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Features of the vocal organization of chaffinch in the south of Ukraine (Crimea)

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Features of the vocal organization of chaffinch (
Fringilla coelebs
L.) in the south of Ukraine (Crimea)
Astakhov
a
O.A. (dissertation) 2008.
Object of research
Chaffinch
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
-
the
small
bird,
in
size
as
a
sparrow,
also
relates
to
group
of
Finch
es
(Fringillidae)
in
order
of
Sparrow
(Passeriformes)
.
The
species
-
specific
area
of
chaffinch
is
wide
enough
,
also
passes
through
the
European
plain
(including
continent
of
the
Great
Britain)
to
Siberia
up
to
Krasnoyarsk
region
(wood
and
forest
-
steppe
zones),
but
can
winter
ing
(migration)
in
southern
areas
of
the
Earth
-
Asia
(the
north
of
Kazakhstan,
Turkey,
Caucasus),
the
Mediterranean,
Southern
Europe
(Crimea,
Bulgaria,
Romania),
northwest
Africa,
Canary
islands,
where
some
independent
subspecies
and
species
of
chaffinch
are
formed
(Bergmann,
1993
;
Ryabitsev
,
2000
;
Hrabriy
,
2006
;
Stepanyan,
2003
)
.
In
territories
of
the
Crimean
peninsula
(the
south
of
Ukraine)
allocate
(distinguish)
separate
subspecies
of
chaffinch
from
many
his(its)
existing
subspecies
in
different
parts
of
a
species
-
specific
area
-
chaffinch
c
rimean
(
Fringilla
coelebs
solomkoi
Menz
.
)
.
Usually
subspecies
of
chaffinch
e
uropean
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
poorly
differ
on
color
of
feathers
(distinctions
only
in
its
intensity)
(Dementyev,
1954
)
and
in
song
cultures
-
in
ways
of
singing
of
a
species
-
specific
vocal
pattern
(a
characteristic
trill
and
a
final
stroke
at
the
end)
(
Tugarinov
,
Buturlin,
1911
)
,
while
different
species
of
chaffinch
can
have
various
color
of
covers
(for
example,
blue
chaffinch
-
Fringilla
teydea
,
on
Canary
islands)
and
the
distinguished
(different)
vocal
traditions,
expressing
in
other
vocal
structure
of
species
-
specific
song
(different
ways
of
its(her)
differentiation
on
a
part,
the
phrases,
the
distinguished
forms
of
a
pronunciation
of
sound
elements)
(Bergmann,
1993
)
.
Chaffinch
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
is
one
of
some
species
of
birds
,
who
has
social
traditions
of
song
learning
,
and
it
is
capable
to
support
a
constancy
of
species
-
specific
vocal
patterns
on
the
basis
of
their
genetic
determination
and
imitation
(copying)
of
species
-
specific
song
by
young
individuals
,
which
also
are
capable
to
alter
(modification)
vocal
types
by
improvisations
and
mistakes
of
copying
(Catchpole,
Slater,
1995
)
.
Vocal
variability
of
chaffinch
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
i
n
different
local
and
geographical
(located
on
the
big
distances)
populations
is
already
for
a
long
time
the
found
out
fact
and
widespread
enough
subject
of
studying
in
bioacoustics
(Marler,
1952
;
Thielcke,
1969
;
Slater
et
al
.
,
1984
,
Simkin,
1983
;
Bergmann,
1993
)
.
Thus
different
geographical
populations
of
chaffinch
can
be
characterized
by
the
certain
features
in
the
organizations
of
local
vocal
cultures
(Mundinger,
1982
),
that
has
been
revealed
and
in
territory
of
the
Crimean
peninsula
(the
south
of
Ukraine),
interesting
by
the
intermediate
position
between
southern
Europe
and
northwest
of
Caucasus,
and
thus
it
is
not
lost
connection
with
populations
of
the
European
Russia
.
Probably,
therefore
vocal
cultures
(ways
of
singing
of
species
-
specific
vocalizations)
of
chaffinch
here
appeared
somewhat
generalized,
combined,
but
also
original
(distinguished)
,
reflecting
combination
of
populations
of
birds
both
with
adjacent
(ne
ighbour)
,
and
with
geographically
remote
territories,
probably,
as
a
result
of
migrations
of
individuals
in
species
-
specific
populations
.
The
purpose
of
the
given
work
is
discussion
of
formation
of
local
song
traditions
of
chaffinch
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
in
a
local
population
of
the
Crimean
peninsula
(the
south
of
Ukraine),
feature
of
its(her)
organization,
similarity
and
difference
to
types
of
songs
in
other
ne
ighbour
and
remote
populations
of
chaffinch
(in
their
local
vocal
cultures)
at
quantitative
and
qualitative
aspects
.
Material and methods of researches
In
May,
2007
in
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea)
have
been
made
tape
records
of
singing
males
of
chaffinch
,
concerning
(relate)
to
separate
subspecies
is
chaffinch
c
rimean
(
Fringilla
coelebs
solomkoi
Menz
.
)
–
sample
contained
approximately
26
males,
from
which
we
tried
to
fix
full
song
repertoir
e
of
each
individual,
capable
to
include
1
-
6
(
10
)
song
types
of
species
-
specific
vocal
pattern
–
distinguished
(different)
from
each
other
in
song
structure
(
syntax
),
phonetics
or
a
pronunciation
of
vocal
elements,
but
similar
in
beat,
duration,
a
way
of
differentiation
on
a
part,
phrases,
in
the
general
(common)
frequency
range
(which
appeared
it
is
stable
and,
most
likely,
is
genetically
determined
in
all
populations
of
a
species
of
chaffinch
)
(Marler,
1952
;
Simkin,
1983
)
.
A
variety
of
vocal
types
in
repertoire
of
an
individual
is
frequently
reached
(achieved)
by
young
males
by
means
of
song
improvisations
at
singing
or
mistakes
of
copying
of
species
specific
songs
at
song
learning
(
training
)
in
sensitive
period,
probably,
as
a
result
of
individual
functioning
of
song
centers
of
a
brain
(so
-
called
individual
vocal
variability)
.
In
more
advanced
age,
vocal
repertoire
of
chaffinch
males
and
making
it
song
types
(variants
of
species
specific
vocalization)
are
usually
fixed
in
memory,
there
are
stable
and
poorly
changed
(changeable)
in
structure
after
the
period
of
crystallization
of
species
specific
song
at
an
individual
and
its
(him)
establishments
in
the
certain
local
vocal
culture
,
where
there
is
a
transfer
of
vocal
variants
of
a
species
to
the
subsequent
generation
by
song
learning
(
training
)
(Kroodsma
et
al
.
,
1982
)
.
Tape
recorder
record
of
songs
of
chaffinch
males
(from
everyone
on
the
average
on
41
,
4
±
18
,
4
songs)
was
carried
out
(was
spent)
with
the
help
of
compact
tape
recorder
Panasonic
RQ
-
SX
95
F
and
an
additional
microphone
with
the
purpose
of
increase
in
quality
of
a
sound
.
The
territory
was
in
a
zone
of
the
mixed
woods
and
represented
large
city
parks
(more
than
1
km
2
)
in
Melitopol
(the
Zaporozhye
region),
Janko
y
(the
Crimean
region)
and
Simferopol
(the
regional
center
of
Crimea),
located
from
each
other
approximately
on
100
km
.
The
analysis
of
sonograms
of
song
types
of
chaffinch
was
spent
(
carry
out)
with
the
help
of
computer
program
Avisoft
SASLab
Light,
has
been
seen
about
2500
songs,
N=
172
of
songs
of
different
types
are
measured
on
different
quantitative
parameters
.
Different
song
types
were
designated
by
latin
letters
.
T
o
one
type
of
song
of
chaffinch
considered
songs,
which
are
completely
similar
by
all
three
or
two
parts
(started
singing,
a
trill,
a
final
stroke),
which
could
be
subdivided
into
separate
phrases
(a
knee,
fluctuation),
consisting
of
repeating
similar
elements
(syllables)
.
At
record,
songs
of
one
type
met
in
different
points
of
territory
(was
considered,
that
belong
to
repertoir
e
s
of
different
males
),
therefore
alongside
(equally)
with
the
letter
were
designated
by
numbers
in
ascending
order
(for
example,
А
1
,
А
2
,
А
3
,
etc
.
)
.
Results and discussion
The
average
size
of
song
repertoir
e
of
chaffinch
in
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea)
is
approximately
2
,
52
±
0
,
75
types
of
songs
at
average
sample
of
songs
from
one
male
n>
20
(min
im
-
1
song
type,
max
-
4
song
types)
.
Very
seldom
there
were
the
repertoires
consisting
of
1
type
of
songs
-
1
male
(
4
,
8
%
),
repertoir
e
from
4
types
of
songs
also
was
rare
-
2
males
(
9
,
5
%
),
the
often
phenomenon
-
2
types
of
songs
in
repertoire,
which
had
10
males
(
47
,
6
%
),
the
repertoir
e
from
3
types
of
songs
met
enough
frequently
-
8
males
(
38
,
1
%
)
(fig
.
1
)
.
R
epertoir
e
s
of
4
song
types
(
4
,
9
%
)
and
of
2
song
types
(
56
,
1
%
)
(fig
.
1
)
at
chaffinch
had
similar
percentage
parities
(ratio)
in
populations
of
northwest
(
Curonian
spit
,
the
Kaliningrad
region)
and
the
center
of
the
European
Russia
(Moscow,
Zvenigorod
,
Michurinsk
-
the
Tambov
region),
remote
on
1500
-
1850
km
.
But
in
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea)
the
song
repertoir
e
of
chaffinch
of
3
song
types
was
more
often,
than
in
populations
of
the
European
Russia
(
9
,
76
%
)
(fig
.
1
)
.
Table 1. The average size of repertoir
e
of chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs
L.) in the south of Ukraine (Crimea)
Place
of record
Average
value
Melitopol
(the Zaporozhye region)
Jankoy (the Crimean region)
Simferopol
(the Crimean region)
Total
(types of songs)
x ±
õ
2,75
±
1,26
3,5
±
0,
7
2,
33
±
0,
49
2,52
±
0,
75
Volume of sample of males
(n)
6
3
17
26
The note
: the average size of volume of sample of songs from one male
in the south of Ukraine (Crimea)
is
41,4 ±
18,4 of songs; 1 song type -
the minimal size of repertoire of male
, a maximum quantity of song
types in repertoir
e
of chaffinch
-
4 (but can be 6
-
10).
Fig. 1. Schedules of different degree of distribution of the different sizes of chaffinch repertoire (
Fringilla coelebs
L.) in three geographical populations of the East Europe.
The typological organization of
chaffinch
song (
Fringilla coelebs
L.) in the south of Ukraine (Crimea)
As
a
result
of
the
qualitative
analysis
of
vocal
forms
of
chaffinch
song
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
from
sample
in
a
population
(N
=
26
)
in
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea)
have
been
revealed
16
different
types
species
specific
songs
(tab
.
2
)
,
from
which
only
one
song
type
(В)
were
completely
similar
(general
(common))
with
populations
of
the
European
Russia,
and
the
majority
of
them
-
15
types
of
songs
(
93
,
75
%
)
appeared
modified
(dialect)
on
the
basis
of
the
general(common)
(similar)
species
specific
vocal
structure
in
relation
to
similar
types
of
songs
of
individuals
of
subspecies
of
chaffinch
e
uropean
(
Fringilla
coelebs
coelebs
L
.
)
in
populations
of
the
European
Russia,
remote
on
1500
-
1850
km
.
Similar
modification
of
vocal
cultures
of
chaffinch
in
his(its)
different
subspecies
-
chaffinch
c
rimean
(
Fringilla
coelebs
solomkoi
Menz
.
)
and
chaffinch
e
uropean
(
Fringilla
coelebs
coelebs
L
.
),
can
speak
about
species
specific
songs
of
birds
as
an
exponent
of
generalization
and
division
(separate)
of
their
geographical
populations,
and
as
criterion
of
the
species
specific
status
of
many
species
of
birds
.
The
percentage
parity
(ratio)
of
different
song
types
of
chaffinch
in
a
population
of
the
south
of
Ukraine
also
appeared
original
or
different
(distinguished)
in
relation
to
the
European
Russia
(tab
.
2
)
.
Average
prevalence
of
one
song
type
in
a
population
of
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea)
(in
its(her)
vocal
culture
,
which
represents
the
certain
set
and
a
parity
(ratio)
of
song
types
in
a
local
population)
approximately
is
6
,
6
±
5
%
,
thus
interesting
appeared
similarities
with
average
prevalence
of
song
types
of
chaffinch
in
northwest
(
Curinian
spit
,
the
Kaliningrad
region)
is
6
,
82
±
5
%
and
in
the
center
of
the
European
Russia
(Moscow,
Zvenigorod
,
Michurinsk)
is
6
,
83
±
6
,
62
%
(fig
.
2
,
3
)
.
Six
song
types
of
chaffinch
(
37
,
5
%
)
in
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea)
appeared
poorly
similar
(original)
in
qualitative
aspect
in
relation
to
song
types
in
the
European
Russia
(
song
types
MI
(N),
MI
(B),
ME
(I)
(A),
O*I,
M
(O)
I,
CME)
and
are
named
on
phrases
(parts)
or
as
a
whole
of
those
song
types
,
which
"reminded"
in
the
structure
(the
form
of
elements)
(tab
.
2
,
fig
.
4
)
.
In
a
population
of
chaffinch
in
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea)
also
it
has
been
marked
a
number
(line)
of
features
in
local
vocal
culture,
in
its(her)
organization
,
which,
probably,
can
be
to
some
extent
characteristic
and
for
other
local
populations
of
chaffinch
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
),
them
song
cultures
.
Many
analysed
song
types
in
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea)
smoothly
(gradually)
pass
(transition)
each
other
in
vocal
structure
.
Probably,
such
big
similarity
of
different
song
types
speaks
about
"youth"
of
these
types
in
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea),
their
recent
differentiation
in
independent
types
(fig
.
4
)
.
Table 2. A percentage parity (ratio) of song types of chaffinch (
Fringilla coelebs
L.) i
n a population of the south of Ukraine (Crimea)
Song type (designation)
The south of Ukraine (Crimea)
Quantity of song types
in sample
Percent from the general
(common) number of
song types in population
B
3
4,91 %
В*(
BF)
3
4,91 %
G
С*
3
4,91 %
E
*
2
3,27 %
O
*
2
3,27 %
T
*
2
3,27 %
V
*
2
3,27 %
Y
*
2
3,27 %
MI* (N)
6
9,84 %
MI (
В*
)
8
1
3
,
11
%
ME(I)
(А*)
12
1
9,67
%
O
*
I
4
6,56 %
M(O)I*
2
3,27 %
CM
*
7
11,47 %
CME*
2
3,27 %
CB
1
1,64 %
Volume of sample of individuals (n)
26
Volume of sample of song
types (n)
61
The note
: the volume of sample includes all records of males
in populations (the bottom line); a percentage parity
(ratio) proceed
s
from the general
(common) number of
song types in samples of populations in the south of Ukraine -
61 types of song (that is repertoires of males
with small samples
have been
taken into account also); thus it is necessary to understand, that songs of one type from everyone male
had sample on the average n>15; the most widespread (frequently met) song
types in populations
are allocated
(signed)
by a font; * -
the dialect (modified) types of song in relation to song types in populations of the European Russia; in brackets
are song
types
from the European Russia
, which are most similar. The general quantitative characteristic of chaffinch songs (
Fringilla coelebs
L.) in the south of Ukraine (Crimea)
At the quantitative analysis of chaffinch songs in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) have been calculated average values of time
-
and
-
frequency parameters of different song
types of chaffinch
(tab. 3). Table 3. The quantitative characteristic of the most widespread song types of chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs
solomkoi
Menz.) in a population of the south of Ukraine (Crimea)
Parameters
of
songs
Song types (designation)
x
±
õ
ME(I)
CM
MI(N)
B
BF
MI(B)
OI
GC
Length (duration) of song, sec
1,8
±
0,16
1,9
±
0,26
3,49
±
0,26
2,43
±
0,17
2,17
±
0,11
2,12
±
0,11
1,92
±
0,17
1,87
±
0,07
2,21
±
0,56
Min frequency, KHz
1,85
±
0,17
2
±
0,18
1,88
±
0,22
1,6
±
0,22
1,77
±
0,18
1,79
±
0,15
1,89
±
0,17
2,07
±
0,24
1,86
±
0,14
Max frequency, KHz
7,63
±
0,19
8
±
1,04
9,05
±
0,09
7,95
±
0,29
8,76
±
0,95
8,57
±
0,3
7,6
±
0,55
8,027
±
0,3
8,2
±
0,53
Median
(
average
) frequency, KHz
4,35
±
0,14
4,44
±
0,15
4,82
±
0,19
4,32
±
0,26
4,87
±
0,08
4,88
±
0,18
4,36
±
0,24
4,72
±
0,15
4,6
±
0,25
Number of syllables
13,8
±
1,17
14,5
±
2,1
25,3
±
1,93
23,2
±
1,17
18,63
±
1,19
12,53
±
1,55
14,4
±
0,53
16
±
0,7
17,3
±
4,68
Length of syllables, sec
0,056
±
0,004
0,11
±
0,017
0,11
±
0,013
0,07
±
0,007
0,043
±
0,006
0,053
±
0,008
0,11
±
0,015
0,072
±
0,007
0,078
±
0,03
started singing
trill
0,11
±
0,01
0,06
±
0,031
0,072
±
0,004
0,03
±
0,004
0,03
±
0,004
0,11
±
0,03
0,037
±
0,002
0,046
±
0,004
0,062
±
0,033
1
phrase
2
phrase
0,1
±
0,02
0,13
±
0,006
0,12
±
0,014
0,11
±
0,017
0,115
±
0,013
final stroke
0,08
±
0,025
0,11
±
0,02
0,12
±
0,02
0,16
±
0,068
0,18
±
0,07
0,26
±
0,02
0,11
±
0,01
0,2
±
0,01
0,15
±
0,06
The note
: average value and a standard deviation of parameters of song types are specified; were taken into account the songs of one type, which has been recorded in different points of territory, but not having any differences in the structure ; in the last
column
-
the generalized values on all measured types of songs (are allocated or sign
ed
by a font); the song types designated by two or three letters are consist of parts (phrases) of these different types of songs; samples of chaffinch songs have been made in Melitopol, Ja
nko
y
and Simferopol and is measured N=172 of songs.
Table 3. The quantitative characteristic of the most widespread song types of chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs
solomkoi Menz.) in a population of the south of Ukraine (Crimea)
(
сontinuation
)
Parameters
of
songs
Song types (designation)
x
±
õ
ME(I)
CM
MI(N)
B
BF
MI(B)
OI
GC
Intervals between syllables
, sec 0,038
±
0,005
0,09
±
0,12
0,05
±
0,014
0,037
±
0,05
0,074
±
0,075
0,06
±
0,006
0,077
±
0,007
0,05
±
0,007
0,06
±
0,02
started singing
trill
0,07
±
0,014
0,047
±
0,01
0,022
±
0,004
0,038
±
0,016
0,016
±
0,014
0,062
±
0,02
0,04
±
0,006
0,03
±
0,004
0,04
±
0,02
1
phrase
2 phrase
0,026
±
0,04
0,038
±
0,01
0,079
±
0,008
0,047
±
0,015
0,05
±
0,03
final stroke
0,026
±
0,04
0,096
±
0,02
0,032
±
0,01
0,032
±
0,011
0,015
±
0,005
0,061
±
0,01
0,083
±
0,01
0,05
±
0,02
Intervals between phrases, sec
0,02
±
0,007
0,033
±
0,012
0,037
±
0,016
0,02
±
0,005
0,038
±
0,025
0,028
±
0,013
0,087
±
0,022
0,04
±
0,004
0,038
±
0,02
started singing and trill
trill and final stroke
0,09
±
0,015
0,037
±
0,036
0,062
±
0,02
0,055
±
0,021
0,03
±
0,01
0,07
±
0,02
0,07
±
0,005
0,06
±
0,003
0,059
±
0,02
Intervals between songs, sec
5,18
±
1,3
6,06
±
2,49
8,97
±
0,68
7,45
±
2,07
5,09
±
2,16
6,04
±
2,32
6,94
±
0,91
5,1
±
0,46
6,35
±
1,37
Number measured
songs (n)
11
16
9
14
8
17
9
5
11,13
±
4,2
The note
: average value and a standard deviation of parameters of song types are specified; were taken into account the songs of one type, which has been recorded in different points of territory, but not having any differences in the structure ; in the last
column
-
the generalized values on all measured types of songs (are allocated or sign
ed by a font); the song types designated by two or three letters are consist of parts (phrases) of these different types of songs; samples of chaffinch songs have been made in Melitopol, Ja
nko
y
and Simferopol and is measured N=172 of songs.
Thus, the species specific song of chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs solomkoi
Menz.) in a population in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) is characterized by the following quantitative parameters: Length is 2,26
±
0,55 sec
, Min
im
frequency is 1,85
±
0,14 К
Hz
, Max frequency is 7,98
±
0,74 К
Hz
, Median (average) frequency is 4,63
±
0,23 К
Hz
, Prevalence of song
type i
s 6,6
±
5 %, Number of syllables in a song is 17,5
±
4,86, Length of started singing is 0,72
±
0,2 sec
, Length of a trill is 1,02
±
0,56 sec
, Length of a final stroke 0,34
±
0,1 sec
, Intervals between songs
is
6,53
±
1,68 sec
, Volume of sample N=172 of songs.
Character of the basic time
-
and
-
frequency parameters of chaffinch c
rimean (
Fringilla coelebs solomkoi
Menz.) can be presented songs as the diagram (fig. 2).
Fig. 2. Values of average arithmetic and a standard deviation of the basic quantitative parameters of song types of chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs solomkoi
Menz.) in populations of the south of Ukraine (Crimea)
(N=85 of
measured songs) (are specified SE –
an arithmetic
-
mean mistake and SD –
a standard deviation of values).
Nevertheless, stability and unity of species specific song of chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs
L.) in time and space is distinctly shown at generalization of quantitative given of different types of songs from the remote geographical populations of a species (fig. 3). Fig. 3. The schedule of quantitative parameters (its values) of chaffinch song (
Fringilla coelebs
L.) in different geographical populations of the East Europe.
But in populations of chaffinch
e
uropean (
Fringilla coelebs coelebs
L.) species specific song appeared lower frequency range (К
Hz
) (min = 1,7 ±
0,17 К
Hz
; max = 7,683
±
0,42 К
Hz
; median = 4,096 ±
0,29 К
Hz
), than in the south of Ukraine (Crimea). Probably, it is connect
ed that
in the south is warmer climate
,
where the metabolism of an organism can be or higher, or pass with the greater expense of forces (energy) for realization of songs at chaffinch c
rimean (
Fringilla coelebs solomkoi
Menz.).
For the best representation of song types of chaffinch (
Fringilla coelebs solomkoi
Menz.) in the south of Ukraine (Crimea)
,
which are measured, it is possible to show
them sonograms
(fig. 4):
Type of song
В6* (
Melitopol
, Zaporozhye region
)
Type of song
В6 (
Melitopol
, Zaporozhye region)
Type of song B
* (
BF
) 2 (
Melitopol
, Zaporozhye region)
Type of song
СМ 2
(
Melitopol
, Zaporozhye region
)
Type of song
CM
6 (
Simferopol
,
Crimean
region
)
Type of song
MI
(
N
) 3
(
Melitopol
, Zaporozhye region
)
Type of song
MI (
B
) 8
(
Simferopol
, Crimean
region
)
Type of song
MI
(
N
) 6
(
Jankoy
,
Crimean
region
)
Type of song
M
Е(
I
) 6
(
Simferopol
, Crimean
region
)
Type of song
M
Е(
I
) 9
(
Simferopol
, Crimean
region
)
Type of song
О (
Jankoy
,
Crimean
region
)
Type of song
О2
(
Simferopol
, Crimean
region
)
Type of song
OI
(
Simferopol
, Crimean
region
)
Type of song
OI 2
(
Simferopol
, Crimean
region)
Type of song
OI* 3 (
Simferopol
, Crimean
region)
Type of song
М(
O
)
I
(
Simferopol
, Crimean
region
)
Type of song
Е2 (
Simferopol
, Crimean
region
)
Type of song
Т2
(
Jankoy
,
Crimean
region
)
Type of song
GC
3
(Simferopol
, Crimean
region
)
Type of song
GC
* 2 (
Simferopol
, Crimean
region
)
Vocal lines of development of chaffinch song (
Fringilla coelebs
L.) i
n the south of Ukraine (Crimea)
In
a
population
of
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea)
there
were
many
cases
of
similarity
of
song
variants
at
chaffinch
,
probably,
"related"
by
proceeding
from
the
general
(common)
"
ancient
(ancestor)
"
vocal
form,
but
already
differentiated
in
separate
vocal
types
or
patterns
(fig
.
5
)
.
In
Simferopol
(Crimea)
in
one
population
there
were
two
dialect
(modified)
forms
of
song
type
GС
(fig
.
5
)
.
The
song
type
GC*
2
(fig
.
5
.
4
)
is
similar
to
completely
other
song
type
V
(fig
.
5
.
5
)
.
And
the
dialect
song
type
GC
3
(fig
.
5
.
3
)
differs
from
similar
song
type
GC*
2
(fig
.
5
.
4
)
only
by
absence
2
-
nd
phrases
in
a
trill
and
some
modified
of
final
stroke,
and
elements
of
started
singing
in
both
cases
is
zigzag
-
similar
.
It
is
interesting,
that
similar
song
forms
(G
and
GC,
V)
(fig
.
5
.
1
,
5
.
2
,
5
.
6
)
met
and
in
geographically
remote
populations
of
the
European
Russia
on
1500
-
1850
km
(the
Kaliningrad
region,
the
Moscow
and
Tambov
region)
.
Probably,
these
types
of
songs
submit
one
of
many
vocal
lines
at
chaffinch
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
.
Probably,
between
populations
of
chaffinch
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
in
the
south
and
in
the
center
of
Europe
exist
many
general
(common)
communications
(connections)
(first
of
all,
migratory)
so,
that
song
cultures
of
these
geographical
populations
to
some
extent
constantly
mix
up
(Espmark
et
al
.
,
1989
)
(fig
.
11
*)
.
Lines
of
vocal
development
(vocal
lines
)
-
a
number
(line)
of
song
types,
similar
on
the
structure,
"related"
vocal
forms
by
origin,
probably,
generated
(formed)
at
change
and
transition
of
one
song
type
in
other
song
type,
can
represent
result
of
differentiation
(modification)
of
one
initial
("
ancestor
")
song
type
(fig
.
10
*)
.
It
is
possible
to
compare
quantitative
measurements
some
of
time
-
and
-
frequency
parameters
of
these
similar,
but
separate
song
types
of
chaffinch
in
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea)
(tab
.
4
)
and
to
analyse
a
degree
of
their
distinction
in
quantitative
aspect
as
differentiated
vocal
patterns
of
one
"
philetical
"
(evolutionary)
line
of
species
specific
vocalization
of
chaffinch
.
Many
such
vocal
lines
can
exist
in
species
specific
vocal
culture
at
chaffinch
(in
his(its)
species
specific
populations)
.
Fig. 5. A combination of individual and geographical vocal variability of chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs
L.),
representing the general
(common) line of development of vocalizations
:
1 –
song type G 2 (record on Curonian spit
, the Kaliningrad region), 2 –
song type GC 2 (record in Michurinsk, the Tambov region –
the center of the European Russia), 3 –
song type GC 3 (record in Simferopol, the Crimean region), 4 –
song type GC*2 (Simferopol, the south of Crimea), 5 –
song type V (Simferopol, the south of
Ukraine), 6 –
song type V 1 (
Curonian spit
, northwest
of the European Russia).
Table 4. The basic time
-
and
-
frequency parameters of variants of one song type at chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs
L.) in the south of Ukraine (Crimea), concerning
(relate)
to one vocal line Type of song (
sign by token
)
Number of song
(
n
)
Name of place
of records Length of song, sec
Min frequency, KHz
Max
frequency, KHz
Median
(
average
) frequency, KHz
Number
of syllables
(elements)
in song
Length of syllables in started singing, sec
Length of syllables in trill, sec*
Length of syllables in final stroke, sec
Intervals between songs, sec
1
phrase
2
phrase
G
3 (
fig
. 5.
1
)
28
Curonian spit (
Kaliningrad region)
2,46
±
0,02
1,58
±
0,077
8,23
±
0,6
3,72
±
0,094
17
±
0
0,12
±
0,014
0,067
±
0,002
0,15
±
0,004
0,12
±
0,006
8,64
±
0,8
GC 3
(
fig
. 5.
3
)
3
Simferopol
(
Crimean region
)
2,21
±
0,08
1,49
±
0,1
8,9
±
0,26
4,94
±
0,2
19,7
±
0,6
0,12
±
0,04
0,04
±
0,004
0,11
±
0,008
0,11
±
0,006
4,78
±
0,03
GC
* 2
(
fig
. 5.
4
)
5
Simferopol
(
Crimean region
)
1,87
±
0,07
2,07
±
0,24
8,027
±
0,3
4,72
±
0,15
16
±
0,7
0,072
±
0,007
0,046
±
0,004
0,2
±
0,01
5,1
±
0,46
The note:
average value and a standard deviation of parameters of song types are specified
from statistical calculations for all songs of one type, which were at singing of
males of chaffinch in the given points of record; the strongest differences considered
a difference of parameters
is >0,5 К
Hz
in frequency
and is > 0,02 sec
in length (are allocated or signed by a font); * -
the trill of song
type consist of two phrases.
•
At
the
comparative
analysis
of
song
types
G
(fig
.
5
.
1
)
and
GC
(fig
.
5
.
3
and
5
.
4
)
the
interesting
results
are
revealed
(tab
.
4
)
-
song
variants
of
one
vocal
line
at
chaffinch
can
differ
more,
being
together
in
one
local
population
and
to
make
one
local
vocal
culture,
than
song
types
of
same
vocal
line,
but
in
the
different
geographical
populations
,
located
on
1500
-
1850
km
from
each
other
.
Similar
distinguished
character
of
a
parity
(ratio)
and
a
combination
of
individual
and
geographical
vocal
variability
of
chaffinch
was
observed
and
in
populations
of
the
European
Russia
(Astakhov
a
,
Byome
,
2007
),
that
can
speak
about
unity
and
combination
(mix
up)
of
individuals
of
different
populations
of
a
species
of
chaffinch
e
uropean
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
.
•
Within
the
limits
of
song
types
of
one
line
also
can
be
completely
various
length
of
songs
(
sec
),
number
of
syllables
in
a
song
and
intervals
between
songs
(
sec
)
.
Distinguished
in
equally
(identical)
extent
there
were
all
other
parameters
of
the
given
types
of
songs
(tab
.
4
)
.
•
Transition
of
one
song
type
in
other
song
type
in
vocal
culture
of
a
chaffinch
population
meets
enough
frequently
.
Similar
cases
are
especially
interesting
between
different
vocal
lines
at
chaffinch,
which
are
made
or
formed
by
similar
song
types
,
but
in
a
different
degree
remote
“
in
relationship
(as
relatives)
”
from
initial
"
ancestor
"
song
pattern
,
which
once
at
differentiation
has
created
these
lines
of
development
of
vocalizations
(fig
.
4
,
5
,
6
)
.
Fig. 6. Song
types of chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs
L.),
making (
forming) different vocal lines, but passing
(transition)
each other:
1 –
song type С*11 (record on Curonian spit
, the Kaliningrad region), 2 –
song type CM 5 (Simferopol, the Crimean region), 3 –
song type CM 3 (record in Melitopol, the Zaporozhye region), 4 –
song type CM 4 (Jankoy, the north of Crimea), 5 –
song type OI*3 (Simferopol, the south of Crimea), 6 –
song type OI 2 (record in Simferopol, the Crimean region), 7 –
song type M(O)I (Simferopol, the south of Ukraine), 8 –
song type O (
Curonian spit
, northwest of the European Russia). So,
different
lines
of
song
type
CM
and
song
type
OI
(fig
.
6
)
can
adjoin
(contact)
in
the
development
and,
probably,
to
have
the
general
(common)
types
of
songs
between
their
"evolutionary"
vocal
branches
(lines)
.
It
can
be
judged
on
similarity
of
their
song
types,
but
also
distinctions
in
vocal
structure
and
phonetics
(pronunciation),
characteristic
for
their
separate
vocal
lines
.
Probably,
it
is
result
of
evolution
as
"net"
(fig
.
10
*)
of
vocal
lines
of
chaffinch
at
formation
his(its)
song
traditions
(when
converge
and
divergence
,
again
and
again,
different
lines
of
vocalizations
at
song
training
or
learning
at
separate
individuals)
.
There
are
song
types
i
n
figure
6
,
belong
(relate)
to
different
vocal
lines
:
song
types
СМ
5
(fig
.
6
.
2
),
СМ
3
(fig
.
6
.
3
),
СМ
4
(fig
.
6
.
4
)
belong
(relate)
to
one
vocal
line
C
M,
probably,
originating
from
song
type
C
(fig
.
6
.
1
)
;
and
song
types
OI*
3
(fig
.
6
.
5
),
OI
2
(fig
.
6
.
6
),
M
(O)
I
(fig
.
6
.
7
),
concerning
(belong)
to
vocal
line
OI,
probably,
representing
a
combination
of
lines
of
song
types
O
(fig
.
6
.
8
),
I
(fig
.
7
.
1
)
and
M
(fig
.
7
.
2
)
.
1
. Song type I 2
. Song type M 12 Fig. 7. Song types of chaffinch (
Fringilla coelebs
L.) in northern population -
on Curonian spit of Baltic sea (the Kaliningrad region)
(
there is
"
creaking (as g
nash
)
"
element at song
type M in started singing (first) as "
ryu
-
ryu (ryumin)
" of chaffinch
in cloudy or cool weather)
.
At the quantitative analysis of vocal lines CM and OI, met (recorded) in one population of the south of Ukraine (Crimea), microgeographical variability (in territory of different cities) of song types at chaffinch have been
found out
both inside these lines of vocalizations, and between them (tab. 5). Table 5. The basic time
-
and
-
frequency parameters of song types of chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs
L.) i
n the south of Ukraine (Crimea), concerning
(belong)
to different vocal lines Type of song (
sign by token
)
Number of song
(
n
)
Name of place
of records Length of song, sec
Min frequency, KHz
Max
frequency, KHz
Median
(
average
) frequency, KHz
Number of syllables
(elements)
in song
Length of syllables in started singing, sec
Length of syllables in trill, sec
Length of syllables in final stroke, sec
Intervals between songs, sec
1
phrase
2
phrase
CM 5
(
fig
. 6.2)
16
Simferopol
(
Crimean region
)
1,9
±
0,26
2
±
0,18
8
±
1,04
4,44
±
0,15
14,5
±
2,1
0,11
±
0,02
0,055
±
0,03
0,11
±
0,039
6,06
±
2,49
С
M
3
(
fig
. 6.3)
33
Melitopol,
(
Zaporozhye
region
)
2,14
±
0,18
1,92
±
0,21
7,15
±
0,5
4,41
±
0,19
16,8
±
1,33
0,145
±
0,016
0,19*
±
0,02
0,05
±
0,01
0,097
±
0,015
7,68
±
2,87
С
M
4
(
fig
. 6.4)
4
Jankoy
(
Crimean region
)
1,66
±
0,14
1,96
±
0,095
6,91
±
0,53
4,65
±
1,27
11,8
±
1,48
0,11
±
0,018
0,042
±
0,002
0,127
±
0,03
4,74
±
2,32
OI
*3
(
fig
. 6.
5
)
9
Simferopol
(
Crimean region
)
1
,
92
±
0,17
1,
89
±
0,
17
7,6
±
0,55
4,36
±
0,24
14,4
±
0,53
0,11
±
0,015
0,13*
±
0,04
0,037
±
0,002
0,11
±
0,01
6,94
±
0,91
OI 2 (
fig
. 6.
6
)
5
Simferopol
(
Crimean region
)
1,65
±
0,14
2,032
±
0,14
7,92
±
0,53
4,72
±
0,1
13,2
±
1,3
0,037
±
0,005
0,11* ±
0,01
0,1
±
0,006
0,17
±
0,007
4,76
±
0,5
M(O)I (fig. 6.7)
7
Simferopol
(
Crimean region
)
1,98
±
0,09
1,65
±
0,17
8,07
±
0,27
4,43
±
0,13
16,43
±
1,5
0,032
±
0,006
0,17*
±
0,01
0,12
±
0,01
0,2
±
0,038
5,22
±
1
The note:
average value and a standard deviation of parameters of song types are specified
from statistical calculations for all songs of one type, which were at singing of males of chaffinch
in the given points of record ; the strongest differences counted a difference of parameters
>0,5 К
Hz
in frequency and >0,02
sec
in length (are allocated
or signed
by a font); * -
on sonograms
this phrase (
stick
-
similar
horizontal element) concerns
(belong)
to started singing
(fig. 6), but for comparison is brought in a trill; in brackets are song
types
(letter) from the European Russia
,
which are most similar
.
•
At
comparison
of
song
types
of
chaffinch
from
different
vocal
lines,
the
most
stable
in
variability
appeared
minimal
and
average
(median)
frequency
(К
Hz
),
length
of
syllables
of
a
trill
(
2
-
nd
phrase)
(tab
.
5
),
it
is
probable,
as
in
the
greater
degree
genetically
determined
features,
but
capable
to
change
during
time
.
•
In
other
parameters
distinctions
were
observed,
as
before,
both
between
types
inside
a
vocal
line,
and
in
song
types
between
the
given
vocal
lines,
at
a
similar
(equally)
parity
(ratio)
of
these
differences
of
time
-
and
-
frequency
parameters
(tab
.
5
)
.
•
But
from
all
song
variants
of
chaffinch,
dialect
types
of
songs
OI*
2
(fig
.
6
.
6
)
and
M
(O)
I
(fig
.
6
.
7
)
most
differed
-
it
is
especial
in
values
of
length
of
syllables
in
started
singing,
trill,
a
final
stroke
(tab
.
5
)
.
Most
likely,
it
is
extreme
phonetic
variants
of
similar
vocal
lines
.
Therefore
at
big
distinction
in
structure
and
phonetics
(pronunciation)
of
songs
of
one
types
(or
"related
as
relative
")
the
difference
increases
in
di
stinctions
of
their
quantitative
parameters
.
The
size
of
stick
-
similar
horizontal
element
in
started
singing
,
and
sometimes
at
the
beginning
of
a
trill
(fig
.
6
,
7
.
2
)
(as
"
ryu
-
ryu
(ryumin)
"
of
chaffinch
in
rainy
or
cool
weather)
is
various
and
individual
for
each
type
of
songs
(tab
.
5
)
.
It
is
necessary
to
tell,
that
this
signal
element
(call
or
voice)
of
chaffinch
("
ryu
-
ryu
")
frequently
meets
in
a
population
of
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea)
in
structure
of
songs
-
and
half
in
vocal
culture
of
chaffinch
population
can
represent
as
"
gnash
or
creaking
"
sound
and
more
powerful
sound
trace
on
sonogram
,
and
on
other
half
in
a
population
can
be
as
a
thin
sound
trace
and
as
whistle
on
perception
on
hearing
.
It
can
show
originality
(distinguish)
of
culture
of
a
pronunciation
of
element
"
ryu
-
ryu
(ryumin)
"
of
chaffinch
in
the
south
of
Ukraine
(in
Crimea),
but
also,
at
the
same
time,
combination
(mix
up)
with
his(its)
other
vocal
form
.
Nevertheless,
presence
of
this
element
in
the
form
of
whistle
in
the
south
(though
and
"
gnash
or
creaking
"
also
meets)
already
speaks
about
differences
in
relation
to
vocal
cultures
of
chaffinch
in
populations
of
the
European
Russia
.
*
It
is
necessary
to
note,
that
the
territory
of
researches
of
chaffinch
songs
(
Fringilla
coelebs
solomkoi
Menz
.
)
in
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea)
was
in
a
zone
of
the
mixed
woods
and
represented
large
city
parks
(more
than
1
к
m
2
)
in
Melitopol
(the
Zaporozhye
region),
Janko
y
(the
Crimean
region)
and
Simferopol
(the
regional
center
of
Crimea),
located
from
each
other
approximately
on
100
km
.
And
geographical
populations
of
chaffinch
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
-
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea)
and
populations
of
the
European
Russia
(the
north
and
the
central
part)
are
on
distance
of
1500
-
1850
km
.
Fig. 10*. C
haracter of evolution as "
net
" (from N.
N.
Iordansk
iy
, 2001).
Any evolutionary trunk is formed by filetical (development or evolutionary
)
lines
(AE, AH, AG, AF, BF)
,
which branch out or diverge and again merge (converge); sections of filetical (development)
lines are divided by “area
of time
”
(T1, T2) -
biological species (
also as species
-
specific vocalizations); parts of filetical (
evolutionary
)
lines MN and PQ
represen
ted in the paleontologic
al
annals -
paleontologic
al
species
.
Fig. 11*. The basic flying ways (migration) of birds (from S.
P.
Nayumov, 1965):
chaffinch (
Fringilla coelebs
L.), apparently, is the migrant of west
-
african
lines (on the plan
is a continuous line)
.
Degree of variability of quantitative parameters of chaffinch s
ongs (
Fringilla coelebs
L.)
As
there
is
a
variability
of
species
specific
songs
of
chaffinch
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
,
it
would
be
interesting
to
learn
(find
out),
what
time
-
and
-
frequency
parameters
of
songs
of
different
types
vary
more
and
what
-
less
or
are
more
stable
in
the
values
.
For
this
purpose
in
different
geographical
populations
of
chaffinch
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
for
each
of
the
certain
quantitative
parameters
the
factor
of
a
variation
or
variability
(V,
%
)
(fig
.
8
,
9
)
has
been
found
.
The
factor
of
a
variation
(V,
%
)
(fig
.
8
,
9
)
shows
a
degree
of
a
variation
(variability)
of
this
or
that
attribute
(sign),
proceeding
from
his(its)
average
arithmetic
value
(x)
and
a
standard
deviation
(õ)
(tab
.
3
),
which
shows
as
far
as
on
the
average
each
value
of
an
attribute
(sign)
of
the
general
(common)
sample
"deviates"
from
average
value
of
this
attribute
.
The
more
value
of
factor
of
a
variation
(V,
%
)
is
the
more
variability
of
values
of
parameter
.
Such
attitude
(relation)
can
be
expressed
by
the
general
(common)
formula
(
Nimenya
,
2003
)
:
õ
V
= –––
×
100%
x
Fig. 8. A degree of a variation of values of parameters of different song types of chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs solomkoi
Menz.) in the south of Ukraine (Crimea):
1 –
length of song (
sec
), 2 –
minimal frequency (К
Hz
), 3 –
maximal frequency (К
Hz
), 4 -
average (median) frequency (К
Hz
), 5 –
number of syllables in a song, 6 –
length of syllables in started singing
(
sec
), 7 -
length of syllables of a trill (1 phrase) (
sec
), 8 –
length of syllables of a trill (2 phrase) (
sec
), 9 –
length of syllables of a final stroke (
sec
), 10 –
intervals between syllables of started singing
(
sec
), 11 –
intervals between syllables of a trill (1 phrase) (
sec
), 12 –
intervals between syllables of a trill
(2 phrase) (
sec
), 13 -
intervals between syllables of a final stroke (
sec
), 14 –
intervals between phrases (
started singing
and a trill) (
sec
), 15 -
intervals between phrases (a trill and a final stroke) (
sec
), 16 –
intervals between songs (
sec
).
Fig. 9. A degree of a variation of values of parameters of different song types of chaffinch (
Fringilla coelebs
L.) in geographical populations of the East Europe:
1 –
length of song (
sec
), 2 –
minimal frequency (К
Hz
), 3 –
maximal frequency (К
Hz
), 4 -
average (median) frequency (К
Hz
), 5 –
number of syllables in a song, 6 –
length of syllables in started singing
(
sec
), 7 -
length of syllables of a trill (1 phrase) (
sec
), 8 –
length of syllables of a trill (2 phrase) (
sec
), 9 –
length of syllables of a final stroke (
sec
), 10 –
intervals between syllables of started singing
(
sec
), 11 –
intervals between syllables of a trill (1 phrase) (
sec
), 12 –
intervals between syllables of a trill (2 phrase) (
sec
), 13 -
intervals between syllables of a final stroke (
sec
), 14 –
intervals between phrases (
started singing
and a trill) (
sec
), 15 -
intervals between phrases (a trill and a final stroke) (
sec
), 16 –
intervals between songs (
sec
).
Conclusions on a variation of time
-
and
-
frequency parameters of different song types of chaffinch (
Fringilla coelebs
L.) inside of each from
three geographical populations of the East Europe
а)
Similarities
on
a
variation
of
values
of
quantitative
parameters
of
chaffinch
songs
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
in
three
geographical
populations
:
p
oorly
varied
(factor
of
variability
(V)
3
-
9
%
)
in
all
three
geographical
populations
of
chaffinch
are
minimal,
maximal
and
average
(median)
frequency
(
KHz
)
–
it
is
probable,
the
frequency
range
of
species
specific
song
of
chaffinch
is
genetically
determined
;
t
he
average
variation
(factor
of
variability
(V)
10
-
30
%
)
in
all
three
geographical
populations
of
chaffinch
was
observed
at
such
parameters
as
length
of
songs
(
sec
),
the
number
of
syllables
in
a
song,
intervals
between
songs
(
sec
)
–
is
probable,
it
also
genetically
determined,
more
or
less
stable
attributes
(signs)
of
species
specific
song
of
chaffinch
,
but
capable
in
the
greater
degree
to
change,
vary,
than
frequency
of
songs
(К
Hz
),
at
individuals
of
chaffinch
at
any
geographical
population
;
t
he
strong
variation
(factor
of
variability
(V)
33
-
50
%
)
in
all
three
geographical
populations
of
chaffinch
was
at
parameters
of
song
types
:
length
of
syllables
in
stareted
singing
(
sec
),
length
of
syllables
of
a
trill
(
1
phrase)
(
sec
),
length
of
syllables
of
a
final
stroke
(
sec
)
–
these
parameters
of
songs
are
capable
to
change
strongly
in
a
population
of
chaffinch
at
song
training
(learning)
and,
probably,
at
genetic
variability
as
well
to
create
different
song
forms
(types
of
species
specific
song
,
distinguished
on
structure
and
the
form
of
elements)
.
b
)
D
istinctions
on
a
variation
of
values
of
quantitative
parameters
of
chaffinch
songs
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
in
three
geographical
populations
:
t
he
length
of
syllables
of
a
trill
(
2
phrase)
(
sec
)
is
average
varied
(factor
of
variability
(V)
10
-
30
%
)
in
populations
of
the
center
and
the
south
of
the
East
Europe
,
but
in
northern
population
is
strongly
varied
(factor
of
variability
(V)
33
-
50
%
)
-
probably,
chaffinch
was
a
nesting
species
on
Curonian
spit
(north),
had
the
big
population
density
and
many
the
differentiated
types
of
species
specific
song
(
22
song
types
in
sample),
therefore
elements
of
a
trill
could
be
various
under
the
form
and
quantitative
parameters
;
while
in
populations
of
the
center
and
the
south
of
the
East
Europe
can
be
many
migrants,
flying
groups
of
chaffinch,
which
adapt
in
many
respects
to
local
song
cultures
of
nesting
chaffinch
and
have
poorly
differentiated
under
the
form
and
time
-
and
-
frequency
parameters
elements
(syllables)
of
a
trill
(especially
2
-
nd
phrases
at
songs
with
a
complex
(difficult)
trill
on
structure)
;
i
ntervals
between
syllables
in
started
singing
(
sec
),
intervals
between
syllables
of
a
trill
(
1
phrase)
(
sec
),
intervals
between
syllables
of
a
final
stroke
(
sec
)
is
average
vary
(factor
of
variability
(V)
10
-
30
%
)
in
northern
population
,
but
is
strongly
vary
(factor
of
variability
(V)
33
-
50
%
)
in
the
center
and
in
the
south
of
the
East
Europe
-
it
is
possible,
nesting
chaffinch
better
kept
of
song
tradition
in
the
north
(
Curonian
spit
)
and
the
given
attributes
(signs)
of
species
specific
song
were
more
stable
at
variability,
than
among
the
majority
of
flying
chaffinch
(migrants)
of
the
center
and
the
south
of
the
East
Europe
;
i
ntervals
between
syllables
of
a
trill
(
2
phrase)
(
sec
),
intervals
between
phrases
(
started
singing
and
a
trill)
(
sec
),
intervals
between
a
trill
and
a
final
stroke
(
sec
)
is
average
vary
(factor
of
variability
(V)
10
-
30
%
)
in
northern
and
central
populations
of
the
European
Russia
,
but
is
strongly
vary
(factor
of
variability
(V)
33
-
50
%
)
in
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea)
-
probably,
because
the
first
phrase
of
a
trill
(or
last
phrase
of
started
singing)
of
chaffinch
songs
in
many
song
types
in
the
south
could
be
in
form
of
stick
-
similar
horizontal
element
(as
"
ryu
-
ryu
(ryumin)
"
of
chaffinch
in
cloudy
or
cool
weather,
or
as
"
whistle
"),
and
the
second
phrase
of
a
trill
was
equally
with
less
stable
first
phrase
of
a
trill
in
the
European
Russia
.
The correlation analysis of chaffinch song (
Fringilla coelebs
L.) in the south of Ukraine (Crimea)
Also the correlation analysis of the basic quantitative parameters of songs of different types has been lead
(has been carried out) in geographical populations of chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs
L.) (by tab. 6, 7). It is necessary to note, that the correlation analysis was carried out
(was spent) and in northern geographical population of chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs coelebs
L.) (
Curonian spit
, the Kaliningrad region), that is in more detail discussed in other article. In the given work we show
the data only of two more close geographical populations of chaffinch
-
in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) and in the center of the European Russia (Moscow, Zvenigorod
, Michurinsk).
t is possible to draw conclusions from results of correlations of parameters of song
types of chaffinch (
Fringilla coelebs
L.) in geographical populations of the East Europe. Similar
(equally)
correlations of parameters
of species specific
song in all three geographical populations of chaffinch
of
the same character (positive or negative) represent : а
) with increase
in one parameter can increase
in values and other parameter -
positive correlation
(+) (directly proportional connection), where ×
-
a sign of correlation (all n=10, 6,5 %
from the general (common) number of correlations) (+ + +)
: •
Min frequency, К
Hz ×
Intervals between songs, sec
•
Max frequency, К
Hz ×
Median (average) frequency, К
Hz
•
Max frequency, К
Hz ×
Intervals between songs, sec
•
Median (average) frequency, К
Hz ×
Max frequency, К
Hz
•
Length of started singing elements, sec ×
Prevalence of song types, %
•
Intervals between songs, sec ×
Max frequency, К
Hz •
Length of a trill, sec ×
Intervals between songs, sec
•
Prevalence of song types, % ×
Length of started singing elements, sec
•
Intervals between songs, sec ×
Length of a trill, sec
•
Intervals between songs, sec ×
Min frequency, К
Hz b) with increase
in one parameter can decrease
in values other parameter -
negative correlation
(
-
) (inversely proportional connection), where ×
-
a sign of correlation (all n=8, 5,2 %
from the general (common) number of correlations) (
-
-
-
)
:
•
Prevalence of song types, % ×
Length of final stroke, sec
•
Number of syllables (elements) in song ×
Length of final stroke elements, sec
•
Length of started singing elements, sec ×
Length of started singing elements of a trill, sec
•
Length of elements of a trill, sec ×
Length of started singing elements, sec •
Length of final stroke elements, sec ×
Number of syllables (elements) in a song •
Intervals between songs, sec ×
Length of final stroke, sec
•
Length of final stroke, sec ×
Prevalence of song types, %
•
Length of final stroke, sec ×
Intervals between songs, sec
Table 6
. Correlation connections of the basic quantitative parameters of chaffinch song types (
Fringilla coelebs
solomkoi
Menz.) in populations of the south Ukraine (Crimea) (N=172)
Parameter
of song
type
Duration
of song, sec
Frequency of song, KHz
Preva
-
lence
,
%
Number of
syllab
-
les in song
Length of syllables, sec
Intervals between songs, sec
Length of phrases, sec
Min
Max
Median
(
average
)
started
singing
trill
final
stroke
started
singing
trill
final
stroke
Duration
of song, sec
-
0,32
0,58
0,25
-
0,31
0,78
0,28
0,01
0,08
0,18
0,4
0,78
0,27
Frequency of song, KHz
Min
-
0,32
-
0,28
-
0,02
0,2
-
0,35
0,03
-
0,13
-
0,09
0,21
-
0,19
-
0,27
0,02
Max
0,58
-
0,28
0,72
-
0,25
0,5
-
0,1
0,24
-
0,4
0,23
0,07
0,59
0,2
Median
(
average
)
0,25
-
0,02
0,72
-
0,15
0,04
-
0,06
0,24
0,51
0,06
-
0,12
0,3
0,18
Preva
-
lence
,
%
-
0,31
0,2
-
0,25
-
0,15
-
0,56
0,25
0,16
-
0,44
0,07
-
0,14
0,03
-
0,52
Number of syllables
in song
0,78 -
0,35
0,49
0,04
-
0,56
0,18
-
0,27
-
0,18
0,21
0,15
0,72
0,3
Length of syllables, sec
started
singing
0,28
0,03
-
0,1
-
0,06
0,25
0
,
1
8
-
0,71
-
0,48
0,29
0,35
0,09
0,02
trill
0,01
-
0,13
0,24
0,24
0,16
-
0,27
-
0,71
0,55
-
0,23
-
0,08
0,11
-
0,17
final
stroke
0,08
-
0,09
0,4
0,5
-
0,44
-
0,18
-
0,48
0,55
0,08
0,11
-
0,33
Intervals between songs, sec
0,18
0,21
0,22
0,06
0,07
0,21
0,29
-
0,23
0,08
0,08
0,44
-
0,16
Length of phrases, sec
started
singing
0,4
-
0,19
0,07
-
0,12
-
0,14
0,15
0,35
-
0,08
0,11
0,08
-
0,02
-
0,08
trill
0,78
-
0,27
0,59
0,3
0,03
0,72
0,09
0,11
-
0,01
0,44
-
0,02
-
0,07
final
stroke
0,27
0,02
0,2
0,18
-
0,52
0,3
0,02
-
0,17
0,33
-
0,16
-
0,08
-
0,07
The note
:
the font marks the most significant correlations (
-
0,5>r>0,5); italics marks the values of correlation showing presence of weak interrelation of parameters (
-
0,5<r<0,5); the negative sign on values shows inverse relationship of parameters, a positive sign (in the table it is not underlined) -
direct dependence; in total it is measured N=172 songs
of different types
; values of correlation were taken into account at p<0,05.
Table 7
. Correlation connections of the basic quantitative parameters of chaffinch song types (
Fringilla coelebs
coelebs
L.) in populations of central part European Russia (N=73)
Parameter
of song
type
Duration
of song, sec
Frequency of song, KHz
Preva
-
lence
,
%
Number of
syllab
-
les in song
Length of syllables, sec
Intervals between songs, sec
Length of phrases, sec
Min
Max
Median
(
average
)
started
singing
trill
final
stroke
started
singing
trill
final
stroke
Duration
of song, sec
0,62
-
0,66
-
0,44
-
0,03
-
0,63
-
0,04
0,03
-
0,30
-
0,02
0,65
0,12
0,03
Frequency of song, KHz
Min
0,62 -
0,13 -
0,28
0,20
0,47
-
0,08
0,47
-
0,40
0,10
-
0,08
0,62
-
0,28
Max
-
0,66
-
0,13
0,44
0,28
-
0,39
0,11
0,50
0,40
0,47
-
0,53
0,26
-
0,28
Median
(
average
)
-
0,44
-
0,28
0,44
0,63
-
0,73
0,76
-
0,23
0,30
0,09
-
0,36
0,35
-
0,53
Preva
-
lence
,
%
-
0,03
0,20
0,28
0,63
-
0,70
0,86
-
0,06
0,52
0,58
-
0,30
0,82
-
0,92
Number of syllables
in song
-
0,63
0,47
-
0,39
-
0,73
-
0,70
-
0,72
0,34
-
0,60
-
0,25
0,43
-
0,31
0,65
Length of syllables, sec
started
singing
-
0,04
-
0,08
0,11
0,76
0,86
-
0
,7
2
-
0,17
0,37
0,48
-
0,12
0,54
-
0,69
trill
0,03
0,47
0,50
0,23
-
0,06
0,34
-
0,17
-
0,26
0,67
-
0,19
0,23
0,09
final
stroke
-
0,30
-
0,40
0,40
0,30
0,52
-
0,60
0,37
-
0,26
0,53
-
0,06
0,22
-
0,48
Intervals between songs, sec
-
0,02
0,01
0,47
0,09
0,58
-
0,25
0,48
0,67
0,53
0,08
0,46
-
0,37
Length of phrases, sec
started
singing
0,65
-
0,08
-
0,53
-
0,36
-
0,30
0,43
-
0,12
-
0,19
-
0,06
-
0,08
-
0,53
0,25
trill
0,12
0,62
0,26
0,35
0,82
-
0,31
0,54
0,23
0,22
0,46
-
0,53
-
0,75
final
stroke
0,03
-
0,28
-
0,28
-
0,53
-
0,92
0,65
-
0,69
0,09
-
0,48
-
0,37
0,25
-
0,75
The note
:
the font marks the most significant correlations (
-
0,5>r>0,5); italics marks the values of correlation showing presence of weak interrelation of parameters (
-
0,5<r<0,5); the negative sign on values shows inverse relationship of parameters, a positive sign (in the table it is not underlined) -
direct dependence; in total it is measured N=73 songs
of different types; values of correlation were taken into account at p<0,05.
If to analyze significant correlations
(within the limits of -
0,2>r> 0,2, where r -
factor of correlation) only in two, discussed in this article, geographical populations of chaffinch
-
Crimea
(the south of Ukraine) and the center
of the European Russia
, as against
northern population
of chaffinch
(
Curonian spit
, the Kaliningrad region)
,
have come to light
(revealed)
the following similar (equally) correlations
in southern and "central" populations of chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs
L.):
а) w
ith increase
in one parameter can increase
in values and other parameter -
positive correlation
(+) (directly proportional connection), where ×
-
a sign on correlation (+ +):
•
Length of songs, sec
×
Length of started singing
, sec
•
Min frequency, К
Hz
×
Prevalence of song types, %
•
Max frequency, К
Hz
×
Length of elements of a trill, sec
•
Max frequency, К
Hz
×
Length of elements of a final stroke, sec
•
Max frequency, К
Hz
×
Length of a trill, sec
•
Median (average) frequency, К
Hz
×
Length of a trill, sec
•
Median (average) frequency, К
Hz
×
Length of elements of a final stroke, sec
•
Number of syllables (elements) in song ×
Length of a final stroke, sec
•
Number of syllables (elements) in song ×
Length of started singing
, sec
•
Length of elements in started singing
, sec
×
Intervals between songs, sec
б) w
ith increase
in one parameter
can decrease
in values other parameter -
negative correlation
(
-
) (inversely proportional connection), where ×
-
a sign on correlation (
-
-
) :
•
Prevalence of song types, % ×
Number of syllables (elements) in a song.
Also correlation connections of parameters of song types of chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs
L.) in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) and in the center of the European Russia can differ
, that, probably, is feature
of
various song
cultures of chaffinch
in his(its) two subspecies
-
chaffinch
c
rimean
(
Fringilla coelebs solomkoi
Menz.) and chaffinch
e
uropean
(
Fringilla coelebs coelebs
L.). Though between northern and "central" geographical populations of one subspecies of chaffinch
e
uropean (
Fringilla coelebs coelebs
L.) also there were many distinctions at comparison of quantitative parameters, that, probably, can speak any more about not taxonomic (groups, sections)
distinction, but
about uniqueness of each of chaffinch populations in the species specific features, also the general
(common) for all species of chaffinch
. So, distinctions of correlations of parameters
of song types in southern and "central" geographical populations
of chaffinch (
Fringilla coelebs
L.) will consist in the following:
а) p
ositive correlation
(+) in the south
of Ukraine (Crimea), but negative correlation
(
-
) in the center of the European
Russia
, where ×
-
a sign on correlation (+ –
):
•
Length of songs, sec
×
Max frequency, К
Hz
•
Max frequency, К
Hz
×
Number of syllables (elements) in a song
•
Number of syllables (elements) in song ×
Intervals between songs, sec
•
Number of syllables (elements) in song ×
Length of elements in started singing
, sec
•
Median (average) frequency, К
Hz
×
Length of a final stroke, sec
•
Length of songs, sec
×
Number of syllables (elements) in a song
•
Max frequency, К
Hz
×
Length of a final stroke, sec
•
Median (average) frequency, К
Hz
×
Length of elements of a trill, sec
•
Length of songs, sec
×
Median (average) frequency, К
Hz
•
Number of syllables (elements) in song ×
Length of a trill, sec
•
Length of elements of a trill, sec
×
Length of elements of a final stroke, sec
•
Length of elements of a
final
stroke, sec
×
Length of a final stroke, sec
б) Negative correlation
(
-
) in the south
of Ukraine (Crimea), but positive correlation
(+) in the center of the European Russia
, where ×
-
a sign on correlation (
–
+):
•
Length of elements in started singing
, sec
×
Length of elements of a final stroke, sec
•
Length of songs, sec
×
Min frequency, К
Hz
•
Min frequency, К
Hz
×
Length of a trill, sec
•
Min frequency, К
Hz
×
Number of syllables (elements) in a song
•
Max frequency, К
Hz
×
Prevalence of song types, %
•
Number of syllables (elements) in song ×
Length of a trill, sec
•
Intervals between songs, sec
×
Length of elements of a trill, sec
•
Max frequency, К
Hz
×
Length of elements of a final stroke, sec
At calculation of quantity (amount) of similar (equally) correlations
of parameters of song types of chaffinch (
Fringilla coelebs
L.) and quantities
(amounts) of distinguished
(different)
correlations
of parameters of chaffinch songs in populations in the south of Ukraine (Crimea) and in the center of the European Russia turns out
(resulted)
a proportion of 29:20 (similarities: distinctions) or 1,5:1
.
So
, the given two geographical populations of chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs
L.) even on statuses of separate subspecies
-
chaffinch
c
rimean
(
Fringilla coelebs solomkoi
Menz.) and chaffinch
e
uropean
(
Fringilla coelebs coelebs
L.), can have in song culture in 1,5 parts more similarities
, than distinctions in quantitative parameters
of species specific song
, in character of it
correlations.
So
, between species specific populations
of chaffinch (them song
cultures or traditions, norms), despite of their distinctions, exists
many common
signs
, uniting them in a uniform species
.
Сonclusion
The
average
size
of
song
repertoir
e
of
chaffinch
in
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea
)
is
2
,
52
±
0
,
75
types
of
songs
.
Average
prevalence
of
one
song
type
in
a
population
of
chaffinch
in
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea)
is
6
,
6
±
5
%
(as
well
as
in
populations
of
the
European
Russia
-
on
the
average
6
,
75
%
)
.
At
the
quantitative
analysis
it
was
found
out,
that
average
(median)
frequency
(К
Hz
)
in
a
population
of
chaffinch
in
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea)
higher,
than
in
the
north
and
in
the
center
of
the
European
Russia,
that
it
is
possible
to
explain
by
the
big
power
(energy)
expenses
of
chaffinch
on
singing
(realization
of
song
types)
in
a
southern
population
,
than
in
northern
.
In
repertoire
of
one
male
of
chaffinch
there
could
be
together
two
and
more
dialect
(modified)
variant
s
of
one
song
type
,
that
reflects
also
similar
population
structure
of
vocal
culture
of
chaffinch
,
its(her)
combination
(mix
up
)
of
lines
(row,
number)
of
"dialect"
vocal
types,
probably,
changed
in
other
local
populations
.
Many
analysed
song
types
in
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea)
smoothly
(gradually)
pass
(transition)
each
other
in
vocal
structure
.
Probably,
such
big
similarity
of
different
types
of
songs
speaks
about
"
youth"
of
these
types
in
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea
),
their
recent
differentiation
in
independent
types
.
All
considered
song
types
of
chaffinch
from
samples
in
a
population
of
the
south
of
Ukraine
(Crimea
)
to
some
extent
are
modified
(
dialect
)
(except
for
song
type
В)
in
the
general
(common)
structure
or
separate
phrases
(song
parts)
in
relation
to
song
types
in
chaffinch
populations
in
northwest
and
in
the
center
of
the
European
Russia
(where
in
habit
the
subspecies
-
chaffinch
e
uropean
-
Fringilla
coelebs
coelebs
L
.
)
.
It
can
justify
occurrence
of
separate
subspecies
of
chaffinch
in
Crimea
(the
south
of
Ukraine)
-
chaffinch
c
rimean
(
Fringilla
coelebs
solomkoi
Menzbier)
.
While
between
populations
of
chaffinch
in
northwest
and
in
the
center
of
the
European
Russia
was
more
the
general
(common)
,
not
modified
(or
less
modified)
types
of
songs
,
phrases
(song
parts)
(A,
Е,
Т,
C
,
S,
F,
I,
etc
.
)
and
subdialects
(small
phonetic
changes)
(B,
D,
G,
M,
S,
V,
U),
than
dialects
(the
established
phonetic
norms)
of
certain
song
types
(C*,
F,
I,
J,
N)
.
It
can
confirm
unity
of
the
given
populations
of
chaffinch
,
and
them
more
or
less
close
communications
(connections)
at
migrations
,
that
can
prove
unity
of
subspecies
is
chaffinch
e
uropean
(
Fringilla
coelebs
coelebs
L)
on
an
area
(territory)
of
distribution
of
a
species
(fig
.
11
*)
.
It
is
possible,
that
separate
subspecies
of
chaffinch
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
can
have
original
(distinguish)
song
cultures
in
the
local
and
geographical
populations
,
characteristic
only
for
them
and
modified
(dialect)
in
the
types
of
song
s
in
relation
to
song
types
of
other
populations,
subspecies
of
chaffinch
and
to
th
eir
song
cultures
(in
an
original
or
different
set
and
character
of
song
types
in
local
and
geographical
populations),
as
it
has
come
to
light
(revealed)
for
populations
of
chaffinch
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
in
the
south
of
Ukraine
and
in
the
European
Russia
.
The
song
of
chaffinch
develop
in
process
of
evolution
on
the
special
laws
,
is
differentiated
(changes
on
the
basis
of
initial
"
ancestor
"
song
forms
and
"related
(as
relatives)
"
lines
in
time
and
space),
creates
separate
steady
song
norms
(set
of
the
most
widespread
types
of
songs),
consisting
of
lines
(row,
number)
of
similar,
but
also
distinguished
(more
or
less
different)
song
variants
of
one
type
,
forming
certain
typological
vocal
polymorphism
,
from
which
proceed
many
other
polymorphic
branches
(lines)
of
more
distant
or
more
close
«on
relationship»
lines
of
song
cultures
(a
variety
of
song
types,
manners
or
ways
of
execution
(performance)
at
singing
their
structure,
separate
elements,
phrases
or
song
parts
)
(fig
.
10
*)
.
Whether
the
species
specific
song
of
chaffinch
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
is
criterion
of
process
of
speciation
(separation)
of
species
and
a
is
characteristic
attribute
of
subspecies
and
other
formed
groups
of
birds?
Probably,
as
well
as
any
species
specific
attribute
(sign)
,
a
song
of
chaffinch
it
is
capable
to
be
steady
at
the
certain
norm
,
but
within
the
limits
of
any
norm
can
and
vary
at
individual
and
geographical
variability
of
individuals
in
populations,
at
their
special
song
cultures
in
aggregate
(which
represent
the
original
or
distinguish
set
and
a
parity
(ratio)
(
%
)
types
or
variants
of
species
specific
song)
.
Thus
it
is
necessary
to
take
into
account,
that
these
distinguished
(different)
song
cultures
of
chaffinch
in
different
populations
will
consist
of
constantly
mixing
up
types
of
songs
of
these
different
populations
,
where
they
change
or
remain
constant
,
being
transferred
to
the
following
generation
.
The
unity
of
the
general
(common)
and
differing
in
species
specific
song
of
chaffinch
is
same
as
and
at
any
attribute
(sign)
of
a
species
.
But
formation
of
new
song
norms
(tradition
)
within
the
limits
of
which
there
will
be
the
new
other
variation
,
which
is
distinct
from
character
of
variability
of
former
norm
of
species
specific
song
,
can
be
shown
more
on
level
of
population
and
a
speci
es
of
birds
(at
occurrence
of
separate
different
close
species
of
birds)
.
But
when
species
specific
populations
are
uniform
enough
and
form
a
single
whole
-
difficultly
to
speak
about
formation
of
separate
independent
song
norms
.
Most
likely,
on
all
a
species
specific
area
of
distribution
of
chaffinch
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
there
can
be
smooth
(gradual)
transitions
from
one
vocal
norm
in
another
or
also
combination
(mix
up)
of
these
song
norms
as
a
result
of
migrations
of
birds
(fig
.
11
*)
,
and
then
there
can
be
a
formation
of
one
or
several
combined
song
cultures
(including
cultures
of
set
or
many
),
as
occurs
in
species
specific
populations
of
chaffinch
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
),
without
dependence
from
to
what
subspecies
it(he)
concerns
.
It
is
possible,
that
more
frequently
evolution
occurs
in
time
,
instea
of
in
space
-
and
the
species
specific
song
of
chaffinch
here
can
be
an
example
.
During
time
,
variants
or
types
of
song
at
chaffinch
can
form
the
certain
variational
numbers
(lines
),
philetical
(evolutionary
),
frequently
the
crossed
,
vocal
lines
,
representing
more
and
more
new
distinguished
(different
)
,
but
also
similar
vocal
forms
,
also
including
and
former,
initial
types
of
songs
(fig
.
10
*)
.
At
the
quantitative
analysis
have
been
revealed
less
stable
features
of
species
specific
song
of
chaffinch
(
Fringilla
coelebs
L
.
)
which,
probably,
and
in
the
greater
degree
will
change
at
formation
of
new
vocal
norms
(basically
it
concerns
fine
or
small
details
of
song
-
length
and
intervals
of
elements
songs,
song
parts
and
phrases,
probably,
their
quantity),
rather
than
those
song
parameters
and
their
correlations
,
which
appeared
more
stable
(a
frequency
range,
character
of
singing
of
song
pattern
and
intervals
between
them,
some
form
of
a
pronunciation
of
elements),
that
also
is
capable
to
change
.
1
2
Fig. 10. Different subspecies of chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs
L.):
1 –
chaffinch
e
uropean (
Fringilla coelebs coelebs
L.), 2 -
chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs tintillon
) on Canary islands (northwest of Africa) (Bergmann, 1993).
Fig. 12. Blue chaffinch
(
Fringilla teydea
) on Canary islands (Tenerife, Grand Canary) (Bergmann, 1993).
Fig. 11. Sonograms of
songs of representatives of different species
of
one group or genus of Finches
(Fringilla) and subspecies of chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs
L.), recorded in different points of the Earth
: A –
England, B –
Northern Africa, C, D
–
Canary
islands, E
–
Sweden (Thorpe, 1958).
Fig. 13. Representatives of one group or genus of Finches (Fringilla):
A –
chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs
L.), B
–
Brambling (
Fringilla montifringilla
); 1 –
female
, 2 –
male
.
Family of Finches
(Fringillidae)
B
irds
is small
and average on size
. A constitution is dense, a beak is conic, rather massive. In fauna of Russia the family is submitted by 35
species
. Brambling
(
Fringilla montifringilla
) In size as
a sparrow. The back side
is
bluish
-
black, the under of tail is
white, a throat, a craw and a breast
are
bright
-
red, abdomin (
bottom
side) is white. On a wing are white and orange strips. Female
is less brightly. The bird of passage
(migrate)
. Inhabit in
a southern half of forest
-
tundra and a wood zone
(forest)
from Kol
skiy
peninsula up to coast of Ohotsk
iy sea
. The nest arranges on a tree. In a laying of 5
-
7 greenish eggs with red
-
violet specks. A voice -
sharp "
chzhee
" and a rough song "
chzhzhzh
".
Chaffinch
(
Fringilla coelebs
L.) In size as
a sparrow. Male have
grey
-
dark blue
top of a head, a back
is
chestnut, a forehead
is
black, the bottom party
(side) of a body is red
-
brown. Wings and a tail are black
-
brown, strips on each side of a tail and on shoulders are white.
Female is
буро
-
grey. The bird of passage
(migrate)
. Occupies wood
(forest)
and forest
-
steppe zones from the western borders of Russia up to lake Baikal. The nest
builds on a tree. In a laying of
4
-
7 bluish
-
green eggs with specks and strips. A voice -
sonorous "
pink
-
pink
" and a loud song -
a trill "
fyu
-
fyu
-
fyu
-
lya
-
lya
-
lya
-
di
-
di
-
di
-
vi
-
chiu
". White strips on wings (a characteristic attribute) are well visible.
Both species
(
chaffinch
and brambling
) are well defined
(determined) on characteristic color of feathers
(
Hrabriy
, 2006).
L
iterature
Astakhova
O
.
A
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,
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I
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Macrogeographical
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L
.
)
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I sing –
as well as all
!
Автор
Olesya Astakhova
Документ
Категория
Зоология
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Теги
crimea, ukraine, features, south, chaffinch, organization, vocal
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