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The source of solar radiation
F.G.Lepekhin
Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute
Abstract
The source of solar radiation can not be a fusion reaction,as the Sun radiates in the form of
quanta of electromagnetic energy with a peak at a wavelength of about 0.5 microns.A fusion
reaction produces energy in the form of kinetic energy of particles with mass equal to the proton,
or more.There is no effective mechanism for converting the energy produced in thermonuclear
reactions,to the energy of solar radiation.The Sun is a plasma consisting of two gases - the
hot,electron gas,and the cold,proton gas.They were formed during the formation of the Sun
from the protostar in the process of phase transition of atomic hydrogen into a proton and an
electron.This stored energy of the phase transition is the source of solar energy in the process
of electron bremsstrahlung with protons of the Sun.It’s around at the 5 10
9
years.
Introduction
Probably there is no more striking phenomenon,than the radiance of the Sun.It is
the source of life on Earth.Moreover,in essence,all that we see,all that we perceive in
our minds as the outside world are created by radiation of the Sun.The human eye is the
most sensitive,coinciding with a maximum solar radiation.This is no accident.
Sun rays on the edge of the Earth equal to 2.00 cal/min,or complete radiation
with its entire surface will (3:846 § 0:008) 10
26
W [1].It is a light with a maximum
wavelength of about 0.5 microns.The effective temperature of the solar surface is about
6000 degrees.Light and heat which come to us are black body equilibrium radiation,with
this temperature,placed on outer space with the temperature about average 2.7 degrees
absolute scale.
To maintain luminosity the Sun long enough at this level,we need sources of energy.
Question on new sources of energy is a business need today.It is actual today.
Modern views on the energy of the Sun
Naturally,science has long been interested in the possible source of solar energy.The
first answer to this question has been given in 1854 by Helmholtz.He suggested that such
a source of the Sun’s energy could be gravitational contraction of matter.But Helmholtz
considered Sun the way it is today.It turned out that the further compression of the Sun
can be provided not more than a few million years.And it appears that the Sun has been
shining for at least about 2 billion years,when the life on Earth appeared and will still
shine as much.
At present,the scientific community recognized the thermonuclear reactions going in
the Sun as the source Sun’s of radiation.This hypothesis was proposed by Bethe in 1939,
[2].
But here in the article on controlled thermonuclear fusion E.P.Velikhov offers the
fusion reactor scheme.There is warmth,resulting in reactions of synthesis,shown in the
active zone of reactor,where the temperature is higher due to more the high kinetic energy
of the particles,which are the products of reaction synthesis.Such particles in the fusion
reactions are particle with mass equal to the mass of a proton,or more with kinetic energy
in a few MeV.And even given the fact that the thermonuclear reactions are going on in
the Sun,their products will transfer them their energy.That is,would just heat the Sun.
Its temperature will inevitably increase.
It turns out that the thermonuclear reaction generates energy,it,in principle,can use
controlled thermonuclear fusion,but not to be send it to maintain the luminosity of the
Sun.There is no effective way to convert the kinetic energy of the fusion products energy
in the Sun’s radiation equilibrium at temperature of 6000 degrees.
In addition,in order to further heat the Sun,all the energy emitted in the central
areas should be converted to radiation,which then will be rejected.But these processes
are interdependent.If they turn out to be exactly equal to each other,it violates the
principle of causality.Process that takes place later,has an impact on the process that
comes before it.Or suppose that the Sun over time,either cooled or heated up from
thermonuclear reactions.
Literally,[3] the opportunity to pilot the insides of the Sun by magnetic resonance
imaging.This method has shown that the speed of the plasma flows beneath the surface
of the Sun was 100 times less than expected.It shows that all the thoughts that in the
center of the Sun is the energy is produced,which then after a long time radiates from
its surface,are wrong.
Thus,the fusion reactions,as a source of energy from the Sun,must be discarded.Of
course,it was a beautiful hypothesis,but it turned out to be erroneous.
The likely source of the Sun is energy
All previous attempts to find the source of the energy of the Sun,considered the Sun
such as it is today,without considering the history of the origin of the Sun.They are
doomed to failure.So,let’s take a look at the most likely formation mechanism of the
Sun.
The Sun,like all visible stars formed in a process in which dense molecular clouds
of hydrogen were converted into a ball of plasma,the protostar.The evolution of a star
begins in a giant dust cloud.If most of the empty space contains from0.1 to 1.0 molecules
of hydrogen,than the cloud fromwhich the star was formed has about a million molecules
of hydrogen in cubic centimeters.Its weight is 10
5
¡ 10
7
times the mass of the Sun,and
size is from 50 to 300 parsecs across.
The different phases of the stars birth can be observed in the reality there.So it is not
just a fantasy,but rather a compilation of observed facts.Equilibrium radiation protostar
at an early stage of development lies in the infrared region,as its temperature is a little
different fromthe average temperature in absolute scale of 2.7 degrees.As molecular cloud
revolves around some galaxies,several factors can cause the gravitational collapse.This
may be a collision of two such clouds,or explosion of nearby supernova,or simply the
collision of galaxies.So,our Galaxy,in the future,will inevitably face Andromeda galaxy.
As temperature grows more and more,molecular hydrogen turns into atomic hydrogen,
and,finally,into the electrons and protons.Instead of a single gas,plasma,as a result
of the phase transition,will be made of the two gases.One is electronic,hot gas,and
another is proton,cold gas.The kinetic energy of their will be 1 to 1836,as in the act
2
of dissolution of the impulses are exactly equal to each other in order to maintain the
momentum.And with equal momentum,kinetic energy will be inversely proportional to
their masses.The time during which the Sun was formed is likely lasted for billions years.
At the end of this process in the Sun there are around 10
57
electrons with an average
energy of approximately 1.4 KeV,and the same protons,with the energy of 0.75 eV.The
hot gas has accumulated energy,in the form of bremsstrahlung,when confronted with
protons,almost no heating.A bremsstrahlung we have seen in the form of radiation from
the Sun.Calculations show that this will continue for at least 5 10
9
years.
Physical Manifestation and Summary
If the Sun thermonuclear reactions could not be the source of its radiation,than
naturally,they couldn not be the source of radiation and the stars.Then the myth of
termoade is becoming a reality.No one,never,and nowhere witnessed thermonuclear
reactions except that when supernovae explosions.It is clear that since launched
thermonuclear reaction will always be re-warming system,involving all the new masses
of hydrogen,while all it responds fully.
Note that a large part of the main sequence stars have mass from 1 to 10 the mass
of the Sun.This means that their prolonged luminosity is with a very narrow range of
masses.Objects weighing less than the mass of the Sun just can’t shine,and objects with
much more than the mass of the Sun are shining very fast,and so they do not exist.
It may be associated with the role of light pressure on the shell the Sun,which hinders
its further compression.Light pressure balances the force of gravity.This means that
plasma layer of the Sun is in full compression.Gravity acts downwards,and a light pressure
is acting upwards.And then it is possible that the plasma in the surface layer is a special,
hard crystal state.The state,which we call the Earth plasma differs considerably from
the Sun plasma.
Equilibrium hydrogen plasma must become the object of study on the Earth,and the
new research of the Sun.A way to solve our energy problems lies on the face of the Earth.
References
1.Eur.Phys.J.,15 (2000) 74.
2.Bete H.,Phys.Rev.,55(1939) 434.
3.S.M.Hanasoge,T.L.Duvall,K.R.Sreenivasan,”Anomalousy weak solar convertation”,
PNAS Jun 4,2012,doi:10.1073/pnas 1206570109.
3
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