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Британский дом Home sweet home Макарова Е.А. (www.PhoenixBooks.ru)

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Макарова Е.А.
БритАнский доМ
Home, sweet home!
Серия «Британская мозаика»
ростов-на-дону
«Феникс»
2012
УДК 811.111(075)
ББК 81.2Англ-9
КТК 8032
М15
МакароваЕ.А.
М15 Британский дом : Home, sweet home! / Е. А. Макарова. — Ростов н/Д : Феникс, 2012. — 44 с. : ил. — (Британская мозаика).
ISBN 978-5-222-19605-2
Книга для чтения по английскому языку «Британский дом» адресована школьникам старших классов, учащимся СПО и студентам вузов. Предназначена для формирова-
ния навыков чтения, письма и устного общения, а также для развития навыков письменного перевода. Может быть использована в качестве дополнительного учебного ма-
териала с любым базовым учебником английского языка для средних школ. Задания в книге рассчитаны на работу в классе, но могут быть использованы и для самостоятель-
ной работы при подготовке проектов или устных презента-
ций по культуре страны изучаемого языка.
УДК 811.111(075)
ББК 81.2Англ-9
ISBN 978-5-222-19605-2
© Макарова Е. А., 2012
© Оформление: ООО «Феникс», 2012
3
INTRODUCTION
From the history oF British houses
From the Middle Ages to the 21st century, what has shaped the changing face of British home? Britain has a great variety of periods and styles of house building, starting with some Norman houses still standing and open to public. The Celts lived in round houses. After the Roman Conquest upper class Celts built villas with wall paintings, mosaics and glassed windows. Life was hard in Anglo-Saxon times and homes were rough, crowded and uncomfortable.
In the Middle Ages rich people’s houses were designed for defence rather than living. In the 16th century life was safer so houses no longer had to be defended. While country houses were detached
1
, town houses, packed into more limited space, began to push up against each other in the Middle Ages forming semi-detached and terraced houses. Since there was little space in towns, the houses added storey
2
upon storey. City regulations were written in order to protect houses from ires which happened very often in those days as the houses were made of wood.
In the 15th century only a small minority of people could afford glass windows. During the 16th century they became much more common. However they were still very expensive. When people moved house they took their windows with them. In the 17th century people used local materials for building their houses. There were certain local traditions in building 1
detached — отдельный, обособленный; изолированный, отде-
ленный.
2
storey — этаж; ярус.
4
them. The average person lived in a house characteristic of this region. There was progress towards more stable and beautiful houses. Stone and brick
3
began to replace wood as the standard building material for the homes of farmers, trades people and merchants. The style of the 17
th
century homes is heavy and rich. In the 18th century local builders began to make greater use of pattern building books bringing the same fashions to different regions. In that time a castle might be transformed into a country house, while the family could move to a house in a big city. At the end of the 18th century, a single national style of architecture was needed for a new age.
Mass production of the 19
th
century resulted in buildings and houses that looked exactly the same, as the individual craftsman no longer had a major role in their creation.
Styles of the 20th century were characterized by conservatism and changed one- or two-storey manors into high-rise
4
housing. The most important trends in early 20th century architecture in Britain were cold glass and concrete frames. But now, in the new Millennium even these modern buildings seem too old and out of fashion. What comes next? What is the building material of the future?
What is home as distinct From a house?
Different people answer the question in different ways: A chubby
5
little boy of 5 answered unhesitatingly
6
that it was “Mummy and Daddy, plenty of toys and bedtime stories”. 3
brick — кирпич.
4
high-rise — высотное здание.
5
chubby — круглолицый, полнощекий.
6
unhesitatingly — решительно.
5
A housewife said: “Home means a lot of drudgery
7
if you want to have it clean and comfortable”.
A man of forty said it was a place he returned to after work to enjoy a hearty
8
meal and his “well-earned” rest.
A working woman said home was a place she never forgot, trying to remember all the things she had left undone before leaving home in the morning and those to be done on her way home and on getting in.
An English architect said: “A home is any dwelling
9
from a royal palace or a castle to the most humble
10
cottage, plus the people living in it as a family unit”. Hence a hostel, a hotel, a hospital are not homes in the English sense of the word. There is a quote: Men make houses, women make homes. It means that men are often the ones who build or buy houses for their families, but women provide the things that make a house into a home.
British homes
British homes are usually small, as old people, young families and unmarried people do not usually live together.
Many British people love old houses, and these are often more expensive than modern ones. They also love gardening, and you will see gardens everywhere you go: in towns, villages and out in the country. Some are very small, with just one tree and a few lowers. Others are enormous, with plenty of lowers 7
drudgery — тяжелая, нудная, монотонная работа.
8
hearty — (о пище) обильный.
9
dwelling — жилище, (жилой) дом, жилье, жилое помещение.
10
humble — простой, скромный; небольшой, умеренный; недо-
рогой.
6
and enough vegetables and fruit trees to feed a family.
There are 22 million homes in Britain — big homes and small homes, old cottages and new high-rise buildings, houses and lats.
Two thirds of the families in Britain own their own homes. Millions of these “owner-occupied” houses are the same, with two or three bedrooms and a bathroom upstairs, a sitting (living) room, dining room and kitchen downstairs and a small garden at the back and front of the house. To pay for their house, home owners borrow money from a “building society” and pay back a little every month.
One quarter of British people live in rented state-owned homes, called “council house
11
”. Many of these are lats, but some are houses, each with a small piece of garden. Other people rent their homes from private owners.
There are a great many different kinds of homes in Britain, but there are not enough! Answer the questions:
1. What do many British people love?
2. What size houses are there?
3. How many Britons own their houses?
4. What is a “council house”?
5. What is an alternative to council house?
6. Get some additional information about the housing situation in Britain from mass media and use it to make a short presentation of your own.
7. Translate deinitions of home given by people of different age and social status. Give your own deinition of home.
11
council house — муниципальный дом.
7
Unit 1
someWhere to Live
In Britain the most widespread
12
natural building material is brick, because there is plenty of clay in the ground to make bricks with. There are red brick houses all over Britain and yellow brick houses in the Eastern Counties. Many buildings are now also made of concrete.
Types of Home
Families prefer to live in houses rather than in lats (apartments).
78% of householders occupy a whole house, 21% live in lats or houses divided into rooms. The remainder live in mobile homes (caravans
13
) or in accommodation rented with business premises — for example, rooms over a ship.
Many people own the house they live in, or they are buying it with borrowed money (a mortgage
14
).
About 62% of all dwellings are “owner-occupied” (the person who lives there owns the house).
Nearly a third are rented from public housing authorities.
The housing situation
The above summary makes the housing situation in Britain look quite good. It has improved a lot since the great shortage 12
widespread — распространенный.
13
caravan — фургон; автоприцеп; передвижной дом на колесах.
14
mortgage — заклад; ипотека.
8
of houses after World War II. But people are not interested in the exact number of houses built; they are interested in what they themselves need. They know that it is still dificult to ind accommodation
15
at a price they can afford.
The most popular type of home in Britain is semi-detached (more than 27% of all homes), closely followed by detached then terraced. Almost half of London’s households are lats, maisonettes
16
or apartments.
A big problem in Britain is the rising cost of houses. In 1989 irst-time buyers paid an average of around £40,000, in 2001 this had more than doubled to £85,000 and in 2010 to £151,565. Today an average house price is £184,924.
The cost of housing in Great Britain has increased much faster than people’s wages making it impossible for irst-time buyers to get on the housing ladder unless they are in especially well-paid jobs, are able to call upon rich relatives or are prepared to buy jointly with friends. Answer the questions:
1. What is the housing situation in your country?
2. Compare it with the housing situation in Great Britain.
3. Do people live in mobile homes in your country?
4. What is the big problem in Great Britain?
5. What is the average house price?
6. What is the most popular type of home in Britain? Describe it.
7. Make your own diagram to illustrate the housing situation in Great Britain.
8. Make a brief presentation about the housing situation in Great Britain using your diagram.
15
accommodation — квартира, комната, жилье.
16
maisonette — квартира в двух уровнях, дуплекс.
44
Оглавление
From the history of British houses ..........................3
What is home as distinct from a house?.....................4
British homes..............................................5
unit 1....................................................7
Somewhere To Live ........................................7
unit 2 ...................................................9
Different Styles Of Housing ................................9
unit 3..................................................15
The Outside Of The House ................................15
unit 4..................................................19
The Inside Of The House ..................................19
unit 5..................................................24
Stately Homes ............................................24
Supplementary Materials..................................25
Учебное пособие
Серия «Британская мозаика»
Елена Александровна Макарова
БритАнский доМ
Home, sweet home!
Ответственный редактор И. Кочнева
Выпускающий редактор Г. Логвинова
Технический редактор Ю. Давыдова
Верстка: М. Курузьян
Макет обложки: М. Сафиуллина
Подписано в печать 21.03.2012.
Формат 84х108/32. Бумага офсетная.
Печать офсетная.
Тираж 3000 экз. Заказ № ООО «ФЕНИКС»
344082, г. Ростов-на-Дону, пер. Халтуринский, 80
Автор
phoenixbooks
Документ
Категория
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Теги
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