading from the antechamber to the King's Chamber. A modern iron grate today guards the mouth of this breach. The southern shaft is different in appearanc e. Its mouth is larger, about 18" wide by 24" high. The dimensions are reduced to about 12" by 18" within a few feet, and then narrows yet more to about 8" by 12". The shape is not rectangular, as is the northern shaft, but has a dome shape where it enters the chamber, with a narrow floor, the angle of the walls being slightly obtuse, and a dome - shaped ceiling. The shaft is horizontal and true south for about 6 feet. At the first bend, its shape changes to an oval, and 131 continues thusly for about 8 feet. Its orientation also changes slightly from true south to south - southwest. At the second bend its shape changes yet again to a rectangle, with a height greater than its width. It retains this shape for the 160 feet to the outside of the pyramid where it emerge s at the 101st course of stone. It also changes directions once again at the second bend to a more severe south - southwest diversion. The total length of the southern shaft is about 175 feet and ascends at an angle of 45º (with a variation of between 44º 26 ' and 45º 30') for the majority of its length. 132 133 134 Пирамида Абу Роаш Джедефр а 2680ВС 135 136 Djedefra, the 3rd ruler of ancient Egypt's 4th Dynasty and the son of Khufu, for unknown reasons, abandoned the necropolis at Giza and built his pyramid at Abu Rawash. It was called "Djedefra's Starry Sky". This move is interesting, and it is often suggest ed that Djedefra had some sort of falling out with his family, or at least his brothers, for this location is an odd choice. His successor immediately returned to Giza. However, this conflict with his family is far from certain, and more recent evidence su ggests that there were in fact no problems at all.Other than the ruins of Lepsius pyramid number one, Djedefra's pyramid is the northernmost of any pyramids in Egypt. Before Lepsius, Perring briefly investigated the ruins, concentrating on the substructure , and Petrie later examined the pyramid in the 1880s. However, only at the beginning of the 20th Century was this pyramid systematically investigated, first by French archaeologist Emile Chassinat, and about then years later, by his fellow countryman Pierr e Montet. Later still, it was further investigated by Maragioglio and Rinaldi. In 1995, the French - Swiss team headed by Michel Valloggia began excavation at the site, and perhaps this modern effort will answer questions about the pyramid and Djedefra that have long been left unanswered.Unfortunately, this pyramid became a popular target for early stone thieves. It has been proven that, from the end of the 19th century, stone was being hauled away at the rate of three hundred camel loads a day. Previous find ings have held that the pyramid was probably never completed, but it appears that the current excavators are now refuting this claim.We know nothing of a valley temple that might have been connected with this pyramid, and very little about the causeway lea ding to the pyramid complex. The Causeway was probably very long. It would have had to be about 1700 meters (5,577 ft) to have reached the pyramid complex from the valley. The causeway was very unusual for this period as well, because it run north - south at a time when most causeways ran east - west.The complex is surrounded by an outer perimeter wall that is approximately two and one half meters thick. It is somewhat oriented to the north - sough, with the causeway approaching from the north. Interestingly, in the area within the perimeter wall to the north, where the causeway leads in, is a large open space. This is the area where there should have been a mortuary temple if the causeway connected to this temple as in others, but no remains have been discovered. The problem is that until the end of the 3rd Dynasty, mortuary temples were erected on the north side of pyramids, but beginning with the 4th Dynasty onward, they were located at the foot of the east side of the pyramid. If indeed there was a mortuary tem ple on the north, unexplored area of the complex, then this would have been a reversion back to earlier layouts. However, it should also be noted that the corridors and burial chamber of the pyramid itself rather than in the superstructure, was also a reve rsion, and while the roofs of this substructure is highly damaged, it appears that the design may be similar to the earlier style of Djoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara.View from inside the shaft. The internal structure of the pyramid of Djedefra is quite dif ferent from the large pyramids at Giza. It consist of an internal T - shaped room, the burial pit, with internal dimensions of 24m long and 11m wide. There may yet be discoveries made on the north side of the pyramid. However, recent excavations have also un earthed an inner perimeter wall about six meters (20 ft) from the north pyramid base, and widening on the east, where a mudbrick structure is thought to be what remains of a mortuary temple. A covered corridor is believed to have lead from the northeast en trance of the inner enclosure to the mouth of the causeway. Just outside of this corridor, recent excavations have revealed a cache of votive pottery, which indicate the existence of sustained cult worship of this King.The layout of this "mortuary temple" on the east side of the pyramid is very different than other known Old Kingdom examples, and was apparently completed in haste. It was formed of rather thick fieldstone walls, finished with mudbrick to form the compartments and chambers surrounding an open courtyard. In the courtyard, some of the original pavement, storehouses and other architectural elements remain today. In the middle of the northeastern part of the structure stood a row of columns, apparently inscribed with Djedefra's cartouche, if fragm entary evidence may be believed. This is interesting, because other than some columns and half columns found at the complex of Djoser at Saqqara, this would represent the only appearance of columns in a pyramid complex mortuary temple prior to the 5th Dyna sty.There is a depression in the middle of the east wall of the pyramid core. Due to the location, Egyptologists believe that this was a niche that might have held a false door, in front of which would have been an altar, all a part of an offering hall.In the area near the columns, fragments of statues of three of Djedefra's sons and two of his daughters were discovered, along with a possible limestone sphinx. If this was indeed a sphinx, it would probably be the earliest know form of this statuary. Like a number of pyramids in Egypt, this one used part of a rock outcropping that was reshaped as part of the core. The remainder of the core consists of local limestone blocks. There remains about fifteen horizontally laid layers of the 137 limestone core, but very little of the fine, pink granite casing is left.Originally, because of the slope of the casing blocks, it was thought that the pyramid had an extremely sharp slope. Some even believe it might have been planned as a step pyramid, as these structures had a m uch sharper slope than true pyramids. But with the newest investigation, it has been determined that the casing blocks were not laid horizontally, but leaned slightly towards the middle of the pyramid creating, instead of a 60 degree angle, a more standard 48 to 52 degree slope. This method was also used in the Step and Bent pyramids. Given that the baseline has been accurately determined to be 106.2 meters (348 ft), the pyramid would have risen to a theoretical height of between 57 and 67 meters (187 ft to 220 ft), much smaller than Djedefra's father's pyramid at Giza. Though the substructure was highly damaged, we can see that the builders used the open pit method of construction, which was also a throwback to earlier times. In the north wall of the pyrami d, they built a trench that now contains the remains of a descending corridor. Here, Valloggia found a copper ax blade within a part of a foundation deposit buried there when construction on the pyramid was begun. The corridor generally follows a north - sou th axis, and leads to an area that probably contained two rooms, an antechamber and burial chamber. Petrie, in his investigation, discovered a fragment of what he though was part of a pink granite sarcophagus in this area.On the east side of the pyramid wi thin the enclosure wall is a trench that, because of its form in the shape of a boat, might have originally held a royal solar boat. However, no remains of a boat were found here. Rather the fragments of some 120 statues, mostly representing Djedefra sitti ng on his throne, were discovered. Three more or less complete heads were found, including one now in the Louvre in Paris and one in the Egyptian Antiquity Museum in Cairo. The statues had been, it would seem, intentionally destroyed. This may have done by Khafra, his half brother and successor, who could have possibly murdered Djedefra as revenge. There is a possibility that Djedefra himself gained the throne by murdering his older half brother, Kauab.However, this theory has lost much ground lately. The v iew of a majority of scholars appears to be that, because the pyramid was located in an isolated area, the local population may have vandalized the statues. This theory hold that the destruction began during the New Kingdom, and became especially intense d uring the Roman and Christian era. At that time, a Coptic monastery was built in the nearby Wadi Karin.Interestingly, no tombs of Djedefra's family and high officials have been found within the complex, though there is a structure near the southwest corner of the pyramid that might have served as a subsidiary tomb for one of his consorts. However, Egyptologists such as Stadelmann and Janosi think that this is in fact a cult pyramid without burial. Again, future excavations will be required to answer this qu estion.In the northeast corner of the inner enclosure, workshops and housing have been found that apparently were used by the builders of the pyramid. Here, layers of chips remain from what was apparently a stoneyard where the pyramid blocks were worked.It should also be mentioned that Petrie found a fragment of a diorite statue with the probable hieroglyphs representing Menkaure. Some Egyptologists believe that this king undertook restoration work on the pyramid. 138 139 Пир амида Хафра 2672 ВС 140 Khafra's Pyramid, is the second largest of the Ancient Egyptian Pyramids of Giza and the tomb of the 4th Dynasty pharaoh Khafra (Chephren). The pyramid has a base length of 215.25 m (707 ft) and originally rises to a height of 143.5 m (471 ft) The Pyramid is made o f Limestone blocks (weighing more than 2 tons each). The slope of the pyramid rises at an 53° 10' angle, steeper than its neighbor Khufu's pyramid which has an angle of 51°50'40". The pyramid sits on bedrock 10 m (33 ft) higher than Khufu's pyramid which w ould make it look taller. The pyramid was likely opened and robbed during the First Intermediate Period. During the 18th Dynasty the overseer of temple construction robbed casing stone from it to build a temple in Heliopolis on Ramesses II's orders. Arab h istorian Ibn Abd as - Salaam recorded that the pyramid was opened in 1372. It was first explored in modern time by Giovanni Belzoni on 2 March 1818 and the first complete exploration was conducted by John Perring in 1837. Because its apex is in better condit ion and it is located on an elevation (of about 10 meters), Khafra's sometimes appears to be the largest of the three great Pyramids of the Giza Plateau. However, originally it was some three meters lower than its neighboring pyramid belonging to Khafra's father, Khufu. In fact, the walls of Khafra's pyramid are steeper than the Great Pyramid of Khufu (53° 10' as opposed to Khufu's 51° 40'), so it contains considerably less mass. It's name is "Khafra is Great". Khafra may have, prior to his succession to th e Egyptian throne in the 4th Dynasty, been named Khafkhufu, and according to Stadelmann, may have built a large double mastaba (G 7130 - 40) in the East section at Giza. However, his older brothers, Kauab and Djedefra apparently died early and upon taking th e throne of Upper and Lower Egypt, his name was changed to Khafra.As one of the grandest pyramids in Egypt, his construct has been much studied, with a history of modern research not unlike that of Khufu's monument. In 1818, the strongman of Egyptology, Gi ovanni Belzoni, succeeded in penetrating into the pyramid's interior after a failed attempt by Giovanni Caviglia only a year earlier. Belzoni discovered the pyramid's "upper entrance" and managed to investigate its subterranean sections. However, the first extensive exploration of the monument was made in 1837 by Perring. Mariette directed excavations of the pyramid's Valley Temple, which is also related to the Great Sphinx, in 1853. A year later, he was responsible for unearthing one of ancient Egypt's mos t famous and beautiful statues, that of Khafra on his throne with the protective outstretched winds of the falcon god, Horus, sheltering his head from behind. While Petrie also worked on this pyramid complex while at Giza, the first systematic modern excav ations did not occur until the German Ernst von Sieglin expedition of 1909 - 1910 under the direction of Uvo Holscher. Later in the 1930s, Hassan unearthed the boat pits associated with the pyramid, and in recent times, Lehner and Hawass have investigated th e pyramid complex under the auspices of the American Giza Plateau Mapping Project. Their work has mostly centered around modern geodetic measuring techniques, which has yielded considerable knowledge on both the pyramid, and the archaeology of architecture .The valley temple of Khafra's Giza complex, which is one of the best preserved Old Kingdom temples in Egypt. As a masterful work of ancient Egyptian monumental architecture, it was cleared of sand and in 1869 this temple, along with other monuments at Giz a, became the backdrop for the ceremonial opening of the Suez Canal. The temple was fronted on the east by a large terrace paved with limestone slabs, through which two causeways led from the Nile canal. Just about in the middle of the terrace, fragments o f what may have been a small, simple, wood and matting structure was unearthed that may have been the location of a statue depicting Khafra. However, others believe that this was a tent used for purification purposes, though known examples of such a struct ure are only found in a few private tombs.Pyramid of Khafra valley temple, the temple is built of megalithic limestone core blocks sheeted in red granite. Many of the internal elements are still intact, such has many single granite pillars in the T - shaped hall.In 1995, Zahi Hawass re - cleared the area in front of the Valley temple and in doing so, discovered that the causeways passed over tunnels that were framed with mudbrick walls and paved with limestone. These tunnels have a slightly convex profile resem bling that of a boat. They formed a narrow corridor or canal running north - south. In front of the Sphnix Temple, the canal runs into a drain leading northeast, probably to a quay buried below the modern tourist plaza. 141 The causeways connected the Nile canal with two separate entrances on the Valley temple facade that were sealed by huge, single - leaf doors probably made of cedar wood and hung on copper hinges. Each of these doorways were protected by a recumbent Sphinx. The northern most of these portals was dedicated to the goddess Bastet, while the southern portal was dedicated to Hathor.The temple was laid out in almost a square ground plan. It is situated just next to the Great Sphinx and its associated temple. Not surprisingly, since the valley temple was a gateway or portal to the whole complex, it is very similar to the fore part of Khafra's mortuary temple. Its core wall was built of huge blocks that sometimes weighed as much as one hundred and fifty tons. This inner core was then covered by pink granit e slabs, a material used extensively throughout the complex that was quarried near Aswan far to the south. This wall was slightly inclined and rounded at the top, making the whole structure appear somewhat like a mastaba tomb. Between the two entrances to the valley temple was a vestibule with walls of simple pink granite that were originally polished to a luster. Its floors were paved with white alabaster. A door then led to a T - shaped hall that made up a majority of the temple. This area too was sheathed with polished pink granite and paved with white alabaster, though it was also adorned with sixteen single block pink granite pillars, many of which are still in place today, that supported architrave blocks of the same material, bound together with copper bands in the form of a swallow's tail. These in turn supported the roof.Here, in the dim light provided by slits at the tops of the walls, stood as many as twenty four statues of the king (though one statue base in the middle that is larger than the others may have been counted twice) made from diorite, slate and alabaster. This line of statues continues along the cross of the T shaped hall ending at a doorway that leads to a corridor from which a stairway ramp winds clockwise up and over the top of the cor ridor before terminating on the roof of the valley temple.On the south side of the roof was a small courtyard, situated directly over six storage chambers also built of pink granite and arranged in two stories of three units each. These were embedded in th e core masonry of the T shaped hall. Symbolic conduits lined in alabaster, a material specifically identified with purification, run from the temple's roof courtyard down into the deep, dark chambers below. These symbolic circuits run through the entire te mple, taking in both the chthonic and the solar aspects of the afterlife beliefs and of the embalming ritual for which the valley temple was the stage, according to some Egyptologists. Hence, the Polish scholar Bernhardt Grdseloff proposed that purificatio n rituals were carried out on the roof terrace in a tent especially constructed for that purpose. Afterwards, he theorized that the body was embalmed in the temple antechamber. A French Egyptologist, Etienne Drioton proposed a similar view, only switching the locations to the antechamber for the purification and the embalming on the roof terrace. However, Ricke correctly pointed out that these types of rituals required considerable water that was only available near the canal, so at best the priests of the valley temple could have only performed the rituals symbolically.At the other end of the cross in the T shaped hall (north), an opening gave way to a passage, also paved with alabaster, that led to the northwest corner of the temple and there joined the ca useway.Khafra's causeway leads from the Mortuary Temple down to the Valley Temple, the causeway stretches some forty - six meters connecting these structures with the the mortuary temple just before the main pyramid. A corridor cut from the rock separated th e ruined causeway from the Great Sphinx temple and the valley temple. The causeway stretches some forty - six meters connecting these structures with the the mortuary temple just before the main pyramid. It did not run exactly along the east - west axis of the pyramid and mortuary temple, but instead somewhat to the southeast of it due to the fact that the valley temple was erected slightly out of line with the Great Sphinx and the mortuary temple. Archaeologists believe that causeway was probably a covered cor ridor built of limestone and lined on its exterior by pink granite blocks. Within it may have been decorated with reliefs.The mortuary temple, unlike later pyramid complexes, did not border directly against the pyramid but was rather separated from its eas t wall by the pyramid courtyard. Rectangular in its ground plan, it is oriented east - west and has walls built of local limestone that are cased in finer limestone, a technique introduced in this structure. Inside, the building was almost completely lined w ith granite. The mortuary temple has, in its elemental design, the basics for the mature mortuary temples ultimately perfected by Sahure at Abusir, including an entrance hall, an open courtyard, five statue chapels, various storehouses and an offering hall . This structure marks a real architectural advance, being both larger then previous examples and for the first time, including all five elements that were to become standard.The entrance to the mortuary temple in the east led through to a small antechambe r adorned with a 142 pair of monolithic pink granite pillars. About the entrance area were a few small chambers (two granite chambers immediately to the left of the entrance, and at the other end of a short corridor running along the front of the temple, four more chambers lined with alabaster) that are thought to have been storage annexes or serdabs. Ricke, in his investigation of the mortuary temple, found this area strikingly similar to the valley temple, and considered it a kind of repetition. He designated this area as the "ante - temple" (Vortempel) and the remaining area of the mortuary temple as the "worship temple" (Verehrungstempel).The remains of Khafra's mortuary temple, seen from his pyramid, Khafra's mortuary temple was larger and more elaborated tha n earlier pyramid temples and most notable element of the temple was the extensive use of statues of Khafra himself. This antechamber in turn led into the entrance hall itself where there were twelve more similar pairs of pillars to those in the antechambe r. This entrance hall had an original ground plan of an inverted T. Hence, the first part of the entrance hall was transverse, with recessed bays. It led in turn to a rectangular section. Off of the transverse part of the hall, two long, narrow chambers br anched off from either end, and it has been suggested that huge statues of the king once graced these dim passages.After the entrance hall there is a large, open courtyard situated in approximately the middle of the temple. Paved in slabs of alabaster and oriented north - south, along its sides runs a covered ambulatory with a flat limestone roof made of slaps supported by broad pillars of pink granite. The lower part of this ambulatory was formed by a dado in red granite and limestone. It was covered by bril liantly colored reliefs of which only fragments remain. Ricke thought that the ambulatory was fronted by 3.75 meter high statues of Khafre sitting on his throne overlooking the courtyard, but Lehner thinks these were standing statues of the ruler. Lehner b ases his belief on the discovery of a small statuette in the workshops west of the pyramid. This artifact shows the ruler, wearing the crown of Upper Egypt, standing in front of a kind of pillar. The remains of a small canal suggest that it was drainage fo r an altar that stood in the middle of the courtyard. A door in the west side of the ambulatory communicated with five, long chapels (actually niches) that also originally housed statues of the king. Another narrow corridor opens from the southwest corner of the courtyard and led to an offering hall located in the west part of the temple. The hall was a narrow, long room oriented north - south (in contrast to later mortuary temples) with a false door positioned on the west wall, precisely on the pyramid's lon g axis. Between the five cult chapels and the offering hall, a group of five storage rooms were provided for cult vessels and offerings used during various ceremonies. A stairway in the northeast corner of the temple led up to the roof terrace, while in the northwest corner of the courtyard, another corridor led to the paved pyramid enclosure.Though all of them had been plundered apparently in antiquity, there were five boat bits discovered outside of the mortuary temple. Two of these stood on the north o f the temple, while three were to its south. Another pit may have been planned. All of these were carved into the rock in the shape of a boat. Two of the pits still retained their roofing slabs, though all of the pits had been looted, probably during antiq uity. Khafra's pyramid is surrounded by an inner, huge stone perimeter wall, within which is an open courtyard barely ten meters wide that bounds the four sides of he pyramid proper. This courtyard is paved with limestone slabs of irregular form.Because of the two different entrances to this structure, some Egyptologists believe that the main Pyramid of Khafra was originally meant to be larger and to stand slightly farther north then its completed position. However, modern scholars with considerable experti se on this pyramid, such as Lehner, doubt this assumption. Like the pyramid of Khufu and others in Egypt, Khafra's structure takes advantage of a rock outcropping to both increase the stability of its core, as well as to conserve the amount of necessary bu ilding materials needed for its construction. In fact, the lowest levels of its southwest corner are actually hacked out of the rock subsoil. The bedrock surface to the northwest had to be cut down some 10 meters by its ancient builders, while the southeas t corner had to be built up using mammoth blocks of masonry. However, by far the substance of the pyramid core is made up of locally quarried limestone blocks of approximately equal height. Nearby to the north of the pyramid, one may still clearly see the traces of how these blocks were quarried. The blocks were not laid with the care that was given to the core of Khufu's pyramid, for the layers do not always run exactly horizontally, and the joints are at times very wide. Often, there is no mortar between the blocks. In fact, because the four corner angles were not quite aligned correctly to meet the pyramid apex, there is a very slight twist at the top.The base levels of the casing were made of pink granite, while the higher 143 layers, which become much small er towards the top (about one cubit thick) are of fine Turah limestone. The outside faces of the casing blocks are often staggered by a few millimeters rather than flush, which may mean that they were faced prior to their placement. While the pyramidion an d the apex have been lost, at the top of the pyramid, a small portion of the original casing remains in place, which helps us see how the finishing blocks were laid and bound to the pyramid core. However, because it is clear that the remaining casing is er oding, recent investigations by Italian experts have shown that the remaining corner edges of the mantle are not completely straight. Individual blocks are slightly turned in various directions. An analysis of this peculiarity suggests that this was the re sult of seismic activity. Small earthquakes were not uncommon in ancient Egypt, as they are likewise known to occur in modern times. The oldest of the two entrances into the subterranean depths of Khafra's pyramid is now located in the ground about thirty meters north of the pyramid. Carved completely out of the rock subsoil, it is sometimes called the "lower entrance". This portal communicates with a corridor that at first descends before running horizontally. In this horizontal leg of the corridor, a pass age gives way on the west wall to a small chamber cut from the bedrock and provided with a pented roof, where part of the burial equipment was possibly stored. After the horizontal section of the entrance corridor, it finally ascends into a horizontal corr idor shared by the "upper entrance".The second portal, known as the "upper entrance", is located in the north wall of the pyramid's face about twelve meters above ground level. It communicates with a corridor lined in pink granite that first descends befor e running horizontally at the base of the pyramid. At the transitional point between its descending and horizontal sections, there is a barrier made of pink granite, which in antiquity, grave robbers managed to dig around. The horizontal passage continues south after the barrier, eventually arriving at the burial chamber, which lies on the vertical axis of the pyramid. Given the location and relatively simple construction of the access corridor and the burial chamber, it is likely that the architects of thi s pyramid sought to avoid the complications that builders of Khufu's pyramid had encountered with their technically difficult system of passageways, barriers and chambers. As with earlier pyramids, the burial chamber has a rectangular, east - west oriented g round plan which places it at a right angle to the passage system. With the exception of its ceiling, it was excavated completely out of the rock. Located over the pyramid's base, the burial chamber's gabled ceiling is built from enormous pented, limestone blocks. Originally, the intention may have been to cover the burial chamber's walls of this chamber in pink granite. There are shaft entrances in both the north and south walls of the burial chamber that, at first, appear similar to those in the Queen's a nd King's cambers of the great Pyramid, but are rather short, horizontal openings that could have been used to reinforce a wooden structure inside the tomb.Near the west wall of the burial chamber, almost directly under the vertical axis of the pyramid and situated within a niche stands the black granite sarcophagus of the king that originally was surmounted by a sliding lid. The lid was found in two pieces close by. Near the sarcophagus, a small shaft in the floor probably held royal canopic vessel, which would have been the first instance of this funerary equipment placed in a pyramid. No positively identifiable remains of the king's mummy or his other funerary equipment were found within the pyramid. A small, almost completely destroyed cult pyramid (G 2a) sits on the axis of the south side of the main pyramid of Khafre. Cult, or Satellite pyramids as they are sometimes called, are thought to have derived from the south tomb of Djoser's complex at Saqq ara, and may have been for the burial of statues dedicated to the ka, or spiritual double, of the king. Originally, it was surrounded by its own enclosure wall. It has a simple substructure that consists of a descending corridor that gives way to an underg round chamber with a T - shaped ground plan. Because this chamber contained bits of wood, carnelian beads, fragments of animal bones and vessel lids, Maragioglio and Rinaldi concluded that it must have served as a tomb for one of Khafra's consorts. However, Stadelmann opposed this view, believing that it was a cult pyramid. His opinion is supported by the cult pyramid attached to Khufu's complex on its southeast corner. More to the point, Lehner believes that the wood made up a frame of cedar in the form of a sah netjer, or divine booth, which was used to transport a statue to be buried in the subsection of this small pyramid.In the early 1880s, Petrie also discovered west of Khafra's pyramid beyond the so called outer perimeter wall, the ruins of a structure that contained long, mostly east - west oriented rooms. He assumed, as did some later investigators such as Holscher, that this was a worker's village that lodged as many as four to five thousand men in 111 large rooms. However, later work by Lehner and Hawa ss seem to suggest that that this facility, rather than a settlement, was instead a storehouse as well as the workshops for the pyramids complex. Interestingly, the great number of mollusk shells that were found here also 144 suggest that the surrounding area was, rather than arid desert as it is today, a kind of savanna with the corresponding flora and fauna. Perhaps as early as the First Intermediate Period, as in the case with other pyramids, thieves had probably already broken into Khafra's tomb. Inscriptio ns by the "overseer of temple construction" indicate that already by the 19th Dynasty, considerable damage had already occurred. In fact, written sources indicate that, on the orders of Ramesses II, casing from Khafra's pyramid was used for the constructio n of a temple in Heliopolis. Other sources suggest that a large part of the pyramid casing was removed between 1356 and 1362 for use in the Mosque of al - Hassan.At any rate, the Arab historian Ibn Abd as - Salaam records that the pyramid was opened up in the 774 after the hegira (1372 C.E.), during the reign of the Great Emir Jalburgh el - Khassaki. It is possible that the tunnels going around the granite barriers in the entry passage could have been dug at that time.Outside perimeter walls may have extended aro und the entire Khafra pyramids complex, including within it the great Sphinx. Close study by geologist Thmas Aigner of the geological layers of the Sphinx show that it was closely related to the quarrying and building of the Khafra complex.Hence, there is some indication that it was a part of Khafra's pyramids complex. However, the latter is by no means certain, so here we have avoided the issue for the time being, electing rather to discuss the Great Sphinx separately. 145 146 Пирамида Завиет эль - Ариа н Небкара 2648ВС Little remains today of another structure, assumed to be a second unfinished pyramid at Zawyet el - Aryan. This was also excavated by Barsanti in 1903, who discovered only a huge sloping trench leading to a pit. Traces of a square platfor m measuring about 200m square indicates that if the pyramid had been completed it would have been similar in size to Khafra's monument at Giza. Stylistically this would give the structure a date of 4th Dynasty, probably between the reigns of Djedefra and K hafra. The remaining elements are said to resemble Djedefre's pyramid at Abu Rawash.Large blocks of limestone and granite lie on the floor of the trench and may have been intended for use in the burial chamber. At the bottom of the trench there was a huge oval pink granite sarcophagus, which may or may not belong to the structure. Significantly, Petrie found fragments of a similar styled sarcophagus while excavating Djedefre's complex at Abu Rawash.During Barsanti's excavations, archaeologists were puzzled when the trench filled with rainwater which very quickly drained to about a metre deep, suggesting that there may have been an undiscovered passage or chamber beneath the trench. Unfortunately the structure has never been further investigated because of it s inaccessibility in the military zone.There have been many candidates proposed for the ownership of this unfinished monument which, had it been completed, may have rivalled some of the greatest pyramids of the Old Kingdom. Most Egyptologists currently dat e the structure to Dynasty IV. Evidence put forward to support this dating include the use of large blocks of stone, the oval granite sarcophagus and the size of the structure's base. Masons marks with the king's name have been found on some of the blocks. These have been difficult to interpret except that the name was enclosed in a cartouche which suggests the ruler must have come after Huni (the last king of 3rd Dynasty), who was the first known king to write his name this way. Many now suggest that it wa s a structure belonging a king coming between Djedefre and Khafra, perhaps a son of Khufu or Djedefre who reigned for only a very short period. 147 148 149 150 http://www.nabilswelim.com/downloads/Corb_Rf.pdf.pdf 151 152 153 Nebkara Setka St - kA, "iri - pat, head of secrets in the royal bedroom, king's eldest son of his body, sole companion of his father, lector - priest of his father, commander of the palace" etc., with a red granite scribe statue, now in the Louvre (E. 12631 & 12629). 154 155 The Horus name of this ruler mat have been Nebkare. Dodson - Hilton tentatively identifies the ruler as Nebkare Setka - " Хозяин Обеих Земель , Небкара ( Хозяин Ка Солнца )" , Nebkare "Владыка ка - (это) Ра" . Сетка был принцем древнеегипетской четвёртой Династии , сын фараона Дж едефры , его мать неизвестна . Сетка извест е н только по статуи писца , которая происходит из храма при пирамиде его отца в Абу Роаш. По предложению Айдан Додсон 198 1 и 1985 , Сетка мог прийти после смерти своего отца Джедефры и дяди Хефрена в течение нескольких лет на тр он Египта. Затем он мог бы быть идентифицирован историком Манефоном как фараон Bicheris . Додсон приводит в своем рассмотрении подпись на стенах и блоках пирамиды Завиет эль - Ариан , чьи надписи он интерпретирует как король Setka или Sethka . Предложени е Додсона был принято ранее в научном мире, однако, нет общего согласия по этому во п росу. Pyramids were given 'star' names or names implicit of stars ('The Pyramid of Djedefre is a sehedu star'; 'Nebka is a star'; 'Horus is the Star at the Head of the Sky ' and so forth . 156 http :// www . gizapyramids . org / pdf %20 library / smith _ old _ kingdom . pdf http://www.scribd.com/doc/44724066/223/Inscriptions - of - Washptah - from - Saqqara?olddoc=1 http://www.gizapyramids.org/pdf%20library/drioton_liste.pdf http://www.nabilswelim.com/downloads/Corb_Rf.pdf.pdf http://www.egypt.edu/pdf/adresses/abou - rawach/abourawach - hd.pdf http://www.nefershapiland.de/Biografie%20Djedefre.htm http://hieroglyphes.over - blog.com/article - 32895553.html 157 Сет (Сетх, Сутех, Сута) — в мифологии древних египтян бог пустыни, убийца Осириса, в позднеегипетских представлениях — олицетворение зла. Изображался в виде человека с головой «зверя Сета» (осел, шакал или др.). Сет — сын Геба и Нут, младший брат Осириса, Исиды и Нефтиды, муж Нефтиды.Сет (Сетх) — египетский бог пустыни и песчаных бурь, бог чужеземных стран, бог землетрясений, сын Геба и Нут, брат и убийца Осириса. Был побеждён богом Х ором. Египтяне изображали бога Сета мифическим животным или человеком с головой демонического животного, идущим в сопровождении рыжей собаки, олицетворяющей собой звезду Сириус, появление которой на небосклоне предвещало разлив Нила. Животные — осёл, свинь я и гиппопотам. Муж богини Нефтиды. Храм — Пер - Рамсес.В египетской мифологии Сет считался богом хаоса и беспорядка, который изображался в облике человека с головой загадочного животного, возможно, в позднеегипетском понимании, некого существа, не принадлеж ащего этому миру. Сет может представать и полностью в форме животного — с телом шакала, высоко поднятым раздвоенным хвостом. Сет также может принимать облик осла, свиньи или гиппопотама.Самое раннее изображение Сета сохранилось на резном предмете из слонов ой кости, обнаруженном в одной из гробниц эль - Махасны, датированной эпохой Нагада I (4000 — 3500 г. до н. э.) Фигура священного животного Сета также сохранилась на булаве архаического царя Скорпиона (ок. 3150 до н. э.).Сет считался повелителем пустынь, все го враждебного долине Нила, почитался в качестве покровителем далеких стран и чужеземцев вместе с ассиро - финикийскими богинями Анат и Ашторет (Астартой), которые в Новом царстве считались его женами (папирус Честер - Битти I). Легенды повествуют, что Сет уби л своего брата Осириса, а затем долго и коварно спорил со своим племянником Хором, который хотел отомстить за смерть отца, за владычество над землей. Во время нескольких сражений Сет вырвал у Хора его око, ставшее великим амулетом Уджат; одновременно Хор к астрировал Сета, тем самым лишив его основной части его сущности — Сет издревле ассоциировался с мужской сексуальной силой. По одной из легенд отрезанная в битве передняя нога Сетха была заброшена в северную часть неба, где боги приковали ее золотыми цепям и к извечным опорам небес и поставили охранять ее грозного гиппопотама Исиду Хесамут. Город, посвященный Сету, в Египте называется Омбос.Сет изображается, как правило, с длинными ушами, красной гривой и красными глазами (цвет смерти, то есть пустынного пес ка, хотя изображение его можно встретить и совсем иное). Его изображают в виде крокодила (Рельеф юго - западного зала храма Хатхор в Дендера), самца гиппопотама (папирус Жумиляк), змея (Рельеф в храме Рамсеса 2 в Асуане), а так же в сборном облике: гиппопота м в шкуре крокодила (фреска на стене гробницы Ментухотепа 3), стилизованного животного похожего на осла (ГМИИ им. Пушкина), так же как известен миф о Сете, плюнувшем в глаза Хору, приняв облик чёрной свиньи. Из - за этого свиньи считались нечистыми (несмотря на то, что в глубокой древности встречались изображения Нут в виде свиньи с поросятами - звёздами). Однако с концом Древнего царства его культ постепенно превратился из великого защитника Ра в злое могущественное божество, не утратившее при этом своих перво начальных функций (см. миф «Тяжба Хора и Сета»). Согласно Гелиопольской космогонии Сет родился, выскочив из бока матери - Нут. День его рождения — третий предновогодний — считался несчастливым для всего Египта. В продолжении сего надо отметить, что даже посл е такой трансформации Сет отнюдь не воспринимался египтянами как нечто злое и враждебное (например как змей Апоп или крокодил Мага). Являясь, с одной стороны, повелителем хаоса и олицетворением зла, он, с другой стороны, выступал в качестве необходимого до полнения к божественному порядку. Несмотря на проигранный спор и многочисленные преступления, в том числе убийство Осириса, Сет остаётся повелителем южных областей Египта, повелителем подвластной ему силы — плохой погоды и песчаных бурь. Особенно почитался он Рамсессидами как владыка воинской доблести и смелости. Основная функция Сета состояла в том, чтобы сражаться в одиночку со змеем Апопом, защищая Солнечную ладью (папирус Жумиляк). Однако начиная с 3 - го переходного периода, особенно в эпоху Птолемеев, о гда культ Хора был вознесён особо высоко, Сет превращается сугубо в символ зла и становится ненавистным злодеем, источником вселенского зла. http://www.joanannlansberry.com/other/se tfind/set - find.pdf 158 Пирамида Менкаур а 2647ВС Menkaure's Pyramid, located on the Giza Plateau on the southwestern outskirts of Cairo, Egypt, is the smallest of the three Pyramids of Giza. It was built to serve as the tomb of the 4th Dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Menkaure. Menkaure's Pyramid had an original height of 65.5 meters (215 feet). It now stands at 62 m (203 ft) tall with a base of 103.4 m (339 ft). Its angle of incline is approximately 51°20'25?. It was constructed of limestone an d granite. The Pyramid of Menkaure, built on the edge of the same rock formation that had also served as foundation for the pyramids of Khufu and Khafra. Menkaure apparently intended for his pyramid on the Giza Plateau to be the last of that specific area of the Memphite necropolises which it is, as well as being the smallest. The valley temple lies at the mouth of the main wadi, closing what had been the principal conduit for construction materials brought to Giza for three generations. Named "Menkaure is Divine", the pryamid was thought by some Greeks, according to Herodotus, to belong to the Greek hertaera Rhodopis. Manetho thought that it belonged to Psamtik I's beautiful daughter, Nitocris. 159 Diodorus Siculus first described the inscription that bears the name of Mykerinos on this pyramid, but it was not until Vyse in 1837 that anyone actually entered Menkaure's pyramid. He began by investigating its substructure by following a tunnel dug earlier by Caviglia out of a breach in the north wall. The original entrance was not discovered until later. Surprisingly, Lepsius paid almost no attention to this pyramid, and even Petrie worked on it for only a short period in the 1880s. Luckily, George Resiner who was one of the most advanced archaeologists of his time, won the concession for Menkaure's pyramid when archaeologists drew lots for excavating Giza on the balcony of the Mena House Hotel in 1899. He knew before that this pyramid, though small, could provide some rich finds because his assistant, Arthur Mace, h ad reconnoitered the site. He began a very thorough excavation of the entire complex in 1906 directing a team from Harvard University and the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Those excavations continued until 1924. Menkaure's pyramid, with its original height o f some 65 - 66 meters, represents only about 1/10th of the mass we find in Khufu's pyramid. However, this may be the result of a theology which dictated more emphasis on the temples and less on the pyramid, a process evident to us already in the reign of Kha fra which continued throughout the Old Kingdom. The causeway of this pyramid complex leading from the Valley temple to the Mortuary Temple was most likely completed by Shepseskaf. It had floors made of limestone blocks and highly compressed clay mixed with limestone fragments. The mudbrick walls that were a little more than two meters thick supported a roof. Reisner believed that the roof was made of wooden beams and mats because he found the remains of such material at the end of the causeway. However, oth ers Egyptologists, because of the width of the side walls and architectural elements of nearby tombs of close family members, believed that there would have been a vaulted roof of brickwork. Nevertheless, the causeway was never completed. Work seems to hav e stopped at the point where it meets the west side of the old Khufu quarry. From there to down to the valley temple, the causeway was probably never more than a construction ramp for delivering stone. Hence, we really do not know how it was to connect to the valley temple. Yet some Egyptology resources believe that it would have not begun at the west part of the valley temple, but rather would have actually run along its whole south side and part of its west side. They believe it was even accessible from t he storerooms in the valley temple's southern section. The reconstruction of Menkaure's valley temple is more difficult than any other element within his pyramid complex. The west part of the limestone block base and lower part of the core of the temple's north wall were probably completed during the ruler's lifetime, while the remaining clay masonry would be attributable to his son, Shepseskaf. Just behind the portal to the temple there was a square antechamber adorned with four columns. The alabaster (cal cite) bases of these columns, pressed into the clay floor, have been preserved. On either side of this room are four storerooms. Behind the entrance antechamber, the whole middle part of the valley temple consisted of a huge open courtyard with inner walls decorated with niches (similar to the mortuary temple's courtyard). A path, paved with limestone slabs, ran from the pillared antechamber through the center of the courtyard to a low stairway, which in turn led through a portico with two rows of wooden co lumns. This terminated at an offering hall, in which an alabaster altar may have once stood. To the north of the offering hall were twelve storerooms, and to its south were five additional storerooms. This was the area where Reisner found the famous, mostl y triad statues of the ruler, along with four unfinished statuettes of Menkaure, fragments of other statues and stone vessels. Three of the statues discovered by Reisner depicted the goddess Hathor on the ruler's right side, with divinities symbolizing thr ee Upper Egyptian nomes on his left. These may have been part of a larger collection of statues for each of the provinces of Egypt, or perhaps only the nomes that provided endowments for the complex. The causeway the stretches form the Pyramid Temple to th e Valley Temple is 608m long and heads due east. Perhaps curiously, the function of the valley temple changed over time. Reisner retraced the process by which houses of the pyramid town first crowded up against the front wall of the temple, and then began to be built within it. People began living in the temple itself, particularly in the courtyard, where grain storehouses and lodgings were built. Perhaps as early as the 5th Dynasty, the temple was badly damaged by water after a particularly heavy rain tore away the temple's west side. Reisner believes that the temple was rebuilt, at least roughly, during the reign of Pepi II. 160 More recently, an Egyptian archaeologist, Selim Hassan, while excavating the nearby tomb complex of queen Khentkaues I, discovered a small brick structure with a platform, low benches and a small drainage canal, together with a basin at the northeast corner of Menkaure's valley temple. Stored there were a large number of flint blades and stone vessels. Some Egyptologists believe that th is structure was used for a "purification ten" and was only a part of a larger structure where the mummification ritual took place. Another modification of the valley temple was a brick structure built in front of the temple's west wall. It may have provid ed a widened portal, giving better access between the temple and the pyramid town. Like Menkaure's predecessors on the Giza Plateau, his mortuary temple was not built adjacent to his pyramid's east wall. The original temple obviously remained partially unc ompleted, we believe, as a result of Menkaure's sudden death. Menkaure began this mortuary temple, as had Khafra, with core blocks of limestone that were locally quarried. The heaviest of these, found at the northwest corner of the temple, is the heaviest known at Giza, weighing some 200 tons.Though we know the mortuary temple had an almost square ground plan, its appearance can only be partially reconstructed. Reisner believed that an entrance corridor led from the east terminating in an open courtyard tha t was meant to be ornamented by pillars. The inside wall of this courtyard was lined with plastered and whitewashed brickwork decorated with niches, which was probably added by his successor in order to complete the temple after Menkaure's death. There was also a small shrine built within the courtyard, that Reisner also dated to the reign of Shepseskaf. In the west part of the temple, a portico made up of two rows of pillars provided access to a long offering hall. According to Reisner, there was a false d oor in the offering hall's west wall. However, because of statuary fragments, and the fact that the temple was not immediately adjacent to the pyramid, scholars such as Maragioglio and Rinaldi rejected the idea of a false door, instead seeing a statue of t he ruler standing in its stead. They do believe that a false door existed, but that it stood on a small, pink granite platform in front of the pyramid's east wall. In Maragioglio and Rinaldi's view, it would have at first been easily accessible from the ea st wing of the pyramid's courtyard, before additional rooms were built in the area. A limestone altar and fragments, including a head, chest, lap, knees and shins of a seated statue of Menkaure, rendered in pink granite were found in the five, two story magazines that form a northwestern part of the mortuary temple. This statue was perhaps meant to be the centerpiece of this entire complex. Originally it stood at the back of a tall and narrow east - west hall at the end of the center axis of the temple, so that the king looked across the open country, through the entrance hall, and down the line of the causeway to the land of the living. The southwest part of the temple remained uncompleted.Reisner, as well as other Egyptologists, thought that the whole mort uary temple was originally meant to be constructed of pink granite. In fact, we can see that Menkaure's masons had just started bringing in a series of granite blocks on both sides of the corridor. They were cutting back the large limestone core blocks to ensure that the front faces of the granite blocks were flush. When Reisner removed the mudbrick from the casing he found bright red paint on the core blocks marking leveling lines, measurements and the names of the work gangs. However, Ricke rejected this analysis, believing that only the dado was to be made of this fine stone. Irregardless, the temple was not completed by Menkaure, but by his son, using mudbrick, evidenced by an inscription on one of the fragments of a stela that Reisner discovered. Intere stingly, there was also within the mortuary temple a small square room with a single pillar. It had a strikingly similar appearance to the antechamber carree that actually first appears in the mortuary temples of the 5th Dynasty pyramids.Some elements with in the temple may even be dated beyond the reign of Menkaure's son, including the stelae of Merenre I and Pepi I at Saqqara. Menkaure's pyramid lies at the far end of the Giza diagonal on the very edge of the Mokattam Formation, where it dips down to the s outh and disappears into the younger Maadi Formation. Just as with his father, Khafra's nearby pyramid, Menkaure's construct had to have a very well prepared rock subsurface, particularly around the northeast corner. This base is two and one half meters hi gher than his father's pyramid and and occupies a mere quarter of the area consumed by Khafra and Khufu's pyramids. It has a core of local limestone blocks, with casing made of unfinished pink granite from 161 Aswan up to a height of about fifteen meters. Furt her up, the casing was probably made of fine, Turah limestone. Because completely finished casing blocks would have probably been damaged during transport and installation, particularly at their edges, the final finishing touches were not completed until t he very end of the construction process. This also made it possible to achieve a very accurate fitting along the whole surface of the pyramid walls. There is an inscription on the granite casing of the north wall that dates from the Late period, and may be the one mentioned by Diodorus. Original access was provided to the inner chambers by an entrance on the axis of the north wall, about four meters above ground level. From there, a descending corridor, only partially lined with pink granite, sloped down at an angle of a little more than 26 degrees for 31 meters through the masonry core to the chambers below. This "lower corridor" terminates in a room with walls that were provided with niches. The purpose of this unusual room is still debated among scholars. However, the niches represent the first purely decorative element inside a pyramid since Djoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara. At the beginning of the next corridor, there is a granite barrier that is made of three blocks that were lowered after its completio n. The following corridor continues at a slight downward angle until it comes out in a relatively small, east - west oriented upper antechamber with wall that are completely undecorated. The east end of this chamber is located directly under the vertical axi s of the pyramid.Here, another passageway known as the "upper corridor" runs over the "lower corridor" through a short horizontal section before climbing in a north - south direction into the pyramid core, were it terminates. It is very likely that this doub le corridor system signals a change in the original construction plans. The "upper corridor" was probably abandoned when the floor of the antechamber was lowered. From this, Petrie believed that the original pyramid was only about half the size that it is today, though others such as Stadelmann doubt his analysis. In fact, the substructure of this pyramid underwent significant changes. Investigations of both this pyramid, and the tombs of his royal family that are closest in time (Mastabat Faraun and Khentk aues I's stepped tomb) point to the development of these subchambers in three phases, during which the original plan was enlarged.In the antechamber, Vyse unearthed the remains of an anthropoid wooden coffin with, Menkaure's name Within were human bones. M ost scholars today believe this coffin was inserted, perhaps in an effort of restoration, into the pyramid during the Saite period late in Egypt's ancient history. However, the bone fragments were even more recent as revealed by radio carbon dating, that s hows hat they probably date to the Coptic Christian period of some two thousand years ago. There is a rectangular indention in the west section of the antechamber floor, suggesting that a sarcophagus may have once been intended for this room. However, from the middle of the floor of the antechamber, another granite corridor leads downward before becoming horizontal shortly before the actual burial chamber. Just before the entrance to the burial chamber, a short flight of steps leads to an area with six smal l, deep niches, sometimes known as the "cellar", which has an undetermined function, though there is a similarity to architectural elements in the Mastabat Faraun of Shepseskaf and the stepped tomb of Queen Khentkaues I. Four of the niches are on the east side, and Ricke believed that these were to hold the four canopic vessels containing Menkaure's entrails. He believed that the two additional niches on the north side may have been graced with the crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt. However, others believe it may be a forerunner of the three chambers to the left (east) in the standardized substructures of 5th and 6th Dynasty pyramids, though it may have simply been used to store funerary equipment and supplies. Unlike the pyramids of his father and grandfather (Khufu), the rectangular burial chamber is oriented north - south. It is completely covered in pink granite, including even the gabled ceiling, which was actually hollowed out from beneath to make a round, barrel vault. The chamber lies some 15.5 meters ben eath the level of the pyramid's base so that the ceiling could be constructed of nine pairs of enormous granite blocks. This construction was carried out after the modification of the plan for the substructure, which made it both difficult and laborious to complete. It required a large descending tunnel to be built in the west part of the upper antechamber, from which visitors today may actually view the top of the vaulted burial chamber. It is very possible that both the granite burial chamber and the set of niches were built after the after the death of Menkaure on the instructions of his son and successor, Shepseskaf. 162 On the burial chamber's west wall, Vyse discovered a wonderful, dark basalt sarcophagus that was decorated with niches in the palace facade style. The sarcophagus was empty, and its lid was missing. However, fragments of the lid were discovered, which indicate that it was ornamented with a concave cornice. Ricke saw in this design certain similarities with the decorations in shrines dedicated to the god Anubis, and thought that they were an attempt to provide additional protection for the tomb by means of that divinity. Alas, we are left with only drawing of this piece of funerary equipment, for the ship, Beatrice, which was taking it from Egy pt to the British Museum leaving Leghorn sank somewhere between Malta and Spain in 1838. Fortunately, the anthropoid coffin was sent in a separate ship that reached its destination. Interestingly, in contrast to Khufu's and Khafra's pyramids, there have be en no boat pits discovered in relationship to Menkaure's pyramid, despite intensive investigation by an Egyptian archaeologist named Abdel Aziz Saleh, who obviously thought that they should exist. Already in the late 1630s, the English scholar and traveler John Greaves noted that the casing had largely been removed. The destruction of the pyramid lasted well into the 19th century, when Muhammad Ali Pasha (1805 - 1848) used some of the pink granite blocks taken from its casing to construct the arsenal in Alexa ndria.Notable on the Giza Plateau are the three much smaller subsidiary that stand in a row along the south wall of the principal pyramid. Designated G 3a - c, archaeologist attribute them to Menkaure's royal consorts. Of these, only G 3a was a true pyramid, the other two having a four step core, and some Egyptologists believe that it functioned as a cult pyramid, though it was also clearly used for a burial. All three of these pyramids were surrounded by a common perimeter wall. G 3a, the easternmost, of the se pyramids, actually had a small, east - west oriented mortuary temple of its own that was accessible from it's pyramid's courtyard. This mortuary temple was probably partially built of limestone, but was hastily finished with mudbrick. The west end of the mortuary temple was dominated by a fairly large, open courtyard that had niches built into its northern wall. On its south side was a row of wooden columns. A small cult chapel with an entrance adorned with deep, double niches to either side, lead into an offering room that included a false door. storage annexes were located in the northwest part of the temple, and in the southwest a staircase led to the roof terrace. Pyramid G 3a was the largest of the three constructs, with an entrance situated in the middle of the north wall, only a little above ground level. It has a substructure consisting of a burial chamber dug from the rock under the center of the pyramid's base, which communicates with a descending entrance corridor equipped with a barrier. This burial chamber was originally equipped with a pink granite sarcophagus, embedded in the floor next to the west wall. Unfortunately, it soon fell prey to tomb robbers. There were also fragments of ceramics and charred remains of wood and matting found in th is chamber.We really have little idea who was interred in Pyramid G 3a. Reisner thought that it might be Menkaure's principal consort, Khamerernebti II, but based on a statue of that queen found in the so - called Galarza tomb in the central part of the Giza necropolis, others believe that she was buried alongside her mother, Khamerernebti I in that tomb. In fact, it is not impossible that this pyramid was originally simply a cult pyramid that was latter transformed into a tomb. Besides being smaller, and lac king the shape of a true pyramid, G 3b also differs in other details. These include the placement of the descending corridor, which lacks a barrier. The bones of a young woman were found in the pink granite sarcophagus which stood against the west wall of the burial chamber that was located under the northwest part of the pyramid. Like G 3a, it also had a small mortuary temple, though in this case it was oriented north - south. G 3c was never completed with its casing. Like G 3b, the burial chamber was constr ucted under the northwest part of the pyramid, and was likewise not finished. Though no burial was found within this pyramid, there was clear evidence of a cult following in the small mortuary temple that stood in front of the east side of this pyramid. Al so like G 3b, this mudbrick structure was oriented north - south. Unfortunately, the owners of G 3b - c are completely lost to us and may never be known. We are relatively certain that they were consorts of Menkaure, but otherwise there no information on these royal women. 163 164 Мастаба эль - Фараун Шепсескафа 165 Shepseskaf was a son of King Menkaure who succeeded his father on the throne. Shepseskaf's name means "His Soul is Noble." He was likely the last Egyptian Pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty if he was not succeeded by a certain unknown ruler named Djedefptah as recorded in some Egyptian literature and, indirectly, by the Turin Canon. No ruler named Djedefptah is recorded in contemporary documents such as royal monuments or private tombs in the Old K ingdom cemeteries of Giza and Saqqara which date to this period. Palace officials who served in the interval between the 4th and 5th Dynasties of Egypt such as the long - lived palace courtier Netry - nesut - pu explicitly lists this sequence of Old Kingdom king s under whom he served under in his tomb: Radjedef - > Khafra - > Menkaure - > Shepseskaf, and the first three 5th Dynasty kings namely Userkaf, Sahure and Neferirkare. Finally,"No names of estates of the period compounded with royal names make mention of any other kings than these, nor do the names of...royal grandchildren, who often bore the name of a royal ancestor as a component of their own name."The Turin Canon ascribes Shepseskaf a rule of four years and his anonymous 4th Dynasty successor, presumably a reference to Djedefptah, a reign of two years. In contrast, Manetho's King List explicitly gives Shepseskaf a reign of seven years which may be a combination of the 4 + 2 (= 6) full year figures noted in the Turin Kinglist for the last two kings of the Fo urth Dynasty plus a significant monthly fraction. Manetho's King List does, however, also note the existence of the unknown and possibly fictitious ruler Djedeptah called Thampthis in his records who is ascribed a reign of nine years.Shepseskaf broke with the Fourth Dynasty tradition of constructing large pyramid tombs by chosing to construct his tomb as a great mastaba at Saqqara, now known as Mastabat Fara'un. In contrast, his three immediate predecessors built the pyramids of Giza while Sneferu, the foun der of the Fourth Dynasty, alone constructed three pyramids in his reign most notably, the Bent Pyramid and the Red Pyramid. Shepseskaf may have designed a smaller tomb for himself since he was faced with the arduous task of completing his father's pyramid at Giza while simultaneously building his own tomb, all this within his short reign. Originally encased with fine white limestone, except for a bottom course of red granite, it may have risen in two steps and certainly took the form of a ‘Buto shrine' - h aving a vaulted top between two vertical ends. Inside, a passage descending from the north passes through a corridor - chamber and a set of three portcullises before ending in the antechamber. A short passage slopes down to the burial chamber to the west, wh ich features a false vault carved into the undersides of the ceiling slabs, similar to that of Mycerinos. Here, remains were found of a stone sarcophagus that was also similar to that of Shepseskaf's predecessor, carved with niches, panelling, and a cavett o cornice. From the southeast of the antechamber another short passage leads to six niches similarly arranged to those in the tombs of Mycerinos and Khentkawes at Giza. Outside, the mastaba was surrounded by two mudbrick enclosure walls and bordered on the east by a small mortuary temple, which consisted of an offering hall and false door flanked by five magazines and preceded by a smaller inner court and a larger outer court. The long causeway, which actually bypasses the mortuary temple, led to a valley t emple that has never been excavated. 166 167 Пирамида Джедефптаха – Униса 2626ВС 168 169 170 171 172 The Pyramid of Unas at Saqqara is the smallest of the Old Kingdom Royal pyramids and considerably more famous and better known then the king who built it. This is because, for the first time that we know of, the 128 magical spells of the Pyramid Text appea r on the walls of its subterranean chambers. It was once called "Beautiful are the (cult) Places of Unas", but today it is little more then a pile of rubble that, sitting next to the famous Step Pyramid, seems hardly noticeable.Unas' pyramid did not go unn oticed by Perring and shortly afterwards, of Lepsius, who numbered it 35 on his archaeological map. But its significance was not known until after Maspero, already having found parts of the Pyramid Text in Pepi I and Merenre I's pyramids, decided to reexam ine Unas' pyramid in 1881. In 1899, at Maspero's request, Alexandre Barsanti began an investigation, that unfortunately was not all that systematic, of the pyramid that would last until 1901. He also partially excavated Unas' mortuary temple, as well as ot her nearby structures. Firth continued the excavation of the temple in 1929, but he regrettably died in 1931. His work was taken up by Lauer from 1936 until 1939, and then by Hassain, Goneim and Hussan, all Egyptian archaeologists. They continued to excava te the site until 1949. In the 1970s, Ahmad Musa, another Egyptian, excavated the lower half of the causeway and the valley temple. The causeway is not straight, making two turns in order to probably avoid uneven ground or even other buildings. In fact, ma terial from older buildings was used in the causeway's underpaving. In the 1970s the Egyptian archaeologist, Mousa, reconstructed the "tomb of the two brothers", Niankhkhnum and Khnumhotep", which is now a popular tourist stop, mostly from blocks found in Unas' causeway. Polychrome bas - relief scenes adorn the walls of the causeway. They show men hunting for lions, leopards and giraffes, boats transporting granite palm columns from Aswan, battles with Asian enemies, the transport of prisoners, and of course, the well known scene of starving natives. However, the meaning of this last scene is, if anything, less clear today then ever. It was originally believed that the scenes record the decline of this period, but new theories counter this assumption. Just sou th of the upper part of the causeway were two forty - five foot white limestone structures that at one time probably held long, slender wooden boats. Passing through the pink granite gateway that bears the name and title of Teti, one first enters the alabast er paved entrance hall. Here, one finds relief scenes depicting offering goods being delivered. After the entrance hall is the open courtyard. The ambulatory was supported by eighteen pink granite columns shaped as palms. These columns are no longer here, but some have survived by being reused in the Delta at modern Tanis, and in the Louvre and British Museums. Many of the reliefs are also gone, at least one showing up in Amenemhat I's pyramid complex in Lisht. To either side of the entrance hall and courty ard are storage annexes, where in the Late Period, large shaft tombs were also dug.From here, several entrances led past the small cult pyramid and into the inner temple and a five niche chapel, though nothing remains of this. Also destroyed is the antecha mber which led into the offering hall. But aside from a pink granite false door, little else remains of the offering hall. On the false door, a block of which is also in the Egyptian Antiquities Museum in Cairo, are inscriptions referring to the tutelary d ivinities protecting the residents of Nekhen and Buto. Around the offering hall are more storage annexes. Unas had a long reign, perhaps as long as thirty years. Therefore, he had time to build a larger pyramid, but we believe that it was probably a time o f decreasing wealth, so he limited the size of this building project. Around the whole pyramid, and a smaller cult pyramid, there was once a massive stone wall that was at least seven meters high. The core of the pyramid consists of six layers, with rough blocks of local limestone decreasing in size as the builders reached the top layer. The casing was of fine, white limestone, some of which remains on the very lowest levels. The plan of the substructure, as well as Unas' mortuary temple, is very similar to the Djedkare complex, with the original entrance under the north chapel.The north chapel is now all but gone. It is a single room, and on its south wall next to the pyramid itself, there was an altar shaped in the hieroglyphic sign for a hetep (offering t able). Behind the altar was a stela.Inside, there are corridors leading to an antechamber and burial chamber, both of which originally had gabled ceilings. Corridors, the antechamber and burial chamber all painted on their ceilings yellow stars on a blue b ackground. In both of the chambers, the Pyramid Text was written in bas - relief painted in a blue green on all but the west wall of the burial chamber. This color signifies the morning and the belief in rebirth. The west wall of the burial chamber was coate d with a layer of alabaster that was painted white, black, yellow, blue and red, the five colors of the royal palace facade. 173 Djedefptah Thamphthis is the Greek name of an ancient Egyptian ruler (pharaoh) of the 4th dynasty in the Old Kingdom, who may have ruled around 2600 BC for between two to nine years. His original Egyptian name is lost, but it may have been Djedefptah or Ptahdjedef ("he endures like Ptah") after William C. Hayes. Thamphthis is one of the shadowy rulers of the Old Kingdom, since he is completely unattested in contemporary sources. For this reason, his historical figure is discussed intensely by historians and egyptologists. Since Thamphthis' name was found in the historical works of Manetho, the Aegyptiacae, egyptologists are tryi ng to connect this ruler with contemporary kings to build up a continuous chronology, which resulted in controversies and debates.Wolfgang Helck points out that Khentkaus I could have been the mother of Thamphthis, so Thamphthis would have been the son of king Shepseskaf. As a possible wife of Thamphthis he proposes a princess named Bunefer, who may have been the daughter of Shepseskaf. She was a priestess of Shepseskaf.In the Manethonian tradition of the historian Sextus Julius Africanus, who transla ted Manetho, Thamphthis is described as the last ruler of the 4th dynasty with a reign of nine years.A further source for the chronology of rulers of the Old Kingdom is the Royal Canon of Turin, composed during the 19th dynasty around 1300 BC. It names kin gs which are missed in many other kinglists. But the Turin Canon is damaged at several spots, so many royal names are fragmentary or completely lost in lacunae today. For this reason it cannot be excluded that Thamphthis' name was originally present in thi s document too, since the Aegyptiacae of Manetho are mostly consistent with the Turin Canon. In column III, line 12 king Khafra is mentioned, after him, in line 13, a lacunae appears. After king Shepseskaf, mentioned in line 15, a second lacunae appears. W hilst line 13 can be assigned to a king Baufra, the missing line 16 could have originally held Thamphthis' name. These lacunae cover two years during which a king could have reigned.The Royal kinglist of Saqqara from the tomb of Tjuneroy (19th dynasty) lists nine kings for the 4th dynasty, whilst the Abydos King List gives only six names. Curiously the Saqqara - Table has after Shepseskaf two cartouches before Userkaf, but both are heavily damaged, so the original names are no longer legible. Whilst one o f these two cartouches once may have held Thamphthis' name, the other cartouche remains a mystery.A rock inscription in the Wadi Hammamat made in the Middle Kingdom presents a list of the cartouche - names of Khufu, Djedefre, Baufra and prince Djedefhor (also recorded as Hordjedef). Curiously Djedefhor's name is written in a cartouche, too. This leads to the possibility that he could have been a king for a very short while himself. If this was true, this fact would close the chronological gaps. But contem porary sources don't show Djedefhor and Baufra as kings; they give to these two only the titles of princes and call them both "son of the king". 174 175 Пирамида Усеркафа 2624ВС 176 The pyramid lying immediately to the north - east of Djoser's Step Pyramid complex at Saqqara, belongs to Userkaf who was the traditional founder of 5th Dynasty. Today his mortuary monument is known as the 'Ruined Pyramid' (el - haram el - makherbish) because of its poor condition - attributed to the removal of the limestone casing in antiquity. The most interesting remains here are the mortuary temple ruins, situated on the south side of the pyramid. Userkaf's pyramid was first entered by Perring, through a robb ers' tunnel in 1839, but it was not known at the time who the structure belonged to. The pyramid was later excavated by Cecil Firth in 1928, who discovered the owner's name, then in the 1950s Jean - Philippe Lauer continued investigations. The entrance to th e robbers' tunnel was completely buried by rubble during an earthquake in 1991. The pyramid's original entrance was from a pavement in the court in front of the north face and led to a descending passage running south towards a T - shaped magazine or storero om, an antechamber and the burial chamber. These rooms were blocked off at the bottom of the passage by a large portcullis of pink granite. The antechamber lies directly under the centre of the pyramid and was lined with white limestone, as was the burial chamber which is about twice the length of the former room. Both chambers have a gabled ceiling of enormous white limestone slabs. Archaeologists found remains of a black basalt sarcophagus, empty and undecorated, set into the floor of the burial chamber. In a departure from tradition the mortuary temple was situated on the south side of the pyramid - these structures had previously been found on the north or east side of earlier pyramids. Archaeologists suggest several reasons for this departure. It may ha ve been due to the ground on the east being too uneven for building, or perhaps because of a huge trench around Djoser's pyramid enclosure or even for ideological reasons such as the flourishing of the Heliopolitan sun cult. 'Solar' temples began to be int roduced around this time. The whole plan of the temple seems to have been untraditional. The usual elements face south, away from, rather than towards the pyramid and the small offering chapel with its false door on the east side of the pyramid (now ruined ) is entirely separate from the rest of the temple. The mortuary temple remains are today badly damaged, having been robbed for stone, but also because of the position of a large Saite shaft tomb which was built within the structure. A valley temple and ca useway (still unexcavated) led to the south - east corner of the pyramid complex and into an area of storage chambers, a vestibule, an L - shaped entrance hall and a colonnaded court. The surviving remains suggest that there was a staircase leading to a roof t errace near the entrance. The court contained pink granite pillars on three sides with hieroglyphic inscriptions of Userkaf's names and titles and the floor was paved with basalt. Remains of the paving can still be seen. Around the sides of the court a bas alt dado was beautifully decorated with naturalistic scenes, including birds in a papyrus thicket (in Cairo Museum) and an orchard scene with birds caught in a net. There were also fragments of scenes of a boat with its crew and names of Upper and Lower Eg yptian estates. The head of one of the oldest royal colossal statues - Userkaf wearing a memes headdress with uraeus, was found here in the debris of the court and is now on display in the Cairo Museum. The inner parts of the mortuary temple consisted of a hall with eight pink granite columns and a chapel with niches for cult statues of the King. On the south - west corner of the complex and within the original enclosure wall, stood a small satellite pyramid, 21m square, with a subterranean chamber entered fr om the northern side. Only the lower two levels of the core remain today. Another small pyramid with its own decorated mortuary temple is situated outside the south enclosure wall and is thought to belong to an unnamed queen. Its underground chambers were a smaller version of those in the King's pyramid, but without the magazine. There are still many questions surrounding the location of Userkaf's pyramid, and the whole history of the beginning of 5th Dynasty, which perhaps one day could be answered by furt her excavations at Saqqara, an area which is revealing more information every year. 177 178 Пирамида Сахура 2267ВС 179 База пирамида равна 78,75 метров и имеет высоту 47 м , угол наклона граней 50 ° 11 ' . При измерении площади была отмечена строительная погрешность : юго - восточный угол на 1,58 м находится дальше на восток, что привело к искажению обычной квадратной базы пирамиды . В основе смещение находится на вос т очной стороне пирамиды и скрыто соседним храмом. Miroslav Verner: : Die Pyramide des Sahure По восточной стороне пирамиды закладывается первоначальная ориентация. В данном случае речь идет о реконструкции пирамиды во времена Пепи II ,что подтверждается углеродным анализом. 180 All of the pyramid complexes at Abusir are ruined, as much by stone thieves as from the ravages of time. Sahure's complex, which he called "Sahure's soul shines", was probably the first pyramid built on the pyrami d field at Abusir, and is significant both because of its construction materials and the kind of decorative reliefs used within the complex. It was famous for its art in antiquity, and we today recognize the complex as another milestone of ancient Egyptian tomb architecture.Specifically, the pyramid is smaller than previous ones, using a reduced volume of material for its construction in comparison with 4th Dynasty examples, though this was compensated for by better quality and more diverse types of stone. There was also a striking change in the layout of the mortuary temple and at the same time, the relief decorations of the mortuary and valley temples and the causeway are so rich in subject matter, artistic conception and the quality of workmanship that is represents the highest level of the genre that has yet been discovered from the Old Kingdom. Originally, there may have been some 10,000 square meters of such reliefs in these architectural elements, so it is no wonder that Sahure's pyramids complex, incl uding its architectural plan and scheme of relief decorations, became the conceptual starting point for the designers of later royal tombs of the 5th and 6th Dynasties.The early Egyptologist, Perring, first investigated the pyramid, and shortly after him, Lepsius also examined the structure, but perhaps because the pyramid looked so ruined, little attention was given to its excavation. Later, de Morgan reopened the entry corridor, but he too showed a lack of interest in further explorations. Then, in the 20 th century, Ludwig Borchardt finally recognized the pyramid's significance. He wrote a two - volume study, Das Grabdenkmal des Konigs Sahure ("The Funerary Monument of the King Sahure") that created a real interest within the Egyptology community. For many y ears, his work on the pyramid seemed complete, even though the pyramid was the subject of further studies.But in 1994 when it was decided to open the Abusir pyramid field to tourists, new discoveries were made. Several of the monuments at Abusir, and parti cularly the pyramids complex of Sahure, were the subjects of restoration efforts. During this process, several huge blocks in the upper part of Sahure's causeway were discovered to be decorated with iconographically and artistically unique reliefs. They cr eated a new understanding of the decorative program within the complex. Surrounding Elements: Sahure's valley temple has two landing ramps, one giving access from the east and one from the south. As a rule, there would only be one, an eastern landing ramp, allowing access from the Nile by way of an artificial channel. However, the reason for this has not been established.The valley temple has a long axis oriented north - south with a southern and eastern ramp. Eight pink granite columns adorned the temples ea stern entrance, while the temple's south portico only had four such columns. The valley temple had a basalt floor, decorated walls and an astronomical ceiling. Both entrances lead to a central room within the temple with walls that are also decorated with polychrome reliefs. The predominant theme here is of the king in the likeness of a sphinx trading over a series of captive and bound enemies of Egypt. The central room in turn leads to the causeway that then leads to the mortuary temple. The room also had a stairway to a roof terrace.Little remains of the causeway except for the large, rough limestone blocks of its base ramp. The corridor was originally roofed and had walls decorated in polychrome base relieve and a ceiling with small openings for illuminat ion. The causeway connected the pyramid and mortuary temple to a valley temple that today is much ruined.In 1994, Zahi Hawass decided to clean and reconstruct parts of Sahure's causeway, but in doing so he encountered a few surprises. While cleaning the up per part of the causeway, huge limestone blocks were unearthed that contained iconographically and artistically unique reliefs. Among others, some of the reliefs depict the bringing of the gilded capstone for Sahure's pyramid, the celebrations and performa nces accompanying the completion of the pyramid, and perhaps most importantly, a group of impoverished Bedouins that hunger has caused to be only skin and bones. The scene depicting emaciated Bedouins is mirrored in what was once considered unique images in the Causeway of Unas's Pyramid. Until recently, that scene was considered proof of the decline of the standard of living among oasis dwellers in the Western Desert, resulting from the end of the wet phase of the Sahara and the beginning of an arid, hot climate in the middle of the third millennium BC. However, some now believe, based on the broader context of other scenes from Sahure's causeway, that the impoverished Bedouins may have been brought into the pyramid town to demonstrate the hardship and dan gers the pyramid builders had to contend with in brining better quality stone from the remote, wild and inaccessible mountains.The mortuary temple, as is common, lies on the east side of the pyramid on a foundation of two layers of rough limestone blocks. It is divided into an inner section and outer section by a central corridor. This corridor divided the complex into public and private sections, but also served as a 181 central lane connecting the pyramid courtyard and the small cult pyramid. The corridor was paved in basalt, and its limestone walls have scenes of sea battles and expeditions to Asia, though only fragments remain. A stairway at the northern end led to a roof terrace.In the outer part of the temple one finds the entrance hall and the open, colum ned courtyard. The entrance hall, built of fine quality limestone had an excellent decorative program. In these ruins, a pink granite dado were found.The open courtyard contained 16 monolithic pink granite columns, each of which was shaped like the trunk a nd crown of a palm tree, atop a floor of irregular black basalt slabs. To the ancient Egyptians, these symbolized fertility and eternal life, and some Egyptologists believe that the open courtyard represented the sacred palm grove in Buto, Egypt's ancient "national cemetery". The columns were decorated with the names and title of Sahure, along with the goddess Nekhbet in the southern part of the courtyard, and the cobra goddess Wadjet in the northern half. At one time the columns supported an architrave bea ring the royal titles, and on it rested limestone ceiling slabs decorated with stars. On the courtyard walls we find the scenes, though very fragmented, of Sahure's victory of the Asians and Libyans, along with the spoils of those battles. In the northwest corner of the courtyard once stood an alabaster altar with scenes depicting the symbols of Egyptian unification (between northern and southern Egypt), along with scenes of offerings made to Sahure. Between the columns there may have originally stood statu es of the pharaoh. A corridor encircles the courtyard, and on its walls are scenes of Sahure fishing and hunting birds and other desert game. There is also a significant scene of the royal entourage and under the depiction of Neferirkare, we find text that was added, stating, "Neferirkare, King of Upper and Lower Egypt". This is one reason many Egyptologists feel that Neferirkare rather then Shepseskare Ini succeeded Sahure.This courtyard served more then the cult of Sahure. A thousand years later, it also served the cult of Sekhmet, probably because of a fine relief sculpture of the lion goddess. Her consort was Ptah, and together they were the principle gods of nearby Memphis. Later still, the early Christians in Egypt also founded a church in this courtya rd.The entrance to the inner section of the tomb is a stairway located in the middle of the west wall of the central, dividing corridor. The stairway passes between two six - stalk papyrus pillars that are set into deep niches. They supported an architrave, part of which has been found in an oil press at St. Jeremiah monastery in Saqqara.The stairs lead to an important section of the temple, a chapel with five niches. The statues that once stood in the niches are all probably destroyed. The walls of this chap el were covered in decorated limestone, with the exception of the niches in the west wall and the dado. The niches and dado are covered in pink granite. The limestone ceiling was decorated with an astronomical theme and the floor was made of alabaster.A pa th from the rear of the chapel, which only the funerary priests could use, leads to the Offering Hall. This was probably the most important room in the temple to the King's cult. This room too has an alabaster floor with an astronomical ceiling decorated w ith stars. Here, the walls are decorated with scenes depicting divinities carrying offerings for the dead king. This room sits adjacent to the East wall of the pyramid and there is an enormous, granite false door on the rooms west wall. The door should hav e had inscriptions of magical spells, and the names and titles of Sahure, but it does not. This has led some Egyptologists to believe that it was once covered in either copper or gold that was inscribed with this information. The ancient Egyptians believed that the spirit of the dead king would come here through the false door for his meals. Food offerings stood ready for him on a stone alter. Annexes adjoin the Offering Hall and were probably used for storage and other functions connected to the hall. Some of these rooms were plumbed with copper pipe, with drainage to a central canal paved over with limestone. In fact, there was some 180 meters of pipe running through the temple. Another section of the annex was designated as a treasure chamber, where ritua l objects used by the cult priests were stored. Parts of the southern section of annexes include two storied storage chambers.The southern end of the central corridor also leads to the main pyramid courtyard, the smaller cult pyramid, and to a portico with two pink, granite columns that then led to a necropolis. The necropolis is most likely where Sahure's close relatives are buried, though it has not been investigated.The enclosed, cult pyramid, though small in comparison to the main pyramid, nevertheless has two steps and an inner chamber, though nothing was found inside. Though the cult pyramid was greatly damaged by stone thieves, we can tell that the entrance corridor first descended before rising into the inner chamber. The Pyramid: Due to the pyramids complex's ruined condition, exact specifications and the pyramids appearance is impossible to determine. The pyramid is probably founded upon a platform made of at least two layers of limestone 182 blocks, but this assumption relies on the study of other reli cs in the area, as the foundation has never been investigated. The core was built of horizontal layers of rough limestone blocks and it originally had six core layers. The casing was of fine, white limestone from the quarries near modern Maasara. It is int eresting to note that a design flaw within the pyramid's architecture resulted in the southeast corner being 1.58 meters too far to the east. Therefore, the pyramid is not completely square. The entrance to the pyramid is on the north face just above ground level. At first there is a short, descending corridor that leads to a small vestibule. Behind the vestibule is a pink granite portcullis, after which the next corridor has a gradual incline, becoming level near the antechamber. The antechamber and burial chamber are so ruined that their exact plan cannot be determined, though the antechamber lies directly beneath the pyramid's vertical axis. 183 Пирамида Нефериркара 2604ВС 184 The 5th Dynasty pyramid of Neferirkare is the second pyramid at the southern end of Abusir, slightly to the north - east of Neferefre's unfinished monument. Now the most imposing and the tallest structure at Abusir with an estimated intended height of about 70m (it is even now about 45m) and a base of about 105m each side, the pyramid wa s built on Abusir's highest point. The monument's ancient name was 'Pyramid of the Ba of Neferirkare' and it was also unfinished during the king's lifetime. We are not certain of the length of Neferirkare's reign and figures between 14 and 24 years have be en suggested - he was possibly quite old when he came to the throne. Neither is it known why he succeeded Sahure rather than Sahure's own son, though it is suggested by some Egyptologists that the two kings could have been brothers. His pyramid complex may have been completed by his successors but we know that part of the causeway and the valley temple were usurped by Nyuserre. Neferirkare's pyramid, seen across the mortuary temple of Khentkaus II. The second pyramid at the southern end of Abusir, slightly to the north - east of Neferefre's unfinished monument There is evidence to suggest that Neferirkare's pyramid was planned as a step pyramid and today four of the original six steps remain. At some point there was a change in design and the steps were filled with loose masonry and then converted to become a 'true' pyramid, enlarged and provided with a casing of red granite. The pyramid's entrance is in the centre of its northern side and a straight descending passage then took two turns before arriving at the vaulted antechamber and a burial chamber. The substructure was very badly damaged by stone robbers and no trace of a sarcophagus or burial equipment has been found. A mortuary temple for the king, on the eastern side of the pyramid seems to have been hast ily finished, and like that of Neferefre, the original stone offering hall and chapels or statue niches were enlarged and completed in mudbrick. The entrance to the mortuary temple led through a vestibule with six pairs of columns to a large central portic oed courtyard which in turn led to the inner areas and magazines. In 1893 portions of rare 5th Dynasty hieratic papyri texts began to appear on the antiquities market and Ludwig Borchardt subsequently tracked down a few stray texts found by local villagers at Abusir. During excavations of Neferirkare's mortuary complex, it was discovered that the temple archive, dating mainly to the reign of Djedkare - Isesi, had been stored in administrative buildings here. The collection is known as the 'Abusir Papyri' and describes the cult administration, inventories, accounts and records of building work, as well as priestly duties and daily offerings. The archive represents a great deal of important knowledge about the economic history of the Old Kingdom pyramid cults. I t was from this record that the pyramid complex of Neferefre, Neferirkare's eldest son, was discovered, as well as details describing six sun - temples at Abu Ghurob. Neferirkare's own sun temple had been completed within his lifetime and seems to have been the largest of these structures to the north of Abusir, but so far has not been found. When Neferirkare died his causeway and valley temple had not been completed and they were usurped by Nyuserre later in 5th Dynasty, who incorporated them into his own bu rial complex. Neferirkare was the first ruler to write his name in a double cartouche, one with his prenomen Kakai, and the other with a 'sa - Re' ('son of Re') name, Neferirkare, a custom which was then followed by all Egyptian kings. Close to the south of Neferirkare's pyramid, the king constructed a small pyramid for his consort Khentkawes. The Queen's monument was not excavated at the time Ludwig Borchardt first investigated the pyramid of Neferirkare, and was dismissed as a mastaba until the Czech expedi tion took a closer look in the mid 1970s and discovered the small pyramid was more complicated than it looked. The pyramid's remains today are only about 4m high after much damage by stone robbers, and the construction of the three level core and the subte rranean chambers was of a simple design, with a descending passage leading from the north wall to a burial chamber. A fragment of a red granite sarcophagus and fragments of mummy wrappings were found in the burial chamber, confirming the evidence of the Qu een's burial. Construction of the Queen's pyramid was halted, possibly at Neferirkare's death, and was resumed in Year 10 of an un - named king according to a 185 block from the pyramid, and she is then named as 'King's Mother Khentkawes'. It would appear that t he pyramid was completed by her son (Neferefre or Nyuserre?). The owner had been named as 'King's Wife Khentkawes' on a graffito found by Perring, and the Czech team confirmed the name of Khentkawes (II) and her titles, which were inscribed on a pillar in her mortuary temple. There was also a relief in the courtyard depicting the Queen seated on a throne, holding a papyrus sceptre and wearing a uraeus - a symbol of kingship at that time. The mortuary temple built on the east side of her pyramid has been fou nd to be quite extensive, although badly damaged. Constructed in two stages, the inner parts were of limestone, with an altar, a granite false door and magazines. The additions to the mortuary temple were built of mudbrick and included the first example of a cult pyramids in an Old Kingdom queen's complex, which also had its own enclosure wall, emphasising the lady's importance. Khentkawes' name and titles are the same as a Queen Khentkawes (I), daughter of Menkaure, who owns a large mastaba at Giza and it was originally thought that the two monuments belonged to the same queen - both of whom are depicted wearing the royal uraeus. Egyptologists now suggest that the two ladies may have been related, but must have been separated by one or two generations. They both seemed to have played an important role as a regent to a young king. In the mortuary temple of Khentkawes another collection of papyrus was found, similar to those from Neferirkare and Neferefre's temples (the Abusir Papyri), providing more details o f the function of the mortuary cult. 186 Солнечный храм Ниусерра 2456ВС 187 188 http://www.anse - egypt.com/articles/Nuzzolo - SAK36_2007.pdf http://www.anse - egypt.com/articles/Nuzzolo_sun - temples.pdf 189 Пирамида Пепи II 2279ВС Pepi II's pyramid complex (originally known as Pepi's Life is Enduring) is located in Saqqara, close to many other Old Kingdom pharaohs. His pyramid is a modest affair compared to the great pyramid builders of the Fourth Dynasty, but was comparable to earlier pharaohs from his own dynasty. It was originally 78.5 metres high, but erosion and relatively poor construction has reduced it 52 metres. The pyramid was the center of a sizable funerary complex, complete with a separate mortuary complex, a small, eastern satellite pyramid. This was flanked by two of his wives' pyramids to the north and north - west (Neith and Iput II respectively), and one to the south - east (Udjebten), each with their own mortuary complexes. Perhaps reflecting the decline at the end of his rule, the fourth wife, Ankhenespepy IV was not given her own pyramid but was instea d buried in a store room of the Iput's mortuary chapel. Similarly, Prince Ptahshepses, who likely died near the end of Pepi II's reign, was buried in the funerary complex of a previous pharaoh, Unas, within a "recycled" sarcophagus dating to the 4th Dynast y. The ceiling of the burial chamber is decorated with stars, and the walls are lined with passages from the Pyramid texts. An empty black sarcophagus bearing the names and titles of Pepi II was discovered inside. Following in the tradition of the final ph araoh of the Fifth Dynasty, Unas and of his more immediate predecessors Teti, Pepi I and Merenre, the interior of Pepi II's pyramid is decorated with what has become known as the pyramid texts, magical spells designed to protect the dead. Well over 800 ind ividual texts (known as "utterances") are known to exist, and Pepi II's contains 675 such utterances, the most in any one place. It is thought that this pyramid complex was completed no later than the thirtieth year of Pepi II's reign. No notable funerary constructions of note happened again for at least 30, and possibly as long as 60 years, due indirectly to the king's incredibly long reign. This meant there was a significant generational break for the trained stonecutters, masons, and engineers who had no major state project to work on and to pass along their practical skills. This may 190 help explain why no major pyramid projects were undertaken by the subsequent regional kings of Herakleopolis during the First Intermediate Period. The complex was first inve stigated by John Shae Perring, but it was Gaston Maspero who entered it first in 1881. Gustav Jéquier investigated in detail between 1926 and 1936. Jéquier was the first excavator to start actually finding any remains from the tomb reliefs, and he was the first to publish a thorough excavation report on the complex. Only two statues identified as representing Pepi II exist, even though he was the longest reigning monarch of Ancient Egypt. Even more curious, both of these portraits depict Pepi II as a young child. The first of these, in the Brooklyn Museum, depicts Queen Ankhenesmerire II balancing the youthful Pepi II on her lap, with Pepi II wearing the royal nemes headdress signifying kingship. The second, a small statue in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo shows Pepi II as a naked child, squatting on the child with his legs apart with his right hand (now missing) touching his mouth (a symbolic gesture of childhood for the god Horus). No other statues of Pepi II are known, though portraits of him as a grown m an appear as relief carvings on his funerary complex. 191 Пирамида Шепсескафа - Аменемхета III 2633 ВС 192 Amenemhat III attempted to build his first pyramid at Dahshur, but it turned out to be a disaster. Even with the near by Bent Pyramid as a reminder, Amenemhat III's architects built the pyramid on unstable subsoil. The Bent Pyramid is built upon compacted gravel, while Amenemhat III's is built on hard clay. The builder's compounded this mistake by building the pyramid in one of the lowest loc ations of any pyramid in Egypt. It lies only 33 feet above sea level. Further problems arose from the shear number of corridors and chambers within the substructure, and the reliance that the builders placed on their ceilings which had no real stress relie ving devices above the king's burial chamber. Early on ground water from the nearby Nile Valley seeped into the pyramid's substructure causing structural damage, causing menacing cracks to appear in the corridor and chamber walls soon after the pyramid was completed. Even before the limestone was applied to the queen chambers, the weight of the pyramid was pushing down on the ceiling with such force that the walls sank in places up to three cn (two inches) into the pavements. 193 Today the pyramid named "Amenem hat is Mighty" is a sad dark ruin on the Dahshur field, aptly sometimes called the Black Pyramid. Even though it took 15 years to build, rather then being buried in this pyramid, Amenemhat III chose to build a second pyramid at Hawara, closer to his belove d Fayoum.The pyramid was first written about by Perring, who apparently lacked the time to explore the ruins at all. His campsite had been attacked by Bedouins, and it would seem that Perring lost his interest in Dahshur. The Lepsius expedition seems to ha ve noticed it in 1843, but that was all, until around the early 1900s. It was de Morgan, assisted by George Legrain and Jequier who finally carried out extensive excavations. Yet at that time, excavations methods remained crude, and many questions about th e pyramid remained to be answered. In fact, their investigation was never completed. Finally, between 1976 and 1983, a team from the German Archaeological Institute of Cairo lead by Arnold, carried out a modern, extensive examination.The valley temple for this complex is badly damaged but it is one of the first 12 Dynasty valley temples to have been located and partially cleared. It was very simple, with two broad open courts built on ascending terraces. Interestingly, the side walls of the first court were thickened to form a pylon like gateway. Within these ruins was found a limestone model of the subterranean corridors and chambers of a 13th Dynasty pyramid that has not yet been discovered. However, some Egyptologists believe that this model, though varyi ng somewhat, was actually of Amenemhat III's pyramid at Hawara.Originally a broad, open causeway built between two brick walls first led to the valley temple and then continued, connected the valley temple to Amenemhat III's mortuary temples and pyramids c omplex. North of the causeway was a mudbrick settlement for the priests. The mortuary temple connected to the pyramid was relatively small and simple, consisting of an entrance, an open courtyard with eighteen granite columns in the shape of eight stemmed papyrus plants. However, it was badly damaged and the layout is really a guess. Behind the courtyard we believe was a long, offering hall. Two plastered, whitewashed mudbrick enclosure walls surrounded the pyramid, with the inner wall dividing the outer op en courtyard of the mortuary temple from the inner sanctuary. This inner wall was also decorated with niches, while the outer wall did not. It is uncertain whether there was a north chapel.One must wonder about the architects of this pyramid, and their lev el of expertise. The pyramid core was built of mudbrick, just as earlier 12th Dynasty pyramids. However, it liked the stone wings and framework of the earlier pyramids. The builders attempted to strengthen the structure by building the core in step form. T he outer mantle was made of five meter this blocks of fine white limestone held together with a system of wooden dovetail joining pegs. Near the top of the pyramid, the wall's angle of inclination decreased. The pyramid was capped off with a beautiful dark gray granite pyramidion, discovered in the rubble in 1990, that was originally 1.3 meters tall. All four sides of the pyramidion bore inscriptions and religious symbols. The underside was beveled to fit into the casing block below.However, there are quest ions about the pyramidion. One inscription containing the name of Amun was destroyed, presumably on purpose during the reign of Akhenaten, The pyramidion must have already fallen off by that time, or it was never placed on the pyramid apex. It may have eve n been a symbolic pyramid on the complex grounds.For the first time, we see a single pyramid built to accept the remains of both a king and several of his queens. Therefore, the substructure is rather complex, and differs entirely from earlier 12th Dynasty pyramids. In fact, even given the number of expected burials, it was more complex then the underground layout of earlier pyramids. The subterranean area is divided into two parts, one of which was for the king and the other for two of his consorts. The tw o sections are connected by a corridor. Near the southeast corner on the east side of the pyramid, at the lowest foundation layer, is located the entrance to the king's tomb. Most of the king's section of the pyramid lies under the eastern quadrant of the pyramid. From the entrance, a stairway, for the first time since the 3rd Dynasty, led down to an a chamber with a niche high in the wall for the king's canopic chest. This to a short stairway that in turn leads to an entrance corridor and an entire system of passageways, shafts, barriers and chambers at various levels, all of it covered in fine white limestone. In fact, there are more underground chambers and passages than any other pyramids since the 3rd Dynasty.This entrance corridor runs for about twenty meters before turning to the north. However, prior to arriving at this first turn, a corridor leads off to the south from the entrance corridor that eventually arrives at the queen's section of the pyramid. At the end of the original entrance corridor a r ight turn is made leading to a short corridor. A second corridor to the queen's chambers leads west off this short passage. The short passage then led to another right 90 degree passage heading back in the direction of the pyramid's entrance.Following the corridor we find another left 90 degree turn leading 194 past a set of annexes before a final left 90 degree turn finally takes us to a small antechamber and then the burial chamber. The burial chamber is somewhat offset from the vertical axis of the pyramid, but was probably suppose to be directly under it. Apparently the builders lacked the knowledge that others before them had demonstrated. The burial chamber is also sheathed in fine white limestone, and oriented east - west. Though Amenemhat III was not burie d in this pyramid, there was a pink granite sarcophagus within the burial chamber near the west wall. The sarcophagus had a vaulted top and niches that imitated the perimeter wall of Djoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara. Near the north end of the east side of the sarcophagus was a set of eyes for the occupant to lookout in the direction of the sunrise and resurrection.There were two means of getting from the king's section of the pyramid to the queens section, the direct route from the short, second corridor an d the more complex corridor leading south off of the entrance corridor. While the first connecting corridor leads almost directly to the queen's burial chamber, the second passage, sometimes called the "South Tomb", contains a labyrinth of passageways and six chapels, including a ka chapel. Apparently this part of the substructure also imitates a section of Djoser's pyramids complex. Lehner believes this section of the tomb acted as a counterpart to the king's burial suite, acting somewhat like an internali zed cult pyramid. The queen's section mostly lies under the southern quadrant of the pyramid. There was a second outside entrance to the queens chambers lying opposite that of the king's entrance, only on the west side of the pyramid. Here, there was also a descending stairway leading to a chamber with a niche above the doorway for the canopic chest of Queen Aat. A corridor out of this chamber that first passes a short corridor on the left leading to the burial chamber of Queen Aat, who was about 35 when sh e died It then continues past a second northern corridor that leads to the burial chamber of the second queen, who may have been Neferuptah. This queen was probably around 25. The bones of both queens were found within their chambers. On the west wall of e ach burial chamber were sarcophaguses that were very similar to that of the king's. However, the sarcophagus of the second queen lacked the niches found on Amenemhat III's sarcophagus.Though thieves had long ago broken into this pyramid, a few items of fun erary equipment were found in the queen's chambers. Within Aat's chambers there were two mace heads discovered along with seven alabaster cases in the form of ducks, an alabaster unguent jar and scattered pieces of jewelry. Thought the canopic chest was br oken, all the pieces were found and it contained one canopic jar. In the second queen's chambers were found an obsidian vassals decorated with gold bands, three alabaster duck shaped vessels, granite and alabaster mace heads and jewelry. There wee also par ts of this queen's stone shrine, originally encased in gold and containing a ka statue.Along with the bones of the two queens, four additional burials were discovered within the pyramid. Because the name of Amenemhat IV appears on the valley temple, some b elieve that two of these burials may have been that king and the last regent of the 12 Dynasty, Queen Sobekneferu. If so, the pyramid was most likely reopened after having been previously sealed. Amenemhat IV and Queen Sobekneferu may have begun pyramids a t Mazghuna, but these were far from completed and it would appear that no burials took place. The pyramid was presumable sealed in year 20 of Amenemhat II's reign. This took the form of not only filling the entrance stairways with limestone blocks, but als o the king's chamber and antechambers, the queens' burial chambers and the entrance corridors to the ka chapels. Other chambers and corridors were filled with mudbrick. This may have been a precaution against the pyramid's collapse, but chambers in Amenemh at III's pyramid at Hawara were similarly filled.Outside the pyramid, between the first and second enclosure walls on the north is a row of ten shaft tombs for the remainder of the royal family. We know that the second tomb from the east belongs to the kin g's daughter, Princess Nubheteptikhered. The first tomb on the east was usurped by King Auibre Hor, an insignificant ruler of the 13th Dynasty. The wooden statue of his Ka found within this tomb is one of the most valuable objects in the Egyptian Antiquiti es Museum. King Hor's mummy was found within a wooden coffin discovered in the tomb, along with some items of funerary equipment. This included a wooden canopic chest that bore the name of Nimaatre, a name for Amenemhat III. However, the view these days am ong Egyptologists seems to be that the name refers to a Khendjer, a successor of Hor's. Khendjer later took the name Userkare. There seems to be considerable confusion around this particular burial among archaeologists.The remnants of the monument are loca ted one mile south of the pyramid of Amenemhat III. Several tombs of princesses, the queen and the vizier were found west of the site. Beautiful jewels were found in the tombs of princesses. 195 196 The Black Pyramid of Amenemhat III (Dahshur), with all its wide passageways, had multiple structural deficits. The pyramid was built in one of the lowest regions of Egypt, only 10 meters above sea level . There are myriad corridors and chambers underground, and there are not enough stress relievers to hold up the ceilings. The pyramid is not very sturdy, as it was built with mud brick instead of the traditional stone. The low elevation, corridors, and unstable building material allowed groundwater from the N ile to seep into the walls, causing the entire pyramid to sink into the ground and crack. 197 198 199 200 Пирамида Аменемхета I в Лиште 1939 – 1909 B C ? A block with the cartouche of Khufu in Amenemhet I's pyramid 201 The causeway ran in a straight line on the axis of the pyramid and temple, but interestingly, was built without a roof. Its walls were nevertheless apparently decorated with scenes depicting processions of foreigners, estates, nobles and gods. Regrettably, this generation of pyramids utilized mudbrick in their construction, which is always a problem from the standpoint of preservation. Today, the pyramid stands mostly in ruins that only rise about 20 meters above the Lisht ground level, though at one time i ts size was reasonably close to those built in the Old Kingdom. The core of the pyramid was made of small rough blocks of local limestone with a loose fill of sand, debris and mudbrick. Remarkably, and probably for spiritual reasons, pyramid includes relie f decorated blocks from a number of Old Kingdom monuments. They include granite blocks from the pyramid complexes, particularly their caseways and valley temples, of Kufu, Khafre, Unas and Pepi (II?). They were used to line and block this pyramid's descend ing passage. This may suggest that the causeways and valley temples of these earlier kings may have already been ruined during the time of Amenemhet I. The casing for the pyramid was made from fine white Tura limestone. The entrance of the descending passage way is in the north face of the pyramid about ground level. It was covered by the North Chapel, and upon the kings burial, a red granite false door at the rear of the chapel sealed the entrance. The entrance corridor, which was line with pink grani te and sealed with blocks of the same material, gradually descends t a square chamber that lay on the pyramid's vertical axis. Here, a vertical shaft in the floor dropped to the burial chamber that today is troubled by local ground water. All efforts to pu mp the ground water out have so far failed. There seems to have been no small cult pyramid. The pyramid and mortuary temple were surrounded by no less than two perimeter walls, the outer being made of mudbrick and the inner one made from limestone. Between these walls at the rear (west) have been discovered 22 shaft tombs apparently belonging to the royal women. Fragmentary inscriptions have provided some information on these individuals, including the king's daughter, Neferu, who was the principal wife of Senwosret I, the kings mother, Nefret, and a principal wife, Nefrytatenen, who was the mother of Senwosret I. On the southwest corner of the pyramid was also found the tomb of Amenemhet I's vizier Antefiker. Near the northeast side of the pyramid between t he enclosure walls are two mastabas of unknown ownership. This pyramid was in effect very different then its predecessors. To a certain extent, it incorporated elements of both the old pyramids and the Theban tombs, including the style of some reliefs, th e two terraces of the pyramid and temple, the central shaft to the burial chamber and the open causeway. Restoring ancient monuments of Khaemwaset 1284 ВС - 1224 ВС Khaemweset restored the monuments of earlier kings and nobles. Restoration texts were found as sociated with the pyramid of Unas at Saqqara, the tomb of Shepseskaf called the Mastabet el - Fara'un, the sun - Temple of Nyuserre, the Pyramid of Sahure, the Pyramid of Djoser, and the Pyramid of Userkaf. Inscriptions at the pyramid temple of Userkaf show Kh aemweset with offering bearers, and at the pyramid temple of Sahure Khamwaset offers a statue of the goddess Bast. Khaemweset restored a statue of Prince Kawab, a son of King Khufu. The inscription on the throne reads: It is the Chief Directing Artisans and Sem - Priest, the King's Son, Khaemweset , who was glad over this statue of the King's Son Kawab, and who took it from what was cast (away) for debris (?), in [...] .. of his father, the King of South and North Egypt, Kheops. Then the S[em - Priest and Ki ng's Son, Kha]em[waset] decreed that [it be given] a place of favor of the Gods in company with the excellent Blessed Spirits at the Head of the Spirit (Ka) chapel of Ro - Setjau, - so greatly did he love antiquity and the noble folk who were aforetime, along with the excellence (of) all that they had made, so well, and repeatedly ("a million times"). 202 These (things) shall be for (for) all life, stability and prosperity, enduring upon earth, [for the Chief Directing Artisans and Sem - Priest, the King's Son, Kha] emwaset , after he has (re)established all their cult procedures of this temple, which had fallen into oblivion [in the remembrance] of men. He has dug a pool before the noble sanctuary (?), in work (agreeing) with his wishes, while pure channels existed, for purity, and to bring libations from (?) the reservoir (?) of Khefren, that he may attain (the status of) 'given life'. (Kitch en) . Some of these restorations took place during his later tenure as Sem - Priest. The work on the pyramid of Djoser is date d to year 36 of Ramesses II. Some of the inscriptions mention Khaemweset’s title as 'Chief of the Artificers' or 'Chief of Crafts'. Hence, some of these restorations were undertaken after his promotion as the High Priest of Ptah in Memphis about the 45th y ear of the reign of Ramesses II. Khaemweset held the position of Crown Prince to the throne between Year 50 and Year 55 of his father's reign when he died. He was succeeded in this position by his full brother Merneptah. He also served as Governor of Memphis. On the south face of Unas's Pyramid there is an hieroglyphic inscription that dates to the time of Ramses II c. 1250 b.c.e. Khaemwaset, high preist to Ptah in Memphis had restored the pyramid by order of his father Ramses II, and had reapplied th e name of Unas, which had disappeared. Amenemhat I, who founded Egypt's 12th Dynasty, was most likely the first ruler of the Middle Kingdom, after the First Intermediate Period, to build any sort of substantial pyramid. He did this at Lisht, near the Faiyu m Oasis, which was growing in importance during this time. In fact, his pyramid named "Cult Places of Amenemhat's Appearance" most likely was built very near his new capital of Itj - towy. In addition, the old, important canal called Bahr el - Libeini may have run very close to the escarpment at the foot of Amenemhat I's pyramid, thus providing it with a harbor. Amenemhat I also established a new tradition. In the Old Kingdom, the name of the pyramid usually was inclusive of the associated structures, including the pyramid town that so often grew up around the pyramids. However, from Amenemhat's time on, the major components of the complex each had their own names. It was Maspero who, in 1882, was the first archaeologist to descend into the interior of Amenemhat I's pyramid. Then, in 1894 and 1895, the French archaeological expedition under the direction of Gautier and Jequier continued to investigate this pyramid. It was further explored by a team from the Metropolitan Museum of New York from 1902 until 1934 und er the direction of Albert Lythgoe and Arthur Mace. Unfortunately, a local Muslim cemetery is located atop Amenemhat I's valley temple. This component of the complex has not been seriously investigated both because of the cemetery, and the fact that its re mains are below the level of ground water in the area. The mortuary temple is located on the east side of the pyramid and this component of the complex was called "High (rises up) Amenemhet's Beauty". It is much smaller and simpler then Old Kingdom mortuar y temples that lies on a level below the pyramid's base. This may architecturally reflect back to an influence from Mentuhotep II's terraced temple at Deir el - Bahari. Hardly anything remains of this temple, and so reconstructing its layout is difficult at best. Fragmentary inscriptions and reliefs found in the ruins suggest that it may have been rebuilt during the reign of Senusret I. Only the upper end of the mortuary temple's courtyard, which was originally open and had decorated walls, has been investiga ted. It may have been modeled on Mentuhotep II's complex as well. Some relief fragments were found among the ruins of the mortuary temple and can be dated from the time of Amenemhat I. However, some seem to have been recreation of Old Kingdom scenes. Inscr iptions from one such relief seem to indicate that from year 20 of Amenemhat I's rule, his son Senusret I was a co - regent of his father. These reliefs 203 appear to have had as their theme, the Sed Festival of Amenemhet which would have been held close to his 30th year of rule. We do know that there was an offering hall from the limestone false door and granite altar found in the ruins. The altar is carved, depicting Nile gods and figures representing the nomes bringing offerings. In addition, foundation deposi ts were discovered that contained an ox skull, paint grinders and model vases of pottery and alabaster. Also found here were bricks with plaques of copper, alabaster and faience, one of which was inscribed with the pyramid's name. The causeway ran in a str aight line on the axis of the pyramid and temple, but interestingly, was built without a roof. Its walls were nevertheless apparently decorated with scenes depicting processions of foreigners, estates, nobles and gods. Regrettably, this generation of pyram ids utilized mudbrick in their construction, which is always a problem from the standpoint of preservation. Today, the pyramid stands mostly in ruins that only rise about 20 meters above the Lisht ground level, though at one time its size was reasonably cl ose to those built in the Old Kingdom. The core of the pyramid was made of small rough blocks of local limestone with a loose fill of sand, debris and mudbrick. Remarkably, and probably for spiritual reasons, pyramid includes relief decorated blocks from a number of Old Kingdom monuments. They include granite blocks from the pyramid complexes, particularly their caseways and valley temples, of Khufu, Khafra, Unas and Pepi (II?). They were used to line and block this pyramid's descending passage. This may s uggest that the causeways and valley temples of these earlier kings may have already been ruined during the time of Amenemhat I. The casing for the pyramid was made from fine white Tura limestone. The entrance of the descending passage way is in the north face of the pyramid about ground level. It was covered by the North Chapel, and upon the kings burial, a red granite false door at the rear of the chapel sealed the entrance. The entrance corridor, which was line with pink granite and sealed with blocks of the same material, gradually descends t a square chamber that lay on the pyramid's vertical axis. Here, a vertical shaft in the floor dropped to the burial chamber that today is troubled by local ground water. All efforts to pump the ground water out have so far failed. There seems to have been no small cult pyramid. The pyramid and mortuary temple were surrounded by no less then two perimeter walls, the outer being made of mudbrick and the inner one made from limestone. Between these walls at the rear (we st) have been discovered 22 shaft tombs apparently belonging to the royal women. Fragmentary inscriptions have provided some information on these individuals, including the king's daughter, Neferu, who was the principal wife of Senusret I, the kings mother , Nefret, and a principal wife, Nefrytatenen, who was the mother of Senusret I. On the southwest corner of the pyramid was also found the tomb of Amenemhat I's vizier Antefiker. Near the northeast side of the pyramid between the enclosure walls are two mas tabas of unknown ownership. This pyramid was in effect very different then its predecessors. To a certain extent, it incorporated elements of both the old pyramids and the Theban tombs, including the style of some reliefs, the two terraces of the pyramid a nd temple, the central shaft to the burial chamber and the open causeway. 204 Мастаба 17 Большая мастаба №17 — самая большая из известных, исключаямастабу Нефермаат. Она, и это общепризнанно, — лучшая мастаба вЕгипте и самая ранняя частная каменная гробница, содержащая ста - рейший каменный гроб. Помещение в ней много грандиозней, чем впирамиде Снофру. Поэтому она — главный объект исследований. К со - жалению, на ней нет ни одного иероглифа, ни внутри, ни снаружи.Когда профессором Масперо в 1882 году был отрыт фасад, «табличка»на ложной двери, обычно исписанная, оказалась совершенно пустой.Позже дв ерь была украдена «на камень».Полный размер мастабы по уровню фундамента — 4122х2064 дюй - ма, или 200х100 локтей. Внешняя поверхность мастабы была из черно - го кирпича, а внутренний объем — из обломков чистого камня и мер - геля, уложенных в регулярные слои ст роителями граничащей с нейпирамиды. В поисках хоть какого - то входа в 1891 году Петри очистилсеверную и восточную стороны. Затем очистил всю вершину по осигребня. И, наконец, спустился в 48 - футовую шахту сквозь все теломогилы позади ниши ложной двери. После днее дало возможность уви - деть часть кирпичных защитных стен, видимо, находящихся в яме, со - держащей помещение. Но опасность работ в осколочном грунте, всеувеличивающаяся с глубиной, прервала их. В этом году он выгреб все,что нападало в старую яму, и попыт ался увеличить ее для безопаснойработы. Внутренние помещения, без всякой связи с внешним миромпосле возведения мастабы, были помещены в скальную яму. Захоро - нение должно было произойти вскоре после завершения строительствакамеры и коридоров, но до того как 100 000 тонн камней и осколковусилиями строителей Пирамиды легли слоями в громадную массу надними. А со стороны оказались видимыми только стены мастабы из са - манного кирпича, углубленные в скалу. Интерьер гробницы поражает еще больше, чем верхнее строение .Длинный коридор — около 8 футов высоты, 4 футов ширины и более чем40 футов длины. Скругленные углы дверных проемов — не встречавше - гося нигде типа. Назначение их не ясно, поскольку саркофаг слишкомвелик, чтоб пройти коридоры, и должен был быть 205 «встроен», а внутрен - ний гроб не столь велик, чтоб не смочь пройти углы. Скругления сде - ланы после завершения строительства стесыванием камня по краснымлиниям, прочерченным на стенах. Визуальный эффект от смелых широ - ких скруглений — большая вместительность помещений . Главный холл — более 20 футов длины, 16 футов высоты и 7 футов ширины. Здесь надпроходом и нишей видны гигантские блоки перекрытия. Размеры: 218 — длина, 103,5 — глубина и 50 дюймов — ширина, вес около 38 тонн. 206 Пирамида Лепсиус а №1 Also uncertain is the attribution of an unfinished, partly mud - brick pyramid which is located in Abu Roash,the so called Lepsius 1 pyramid (A1); anyhow the substructure excavated in the rock clearly points to the end of the 3 th /beginning of the 4 th dynast y (Swelim 1983). Abu Rawash is only a few kilometers north of Giza, but it is rarely visited because there is really very little to see. Most of the monuments built there are in complete ruin. The best known of these is a pyramid built by the 4th Dynast y king, Djedefra (Radjedef). Then, perhaps, the second most noticeable ruins are those of the structure that the Lepsius expedition believed was a pyramid. As the northernmost of any pyramid ruins discovered at that time, they assigned it the number one. T his is a mudbrick structure built in the easternmost hills promontory. This structure was originally discovered by J. Perring in the 1830s, and was also investigated by Vyse, who luckily didn't blow it up. Later, Bisson de la Roque also briefly examined th e structure, but the most recent and comprehensive work appears to have been completed by NabilSwelim, an Egyptian archaeologist, in the mid 1980s. 207 There seems to remain some debate about whether this is indeed a pyramid, and if so, who built it. Verner d oesn't seem altogether sure that it even is a pyramid, and while Lehner refers to the structure as a pyramid, he seems to believe it was possibly a provincial step pyramid, such as others scattered as for south as Elephantine. Provincial pyramids are most often small, step pyramid that in general are believed to have not been built as tombs. However, many of the provincial pyramids seem to have little or no substructure, were as Lepsius number 1 does. And while some questions seem to remain about its status as a pyramid, the majority opinion among current Egyptologists suggests that it most likely was, in fact, at least meant to be. In Swelim's view, who should by all rights be most familiar with the structure, it was indeed an enormous mudbrick step pyramid , with about one quarter of its core made up of a rock outcropping. Of course, this made the structure strong, plus quick and cheap to build. Swelim dates it to the end of the 3rd Dynasty and believes that it most likely was built on the instructions of Hu ni. However, Verner brings up a number of arguments against Swelim's conclusions. To begin with, he points out that the structure is located on the farthest edge of the Nile flood zone and not in an elevated position like many other pyramids. In addition, Verner tells us that there are at least thirty rock cut tombs of the 5th Dynasty and 6th Dynasty that are honeycombed in the rock outcropping that Swelim believes was incorporated into the structures core. If the structure was built at the end of the 3rd D ynasty, Verner remains skeptical that it would have been so destroyed at the end of the 4th Dynasty that tombs would be built in the outcropping used as part of its core. It should also be pointed out that mudbrick would have been an unusual material to ha ve been used in a royal pyramid of the 3rd or 4th Dynasty. However, Middle Kingdom dates can be excluded by the rock cut core (this kind of substructures is out of fashion already at the end of fourth dynasty), even though mudbrick pyramids were built in t hat era. Of course, the tombs built in the outcropping would suggest, if anything, that it might be older then thought, rather then newer. Yet many if not most Egyptologists do seem to think that it is a pyramid that either belonged to Huni, or possibly an other king named Neferka. In building the pyramid, mudbricks was laid over the rock outcropping and the remainder of the core, inclined inward at 75 - 76 degrees in accretion layers. Actually, the use of an outcropping was not unique. For example, we also fi nd a similar structure in the pyramid of Senusret II at Dahshur, along with other kings. When it was discovered, much of the mudbrick had been stripped away from its position, but it is estimated that the base length of the pyramid was about 215 meters. Th eoretically, it should have had a height of between 107 and 150 meters, though when discovered, the rubble pile was only about 20 meters in tall. Within the structure the rock outcropping (core) was penetrated from the north by a 25 degree sloping corridor leading south before communicating with a square funerary chamber. Within the pyramid, the burial chamber would have laid under the vertical axes of the pyramid, as was customary. The mudbrick monument of Abu Rawash, which would have been comparable in si ze to the Zawyet el Aryan unfinished pyramid Nebkara. 208 Учитывая расположение спроектированного некрополя Абу Роаш 4 - й династии на котором найдены мастабы семьи Джедефры ,возможно предположить ,что это первоначальный проект Джед е фры ,который на ранней стадии был оставлен по каким то неизвестным причинам . В построенной рядом каменной пирамиде Абу Роаш он был погребен позднее . 209 http://www.egypt.edu/pdf/ adresses/abou - rawach/abourawach - hd.pdf http://www.enotes.com/topic/Djedefre http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/abu - rawash.html 210 Туринский царский канон http://www.ancient - egypt.org/index.html http://sitemaker.umich.edu/mladjov/files/egypt_ traditional_kinglist.pdf http://ancient - cultures.info/attachments/File/List_of_Egyptian_Rulers.pdf 211 212 213 Генеалогическое древо династий http://www.egyptology.ru/berlev/2 - 2.pdf http://www.egyptology.ru/berlev/Sotis.pdf http://www.egyptology.ru/berlev/goldenname.pdf 214 Что же произошло в 11 год царя Сену? (некоторые замечания к гипотезе О.Д.Берлева) Роман А. Орехов (ЦЕИ РАН) "Мудрые мужи перед потопом, предсказывавшие кару небес водой или огнем, вследствие которой будет уничтожено все живое, построили в Верхнем Египте на вершинах гор множество пирамид из камня, дабы найти в них спасение от грозящей катастрофы". (Аль - Балхи, IX в. "Тысячи и многое иное" 1 ) Название моего доклада - это логическое продолжение темы, впе рвые озвученной на II научной историко - археологической межвузовской конференции в октябре 2002 года . Его первая часть под названием "Идеологические аспекты пирамидного строительства в эпоху III - IV династий" была посвящена сопоставлению данных классических и древнеегипетских источников. Необходимо коротко остановиться на сути предложенной мной тогда гипотезы. Прежде всего, она связывает строительство монументальных пирамид Древнего царства не с утверждением или последующем усилением деспотическо й власти богов - фараонов, а с бедствием, обрушившемся на Египет во времена второго царя III династии - Джосера, известного в то время под своим Горовым именем - Нечерирхет. Семилетняя засуха, вызванная резким обмелением Нила, поставила тогда на порог смерти все египетское население. Постулируя столь радикально проблему влияния нильского паводка на ход исторических событий, мы расходимся в оценке этого влияния с мнением многих авторитетных исследователей. В частности, Ж.Вандье, собравший в своем фундаментальн ом труде описание всех случаев голода в Древнем Египте (известных на момент публикации монографии), был убежден, что недостаточный подъем Нила хотя и требовал порой мучительных ограничений, но никогда не представлял опасности для государства 3 . Однако египт олог уточняет, что это было возможно при условии, "когда страна или область хорошо управлялись" 4 . К сожалению, мы не имеем сведений относительно того, что представлял из себя административный аппарат в эпоху Джосера и существовал ли он вообще в достаточно развитом состоянии. Более того, мы убеждены в обратном - именно строительство монументальных пирамид способствовало возникновению и упрочению древнеегипетского государства 5 . Другими словами, это строительство способствовало формированию не только администр ативного аппарата, но и такой структуры организации людей, при которой управляемый государством труд мог быть направлен на выполнение любых государственных работ. Возвращаясь к проблеме отсутствия паводка в эпоху Джосера, мы вынуждены констатировать, что е го причины носили катастрофический характер. Религиозное сознание египтян не могло в то время осмыслить это явление как природное, а видело в нем ' Замаровский В. Их величества пирамиды. Москва, 1981, С. 36. 2 Конференция "Открытия минувшего лета" состоялась 29 - 30 октября 2002 г. на историческом факультете Московского городского педагогического университета. Материалы конференции находятся в печати. 3 Vandier J . La famine dans 1' Egypte ancienne . Le Caire, 1940, p. 48 - 49. 215 исключительно кару богов первого порога, которые по представлениям жителей Долины и отвечали за это половодье. Если засуха, как кара, могла обрушиться на Египет (зажатый в силу географических особенностей между двух пустынь) в любой момент, то этот страх неизбежно наложил отпечаток на последующую идеологию. Каждый царь, восходя на престол, сотворял для божества пирамиду как "возмещение ( jsw )" за милости, изливаемые этим божеством на землю Египта. Больше всех в этом строительстве преуспели цари IV династии - Снофру и его сын Хнум - Хуфу. Первый воздвиг за время своего двадцатичетырехлетнего правления четыре пирамиды, второй спроектировал "Горизонт", сооружение, включающее в себя по крайней мере две большие пирамиды и сфинкс. В после днем, по гипотезе Р.Штадельмана, он и пожелал увековечить собственный облик 6 . Основная проблема нашего исследования на данный момент заключается в следующем. Единственное внятное сообщение о великой засухе дошло ло нас от эпохи Птолемеев, т.е. времени боле е позднего, нежели правление Джосера и его приемников. Можно ли утверждать, что это событие в действительности могло произойти в Ш тыс. до Р.Х., а если да, то почему оно не нашло отражения в документах Древнего царства, когда возводились сами пирамиды? Сог ласно гипотезе О.Д.Берлева, семилетняя засуха - это вполне реальное событие эпохи правления Джосера 7 . Анализ некоторых положений этой гипотезы, а также формулировка вытекающих из нее выводов - основная цель нашего доклада. Елавное достоинство теории О.Д.Берлева состоит в том, что в ней исторические события находятся в тесном взаимодействии с выводами астрономии. Астрономия в некотором смысле наука более т очная, чем история и там, где исторические факты начинают "плясать" или противоречить друг другу, астрономия прочно ставит их на место. Что же особенного сделал О.Д.Берлев? Прежде всего он сопоставил два источника - текст "Стелы голода", выбитый на скале о строва Сехель, в районе первого нильского порога, и сообщение римского писателя Клавдия Элиана ( III в. по Р.Х.), сохраненное в лексиконе Свиды ( X в. по Р.Х.). Элиан, в частности, упоминал древнеегипетскую легенду о неизвестном царе Сениусе и его приближенн ом, великом враче и писце священных книг Яхиме. По легенде, Яхим вступает в борьбу со звездой зла, Сириусом, и укрощает ее огненный пыл, способный уничтожить страну. Элиан также уточняет и время этого противостояния, оно произошло "при наипервейшем появлении Сириуса". Исходя из титулатуры, выбитой на цоколе царской статуи, обнаруженной возле коллонады при ступенчатой пирамиде в Саккара, Берлев установил, что под царем Сениусом у Элиана упомянут никто ин ой, как царь Нижнего Египта Сену, он же Нечерирхет, первый фараон, построивший каменную пирамиду. Его соратник, упомянутый у Элиана как Яхим, - это прославленный мудрец и архитектор Древнего царства Имхотеп. Единственная прижизненная титулатура Имхотепа вы бита на том же пьедестале рядом с именем царя Сену. Следовательно, как справедливо полагает О.Д.Берлев, события, о которых повествует Элиан. могли происходить во времена Джосера. 4 Ibid , p . 49. 5 Данная гипотеза принадлежит К.Мендельсону, - Ламберг - Карловски К., Саблов Дж. Древние Цивилизации. Ближний Восток и Мезоамерика. Москва, 1992, С. 134 - 135. 6 Stadelman R. Die ägyptischen Pyramiden. Vom Ziegelbau zum Weltwunder. Mainz am Rhein, 1991, S. 125 - 126; Stadelman R. The Great Sphinx of Giza - creation of Khufu/ Cheops. - Abstracts of Papers, Eight International Congress of Egyptologists. Cairo , 2000. p . p . 174 - 175. 7 Берлев О. Д. Два периода Сотиса между годом 18 царя Сену, или Тосортроса, и годом 2 фараона Антонина Пия. - "Древний Египет; язык - культура - сознание". Москва, 1999, С. 42 - 62. 216 Вторая часть сообщения Элиана упоминает "наипервейший" восход Сириуса. Остановимся на этом моменте более подробно. Как известно, разлив Нила за несколько недель до его наступления предваряется гелиакическим восхо дом Сириуса, т.е. первой видимостью звезды на утреннем небе. Приблизительно в это же время по египетскому календарю начинался Новый год. В Александрийском календаре, принятом во времена императора Августа, дата утреннего восхода Сириуса остается приблизите льно постоянной, поэтому Александрийский год ( египетский год в 365 дней + дополнительные четверть суток) приблизительно совпадает с годом Сириуса. Между ними существует точное цифровое соотношение: 1460 александрийских лет равняются 1461 египетскому году 8 . Отсюда вытекает, что через 1461 египетский год утренний восход Сириуса опять придется на ту же дату в египетском календаре. Открытие периодов "'возвращения" Сириуса в эту исходную точку (т.н. апокастасис) принадлежит древнегреческому математику Теону Але ксандрийскому Старшему. Теон, начиная с утреннего восхода Сириуса в 139 г. по Юлианскому календарю, который пришелся на первое число месяца Тота по египетскому календарю, высчитал, что в годы - 4241, 2781 , 1321 утренний восход Сириуса приходился также на п ервое число месяца Тота 9 . Но Теон сообщал и нечто иное. Из его труда явствует, что отсчет периода Сотис велся от времени легендарного египетского правителя, которого он сопоставлял с Августом, а на египетский манер называл Менофреосом 10 . Благодаря Теону эт а эра так и получила название эра "аро Menofreos ", т.е. от Менофреоса. Перед многими египтологами встал вопрос, кто из фараонов, правивших около 1321 года, оказался прототипом для носителя греческого имени Менофреос, поскольку все они, начиная со В.В.Струве и поддержавшего его позднее К.Зете, были убеждены, что Теон подразумевал дату первого апокастасис от 139 года. Вероятно поэтому их выбор и пал на фараона XIX династии Сети 1, время правления которого приблизительно совпадало с расчетн ой датой, т.е. 1321 годом". Как показал О.Д.Берлев на материале поздних папирусов, это было принципиальной ошибкой. Из его выводов следует, что Менофреос - это вовсе не грецизированная форма одного из имен царской титулатуры, а своего рода "прозвище" фарао на Джосера - Мемфисец (ведь именно этого царя почитали родоначальником первой мемфисской династии). Следовательно, под Менофреосом Теон подразумевал Джосера, а значит совсем иную дату. Египтологи тогда не придали значения тому факту, что в знаменитом Туринс ком папирусе, этом своеобразном ключе ко всей древнеегипетской хронологии, титул "Царь Верхнего и Нижнего Египта" только у ι τ одного Нечерирхета был выделен красным цветом . Поэтому можно предположить, что составители анналов связывали с ним какое - то знаменательное событие. Но какое? Берлев убежден, что в 18 год правления Джосера, по юлианскому календарю в 2781 был введен древнеегипетский календарь в 365 дней. Уточним, что цифра 18 взята Бе рлевым из текста той самой сехельской стелы. Согласно главному выводу Олега Дмитриевича, оба источника - и стела с острова Сехель, и сообщение Элиана - подразумевают одно и тоже событие. Однако если Ван - Дер - Варден Б. Рождение астрономии. Пробуждающаяся нау ка П. Москва, 1991, С. 24. 9 Ван - Дер - Варден, Рождение астрономии..., С. 24. 10 Стучевский И. А. Рамсес Π и Херихор. Из истории древнего Египта эпохи Рамессидов. Москва, 1984, С. 15 - 16. 1 ' Стучевский, Рамсес II и Херихор..., С. 16. 12 Wildling D. Die Rolle Ägyptischer Könige im Bewusstsein ihrer Nachweit. München, 1969, S. 65. 217 это так, то почему мотивировка трагедии в памятниках несколько различается? Например, согласно тексту сехельской стелы, голод, поразивший Египет в 11 год правления Джосера, был вызван недостаточным усердием египтян в почитании главного божества первого порога Хнума 13 . После напрасного семилетнего ожидания Джосер обращается за советом к сыну бога Птаха Имхотепу и тот указывает царю истинную причину засухи. Отныне Джосеру необходимо возобновить почитание Хнума и всех богов первого порога. Джосер немедленно это осуществляет и приводит в страну обильное половодье. Таким образом, время датировки стелы с острова Сехель, 18 год Нечерирхета - Джосера, - это время избавления от засухи, по Берлеву, первый день первого месяца сезона половодья. В сообщении Элиана эти с обытия представлены если и менее драматично, то более глобально. Источник засухи здесь, несомненно, звезда Сириус. Ее огненное дыхание буквально испепеляет страну. И именно с этой звездой борется "Тот - младший", соратник царя Сену . Заметим, что сехельская стела также упоминает Сириус, правда в несколько ином качестве, представляя звезду спутницей Хнума - Ра наряду с Анукис . Здесь и Сатис (Сириус), и Анукис - божественные обитатели дома Хнума и поэтому всецело зависят от своего владыки. Можно поэтому допустит ь, что Хнум - Ра обращает гнев своей дочери против людей (в этом случае ситуация будет чем то напоминать известный эпизод "Мифа о небесной корове"). Хотя текст стелы такой информации не содержит, это объяснение представляется наиболее правдоподобным. К мифол огической основе сказания мы вернемся чуть позже, а пока процитируем одно важное место из работы О.Д.Берлева: "В каникулярии года 18 царя Сену/Тосортроса отмечен восход звезды, принятой за источник изнурительной, всеиссушающей жары. В постархаические време на именно эту звезду считали одним из благостных светил на небосводе, предвестницей ежегодного половодья, несущего жизнь Египту, богиней, управляющей годом, несомненно в 365 дней, отождествляемой с самой благодетельной фигурой египетского пантеона Исидой. Следовательно, для того, чтобы эту звезду признали источником страшной опасности, светилом, несущим зло, надо, чтобы до каникулярии года 18 на нее не обращали внимания. Более того, нужно, чтобы иссушающая и испепеляющая жара началась с гелиакического восхо да звезды, когда она появляется после долгого отсутствия на небосклоне, перед самым восходом солнца, чтобы почти сразу погаснуть в его лучах. Кроме того, надо, чтобы было точно известно, что вчера этой звезды на этом месте не было. Но вот она появилась - и сразу же началось страшное бедствие."(Берлев О. Д. Соч. у к., С. 57). Следует отметить, что подобное решение проблемы не устраняет несколько достаточно спорных позиций. Первое, египтолог не объясняет почему звезда, несущая испепеляющую жару, отождествляется тем не менее с самой благодетельной богиней Исидой. Второе - 18 год не может быть назван годом открытия гелиакического восхода Сириуса, ибо в этом случае мы обесцениваем сообщение сехельской стелы, говорящей о семи годах засухи. Другими сло вами, 18 год не может являться одновременно и годом открытия, и годом, с которого начинается бедствие. Следовательно, если первый восход Сириуса привел к великой трагедии, то он неизбежно должен был произойти в 11 год Джосера. Однако в таком случае 11 год не может быть связан как с датой начала половодья, так и с датой введения календаря. Эта двусмысленность приводит нас к выводу, что если Элиан и сехельская стела говорят об одном явлении, то освещают его с различных временных точек. Предположим, что гелиак ический восход Сириуса в 13 Barguet P . La stele de la famine ä Sehel . Le Caire, 1953 ( далее - Sehe!); новейший перевод - Goedicke H. Comments on the "Famine Stela 1 ' (Varia Aegyptiaca Supplement 5). San - Antonio , 1994, p . p . 51 - 57. 14 Берлев О. Д. Два периода Сотиса..., С. 55. 15 Sehel . 14. 218 день X 1 1 года царя Джосера мог привести к засухе, точнее, мог обозначить только ее начало, поскольку звезда была видна несколько минут и далее, как считает Берлев, сразу должна погаснуть в лучах восходящего солнца. Однако по истечении десяти дней Сириус становится виден на небе перед восходом солнца уже 40 минут. И это колличество времени продолжает нарастать с каждым днем вплоть до его кульминационной точки, после чего он будет плавно опускаться к линии горизонта 16 . Сириус не виден на небе в течение 70 - ти дней, ровно столько он находится в "доме Геба". Если мы отнимем от 365 - ти дней цифру 70, то получим 295 дней наблюдения Сириуса в ночное время, вплоть до ег о очередного ухода за горизонт. Значит, собственно сам гелиакический восход Сириуса не может быть признан за источник засухи, но он может потенциально обозначить время ее начала. Если же звезда сама несет огненную испепеляющую силу, то она должна находитьс я на небе в течение достаточно длительного периода времени (и не только ночью). Можно теоретически допустить, что по прошествии семи лет Джосер наконец узнает о причинах засухи и предпринимает необходимые меры для ее устранения. Если в 18 году в Долину приходит долгожданное половодье, это становится точкой отсчета в древнеегипетском календаре. Но в таком случае нам необходимо понять, - что же произошло в 11 год царя Сену? Мы допускаем, что Клавдий Элиан в столь необ ычной форме сообщил информацию о последствиях взрыва спутника звезды Сириус А - Сириуса В (звезда Сириус, как доказано астрономией - звезда двойная). Однако произошло это событие не в начале нашей эры, как предполагалось ранее, а на заре возникновения само й древней цивилизации в Долине Нила. Астрономические, точнее астрофизические аспекты взрыва Сириуса В затрагиваются в специальной литературе и говорить о них не имеет смысла, за исключением одного - почему все - таки в связи со взрывом звезды предполагалась несколько иная дата . Во II в. по Р.Х. один из крупнейших астрономов эллинского мира Клавдий Птолемей в своем главном труде "Мэгале синтаксис" (вошедшим в историю науки под арабским названием "Альмагест") включил Сириус в каталог красных звезд. Клавдий Пто лемей сравнивал Сириус с Марсом и называл "Красной собачьей звездой". После Птолемея не было ни одного астронома, кто бы мог стоять своим авторитетом наравне со знаменитым александрийцем. Только в X веке появляется подробный каталог звезд арабского астроно ма Аль - Суфи, в котором Сириус представлен как белая звезда. Датский астроном XIX века Шэллеруп счел, что причина столь разительного расхождения между очень авторитетными астрономами Π и X в.в. кроется в ошибке переписчика Альмагеста, который не понял слово "Сайриос" и заменил его на "Ипокирос". Но в таком случае, это не принципиальная ошибка. Название звезды - Сириус - принято производить от греч. 1 А "сайриос", т.е. "жгучий", "знойный" . Слово "ипокирос" можно интерпретировать как "огненно - красный" 19 , т.е. мы допускаем, что переводчик использовал это слово в качестве синонима. В поэме Гесиода "Труды и дни" раскрывается эта необычная черта Сириуса: 16 Ван - Дер - Варден Б. Рождение астрономии..., С. 29 - 33. 17 В нашей статье мы используем только историко - астрономический материал, взятый из статьи проф. Д.Я.Мартынова. Мартынов Д. Я. Красный Сириус// Земля и Вселенная 1 (1976), С. 36 - 39. 18 Вейсман А. Д. Греческо - русский словарь (репринт 1899 г.). Москва, 1991, С. 1125; Карпенко Ю. А. Названия звездного неба. Москва, 1985, С. 66 - 67. 19 Вейсман, Греческо - русский словарь..., С. 1290. 219 "Тою порою...мужчины Слабы: им Сириус темя и бедра насквозь прожигает, Сохнет от зноя их кожа"" . Как предполагае тся, Гесиод жил в VIII в. до Р.Х., а вот лесбосский поэт Алкей, современник Сапфо, живший позднее автора 'Трудов и дней", оставил такое любопытное наблюдение: "В ту пору жены грязны И мужчины слабы: сушит головы им и ноги Жаркий Сириус..." 21 . Не Солнце, замечает проф. Ф.Ф.Зелинский, после восхода Сириуса, а сам Сириус обессиливает мужчин; невзгоды знойного лета, с его слабостью и лихарадками, приписываются непосредственному воздействию лучей лютого Пса 22 . В III в. до Р.Х. для его умиротворения греки приносили в жертву рыжую собаку 23 . Этот обычай позже перешел в Рим и стал особенно процветать в эпоху Антонинов ( II в.) 24 . Когда в XX в. большая часть этих необычных сведений была собрана, астрономы и предложили теоретическую модель, объясняющую столь разительные перемены в природе звезды. Прежде чем превратиться в белый карлик (состояние Сириуса В на данный момент), звезда была красным гигантом. Однако уязвимым звеном данной модели, как показывали рассчеты, был чрезвычайно малый срок для этого пр евращения, - меньше тысячелетия (т.е. разница между X и II в.в.). И вот тогда впервые и появилась альтернативная взрывная теория. Согласно этой модели, полтора тысячелетия назад Сириус В действительно мог взорваться. Расчеты показывают высокую вероятность данного события. Однако расчетный сброс почти двух солнечных масс должен был вызвать вспышку, сопоставимую со вспышкой сверхновой звезды, которая должна была увеличить блеск Сириуса до 11 или 13 отрицательных величин. Звезда в таком случае была бы видна и днем, и, более того, в течение нескольких лет. Учитывая близость Сириуса к земле (9 световых лет), этот взрыв мог оказать крайне губительное влияние на всю земную биосферу. Тем не менее ничего подобного в первые века отмечено не было. Значит остается предположить, что Сириус В мог взорваться в 11 год царя Сену/Джосера, точнее в 2788 г. до Р.Х., а 11 в. застал систему Сириуса в стадии, близкой к заключительной, когда она остывая, выглядит оранжевой или красноватой, Закономерен вопрос, существуют ли древ неегипетские письменные источники эпохи пирамид, которые могут подтвердить факт небесной, а впоследствии и земной катастрофы? Наиболее надежный источник, позволяющий говорить о необычной природе звезды, - это само древнеегипетское название Сириуса - Сопдет, буквально "острая", "проникающая" и даже "мощная" с характерным 20 Зелинский Φ. Φ. Соперники христианства (статьи по истории античных религий) реприннт 1907 г.) Санкт - Петербург, 1995, С. 246. 21 Перевод из Алкея приводится В.В.Вересаевым в примечаниях к поэме Гесиода "Труды и дни", - "О происхождении богов". Москва, 1990, С. 286 - 287. 22 Зелинский, Соперники христианства..., С. 246. 23 Мартынов, Красный Сириус..., С - 37. 24 Там же, С. 37. 220 иглообразным детерминативом 25 . Значение этого слова не выяснено до конца (особенно применительно к небесному телу). Тем не менее Л.Какоси, автор статьи о Сириусе в египтологическом лексиконе, небезосновательно видит в нем отражение агрессивных черт . В этой связи любопытную легенду пр иводит Юлий Гигин в своей "Астрономии": "У Пса на языке находится одна звезда, которая также зовется Пес, а на голове - вторая, которую, считают Исида поместила под своим именем и назвала Сириус вследствие ослепительной белизны ее сияния, ведь эта звезда т акова, что ее блеск кажется ярче, чем блеск других'" . В этом отрывке мы видим различие между звездой Пса, расположенной на языке, и звездой Сириус, помещенной на голову Исидой, между тем как античная традиция локализовала Сириус на языке, или на пасти животного 28 . Исходя из этого, мы вынуждены допустить, что древние греки обладали информацией о двуипостасности Сириуса. Применительно к древнеегипетским воззрениям это легко обнаружить в астрономическом декоре гробницы Сененмута, видного сановника царицы Хатшепсут ( XVIII династия). Богиня Исида - Сириус представлена там одновременно в виде агрессивной бегемотихи и в виде стройной молодой женщины 29 . Бегемотиха опирается на заостренное орудие, напоминающее внешней формой пикообразный детерминатив Сириуса. Заме тим, что гибридные существа, соединяющие в себе образы бегемота, крокодила и льва, как правило, связываются в заупокойной литературе со стихией огня^°. Но и сам Сириус, как явствует из примеров, приводимых Л.Какоси, нередко является олицетворением грозной испепеляющей силы" 1 . Греки воспринимали эту агрессивность через образ лютого пса ("кион" - отсюда, в частности, происходит слово каникулы), спутника великана Ориона; древние египтяне, для которых это отождествление по многим причинам было неприемлимым. - че рез образ уродливого гиппопотама. Единственное, что объединяет эти образы - это чудовищный оскал. Однако если допустить, что древнеегипетское обозначение Сириуса является отзвуком неких катастрофических событий, то из этого следует, что до взрыва у звезды могло быть совершенно иное название. Прежде всего на эту мысль наводит табличка из слоновой кости, найденная в некрополе Абидоса и относящаяся по времени к эпохе царя Джера ( I династия) 0 . На изображении отчетливо видна фигура лежащей коровы, меж рогов которой помещены знаки " rnpt " и " \ v ; d \ Ниже изображения коровы расположен иероглиф "половодье". В целом, все изображение может быть интерпретировано следующим образом: "Сотис, предвестница Нового года и наводнения" 3 ' 5 . Учитывая, что уже в "Текстах пирамид" Сириус обновляет молодость (букв, "зелень" - др. - егип. - *4ν;ίΓ) умершего царя - Осириса, а также отождествляется с годом (др. - егип. - "гпрГ) можно допустить правомерность данной интерпретации 34 . К этому стоит добавить, что начиная с Древнего царства 25 Käkosy L. Sothis. Lexikon der Ägyptologie. Bd. V. Wiesbaden, 1984, Sp. 1110. 26 Käkosy, Sothis..., Sp. 1110. 27 Hygini, Astronomia, II, 35; издание - Гигин Юлий . Астрономия. Санкт - Петербург, 1997 (пер. А.И.Рубана). 28 Гигин, Астрономия..., С. 163, прим. 6. 29 Ван - Дер - Варден, Рождение астрономии..., илл. 4; Michalowski К. Art of Ancient Egypt . New - York, 1976, p. 107 (fig. 51). Ju Hormmg E. Das Totenbuch der Ägypter . Zürich - München. 1993, Spr. 144,24; 149; 208 - 209. 31 Käkosy, Sothis..., Sp. 1111 - 1112. 32 PetrieF. W. M. The royal tombs of the earliest Dynasties. Part II. London, 1901, p. 22, PL 5(1 - 3). JJ Ван - Дер - Варден , Рождение астрономии ..., С . 21 - 22; Barta W. Zur Entwicklung des ägyptischen Kalenderwesens//Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 110 (1983), Heft l, S. 18. •' 4 Sethe K. Die altägyptischen Pyramiedentexte. Bd. 1 - 11, Leipzig, 1908 - 1922 ( далее - Pyr.); Pyr. 965 a - b. 221 иероглифическое написание Но вого года осуществлялось с помощью рогов коровы и знака "года" 35 . " Wpj - rnpt " - это день "открытия года", день появления Сотис. Мог ли Сириус иметь свое первое название в качестве производного от "ренепет" или слово, чем - то напоминающее его по смыслу, например, похожее на u rnpw ' \ " rnpf * - "быть юным", "юный" 6 или " rnptj " - относительное прилагательное женского рода с приблизительно похожим значением? Теоретически - да, практически это название в источниках не встречается, исключая те случаи, где Сириус просто отождествляется с "годом". Несмотря на некоторые трудности, решение у данной проблемы есть. В свое время С.Мерсер и Р.Антее обратили внимание, что в ряде изречений "Текстов пирамид" синонимом Сириуса может выступать понятие "Око Гора" или "Око Ра" 37 . Не менее важен и другой факт - представления об "Оке" получили 5О широкое рапространение в додинастических культурах Египта . Однако информация, позволяющая утверждать, что древние египтяне стали свидетелями необычного природного явления, могла изначально содержаться только в "Текстах пирамид": "Когда царь зародился в Нуне, Небо - еще не простерлось, Земля - еще не возникла, Опоры - еще не воздвиглись, Разлад - еще не слу чился, Ужас - еще не пришел из - за Ока Гора 19 ", Если хронологически представить события, описываемые в изречении, то "ужас ( snd )" - это самая последняя ступень космогенеза, перед которым находится только "разлад ( hnnw )". Как видно из других мест "Текстов пирамид", "разлад" - это начало борьбы между Гором и Сетом за власть над миром. Сет поразил Гору его глаз, Гор лишил Сета мужской силы, оторвав его тестикулы 40 . Следовательно, "ужас из - за Ока Гора" - это последствия нанесе нной Сетом раны, но вместе с этим, и утеря Сетом его созидательной силы. Поэтому царь всячески стремится не только к замирению обоих богов, но и их исцелению, что хорошо видно на примере "Текстов пирамид" . Пример более близкий для нас - нижнеегипетское им я Джосера - Сену ( Snw ), буквально "Два брата", т.е. Гор и Сет. Царь - это прежде всего та личность, в которой оба бога должны умиротвориться, либо Гор должен встать над Сетом, победив его враждебную природу, поставив ее на службу созидания. На основе "Текстов пирамид" исходный пункт мифа о противоборстве Гора и Сета может быть представлен следующим образом. Небесный Гор зачинается Осирисом в Сириусе - Исиде и пребывает в ней, как в своего рода материнской плаценте 42 . По 35 Орехов Р. А. Солярный и астральный аспекты образа Хатхор ( по данным ранней иконографии и Текстам Пирамид), - "Древний Египет: язык - культура - сознание' 1 . Москва , 1999, С . 183. 36 Hanni g R. Di e Sprache der Pharaonen. Grosses Handwörterbuch Ägypti sch - Deutsch (2800 - 950 v. Chr.). Mai nz, 1995, Sp. 471. 37 Орехов, Солярный и астральный аспекты..., С. 182. ' 8 Шеркова Т. А. ''Око Хора": символика глаза в до династическом Египте// ВДИ 4 (1996), С. 96 - 115. 39 Руг. 1040. 40 Руг. 1463. 41 Руг. 142 - 144. 42 Руг. 632; 1636. всей видимости, Сета что - то не устраивает в мироздании и он наносит Гору удар 4 . Поэтому на следующей стадии мифа Гор представлен как "ослепленный свиньей", т.е. тем же Сетом 44 . Однако мы допускаем, что удар Сета был направлен как п ротив Гора, пребывающего в Исиде, так и против самой Исиды. Если Гор поражается Сетом и становится "слепым ( sp )' \ то Исида неизбежно истекает кровью или пылает яростью. Отсюда вытекает, почему благодетельная Исида может отождествляться с Сириусом, несущим испепеляющую силу. Например, в одном изречении "Текстов саркофагов" слепой бог обитает в оке, которое дышит яростью против демиурга Атума и, одновременно, люди выходят из этого ока в качестве слез 45 . В заключительном эпи зоде мифа, бог Тот исцеляет Око и возвращает ему его изначальные качества 4 . Обращает на себя внимание, что в легенде, приводимой Элианом, с Сириусом борется "Тот - младший", т.е. Имхотеп. Таким образом, у Элиана скорее всего представлен один из вариантов по зднего переосмысления раннего мифа о борьбе за Око Гора. Из этого следует, что если наше предположение верно, и письменные источники донесли определенную информацию о взрыве Сириуса, то эта информация может быть осмыслена только через категории мифа об Оке Гора, составной части Осирического ритуала, ключа ко всей древнеегипетской мифологии. В заключении мне хочется процитировать текст другого мифа, сложившегося под влиянием коптско - христианской традиции, но, имеющего в своей основе скорее те же катастрофические реалии эпохи Сену/Джосера: ''Приснился царю Суриду страшный сон. Снилось ему, что вся земля провалилась, а небо покрылось черными тучами. Падали с небес на землю звезды и, обратившись в белых птиц, уносили в своих когтях обезумевших от ст раха людей. Вст ревоженный этим сном, Сурид созвал г адателей и аст рологов и спрашивал у них объяснение сна. Они предсказали ему потоп. Тогда Сурид повелел построить пирамиды и положить в них все свои сокровища, прах своих предков и книги, в которых заключал ись все науки Египта" ( Масуди, "Из коптских преданий о царе Суриде") 47 . 3 Руг . 142 а . 44 Руг . 1268 Ь . 45 Buck A. de. The Egypti an Coffin Texts. Vol. IV. Chicago , 1951, Sp . 344 b - g . 46 К сожалению, вариант мифа об исцелении Ока Гора Тотом дошел более подробно из глав "Книги мертвых", хотя некоторые намеки присутствуют уже в "Текстах пирамид", см. Hornung, Das Totenbuch..., Spr. 167. Более подробную информацию по этому вопросу можно найти в недавно переизданной работе Б.А.Тураева, - Тураев Б. А. Бог Тот. Опыт исследования в области древнеегипетской культуры. Санкт - Петербург, 2002, С. 61, 101 - 103. 47 Весленев В. М. Гизехские пирамиды и мастабаТи. Калуга, 1906, С. 21. 2 23 Гипотеза Штадельмана http://www.cintronics.com/pdffiles/SneferuPyramids.pdf 224 Хронология Miroslav Verner http://www.gizapyramids.org/pdf%20library/verner_archiv_or_69.pdf 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 Хронология Matt McClellan http://www.answersingenesis.org/contents/379/arj/v4/egyptian_chronology_genesis.pdf 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 Новая хронология династий 276 277 278 279 The First Intermediate Period, often described as a “dark period” in ancient Egyptian history, spanned approximately one hundred years after the end of the Old Kingdom from ca. 2181 - 2055 BC. It included the seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and part of the el eventh dynasties. Very little monumental evidence survives from this period, especially towards the beginning of the era. The First Intermediate Period was a dynamic time in history where rule of Egypt was roughly divided between two competing power bases. One of those bases resided at Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt, a city just south of the Faiyum region. The other resided at Thebes in Upper Egypt. It is believed that during this time, the temples were pillaged and violated, their existing artwork was vandal ized, and the statues of kings were broken or destroyed as a result of this alleged political chaos. These two kingdoms would eventually come into conflict, with the Theban kings conquering the north, resulting in reunification of Egypt under a single rule r during the second part of the eleventh dynasty. The building projects of the Heracleopolitan kings in the North was very limited. Only one pyramid believed to belong to King Merikare (2065 - 2045 BC) has been identified at Saqqara. Also, private tombs that were built during the time pale in comparison to the Old Kingdom monuments, in quality and size. However, they are of a lower quality and are much simpler than their Old Kingdom parallels. Wooden rectangular coffins were still being used, but their decora tions became more elaborate during the rule of the Heracleopolitan kings. New Coffin Texts were painted on the interiors, providing spells and maps for the deceased to use in the afterlife. 280 Заключение A group of Egyptian researchers claims to have hit on an exact date for the construction of Khufu's pyramid, the largest of the three Great Pyramids at Giza. The team, led by Dr. Abdel - Halim Nureddin, says work on the pyramid was started on 23 August, 2470 BC. The local governor told reporters that the date will now be celebrated as National Giza Day. Nureddin said the team had proved the date using "historical facts and astronomical calculations." The claim was immediately dismissed by the country's leadin g Egyptologist, Dr. Zahi Hawass, along with Kamal Wahid, general director of the Giza necropolis, who said the year can only be approximated. They did not comment on why the "exact" date found by the research team for the start of construction appeared to be almost a century later than the approximate date for the pyramid's completion accepted by most Egyptologists - 2560 BC. However, Giza Governor Sayyed Abdel Aziz, who organized the research project, stood by the team's findings. He said the work was car ried out "under conditions of strict secrecy, to ensure the exactness of the research." He said Khufu's pyramid will now become a symbol for the province, and will feature on its emblem. Egyptologists generally avoid putting precise Gregorian Calendar date s on events in the country's pharaonic past, due to the different way in which the ancient calendar worked. Egyptians counted years from the inauguration of each pharaoh, meaning that with each new king the calendar would be reset to zero. As no single doc ument exists listing all the pharaohs from first to last, and due to the breaks in the record when the land was disunited (the intermediate periods), most dates can only be approximated to the nearest decade, or several decades. The Great Pyramid of Khufu (also known by the Greek version of his name, Cheops), is one of three colossal pyramids built by successive Old Kingdom pharaohs, at a time when the country was at the peak of its power, and intensely centralized, giving the rulers a level of control not enjoyed by those of later periods. The three pyramids were initially cased in polished white limestone, that ancient witnesses said would give off a blinding light in the hot desert sun that could be seen from vast distances. Ironically, the only survivin g likeness of the great pharaoh who created the tallest pyramid is a hand - sized sculpture, now standing in a glass case in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Данная дата уточнена и соответствует 15 декабря 2706 ВС . В эту ночь царь Хуфу протянул свой шнур Сешат и начал строительство Великой Пирамиды, ставш ей в последствии Седьмым чудом света.