The typological organization of chaffinch song ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) Astakhov a O.A. (dissertation) 2006. The typological organization of chaffinch song ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) in population of Curonian spit • Singing for the majority of sparrow birds – the integral feature of their ability to live determining and building preparation and process of reproductive cycle (Lukanus , 1907 ; Darling , 1938 from Simkin , 1972 ) . At detailed studying of song repertoire of many sparrow species of bird it was revealed , that the individual has not only one , and also some number types of songs . Thus spring singing represents the multifunctional phenomenon (Simkin , 1972 ) and can carry various value . • I . Altum supposes , that singing – not only means of attra с tion of females , but also means of intimidation of the contender and delimitation of nested territory (Altum , 1868 from Simkin , 1972 ) . Variants or types of species song are individually various and distributed between individuals of a population (Slater et al . , 1980 ; McGregor and Krebs , 1982 ) . • Chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) is classical object of studying of becoming of vocal repertoire (Thorpe , 1958 ; Marler , 1956 ; Nottebohm , 19 6 7 ) and geographical variability species song in a population (Promptov , 1930 ; Sick , 1939 ; Thielcke , 1961 ; Simkin , 1983 ; Slater et al . , 1984 ) Our researches are directed on revealing of the typological organization of chaffinch song ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) on population of Curonian spit of Baltic sea . During the period from April, 15 till May, 10 , 2005 have been made recorder records singing males (N= 102 ) in area of biological research station “ Fringilla “ , where the density of chaffinch population was the greatest . Chaffinch song have been recorded in other areas of Curonian spit - by a settlement Sea (Morskoy), a settlement Fishing (Ribachiy), a settlement Wood (Lesnoy), between which on the average on 10 km (fig . 1 ) . Fig . 1. Map of Curonian spit of Baltic sea Principles of the analysis of structure chaffinch song ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) (with a support on literary references) • on perception on hearing the song was subdivided into three parts : the row (number) of whistle sounds (as if started singing) , sounds of trill (are as though pored each other) and a final stroke or terminal flourish (the example of the analysis is shown on more widespread song type C ) : fuit - fuit - fuit - fuit til - til - til - tel - tel chi - kuik • Within the limits of these parts of songs on sonogramms it is possible to allocate (design) the phrases (the elements similar under the form), in this case a trill includes two phrases ; • Elements (syllables) can be simple (the row of whistle sounds or started singing and 1 - st phrase of trill in type C) and complex (difficult), consisting of two and more subelements ( 2 - nd phrase of trill in type C) ; • Syllables (elements) are divided by intervals , but frequently shorter, than at phrases ; • A final stroke (flourish) in many types of songs will consist of elements (syllables), different under the form (it is possible, therefore it such sharp, remarkable, "bright" on hearing) . Principles of allocation (designate) of chaffinch types of songs ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) ( with a support on references ) The songs, which had similar two or completely three parts* (the row of whistle sounds, a trill, a final stroke or flourish) were considered as songs of one type . * - three parts of chaffinch song can be subdivided into phrases (the second order) (for example, the trill of song type C - previous page). For example, to song type Е carried the songs, similar on two phrases : The song type Е1 The song type Е2 To type A - songs (similar on two phrases): The song type А5 The song type А6 But the majority of song types is similar on all three phrases : The song type I 2 The song type I 3 The characteristic of repertoire of chaffinch males ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) It is possible to show an example characteristics of repertoire (sequence of song types) at one of chaffinch males, recorded in a point № 14 : R R E 2 R E 2 E 2 E 2 E 2 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R Е2 Е2 - Е2 Е2 Е2 Е2 Е2 Е2 Е2 Е2 Е2 Е2 Е2 R R E 2 R R R R R R E 2 E 2 Е2 R – 29 (56,9%) E 2 – 22 (43,14%), n = 51 In repertoire there are 2 types of songs: The song type R The song type Е2 The average size of chaffinch repertoire on Curonian spit of Baltic sea has been submitted by 2 - 3 types of songs ( max - 6 types of songs, min - 1 type of song). In repertoire of one individual could to meet both simple , and complex (difficult) songs. The combined (mixed) chaffinch types of songs ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) In the investigated population of chaffinch 22 types of songs have been revealed, 4 from which appeared rare (are found in 1 - 2 points) and 5 types of songs were combined (mixed in structure) (have consisted of phrases of different types of songs). Cases of a combination (mix up) of phrases in types of songs of different males (recorded in different areas of Curonian spit) are interesting: The song type Е2 (record in 14 - th point) The song type М1 (record in 11 - th point) Area of biological research station “ Fringilla " The song type ЕМ ( record in a settlement Wood or Lesnoy) At chaffinch the song has a genetic basis (species - specific features), but by training, improvisation , mistakes of copying constantly replenishes a variety of song types in a population (Slater et al., 1979, 1984; Ince et al., 1980; Jellis, 1977). . Improvisation in a combination (mix up) of song types in repertoire of one male (when from it the sequence of song types were recorded) is marked: The song type О5 ( record in 13 - th point) The song type С6 (record in 13 - th point) The song type ОС6 (record in 13 - th point) In points of territory (biological research stations " Fringilla " ) are recorded repertoire of males chaffinch (on the average from everyone n = 20 songs ). Microgeographical variability of chaffinch songs ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) of one type Microgeographical variability - variants (versions) of songs of one type fixed in different territories, distance between which on the average on 10 km. Songs of one type, recorded in a settlement Sea (Morskoy), a settlement Fishing (Ribachiy), in area of biological research station " Fringilla " and a settlement Wood (Lesnoy) were considered. The song type B The song type B (record in taste point, Fringilla) The song type В2 (record in a settlement Wood or Lesnoy) The song type В3 (record in a settlement Sea or Morskoy) The song type C The song type С1 (record in a settlement Fishing or Ribachiy) The song type С3 (record in 8 - th point, Fringilla) The song type С8 (record in a settlement Wood or Lesnoy) The song type С*13 (record in a settlement Sea or Morskoy) The song type G The song type G (record in a settlement Fishing or Ribachiy) The song type G2 (record in a settlement Wood or Lesnoy) The song type G3 (record in 33 - th point, Fringilla) Despite of seen similarity sonograms of songs of one type, at their measurement (with the help of computer program Avisoft - SASLab ) some differences in time - and - frequency parameters nevertheless come to light. Results are reflected in the table. The table. The basic time - and - frequency parameters of song type G Type of song (token ) The name of a place of record The length of song , sec Min frequency , К Hz Max frequency , К Hz Median (average) frequency, К Hz Number of syllables in song type Length of syllables (trill) , sec* Intervals between songs , sec 1 phrase 2 phrase G 1 Settl. Fishing 2,72 ± 0,18 1,47 ± 0,09 8,65 ± 0,67 3,89 ± 0,125 18,2 ± 0,97 0,076 ± 0,004 0,165 ± 0,008 4,94 ± 1,15 G 2 Settl. Wood 2,3 ± 0,21 1,54 ± 0,14 7,9 ± 0,49 3,76 ± 0,17 16,2 ± 1,8 0,064 ± 0,005 0,156 ± 0,012 9,43 ± 8,14 G 3 Station Fringilla 2,46 ± 0,02 1,58 ± 0,077 8,23 ± 0,6 3,72 ± 0,094 17 ± 0 0,067 ± 0,002 0,15 ± 0,004 8,64 ± 0,8 The note: average value and a standard deviation of parameters of song types from statistical calculations for all songs of one type which were reproduced of males chaffinch in the given points of record are specified; the strongest differences counted a difference of parameters >0,5 К Hz in frequency and >0,02 sec in length (are allocated or distinguish by a font); * - the trill of song type G will consist of two phrases. Basically, songs such as G differed on length , number of syllables and intervals between songs . Some difference of values and in the maximal frequency has come to light . At the majority of the song types measured by us - similar results, but character of variability can be miscellaneous. 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