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Шпаргалка по английскому языку. Грицай Е. (www.PhoenixBooks.ru)

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Библиотека школьника
Е. Грицай
шпаргалка
по английскому
языку
??°??????????
??????-??-????
?????
2 0 1
www.phoenixbooks.ru
УДК 373.167.1:811.111
ББК 81.2Англ-92
КТК 441
Г85
Грицай Е.
Г85 Шпаргалка по английскому языку /? Е. Грицай.
? Изд. -е. ? Ростов н/Д : Феникс, 201.? ? 94? с.? ?
(Библиотека школьника).
ISBN 978-5-222-
Шпаргалка содержит основные сведения по основным разделам английской грамматики. Наглядное
и структурированное изложение материала поможет
быстро найти и усвоить необходимую информацию.
Шпаргалка будет полезной при подготовке учащихся к занятиям, проверочным работам, экзаменам,
вступительному ЕГЭ.
Рассчитано на школьников, выпускников, абитуриентов, учащихся колледжей, школьных учителей.
ISBN 978-5-222-
УДК 373.167.1:811.111
ББК 81.2Англ-92
© Грицай Е., 2011
© Оформление, ООО ?Феникс?, 2011
www.phoenixbooks.ru
ИМЯ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ
THE NOUN
??? ????? ????, ??????? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????? ? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????, ??????. ?????????? (???? ?? ??????? ??????
???????????: ? ??? ??? ? ??? ????????? ? ???????????) ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ???????????????. ???????? ???????? ?????
???????????????? ? ?????????? ????? ? ??? ??????? ? ???????.
? ?????????? ????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?? ???????, ??????? ? ??????? ???: father ? he,
my friend ? he/she, his daughter ? she. ???? ????????? ?????
? ??????????? ?? ??????? ? ??????? ???, ?? ?? ?? ?????: actor (?????) ? actress (???????), waiter (????????) ? waitress
(??????????), host (??????) ? hostess (???????), lion (???) ?
lioness (??????), tiger (????) ? tigress (???????), prince (?????) ? princess (?????????), poet (????) ? poetess (????????), man ? woman,
Frenchman (???????) ? Frenchwoman (???????????), Englishman
(??????????) ? Englishwoman (??????????).
?????????????? ??????????????? ??? ????????????? ?????
???????? ???????????? it:
This is a house. It is big. ? ??? ??? (?.?.). ?? ???????.
This is a river. It is very long. ? ??? ???? (?.?.). ??? ????? ???????.
This is a lake. It is not very deep. ? ??? ????? (??.?.). ??? ?? ?????
????????.
???????? ????????, ???? ???? ?? ???? ? ???????? ????????
??? ?? ?????, ?????? ???? ????????, ???? ?????????? ???????????? it (?? he/she): I see a monkey. It is brown. ? ? ???? ????????.
??? ??????????.
He/she ???????????, ???? ???? ???? ? ???????? ???????? ???
???? ????????, ??? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??, ?????? ????
????????: she-wolf ? ???????, he-wolf ? ????. ??? ???????????
???? ????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????? ????? male ? ???????
???, ????? ? female ? ??????? ???, ?????.
??????????????? ship ? ???????, ????? ? ?????????? ?????
???????? ????, ??? ? ???????? ?????, ?.?. she.
??????????????? ?????? ??????? ? ???????????.
??????? ???????????????, ??? ???????, ??????? ?? ?????? ?????: town, table, book, boy, cat, house, car, head.
??????????? ????? ? ????? ??????? ??????? ?/??? ????????? (???????), ? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ?? ??????
?????? ???? (?? ????????, ??????????????, ?????? ???????????????). ????????? re- ???????? ?????? ???-?? ??????, ??? ???. ???????? mis-, dis-, un- ??????? ????? ??????????????? ????????:
darkness ? ??????? (?? ??????????????? dark ? ??????), misprint ? ???????? (?? ??????? to print ? ????????), unemployment ?
3
www.phoenixbooks.ru
??????????? (?? ??????? to employ ? ????????? ?? ??????),
development ? ???????? (?? ??????? to develop ? ?????????),
disadvantage ? ?????????? (?? ???????????????? advantage ?
????????????), scientist [`sai?ntist] ? ?????? (?? ????????????????
science [`sai?ns] ? ?????), teacher ? ??????? (?? ??????? to teach ?
?????, ???????), connection ? ?????, ?????????? (?? ??????? to connect ? ?????????, ?????????), freedom ? ??????? (?? ??????????????? free ? ?????????), childhood ? ??????? (?? ????????????????
child ? ???????), neighbourhood ? ????????? (?? ????????????????
neighbour ? ?????), friendship ? ?????? (?? ???????????????? friend
? ????).
????????? ??????????????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?????????, ??????????????? ????: bedroom ? ???????, newspaper ? ??????, schoolchildren ? ?????????, commander-in-chief ? ?????????????????, merry-go-round ? ????????.
??????????? ??????????????? (Abstract Nouns) ???????? ???????, ?????????, ???????, ???????? ????????, ??????? ????? ? ?????????: wisdom ? ????????, thunder ? ????, honesty [`?nisti] ?
?????????, bravery ? ?????????, dignity ? ???????????, honour
[`?n?] ? ?????, smell ? ?????, speech ? ????, Maths ? ??????????,
History ? ???????, music ? ??????, power ? ????, ????, ??????,
weakness ? ????????.
???????????? ??????????????? (Material Nouns) ????????
???????? ??? ?????????: salt ? ????, water ? ????, milk ? ??????, oil ? ???????????? ?????, ?????, butter ? ????????? ?????,
meat ? ????, juice ? ???, glass ? ??????, rubber ? ??????, paper ?
??????, wool ? ??????, wood ? ??????.
????????????? ??????????????? (Collective Nouns) ???????? ????????? ??? (??? ????????), ????????? ? ?????? ?????: family ?
?????, group ? ??????, band ? ???????, ?????? (??????????),
police ? ???????, crowd ? ?????, herd (cattle) ? ?????, ????.
??????????????? ????? ???? ??????????? ? ?????????????.
??????????? ?? ????? ?????????. ?????????? ? ???????????????? ????? ?????, ???????? 3, 5 ??? 7, ? ??????? ? ???????????
??? ??????????????? ??? ???.
!! ?? ??????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ???? ?????
???????????????.
?? ????? ??????? ?5 ??????? ???????, ?7 ?????? ?????, ?2 ??????? ???????, ?2 ????? ?????, ?4 ??????? ??????, ?2 ???????
?????, ?3 ????? ????, ?6 ??????? ?????, ?3 ?????? ???????????,
?2 ?????? ???????? ? ?.?. ? ????? ??????????????? ????????????
???????? ?????????? ???????????????.
??????????????? work ? ?????? ?????????????.
Do you have much work to do? ? ? ???? ????? ???????
4
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??????? ?????? ? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????????, ???
???. ?? ???? ????? money ? ?????? ?????????????. ??? ?? ??? ?
hair ? ??????.
Способы образования множественного числа
существительных
1. ??????????? ??????????????? ???????? ??.?. ???????????? ????????? -s: map (?????) ? maps, cat (???) ? cats, hand (????,
????? ????) ? hands, table (????) ? tables, brother (????) ? brothers, bug (???) ? bugs.
2. ???? ??????????????? ???????????? ?? -s, -se, -ss, -x, -sh,
-ch, -z, ????????? ????????? -es: class (???????, ?????) ? classes
[kla:siz], dress (??????) ? dresses, house (???) ? houses [`hauziz], fox
(????) ? foxes, box (???????, ????) ? boxes, dish (?????, ???????) ?
dishes, match (??????, ????) ? matches, horse (??????) ? horses,
?ash (???????) ? ?ashes, ditch (??????) ? ditches.
3. ???? ??????????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? -y, ???????
???????????? ?????????, ?? -y ???????? ?? -i ? ??????????? ????????? -es: city (?????) ? cities, lady (????) ? ladies, factory (???????) ?
factories.
?? ???? ???????? ??????? -y ???????????? ???????, ????? ????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? -s, ?????? ?? ?????: day(s)
(????/???), boy(s) (???????/?), tray(s) (??????/?).
4. ???? ??????????????? ???????????? ?? -?, ?? ?? ??.?. ????????? ? ???? ????????? -es: cargo(es) ? ????/?, hero(es) ? ?????, potato(es) ? ?????????, tomato(es) ? ?????/?, ???????/?,
echo [`ekou] ? echoes [`ekouz] ???, tornado [t `neidou] ? tornadoes
[t `neidouz] ???????, ????? ?, torpedo [t `pi:dou] ? torpedoes
[t `pi:douz] ???????, ????????????? ????.
??????????: piano -s, photo -s, radio -s, cuckoo -s [`kuku:]
5. -f (fe)?v +es ???? ??????????????? ???????????? ?? -f (-fe),
?? -f ???????? ?? -v + -es: leaf (???? ????????) ? leaves, knife
(???) ? knives, wife (????) ? wives, wolf [wulf] (????) ? wolves, shelf
(?????) ? shelves, life (?????) ? lives, loaf (???????) ? loaves, thief
(???) ? thieves.
??????????: roof-s (?????), chief-s (?????????, ????????????), handkerchief-s [`h??k?t?if] (??????? ??????, ???????), safes (????), proof-s (??????????????), cliff-s (????, ???????? ?????)/
????? wharf [w f] (????????, ??????) ????? ????????????
??.?. ????? ?????????: wharfs [w fs] ? wharves [w vz].
6. ?????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????.
? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ?????????:
man (???????, ???????) ? men (???????), woman [`wum?n]
(???????) ? women [`wi:m?n] (???????), Englishman ?
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Englishmen, Frenchman ? Frenchmen. ?? German ? Germans,
child (???????) ? children (????), person ???????, ???????? ?
people (????), ox ? oxen (??? ? ????). ?? bull ? bulls, mouse
(????) ? mice [mais] (????), louse (????) ? lice (???), foot [fut]
(????, ?????) ? feet [?:t] (????, ?????), goose (????) ? geese (????),
tooth (???) ? teeth (????).
? ??????????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ? ??.?. ? ?? ??.?.
??????????, ? ????? ????? ??????????? ????? ???????????????, ????? ?? ????????? (?.?. ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ???????????, ??? ??? ????? ???????????) ??? ?? ???????
??????????????? ??????? ? (?n), ??????? ????????????? ??????
? ???????????????? ? ??.?.: a sheep (????) ? sheep (????),
a deer (?????) ? deer (?????), a swine (??????) ? swine (??????).
?? pig (??????) ? pigs.
? ??????????????? fruit ? ?sh ?? ??.?. ????? ???? ?????????
?????. ???? ???? ???? ? ?????? ????? ??????? ??? ????, ?? ??????????????? ?? ??.?. ???????? ??? ?????????. ???? ????????,
????? ??????????? ????????? ??.?. -s (fruits, ?shes):
An apple is a fruit. ? ?????? ? ??? ?????. (??????????? ?
?????? ???????, ???? ???).
There are fruits in the vase: apples, pears, oranges, grapes and
bananas. ? ? ???? ????? ??????: ??????, ?????, ?????????,
???????? ? ??????.
I caught a ?sh yesterday. ? ????? ? ?????? (????) ?????.
He wants to catch at least 2 or 3 ?sh. ? ?? ????? ??????? ????
2?3 ?????.
7. ???? ????? ??????? dozen, score (20), hundred, thousand,
million ????? ????? ?????????????? ????????????, ?? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ???????????: 2 dozen (of) eggs ?
2 ?????? ??? (?.?. 24), 5 hundred people ? ??????? (???? ?????)
???????, 10 thousand books ? 10 ????? ????.
???? ??? ????? ??????????? ? ???????? ??.?. ??? ?????????????
(??????, ?????, ??????, ????????, ?????????), ????? ?????????
?????????: Millions of people know about that. ? ???????? ?????
????? ?? ????.
8. ????????? ???????????????
? ????????? ???????????????, ??????? ??????? ?????????,
?? ??.?. ????????????? ???????? ?????, ??????? ????? ????????
?????: commander-in-chief (?????????????????) ? commanders-inchief (?????????????????), passer-by (????????) ? passers-by (????????), son-in-law (????) ? sons-in-law (?????).
? ????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????.
??? ????? ????????? ????? ???????? ?????. ?? ????? ????? ? ????????? ????????? -s: forget-me-not (?????????) ? forget-me-nots
6
www.phoenixbooks.ru
???????
??????(??),
???????????,
???????????
?????, ????????/
????????/????????
?????, ???????,
???????????
?????(??), ????????
????????, (???)
???????
??????, ???????/
????????
???????,
??????????? (away)
????????
??????????? (up),
?????? (up),
??????????,
??????????
?????? (??????,
?????, ????, ???),
???? ??????
?, ??????????,
????????
?????, ??????,
????????, (????.
????????)
??????????,
?????????
??????????(??),
??????,
????????(??),
???????? (????,
??????? (up))
??????
swim [swim]
swam [sw?m]
swum [sw?m]
swing [swi?]
swung [sw??]
swung
take [teik]
took [tuk]
taken [`teik?n]
teach [ti:t?]
taught [t t]
taught
tear [t??]
tore [t ]
torn [t n]
tell [tel]
told [tould]
told
think [?i?k]
thought [? t]
thought
throw [?rou]
threw [?ru:]
thrown [?roun]
understand
[?nd?`st?nd]
understood
[?nd?`stud]
understood
wake [weik]
woke [wouk]
waked [weikt]
woken [`wouk?n]
waked
wear [w??]
wore [w ]
worn [w n]
weave [wi:v]
wove [wouv]
woven [`wouv?n]
win [win]
won [w?n]
won
wind [waind]
wound [waund] wound
write [rait]
wrote [rout]
written [`ritn]
93
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??????????
??? ??????????????? The Noun ............................................................ 3
??????? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? ??????????????? ..... 5
?????????????? ????? ???????????????
The Possessive Case ........................................................................... 9
??????? The Article .......................................................................... 11
??????????? ...................................................................................... 18
?????? ??????????? Personal Pronouns ......................................... 18
????????? ??????????? ???
?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????? ..................................... 18
???????????? ??????????? Demonstrative Pronouns ....................... 18
?????????????? ??????????? Possessive Pronouns ....................... 19
?????????????? ??????????? some, any ? ????????? no ............ 20
?????????? ??????????? Re?exive Pronouns .................................. 23
???????? ??????????? Reciprocal Pronouns................................... 24
?????????????? ??????????? Interrogative Pronouns ..................... 24
????????????? ??????????? Relative Pronouns .............................. 24
??????????? each ? every .............................................................. 25
??????????? all (????, ???, ???, ???) .............................................. 25
??????????? other (another) ............................................................ 26
??????????? one............................................................................. 26
??????????? both (???, ???) ........................................................... 27
either/neither ................................................................................... 28
??????????? it ................................................................................ 29
??? ?????????????? The Adjective ..................................................... 30
??????? ????????? ???? ??????????????
Degrees of Comparison .................................................................... 33
??????? The Adverb ........................................................................ 37
??? ???????????? The Numeral ....................................................... 40
???????? Prepositions.......................................................................... 43
???????? ?????? ............................................................................ 43
???????? ? ??????? ????? .............................................................. 45
???????? ??????? ........................................................................... 47
???????? ? ??????? ??????????? .................................................. 50
??????? ??????????? There is/are ................................................. 54
???? ???????? ................................................................................ 55
?????? ? ??????????? ................................................................... 58
?????? The Verb .................................................................................. 61
????? ???????? ? ??????? ............................................................... 61
?????? to be (????, ????????, ??????????) ....................................... 61
?????? to have (?????, ????????) ...................................................... 64
???????????? ?????? Tenses .......................................................... 66
??????? ?????? Progressive (Continuous). ?????????? ??????? ..... 73
??????? ?????? Perfect. ??????????? ???????. ........................... 80
??????? ?????? Perfect Progressive (??? Perfect Continuous) .......... 83
The Perfect Progressive Tenses
??????????? ?????????? ???????. ............................................... 83
Future-in-the-Past. ??????? ? ????????? ...................................... 85
??????? ???????????? ????????. Irregular verbs ................................ 87
94
www.phoenixbooks.ru
Серия ?Библиотека школьника?
Грицай Елена Алексеевна
Шпаргалка
по английскому языку
Ответственные редакторы О. Морозова, Н. Калиничева
Технический редактор Г. Логвинова
Подписано в пе??чать?30..201.
Формат 84?108/32. Бум. типографская.
Гарнитура School. Печать офсетная. Усл. п. л. 16,8.
Тираж 3000?экз. Зак. ?????
ООО ?Феникс?
344082, г. Ростов-на-Дону, пер. Халтуринский, 80
Отпечатано с готовых диапозитивов в ЗАО ?Книга?
344019, г. Ростов-на-Дону, ул. Советская, 57
www.phoenixbooks.ru
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