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Claire Danes
goes to Israel
for the second
season of the
spy series “Homeland.” T: TRAVEL MAGAZINE
Gone Rogue
In Tel Aviv
VOL.CLXII..No. 55,902
©2012 The New York Times
Late Edition
Today, clouds and sun, breezy,
warm, high 80. Tonight, showers,
thunderstorms, clear later, low 60.
Tomorrow, Sunny, breezy, cooler,
high 71. Weather map, Page D8.
Mitt Romney responded to
months of political pressure on
Friday by making public his most
recent tax return and limited in-
formation from previous years,
asserting that he had paid a dou-
ble-digit federal income tax rate
for more than two decades.
Mr. Romney’s return for 2011
showed that he paid an effective
federal income tax rate of 14 per-
cent last year, or a little more
than $1.9 million on adjusted
gross income of about $13.7 mil-
lion. A letter from his accountants
said his tax rate from 1990
through 2009 had never fallen be-
low 13.66 percent but did not dis-
close the amount of tax paid. Mr.
Romney’s 2010 return, which he
made public in January, showed
that he paid a rate of 13.9 percent.
Mr. Romney’s tax return for
last year showed just how sensi-
tive a political matter his wealth
and tax rate has become. In a bit
of reverse financial engineering,
he and his wife, Ann, gave up
$1.75 million worth of charitable
deductions, raising his tax pay-
ments significantly. Had he claimed all the deduc-
tions to which he was entitled in
2011, his effective rate could have
dipped to near 10 percent, contra-
dicting his past assurances that
he had never paid below 13 per-
cent. But forgoing the full deduc-
tions available to him put him at
odds with his own past assertions
that he had never paid more tax-
es than he owed and his state-
ment that if he had done so, “I
don’t think I’d be qualified to be-
come president,” as he put it to ROMNEY REVEALS
Summarizes Prior Years
— Level Could Have
Been Cut Further
Continued on Page A11
BENGHAZI, Libya — Galva-
nized by anger over the killing of
the popular American ambassa-
dor here last week, thousands of
Libyans marched through this
city on Friday, demanding the
disarming of the militias that
helped topple the dictatorship but
have troubled the country with
their refusal to disband.
In a show of mass frustration
at the armed groups, protesters
seized control of several militia
headquarters on Friday night
and handed them over to Libya’s
national army in what appeared
to be a coordinated sweep. They
also stormed the headquarters of
Ansar al-Sharia, a hard-line Is-
lamist militia that has been
linked to the attack on the United
States Mission in Benghazi that
killed the ambassador and three
other Americans. As members of Ansar al-Sharia
fled their headquarters, protest-
ers set at least one vehicle on fire,
and Reuters reported that one
person was killed. There were
unconfirmed reports that several
had been wounded by the de-
parting gunmen.
At the seized headquarters of
another militia, protesters
burned and pillaged a large num-
ber of weapons, and hundreds of
looters could be seen walking
away with automatic rifles and
rocket-propelled grenade launch-
The killing of the ambassador,
J.Christopher Stevens, a well-
liked figure in Benghazi because
he had worked closely with the
rebels who toppled Col. Muam-
mar el-Qaddafi last year, ap-
peared to be the catalyst for the
protests on Friday, though hardly
its only cause.
The militias, which started
forming soon after the February
2011 uprising against Colonel
Qaddafi began in this eastern Angry Libyans
Target Militias,
Forcing Flight
Frustration Boils Over
After Envoy’s Death Continued on Page A8
Fires burned in a compound of Ansar al-Sharia, an Islamist militia linked to the fatal attack on an American Mission in Libya.
This article is by Walt Bog-
danich, Joe Drape and Rebecca
R. Ruiz.
Only after Bourbon Bandit
broke a leg racing last November
did his owner, Susan Kayne,
learn the full extent of prescrip-
tion drugs that veterinarians had
given him at Belmont Park on
Long Island.
Until then, Ms. Kayne had be-
lieved that Bourbon Bandit was
“sound and healthy,” because
that is what her trainer told her,
she said. But new veterinary bills
arrived, showing that the horse
had been treated regularly with
clenbuterol, a widely abused
medication for breathing prob-
lems that can build muscle by
mimicking anabolic steroids. “If a horse is sound, why does
it need all these drugs?” she
asked. “I never gave consent.” Gene and Eileen Hartis said
they, too, were shocked by their
bill, from a California veterinari-
an, showing that in just over
three months in 2010, their grad-
ed stakes winner, Princess Haya,
had been given drugs for pain,
soreness and swelling 34 times,
as well as seven doses of clenbu-
terol. “It’s so contrary to our philoso-
phy that we explained in length
to our vet and trainer,” Mr. Hartis
said. More than anyone in the sport,
racetrack veterinarians are sup-
posed to put the horse first, hav-
ing taken an oath to protect “ani-
mal health and welfare.” Yet in the shed rows of Ameri-
ca’s racetracks and at private
training centers, racehorse veter-
inarians often live by a different
code — unique in the veterinary
community — one that empha-
sizes drugs to keep horses racing
and winning rather than treating
soreness or injury through rest
or other less aggressive means,
according to dozens of interviews
and a review of medical and reg-
ulatory records. Only veterinarians can legally
prescribe medicine, yet they
often let trainers, who are paid to
win races, make medical deci-
sions, including which drugs to
use. These veterinarians also
have a powerful financial incen-
tive to prescribe drugs: they are
both doctor and drugstore, and so
the more drugs they prescribe,
the more money they make. Sell-
ing and administering drugs, in
fact, accounts for most of their in-
come. In contrast, veterinarians who
treat small animals or pets earn
most of their money from exami-
nations and other professional
“Is it any wonder that our in-
dustry is being criticized for be-
ing overmedicated?” said Stuart
S. Janney III, chairman of the
Thoroughbred Safety Committee At Racetrack, Economic Pressures Overpower Veterinarians’ Oath
Susan Kayne said that her racehorse, Bourbon Bandit, was given drugs without her permission.
Continued on Page A14
Doctors and Drugs
This article is by Reed Abelson,
Julie Creswell and Griffin J.
When the federal government
began providing billions of dol-
lars in incentives to push hospi-
tals and physicians to use elec-
tronic medical and billing
records, the goal was not only to
improve efficiency and patient
safety, but also to reduce health
care costs.
But, in reality, the move to elec-
tronic health records may be con-
tributing to billions of dollars in
higher costs for Medicare,pri-
vate insurers and patients by
making it easier for hospitals and
physicians to bill more for their
services, whether or not they
provide additional care.
Hospitals received $1 billion
more in Medicare reimburse-
ments in 2010 than they did five
years earlier, at least in part by
changing the billing codes they
assign to patients in emergency
rooms, according to a New York
Times analysis of Medicare data
from the American Hospital Di-
rectory. Regulators say physi-
cians have changed the way they
bill for office visits similarly, in-
creasing their payments by bil-
lions of dollars as well.
The most aggressive billing —
Medicare Bills
Rise as Records
Turn Electronic
Continued on Page A3
WASHINGTON — Rarely in
the annals of lobbying in the cap-
ital has so obscure a cause at-
tracted so stellar a group of sup-
porters: former directors of the
C.I.A. and the F.B.I., retired gen-
erals and famous politicians of
both parties. The Iranian opposition group
that attracted that A-list of Wash-
ington backers, many of them
generously compensated for
speeches, learned Friday that it
had achieved its goal: Secretary
of State Hillary Rodham Clinton
has decided to remove the group,
the Mujahedeen Khalq, or Peo-
ple’s Mujahedeen, from the State
Department’s list of designated
terrorist organizations.
The decision removes a shad-
ow from the Mujahedeen Khalq,
known as the M.E.K., which lost a
brutal power struggle with sup-
porters of Ayatollah Ruhollah
Khomeini in the first years after
the Islamic Revolution in 1979
and then relocated to Iraq.
Scorned by many Iranians as a
cult and for its long alliance with
Saddam Hussein, the group
nonetheless has been promoted
by some conservative American
politicians as offering a demo-
cratic alternative for Iran’s fu-
ture. While the decision is likely
to anger Iran, experts said that
United States-Iran relations are
already at such a low point that it
is unlikely to make them much
The decision by Mrs. Clinton
was based in part on the recent
cooperation of the group, in com-
pleting a move of more than 3,000
of its members from its longtime
location in Iraq, Camp Ashraf,
said two officials, who spoke on
the condition of anonymity in ad-
vance of an official announce-
ment. A final convoy of 680 peo-
ple from Ashraf arrived at the
former site of Camp Liberty, near
the Baghdad airport, on Sunday.
The United States military dis-
armed the group after the inva-
sion of Iraq in 2003, assuming re-
sponsibility for security at Camp
Ashraf. But the Shiite-dominated
government in Baghdad has
close ties to Iran, and M.E.K. sup-
porters believed its members in
Iraq were at grave risk. Since
control of Camp Ashraf was
turned over to Iraq in 2009, two
clashes with Iraqi security forces
left about 49 M.E.K. members
Nonetheless, officials of the
group, including its leader in
Paris, Maryam Rajavi, had been
slow to cooperate with a United
Nations plan to empty Camp Ash-
raf, as demanded by Iraq, and
await resettlement to other coun-
tries. In recent months, M.E.K.
officials had repeatedly delayed
planned convoys, complaining
about what they described as
poor living conditions at the
The group’s lawyers had chal-
lenged the terrorist listing in Star Lobbyists Help Iran Group Escape Shadow
Continued on Page A6
Dissidents Taken Off
Terrorism List by
the State Dept.
on Friday confronted a new ob-
stacle over what to do with one of
its most vital assets — pictures. The company promised Euro-
pean regulators that it would for-
go using facial recognition soft-
ware and delete the data used to
identify Facebook users by their
pictures. The decision could have wide
repercussions on how facial rec-
ognition technology — a partic-
ularly sensitive technological ad-
vance — is used globally as sur-
veillance cameras are increasing-
ly installed in public spaces.
“This is a big deal,” said Chris
Hoofnagle,a law professor at the
University of California,Berkeley
who specializes in online privacy.
“The development of these
tools in the private sector directly
affects civil liberties,” he ex-
plained.“The ultimate applica-
tion is going to be — can we apply
these patterns in video surveil-
lance to automatically identify
people for security purposes and
maybe for marketing purposes as
The agreement comes as Face-
book is under pressure from Wall
Street to profit from its vast trove
of data,including pictures,and
also from regulators worldwide
over the use of personal informa-
The decision in Europe applies
to the “tag suggestion,” a Face-
book feature that deploys a so-
phisticated facial recognition tool
to automatically match pictures Yes, Facebook Can ID Faces,
But Using Them Grows Tricky
Continued on Page B2
Censorship in Myanmar is drawing to a
close amid democratic reforms. PAGE A4
A Censor’s Final Redactions
Medical summaries by doctors who
have regularly examined Mitt Romney
and Paul D. Ryan show both men to be
conspicuously healthy and fit. PAGE A11
ELECTION 2012 A10-11
Pictures of Health
To be a fan of the Mets this September,
as in so many others, is to be a gour-
mand of loss. A father and son headed
out to Citi Field this week to soak in the
scene and cheer on their team. Few
joined them. PAGE D1
Lost September
A deal with the firm, Rosneft, could re-
vive an Arctic exploration deal and tie
BP’s fate to Russia for years. PAGE B1
BP Bids for Russian Oil Stake Gail Collins
Afghan forces are stepping into roles
once held by the Americans. PAGE A4
Last ‘Surge’ Troops Leave
Two new clinical trials lend credence to
the idea that limiting access to sugary
drinks may reduce obesity. PAGE A16
NATIONAL A12-16 Another Rebuke to Big Drinks
Two years after a gay student’s suicide,
Rutgers has created specialized housing
options and increased training. PAGE A18
Added Help for Gays at Rutgers
Closing Interstate 405 in Los Angeles
last year did not result in Carmageddon,
but luck may change this time. PAGE A12
Carmageddon, the Sequel
The Public Theater’s redone lobby is en-
visioned as a place to hang out. PAGE C1
Not Just for Drinks After Act I
Inside The Times
Turkish Court Convicts
330 Officers in Coup Plot
A Turkish court convicted 330 mili-
tary officers, including three former
top commanders, and sentenced
them to prison terms of as long as 20
years after a trial in which they
were accused of a wide-ranging plot
to overthrow the government nearly
a decade ago. Thirty-four were ac-
quitted. PAGE A4 Gambia Frees 2 After Plea
Two Gambian-Americans serving
long prison sentences are now in the
United States after the Rev. Jesse
Jackson made a personal plea to
Gambia’s president, Yahya Jam-
meh, to release them this week.
PAGE A7 Warning for North Koreans
South Korean patrol boats fired
warning shots at North Korean fish-
ing vessels in contested waters in
the Yellow Sea, but the North’s
boats fled without casualties, the
South Korean military said.
PAGE A7 India Premier Defends Plan
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh of
India made a rare nationwide tele-
vised appeal to defend steps he has
taken to revive the economy that
have prompted anger and protests.
Church Threatens Mormon
Over Site Challenging Faith
The editor of a Web site that encour-
ages Mormons to question church
history and doctrine has been told
that he faces a church trial and pos-
sible excommunication. PAGE A12 Shifts in Transplant Policy
The governance committee that
oversees kidney transplants in the
United States proposed a series of
changes intended to make better
use of the country’s desperately in-
adequate supply of deceased-donor
organs. PAGE A13 Ethics Inquiry’s Findings
Representative Maxine Waters,
Democrat of California, did not vio-
late House ethics rules when she
contacted the Treasury Department
in 2008 to set up a meeting on behalf
of top executives from a bank her
husband owns stock in, a special in-
vestigator said. PAGE A13 NEW YORK
Long Arm of the Law;
Strong Pull of the Heart
She is a retired New York City cor-
rection officer and he is a convicted
drug dealer from Brooklyn who was
accused of cutting off a stranger’s
head with a chain saw. Their mar-
riage was tested once again in May,
when he was denied parole. Crime
Scene, Michael Wilson. PAGE A18 BUSINESS
In Digital-Dominated World,
A Struggle to Stay Current
Car mechanics, librarians, doctors,
Hollywood special-effects designers
— virtually everyone whose job is
touched by computing — are being
forced to find new, more efficient
ways to adapt, not just to change ca-
reers, but simply to stay competitive
on their chosen path. PAGE B1 Don’t Count Out Samsung
Samsung does not have the media
coverage or the passionate fan base
of the iPhone, but the South Korean
manufacturer has built an impres-
sive lead in mobile phone sales to be
counted out entirely.Common
Sense, James B. Stewart. PAGE B1 Universal Deal Approved
For the Universal Music Group,
months of uncertainty came to an
end when it received regulatory
clearance in Europe and the United
States for its $1.9 billion takeover of
Avoiding a Slippery Slope
In Major League Baseball
Melky Cabrera, after testing posi-
tive for testosterone, is no longer eli-
gible to win the batting title, which
pushes baseball into whitewashing:
vacating accomplishments by pre-
tending they never took place. On
Baseball, Tyler Kepner. PAGE D1
Art Installation Offers
New Environs for Statue
To see Tatzu Nishi’s instalation,
“Discovering Columbus,” visitors
must climb six flights of stairs to en-
ter the white windowed box. Inside,
is an apartment that the artist has
built around the statue of Christo-
pher Columbus that has presided
over Columbus Circle since 1892,
writes Roberta Smith. PAGE C1 More Crops and More Cash
From afar, the first FarmVille game
on Facebook seemed to be a manip-
ulative horror, a collection of psy-
chological tricks that preyed on our
desire to find something predictable
in life. Three years later we have
FarmVille 2: a slicker, more attrac-
tive and definitely more money-hun-
gry version of the original, Stephen
Because of editing errors, the
Gaza City Journal article on Sept.
10, about the growing poverty
and lack of opportunity in Gaza,
misidentified the location where
Israeli shells landed in a fatal at-
tack during the 2009 Gaza war
that led to a serious rift between
Israel and the United Nations.
They landed near a United Na-
tions-run school, not on the
school grounds itself. The article also overstated
what is known about the number
of people killed in that attack.
Though the article definitively
said there were 40 fatalities, that
number has always been open to
dispute. United Nations reports
range from 35 to 43; the Palestin-
ian Center for Human Rights
puts the number at 27; the Israeli
military at 12, and the Israeli hu-
man rights organization Btselem
at 34.
The article also erroneously at-
tributed a distinction to Delhi, the
Indian city where there are less-
livable slums than in Gaza. Mum-
bai — not Delhi — is the coun-
try’s top financial center. NEW YORK
An article on Thursday about a
campaign by New York City’s
Department of Transportation to
remind pedestrians to look both
ways misstated the length of
Winston Churchill’s stay at
Lenox Hill Hospital in 1931 after
he was struck by a car on Fifth
Avenue after becoming confused
about the direction of traffic. As
The Times noted in 1931, he was
admitted on Dec. 13 and released
eight days later, not two weeks
later. He recuperated at the Wal-
dorf-Astoria Hotel before sailing
to the Bahamas on Dec 31. (A
similar reference appeared in a
May 7, 2006, article about the ac-
An article on Friday about the
Happy Talk series at the Rubin
Museum of Art in Manhattan
misspelled, in some editions, the
given name of a musician who
will perform. She is Rosanne
Cash, not Roseanne. An art review on Friday about
“Rise and Fall of Apartheid: Pho-
tography and the Bureaucracy of
Everyday Life,” at the Interna-
tional Center of Photography in
Manhattan, misstated the sur-
name of a photographer whose
work is in the exhibition. He is
Paul Weinberg, not Weinberger.
If a horse is sound,
why does it need all these
drugs? I never gave con-
owner of Bourbon Bandit, on
veterinary treatment of the
horse. [A1]
Joe Nocera PAGE A23
C4 Crossword
C6 Obituaries
B8 TV Listings
D8 Auto Exchange D7
Classified Ads D7
Commercial Real Estate Market-
place B6 Errors and Comments: or call
or fax (212) 556-3622.
Public Editor: Readers dissatisfied
with a response or concerned about
the paper’s journalistic integrity can
reach the public editor,Margaret
Sullivan, at
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THE NEW YORK TIMES 620 Eighth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10018-1405
“Einstein on the Beach,” the operatic spectacle by Philip Glass and Robert Wilson, performed at
the Brooklyn Academy of Music last week. ARTS, PAGE C1
SLIDE SHOWIndiana has one of the
nations’s most rigorous programs to
test for drugs at private training
centers away from the track.
by just 1,700 of the more than
440,000 doctors in the country —
cost Medicare as much as $100
million in 2010 alone, federal reg-
ulators said in a recent report,
noting that the largest share of
those doctors specialized in fam-
ily practice, internal medicine
and emergency care.
For instance, the portion of pa-
tients that the emergency depart-
ment at Faxton St. Luke’s Health-
care in Utica, N.Y., claimed re-
quired the highest levels of treat-
ment — and thus higher reim-
bursements — rose 43 percent in
2009. That was the same year the
hospital began using electronic
health records. The share of highest-paying
claims at Baptist Hospital in
Nashville climbed 82 percent in
2010,the year after it began using
a software system for its emer-
gency roomrecords. In e-mailed statements, repre-
sentatives for both hospitals said
the increases reflected more ac-
curate billing for services.Faxton
also said its patients required
more care than in past years.
Over all, hospitals that re-
ceived government incentives to
adopt electronic records showed
a 47 percent rise in Medicare pay-
ments at higher levels from 2006
to 2010, the latest year for which
data are available, compared
with a 32 percent rise in hospitals
that have not received any gov-
ernment incentives, according to
the analysis by The Times. The higher coding has cap-
tured the attention of federal and
state regulators and private in-
surers like Aetna and Cigna. This
spring, the Office of Inspector
General for the federal Health
and Human Services Depart-
ment warned that the coding of
evaluation services had been
“vulnerable to fraud and abuse.” Some experts blame a substan-
tial share of the higher payments
on the increasingly widespread
use of electronic health record
systems. Some of these programs
can automatically generate de-
tailed patient histories, or allow
doctors to cut and paste the same
examination findings for multiple
patients —a practice called clon-
ing —with the click of a button or
the swipe of a finger on an iPad,
making it appear that the physi-
cians conducted more thorough
exams than,perhaps, they did.
Critics say the abuses are
widespread. “It’s like doping and
bicycling,” said Dr. Donald W.
Simborg, who was the chairman
of federal panels examining the
potential for fraud with electronic
systems. “Everybody knows it’s
going on.”
When Methodist Medical Cen-
ter of Illinois in Peoria rolled out
an electronic records system in
2006, Dr. Alan Gravett,a former
emergency room physician,
quickly expressed alarm.
He said the new system
prompted doctors to click a box
that indicated a thorough review
of patients’ symptoms had taken
place,even though the exams
were rarely performed, while an-
other function let doctors pull
exam findings “from thin air”
and include them in patients’
records. In a whistle-blower lawsuit
filed in 2007, Dr. Gravett contend-
ed that these techniques drove up
Medicare reimbursement levels
substantially. According to the
lawsuit, Dr. Gravett was eventu-
ally fired for ordering too many
tests.He says he was retaliated
against for complaining about the
new system. The Justice Depart-
ment is weighing whether to join
an amended suit in Federal Dis-
trict Court in Central Illinois.
An independent analysis by
The Times showed that Method-
ist’s Medicare billings for the
highest level of emergency care
jumped from 50 percent of its
emergency room Medicare
claims in 2006 to more than 80
percent in 2010, making the 353-
bed hospital one of the country’s
most frequent users of high-pay-
ing evaluation codes.
Methodist declined to com-
ment on Dr. Gravett’s allegations.
But in an e-mailed statement, a
spokesman said that not all of the
hospital’s billing was done elec-
tronically,that it followed profes-
sional coding guidelines and that
its patients required more care
than patients at other hospitals.
Many hospitals and doctors
say that the new systems allow
them to better document the care
they provide, justifying the high-
er payments they are receiving.
Many doctors and hospitals were
actually underbilling before they
began keeping electronic
records, said Dr. David J.Brailer,
an early federal proponent of dig-
itizing records and an official in
the George W. Bush administra-
tion. But Dr. Brailer, who invests
in health care companies, ac-
knowledged that the use of elec-
tronic records “makes it faster
and easier to be fraudulent.”
Both the Bush and Obama ad-
ministrations have encouraged
electronic records, arguing that
they help doctors track patient
care. When used properly, the
records can help avoid duplicate
tests and remind doctors about a
possible diagnosis or treatment
they had not considered. As part
of the economic stimulus pro-
gram in 2009, the Obama admin-
istration put into effect a Bush-
era incentive program that pro-
vides tens of billions of dollars for
physicians and hospitals that
make the switch.
But some critics say an unin-
tended consequence is the ease
with which doctors and hospitals
can upcode — industry parlance
for seeking a higher rate of reim-
bursement than is justified. They
say there is too little federal over-
sight of electronic records.
A spokesman for the Health
and Human Services Depart-
ment, however, said electronic
health records “can improve the
quality of care, save lives and
save money.” Medicare, he add-
ed in an e-mailed statement, “has
strong protections in place to pre-
vent fraud and abuse of this tech-
nology that we’re improving all
the time.”
He also said Medicare had re-
duced improper payments in the
last two years.
In emergency rooms, which
use special billing codes to in-
dicate how much care a patient
needs, hospitals have increased
their claims for the two highest-
paying categories to 54 percent of
Medicare claims in 2010, from 40
percent in 2006, according to The
Times’s analysis of Medicare
data. The Center for Public Integ-
rity, a nonprofit investigative
journalism group, recently re-
leased a similar analysis. Some contractors handling
Medicare claims have already
alerted doctors to their concerns
about billing practices.One con-
tractor, National Government
Services, recently warned doc-
tors that it would refuse to pay
them if they submitted “cloned
documentation,” while another,
TrailBlazer Health Enterprises,
found that 45 out of 100 claims
from Texas and Oklahoma emer-
gency-department doctors were
paid in error. “Patterns of over-
coding were found
with template-generated
records,” it said.
The Office of Inspector Gen-
eral is studying the link between
electronic records and billing.
One sophisticated patient wit-
nessed the overbilling firsthand.
In early 2010, Robert Burleigh, a
health care consultant, came to
the emergency room of a Virginia
hospital with a kidney stone.
When he received the bill from
the emergency room doctor, his
medical record, produced elec-
tronically, reflected a complete
physical exam that never hap-
pened, allowing the visit to be
billed at the highest level, Mr.
Burleigh said. The doctor indicated that he
had examined Mr. Burleigh’s low-
er extremities, but Mr. Burleigh
said that he was wrapped in a
blanket and that the doctor never
even saw his legs.
“No one would admit it,” Mr.
Burleigh said,“but the most log-
ical explanation was he went to a
menu and clicked standard
exam,” and the software filled in
an examination of all of his sys-
tems. After he complained, the
doctor’s group reduced his bill.
As software vendors race to
sell their systems to physician
groups and hospitals, many are
straightforward in extolling the
benefits of those systems in help-
ing doctors increase their reve-
nue. In an online demonstration,
one vendor, Praxis EMR, prom-
ises that it “plays the level-of-
service game on your behalf and
beats them at their own game us-
ing their own rules.” The system helps doctors re-
member what they did when they
successfully billed for similar pa-
tients, and ensures that they do
not forget to ask important ques-
tions or to perform necessary
tests, said Dr. Richard Low,chief
executive of Infor-Med Corpora-
tion, which developed Praxis.
“The doctor can use a chart the
way the pilot uses a checklist,” he
said. But others place much of the
blame on the federal government
for not providing more guidance.
Dr. Simborg, for one, said he
helped draft regulations in 2007
that would have prevented much
of the abuse that now appears to
be occurring. But because the
government was eager to encour-
age doctors and hospitals to en-
ter the electronic era, he said,
those proposals have largely
been ignored.
“What’s happening is just the
problem we feared,” he said.
Robert Burleigh was overbilled because his electronic emergency room records included examinations he had not been given.
As Hospitals Digitize Records, Medicare Bills Rise
Mr. Burleigh keeps a spreadsheet of the charges for his overbilled emergency room visit.
Hospitals with electronic medical records are billing Medicare for higher levels of reimbursement for emergency-room care.
Hospitals receiving incentives for electronic recordkeeping
Other hospitals
’06 ’08 ’10
Since 2006, inflation-adjusted Medicare payments for emergency-room services have increased more quickly than hospital costs.
Hospital costs Medicare payments
A Sharp Rise in Medicare Payments
Source: New York Times analysis of Medicare data provided by American Hospital Directory
$0 50 100 150 200
The Role of Electronic Medical Records
Experts say some
doctors duplicate
records or overstate
the care given.
From Page A1
KABUL, Afghanistan — The Ameri-
can military says it has now fully with-
drawn the last of the 33,000 “surge
troops” sent to pacify Afghanistan two
years ago, but they are leaving behind
an uncertain landscape of rising vio-
lence and political instability that
threatens to undo considerable gains in
security, particularly in the former Tali-
ban strongholds in the south and south-
As the troops head for home, a week
ahead of schedule, the American coali-
tion and its Afghan partners are bedev-
iled by a host of problems.
The Taliban and their Haqqani net-
work allies continue to pull off bomb-
ings,while insider killings of Americans
by Afghan troops have raised tensions
between the allies, forcing severe cut-
backs in strategically vital training pro-
grams. Both governments are arguing
publicly over whether to keep battle-
field prisoners locked up without trial,
while nervous officials on all sides are
worrying that riots over an inflamma-
tory anti-Muslim video, which have
killed dozens in other countries, will
break out in Afghanistan.
Friday’s milestone, which still leaves
68,000 American troops in Afghanistan,
was announced on the other side of the
planet by the American secretary of de-
fense, Leon E. Panetta, during a trip to
New Zealand, while both American and
Afghan officials here studiously ignored
the moment, at least in public.
Some Afghans supporting the gov-
ernment of President Hamid Karzai
boasted that it showed their own forces
were ready to take over, while pro-
Taliban forces exulted that they were
not. But most Afghans just worried
about what it would really mean for the
final two years of the American pres-
ence here.
“What did the surge give us?” a sen-
ior American official reflected on Fri-
day, speaking anonymously as a matter
of military policy. “We’re going to hit a
point where, I won’t say that’s as good
as it gets, but now it’s up to them to hold
what we gave them. Now, really, it’s
Karzai’s turn.” No one claimed there was not a great
deal yet to be done against an insurgen-
cy that its foes describe as tenacious
and determined. “They’re not going to
go away for years,” the senior official
said. “Every fighting season the Tali-
ban, or some number of them, come out
of the corner and they’re ready to fight
Both American and Afghan officials
have acknowledged the seriousness of
the so-called green-on-blue attacks, in
which this year more than 50 American
soldiers were killed at the hands of Af-
ghan allies. The allies’ dispute over how
and how long to hold suspected insur-
gents has led to personal negotiations
between President Obama and Mr. Kar-
zai in recent days, while the video par-
ody of the Prophet Muhammad has cast
a long shadow over relations between
the two countries.
“We were not happy about the arrival
of the surge troops,and we are not sad
that they left,” said Mohammad Naim
Lalai Amirzai, an Afghan Parliament
member from Kandahar. “As the Ameri-
can surge ends, the Taliban surge will
Indeed, some of the most worried
voices were raised in the heartland of
the surge, in Kandahar and Helmand
Provinces in the south and southwest
where the 2010 influx of 33,000 fresh
United States Marines and Army sol-
diers largely subdued the Taliban on
their home turf.
Post-surge, the capital cities of those
provinces are more peaceful than they
have been in many years, and the Tali-
ban operate only clandestinely in the
rural areas. But operate they still do. Ten southern districts, of the 400 in
Afghanistan, are responsible for 45 per-
cent of all attacks, according to statis-
tics provided by officials of the NATO-
led International Security Assistance
Force. According to those statistics,
three of the five most active districts
over the past 90 days, Panjwai and
Zhare in Kandahar, and Nad Ali in Hel-
mand, were also early focuses of the
military’s surge efforts. Nad Ali is adjacent to Marja, where
Marines began the first surge-related
offensive. In districts once dominated
by American troops, then by growing
numbers of newly trained Afghan
troops alongside them, residents face
the prospect that in many cases it will
soon be just Afghan forces. In Maiwand
district, one such place, where a road-
side bomb exploded as recently as Fri-
day morning, an elder named Haji Ab-
dullah Jan said he was worried about
what he saw as a lack of commitment
from government forces. “There are soldiers and policemen
who are not obeying their command-
ers,” he said, “but the Taliban are com-
mitted to their jobs.” Like many local
residents, he likened the insurgents to a
crouching tiger, waiting for the moment
to pounce.
“At least during the first two years
the surge was very successful. It really
reversed the Taliban momentum in
most parts of Helmand, Kandahar and
other southwestern provinces,” said
Jawid Kohistani, a Kabul-based military
analyst and a former Afghan intelli-
gence chief. “If the achievements of the
surge seem ‘fragile and reversible’ to-
day, it is because of the failure of the Af-
ghan security forces and the Afghan
government to fill the void and cultivate
a good relationship with the locals.”
He was referring to an oft-repeated
remark of the previous American com-
mander here, Gen. David H. Petraeus,
who presided over much of the surge
period, that gains in Afghanistan are
“fragile and reversible.”
The senior American official said he
disagreed with the Taliban view that
“the Americans have all the watches,
and we have all the time,” and that they
are just biding their time until Ameri-
ca’s withdrawal of the rest of its normal
combat forces by the end of 2014.
“It’s not like time is on their side,” he
said. “They lose their relevance, lose
their donors, limit their power at the ne-
gotiating table; they’re not just going to
hide and wait.” While Taliban activity has been great-
ly curtailed by surge forces in the insur-
gents’ traditional areas in the south and
west, they responded by increasing
their efforts elsewhere, officials say.
The insurgents also shifted increas-
ingly to the use of roadside bombs and
suicide bombers, instead of small arms
and ground attacks where they would
be outnumbered and outgunned. That
greatly increased the number of civilian
casualties, more than three-fourths of
which are attributed to insurgents’ at-
tacks, according to United Nations fig-
ures. For the first time this year, the
overall civilian casualties began to de-
cline in number, according to both
NATO and United Nations figures, com-
pared with last year.
However, the level of violence re-
mains higher than it had been before
the surge forces came. Brig. Gen.
Dadan Lawang, the commander of the
Afghan National Army’s 201st Corps,
said the biggest change of the surge
years has been the maturing of an in-
creasingly self-sufficient fighting force.
“Even if more U.S. troops leave Af-
ghanistan, we won’t see any negative
impact because our troops are in a very
good position to fight the Taliban inde-
pendently,” he said, adding, “But we
need the continuous support of the in-
ternational community and the United
States in particular.”
Afghan soldiers on duty at a checkpoint at the northern end of the capital, Kabul, on Friday. The station monitors the road from Mazar-i-Sharif.
Troop ‘Surge’ in Afghanistan Ends With Mixed Results
American and Afghan soldiers patrolled two weeks ago in a village in Kan-
dahar Province. NATO-led forces are scaling back such joint operations. Reporting was contributed by Habib
Zahori, Alissa J. Rubin and Matthew Ro-
senberg from Kabul, and Thom Shanker
from Auckland, New Zealand. By SEBNEM ARSU
ISTANBUL — A Turkish court con-
victed 330 military officers, including
three former top commanders, and sen-
tenced them to prison terms of as long
as 20 years on Friday after a trial in
which they were accused of a wide-
ranging plot to overthrow the govern-
ment nearly a decade ago. Thirty-four
were acquitted.
The former head of the land forces,
Gen. Cetin Dogan; the former com-
mander of the navy, Adm. Ozden
Ornek; and the former commander of
the air force, Gen. Ibrahim Firtina, all
received 20 years, though those terms
were reduced from life in prison be-
cause the plot was never carried out. Defense lawyers and family members
of the accused have long denounced the
evidence in the case as flimsy, and all of
the verdicts were expected to be ap-
pealed. “With this verdict, the court ap-
peared in collaboration with the gangs
that produced these fake documents, as
judges refused to assign experts to dis-
cover all of these fabrications,” Pinar
Dogan, the daughter of General Dogan,
said after the verdict. “Reductions in jail
terms mean nothing when those who
are left in jail should not be spending
even a minute in there given the falsity
of this trial.”
The convictions and sentences, re-
ported by the Turkish news media, sig-
naled completion of the first trial in a ci-
vilian court of defendants in a coup plot
known as Sledgehammer, said to have
been masterminded as part of a 2003
military exercise. The prosecution of
the case was widely regarded as a test
of the democratically elected govern-
ment’s power over the formerly domi-
nant Turkish military, which has been
responsible for four coups since 1960.
Prosecutors have said the Sledge-
hammer coup plotters had conspired in
a master plan to bomb mosques and set
off a military conflict with Greece in an
effort to stir unrest and overthrow the
government of Prime Minister Recep
Tayyip Erdogan, whose Justice and De-
velopment Party has roots in an Islam-
ist movement. The military has histori-
cally regarded itself as the guardian of
the secular political system in Turkey,
which has a Muslim majority.
The trial, which began in December
2010, polarized public opinion in Turkey.
Hundreds of other suspects, including
military members, politicians and jour-
nalists face prosecution in a separate
Turkish Court Convicts 330
From Military
In Coup Case
Three Top Commanders Sentenced to 20 Years
Accused Turkish officers, awaiting
verdicts, waved to family members. Rick Gladstone contributed reporting
from New York. A case regarded as a test
of a democratically elected
government’s power.
, Myanmar
is office was once the site of an
interrogation center run by Ja-
pan’s feared military police dur-
ing World War II. And that is how U
Tint Swe got his nickname: the literary
“We didn’t arrest or torture anyone,
but we had to torture their writing,” Mr.
Tint Swe said, his serious expression
yielding to a faint smile.
Mr. Tint Swe was Myanmar’s last
censor in chief, the powerful arbiter of
what the public would read — and what
was deleted from official history.
For nearly five decades, military gov-
ernments here examined every book,
every article, each illustration, photo or
poem before printing. It was a crucial
exercise for the military, which sought
control over nearly every facet of citi-
zens’ lives.
The censorship office, known by the
Orwellian title of Press Scrutiny and
Registration Division, infuriated gener-
ations of authors. Censors returned
manuscripts with red lines through en-
tire passages. Often they banned books
or articles altogether. Any whiff of dis-
sent toward the military or suggestion
of government corruption was re-
moved. Burma, the old name of the
country, was deleted in favor of Myan-
mar, the name preferred by the military
junta. Even the yellow pages of the phone
book passed through the censorship of-
About 100 censors, most of them
women, sat on old cane chairs and la-
bored at old teak desks. Some of the
work was done on computers, but many
censors still have red pens in their pen-
cil holders. The offices are so cluttered
with stacks of moldy books, newspapers
and manuscripts that staff members
say they spray insecticide regularly to
kill bookworms.
The office these days is decidedly qui-
et. A month ago Mr. Tint Swe sum-
moned the country’s leading editors
and publishers here and made a grand
announcement: after 48 years and 14
days, censorship was bound for the
junkyard of history.
To the outside world, the political
changes in Myanmar — the release of
dissidents from prison, the creation of a
Parliament where lively debates are
now taking place and the new media
freedoms, to name just a few — have
been both sudden and baffling. There
are few examples in recent history of
military dictatorships relinquishing
power without violence or bloodshed. Mr. Tint Swe’s own story tracks the
changes inside the government, the
gradual realization by many bureau-
crats that military rule was not sustain-
able. He and other officials in the Minis-
try of Information set a timetable for
the abolition of censorship last year, a
few months after the civilian govern-
“The work I was doing was not compatible with the world,
not in harmony with reality.”
THE SATURDAY PROFILE Chief Censor in Myanmar Caps His Red Pen
Continued on Page A7
JERUSALEM — One Israeli
soldier was killed and another
was wounded on Friday morning
in a battle with three men who
stormed into Israel from the Sinai
Peninsula, the second such dead-
ly border attack in less than two
months, reviving concern about
the ability of Egypt’s new Islam-
ist government to control grow-
ing lawlessness in the area.
The Israeli military killed all
three of the men, who wore sand-
color clothing as camouflage and
carried assault weapons as well
as an explosive belt, which det-
onated during a 15-minute gun-
fight, officials in the Israel De-
fense Forces said. A military
spokeswoman said the group had
also placed a cache of weapons in
a pit nearby, including another
explosive belt, AK-47 assault ri-
fles, a machine gun and three
rocket-propelled grenades. Another military spokesman,
Eytan Buchman, said the men en-
tered Israel at Har Harif, about
halfway between Eilat and the
Rafah crossing between Egypt
and the Gaza Strip, through one
of the last parts of the 150-mile
fence Israel has been building
since 2010. The soldiers they at-
tacked were providing water to
African migrants stopped at the
border, military officials said,
though another nearby unit
quickly engaged the men. Mr. Buchman said it was un-
clear whether the men originated
from Sinai or Gaza.
The border breach came six
weeks after a bloody attack close
to Rafah in which militants
stormed an Egyptian checkpoint,
killing 16 soldiers, then drove a
stolen truck through the fence,
before driving a stolen armored
car about one mile into Israel.
No Israeli soldiers or civilians
were hurt in that episode, which
led to the temporary closing of
the Rafah crossing and the de-
struction of some of the smug-
gling tunnels beneath it, as well
as a brief chill in relations be-
tween Egypt and Hamas, which
governs the Gaza Strip. In its af-
termath, Egypt intensified its
military presence in Sinai, mov-
ing tanks and aircraft, which
opened a debate about whether
the military guidelines for Sinai
outlined in Israel’s 30-year-old
peace treaty with Egypt needed
Officials of the new administra-
tion in Cairo, led by a former
Muslim Brotherhood leader,
Mohamed Morsi, say that the se-
curity in Sinai deteriorated long
before they took power, and that
they have opened Egypt’s most
concerted crackdown to restore
it, including the destruction of
more than 30 of the approximate-
ly 225 tunnels from Sinai to Gaza.
Col. Ahmed Mohamed
Mohamed Ali, a spokesman for
the Egyptian Ministry of De-
fense, said in a briefing on Sept. 8
that the crackdown had resulted
in the killing of 32 criminals and
the detention of 38 others in Si-
nai, a vast territory of 23,000
square miles, much of it desert
and mountains that are difficult
to control. The Egyptian forces
also confiscated “a big number of
weapons,” Colonel Ali said, in-
cluding remotely controlled
planes that can be filled with ex-
plosives to destruct targets from
afar, and 20 vehicles “used by
criminal elements in implement-
ing their operations.”
But security forces have strug-
gled to make much of a dent in
the pervasive lawlessness in Si-
nai, where Bedouin residents still
speak of Cairo or even Egypt as if
they were foreign countries. Last
week, the Egyptian state news
media reported that gunmen had
attacked one police checkpoint on
the road to Rafah for the 36th
time in the 20 months since the
ouster of President Hosni Muba-
“The security forces now are
chasing the gunmen and sweep-
ing the surrounding areas, as
well as searching the passing
cars and checking the identity of
the passengers,” the state news-
paper Al Ahram reported. After a period in which Israeli
leaders were upset that they had
not been notified of Egyptian ac-
tions that went beyond the treaty
guidelines, coordination between
Egyptian and Israeli security
forces “are now fluid and fre-
quent,” said a senior Israeli offi-
cial who spoke on the condition of
anonymity. But the effectiveness
of Egypt’s efforts — which com-
bine enforcement with talks with
tribal leaders and militants — re-
mains unclear.
“The crackdown is limited to
certain areas at certain times,
and we cannot measure the effi-
ciency of these measures,” the Is-
raeli official said. “Some here say
the cracking down does not look
like a determined and sustained
operation. Others point to re-
newed contacts between Hamas
and Cairo as a source of relative
leniency toward Sinai’s Islam-
Officials in the Morsi govern-
ment say they are coordinating
with Hamas to improve security
on both sides of the border, and
they blame criminals or radical
Islamist militants for the prob-
Eli Shaked, who served as Is-
rael’s ambassador to Egypt from
2003 to 2005, noted that control-
ling the terrorists and smugglers
who have been operating freely
for years in Sinai would take a se-
rious and sustained commitment.
“It’s a long war; it’s not just
one punch and they finish the
problem,” Mr. Shaked said. “The
Egyptian military will need time
and Israeli cooperation — not by
Israeli forces, but by the Israeli
understanding of the Egyptian
necessities to operate in Sinai
with forces much beyond those
agreed upon in the peace ac-
The killing on Friday was the
first of an Israeli soldier along the
southern border in a year. In Au-
gust 2011, two soldiers were
among eight Israelis killed when
gunmen ambushed a bus near
the resort area of Eilat. In June,
an Arab citizen of Israel helping
to build the border fence — which
is scheduled to be complete by
year’s end — was killed when
three men crossed into Israel
from Egypt and attacked two ve-
hicles with assault rifles, rocket-
propelled grenades and explosive
The victim on Friday was
Netanel Yahalomi, 20, who was
promoted to corporal posthu-
mously. Haaretz, an Israeli news-
paper, quoted Corporal Yahalo-
mi’s sister as saying that their
mother had spoken to him by
telephone the day before his
“He said he received a package
from home that we sent him with
cooked food and sweets,” said the
sister, Avital. “He was supposed
to stay in the base for Yom Kip-
pur. We sent him the package be-
cause we wanted him to feel good
Israeli Soldier Killed as Border Is Breached, Reviving Worries on Sinai Lawlessness
Israeli soldiers helped transfer a Sudanese refugee on Friday, near the site where a soldier was killed in an ambush by three men at the Israeli-Egyptian border.
A soldier ran to open a roadblock. Attackers entered Israel
through part of a fence still under construction, an official said.
David D. Kirkpatrick and Mai
Ayyad contributed reporting from
An incursion comes
weeks after militants
stormed an Egyptian
checkpoint, killing 16.
court, and Mrs. Clinton faced an
Oct. 1 deadline to make a deci-
sion. Presumably it did not hurt the
group’s case that among the doz-
ens of prominent American sup-
porters were R.James Woolsey
and Porter J. Goss, former C.I.A.
directors; Louis J. Freeh, the for-
mer F.B.I. director; President
George W. Bush’s homeland se-
curity secretary, Tom Ridge, and
attorney general, Michael B.
Mukasey; and President Oba-
ma’s first national security advis-
er, Gen. James L. Jones. It even enlisted journalists as
speakers, including Carl Bern-
stein, of Watergate fame, and
Clarence Page, a columnist for
The Chicago Tribune.
Many of the American support-
ers, though not all, accepted fees
of $15,000 to $30,000 to give
speeches to the group, as well as
travel expenses to attend M.E.K.
rallies in Paris. Edward G. Ren-
dell, the former Democratic gov-
ernor of Pennsylvania, said in
March that he had been paid a to-
tal of $150,000 to $160,000.
Mr. Rendell said then that his
speaking agency had received a
subpoena for records of his pay-
ments from the Treasury Depart-
ment, which appeared to be ex-
amining whether the payments
were legal. He said he believed
they were legal because they
came from Iranian-American
supporters and not from the
M.E.K. itself. A Treasury spokes-
woman declined to say whether
any investigation is continuing.
But Mr. Rendell and others
said that while the offer of lucra-
tive speaking fees may have first
drawn them to the group’s cause,
they became convinced that it
was unfair and dangerous to
leave the group on the terrorist
“Yes, I was paid to speak at
certain events,” said Philip J.
Crowley, who served as an assist-
ant secretary of state from 2009
to 2011. “But what drove me was
the humanitarian issue of getting
them safely out of Iraq and the
strategic importance of Iran for
the United States.”
The terrorist label imposed in
1997, the supporters said, was
outdated and might be interpret-
ed as a green light by Iraqis or
Iranian agents to attack the
group. The group did commit ter-
rorist attacks in the 1970s and
1980s, first against the govern-
ment of the shah of Iran and later
against the clerics who over-
threw him, and several Ameri-
cans were among those killed.
It allied itself with Mr. Hussein,
the Iraqi dictator, who permitted
it to operate from Camp Ashraf.
But while some news reports
have suggested its involvement
in the recent assassination of Ira-
nian scientists, American offi-
cials have not confirmed the
claim, and by most accounts the
group has not committed acts of
violence for many years.
Shahin Gobadi, an M.E.K.
spokesman in Paris, said the
group had received no official
word of the delisting. He said the
terrorist designation was “a gift
to the mullahs’ regime and great-
ly assisted prolonging the rule of
the religious dictatorship ruling
Some members of Congress
have become outspoken advo-
cates for the M.E.K., which origi-
nally embraced a hybrid of Marx-
ism and Islamism, but now
speaks of democracy. They ac-
cept its claim to be “the main or-
ganized opposition” to Iran’s cler-
ical rulers.
Representative Dana Rohra-
bacher, Republican of California,
welcomed Mrs. Clinton’s deci-
sion, which was formally deliv-
ered Friday. “The lives of hun-
dreds of the M.E.K. misplaced
persons could well be saved as
result,” he said. “It took a while,
but in the end Secretary Clinton
made the right decision,and for
that we are grateful.”
Mr. Rohrabacher said the
group seeks “a secular, peaceful,
and democratic government.”
By contrast, the National Irani-
an American Council, which has
long feuded with the group, de-
nounced the delisting decision,
saying that it “opens the door to
Congressional funding of the
M.E.K. to conduct terrorist at-
tacks in Iran” and “makes war
with Iran far more likely.” The
statement compared the M.E.K.
to Ahmad Chalabi, the Iraqi exile
who helped persuade the Bush
administration to invade Iraq.
Karim Sadjadpour, an expert
on Iran at the Carnegie Endow-
ment for International Peace,
said he thought the M.E.K. was
less important than either its
backers or critics claimed. “They’re widely viewed as a
backward and intolerant cult by
their opposition peers in Iran,” he
said. After the terrorist label is
dropped, Mr. Sadjadpour said, “I
don’t think the world really looks
that much different. U.S.-Iran re-
lations will remain hostile, and
the M.E.K. will remain a fringe
cult with very limited appeal
among Iranians.”
About 100 of the group’s mem-
bers are expected to stay at
Camp Ashraf for now, with per-
mission of the Iraqi authorities to
oversee the group’s property
there, American official said.
Meanwhile, United Nations of-
ficials are interviewing those
members at the Camp Liberty
site and have granted refugee
status to several hundred of
them. United Nations officials are
now looking for countries that
will accept them.
Star Lobbyists Help Iranian Opposition Group Escape a Shadow
From Page A1
Members of the Mujahedeen Khalq at the former Camp Liberty, near the Baghdad airport, this
month. The group relocated to Iraq in the years after the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran.
An organization that
some experts say has
limited support, even
within Iran.
Money was available
to back a cause,
paying for speakers
and travel. SAN JUAN, P.R. (AP) — The
Justice Department on Friday
made public the names of 55 de-
tainees at the Guantánamo Bay
prison who have been approved
for transfer to the custody of oth-
er countries, releasing informa-
tion sought by human rights or-
The announcement, which re-
verses a 2009 decision, was a sur-
prise to organizations that had
been seeking the information.
“We did not expect this,” said
Omar Farah, a lawyer for the
Center for Constitutional Rights.
“This is an important develop-
Mr. Farah said the govern-
ment’s action would aid lawyers
representing detainees at the
prison. “We can now advocate
publicly for the release of our cli-
ents by name,” he said.
There are 167 detainees now at
the Guantánamo prison in Cuba.
The government’s move has no
immediate, practical effect on the
inmates’ detention. Inclusion on
the list does not mean that the
United States has absolved them
of any wrongdoing or that it be-
lieves they pose no threat. In
2009, Daniel Fried, the Obama ad-
ministration’s special envoy on
detainee issues, argued that it
was necessary to keep the pris-
oners’ identities secret while the
United States negotiated trans-
fers to other countries.
But the government said in a
court filing on Friday that the
successful transfers of other de-
tainees no longer warranted such
concerns. It noted that 40 detain-
ees had been resettled in new
countries and 28 had been sent to
their native countries since 2009.
Zachary Katznelson, a lawyer
for the American Civil Liberties
Union, said the 55 men named
Friday should be freed. “These
men have now spent three years
in prison since our military and
intelligence agencies all agreed
they should be released,” he said.
U.S. Names 55 Set for Transfer
From Guantánamo
ment of President Thein Sein
came to power. “The work I was doing was not
compatible with the world, not in
harmony with reality,” Mr. Tint
Swe said in his office, where gov-
ernment propaganda slogans
hang on nearly every wall. “We could not avoid change,”
he said, “the whole country want-
ed to change.”
47, was a major force be-
hind the military’s formi-
dable propaganda machine. But
in a telling sign of how the re-
gime’s authority was crumbling
in its waning years, the censor in
chief had a double life. He con-
fessed in a rare interview to be-
ing an avid writer himself. On
weekends, Mr. Tint Swe com-
posed long articles on military
history, weapons and other top-
ics. One of his favorite books is on
American military history.
He posted his writings to Face-
book, which prompted journalists
to joke sardonically that even the
chief censor knew how to skirt
the censorship board.
The technological innovations
that were challenging the gov-
ernment — cellphones, satellite
television and the digital world of
publishing that was beyond the
reach of the censors — were not
abstract realities for officials like
Mr. Tint Swe. They and their fam-
ilies were living the changes, too. Journalists in Myanmar say
Mr. Tint Swe, a former military
officer, underwent a gradual
transition during his five and a
half years as the so-called liter-
ary torturer.(Physical torture in
Myanmar, routinely used against
political prisoners, was handled
by other branches of govern-
Initially a dour, rude and un-
bending apparatchik — the very
cutout of a military officer in a
dictatorial regime — Mr. Tint
Swe became more amicable and
lenient, realizing that censorship
was unsustainable in the age of
the Internet. This year, he went
as far as to help editors organize
a conference on the future of
journalism in the country.
Saw Lynn Aung, editor of The
Naypyitaw Times, a weekly
newspaper, remembers Mr. Tint
Swe’s unrestrained ire five years
ago when ordering that a pas-
sage alleging corruption at a min-
istry be deleted. “You know the rules!” he re-
members Mr. Tint Swe’s yelling.
“I can shut you down!”
Mr. Tint Swe held the job of
chief censor during some of the
most trying times of military rule
— the uprising led by Buddhist
monks in the fall of 2007 and the
government’s bungled response
to Cyclone Nargis, the storm that
killed at least 130,000 people in
May 2008. He says censorship
was necessary in those days to
maintain order and stability.
It was after those tumultuous
events that he showed signs of
more flexibility, journalists say.
“He would say, ‘Please be pa-
tient and wait — changes will
come,’” Mr. Saw Lynn Aung said.
“In my opinion, he was a little
ahead of the changes.” Mr. Tint Swe said he watched
carefully for cues from the top
leadership like everyone else. He
closely read Mr. Thein Sein’s in-
augural address last year that fo-
cused on national reconciliation
and reducing poverty.
“The speech gave me the feel-
ing that genuine change was
coming,” Mr. Tint Swe said. Three months after the presi-
dent took office — well before
outside observers were con-
vinced that the reform process
was real — he and other officials
took the first steps to dismantle
the censorship system. In June
2011, articles dealing with enter-
tainment, health, children and
sports were exempted from cen-
sorship. Other topics followed,
culminating last month with poli-
tics and religion — the final two
areas where censorship was re-
S the legacy of dictatorship
fades into the past, there
are constant fears of back-
sliding. Will business tycoons
who made their money from mo-
nopolies and contracts awarded
by the military regime now slow
down economic liberalization?
Will hard-liners rein in reform-
On the question of censorship,
Mr. Tint Swe is unequivocal. “There is no U-turn,” he said. Yet some questions remain
about press freedoms in the
country. Newspapers and maga-
zines must still obtain a license to
Kyaw Min Swe, editor of The
Voice Weekly, a crusading news-
paper that was temporarily sus-
pended from publication by the
government six times, says abol-
ishing censorship is not enough.
The entire Ministry of Informa-
tion must be abolished, he ar-
“A Ministry of Information is
mostly for dictatorships,” Mr.
Kyaw Min Swe said.
The fate of the former censor-
ship office and its employees is
still being decided, Mr. Tint Swe
said. The 100 censors confess to
having a lot of time on their
hands and will soon have even
fewer tasks: the responsibility
for registering publications is be-
ing left to individual states.
Mr. Tint Swe looked around his
office and said he felt a personal
sense of loss. “I’m proud that I’m the one
who stopped it,” he said, refer-
ring to censorship. “But I am a
human being. My office used to
be filled with writers and publish-
“Now my office feels like a
ghost town,” he said.
THE SATURDAY PROFILE Chief Censor in Myanmar
Puts Cap on His Red Pen
Workers, most of them women, sit at old desks at the Press Scrutiny and Registration Division office in Yangon, Myanmar.
From Page A4
DAKAR, Senegal — Two Gam-
bian-Americans serving long
prison sentences are now in the
United States after the Rev. Jesse
Jackson made a personal plea to
Gambia’s erratic president,
Yahya Jammeh,to release them
this week. Mr. Jackson traveled to the
tiny West African country, con-
sidered one of the most repres-
sive on the continent, after an in-
ternational outcry over Mr. Jam-
meh’s announced plans to con-
duct a mass execution of dozens
of prisoners on his country’s
death row. Nine prisoners have already
been killed.However, several
days before Mr. Jackson arrived
Sunday, Mr. Jammeh announced
a moratorium on the executions,
after expressions of disapproval
from the European Union, the
United Nations and other inter-
national groups. The two men Mr. Jackson
helped release, Amadou Scattred
Janneh and Tamsir Jasseh, had
been high-ranking officials in Mr.
Jammeh’s government who were
convicted on the routine charge
of treason leveled against those
who fall out of favor with it. They
were held in the country’s notori-
ous Mile 2 Central Prison. In a brief telephone interview,
Mr. Jasseh, who had been head of
Gambia’s immigration agency,
described his six and a half years
in prison as a “very horrible ex-
perience, inhumane,” saying he
had been “tortured horribly.” Mr.
Janneh, a former information
minister, said Mile 2 was “one of
the worst prisons in the world.”
Neither man had been on death
Mr. Janneh once taught at the
University of Tennessee, and Mr.
Jasseh is a veteran of the United
States military. Mr. Jackson said his personal
connection to the Gambian presi-
dent provided an opening in per-
suading the leader, a former
army colonel and wrestler who
seized power in 1994, to release
the two men. “I’ve known him
and met him on several occa-
sions,” Mr. Jackson said. Human rights groups routinely
denounce Mr. Jammeh’s govern-
ment for its systematic use of tor-
ture, jailing of journalists, repres-
sion of free speech and rigging of
elections. Freedom House, in its latest re-
port on Gambia, cited “voter in-
timidation and government con-
trol of the media,” saying “jour-
nalists are subject to arrests, har-
assment and violence.” It noted
the “torture of prisoners, includ-
ing political prisoners,” as well as
“severe suppression of the oppo-
sition, media and civil society.”
Shortly before Mr. Jackson’s
arrival, two leading independent
newspapers were shut down by
Mr. Jammeh’s government. Two
journalists were arrested over
having sought a permit to protest
the executions. Earlier in the
month, the government expelled
a visiting BBC West Africa corre-
spondent who had come to report
on the executions. “These executions were a dis-
traction from growth,” Mr. Jack-
son said in an interview, noting
what he said was the country’s
high economic growth rate. “They’ve got some good things
happening there,” Mr. Jackson
said. “There are some arrows
pointing upwards.”
Jesse Jackson Helps Free 2 From Gambia Prison
ISHIGAKI, Japan — South Ko-
rean patrol boats fired warning
shots at North Korean fishing
vessels in contested waters in the
Yellow Sea on Friday, but the
North’s boats fled without casu-
alties, the South Korean military
The episode took place in
South Korean-controlled waters
along the western coast of the
Korean Peninsula, not far from
Yeonpyeong Island, the scene of
a deadly North Korean rocket
barrage two years ago. Naval
clashes have been common in
this area because North Korea
has never recognized a sea
boundary set by the United Na-
tions after the 1950-53 Korean
That demarcation line was
drawn without the North’s con-
sent, making it one of the most
likely spots for confrontation be-
tween the two Koreas, which are
still technically in a state of war.
Two and a half years ago, a South
Korean warship, the Cheonan,
blew up in this area in a mysteri-
ous attack in which South Korea
and its allies blamed a North Ko-
rean torpedo. The North has de-
nied being behind the sinking,
which killed 46 sailors.
On Friday, two South Korean
patrol boats fired warning shots
at six North Korean fishing ves-
sels that had sailed about half a
mile into South Korean-con-
trolled waters, the South Korean
military said in a statement.
North Korean warships were not
The shots came a week after
South Korean patrol ships chased
North Korean fishing boats out of
the same area. Incidents involv-
ing fishing boats are common in
these crab-rich waters, which
draw flotillas of fishermen from
both Koreas and China.
South Korean news media re-
ported Friday that there had
been five separate incidents this
month in which fishing boats
crossed the border; the news me-
dia said that raised fears that the
North was trying to provoke a re-
action. September is a busy time for
fishing in the area, however, so it
was unclear if the increased num-
ber of crossings carried any
meaning other than there were
more boats around than before.
Fears of North Korea’s intentions
tend to rise close to political tran-
sitions, and the South’s presiden-
tial election is scheduled for De-
cember. The three main candidates for
president have all indicated that
they would be less confrontation-
al than the current president, Lee
Myung-bak. South Korea Fires Shots At Vessels
From North
Su Hyun Lee contributed report-
ing from Seoul, South Korea. By The New York Times
MOSCOW — Russia’s lower
house of Parliament on Friday
unanimously approved amend-
ments substantially broadening
the legal definition of high trea-
son to apply not only to acts that
jeopardize state security but also
to those that undermine “consti-
tutional order, sovereignty and
territorial and state integrity.”
Another proposed change
would allow the charge to be ap-
plied to Russian citizens provid-
ing assistance to foreign states or
international organizations. Ad-
dressing lawmakers, the deputy
director of the Federal Security
Service said the step was neces-
sary because foreign intelligence
services “actively use” such or-
ganizations “as a cover,and they
conduct independent intelligence
activities.” To become law, the bill
must pass two additional read-
ings and be signed by President
Vladimir V. Putin.
Rights activists immediately
condemned the initiative. Rus-
sian leaders “have now chosen
an ideological course — you can
even call it a national idea — to
search for external and internal
enemies,” Lev A. Ponomarev, a
veteran activist, said in an in-
terview with Dozhd TV. On Friday, the Moscow office of
Radio Liberty, financed by the
United States, announced that it
was ending medium-wave broad-
casts because of a new law that
prohibits such broadcasting
when more than 48 percent of an
outlet’s founders are foreigners. Russia Moves to Redefine Treason
Libyan city, emerged as a parallel
and often menacing presence af-
ter his downfall in October 2011,
seizing territory for themselves
and asserting their authority
over the fledgling government. In western Libya, turf wars be-
tween militias resulted in regular
street fights with heavy weapons.
Months ago, members of Ansar
al-Sharia brandishing weapons
paraded through Benghazi and
called for an Islamic state. It was unclear whether the
backlash against Ansar al-Sharia
and the other militias on Friday
represented an opportunity for
the government to consolidate its
power in the post-Qaddafi era or
would lead to new violent con-
frontations. But no weapons were left be-
hind in most of the seizures, pro-
testers and officials said, sug-
gesting the militias had been an-
ticipating such an event because
of a buildup of resentment
against them.
In a further sign that tensions
had been stoked, some militia
members accused Qaddafi loy-
alists of instigating the backlash.
Mohamed Bazina, a spokesman
for the Rafallah al-Sehati brigade,
one of the militias whose head-
quarters were seized, said it had
video evidence to prove it.
“This is a military coup against
the true revolutionaries in the
city of Benghazi,” he said. “Ben-
ghazi will not calm down.”
The attack on the American
Mission in Benghazi that killed
Ambassador Stevens, on the 11th
anniversary of the Sept. 11 at-
tacks, was an affront to many in
Benghazi, which Mr. Stevens had
made his base during the upris-
ing. He became a familiar, cheer-
ful presence at public events.
“We want justice for Chris,”
read one sign among the estimat-
ed 30,000 Libyans, including fam-
ilies, who marched into Bengha-
zi’s main square on Friday to pro-
test in front of the chief encamp-
ment of Ansar al-Sharia. Some held signs reading “The
ambassador was Libya’s friend”
and “Libya lost a friend.” Many
protesters carried Libyan flags,
and government police officers
could be seen mingling with the
marchers. Members of Ansar al-Sharia
held a counterdemonstration,
and arguments erupted between
the opposing sides, but no vio-
lence occurred, at least not ini-
tially. Protesters chanted: “You
terrorists, you cowards. Go back
to Afghanistan.” Mr. Stevens and the others
were killed in mayhem that was
ostensibly provoked by anger
over an anti-Muslim video that
was made in the United States
and has been roiling the Islamic
world for nearly two weeks. But
officials have said there are in-
dications that part of the attack
may have been coordinated and
The organization and firepow-
er used in the assault has also
raised alarm in Washington
about the possibility of links to Al
Qaeda. But to Libyans, the as-
sault underscored instability in a
country where militias keep
weapons at the ready.
The Obama administration has
been careful about publicly as-
signing blame in the death of Mr.
Stevens and the others until law
enforcement officials, including
the F.B.I., know more. But the ad-
ministration has begun to call the
killings a “terrorist attack.” The change in language came
as Congressional Republicans
criticized the administration over
what they called its failure to an-
ticipate the problems in Libya.
Some Republican lawmakers
have moved to cut off aid to Libya
as a result.
But one powerful Republican,
Senator John McCain, counseled
against such a move, citing the
pro-American sentiments of
some of the demonstrators who
confronted Ansar al-Sharia on
Friday. “These brave people in Libya
are friends of America,” he said.
“They want our help and need
our help. And we must continue
to provide it to them, which is ex-
actly what Chris Stevens would
have wanted.”
The fatal attack on the United
States diplomatic compound here
was actually a two-pronged as-
sault, according to survivors. Af-
ter attackers overwhelmed secu-
rity at the American Mission, the
survivors congregated at a near-
by villa, surrounded by friendly
Libyan forces, and believed
themselves to be safe and wait-
ing evacuation to the airport. The
ambassador’s whereabouts was
not known. About 2 a.m., the ambush be-
gan, with gunfire and mortar
rounds striking where the survi-
vors had taken shelter. Two of the
guards, Tyrone S. Woods and
Glen A. Doherty, were killed.
Questions about the ambush re-
main, but those who were
present said it was conducted
with a great deal of accuracy.
While the others were at the
villa, Mr. Stevens; a computer
technician, Sean Smith; and a se-
curity officer moved to a desig-
nated “safe haven” for the night,
but attackers doused the building
with fuel and ignited it. It was not
known whether they were aware
it was inhabited. The guard, who
has not been identified, escaped
the building, but Mr. Smith and
Mr. Stevens were asphyxiated.
In Show of Mass Frustration, Libyans Target Militias, Forcing Flight
From Page A1
Suliman Ali Zway reported from
Benghazi, and Kareem Fahim
from Beirut, Lebanon. Rick Glad-
stone contributed reporting from
New York. A U.S. senator
counsels against
cutting off American
aid to Libya.
NEW DELHI — Prime Min-
ister Manmohan Singh made a
rare nationwide televised appeal
on Friday night to defend a series
of unpopular measures, intended
to revive the floundering Indian
economy, that have stirred mass
protests across the country and
almost toppled his coalition gov-
Mr. Singh’s speech came on a
day of intense political jockeying,
as the governing coalition lost the
support of a crucial regional ally
yet managed to stay in power, for
the moment, by securing support
from two other nonaligned re-
gional parties.
“The time has come for hard
decisions,” Mr. Singh said, in an
apparently prerecorded address
that was broadcast across the
country in prime time. “For this I
need your trust, your under-
standing and your cooperation.”
The political storm erupted last
week after Mr. Singh’s govern-
ment announced a series of eco-
nomic moves, including an in-
crease in the price of diesel fuel, a
cap on the subsidy for cooking
gas and measures that would al-
low for greater foreign invest-
ment in civil aviation and retail,
opening the door for big, mul-
tibrand retailers like Walmart. Business leaders and many
economists praised the moves as
critical for containing India’s fis-
cal deficit and attracting foreign
investment, but rival political
leaders pounced, as did some po-
litical allies of the government,
saying the measures threatened
the livelihoods of small shop own-
ers and common people. Thou-
sands demonstrated on Thursday
in several Indian cities in coordi-
nated protests organized by sev-
eral parties.
On Friday, Mr. Singh urged
people to “not be misled,” framed
the moves as essential, if tough,
and said they would begin to re-
store economic growth and help
prevent India from falling into
the same economic malaise that
Europe is in. Economic growth,
which topped 8 percent in 2011, is
now projected to be as low as 5.4
percent in the current fiscal year.
“We are at a point where we can
reverse the slowdown in our
growth,” he said. “We need a re-
vival in investor confidence do-
mestically and globally.”
Hours earlier, Mamata Baner-
jee, the populist chief minister of
the state of West Bengal and once
the most crucial regional ally in
the governing coalition, formally
withdrew her party’s support. On
Friday afternoon, with television
crews beaming live reports
across the nation, Ms. Banerjee’s
cabinet ministers submitted their
resignations to protest the new
economic measures.
The departure of Ms. Baner-
jee’s 19-member parliamentary
delegation means that the gov-
erning coalition, led by the Indian
National Congress Party, has lost
its parliamentary majority. How-
ever, the coalition will survive,
for now, courtesy of support by a
two nonaligned regional parties,
which extended lukewarm en-
dorsements on Friday. “Our support is clear,” said
Mulayam Singh Yadav, a regional
leader who told the Indian news
media that he would support the
government, though not join it.
Friday’s machinations dis-
pelled, for the moment, the possi-
bility of the government collaps-
ing or of elections, now scheduled
for 2014, being called early. But
the Congress Party now faces a
complicated governing situation,
in which it will need to massage
and maneuver around regional
leaders like Mr. Yadav, as well as
his rival, Mayawati, another pow-
erful figure who is supporting the
government and uses only one
“We have another 18 months to
go for the next elections,” said
Digvijaya Singh, a general secre-
tary in the Congress Party.
“We’ve got sufficient numbers to
carry us through.”
The prime minister’s appeal to
the nation amounted to an effort
to reboot his much-maligned gov-
ernment. For roughly two years,
the Congress Party has been
mired in corruption scandals and
widely criticized for arrogance
and ineffectiveness, while also
overseeing a rapidly declining
economy. Mr. Singh, considered the fa-
ther of India’s first era of eco-
nomic overhaul in the 1990s, has
been accused of failing to lead or
to articulate a clear vision for the
government. On Friday, Mr.
Singh argued that rising global
oil prices meant that the govern-
ment had to reduce popular sub-
sidies on diesel and cooking gas
or risk a rapidly higher fiscal def-
“Where would the money for
this have come from?” Mr. Singh
asked. “Money does not grow on
Mr. Singh did not mention the
weeklong political controversies
or the loss of support from Ms.
Banerjee. Some analysts predict-
ed that her departure could free
the government to push ahead
with other economic measures.
Palaniappan Chidambaram, the
country’s recently appointed fi-
nance minister, has signaled that
recently announced economic
moves will come as soon as next
To some degree, Ms. Banerjee
had held veto power over such
initiatives because of her periodic
threats to withdraw her party’s
support and bring down the gov-
ernment. Last year, she blocked a
water treaty with Bangladesh —
embarrassing the prime minister
and Indian diplomats — and also
forced Mr. Singh to reverse him-
self after his cabinet first ap-
proved the plan to open the door
to retailers like Walmart.
“The government faces a stark
choice — stand firmly behind the
measures to promote India’s
long-term economic interests or
back off the reforms in the in-
terests of short-term political sur-
vival,” said Eswar Prasad, an
economist and an adviser to the
Indian government. “The out-
come of this battle, and even the
way it is fought and ultimately re-
solved, will reverberate in India’s
economic and political arenas for
many years to come.”
When it became clear on Fri-
day that the government was not
bending this time, India’s stock
market recorded the biggest gain
of the year. India’s Premier Pleads for Support of His Plans in Televised Address
A woman in New Delhi watched Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s televised speech on Friday, an unusually direct appeal. Hari Kumar contributed report-
PARIS — President François
Hollande inaugurated a new
Holocaust memorial center on
Friday with an address that un-
derscored the direct approach he
has taken to France’s collabora-
tionist past, a grim and still un-
comfortable chapter that French
leaders and politicians have often
preferred to skirt.
The reality of French collabo-
ration with the Nazis has been
demonstrated and accepted, Mr.
Hollande said in his address at
the memorial, in Drancy, a city
north of Paris that was the site of
a major transit camp for Jews be-
ing deported to death camps in
the east. He urged that the nation
now turn to the “transmission,”
or passing on, of that difficult his-
“Our work is no longer about
establishing the truth,” Mr. Hol-
lande said at the Mémorial de la
Shoah à Drancy, a five-story
glass and concrete structure that
looks out upon the buildings once
used to imprison tens of thou-
sands of French and foreign
Jews. “Today, our work is to
transmit. That is the spirit of this
memorial. Transmission: there
resides the future of remember-
Of the 76,000 Jews deported
from France during World War
II, 63,000 were sent off from
Drancy, Mr. Hollande noted in his
speech. From 1941 to 1944, Jews
were held before being deported
in the concrete structures of the
Cité de la Muette, a housing
project requisitioned by the Ger-
mans. Shortly after the war, the
buildings were returned to use as
public housing.
Monuments to the deported
were erected near the structures
in 1976 and 1988. A larger Holo-
caust museum opened in central
Paris in 2005.
The new memorial center at
the Cité de la Muette, a project
conceived about a decade ago,
was financed by the Foundation
for the Memory of the Shoah, a
private French organization. It
houses several conference
rooms, a collection of documents
related to the camp and a perma-
nent exhibit. The building was
designed by the Swiss architect
Roger Diener. “Through the transparent fa-
cade, the outside observer can al-
ways see what’s happening in-
side: the work of memory,” Mr.
Diener says in a statement on the
center’s Web site.
Prime Minister Jean-Marc
Ayrault inaugurated a similar
memorial in Aix-en-Provence, in
southern France, this month.
In July, in an address com-
memorating the roundup of more
than 13,000 Jews by the French
police in 1942, Mr. Hollande spoke
of a crime committed “by
France.” In so doing, he broke
with his mentor and a hero of the
French left, former President
François Mitterrand, who re-
fused to acknowledge a broad
French role in the detentions and
deportations. Some opposition
politicians complained that Mr.
Hollande assigned guilt too
Widespread acknowledgment
of collaboration under the Nazi
occupation has come to France
only in the past two decades, no-
tably after a speech in 1995 by
President Jacques Chirac, who
spoke of the country’s “collective
Mr. Hollande has also been
outspoken on modern anti-Sem-
itism. In August, Mr. Hollande
stripped the fashion designer
John Galliano of the Legion of
Honor; Mr. Galliano was convict-
ed in 2011 of making anti-Semitic
remarks, during the presidency
of Mr. Hollande’s predecessor,
Nicolas Sarkozy.
At Holocaust Center, Hollande Confronts Past
President François Hollande at the inauguration of a Holocaust
memorial center, Mémorial de la Shoah à Drancy,on Friday.
BERLIN — The hunt for Arib-
ert Ferdinand Heim, a Nazi fu-
gitive and concentration camp
doctor, has officially come to a
close,the German authorities
said Friday, after they deter-
mined that the man known as Dr.
Death for his unnecessary opera-
tions had died in Egypt in 1992.
A regional court in Baden-Ba-
den, Dr. Heim’s last known resi-
dence in Germany, said it had
suspended the criminal investi-
gation because “no doubts re-
mained” that the fugitive who
eluded the authorities for dec-
ades had died of cancer in Cairo
in 1992.
The New York Times and the
German television station ZDF
reported in 2009 that Dr. Heim
had escaped justice by hiding in
North Africa. An old, dusty brief-
case full of letters, handwritten
notes about the case against him
and medical records corroborat-
ed the accounts of Egyptians who
knew him there.
Investigators established that
the documents were real and had
belonged to Dr. Heim but could
not prove conclusively that he
was dead. Witnesses said he had
died after a long struggle with
rectal cancer. At the same time,
they said he had been buried in a
common grave,
meaning that
nearly 20 years
on, neither
DNA nor den-
tal records
could be used
to confirm his
death. “The only
way that could
have been
proven conclu-
sively was with
Efraim Zuroff,
the chief Nazi hunter for the Si-
mon Wiesenthal Center in New
York, said in a telephone inter-
view. “I’m not ruling it out con-
clusively, but I, in good con-
science, could not rule out the
case without some forensic proof
of a dead person who is Aribert
The Egyptian authorities pro-
duced a death certificate in the
name of Tarek Hussein Farid,
which witnesses said was the
name Dr. Heim took after becom-
ing a Muslim. There was insuffi-
cient evidence in 2009 proving
that Dr. Heim and Mr. Farid were
the same person, the court said,
and the case remained open.
This year, however, Dr. Heim’s
lawyer presented the court with
additional papers, including an
Egyptian driver’s license with a
photograph of Dr. Heim under
the name Tarek Hussein Farid
and most significantly a certif-
icate confirming his conversion
to Islam and name change. “Tests by the state police con-
firmed the authenticity of this
certificate,” the Baden-Baden
court said in its statement. The
court also questioned Dr. Heim’s
son Rüdiger Heim, who said he
was in Cairo when his father died.
In a telephone interview on
Friday, Mr. Heim said: “I am re-
lieved that I could be helpful to
German justice in drawing the
logical conclusions from the reve-
lations in recent years. I hope
that this brings an end to the
many rumors that have circulat-
ed without foundation in fact.”
Austrian by birth, Dr. Heim
was a member of Hitler’s elite
Waffen-SS and worked at the Bu-
chenwald, Sachsenhausen and
Mauthausen concentration
camps. He was held as a prisoner
of war by the American authori-
ties after the war and detained
for more than two years, but he
escaped prosecution. Dr. Heim married, had two
sons and had a gynecology prac-
tice in the spa town of Baden-
Baden, in southwest Germany,
where the family lived in a state-
ly white villa. His time at Mauth-
ausen came back to haunt him af-
ter former inmates told the police
that he had killed healthy prison-
ers in senseless operations and
murdered others with lethal in-
jections to the heart. He fled Baden-Baden in 1962
with investigators at his heels.
After a shorter stay in Morocco,
he moved to Egypt in 1963, slowly
integrating into the local culture.
He learned to speak Arabic and
lived in a modest hotel away from
other expatriates in a middle-
class area of Cairo.
The search for Dr. Heim,
named the most-wanted Nazi
war criminal in the world by the
Simon Wiesenthal Center in 2008,
rekindled interest in the fates of
Nazi fugitives more than half a
century after the end of World
War II. Like a character out of a
James Bond film, Dr. Heim, a tall,
athletic, former professional ice
hockey player, wore a tuxedo in
one of the photographs circulated
by investigators, which only add-
ed to his mystique.
“People’s fantasies elevated
him to the status of a myth,” his
son said. Hunt Ends
For a Nazi
Now Believed
To Be Dead
Russia: Dogs Poisoned in Moscow
The Moscow police are searching for a band
of vigilante “dog hunters” who have set traps
with poisoned meat to kill stray dogs. But the
poison has killed pets instead, and on Friday
the police opened a criminal investigation.
Last week, residents of a Moscow neigh-
borhood complained that several pets had
mysteriously died just as warnings to pet
owners began to appear in a local park. “If
you don’t follow the rules of walking your dog
— it will die,” said one of the fliers, a Russian
news agency reported. Packs of stray dogs
are a common sight in Russia; the govern-
ment estimates that tens of thousands roam
Moscow’s streets. The police say that several
dogs have been killed recently, but Moscow
residents say that the number is actually in
the dozens. ANDREWROTH
Syria: Assad Assails Help for Rebels
An Egyptian magazine, Al Ahram al-Arabi, on
Friday published what it said was an exclu-
sive interview with President Bashar al-As-
sad of Syria in which he criticized Turkey, Qa-
tar and Saudi Arabia for supporting his gov-
ernment’s opponents, saying they were pur-
suing the “Libyan model” for Syria. Mr. Assad
asserted that he was open to dialogue with his
opponents and that the government had al-
ready pursued substantial political reforms.
Also on Friday, an opposition group, the Na-
tional Coordination Committee for Democrat-
ic Change, reported that three of its members
had been arrested in Damascus, the capital. KAREEMFAHIM
Iraq: North Korean Flight Barred
Over Suspicions About Syria Aid
Iraq prevented a North Korean plane from en-
tering its airspace because it suspected that it
was carrying weapons for Syria, prompting
praise from the United States on Friday but
also demands for a ban on Iranian aircraft
with similar suspicious cargo. American offi-
cials have accused Iraq of allowing Iran to fly
weapons to Syrian forces through Iraqi air-
space, a charge Iraq has denied. “We urge the
government of Iraq to take additional steps to
prevent others, including Iran, from abusing
its airspace by shipping arms to Syria,” said a
State Department spokesman, Michael La-
valle, who called the move to ban the North
Korean flight a “positive step.” Iraq barred
the North Korean flight on Thursday. (AP)
Japan: Premier Wins Party Vote
Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda fended off a
challenge to his leadership of the governing
Democratic Party on Friday, but his victory
may be short-lived amid a parliamentary im-
passe, a damaging feud with China and dis-
mal poll results that bode ill for his party’s for-
tunes in the next elections. Mr. Noda’s re-
election as the Democrats’ president under-
scored the party’s lack of choices as it seeks
to hang on to power after two weak prime
ministers. Mr. Noda faces a standoff in Parlia-
ment, where the main opposition Liberal
Democratic Party has blocked his initiatives.
He recently pushed through a contentious in-
crease of the sales tax to 10 percent, but only
after promising to dissolve Parliament and
call nationwide elections soon. HIROKO TABUCHI
New Zealand: U.S. Reinforces Ties
Defense Secretary Leon E. Panetta on Friday
became the first Pentagon chief to visit New
Zealand in three decades, an absence prompt-
ed by a breakdown in ties after New Zealand
prohibited American nuclear warships from
its waters. Mr. Panetta announced that the
Obama administration had modified Ameri-
can policy so that the defense secretary could
authorize visits by New Zealand naval vessels
to Defense Department or Coast Guard facili-
ties. Previously, New Zealand’s ships docked
at commercial ports in the United States, and
not at military bases — a response to the ban
imposed by New Zealand on American ships.
The two countries pledged cooperation on
Asia-Pacific security issues, but Mr. Panetta
said he did not push for a renewed formal mu-
tual-defense treaty. THOMSHANKER
Security Council Urges West Africa
To Develop a Plan to Assist Mali
The humanitarian and security situation in
northern Mali has eroded under Al Qaeda and
the other extremist groups controlling the re-
gion, the United Nations Security Council said
Friday as it expressed its “grave concern.” It
urged West African states to develop a “feasi-
ble” collective plan to confront the situation.
The initial West African proposal stressed the
need to begin any joint military effort from
Bamako, the capital, which Mali rejects.
World leaders attending the United Nations
General Assembly meeting will discuss the
problems facing the sub-Saharan region on
Wednesday, but no new initiatives on Mali are
expected. NEIL MacFARQUHAR
World Briefing By DECLAN WALSH
ISLAMABAD, Pakistan — Vio-
lent crowds furious over an anti-
Islamic video made in the United
States convulsed Pakistan’s larg-
est cities on Friday, leaving up to
19 people dead and more than 160
injured in a day of government-
sanctioned protests. It was the worst single day of
violence in a Muslim country
over the video, “Innocence of
Muslims,” since protests began
nearly two weeks ago in Egypt,
before spreading to two dozen
countries. Protesters have ig-
nored the United States govern-
ment’s denunciation of the video.
Peaceful protests had been ap-
proved by Pakistan’s govern-
ment, which declared Friday a
national holiday, the Day of Love
for the Prophet Muhammad. The
move was part of an effort to ei-
ther control or politically capital-
ize on rage against the inflamma-
tory video, which depicts Mu-
hammad, the founder of Islam, as
a sexually perverted buffoon.
Friday’s violence began with
the fatal shooting of a television
station employee during a pro-
test in the northwestern city of
Peshawar, and was amplified
through armed protests in the
southern port city of Karachi that
left 12 to 14 people dead, Pakistani
news media reported. By nightfall Geo, the leading
television station, was reporting
19 deaths around the country. Less violent protests occurred
in other Muslim countries, ex-
acerbated by the publication of
cartoons depicting Muhammad
in a French satirical weekly.
In Bangladesh, several thou-
sand Islamist activists took to the
streets of the capital, Dhaka,
waving banners and burning a
symbolic coffin for President
Obama that was covered with the
American flag. “Death to the
United States and death to
French,” they chanted.
Local television networks re-
ported that a mob had ransacked
and burned an Anglican church
in Mardan in northwestern Paki-
stan.There were no reports that
Christians had been killed or
In Tunisia, the government in-
voked emergency powers to out-
law all demonstrations, and
American diplomatic posts in In-
dia, Indonesia and elsewhere
closed for the day. France closed embassies and
other institutions in 20 countries
while, in Paris, some Muslim
leaders urged their followers to
heed a government ban on week-
end demonstrations.
In Pakistan, the streets started
erupting early in Peshawar,
where protesters burned two
movie theaters. Two people, in-
cluding the television employee,
Muhammad Amir, were killed. Mr. Amir’s employer televised
graphic footage of hospital staff
members as they gave him emer-
gency treatment shortly before
he died, a broadcast that other
Pakistani journalists condemned
as insensitive and irresponsible.
Some protesters tried to reach
the city’s heavily guarded Ameri-
can Consulate, which has a
strong Central Intelligence Agen-
cy component. By evening, hospi-
tal officials said, at least five peo-
ple were dead and more than 50
After Friday Prayer, more se-
vere violence erupted in Islam-
abad, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Mul-
tan and Karachi, where normally
bustling streets were instead
filled with clouds of tear gas and
the sound of gunfire. Protesters in Karachi burned
effigies, stoned a KFC and en-
gaged in armed clashes with the
police that left 14 people dead and
more than 80 wounded by
“An attack on the holy prophet
is an attack on the core belief of
1.5 billion Muslims,” Prime Min-
ister Raja Pervez Ashraf said in
an address at a religious confer-
ence Friday morning in Islam-
abad. “Therefore, this is some-
thing that is unacceptable.” Mr. Ashraf called on the United
Nations and the international
community to formulate a law
outlawing hate speech across the
world. “Blasphemy of the kind
witnessed in this case is nothing
short of hate speech, equal to the
worst kind of anti-Semitism or
other kind of bigotry,” he said.
But chaotic scenes in the
streets outside suggested that if
the government had aimed to
harness public anger on the is-
sue, it had failed. In contrast, the day passed
peacefully in neighboring Af-
ghanistan, where officials had
been preparing for the protests
for days. Clerics at major
mosques in the capital, Kabul, ac-
ceded to official requests that
they preach peace, or another
topic entirely. Police officers set
checkpoints to search cars, and
no street violence occurred.
A senior American official in
Kabul said his Afghan counter-
parts had worked hard to mute
the impact of the video through
the week. That was, in part, a
product of their previous experi-
ence with what he called “a dese-
cration or religious event.”
In Pakistan, however, extrem-
ist groups, many banned by the
government, were at the fore-
front of the upheavals. Marchers
in Karachi included members of
Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan,a
banned Sunni sectarian group;
Harkat-ul-Mujahedeen, which
has fought India in Kashmir; and
Tehrik-e-Ghalba Islami, a faction
of another sectarian group.
In Islamabad, activists with
Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan led a
march toward the heavily guard-
ed diplomatic enclave, where
Western missions had closed for
the day. They clashed for hours
with the police outside the Serena
Hotel before being 
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