Assumptions of evolution of chaffinch song ( Fringilla coelebs L.) at comparison with a song of other finch ( Fringilla montifringilla ) Modification of song type C in populations of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) Astakhova O.A. (dissertation) 2008. Fig. 1. Representatives of one group or genus of Finches (Fringilla): A – chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.), B – b rambling ( Fringilla montifringilla ); 1 – female , 2 – male . Family of Finches (Fringillidae) B irds is small and average on size. A constitution is dense, a beak is conic, rather massive. In fauna of Russia the family is submitted by 35 species . Brambling ( Fringilla montifringilla ) In size as a sparrow. The back side is bluish - black, the under of tail is white, a throat, a craw and a breast are bright - red, abdomin ( bottom side) is white. On a wing are white and orange strips. Female is less brightly. The bird of passage (migrate) . Inhabit in a southern half of forest - tundra and a wood zone (forest) from Kol skiy peninsula up to coast of Ohotsk iy sea . The nest arranges on a tree. In a laying of 5 - 7 greenish eggs with red - violet specks. A voice - sharp " chzhee " and a rough song " chzhzhzh ". Chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) In size as a sparrow. Male have grey - dark blue top of a head, a back is chestnut, a forehead is black, the bottom party (side) of a body is red - brown. Wings and a tail are black - brown, strips on each side of a tail and on shoulders are white. Female is буро - grey. The bird of passage (migrate) . Occupies wood (forest) and forest - steppe zones from the western borders of Russia up to lake Baikal. The nest builds on a tree. In a laying of 4 - 7 bluish - green eggs with specks and strips. A voice - sonorous " pink - pink " and a loud song - a trill " fyu - fyu - fyu - lya - lya - lya - di - di - di - vi - chiu ". White strips on wings (a characteristic attribute) are well visible. Both species ( chaffinch and brambling ) are well defined (determined) on characteristic color of feathers ( Hrabriy , 2006). Fig. 4 . Blue chaffinch ( Fringilla teydea ) on Canary islands (Tenerife, Grand Canary) (Bergmann, 1993). Fig. 2 . Sonograms of songs of representatives of different species of one group or genus of Finches (Fringilla) and subspecies of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.), recorded in different points of the Earth : A – England, B – Northern Africa, C, D – Canary islands, E – Sweden ( Thorpe, 1958 ). Fig. 3. Subspecies of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) on Canary islands (northwest of Africa) – chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs tintillon ) (Bergmann, 1993). General characteristic of chaffinch singing ( Fringilla coelebs L. ) • Species specific song of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) - one of most clear examples of display (expression) of geographical and individual vocal variability , though at many other species of birds (Aves) distinction of geographical and individual patterns of species specific song also can be distinctly revealed, especially on sonograms ( graphic representations of sound elements ), even if vocalizations of some species of birds are completely genetically hereditary (Charadriiformes,Corvidae, Anseriformes, etc . ) (Miller, 1996 ; Bretagnolle, 1996 ) . But chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) belong (relation) to species of birds from group of Sparrow (Passeriformes ) and famil y of Finches (Fringillidae ) , which have social traditions of song training (learning ), which are passing (transition) from father to son (from one generation to next) and capable to change (Catchpole, Slater, 1995 ) . • Species s pecific song of chaffinch is hereditary fixed in such features as certain frequency range (К Hz ), duration of song pattern ( sec ), intervals ( sec ) between these song types , repeating one after another at singing of male , and also the general song structure is inherited (character of division into elements, a rhythm of song ) . Therefore at exit from eggs in a nest and at activation by songs of parents , young male is capable to form at first (begin) song pattern , which homogeneous in elements (as well as at all young individuals of chaffinch in first year of their life ), and then, perceiving the own singing and singing of surrounding adult males (not only of their parents), complicates the song in forms of elements, in the general(common) structure - the song of male gets the form of a stable species specific vocal pattern (usually consisting of three parts or phrases - started singing, a trill, a final stroke ), characteristic for all adult males of chaffinch . Females of chaffinch have species specific song , which is poorly structured , probably, as a result of uselessness of their vocal realization and economy of energy for other vital functions (Thorpe, 1958 ; Marler, 1956 ; Nottebohm, 1967 ) . • Thus song training or learning (copying of songs from surrounding individuals of species ) at males of chaffinch can occur far from a place of nesting , where was born , as a result of a local territorial dispersion (movings) - natal ( postnesting ) dispersions, when young male for the first time begins flights on small distances within the limits of a local population and in the next years of lives after the big migrations , at result of which the male could appear and also in other local and geographical populations , remote from his(its) "native land " on 100 - 1000 km (the Sokolov, 1980 ; Espmark et al . , 1989 ) . Therefore frequently males of chaffinch in first year of their life have the plastic, astable species specific songs , capable to change and form different song variants - types of songs . In repertoire of one male there can be 1 - 6 ( 10 ) types of songs , but frequently sing only 2 - 3 types of songs . And in a local population of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) i t is possible to meet on the average 20 different types of songs . A number (line or row ) of males in a population can execute (performance) at singing the same (one) song type , but with individual specific features (Marler, 1952 ; Slater, 1981 ; Bergmann, 1993 ) . • It is known, that the species specific song of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) has significant individual variability (distinctions between individuals and at singing one male ) and geographica l (between individuals or males on distance - in the remote territories) variability . Vocal variability of chaffinch is reached (achieved) by " mistakes" of copying at song training (learning) in sensitive (perceiving) period of young males (the first year of a life) from the senior (older) generation, and also at improvisations at singing (change of phonetics or a pronunciation of song elements, rearrangement of song parts, their combination (mix up) from different songs of other males ), but types of songs are stabilized and do not change in more advanced age of males . • Appearing as a result of migrations in different populations , males of chaffinch at singing "adapt" to each other , copying from each other songs of different types , characteristic for that local or geographical population , in which appeared . At countersinging ( "roll call" of males usual ly by the general (common) songs in "communicative" groups) adult individuals of chaffinch form (create) the final ly , fixed, stable forms of species specific song in their song repertoir e s (the period of song crystallizatio n ) . At some species of birds of this period of fastening (stabilization) of species specific song does not occur, and individuals are capable to alter (change) song forms by song improvisation during all life (Slater et al . , 1980 ; Jellis, 1977 ; Kroodsma, 1996 ) . • Thus, in different populations of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) mix ing of set (plural) different types (variants) of species specific song occurs , and that song types also can change (modificate) by males at song improvisations, at "mistakes" of copying - to create new variants or types of songs (distinguished or different in the form of elements, but, nevertheless, having of similar general (common) features) . Further, these song types of chaffinch in a population are transferred at song training (learning) to younger generation , which, in turn, having adopted and having altered those types of songs , will transfer their to following generation , probably, already in other populations , remote on the big distances (Catchpole, Slater, 1995 ; Kroodsma et al . , 1982 ) . • Within the limits of one species of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) (determined, probably, first of all by genetic criterion) allocate (distinguish) 13 subspecies on an area of distribution of a species (Dementyev, 1954 ) . The given subspecies of chaffinch can be geographical races (the remote populations), but, nevertheless, they hav e big zones of contact at the migrations, they overlap, cooperat e , they have (shar e ) the general (common), similar species specific attributes (signs) , but which also differ, are original (distinguish) in many respects . Their variability can be shown in a variation of character of the general (common) color of feather , in its(her) i ntensity , in the general (common) sizes of a body , in the form and the size of a beak (Dementyev, 1954 , Stepanyan, 2003 ) . Character of species specific song of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) is capable to change, but on the general (common) species specific basis (Bergmann, 1993 ) (fig . 2 ) . Fig. 5. А udience model of development of song samples (patterns) in the ontogenesis (during life) of singing birds ( Slater, 1983d ). Song training (or learning) of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) Fig. 6. Sonograms of song at typical wild chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) and song of chaffinch, brought up i n isolation (Slater, 1989). Fig. 8. Sonograms of two different types of songs from repertoir e of chaffinch male ( Fringilla coelebs L.); also division of song on (into) phrases, syllables and elements is shown ( Slater, Ince, 1979 ) . Fig. 7. Songs of young males of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.), brought up in isolation ( the letters are specified sonograms of songs from different individuals). The frequency rank of species specific song is kept (preserve) , but song structure is indistinct, poorly divided (s eparate) into departments (section, phrases), the elements of songs are badly (weak) differentiated , a final stroke is absent or is distinguished hardly up ( Thorpe, 1958 ). Principles of the analysis of structure chaffinch song ( Fringilla coelebs L .) ( our view with a support on literary references ) (Astakhova, Byome, 2007) • on perception on hearing the song was subdivided into three parts : the row (number) of whistle sounds (as if started singing) , sounds of trill (are as though pored each other) and a final stroke or terminal flourish (the example of the analysis is shown on more widespread song type C ) : fuit - fuit - fuit - fuit til - til - til - tel - tel chi - kuik • Within the limits of these parts of songs on sonogramms it is possible to allocate (design, mark) the phrases (the elements similar under the form), in this case a trill includes two phrases ; • Elements (syllables) can be simple (the row of whistle sounds and 1 - st phrase of trill in type C) and complex (difficult), consisting of two and more subelements ( 2 - nd phrase of trill in type C) ; • Syllables (elements) are divided by intervals , but frequently shorter, than at phrases ; • A final stroke (flourish) in many types of songs will consist of elements (syllables), different under the form (it is possible, therefore it such sharp, remarkable, "bright" on hearing) . Song str u cture of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) Fig. 9. Songs of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.): (а) the typical stanzas (strophe or line), which have been recorded near the Cambridge (England) in territory of nesting of chaffinch, where experiment of song training or learning was carried out (was spent) (Thorpe, 1958); (b) the diagrams of two typical stanzas (strophes) of chaffinch - lines represent the basic sections (departments), and circles - elements of a final phrase (stroke) ( Marler, 1956 ). Fig. 10. Structure of chaffinch song ( Fringilla coelebs gengleri ), living (inhabit) in England ( Thorpe, 1958 ). Fig. 11. Time of record and the analysis of song structure of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) in Germany ( Bergmann, Helb, 1982 ). Different song types of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) in a population Fig. 12. Songs - stanzas (strophes, lines) of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.). (а) and (d) from same (one) male , (b) and (c) from another (second) male . (а) and (b) - stanzas (lines) (songs) of one type, (с) and (d) - different types. (а), (b) and (e) have a particle is " kit " (additional element ) at the end of a stanza (strophe, line) ; (f) and (g) have variants of " kit " ( additional element) . The songs a re recorded in different places: (а - d) a southwest of Germany, (е) Austria, (f, g) Dolomite ( Thielcke, 1969 ). Fig. 13. Song types of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) of the center and the south of the European Russia and the Ukraine , which has been recorded in different ecological places (biotops ) ( Simkin, 1983 ): 1 a - a fir forest; 1 b - d - a birch wood (forest); e - a pine wood (forest); 1 f - a oak wood (forest) ; 1 g - a taiga (a pine wood). Southern chaffinch : 2 a - oak groves (Uzhgorod), 2 b - oak groves (Melitopol), 2 c - Kerch, 2 d - Krasnodar, 2 e , f - Chernovtsy (birch - fir forest). 1 2 1 . 2. 3. 4 . 5. 6. Fig. 14. Most widespread song types of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs L .) in populations of the central part of the European Russia (Astakhova, Byome, 2007): 1 – song type C, 2 – song type C # , 3 – song type I, 4 – song type J, 5 – song type A, 6 – song type B (different types of songs we have marked by latin letter). Variability of calls or voices (simple sounds) of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) Fig. 15. Geographical variability of a call (voice) " hyut " of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) in different local populations of Europe ( Thielcke, 1969 ). Fig. 17. Different types of calls (voices) and their variability in local populations of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) in researched territory in Germany; there are combinations (mixing) of calls (voices) " hyut - dschad " ( Bergmann, 1993 ). Fig. 16. Different types and variability of calls (voices) of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) on sonograms : d - the West of France (1976); i - Denmark (1980); k - the West of Germany (1979); m - island of Crete (1983), n - island of Tenerife, Canary islands ( Fringilla c. tintillon ) (1989), o - island of Las Palmas , Canary islands ( Fringilla c. palmae ) (1991), p - calls (voices) " hyut " and " wrud " (Germany), r - rain call ( ryumin ) of chaffinch in cloudy or cool weather (Germany) (1983) ( Bergmann, 1993 ). Process of evolution of chaffinch song ( Fringilla coelebs L.) Fig. 18. Evolution of song types of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) in a population . Numbers - song types of chaffinch ; arrows (pointers ) - transfer (transmission) of song types to the following generation (young individuals) by song training or learning (copying ); the numbers, which have been signed round by three forms of figures (a circle, a square, a triangle) - initial song types (at the senior or older individuals) in a population; figures in green triangles - song types of chaffinch, taught (learnt) by posterity without mistakes and improvisations , are kept in a population without changes ; the numbers, which have been signed round by dark blue circle - unlearned (were not coped) types of songs by the following generation in a population of chaffinch ; numb e r s in a red square - song types of chaffinch, taught (learnt) by posterity with mistakes (or with improvisation at singing); numbers in a red circle - the modified song types being a new forms of song in a population ( a cultural mutation ) (Catchpole, 1995 ). The answer by the same (one) song typ e 16,8% 9,5% Song type F Song type BF The answer by a song, similar on sounding (motifs) The vocal adaptation of chaffinch males ( Fringilla coelebs L.) in a population As males of chaffinch are usually numerous in local populations , can form "communicative" groups at antiphonal singing or countersinging ( "roll call" of males frequently by the general (common) song types ). Thus , there is a transfer of species specific songs at training ( learning ) from the senior (older) generation to young individuals (next generation ) and, thus, the vocal tradition of a species is supported at aggregate (set, complex) of song types (variants), as components of song culture . Thus , young males of one year of birth also can "train" each other at countersinging in different types of species specific song , exchanging by them, probably, altering (change) of them (Nottebohm, 1967; Jellis, 1977). Scripts (scheme) of intraspecific song interactions of chaffinch males ( Yablonovska - Grishenko, 2006 ) The answer by universal song type (most widespread) 43,2% 30,5% Song type J Song type В Song type М Opposition of very unsimilar (different) or more complex (difficult) song type Therefore in each local population of chaffinch (in the certain territory is abou t 1 - 5 km 2 ) can develop (to be formed) special local song (vocal) culture - distinguished (different, special) ways of singing or a pronunciation of different song types (each of them ), their elements . Such local cultures of song at chaffinch can differ in different local populations and consist of an original (distinguished, special) set (complex) and a parity (ratio) (%) of the similar or dialect (modified) types of species specific song . As a result of it, probably, different, remote on the big distances, groups of chaffinch males (for example, geographical populations of a species ) can have considerably distinguished (different) cultures of song (vocal) ( set of types of songs ), but keeping (preserve) general (common) species specific criteria of a vocal pattern (Marler, 1952; Thielcke, 1969; Slater et al., 1984; Simkin, 1983, 1988; Bergmann, 1993; Mundinger, 1982). Countersinging males of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) (Astakhov a , Byome , 2007) Fig. Countersinging males of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) by different, but by the general (common) (similar) types of songs - three cases: A, B, C (though there is a lot of cases of countersinging by the same song types). As males of chaffinch are usually numerous in local populations, than they can form "communicative" groups at antiphon singing or countersinging (call of males frequently by the general (common) types of songs). Thus there is a transfer of species specific song at training (song learning) from the senior (older) generation to younger and, thus, the vocal tradition of the species in aggregate of song types (variants), song components is supported (kept, memory). Thus young males (of the same year of life) also can "train" at countersinging each other in different types of species specific song, exchanging by them, probably, altering (changing) them (Nottebohm, 1967; Jellis, 1977). + • In many literary references in bioacoustics of birds, the view (themes) is described about formation of original (special) vocal traditions of birds in their different local and geographical populations - that is, there is a distinction between sets (complex) of different types of species specific song in the geographical populations , remote from each other . Even if types of species specific song of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) can differ inside a geographical population in aggregate (set, complex ) they are capable to reflect in the structure some features of a climate, geology (mountains or plains) , character of vegetation of district - and, thus, to form special local culture of vocal ( song ) (ways of singing of species specific song), distinguished (different) from vocal culture of chaffinch in other geographical population (Thielcke, 1969 ; Slater, Ince, 1979 ; Slater et al . , 1984 ; Simkin, 1983 ; Mundinger, 1982 ) . • Thus, in different geographical populations of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) from one generation to next generation can develop (to be formed) distinguished (different) traditions of vocal ( song ) , probably, giving rise ( beginning) for new forms (norms) of species s pecific song or beginning for distinguished (special) vocalizations of new species of birds . • Stability of song culture (set or complex of song types) in a population of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) during time and on space , probably, is a result of precise or certain (determined) "social" traditions of song learning : training of species specific song by individuals of chaffinch in the first years of a life at singing of grown - ups (older) males , and antiphonal singing ( "roll call" by the general (common) songs), the song adaptation (change, transition of plastic song in (to) the stable form) to each other by a generality of song types , by their similarity in "communicative" groups at young males of chaffinch – as between males, having of the same age , at individuals after the first year of a life , and with grown - ups ( older) males . Also stability of species specific song is shown as result of selective individual training (copying ) of species specific song by individuals of chaffinch in sensitive period at young age ( the first year of a life ), and also in this case the significant hereditary predefiniteness (determinancy) of parameters of species specific song of chaffinch especially influences (a frequency range and a rhythm, general structure of songs ) by genetic inclinations of display (expression) of mentality (psychica ) (its(her) rudiments at birds), which is capable to change owing to action of "social" traditions of song learning (" mistakes" of copying ) and the individual improvisations in the species specific song ( in depending on "creative" potential ) of individuals of chaffinch at singing (at realization of types of species specific song) . Conclusions from researches of chaffinch song ( Fringilla coelebs L.) (Astakhov a , Byome , 2007) • Song types ( in th eir set or complex ) in one geographical population of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) differ from set ( or complex ) of different song types in another remote on the big distances ( 1000 - 1800 km) geographical population on the following quantitative (time - and - frequency) parameters : length (duration) of songs ( sec ), number of syllables in songs, intervals between songs (sec) . On the same parameters the song types differ among themselves and at individual variability (at individuals of chaffinch in one local population or in repertoir e of one male ) . So , it is possible, that population level of the song organization of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) is reflection (display or repeat ) of individual level of his(its) song organization , because similarity of distinctions of chaffinch song types comes to light (reveal) in different biological scales . • In migratory ("flying") populations of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) in wide territories (East European plain) the effect "cumulative" song cultures was observed (revealed), which could include a plenty of the "combined" types of songs (consisting of phrases or parts of different other types of songs) and was indistinctly , is not thin (not determined ) expressed in song structure and forms of elements of song types, that, probably, was the adaptation to the greater plasticity (changeability) of types of songs at their adaptation to local song culture in process of song training or learning ( copying of species specific song of chaffinch , local ways of its(her) singing , phonetic variants of different song types ) . While at nesting populations of chaffinch (residents) the types of songs were characterized by clearness, a subtlety (definiteness) in structure, the form of elements (fig . 26 ) . • In northern population of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) ( Curonian spit , the coast of Baltic sea) the species specific song was characterized by smaller length (duration) ( sec ) and lower frequency range (К Hz ), than in a southern population of chaffinch (Crimea ) - it is probable, the reason for this is the cold climate of the north , capable to lower a metabolism of an organism and compelling to save (to economy ) of forces (energy) at realization (execution or performance, singing) of songs . • A lot of " dialect " (modified ) and " subdialect " (a little modified ) in the structure (the form of elements) of general (common) (similar) types of songs were appeared in those local and geographical (more removed) populations of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) , which were in big (closer) communications (connections) among themselves ( by migrations - fig . 26 , at having of smaller distances of an arrangement to each other) . • A lot of subdialects (small phonetic changes) of general (common) song types of chaffinch is found in those populations , which were more contacted to each other ( by migrations , smaller distances among themselves (more closely)) and they formed one (uniform) subspecies of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs coelebs L . ) . While in less contacted populations of chaffinch (the geographical populations , removed on the big distances - 1500 - 1800 km, can concern or relate to different subspecies of chaffinch ) w ere observed (revealed) a lot of original types of songs ( few similar , dialect, not having analogues ) , determining a degree of “ a lien" of song cultures (their distinction) at given populations of chaffinch . • To individual and geographical variability in the greater degree are subjected started singing (an initial part) and a final stroke of species specific song of chaffinch , than a trill (an average, basic part) , which is more stable in quantitative and qualitative parameters . The big variability of started singing and a final stroke of chaffinch song ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) i t is possible to explain , that these parts of species specific song are poorly and indistinctly audible at singing of males in populations (an illegibility of structure of a sonorous, sharp final stroke , probably, because of his(its) brevity ), therefore at song training (learning ) and at singing of chaffinch the started singing (more silent ) and a final stroke (shorter ) more exposed and give chance to the greater song improvisations or to mistakes of copying as in the form of elements ( qualitative aspect ), and time - and - frequency parameters . While the trill is more stable in quantitative and qualitative parameters at individuals of chaffinch in different geographical populations , because in the greater degree it is genetically determined (in beat , the general (common) song structure , a frequency range ) and more audibl e at execution (performance) of species specific song by males of chaffinch , as the trill is an average , basic part of songs . • Singing of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) – the feature (sign) is parallelly in the development to others attributes (signs) of this species (morphological, genetic, physiological, ecological, geographical) though, certainly, in many respects together with them forms a single whole , but, nevertheless, equally with these attributes (signs ), a song of chaffinch also develop on the special laws , is differentiated (changes on the basis of initial " ancestors " song forms and "relatives" song lines during time and on space), creates separate steady song norms (set of the most widespread song types), consisting of vocal lines of similar , but also distinguished (different ) song variants of one type , forming certain typological vocal polymorphism , from which proceed many other polymorphic branches (or big trunks) of more distant or more close «on relationship» lines of song culture ( a variety of song types , a manner or ways of execution (performance) at singing their structure, separate elements, phrases ) (fig . * ) . • « Song cultures » ( set of song types, their certain percentage parity (ratio ) ) in local populations of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) gradually (smoothly) pass (transition ) to each other on all a species specific area : the " intermediate " condition of song culture of chaffinch in a separate local population can confirm interrelation and a continuity of song types of chaffinch , their smooth (gradual) transition in the variability from one type ( song forms, a pattern) in (to) another song type (the form, a pattern) on all area (territory ) of distribution of a species . • Whether the species specific song of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) is criterion of process of speciation (separation) of species and a is characteristic attribute of subspecies and other formed groups of birds? Probably, as well as any species specific attribute (sign) , a song of chaffinch it is capable to be steady at the certain norm , but within the limits of any norm can and vary at individual and geographical variability of individuals in populations, at their special song cultures in aggregate (which represent the original or distinguish set and a parity (ratio) ( % ) types or variants of species specific song) . Thus it is necessary to take into account, that these distinguished (different) song cultures of chaffinch in different populations will consist of constantly mixing up types of songs of these different populations , where they change or remain constant , being transferred to the following generation (fig . *) . Fig. * . C haracter of evolution as " net " (from N. N. Iordansk iy , 2001). Any evolutionary trunk is formed by filetical (development or evolutionary ) lines (AE, AH, AG, AF, BF) , which branch out or diverge and again merge (converge); sections of filetical (development) lines are divided by “area of time ” (T1, T2) - biological species ( also as species - specific vocalizations); parts of filetical ( evolutionary ) lines MN and PQ represen ted in the paleontologic al annals - paleontologic al species . • The unity of the general (common) and differing in species specific song of chaffinch is same as and at any attribute (sign) of a species . But formation of new song norms (tradition ) within the limits of which there will be the new other variation , which is distinct from character of variability of former norm of species specific song , can be shown more on level of population and a speci es of birds (at occurrence of separate different close species of birds) . • But when species specific populations are uniform enough and form a single whole - difficultly to speak about formation of separate independent song norms . Most likely, on all a species specific area of distribution of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) there can be smooth (gradual) transitions from one vocal norm in another or also combination (mix up) of these song norms as a result of migrations of birds , and then there can be a formation of one or several combined song cultures (including cultures of set or many ), as occurs in species specific populations of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ), without dependence from to what subspecies it(he) concerns . • It is possible, that more frequently evolution occurs in time , instea d of in space - and the species specific song of chaffinch here can be an example . During time , variants or types of song at chaffinch can form the certain variation numbers (lines ), philetical (evolutionary ), frequently the crossed , vocal lines , representing more and more new distinguished (different ) , but also similar vocal forms , also including and former, initial types of songs (fig . *) . • At the quantitative analysis have been revealed less stable features of species specific song of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L . ) which, probably, and in the greater degree will change at formation of new vocal norms (basically it concerns fine or small details of song - length and intervals of elements songs, song parts and phrases, probably, their quantity), rather than those song parameters and their correlations , which appeared more stable (a frequency range, character of singing of song pattern and intervals between them, some form of a pronunciation of elements), that also is capable to change . Fig. **. A degree of similarity of different chaffinch song types ( Fringilla coelebs L.) under the basic forms of elements (syllables) in populations of European Russia (Astakhova, Byome, 2007) Lines of vocal development (vocal lines ) - a number (line) of song types, similar on the structure, "related" vocal forms by origin, probably, generated (formed) at change and transition of one song type in other song type, can represent result of differentiation (modification) of one initial (" ancestor ") song type (on fig . ** are vocal lines of chaffinch - types of songs are close on similarity (more similar) - U I A , V M F D , T S E B , W N H G R , J O C ). At results (at support) of dendrogram of similarities of song types of chaffinch e uropean ( Fringilla coelebs coelebs L.) (fig. **), it is possible to make conclusion, what types of songs more differ from the others , and what song types of chaffinch " are more related " ( are close) with each other in the origin , and which of song types create (f orm ) separate evolutionary trunks ( fig . *) of the vocal lines , crossed and differentiated again and again. Also it is possible to make attempt to reveal the most ancient vocal forms of song at chaffinch e uropean ( Fringilla coelebs coelebs L.), i t is possible to tell, song types - "ancestors " of separate evolutionary vocal trunks (fig. *) of species specific song of chaffinch , existing now . Probably, direct (similar) descendants of ancient forms of chaffinch song are types of songs J, O, C, V, A, R ( fig . ***). Probably, these song types represent the most ancient structure of chaffinch song , kept (preserve ) or poorly changed till now , existing equally with other song types , probably, already with their descendants , which are changed enough and representing already other, younger , vocal lines or a separate large evolutionary trunk of chaffinch song, developing in parallel with ancient vocal forms , their vocal lines . 1. 2. 3. 4 . 5. 6. Fig. ***. Ancient forms of song at chaffinch e uropean ( Fringilla coelebs L.), being founders of the separate evolutionary vocal lines , existing equally and in parallel in relation to evolutionary more young song types (it is possible, their close "descendants") and in relation to their vocal lines (Astakhov a , Byome , 2007): 1 - song type J, 2 - song type O, 3 - song type C, 4 - song type V, 5 - song type A, 6 - song type R (different stages of evolution of vocal lines are represent - earlier vocal forms of chaffinch song are the first (1 - 3) , and further (4 - 6) - later vocal forms and their evolutionary lines). Fig. 20 . Representatives of one group or genus of Finches (Fringilla) : A – chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.), B – Brambling ( Fringilla montifringilla ); 1 – female , 2 – male . Fig. 22 . Blue chaffinch ( Fringilla teydea ) on Canary islands (Tenerife, Grand Canary) (Bergmann, 1993). Fig. 19 . Sonograms of songs of representatives of different species of one group or genus of Finches (Fringilla) and subspecies of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.), recorded in different points of the Earth : A – England, B – Northern Africa, C, D – Canary islands, E – Sweden ( Thorpe, 1958 ). Fig. 21 . Subspecies of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) on Canary islands (northwest of Africa) – chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs tintillon ) (Bergmann, 1993). Assumptions of evolution of chaffinch song ( Fringilla coelebs L.) a t comparison with a song of brambling ( Fringilla montifringilla ) Fig. 23. Sonograms of songs and calls (voices) of different species of chaffinch (Fringilla): a, b - Fringilla coelebs tintillon (island of Tenerife , Canary islands), c , е - alarm (danger) calls (voices), d - Fringilla teydea ( blue chaffinch ), Canary islands ( Bergmann, 1993 ). Discussion of laws of evolution of chaffinch song (Fringilla coelebs L.) (Astakhova, Byome, 2007) At comparison of sonograms of songs of different species of birds in genus of Finches (Fringilla) and some of subspecies of chaffinch e uropean ( Fringilla coelebs L.) there is a question , how singing (song) of birds can to develop, to change (modification) , proceeding at beginning (differentiation) from the general (common) ancestor song forms to songs , which we can observe now at different philetical (evolutionary) lines . Whether it is influence of ecological conditions on evolution of specific songs of birds or it is only result of their genetic and "social" ( song learning ) variability ? To answer this question, precise and, at the same time the thin analysis of songs (their types) is necessary at close (closely related) species and at subspecies of birds (in this case, at chaffinch ) . It is interesting to compare two close species of the birds , belong to genus of Finches (Fringilla) - chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) and brambling ( Fringilla montifringilla ). Brambling (fig. 20.2) has not sonorous , but has "buzzing" species specific song (fig. 19 E , 23*.1), as against chaffinch . Probably, such song of brambling was generated ( formed) initially , there where brambling arose (origin) as a species - in habitats with low and rather thin (sparse) vegetation (forest - tundra ), therefore a species specific song of brambling is narrower in frequency range (К Hz ) (that is its(her) minimal and maximal frequencies have smaller limits (difference) in the values), than a species specific song of chaffinch , frequently having wide frequency range (К Hz ) (fig. 23*.2). Therefore the song of brambling on hearing is perceived by " creaking " sound or as " gnash ", almost as " ryumin " ( ryu - ryu ) of chaffinch - his(its) call (voice) in cloudy or cool weather. Probably, such narrow frequency range of song at brambling has appeared , because of the greater ease of passage of a sound among poor vegetation of forest - tundra – “ it is not necessary to try ” to sing sonorous and more complex (difficult). And, probably, the "modest" song of brambling also was f ormed at economy of expenses of power (energy ), because the forest - tundra as northern zone of the Earth is colder on mid - annual temperature and is poorer in food resources - probably, therefore song realization of brambling appeared not such bright , as at chaffinch . In southern forest - tundra prevail bushes and low trees , which far remote from each other. After occurrence of precisely established species specific song of brambling on area , which, probably, he(it) inhabited long time in the north, at his(its) following distribution to other areas of continent, the song has remained "buzzing " , though also has variants or types. Fig. 23*. Species specific songs of brambling (1) ( Fringilla montifringilla ) and chaffinch (2) ( Fringilla coelebs L.) in England ( Thorpe, 1958b ). Both species of birds belong to genus of Finches (Fringilla). At chaffinch in process of “ cultural ( song ) evolution ” the wide frequency range of species specific song has developed , it is probable, because it(he) widely occupied a wood (forest) zone , forest - steppe zone , where among dense vegetation of leaf - bearing forest and coniferous woods (forest) passage of a sound is more complicated . Therefore, probably, chaffinch was capable to form loud (sonorous) and complex (difficult) songs - for their best passableness through vegetation, moreover - the reserve of forage (food ) and good temperature conditions of an occupied natural zone allowed to chaffinch to do (make) it and promoted it(him) song realization . On the physical data , in air space the most good (optimum) passes of a sound by frequency 3,5 К Hz . A verage frequency of species specific song a t chaffinch is represent about 4 К Hz (though at many other species of sparrow birds the song has similar frequency). Probably, such adaptation of song of birds ( chaffinch , in particular) in a frequency range is intended for the best passage of a sound in a wood (forest) zone , where chaffinch also inhabit . Thus chaffinch is a "social" species of birds, and chaffinch males create ( form ) microgroups , settlements in local populations , where antiphonal sing with each other (" roll call " by songs), thus training (learning) of the following (young) generation by species specific song , by " local culture" of song (by ways of singing, variants or types of species specific song). Probably, therefore, for original (special) "dialogue" or "communication " for song of chaffinch it is necessary to be well passable (loudness) in sound energy ( Db ) among wood and bushes vegetation . In connection with good audibility of sonorou s chaffinch song , his(its) individuals cooperate and are interconnected by a uniform species specific song (different types, variants, but similar in the structure) in different local populations during all area of distribution of a species (continent of Eurasia, England, northern Africa, on Canary islands), that, thus, support (keeping) a species of chaffinch in integrity (uniform) at formatio n of some his(its) subspecies or geographical races (the geographical populations , located from each other at a great distance) (fig. 19). Individuals of chaffinch of different subspecies (geographical populations) can differ by the intensity of feather color (according to atlas of determi nation of birds) (Dementyev, 1954) and differ i n typological structure of species specific song ( in “song culture ” , in ways of singing of species specific song), in its(her) character (features) of structure, in a frequency range (Marler, 1952; Thielcke, 1969; Slater et al., 1979; Ince et al., 1980; Catchpole, Slater, 1995; Simkin, 1983; Bergmann, 1993). Here also it is possible to note ideas of G.N.Simkin (Simkin, 1983) about "adaptation" of chaffinch song to geobotanical conditions of a habitat of a population of birds and to change s of their song in structure (frequency, length, number of syllables or elements, number of phrases or parts of songs) according to (at influence) the certain ecological factors . Variants of song types of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) in different "biotops" ( in territories with different ecological conditions ) or song versions are named by G.N.Simkin as "biomorphs " (as biotypes) , so - called results of "ecological adaptation “ (fig. 13) . But nevertheless the idea of " biomorph i s m " (as ecological vocal polymorphism ) in a song of chaffinch can have and precise frameworks (limits ), because it is feebly ( weak ) marked (expressed) in song types at dwelling (inhabit) of chaffinch in similar biotops (different ecological places) ( leaf - bearing and coniferous vegetation - wood and bushes ), despite of the big variety and variability of song types of chaffinch in these territories of a wood (forest) and forest - steppe. A species specific area of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) b asically it is located in zones of wood (forest) and forest - steppe , where biotops (different ecological places) in many factors are ecologically similar , but a variety of song types thus remains . Therefore to allocate (distinguish) here "ecological phenotypes " of song it would be not absolutely correct . Here there can be simply a variety of song types of chaffinch , formed in result of "mistakes" of copying at song training (learning ) by young birds and at improvisation of songs in their structure at singing. But it is impossible to assert (approve) precisely , wh ich of song types of chaffinch "is adapted" in the structure to birch or oak woods (forest ) and w hich of these song types were generated (created ) in fur - tree or pine vegetation . Though some time was proved, that the structure of song depends on a degree of passage of a sound through an environment - certainly, with increase of density of vegetation (environment) can increase are force of a sound (loudness of singing ( Db )), complexity of song (longer and various on structure) , can widen (broaden) the frequency range of song (К Hz ) (Handford, 1988; Lougheed et al. 1989; Handford and Lougheed, 1991, Wiley, 1991). Probably, also species specific song of chaffinch (its(her) variants, types) is developed in this direction (scheme) in process of song (culture) evolution during time - in more dense woods (forest ) (taiga, for example) a song could have the variants, which are similar in the greatest sound capacity (loudness) ( Db ), in the greatest complexity (the greater number of syllables or elements, number of phrases or parts of songs), i n wider frequency range (К Hz ), than types of species specific song , sung (performance) in woods (forest ) ( their biotops or different ecological places ) with smaller density of vegetation , where these song types can have smaller (weak) loudness ( Db ), thin and frequently short ( sec ), simple structure , narrower frequency range (К Hz ). Thus the form (figure) of elements (syllables, phrases or parts) of songs can not to change under action ( at influence) of ecological factors , because in the greater degree qualitative aspect of songs (a variety of forms of elements in the songs, observable on sonograms ) are result of "social" interaction of birds , their copying from each other song types (their elements), result of song improvisations or also it displays (expresses) genetic variability (at species of birds without social traditions of song training or learning ). And, mental essence (psychical sign) of birds (though and in a rudiment) is so plastic , that its(her) genetic inclinations can to change already in the first generation , a t adapt ion to an environment . In our researches (2005 - 2007 ) the same (one) song type of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) has been found in the center of the European Russia , but in different ecological conditions it(he) was performance at singing with different intensity (sound force ( Db )), with different complexity : for example, in an old dense wood (forest) chaffinch male sang (performance) song type C is loudly enough ( Db ), the song included two trill phrases (part s ), she(it) was wide in frequency range (К Hz ), but in seldom growing birches (about 5 km from the first territory) the chaffinch male sang (performance) song type C is more "simplified ": the second phrase (part) of a trill was absent , the song had smaller sound capacity ( Db ), had thin structure on sonogram , though the frequency range (К Hz ) could remain former or hardly smaller (figures in following page 34 - 35) . Also, for example , on Curnian spit of Baltic sea (the Kaliningrad region) the chaffinch song appeared more sonorous (more loudly or more powerfully in sound energy ( Db )), than frequently in the center of the European part of Russia ( Zvenigorod , Moscow, Michurinsk). Probably, such distinction of loudness ( Db ) and clearness at singing of chaffinch, because that on Curonian spit the noise background was higher or as a result of affinity of Baltic sea (his(its) noisy waves at coast), or in result of higher density of a population of chaffinch on Curonian spit . Probably, such phenomenon also is possible to count ( consider) as adaptation of singing (songs) of chaffinch to an environment . As the fact , that in a city zone (settlement) , where noise background is higher , because of an abundance of the vehicles , of cooperating social groups of people , different species of sparrow birds sang (performance) much more loudly ( more sonorous ) ( Db ), than in quieter and not noisy zone of woods (forest ) (Rheindt, 2003). Certainly, all this proves immediate reaction of birds to an environment and the adaptation to its(her) qualities , but only plasticity of mental essence(psychical sign) of birds (its(her) rudiments ) allows these "adaptations" to change quickly and sharply so , that they ( psychical adaptations ) can be imperceptible, insignificant, astable, short in the existence . Other talk, if the question is about long (during many years) adaptations of any population of birds in the certain ( definite ) habitat with the certain ( definite ) ecological conditions and formation thus more or less stable " song cultures " (the certain set or complex of variants or types of species specific song ), but if also this population could have small (weak) communications (connections ) with other populations of a species - here is already possible to speak about occurrence of "adaptations to enviroment ", including song aspect at birds . Though, certainly, the majority of populations of birds represent "open system ", interconnected and constantly mixed with each other , especially during migrations , therefore "song culture " (as well as many others populational attributes of birds) will be constantly updated, change d , but, nevertheless, there is populational variability as a whole , its(her) fitness ( adaption ) and formation of separate populational (and then, may be, and species specific ) attributes (signs ) in the certain ( definite ) territory during certain ( definite ) time . There is an interesting fact , which shows, that songs of nesting birds ( residents - come back from places of winterings on the certain or definite place of dwelling (inhabit) from year to year enough long time ) differ by the greater clearness (accuracy) in structure of song elements (syllables, phrases), than it happens in songs of birds - migrants of the same (one) species , which can be characterized by the greater uncertainty (unclear ) in song structure , in the form of elements , phrases (parts) of song types. Probably, the reason (cause ) of it is , that migrants still should occupy any territory of a species specific area , where they will be compelled to ad a pt to local " song cultur e" of birds (of r esidents ), nesting there (or are trained or learned by given " song culture " - copying of local ways of singing of species specific song , its(her) types , variants). Probably, therefore less precise songs of birds - migrants thus are adapted more and faster to change in the structure (to be the greatest plastic at training or copying of songs) and as a whole to be better adapted to local " song culture " (Nelson et al., 1995). The figures in following page 34 - 35 Some conclusions from researches (Astakhova, Byome , 2007) The song type C on Curonian spit of Baltic sea (where chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) is a usual nesting species ) - elements of songs are more precise , well differentiated and definite (determined ). Song type C in the Center of the European Russia (Moscow ) (where flying or migratory populations of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) are strongly mixed with his(its) nesting populations ) - elements of songs are not precise, poorly (weak) differentiated, uncertain (undefinite, unclear ). Song type С* (the reduced form) of chaffinch in the Center of the European Russia ( Zvenigogod , the Moscow region) - record of song in an old fur - tree wood (forest ), his(its) density is significant ( the song has more powerful sound energy ). Song type С* (the reduced form) of chaffinch in the Center of the European Russia ( Michurinsk , the Tambov region) - record of song in young birchs on edge of road , trees are rare , are planted (put) in one row (line ), density of planting (spreading) is low , the trees border on a field ( the song has smaller or weak sound energy, thin structure ). The song type I on Curonian spit of Baltic sea (where chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) is a usual nesting species ) - elements of songs are more precise , well differentiated and definite (determined ). Song type I in the Center of the European Russia ( Zvenigogod , the Moscow region) (where flying or migratory populations of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) are strongly mixed with his(its) nesting populations ) - elements of songs are not precise, poorly (weak) differentiated, uncertain (undefinite, unclear ). Geographical populations of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) in northwest ( Curonian spit , the Kaliningrad region) and in the center of the European Russia (Moscow, Zvenigorod , Michurinsk) are on distance of 1000 km . Between populations of Moscow, Zvenigorod (the Moscow region) and Michurinsk (the Tambov region) distance of 850 km . In a case of chaffinch song it also was well appreciable. On Curonian spit of Baltic sea (the Kaliningrad region), w here chaffinch is a nesting species , we have noted the big clearness, a subtlety, definiteness of song structures at singing and of separate song elements , than at chaffinch in the central part of the European Russia , where it(he), apparently, in many populations is "flying" (passed) or the migrant . In these "passed" local populations of chaffinch (migrants ) many song types were indistinctly ( not thin, unclearly, not definite ) are determined in forms of the elements (syllables, phrases) (as it was seen on sonograms ), and also in populations was revealed ( observed ) the greater number of the "combined" (mixed) song types (consisting of phrases or parts of other types of songs) . It can speak about formation of cumulative (complex) " song cultures " of chaffinch in this territory , probably, sets of song types of several local populations of chaffinch , capable to adapt to a row ( line) of local " song cultures " of chaffinch on spreading on the big territory of a species specific area , to coexist with a wide spectrum of local dialect forms of species specific song ( local ways of singing song types and their variants ) ( figures on previous page) . If to speak about habitats of chaffinch in other natural zones of the Earth (rather than only in wood (fores ) and forest - steppe zones ) , where chaffinch is common , we admit (allow), that at autumn migration , chaffinch can be on the south (a place of winterings ) - area of the Mediterranean sea , the north of Africa , Caucasus (Asia ), where there can be a zone of subtropics , semideserts , mountains , and , certainly, in this case is possible to pay attention to the adaptation of chaffinch song to surrounding conditions of the nature (more likely, to character of vegetation , a geology , a climate of a place of chaffinch dwelling , where inhabit ). If the population of chaffinch inhabit in these natural zones enough long time , despite of constant mixing of residents (nesting) and migrants of chaffinch , independent of mixing of individuals there is a gradual adaptation of the given population of birds to local ecological conditions , and in song aspect - also (besides, in quantitative parameters of song - length, a frequency range, a degree of differentiation of song structures or its(her) complexity), but thus at song training (learning ) occurs also qualitative transformation of species specific song (the form of its(her) elements , their variety ) in the given population of birds, by creation certain (determined) " song cultures " (ways of singing species specific song, the certain set (complex) of its(her) types (variants), distinguished or different (but, may be, in something and similar ) from " song cultures " of other local or geographical populations of this species (in this case, of chaffinch ). Therefore , now we can observe (reveal) so wide variety of species specific song s of sparrow birds , and as the private (individual) phenomenon - so mysterious differentiation (division) of initial ( ancestor ) form s of species specific song of chaffinch into different song variants ( song forms ) at different subspecies (geographical populations) of chaffinch , their establishment (at forming) in separate song norms , including the certain (definite) rows or lines of development, modification , characteristic for the certain (definite) habitat and local ecological conditions . Fig. 24 . Song types of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.), making ( forming) different vocal lines, but passing (transition) each other: 1 – song type С*11 (record on Curonian spit , the Kaliningrad region), 2 – song type CM 5 (Simferopol, the Crimean region), 3 – song type CM 3 (record in Melitopol, the Zaporozhye region), 4 – song type CM 4 (Jankoy, the north of Crimea), 5 – song type OI*3 (Simferopol, the south of Crimea), 6 – song type OI 2 (record in Simferopol, the Crimean region), 7 – song type M(O)I (Simferopol, the south of Ukraine), 8 – song type O ( Curonian spit , northwest of the European Russia). Comparison of song types of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs solomkoi Menz.) in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) and chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs coelebs L.) in northwest of the European Russia ( Curonian spit of Baltic sea ) ( Astakhov a , Byome , 2007 ) Simferopol, Jankoy (Crimea) and Melitopol (the south of Ukraine, the Zaporozhye region) are remote from each other on the average on 100 km. Parameters of song types Geographical population Average values of parameters of song types Duration of song , sec Min frequency , KHz Max frequency , KHz Average (median) frequency , KHz Degree of distribution of song type, % Number of syllables in song Duration of started singing, sec Duration of trill, sec Duration of final stroke, sec Intervals between songs, sec Northwest of the European Russia (Curonian spit) 1,97 ± 0,23 1,63 ± 0,063 7,683 ± 0,42 4,10 ± 0,14 6,82 ± 5 15,6 ± 2,67 0,47 ± 0,26 0,931 ± 0,414 0,4 ± 0,1 6,92 ± 0,81 The center of the European Russia (Moscow, Zvenigorod, Michurinsk) 2,59 ± 0,29 1,7 ± 0,17 8,06 ± 0,58 4,096 ± 0,29 6,83 ± 6,62 20,11 ± 4,6 0,88 ± 0,34 0,99 ± 0,32 0,62 ± 0,24 7,3 ± 1,9 The south of Ukraine (Crimea) 2,26 ± 0,55 1,85 ± 0,14 7,98 ± 0,74 4,63 ± 0,23 6,6 ± 5 17,5 ± 4,86 0,72 ± 0,2 1,02 ± 0,56 0,34 ± 0,1 6,53 ± 1,68 Total (the common for song of species) 2,27 ± 0,36 1,73 ± 0,12 7,91 ± 0,58 4,28 ± 0,22 6,75 ± 5,54 17,74 ± 4,04 0,69 ± 0,27 0,98 ± 0,43 0,45 ± 0,15 6,92 ± 1,46 The note : distance between geographical populations of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) on the average 1000 - 1500 km ; in total it is measured songs of different types (N) : from samples in population of Curonian spit (the Kaliningrad region) - 279 , in populations of the center of the European Russia - 73 songs of different types, from samples in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) - 85 of songs; differences of parameters, a difference between which >0,5 К Hz in frequency and >0,3 sec in length of song parts ( are allocated (distinguished) by a font ) were taken into account. Table. Comparison of basic parameters of song types of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) in different geographical populations of the East Europe ( Astakhova, Byome, 2007 ) . At results of quantity analysis , i n northern population of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) ( Curonian spit , the coast of Baltic sea) the species specific song was characterized by smaller length (duration) ( sec ) and lower frequency range (К Hz ), than in a southern population of chaffinch (Crimea ) - it is probable, the reason for this is the cold climate of the north , capable to lower a metabolism of an organism and compelling to save (to economy ) of forces (energy) at realization (execution or performance, singing) of songs (the table is lower) (Astakhova, Byome, 2007) . Probably, "displacement upwards" of frequency range (К Hz ) of species specific song of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) in the south also is feature of southern song cultures (singing of species specific song) of chaffinch and can give rise to (beginning) of the new vocal form , already adapted to local ecological conditions in the south , probably, initial for species specific songs of many future new species and wider groups of birds . Comparison of some song types of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) in a population of the south of Ukraine with corresponding dialect (modified) song types in a population of northwest of Caucasus. While in the south (Caucasus, Crimea ) could meet those general (common) (similar) song types of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) , which were absent in the north or in the center of the European Russia . Song type ME (I) ( Teberda , Karachaevo - C he rcassia, 1985) Song type ME (I) 9 (Simferopol, the Crimean region, 2007) Song type GC ( Teberda , Karachaevo - C he rcassia, 1985) Song type GC3 (Simferopol, the Crimean region, 2007) Simferopol – Pitsunda (560 km) Simferopol – Teberda (670 km) Song type MI (B) ( Pitsunda , Abkhazia, 1985) Song type В* (BF) ( Bordgomi , Georgia, 1985) Song type CM ( Teberda , Karachaevo - C he rcassia, 1985) Type of song MI ( B ) 8 ( Simferopol , Crimean region , 2007 ) Type of song B * ( BF ) ( Melitopol , Zaporozhye region , 2007 ) Type of song СМ 2 ( Melitopol , Zaporozhye region , 2007 ) Simferopol – Pitsunda (560 km) Simferopol – Teberda (670 km) Melitopol - Teberda (630 km) Melitopol - Bordgomi (830 km) Apparently from represented sonograms , songs of chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs L.) in different geographical populations of the south of Ukraine (Crimea) and of northwest Caucasus can represent dialect forms of one song type. Though the songs of chaffinch on Caucasus have been recorded a long time ago - in 1980th years (Sultanov, 1985). Nevertheless, it is possible to distinguish and now similarity of some song types of chaffinch , that speaks about stability of song cultures of chaffinch in u n it ed or connected (cooperated ) local populations during time and in space , despite of individual and geographical variability of their song types . At similarity of structure of some dialect song types (see sonograms ), geographical populations of the south of Ukraine and the western Caucasus can be connected as a result of constant migrations of individuals , that leads to mixing and, somewhat, to joint development of song cultures of chaffinch in local populations . Probably, the distance (on the average 600 km) allows to support these populational communications (connections ) between regions of the south of Eurasia . Thus, the song (singing) of birds develop (evolution ) on the same, similar biological laws , as also many other displays (expressions) of life of an organism . But it is necessary to emphasize special (particular) plasticity in functioning and the adaptation of mental essence (psychical sign) (though only and its rudiments at birds ) - it is capable plural ( changeable ) and quickly to react (by perception) on irritation (on surrounding) , also can quickly turn psychical action (by transition) to new way s (special manners or patterns of acts) and can quickly " forget" , change former ( previous) course . But in larger scales of evolution ( populations , species ) in displays (expressions) of psychical essence (songs of birds) , nevertheless , can be revealed ( observed ) also ecological differentiation and an establishment (at becoming, forming) of "adapted" more stable forms (norms) of song , that are similar , for example, as development of morphological attributes (signs) of birds . Thus, song (singing) of birds includes " social" character of evolution ( development ) , and that is unique and it seems "parallel " in the existence to other morphological attributes (signs) of an organism , - as if song (singing) of birds represents the "new" natural phenomenon - such, as display ( expressing) of mental (psychical) sign (its(her) rudiments at birds), as realization of "spiritual" forces (energy) of an organism , as essence of higher level of the organization , but existing on the same laws , as also others properties , more material for the person (human ), " more biological " and appreciable attributes or signs for an organism (color of covers, the form of a body and his(its) parts, character of a skeleton at animals, structure and features of internal bodies of an organism, differentiation of his(its) cells and tissues, features of a nourishment (food), reproduction of descendant individuals, a way or pattern of life as a whole). L iterature • Astakhova O . 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