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Британский транспорт left or right which is right Макарова Е.А. (www.PhoenixBooks.ru)

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Макарова Е.А.
БритАнский трАнспорт
Left or right, which is right?
Серия «Британская мозаика»
ростов-на-Дону
«Феникс»
2012
УДК 811.111(075)
ББК 81.2Англ-9
КТК 8032
М15
МакароваЕ.А.
М15 Британский транспорт : left or right, which is right? / Е. А. Макарова. — Ростов н/Д : Феникс, 2012. — 48 с. : ил. — (Британская мозаика).
ISBN 978-5-222-19606-9
Книга для чтения по английскому языку «Британский транспорт» адресована школьникам старших классов, учащимся СПО и студентам вузов. Предназначена для фор-
мирования навыков чтения, письма и устного общения, а также для развития навыков письменного перевода. Может быть использована в качестве дополнительного учебного материала с любым базовым учебником английского языка для средних школ. Задания в книге рассчитаны на работу в классе, но могут быть использованы и для самостоятель-
ной работы при подготовке проектов или устных презента-
ций по культуре страны изучаемого языка.
УДК 811.111(075)
ББК 81.2Англ-9
ISBN 978-5-222-19606-9
© Макарова Е. А., 2012
© Оформление: ООО «Феникс», 2012
3
INTRODUCTION
TexT 1. From The hisTory oF BriTish TransporT From the beginning of human history people have dragged
1
any load too heavy to be carried. The natural next stage was the addition of wheels.
Throughout the Middle Ages wheeled vehicles
2
were used only for the carting
3
goods from place to place. People preferred to ride horses if they needed to move from place to place.
This situation changed in the 17th century, when there was some improvement in the paving
4
of roads. Carriages
5
were available for hire in the streets of London from 1605. By the second half of the century there were trafic jams
6
.
Rich and noble people considered it embarrassing in 1667 to be seen in London in a common carriage which anyone can hire. They bought coaches
7
and had a liveried coachman
8
of their own. Coaches gradually became more comfortable.
1
drag — тянуть, тащить, волочить.
2
vehicle — транспортное средство.
3
cart — везти в телеге.
4
pave — замащивать, мостить.
5
carriage — коляска, экипаж, карета, кэб и любая повозка с гу-
жевой тягой.
6
trafic jam — «пробка», затор (в уличном движении).
7
coach — коляска, карета (пассажирская или почтовая), эки-
паж.
8
coachman — кучер.
4
The carriages introduced in the 17th century evolved into the wide range of which were familiar on the streets of Europe and America until they were inally replaced in the 20th century by the car. Among the best-known of such vehicles were the stagecoach 9
and its more effective successor, the mail coach
10
.
Travel between towns by public transport, in the 17th and 18th century, was a slow business. The stagecoach, a heavy carriage was introduced in Britain in 1640. Up to eight passengers could be packed inside a stagecoach. Travelling was slow and dangerous; danger from highwaymen
11
was only one of many inconveniences on such a journey.
Some slight improvement was achieved in Britain after 1784, when the stagecoach began to be replaced by the mail coach. The noble and the rich again traveled in greater comfort — their favoured vehicle was the post chaise
12
, introduced in the early 18th century. Its name accurately suggested a pleasant seat and an expectation of lively new horses at each post stage
13
during the journey.
The year 1783 gave birth to the irst hot-air balloon light, the aeronauts made a successful light, travelling about six miles in twenty-ive minutes. They landed safely, narrowly missing a windmill
14
. History had its irst aviators. In Great Britain the irst canals were constructed for the barges to carry cargo to the north or south of the country. The railways came to London in Victorian times. The irst important station was Euston, which opened in 1837. The earliest railways were horse-drawn wooden wagons used in the 17th 9
stagecoach — дилижанс.
10
mail coach — почтовая карета.
11
highwaymen — разбойники с большой дороги.
12
post chaise — почтовая карета с перекладными лошадьми.
13
post stage — почтовая станция; станция, на которой можно по-
менять лошадей.
14
windmill — ветряная мельница.
5
and 18th centuries — mainly to haul
15
coal. Passenger trafic was insigniicant until Stephenson’s famous Rocket proved in 1829 that passengers could be carried quickly.
By the turn of the century there were several railway lines some experimenting with electriication. Most were combined by 1913 as the Underground Electric Railways of London. Then in 1933 all the lines were nationalised and became the London Passenger Transport Board (London Transport).
Read the history of transport and answer the question:
1. Why did the transport situation change in the 17
th
century?
2. What were the advantages and disadvantages of travelling by stagecoach?
3. Who were the irst aviators in history?
4. When were the irst railways constructed?
5. What were they used for?
6. How were they powered?
15
haul — везти, перевозить; транспортировать.
6
UNIT 1
TexT 1 LeFT or righT, which is righT?
In Britain, they still calculate distances in miles and still drive on the left.
About a quarter
16
of the world drives on the left, and the countries that do are mostly old British colonies. Why do the English drive on the “wrong” side of the road?
In ancient times logic dictated that when people passed each other on the road they should be in the best possible position to use their sword
17
to protect themselves and they wanted to make sure that a stranger passed on the right so they could go for their sword in case he proved unfriendly. As most people were right-
handed they therefore kept to their left. In the Middle Ages everybody used the English system, they kept to the left for the simple reason that they never knew who they would meet on the road in those days. Knights
18
when jousting
19
passed each other on the left and holding the spear
20
in the right hand.
16
quarter — четверть, четвертая часть.
17
sword — меч.
18
knight — рыцарь.
19
jousting — сражаться на рыцарском турнире.
20
spear — копье.
7
In small-but-beautiful England of the 1700s, people did not use monster wagons that required the driver to ride a horse; instead the guy sat on a seat mounted
21
on the wagon. What’s more, he usually sat on the right side of the seat so the whip
22
wouldn’t hang up on the load behind him when he logged the horses. Nothing much changed until 1773 when an increase in horse trafic forced the UK Government to introduce the General Highways Act of 1773 which contained a keep-left recommendation. This became a law as part of the Highways Bill in 1835.
Britain’s imperial expansion
23
spread the keep-left rule far and wide. This included India, Australasia and much of Africa (Although many African countries changed to the right later when they became independent).
Despite Euro-pressure the consensus is that Britain, or any other Drive-on-Left country, will never change. The reason is that trafic density makes the switch
24
impractical.
Though just to be dificult, there is one road in London, near the Savoy Hotel, where you have to drive on the right! It is a private road and leads to the theater.
I. Read the text and answer the questions:
1. On what side of the road does the trafic drive in your country?
2. If you cross the street in London, where would you look irst, left or right?
21
mount — залезать, взбираться (на что-л.); занимать (какое-л. место).
22
whip — кнут, хлыст, прут.
23
expansion — распространение, экспансия.
24
switch — изменение.
8
3. Do you know another island state where people drive on the left? Where is a steering wheel in the car — on the left or on the right?
4. Translate the following paragraph and explain what it has to do with right or wrong side of the road:
II. Riding a horse, keep left. A right-handed person inds it easier to mount a horse from the left side of the horse, and it would be very dificult to do otherwise if wearing a sword (which would be worn on the left). It is safer to mount and dismount towards the edge of the road, rather than in the middle of trafic, so if one mounts on the left, then the horse should be ridden on the left side of the road. Horsemen armed with swords prefer to keep left of each other in order that their sword arm is nearer their opponent — and, more often, to offer one’s right hand in friendship.
TexT 2 inTegraTed TransporT sysTem?
Until the late 1950s, public transport in Great Britain was a blend of trams, trolley buses and motor buses, in addition to suburban rail services. But the problems of trafic growth in towns and cities demanded a balance between roads and rail, and an improved public transport system. That is how the irst metropolitan fully integrated public transport system (the Metro) was completed in March 1984 and became Britain’s irst urban light rail transit system.
Very few people seem to have a grasp of the great variety and complexity of movement which the transport system of the country, taken as a whole, must cater
25
for. This system is an extraordinary hotchpotch
26
of public and private components. 25
cater — обеспечивать, обслуживать.
26
hotchpotch — смешанный, состоящий из самых разных час-
тей; неоднородный.
9
There are the publicly owned railways — main line, suburban and underground all operating on precise schedules
27
and each under uniied control. In contrast, there are the publicly owned roads which are used by a multifarious
28
mixture of public and private vehicles.
In the face of growing competition from the motor vehicle, the railways have steadily lost customers. Although seemingly ideal for moving large numbers of people along speciic corridors, it is proving dificult to make ends meet
29
in view of the heavy costs of modernisation and the diseconomies
30
of catering for heavy passenger lows on commuter
31
routes. Railways can also play a useful role in carrying bulk materials, such as coal, to distribution depots, but in most cases must rely on motor vehicles for the inal delivery to premises
32
.
For the vast majority of movements in urban areas (towns and cities) however the rail services are quite useless. For the everyday trips the car is so suitable and has so many advantages over the only publicly provided alternative, the often uncertain
33
bus. But in many areas, rural (country) and urban, the growth of car ownership has led to the contraction and withdrawal
34
of bus services, thus depriving those people without cars of their mobility
35
.
27
precise schedule — точное расписание.
28
multifarious — различный, разнообразный, разный.
29
to make ends meet — свести концы с концами.
30
diseconomies — отрицательные последствия хозяйствования; убытки.
31
commuter — пассажир, пользующийся сезонным билетом.
32
premises — недвижимость; помещение.
33
uncertain — ненадежный; непостоянный.
34
withdrawal — удаление.
35
mobility — подвижность.
10
It is this complex mixture of tracks (railways and roads) and of vehicles (trains, lorries
36
, buses and cars), some publicly and some privately owned, some controllable, others run at the whim
37
of their owners, that is the raw material of transport integration.
We should perhaps consider in more detail what “transport integration” really means. There is nothing new in the idea. It means taking hold of all the various transport services and so organising them that they provide eficient service for people and goods and one which is equitable
38
for all classes of the community. But some retreat from this full deinition must be faced. Walking, for example, is an important component of the transport system, but no one would wish to see it rigidly controlled. The same must apply to some extent to the use of cars and trucks.
We suggest that the integration lies primarily in those areas where there is severely wasteful competition. For example, where the private car competes with public transport for regular mass movements such as the journey to work in crowded centres, or where there is direct competition
39
between road and rail for long-distance passenger movements. A third example is where there is direct competition between road and rail for both long and short-haul freight
40
transport. A further example is where competition between cars and buses in rural areas has led to withdrawal
41
of buses thus depriving non-car users of mobility. In such cases there is little that can be done except to provide publicly-subsidised bus services. The four areas constitute the whole ield where integration can be applied.
36
lorry — грузовой автомобиль, грузовик (тж. motor lorry).
37
whim — прихоть, каприз; причуда.
38
equitable — справедливый.
39
competition — конкуренция, соперничество, спор.
40
freight — грузовой.
41
withdrawal — удаление.
11
As far as the movement of people in towns is concerned, the message is simple: it is to concentrate on bulk transport (buses, trains, or any other from of transportation), that part of the total movement load for which public transport can be made relatively convenient. To shift to public transport the mass of journeys for which the car is so convenient would mean that the journeys would not be made and the life would be poorer as a result.
It would seem premature
42
for authorities to abandon current road programmes in the hope of a mass return to public transport, which at best will never be very eficient or convenient. All that most people want is the opportunity to get about independently whenever and wherever they wish, and in so many cases this means personal transport. In any plan for “integration” it would be a great mistake if alternative possibilities in this respect were overlooked
43
.
Adapted from “Country Life”
III. Discussion and debate:
1. Can you describe British transport system? What is its name?
2. Can you describe the transport system in your country?
3. Whish sector prevails — public or private?
4. Do you think the quality of service is satisfactory?
5. Can you think of any advantages of private transportation? Any disadvantages?
6. What about public transportation? Availability? Advan-
tages? Disadvantages?
7. Have you ever heard the expression “door-to door service”? What kind of transport can provide such service?
42
premature — необдуманный, непродуманный, опрометчивый.
43
overlooked — невыявленный.
46
Оглавление
Text 1. From the history of British transport ................3
uniT 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Text 1. Left or right, which is right? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Text 2. Integrated transport system? .......................8
uniT 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Text 1. Getting around Britain.............................12
Text 2. Bicycles ...........................................14
Text 3. Means of transport ................................16
uniT 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Dialogue London transport................................18
Text 1. London’s Underground.............................19
Text 2. Travelling on the “Tube”............................21
uniT 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Text 1. Street Musicians...................................25
Text 2. Getting around Britain by trains....................26
Text 3. Coach and bus service .............................28
unit 5..................................................31
Text 1. Canals.............................................31
Text 2. Travel down the Thames ...........................32
Text 3. Channel ferries ....................................34
unit 6..................................................37
Text 1. Driving in London..................................37
Text 2. Parking in London .................................38
Text 3. Taxis...............................................41
Text 4. Getting to London from an Airport .................44
Учебное пособие
Серия «Британская мозаика»
Елена Александровна Макарова
БритАнский трАнспорт
Left or right, which is right?
Ответственный редактор И. Кочнева
Выпускающий редактор Г. Логвинова
Технический редактор Ю. Давыдова
Верстка: М. Курузьян
Макет обложки: М. Сафиуллина
Подписано в печать 21.03.2012.
Формат 84х108/32. Бумага офсетная.
Печать офсетная.
Тираж 3000 экз. Заказ № ООО «ФЕНИКС»
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phoenixbooks
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