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The typological organization of chaffinch song (
Fringilla coelebs L
.
)
Astakhov
a
O.A. (dissertation) 2006.
The typological organization of chaffinch song (
Fringilla coelebs L
.
) in population of Curonian spit
•
Singing
for
the
majority
of
sparrow
birds
–
the
integral
feature
of
their
ability
to
live
determining
and
building
preparation
and
process
of
reproductive
cycle
(Lukanus
,
1907
;
Darling
,
1938
from
Simkin
,
1972
)
.
At
detailed
studying
of
song
repertoire
of
many
sparrow
species
of
bird
it
was
revealed
,
that
the
individual
has
not
only
one
,
and
also
some
number
types
of
songs
.
Thus
spring
singing
represents
the
multifunctional
phenomenon
(Simkin
,
1972
)
and
can
carry
various
value
.
•
I
.
Altum
supposes
,
that
singing
–
not
only
means
of
attra
с
tion
of
females
,
but
also
means
of
intimidation
of
the
contender
and
delimitation
of
nested
territory
(Altum
,
1868
from
Simkin
,
1972
)
.
Variants
or
types
of
species
song
are
individually
various
and
distributed
between
individuals
of
a
population
(Slater
et
al
.
,
1980
;
McGregor
and
Krebs
,
1982
)
.
•
Chaffinch
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
is
classical
object
of
studying
of
becoming
of
vocal
repertoire
(Thorpe
,
1958
;
Marler
,
1956
;
Nottebohm
,
19
6
7
)
and
geographical
variability
species
song
in
a
population
(Promptov
,
1930
;
Sick
,
1939
;
Thielcke
,
1961
;
Simkin
,
1983
;
Slater
et
al
.
,
1984
)
Our
researches
are
directed
on
revealing
of
the
typological
organization
of
chaffinch
song
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
on
population
of
Curonian
spit
of
Baltic
sea
.
During
the
period
from
April,
15
till
May,
10
,
2005
have
been
made
recorder
records
singing
males
(N=
102
)
in
area
of
biological
research
station
“
Fringilla
“
,
where
the
density
of
chaffinch
population
was
the
greatest
.
Chaffinch
song
have
been
recorded
in
other
areas
of
Curonian
spit
-
by
a
settlement
Sea
(Morskoy),
a
settlement
Fishing
(Ribachiy),
a
settlement
Wood
(Lesnoy),
between
which
on
the
average
on
10
km
(fig
.
1
)
.
Fig
. 1.
Map of Curonian spit
of Baltic sea
Principles of the analysis of
structure chaffinch
song
(
Fringilla coelebs L
.
) (with a support on literary references)
•
on
perception
on
hearing
the
song
was
subdivided
into
three
parts
:
the
row
(number)
of
whistle
sounds
(as
if
started
singing)
,
sounds
of
trill
(are
as
though
pored
each
other)
and
a
final
stroke
or
terminal
flourish
(the
example
of
the
analysis
is
shown
on
more
widespread
song
type
C
)
:
fuit
-
fuit
-
fuit
-
fuit
til
-
til
-
til
-
tel
-
tel
chi
-
kuik
•
Within
the
limits
of
these
parts
of
songs
on
sonogramms
it
is
possible
to
allocate
(design)
the
phrases
(the
elements
similar
under
the
form),
in
this
case
a
trill
includes
two
phrases
;
•
Elements
(syllables)
can
be
simple
(the
row
of
whistle
sounds
or
started
singing
and
1
-
st
phrase
of
trill
in
type
C)
and
complex
(difficult),
consisting
of
two
and
more
subelements
(
2
-
nd
phrase
of
trill
in
type
C)
;
•
Syllables
(elements)
are
divided
by
intervals
,
but
frequently
shorter,
than
at
phrases
;
•
A
final
stroke
(flourish)
in
many
types
of
songs
will
consist
of
elements
(syllables),
different
under
the
form
(it
is
possible,
therefore
it
such
sharp,
remarkable,
"bright"
on
hearing)
.
Principles of allocation (designate) of chaffinch types of songs (
Fringilla coelebs L
.
)
(
with a support on references
)
The songs, which had similar
two
or completely three parts*
(the row of whistle sounds, a trill, a final stroke or flourish) were considered
as songs of one type
.
* -
three parts of chaffinch song can be subdivided into phrases (the second order)
(for example, the trill of song type C -
previous page).
For example,
to song type Е
carried the songs, similar
on two phrases
:
The song
type Е1
The song
type Е2
To
type A
-
songs (similar on
two
phrases):
The song type А5
The song type А6
But the majority of song types is similar on
all three phrases
:
The song
type I 2
The song type I 3
The characteristic of repertoire of chaffinch males (
Fringilla coelebs L
.
)
It is possible to show an example characteristics
of repertoire (sequence of song types)
at one of chaffinch
males, recorded in a point №
14
:
R
R
E
2 R
E
2 E
2 E
2 E
2 R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Е2 Е2
-
Е2 Е2 Е2 Е2 Е2 Е2 Е2 Е2 Е2 Е2 Е2 R
R
E
2 R
R
R
R
R
R
E
2 E
2 Е2
R
–
29 (56,9%)
E
2 –
22 (43,14%), n
= 51
In repertoire there are 2 types of songs: The song
type R
The song type Е2
The average size
of chaffinch repertoire on Curonian spit of Baltic sea has been submitted
by 2
-
3 types
of songs (
max
-
6 types of songs,
min
-
1 type of song). In repertoire of one individual could to meet both simple
, and
complex (difficult)
songs.
The combined (mixed) chaffinch types of songs (
Fringilla coelebs L
.
)
In the investigated population of chaffinch 22 types of songs
have been revealed, 4 from which appeared rare (are found in 1
-
2 points) and 5 types of songs were combined (mixed in structure) (have consisted of phrases of different types of songs).
Cases
of a combination (mix up) of phrases
in types of songs
of different
males (recorded in different areas of Curonian spit) are interesting:
The song
type Е2 (record in 14
-
th point) The song type М1 (record in 11
-
th point) Area of biological research station “
Fringilla
"
The song type ЕМ (
record in a settlement Wood or Lesnoy)
At chaffinch
the song has
a genetic basis
(species
-
specific features), but by training,
improvisation
,
mistakes of copying constantly replenishes
a variety of song types in a population
(Slater et al., 1979, 1984; Ince et al., 1980; Jellis, 1977).
.
Improvisation in a combination (mix up) of song types
in repertoire
of one
male
(when from it the sequence of song types were recorded) is marked:
The song
type О5 (
record in 13
-
th point) The song
type С6 (record in 13
-
th point)
The song type ОС6 (record in 13
-
th point)
In points of territory (biological research stations
"
Fringilla
"
)
are recorded repertoire of males chaffinch (on the average from everyone
n = 20 songs
).
Microgeographical variability of chaffinch songs (
Fringilla coelebs L
.
)
of one type
Microgeographical variability
-
variants (versions) of songs of one type fixed in different territories, distance between which on the average on 10 km.
Songs of one type, recorded in a settlement Sea (Morskoy), a settlement Fishing (Ribachiy), in area of biological research station "
Fringilla
" and a settlement Wood (Lesnoy) were considered. The song type B
The song type B (record in taste point, Fringilla)
The song
type В2 (record in a settlement Wood or Lesnoy)
The song
type В3 (record in a settlement Sea or Morskoy)
The song type C
The song
type С1 (record in a settlement Fishing or Ribachiy)
The song
type С3 (record in 8
-
th point, Fringilla)
The song type С8 (record in a settlement Wood or Lesnoy)
The song
type С*13 (record in a settlement Sea or Morskoy)
The song type G
The song
type G (record in a settlement Fishing or Ribachiy)
The song
type G2 (record in a settlement Wood or Lesnoy)
The song
type G3 (record in 33
-
th point, Fringilla)
Despite of seen similarity sonograms of songs of one type, at their measurement (with the help of computer program Avisoft
-
SASLab
) some differences in time
-
and
-
frequency parameters nevertheless come to light. Results are reflected in the table. The table.
The basic time
-
and
-
frequency parameters of song type G
Type of song (token
)
The name of a place of record
The length of song
, sec
Min frequency
, К
Hz
Max frequency
, К
Hz
Median (average) frequency, К
Hz
Number of syllables in song
type
Length of syllables (trill)
, sec*
Intervals between songs
,
sec
1
phrase
2
phrase
G
1
Settl. Fishing 2,72
±
0,18
1,47
±
0,09
8,65
±
0,67
3,89
±
0,125
18,2
±
0,97
0,076
±
0,004
0,165
±
0,008
4,94
±
1,15
G
2
Settl.
Wood
2,3
±
0,21
1,54
±
0,14
7,9
±
0,49
3,76
±
0,17
16,2
±
1,8
0,064
±
0,005
0,156
±
0,012
9,43
±
8,14
G
3
Station
Fringilla
2,46
±
0,02
1,58
±
0,077
8,23
±
0,6
3,72
±
0,094
17
±
0
0,067
±
0,002
0,15
±
0,004
8,64
±
0,8
The note: average value and a standard deviation of parameters of song types from statistical calculations for all songs of one type which were reproduced of males chaffinch in the given points of record are specified; the strongest differences counted a difference of parameters >0,5 К
Hz
in frequency and >0,02 sec
in length (are allocated or distinguish by a font); * -
the trill of song type G will consist of two phrases.
Basically, songs such as G differed on
length
,
number of syllables
and
intervals between songs
. Some difference of values and in
the maximal frequency
has come to light
.
At the majority of the song types measured by us -
similar results, but character of variability can be miscellaneous.
Thus, in population
of Curonian spit of Baltic sea it has been revealed the typological organization of chaffinch song (
Fringilla coelebs L
.
) and
insignificant microgeographical variability
of songs of one type at their
qualitative
and
quantitative
(the basic time
-
and
-
frequency parameters)
the analysis
.
The literature
•
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•
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.
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.
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.
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The end !
Автор
Olesya Astakhova
Документ
Категория
Зоология
Просмотров
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Размер файла
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Теги
song, chaffinch, organization, typological
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