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Коноплева Н.В., Каюмова А.Р., Фомина Л.И. Готовимся к экзамену

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Н.В.Коноплева, А.Р.Каюмова, Л.И.Фомина
Preparing for the exam in English
Manual for learners
of English
KAZAN 2012
Настоящая учебно-методическая разработка предназначена для
студентов IV курса очного и заочного отделений филологического
факультета. Целью является помочь студентам подготовиться к сдаче
экзамена по иностранному языку.
Готовимся к экзамену по
английскому языку
Учебно-методическое пособие
по английскому языку
Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов IV курса
очного и заочного отделений, завершающих изучение английского языка по
программе бакалавриата. Его цель – помочь студентам подготовиться к
сдаче экзамена по английскому языку. Предлагаемое пособие состоит из
двух частей. В первой части представлены основные требования и
практические рекомендации к каждому этапу экзамена: письменному,
который включает в себя перевод лингвистического текста; и устному –
пересказ и анализ газетной статьи, а также высказывание по заданной
Вторая часть - лексико-грамматические тесты, направленные на
контроль и закрепление новой лексики и грамматических явлений уроков IXV «Практического курса английского языка для студентов-филологов».
Данное руководство ставит своей задачей формирование навыков
самостоятельной подготовки студентов к сдаче экзамена, что является
необходимым требованием в условиях перехода системы образования к
новым стандартам.
Государственный экзамен по иностранному (английскому) языку для
студентов очного и заочного отделений состоит из письменной и устной
Письменная часть представляет собой перевод отрывка из
лингвистического текста со словарем. Объем текста определяет
преподаватель в зависимости от уровня студента. Перевод наиболее
сложных слов и выражений дается в экзаменационном билете в конце
текста для перевода. Перевод не должен быть буквальным, должен точно
передать смысл оригинала и стиль. Приведем пример отрывка:
The definition of a proverb given in The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of
Current English is as good as any: a ‘popular short saying, with words of advice
or warning’. Yet it is far from enabling us to identify a proverb with any certainty.
Is any widely used short saying a proverb? The important word seems to be
‘popular’. But how popular must a saying be to become a proverb? The line must
evidently be drawn somewhere. We suggest that in the real sense of the word it
must be thoroughly ‘of the people’. It follows from this that it will usually be an old
saying, since it is unlikely to become part of the popular consciousness in a short
period of time. There are of course exceptions, and some proverbs jump into the
popular mind with unusual rapidity, though we should have to exclude the purely
transient catch-phrase like ‘I couldn’t care less’ or ‘What’s the odds?’
The definition might have said ‘a short wise saying’, but presumably this was
thought unnecessary as the word ‘saying’, when used in this way, implies
wisdom. For wisdom is the other main ingredient of the proverb. To become
popular it must at least appear outstandingly wise; to remain popular it must in
truth contain enduring wisdom. That having been said, however, the fact remains
that some wise sayings have become proverbs, while others equally wise have
not; they have been lost or they have remained merely occasional quotations.
To become a proverb, a saying has to be taken up and assimilated by the
common people. In the process, its origin is forgotten. In many cases this must
have been as nearly literally true as makes no odds. In the numerous proverbs
that summarize everyday experience, the saying probably did grow gradually into
its proverbial form without any one single originator. Make hay while the sun
shines, with its origin in farm work, is a case in point.
Устная часть экзамена включает два задания:
высказывания по указанным темам самостоятельно в течение
учебного года, консультируясь с преподавателем.
Анализ газетной статьи. Анализ подразумевает краткий пересказ
содержания (не менее 10 предложений) и высказывание собственного
мнения по статье.
I. Нижеприведенные вопросы помогут логично построить высказывание по
темам. На каждый из десяти вопросов составьте 3-5 предложений-ответов.
Грамматические конструкции, приведенные после вопросов необходимо
использовать в своем рассказе. Список пословиц сделает Вашу речь более
насыщенной и живой. Постарайтесь включить несколько пословиц.
Topic 1 “My speciality’’
1. Why did you choose our university?
2. What can you say about the history of our university?
3. Can you name some famous people who studied or worked in our university?
4. Why did you choose philology? Was it a spontaneous decision?
5. What qualities are essential to study philology?
6. Which subjects were among your favorite ones at university?
7. What is the topic of your diploma work? Say a few words about it.
8. What are the most pleasant moments in your university life?
9. What are you going to do after your graduation?
10. If you had a possibility to spend a year working in another country, which
country would you choose? Why?
Grammar: past tenses: simple, continuous, perfect; comparatives and
superlatives; future forms: going to; first conditional and future time
clauses+when, until, etc.; second conditional.
Topic 2 “Russia”
1. What do you know about the geographical position of Russia?
2. Is Russia rich in natural resources? Which ones?
3. What can you say about the climate of Russia?
4. What can you say about the population of Russia?
5. Is Russia a rural or urban country? Where do you live (a village, town or city)?
6. Which cities can be named the “capitals” (first, second, third, etc.) of Russia?
7. What can you say about the political system of the Russian Federation?
8. What historical facts make you feel proud of your country?
9. Which period of our history would you go to if you had a time-machine? Why?
10. How can Russia become the most progressive and influential country in the
Grammar: passive voice; infinitives; articles and nouns with and without the;
comparatives and superlatives; first conditional; quantifiers.
Topic 3 “Tatarstan”
1. What do you know about the geographical position and climate of Tatarstan?
2. Is Tatarstan rich in natural resources? Which ones?
3. What can you say about the population of Tatarstan?
4. What can you say about the political system of Tatarstan?
5. What are the biggest cities of Tatarstan?
6. Which places in Tatarstan can you recommend to visit?
7. What would you show to tourists in Kazan if you were a guide?
8. Say a few words about famous Tatar poets, composers and artists.
9. What are the national holidays of Tatarstan?
10. What can you say about Tatar cuisine? What is your favourite dish?
Grammar: passive voice; infinitives; articles and nouns with and without the;
comparatives and superlatives; first conditional; quantifiers.
Topic 4 “Great Britain”
1. What do you know about the geographical position of Great Britain?
2. Is Great Britain rich in natural resources? Which ones? What can you say
about the country’s agriculture?
3. What can you say about the climate of Great Britain?
4. What can you say about the population of Great Britain?
5. What specific features of the British character do you know?
6. What can you say about the political system of Great Britain?
7. Great Britain is famous for its system of education. Can you name the most
famous universities?
8. Imagine that you are going to the Great Britain this summer. What places
would you like to visit? Describe them.
9. What would you like to visit in the capital of Great Britain?
10. Can you name the most famous British writers? Who is your favourite?
Grammar: passive voice; infinitives; articles and nouns with and without the;
comparatives and superlatives; first conditional; quantifiers.
Topic 5 “The system of education: Russia and Great Britain”
1. What are the similarities between systems of education in Russia and Great
2. Compare the subjects studied in secondary schools in Russia and Great
Britain. What is similar and what is different?
3. Every pupil likes holidays. Compare Russian and British school holidays.
Which of them would you prefer?
4. What are the differences between state and private schools in Great Britain?
Are there any private schools in Russia?
5. What should you do to prepare yourself for university in Great Britain? Is it the
same in Russia?
6. What are the main universities in Russia?
7. What are the main universities in UK?
8. Why do foreign students choose Russia or UK to get higher education?
9. What do you think about the innovations in our education system reforms in
our system of education?
10. Describe an ideal university. How would it look like?
Grammar: must, have to, should (obligation); can, could, be able to (ability and
possibility); structures after wish; clauses of contrast and purpose.
Topic 6 “Customs and traditions: Russia and Great Britain”
1. What public holidays are celebrated in Russia?
2. What public holidays are celebrated in Great Britain?
3. What is the most popular holiday in Russia? What do you know about it?
4. What is the most popular holiday in Great Britain? How is it celebrated?
5. Why do people remember old customs and traditions?
6. Are there any new customs and traditions nowadays?
7. What do you think about accepting western holidays and traditions?
8. What is your favourite Russian holiday? Why?
9. What is your favourite western holiday? Why?
10. Have you got any family traditions?
Grammar: passive: be+ past participle; clauses of contrast and purpose; gerund
and infinitives.
Topic 7 “My favourite author”
1. Who was your favourite author in your childhood? Who read you his/her
2. Who is your favourite author now? Tell a few words about his/her biography.
3. What can you say about his/her creative work?
4. When and how did you get to know this author?
5. Which of his/her books did you read first?
6. How can you describe the author’s style?
7. What is your favourite book written by him/her? Tell a few words about its plot.
8. Which character in the book is your favourite?
9. It is said that our opinion about the book changes in the course of life. Has it
happened to you? If yes, in what way?
10. Do you have any scientific works connected with this author?
Grammar: relative clauses: defining and non-defining; used to, be used to, get
used to; comparatives and superlatives.
Topic 8 “My unforgettable holiday”
1. Are you a stay-at-home person or journey-lover?
2. How do you prefer to travel (by train, by car, etc.)? Why?
3. What climate is the best choice for you?
4. Do you prefer sightseeing holidays, holidays at the sea side or active holidays
(e.g. skiing resorts)?
5. Have you ever traveled abroad? What country would you like to visit?
6. Tell us about an unforgettable holiday? Where and when did you go? Who did
you go with?
7. Where did you stay? Did you like the place?
8. What did you do during the day?
9. What did you do at night?
10. Did you have any problems? If not, what problems can spoil the trip?
Grammar: gerunds and infinitives; narrative tenses; so/such…that;
Topic 9 “Food”
1. Is food a pleasure or fuel for you?
2. What do you normally eat in a typical day?
3. Do you ever cook?
4. Do you ever eat unhealthy food? Do you worry about it?
5. Are you trying to cut down on anything at the moment? Why (not)?
6. Are people’s diets in Russia getting better or worse?
7. What is your favourite dish?
8. Did you use to like some food in your childhood that you don’t like now?
9. Have you ever eaten some exotic dish? Do you like unusual dishes? Are you
10. What national cuisine do you prefer (Russian, Tatar, French, etc.)? Why?
the…the…+comparatives; uncountable and plural nouns.
Topic 10 “My ideal future”
1. What are going to do after your graduation from University?
2. What job would you like to have?
3. What is more important: to climb the career ladder or to have a successful
marriage? Why?
4. Are you married? If yes, please, tell about your wedding ceremony. If not,
imagine it.
5. Would you like to have a big family (with many children)? Explain your answer.
6. If you have a child what name will you give him or her? Do you prefer
traditional or exotic names for babies?
7. How do you see your future house? Would you like to live in a flat or in your
own house?
8. Would you like to have a pet in your future house? Why (not)?
9. What should you do now to get this ideal future?
10. If you had a million dollars, what would you do?
Grammar: to be going+infinitive; first conditional and future time clauses+when,
until, etc.; second conditional.
1. It is never too late to learn (Учиться никогда не поздно).
2. No pains, no gains (Без труда не выловишь и рыбку из пруда).
3. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today (Никогда не
откладывай на завтра то, что можешь сделать сегодня).
4. Where there’s a will, there’s a way (Где есть желание, там есть и путь.
Где хотенье, там и уменье).
5. Bind the sack before it be full (Во всем знай меру).
6. Every country has its customs (У каждой страны свои обычаи).
7. So many countries, so many customs (Сколько стран, столько и
8. To carry coals to Newcastle (Ездить в Тулу со своим самоваром).
9. When at Rome, do as Romans do (В чужой монастырь со своим
уставом не ходят).
10. East or West, home is best (В гостях хорошо, а дома лучше).
11. There is no place like home (Родной дом – самое лучшее место).
12. An Englishman’s home is his castle (Дом англичанина – его крепость).
13. Tastes differ (О вкусах не спорят).
14. The busiest man finds the most leisure (Самый занятой человек находит
больше всего досуга).
15. Every man has his hobby-horse (У всякого свой конек).
16. Live and learn (Век живи и век учись).
17. The appetite comes with eating (Аппетит приходит во время еды).
18. Don’t live to eat, but eat to live (Не жить, чтобы есть, а есть чтобы жить).
19. One man’s meat is another man’s poison (Что для одного еда, то для
другого яд).
20. The proof of the pudding is in the eating (Чтобы узнать, каков пуддинг,
надо его отведать; все проверяется практикой).
21. Life is not all beer and skittles (Жить прожить – не поле перейти).
22. Stolen fruit is sweetest (Запретный плод сладок).
23. Quick at meat quick at work (Кто быстро ест, тот быстро работает).
24. Man proposes (but) God disposes (Человек предполагает, а Бог
25. As you brew, so must you drink (Что посеешь, то и пожнешь).
II. Данные выражения помогут студентам лаконично пересказать
газетную статью и высказать свое мнение по проблеме:
The paper is devoted to….
At first the author points out that…..
Next the author tries to…; explains that…...; pays attention to….
In addition the author emphasizes that…
It is evident that…
It should be noted that…
It is reported that…
The paper comes to the conclusion that….
Finally, the author concludes that…
In summary, we can say that…
As far as I’m concerned,…the most important quality for a friend is loyalty.
In my opinion / view,… education should be free for all.
From my point of view,… extreme sports should be banned.
I think / I don’t think (that)… watching TV is a waste of time.
I believe (that)… mass tourism is a threat for local communities.
Personally, I think (that)… shopping centres are useful.
To my mind,…everyone should do at least one sport.
I’m sure (that)… we can help the environment.
To be honest (with you),… young people have too much freedom.
I maintain (that)…(formal) animal testing is immoral.
Clarifying Personal Point of View
That is to say…
Agreeing with the Opinion of the Author
The author is (absolutely) right.
I (completely/totally) agree with the author.
The author of the article says that…. I think so too.
The author of the article says that…. That’s true.
The author of the article says that…. That’s right.
Disagreeing with the Opinion of the Author
I (completely) disagree with the author, because…
I’m afraid I can’t agree with the author, because…
I don’t think that the author’s point of view is true/correct/right.
The author of the article says that…. However, I don’t think so.
I agree to some extent, but…
I partially agree, but…
There might be some truth in that, but…
I see his/her point, but…
Приведем пример статьи
экзаменационном билете):
Parents 'want child gene tests'
Parents believe the benefits of testing their children for the genetic risk of some
diseases outweigh the negative consequences, according to US scientists. In the
study, published in the journal Pediatrics, parents who were offered a genetic test
supported their children also being tested. The authors say doctors and
politicians need to be more aware of the issue.
Genewatch UK said children should never be tested for adult conditions. Genetic
testing used to be confined to specialist clinics, but direct-to-consumer testing is
now possible. People send a sample to a company in the post and are told if they
have any genes which carry an increased risk of illness.
Genetic test
In this study, 219 parents were tested for 15 genetic variants linked to heart
disease, osteoporosis, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes and
colon, skin and lung cancer. They were then asked a series of questions to
compare benefits such as reassurance, knowledge and prevention, with risks
such as invasion of privacy and psychological discomfort. The report found that
"parents offered the genetic susceptibility test for common preventable conditions
tended to consider that the potential benefits of this test for their own child could
outweigh its risks". Professor Kenneth Tercyak, from the Georgetown Lombardi
Comprehensive Cancer Center, said: "These tests usually don't offer a clean bill
of health and can be hard to interpret even in the best scenario."
Helen Wallace, from genetic science lobby group Genewatch UK, said: "Online
gene tests frequently give misleading results because most common conditions
such as cancer, obesity or diabetes are not predicable from a person's genes,
except in special circumstances. "Children should not be tested for risk of adultonset conditions, full stop. They should be allowed to decide for themselves, with
medical advice, when they are grown up." Dr Vivienne Nathanson, director of
BMA Professional Activities, said: "We would have concerns about genetic
testing being widely available over the internet or off the shelf because parents
could find out results without a health professional to help intepret them. They
may also find out about genetic abnormalities for which there are no cures, or be
caused needless worry. "It is important that parents who find out that their
children have a genetic disposition to a particular illness, have counselling in
advance so they understand the consequences of the test for their child, other
children and themselves." Prof Tercyak said: "The findings of our study should
remind clinicians and policy-makers to consider children when regulating genetic
Part I
Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. The ability to acquire and use language is an innate, biologically-based
potential of modern human beings, similar to the ability to walk.
2. Before the twentieth century, the term “philology”, first attested in 1716,
was commonly used to refer to the science of language, which was then
predominantly historical in focus.
3. Linguistics is the systematic study of language, encompassing a variety of
scientific methods for its inquiry.
4. Many non-human animals can learn to respond to language, or can even
be trained to use it to a degree.
5. A variety of intellectual disciplines are relevant to the study of language.
6. Some theorists claim that the ability to learn language is a product of
general human cognition.
7. It is now the usual academic term in English for the scientific study of
8. Phonetics is a related branch of linguistics concerned with the actual
properties of speech sounds (phones).
II. Give English equivalents of the following words, phrases and word
1) свойства речевых звуков; 2) продукт человеческого познания; 3)
содействует с такими сферами науки как; 4) другие подходы; 5)
настаивать на важности; 6) научное изучение языка; 7) термин
«филология»; 8) включают в себя изучение речи; 9) определенное число
сознательное обучение.
III. Fill in the gaps using the words given in brackets in the correct form
(to combine, competence, relevant, predominant, to a degree, parentage,
variety, division, insistence):
1. He could provide his family with a comfortable ...
2. The evidence is …to the case.
3. The pressure you were put under must have been frustrating …
4. We resent your … that the debt should be paid at once.
5. We are all the result of our … and up-bringing.
6. The centre offers a … of leisure activities.
7. Women have a … role as health care professionals.
8. A sharp … of opinion was evident among the members.
9. The members decided … the tennis club with the cricket club, forming one
sports club.
Part II
I. Correct the mistakes in the sentences:
1. Look! Somebody are climbing up that tree over there.
2. Can you hear those people? What do they talk about?
3. Are you believing in God?
4. Look! That man tries to open the door of your car.
5. The moon go round the earth.
6. I’m thinking it would be a good idea to leave early.
7. The government is worried because the number of people without job is
8. I’m usually going to work by car.
II. Write questions in the present continuous or present simple:
1. A Where__________ lunch today? (you/have)
B At home. My mum’s making pasta.
2. AWhat _________? (he/do)
B He’s an accountant.
3. A __________this weekend? (you/go away)
B No, we are staying here.
4. A __________to eat tonight? (you/want)
B Yes? That would be nice. Where shall we go?
5. A What _______? (she/cook)
B I don’t know, but it smells good.
III. Circle the correct form:
1. I don’t usually have / I’m not having breakfast at work.
2. I used to go to fast food restaurants, but now I prefer / I am preferring
eating something healthier.
3. He doesn’t wear / isn’t wearing glasses.
4. Don’t make any noise, he sleeps / is sleeping.
5. The postman brings / is bringing us the newspaper in the morning.
6. That firm carries / is carrying on negotiations for the purchase of oil.
IV. Translate from Russian into English:
1. Эти люди говорят на языке, которого никто не знает.
2. Где Лиза? – В саду. – Что она там делает? – Поливает цветы.
3. Всякий раз, когда вам встретится слово, которое вы не знаете,
посмотрите в словаре.
4. Я думаю, она – прекрасный доктор.
5. Смотри! Кто-то лезет на дерево!
6. Земля вращается вокруг солнца.
7. Дэн всегда останавливается в этом отеле, когда бывает в Лондоне.
8. Я не имею ни малейшего представления, о чем вы говорите.
9. Она не может подойти к телефону, она принимает ванну.
10. Мне не нравится ваш ответ на этот вопрос, подумайте еще.
Part I
I. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. From the time when the early colonists came, however, divergence in
pronunciation began gradually to develop.
2. At the present time American pronunciation shows certain well-marked
differences from English use.
3. The English language was brought to America by colonists from England
who settled along the Atlantic seaboard in the seventeenth century.
4. There were doubtless many colloquialisms current in Shakespeare’s
London that would not have been understood in contemporary Stratford.
5. In most other parts of the country the old sound was preserved.
6. At the end of the eighteenth century southern England began to change
from what is called a flat “a” to a broad “a” in these words.
7. In some speakers there is a tendency to employ an intermediate vowel,
halfway between the “a” of “pan” and “father”.
8. The word Americanism, which I have coined for the purpose, is exactly
similar in its formation and signification to the word Scotticism.
II. Give English equivalents of the following words, phrases and word
1) главным образом отражен в его словарном составе; 2) конструкция
аналогичных предложений; 3) должно рассматриваться как типично
американское произношение; 4) хорошо выраженные различия; 5)
разница зачастую так незначительна; 6) вдоль Атлантического
побережья; 7) расхождения в произношении; 8) дать определение; 9)
существует тенденция; 10) в оправдание слова; 11) с целью.
III. Fill in the gaps using the words given in brackets in the correct form:
(halfway, gradually, puzzle, however, flat, regard, formation, occur,
1. It's expected that the president will announce the … of a new government.
2. …, his powers of speech returned.
3. After hours of … over the book, it suddenly made sense.
4. All children will tend to suffer from … from their parents.
5. People tend to put on weight in middle age. … , gaining weight is not
6. The lower meadow is absolutely … .
7. He stopped … down the passage.
8. Your request has been … with favour by the committee.
9. The disease … chiefly in tropical climates.
Part II
I. Circle the correct form of the verb. Put (B) if both are correct:
1. She’s lived/ She’s been living here for years.
2. Your boss has phoned/has been phoning three times this morning.
3. He hasn’t seen/ he hasn’t been seeing the new James Bond film yet.
4. We’ve studied/ We’ve been studying English all our lives.
5. I’ve never met / I’ve never been meeting his wife. Have you?
6. He’ll be here soon. He’s just left/ He’s just been leaving work.
II. Complete the sentences with the present perfect or present perfect
1. We ______Jack and Ann for years. (know)
2. You look hot. ________? (you/run)
3. Rose ______her homework so she can’t go out. (not do)
4. I______time to cook dinner. Shall we get a pizza? (not have)
5. We ______ for hours. I think we’re lost. (walk)
6. _______my chocolates? There are only a few left! (you/eat)
III. Make sentences with the present perfect continuous (add for or since
if necessary):
1. How long / they / go out together?
2. I / study English / two years.
3. He / not feel very well recently.
4. You / read that book / months!
5. You / wait / a long time?
6. We / not spend much time together.
7. How long / she / live there?
IV. Translate from Russian into English:
1. Последние несколько месяцев я занимаюсь на курсах по истории
2. Ну, как ты? – Немного устала. Я весь день красила стены.
3. Мы построили сотни новых школ в Москве.
4. Я знаю его три года, он не мог этого сделать.
5. С каких пор вы работаете на этом заводе?
6. Хотя светит солнце, все еще холодно, так как шел сильный дождь.
7. Директор уже подписал письмо.
8. Они живут в этом доме уже много лет, но до сих пор не знают своих
9. Я чувствую себя усталым, так как я работал в саду несколько часов.
10. Я не слышал о нем с прошлого года.
Part I
I. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. The ideas and methods emerging from discussions stimulated by the
advent of mobile learning are enabling educators to get closer to
understanding their learners’ preferences.
2. “Free Rice” is an interesting example of how high scores in vocabulary
tests can be converted to donations of free rice to hungry people through
the UN World Food Program.
As mobile technology becomes increasingly pervasive, we can expect to
see more examples of language learning being integrated with everyday
Home-based learning, enhanced by technology, certainly holds some
potential for future language learning.
The students who volunteered to take part were happy to give a great deal
of time to the project and pursue their own goals.
A relatively rare example of learner-led mobile language learning actively
is reported by Song and Fox.
We know that most learners will struggle without teacher’s direction and
In particular, mobile technology can assist learners at the point of need
and in ways that fit in with their mobile lifestyle.
II. Give English equivalents of the following words, phrases and word
1)портативные устройства; 2) чрезвычайно устремленные ученики; 3) без
руководства преподавателя; 4) цифровое пространство просмотра; 5)
виртуальное сообщество; 6) в более широком смысле; 7) деятельность
учеников является главной; 8) определенно имеет потенциал; 9)
альтруистическое побуждение; 10) принимать сообщение; 11)
встроенные и налепленные сенсорные датчики.
III. Fill in the gaps using the words given in brackets in the correct form:
(access, donation, tool, triggers, assist, emerge, ubiquitous, benefit, to
Another doctor … him with the operation.
The facilities have been adapted to give … to wheelchair users.
Money is a pure … - nothing more.
They'll be keen … their reputation abroad.
Before I improvise, I just listen, and that … me.
What results … from your talks?
His … influence was felt by all the family.
Please send your … of £20 to the Disaster Appeal.
I think the boy would … by further study.
Part II
I. Correct the mistakes in the underlined words:
He left quite early but he yet hasn’t arrived.
We don’t see each other since we left school.
Have you ever wrotea poem?
She have never been to Istanbul.
I don’t see them often but I’ve known them since ten years.
What year have you left school?
We’re lost. We already have been down this road twice.
They live in that house since 1980.
Complete the dialogues with the present perfect or past simple:
1. A How long…………….. at university? (you/be)
B I………………two years ago. I’m in my third year now. (start)
A Do you live with your parents?
B I……………with them for the first two years but then I………. into a student
hostel last September and I…… there since then. (live, move, live)
2. A …………….. to Nobu- that new Japanese restaurant? (you/ever/be)
B Yes, we …………. there for my birthday. (go)
A What was it like?
B The food……… fantastic but it ………… a fortune! (be, cost)
III. Circle the correct answer:
1. My best friend inherited / has inherited a lot of money last month.
2. We have used / used the same bank for the last ten years and don’t want
to change.
3. I’ve been / was to London, but I haven’t been / was to Oxford.
I have gone / went there in 1998 and 2002.
He has bought / bought a new computer on Saturday.
My brother hasn’t found / didn’t find a new job yet.
They have been married / were married since 2004.
When has she borrowed / did she borrow the money from you?
IV. Translate from Russian into English:
1. Говорят, что девушка и ее тетка продали свой дом и уезжают куда-то
к родственникам.
2. Я никогда не купался после захода солнца, когда жил в Сочи.
3. Она не видела его с лета.
4. Я не знаю, который сейчас час, так как мои часы остановились.
5. Директор уже говорил вам об этом два раза.
6. Когда ваш брат вернулся в Москву?
7. Такси только что остановилось и ждет вас.
8. В котором часу вы сегодня проснулись?
9. Я никогда не терял свою кредитную карточку.
10. Мы живем в этом дома с прошлого года.
Part I
I. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. When this complex process is carried out in a factual communicative
situation, then, it is possible to say that translation has reached its ultimate
2. Translation, as a tool of communication, plays an important role since the
translated text should transmit the same intentions as the original.
3. Translators should be aware that the differences between language
construction and language use may affect the message of the text.
4. The syntax analysis is important since the way sentences in Spanish are
ordered does not always match the same order in English.
5. Translators should be conscious about the structure of the text in the
source language in order to be able to decode the message and, at the
same time, encode the message into the target language.
6. Sometimes, translators, as linguistic mediators, may face the situation of
solving lexical problems.
7. That is why translators must be skilful to realize how these small changes
in the surface structure if the text can modify the message meaning.
8. Taking into account the lexicological aspect, a translator should be
knowledgeable of the formation of words in the language he works from
and into.
II. Give English equivalents of the following words, phrases and word
1) имеют значение; 2) инструмент общения; 3) коммуникативный
процесс; 4) передать смысл на языке перевода; 5) решить возможные
проблемы; 6) первоочередная цепь; 7) в случае, если этот язык является
их родным языком; 8) которые формируют текст; 9) версия на испанском
языке; 10) переводчик должен знать, как образуются слова; 11) придают
тексту изюминку, которая делает его уникальным.
III. Fill in the gaps using the words given in brackets in the correct form:
(abundance, thorough, facilitate, utter, concern, obtain, cohesion,
previous, affect)
1. Schools were located in the same campus … the sharing of resources.
2. She … a few words to them.
3. This area of France has an … of safe beaches and a pleasing climate.
4. Synchronic linguistics is … with the structure of language.
5. There was a lack of … in the rebel army.
6. His knowledge of French literature is extensive and… .
7. She looked tired after her exertions of the … evening.
8. He has never … to be surprised.
9. I climbed … a general view of the surrounding scene.
Part II
I. Combine the two sentences. Use the verb in bold in the past
continuous or past perfect:
1. They watched TV from 7.00 until 9.00. I arrived at 7.30.
When I arrived, they _______ TV.
2. He left the office at 7.00. She phoned him at 8.00.
When she phoned him, he _______ the office.
3. I studied for the exam the night before. The exam didn’t go well.
The exam didn’t go well although I ________ the night before.
4. He cycled to work this morning. In the middle of his journey, he had an
When he _________ to work this morning, he had an accident.
II. Complete with the past simple, past continuous, or past perfect:
1. We _______ that we _______ there before. (not realize, be)
2. I ______ cooking the meal when they _______ me to say they couldn’t
come. (already / start, call)
3. When I got home I was really tired, so I ______a shower and ______ to
bed. (have, go)
4. I arrived too late. The concert _______ and my friends _______ home.
(finish, go)
5. The driver ______ control of his car because he ______ on his mobile.
(lose, talk)
III. Circle the correct verb form:
Meg and Liam McGowan got / were getting a nasty surprise when they had
checked in / were checking in at Heathrow airport yesterday with their baby
Shaun. They had won / won three free plane tickets to Rome in a competition
and they were looking forward to / had been looking forward to their trip for
months. But, unfortunately, they had been forgetting / had forgotten to get a
passport for their son and so Shaun couldn’t fly. Luckily they had arrived /
were arriving very early for their flight so they still had time to do something
about it. They had run / ran to the police station in the airport to apply for an
emergency passport. Meg was going / went with Shaun to the photo machine
while Liam had filled in / was filling in the forms. The passport was ready in an
hour, so they hurried / were harrying back to check-in and finally caught / had
caught their flight.
IV. Translate from Russian into English:
1. Мы прибыли в аэропорт, вдруг мы вспомнили, что оставили багаж в
2. Она плакала, так как читала очень грустную книгу.
3. В прошлом году я часто ходил в театр.
4. Стало уже совсем темно, когда мы вернулись домой.
5. Дождь еще не прекратился, когда мы вышли из дому.
6. Она порезала палец, когда резала хлеб.
7. Моя сестра еще спала, когда я встал, так как она вернулась домой
очень поздно.
8. Они уже два года изучали английский язык, когда стали изучать
9. Я ждал его около получаса, когда он, наконец, пришел.
10. Я пришел домой, поужинал и начал читать газету.
Part I
I. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. It is easy enough to show in a variety of ways that we cannot define words
in terms of units of meaning.
To begin with, it is very clear that very many single words cover not one
but two or more “bits” of meaning.
Conversely there are combinations of words in English that do not have
separate meanings.
“Put up with”, for instance, cannot be divided into the three meaning units
of “put”, “up” and “with”, but seems to have single meaning of “tolerate”.
What about the phonetic and phonological definitions of the word?
A word is a linguistic unit which does not permit the insertion of any other
linguistic material.
If we have not yet established what a word is we cannot require that the
“no insertion” criterion applies only to complete words!
In fact these are not so much semantic as notional, and fail for all the
reasons we have already discussed in dealing with the form and meaning.
II. Give English equivalents of the following words, phrases and word
1) это не аргумент; 2) к сожалению; 3) достаточно легко показать; 4)
ничего более, чем; 5) очевидно, что; 6) узнать слово по какой-то
особенности его произношения; 7) по крайней мере; 8)три основных
подхода; 9) изолированная и неделимая единица; 10) любые попытки
дать определение слову.
III. Fill in the gaps using the words given in brackets in the correct form:
(conversely, circular, tolerate, establish, procedure, require, suggest,
1. He would have preferred his wife not to work, although … he was also
proud of what she did.
He didn't notice the … of the envelope into his pocket.
You can't just do it however you like - you must follow… .
How was it that she could … such noise?
The two countries … diplomatic relations in 1992.
Hard work will be … of students in this course.
A body which always casts a … shadow must itself be spherical.
The architect … restoring the building.
Part II
I. Complete the sentences using the future perfect or future continuous:
1. The film starts at 7.00. I will arrive at the cinema at 7.15. When I arrive at
the cinema, the film ________. (start)
The plane to Paris takes off at 9.00 and lands at 10.30. Ay 10.00 they
________ to Paris. (fly)
I save $200 a month. By the end of this year, I ______ $2,400. (save)
I leave home at 7.30. It takes an hour to drive to work. At 8.00 tomorrow I
______ to work. (drive)
Sam is paying for his car. The last payment is in November. By December
he_____ for his car. (pay)
Their last exam is on May 31st. By the end of May they ______ their
exams. (finish)
II. Make up 5 sentences using the future tenses: future simple, future
continuous, future perfect, future perfect continuous, future in the past.
III. Circle the correct verb form. Tick the sentences if both are possible:
I’m not going / I won’t go to work tomorrow because it’s Sunday.
Shall we / Will we eat out tonight?
We’ll go / We’re going to Brazil next week. I can’t wait.
I’m really sorry. I promise I won’t do / I’m not going to do it again.
Do you think it will rain / it’s going to rain tomorrow?
IV. Translate from Russian into English:
Я думаю, что он будет участвовать в этой работе.
Он сказал, что никогда больше её не увидит.
К 2025 году они будут работать уже 20 лет.
Не приходите в 2 часа, у него будет занятие по английскому языку в
это время.
5. Приходите в 6 часов. Директор подпишет все документы к этому
6. Они говорили мне, что завтра отправляются в 11 часов и к 5 вечера
прибудут на место.
7. Что вы будете делать от 6 часов завтра? – Я буду писать статью.
8. Он сказал, что опоздает, так как его работа закончится позже, и он
будет добираться на метро.
9. К 10 часам она будет читать уже вторую книгу.
10. Не волнуйся. Ты сдашь экзамен, ты все знаешь!
Part I
I. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. An important fact which must be stressed is that idioms are not only
colloquial expressions, as many people believe.
2. The way in which the words are put together is often odd, illogical or even
grammatically incorrect.
3. It cannot be explained why a particular idiom has developed an unusual
arrangement or choice of words.
4. The idiom has been fixed by long usage.
5. Idioms take many different forms or structures.
6. An idiom can be used in a formal or an informal situation.
7. Unmarked idioms can be used in any situation.
8. The expressions marked formal are found more in written than in spoken
9. Expressions marked informal are used in every-day spoken English and in
personal letters.
10. Learners should not make frequent use of slang expressions as they
usually – but unexpectedly – become out-of –date and sound strange.
II. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:
1) хорошенько всмотреться; 2) разговорные выражения; 3) богатый
идиоматическими выражениями; 4) предварительно проверять; 5) жить
по средствам; 6) взять быка за рога; 7) попасть не в бровь, а в глаз; 8)
проглотить обиду; 9) ловить рыбу в мутной воде; 10) выметать под
метелку; 11) холодная война; 12) богатый идиоматическими
Give a corresponding idiom for the following:
1) to be in trouble; 2) to buy something without carefully examining; 3) a
person with harmful intentions who is not easily recognizable; 4) from a bad
situation to one that worse; 5) a short sleep, especially during the day; 6)
leave one’s work, duty, etc., without saying goodbye to the host or hostess; 7)
to delay with something difficult boldly or without delay; 8) to be born into a
rich family; 9) a person or thing whose true character or worth is unknown but
may be better than is thought.
I. Complete the following sentences about yourself, using the verb
This lesson………………………. (end, it’s scheduled).
At the weekend…………………………… (go, I planned).
Next winter………………………………. (visit).
When I finish this exercise,………………. (be).
Tonight I…………………………………. (eat, I planned).
At the end of my course…………………… (speak).
My next class……………………………….. (begin, it’s scheduled).
Next week…………………………………… (have).
My course……………………………………. (finish, it’s scheduled).
10. I promise I……………………………………(work).
II. Choose the correct form of the verbs:
1. Oh no! Look at the time! I’ll be / I’m going to be very late.
2. I’m so sorry I forgot your birthday. Why don’t you come round tomorrow
and I’ll cook / I’m going to cook you a meal?
3. I’ll go / I’m going to go into town this afternoon. Can I get you anything?
4. Will you hold / Are you going to hold this box for a moment while I unpack
5. I hear the government has announced they’ll raise / they’re going to raise
taxes again.
6. I’ll start / I’m to start a new job next week.
7. My car won’t start / My car isn’t going to start. It must be cold, I think.
8. What time does the plane take off / What time is the plane taking off?
9. The telephone is ringing! – I’ll pick it up / I’m picking it up!
10. It just said on the radio that it’s going to snow / it will go.
III. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1. Я предпочитаю быть загорелым.
2. Она всегда подражает знаменитостям.
3. Люди уверены, что загар заставляет их чувствовать лучше и
выглядеть здоровее.
4. Однако быть загорелым не является знаком здоровья.
5. Я против того, чтобы моя дочь принимала солнечные ванны в
Он очень рассеянный. Я думаю, что он не сдаст экзамены.
Предсказательница посмотрела в его глаза и сказала: «Ты будешь
очень счастлив».
В комнате очень жарко. Мне пойти и открыть окно?
Правительство издало постановление о запрете использования
соляриев в возрасте до 18 лет.
10.Вы знаете, как предотвратить ожоги? Answer this question, please!
Part I
Translate from English into Russian:
1. The more you find out about words, the more fascinating they are.
2. Echo words, those which imitate natural sounds, are among the oddities of
Bang, buzz, sizzle, murmur if you read them aloud, you may get the
impression of a lot of noise.
Children are inventing more, imitating the sounds of jet planes, and even of
The bestknown palindrome is the remark Napoleon was supposed to have
made when he was banished to the island of Elba after his downfall as
emperor of France.
Glasses resonate at the same pitch when rubbed or pinged.
The snake slid forward with a silken move when it hissed I was frightened.
8. “Treasure island” is an adventure novel by Robert Louis Stevenson,
narrating a tale of “pirates and buried gold”.
Give English equivalents of the following words, phrases and word
1) прятаться под вуаль; 2) самый большой космический корабль; 3)
подобным образом; 4) одна из особенностей; 5) слова должны
разбиваться на отдельные составляющие; 6) различные значения; 7)
чувствовать головокружение.
Finish up the following sentences:
There are some other words from a person’s name: cardigan, ….
The saxophone is named for its …, A.J. Sax.
Goats, sheep, or birds …….
…………. is a flock of wild geese when on the water, but the same birds in
the air are called …….
5. Ale may make you ….
6. You in a ….may buy a veil.
Correct the mistakes:
My neighbour is very proud of her new grandson who born last week.
I’m afraid I can’t lend you my camera. It’s repairing this week.
Children under the age of seven do not allow in this pool.
When did you discover that the money had been disappeared?
The bridge was collapsed during the floods but fortunately no one was
using it at the time.
6. Some products can hardly be selled.
7. It are said to be important.
8. The parcel will be send today.
9. He was not meant to be offend.
10. The word ‘stupid’ was in my report but it wasn’t referred to you.
Put the verbs in the correct form using the passive voice:
1. I’ve collected all the documents that……. (need) for the house sale.
2. Come into the garden where we….. (not / overhear).
3. English, German, Italian…. (to speak) around us in the hall now.
4. How long he… (to hold) in the hospital?
5. The document…. (sign) just by the P. Minister.
6. While I was on holiday, my camera…. (steal) from my hotel room.
7. Our children…… (to send) to school at the age of seven.
8. “When your brother…. (to operate) on?” – “Tomorrow”.
9. He told us a story, which….. (to tell) him by his grandfather.
10. The music was very beautiful, but I could not say what exactly…. (to play).
Translate from Russian into English:
1. Двое из троих подростков в Великобритании очень хотят работать
за границей.
2. Большинство иностранцев ленивые, когда речь заходит об изучении
иностранных языков.
3. Данные факты подкреплены цифрами.
4. Наша торговля нацелена на англо-говорящие страны.
5. Большинство
молодых людей предполагают, что они смогут
обойтись английским языком.
Декан нашего факультета, как правило, принимает разумные
Различные международные программы по обмену студентами
помогают овладеть иностранным языком.
Я бы очень хотела принять участие в одной из таких программ.
Почему молодые британцы избегают изучать иностранные языки?
Part I
I. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. There are five hotspots where languages are vanishing most rapidly.
2. More than of the world’s 7,000 languages are expected to die out by the
end of the century.
3. Some tongues have disappeared instantly, with small communities wiped
out by natural disasters.
In most cases, languages die a slow death.
People simply abandon their native tongues when they become
surrounded by people speaking a more common language.
Australia is amazing, because they represent an unbroken link to the past
in a way that other places on Earth don’t.
Deep in the outback, they located a man with rudimentary knowledge of
Amurdag, a language previously declared extinct.
They maintain a secret language to encode information about thousands of
medical plants.
II. Give English equivalents of the following words, phrases and word
1) использовать в качестве лекарственных средств; 2) в повседневной
жизни; 3) единственный способ сохранить подвергающейся опасности
язык; 4) принимать решение; 5) повлиять на общество; 6) незаменимый;
7) родной язык; 8) неизвестный для науки; 9)изощренные способы; 10)
больно признавать; 11) открыть секрет; 12) заменимый; 13) проводить
Fill in the gaps using the following words in the correct form: (value,
instant, implicit, effect, pain, a pain in the neck; to abandon, affect,
social prestige)
1. Children are often the ones who decide……….. a native tongue.
2. They understand…………….that if they live in an environment where one
language is less spoken and ………….than the other.
He is suffering from the………….of heat.
Earthquakes ………..the environment.
Children are little barometers of………………….
People who are always complaining are ……….
The police came to my help………………………
Don’t be afraid! It’s a ………………..procedure.
I. Put the verb in brackets into the Past Simple, the Past Continuous, the
Past Perfect and the Past Perfect Continuous:
1. While I (wait) for an answer, a knock (come) at the outer door.
2. It (rain) for two hours when I (leave) home.
3. He felt tired as he (play) football for several hours.
4. Within a week she (know) the fearful mistake she (make).
5. My sister’s birthday (be) the only thing anybody (talk) at home for the last two
6. About twenty people already (arrive) when they (enter) the hall.
Put the verb in brackets into the Present Simple, the Future Simple,
the Future Continuous, the Future Perfect and the Future Perfect
What you (to do) at seven o’clock? I (to work) on my report.
I am sure that they (to complete) their work by March.
When we arrive in Kazan, it probably (snow).
I hope it (to stop) raining by four o’clock.
At what time you (to be) here?
As soon as you (finish) work, we (go) to the cinema.
When I (want) you address, I (ask) for it.
III. Put the verb in brackets into the Present Simple, the Present
Continuous, the Present Perfect and the Present Perfect Continuous:
Run downstairs, your mother (wait) for you.
I (translate) these newspapers into Russian this week.
Since what time you (work) at the University?
She (clean) the flat since morning.
I (not remember) his name exactly.
He always (yawn).
“Why you (cry)?” – I (break) my favourite Chinese vase.
Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1. Выращивание
собственных овощей и фруктов становится
популярным даже среди знаменитостей.
Садовники за последние шесть недель вырастили помидоры,
стелющиеся бобы, лук, морковь и лук-порей.
Мы собираемся вскопать большой участок лужайки для того, чтобы
посадить посевы.
Некоторые растения - действительно старые виды, называемые
потомственными семенами.
Выращивая такие растения, мы не только помогаем сберечь
старинные разновидности, но и сохранить историю и наследие
Ты когда-либо придерживалась диеты?
Как правило, она боится пробовать экзотические блюда в ресторане.
Как только она наберет вес, она сразу впадет в депрессивное
Какую пищу ты предпочитаешь – домашнюю или купленную?
10.Не пытайтесь меня убедить в том, что вы правы!
Part I
I. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. An internationally known paremiologist, or scholar of proverbs, Prof.
Wolfgang Mieder has always enjoyed Valentine’s Day professionally as
well as personally.
He not only sends Valentines, he also studies them as keys to the state of
proverbial wisdom.
“What used to take generations can now reach currency almost overnight”.
He has written more than 100 articles and scholarly books on the origin
and evolution of proverbs.
Proverbs are not saccharine.
He defines proverbs as “a concise statement of an apparent truth which
has currency among the people”.
No one knows how many proverbs exist in the world, but the number must
be phenomenal.
The irony struck him as true to the form.
II. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:
1) до свадьбы; 2) одинаковые переживания; 3) более миллиона; 4) если
вы хотите романтики, читайте лирику; 5) исходный латинский язык; 6)
начав с докторской диссертации; 7) например; 8) коллеги женского пола;
9) количество растет ежедневно; 10) цитировать старую английскую
III. Fill in the gaps using the following words in the correct form:
(curse, dew, chase, nettles and lilies, sin, deaf, innocent, dry up the
ocean with buckets, blind, stroke).
1. If the wife …..………… , the husband is not …………………. (Italian).
2. A ……husband and a……. wife are always a happy couple (French).
3. Love is like……………….that falls on both…………….…. (Swedish).
4. …….not your wife in the evening, or you will have to sleep alone (Chinese).
5. A man…….. a woman until she catches him (American).
6. When husband and
7. Different……..for different folks.
I. Make unreal condition referring to the present or to the future out of
the following pairs of sentences.
Pattern: You always object to every suggestion I offer. This makes living with
you so difficult. – If you didn’t always object to every suggestion I offer, it
would make living with you less difficult.
The material is not familiar. I cannot answer your questions at once.
I shall get you a pair of skates. Will you come skating with me?
They promise to arrive by this train. We can meet them.
We must consult the time-table. We want to know when the train leaves.
You study more. I am more confident of your success.
She promised me to be here. She will certainly come.
II. Fill the gaps in the sentences, using the words given:
1. If you wanted to buy someone a really good present, what sort of
thing………………… (you / look for)?
2. Would you change your job if…………………………….. (you / can)?
3. You’d have more friends if …………........ (you / not / be) so jealous.
4. How……………………………. (you / fell) if you were in my position?
5. If I had more money, …………………………….. (you / marry) me?
6. He wouldn’t help you if ………………………… (he / not / like) you.
7. …………(your parents / not / be) proud if they could see you now?
8. …………....(you / find ) the machine is quite simple to operate if you look at
the manual.
9. If…………………….. (I / not / revise) thoroughly, I may fail my test.
10. If you spend too long in the sun,…………………(can / get sun burnt).
III. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1. Торнадо редко бывает в Великобритании.
2. Если бы у меня была волшебная палочка, я бы остановила
стихийные бедствия.
Торнадо становится причиной опустошения по всему миру.
Сорванные крыши, разрушенные машины, группы разных
предметов, летающих в воздухе, разбитые вдребезги окна,
вырванные деревья, раненые люди – последствия торнадо.
Этот сильный ветер разрушает все на своем пути.
Ты бы хотел стать очевидцем такого вихря?
Что бы ты делал, если бы оказался в пустыне?
Если ты зарезервируешь столик в ресторане, я буду очень рада.
Если у меня будет время, я испеку пирог.
10.Как формируется торнадо?Answer this question, please!
Part I
I. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. In the English language the order of words is essential to the meaning of a
This means that English is less flexible in its word order than many
inflected languages.
English was an inflected language up to the Middle Ages, after which
inflections gradually died out.
The lack of inflections tempts some people to suppose that English has
‘hardly any grammar’.
Some aspects of English are easier than other languages because nouns
no longer have masculine and feminine forms.
The difficulties connected with learning English derive not from having to
master inflections, but from having to master a huge range of prepositions
and their uses.
The basic word order of an English statement is: Subject, Verb, Object,
Manner, Place, Time.
The subject in English must always be present, or implied.
II. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:
1) честно говоря; 2) плакать (4); 3) пользующийся дурной славой; 4) вор
(2); 5) воровать (2); 6) врать; 7) многочисленные использования; 8)
фразовый глагол; 9) передавать значение; 10) намереваться; 11)
винительный падеж; 12) творительный падеж.
III. Fill in the gaps using the following words in the correct form:
(endings, to emphasize, complex agreement, to conjugate, obvious,
singular, plural, inflected languages, depend, many).
Three common characteristics of …………..are:
1. Nouns have………….which change ………. on whether they are, for
example, the subject or the object of a verb.
2. There are …………………between articles, adjectives and nouns to………
the fact that a noun is, for example, subject or object, masculine or
feminine, ……..or ………The …….inflected a language is, the
……..complex its system of endings.
3. Verbs ‘………’, so that it is immediately ………… from the endings which
‘person’ (first, second or third) is referred to and whether the ‘person’ is
Make sentences of unreal condition referring to past time out of the
following pairs of sentences.
Pattern: We did not watch the weather. We did not spare ourselves a wetting.
– If we had watched the weather, we should have spared ourselves a wetting.
1. He didn’t earn a lot. He didn’t go abroad for his holidays.
2. Jane’s father was ill. They were finding it difficult to make ends meet.
3. Ann was having a lot of trouble at home. She was doing very badly at
4. There was a smile on her face. I did not think she was in earnest when she
made the statement.
5. I had that book. I lent it to you willingly.
6. I didn’t buy the coat. I did not have enough money with me.
Complete the following sentences with your own ideas. Use all types
of conditionals:
1. What will you do if you………………………………………………………..?
2. He’d be more friendly if……………………………………………………….
3. If I hadn’t arrived, they………………………………………………………..
4. If I lend you this book,………………………………………………………..?
5. You wouldn’t have felt ill if you……………………………………………….
6. If you had been arrested,…………………………………………………….?
7. She’ll soon feel better if she………………………………………………….
8. They wouldn’t mind if we……………………………………………………..
9. If you see my brother,………………………………………………………..
10. Would you have sold your car if……………………………………..?
11. If they ask you for money,…………………………………………….
12. If you were asked to work overtime,…………………………………?
13. If he had listened to my advice, he……………………………………
14. If she didn’t gossip about her friends, she……………………………
Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1. Большинству домашних животных дают традиционные имена детей в
наши дни.
Исследователи говорят, что это из-за того, что животные все больше
и больше рассматриваются как часть семьи и называются
Самые популярные три имени для животных – Молли, Чарли и Макс.
Имена оказывают влияние на характер, не так ли?
Если бы у тебя была кошка, ты бы назвала ее в честь ребенка?
Животное кричало от боли.
Я предпочитаю гибкое расписание.
Вода необходима человеку.
Unit XI
Part I
I. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. Morphemes are constituent parts of words.
2. The root-morpheme is the lexical nucleus of the word.
3. Inflectional affixes carry only grammatical meaning and are relevant only for
the formation of word-forms.
4. Derivational affixes are relevant for building different parts of speech: nouns,
verbs, adjectives or adverbs.
5. Roots and derivational affixes are generally easily distinguished.
6. Distinction is also made of free and bound morphemes.
7. Free morphemes coincidewith word-forms of independently functioning words.
8. Bound morphemes are those that do not coincide with separate word-forms.
II. Give English equivalents of the following words, phrases and word
1) таким образом; 2) производные слова; 3) зависимый от чего-л.; 4)
встречаться в речи; 5) слова состоят из морфем; 6) очевидно, что…; 7)
поверхностное исследование; 8) принятый лингвистами.
III. Fill in the gaps using the words given in brackets in the correct
1. He is completely … and receives no money from her family (DEPEND).
2. … animals or plants may soon not exist because there are very few now
alive (DANGER).
3. The zoologists had to … the mollusks after they found new species
4. The neighborhood had undergone a small number of … since his last visit
years ago (MODIFY).
5. I regret any anxiety which I may, …, have caused (WITTINGLY).
6. These pills can have some … effects (DESIRABLE).
7. I've made some … mistakes (HORROR).
8. … science is concerned primarily with theories or hypotheses rather than
practical considerations (THEORY).
9. Cocaine, LSD and heroin are all … drugs (LEGAL).
10. She's a … for Friends of the Earth (campaign).
I. Correct the mistakes:
1. He studies English because he likes travel.
2. I decided working harder this term.
3. Stop to make noise!
4. She is interested at gardening.
5. I have get up at 6 o’clock.
6. The teacher made me to rewrite the test.
7. She stopped to eat chocolate because of her problems with health.
8. I let her to go to the party.
9. I’m still thirsty in spite of drink four glasses of juice.
10. My brother is good in playing basketball.
II. Complete with the gerund or infinitive:
1) It’s very easy ______ a flat. (find)
2) He is afraid of ______. (fly)
3) I save money _____ to buy a new car. (buy)
4) Everybody went on _____. (sing)
5) Try ______ make noise. (not make)
6) She’s terrible at _____. (cook)
7) My boss always makes me _____ late. (work)
8) My hobby is _____ chess. (play)
9) Jill stopped _____ a telephone call. (make)
10) Why not _____ tonight? (done out)
III. Finish up the following sentences:
1. I enjoy… 2. He is bad at… 3. We plan… 4. I would like… 5. Why not…? 6.
Please, keep children from… 7. He pretended... 8. The teacher made me… 9.
You mustn’t… 10. I’d rather…
Unit XII
Part I
I. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. When we see different words we instinctivelyassume that there must also be
some difference in their meaning.
2. Very few words are interchangeable.
3. The substitution test was recommended by Macaulay.
4. It is difficult to imagine any context where ‘‘pop off’’ could be substituted for
‘’pass away’’.
5. Colloquial language comprises slang and vulgar speech.
6. The term ‘’turn down’’ is more colloquial than ‘’refuse’’.
7. The term ‘’mummy’’ belongs to child-talk.
8. Literary terms may be divided into poetic and archaic.
II. Give English equivalents of the following words, phrases and word
1) современная лингвистика; 2) полные (абсолютные) синонимы; 3) тем
не менее; 4) разговорный язык; 5) литературный язык; 6) совпадение в
значении; 7) быть в стороне от…; 8) на периферии; 9) намеренно; 10) идти
вразрез с чем-либо; 11) преимущественно.
III. Translate from Russian into English:
1. Акулы – грозные хищники.
2. Я принял его (ошибочно) за его брата.
3. Аллигаторы водятся на мелководье.
4. Что за удивительное совпадение!
5. Скалолаз пытался ухватиться за веревку (rope).
6. Ей пришлось тащить мужа в оперу.
7. Зная это, Маргарет отказалась бы от подарка.
8. Его план был забракован.
9. Твоя собака кусается?
10. Количество бездетных семей растет.
I. Make up one sentence from two. Use the Present Participle:
Pattern:This road joins villages. It is narrow. > The road joining two villages is
1. The taxi was taking us to the port. It broke down.
2. The woman is sitting near you. She is a famous artist.
3. The man is talking to Sarah. He is divorced.
4. The girl is writing a letter. I’m looking at her.
5. He was sitting in the armchair. He was reading.
II. Make up one sentence from two. Use the Past Participle:
Pattern: The window was broken in the storm. I will be repaired. > The window
broken in the storm will be repaired.
1. A project was suggested at the conference. It was not practical.
2. Some paintings were stolen from the museum. They haven’t been found.
3. The boy was injured in the car accident. The boy is in hospital now.
4. Some people were invited to the party. They couldn’t come.
5. We bought eggs yesterday. They weren’t fresh.
III. Translate from Russian into English. Use either the Present Participle or
Past Participle:
1. Не трать время, думая о ней.
2. Все книги, взятые из библиотеки, должны быть возвращены завтра.
3. Когда я вошел в комнату, я увидел девушку, пишущую письмо.
4. Будучи плохим студентом, он не интересовался музеями.
5. Имея много свободного времени, мы решили сходить в кино.
6. Будучи больным, он пока не может выходить на улицу.
7. Комната, обставленная довольно просто, была достаточно большой.
8. Он смотрел на падающий снег.
9. Разбитое зеркало лежало на полу.
10. Увядшие листья упали на землю.
Part I
I. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. Some terms are mutually exclusive, e.g. ‘true’ and ‘false’.
2. Some terms are the true "diametrical opposites".
3. ‘Husband’ and ‘wife’ are relative terms.
4. ‘Question’ and ‘answer’ are complementary terms.
5. The word ‘’antonym’’ was coined in the 19th century.
6. Here is a list of frequently asked questions about the English language.
7. Some antonyms never fully clash but show a difference in only a small part of
their meaning.
8. Is it linguistically justified?
II. Give English equivalents of the following words, phrases and word
1) общеизвестные категории логики; 2) спросить чье-либо мнение; 3)
наоборот; 4) ради чего-либо; 5) указывать на что-либо; 6) оправданный; 7)
первый (из двух вариантов); 8) последний (из двух вариантов); 9) часто; 10)
яркий контраст.
III. Fill in the gaps using the words given in brackets in the correct
1. Leonardo made many scientific …. (DISCOVER)
2. The Australian team soon demonstrated their … over the opposition.
3. We're living in an … world. (PERFECT)
4. Literary critics were in total … about the value of the book. (AGREE)
5. We need a reference from your former …. (EMPLOY)
6. What a … question! (PERPLEX)
7. Helen's face gave no … of what she was thinking. (INDICATE)
8. He made a … remark about her appearance that really upset her. (CARE) 9. I
love antique ….(JEWEL)
10. A private detective has … some fresh evidence. (EARTH)
I. Form negative and interrogative sentences. Answer the question, using
the auxiliary verb.
Pattern: I am reading a book. I am not reading a book. Are you reading a book?
Yes, I am. or No, I’m not.
1. I like kiwi.
2. She studies astronomy.
3. We went shopping yesterday.
4. Sally has already made a report.
5. They are swimming in the sea.
6. Look! Lisa is dancing.
7. He has been working here for 10 years.
8. We were having lunch at 12 o’clock.
9. People will live longer.
10. They had built a school by 2001.
II. State whether the verb in italics is auxiliary or main:
1. Let’s have a break.
2. He hasn’t paid me back yet.
3. They are impatient.
4. It was snowing.
5. I always do my homework.
6. I have a hamster.
7. The conference was last year.
8. Do not go there by car.
9. I made a mistake.
10. I will always love you.
III. Rewrite the sentences with the emphatic form of do and translate them:
1. I love theatre.
2. I enjoyed the performance yesterday.
3. Paul has a new girl friend.
4. My parents missed their flight.
5. My best friend sings in a choir.
6. You got into serious trouble.
7. Have another glass of water!
8. You know a lot about pets.
9. Come in!
10. She thinks you are wrong.
Unit XIV
Part I
I. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. Few students - often less than 5% who start in a second language - continue
to proficiency.
2. Listening skill precedes speaking.
3. Many of the utterances that are addressed to an infant relate to actions.
4. The child spontaneously begins to produce utterances.
5. TPR reduces stress.
6. TPR accelerates acquisition of the target language.
7. TPR results in long-term retention.
8. The initial instructions are simple.
9. The instructor utters a direction and models it with a student.
10. Speaking skill transfers easily into reading and writing.
II. Give English equivalents of the following words, phrases and word
1) метод реагирования (метод опоры на физические действия); 2)
изучаемый язык; 3) учить с желанием; 4) мало детей; 5) несколько детей; 6)
готовность говорить; 7) овладение языком; 8) несправедливый; 9)
заботливый родитель; 10) продвигаться (делать успехи).
III. Match the synonyms:
I. Correct the mistakes:
1. It was so noisy that we could hear ourselves speak.
2. When I was younger I can stay up all night and not get tired.
3. You don’t have to show this letter to anyone else. It is very personal.
4. I have go to Manchester tomorrow on business.
5. "May I borrow this book?" "Yes, of course, you might."
6. "I should apologize to him?" "Yes, I think you should."
7. You should studied during the term to get a good mark.
8. He said that I should to see a doctor.
9. You doesn’t have to be rich to live a happy life.
10. You need have washed all those dishes, you know. I could do it myself.
II. Finish up the following sentences:
1. She can…
2. I must…
3. I have…
4. You should…
5. You should have…
6. You mustn’t…
7. You don’t have…
8. You needn’t…
9. He managed…
10. May I …
III. Translate from Russian into English:
1. Дверь открыта. Должно быть, он дома.
2. Должно быть, я вас видел где-то, ваше лицо мне очень знакомо.
3. Возможно, он ждет нас на станции.
4. К следующему понедельнику я, возможно, закончу эту работу.
5. Не может быть, чтобы она уехала не попрощавшись.
6. Посетителям запрещается кормить животных.
7. Тебе не нужно ничего объяснять.
8. Мне придется сесть на первый поезд, чтобы не опоздать.
9. Не стоит бежать так быстро.
10. Ему уже давно следовало быть дома. Где он?
Unit XV
Part I
I. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian:
1. There are those words with which we become acquainted in ordinary
2. There are those words with which come from a formal conversation of highly
educated speakers,
3. When we call a word 'popular', we do not mean that it is a favourite word.
4. When we call a word 'learned', we do not mean that it is used by scholars
5. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Greek and Latin classics were
vigorously studied by almost every English writer.
6. The Norman Conquest in the eleventh century made French the language of
polite society in England.
7. The cultivated language is also rich in 'learned' words.
8. Learned words are of foreign origin.
II. Give English equivalents of the following words, phrases and word
1) заключать в себе; 2) словарный состав; 3) множество слов; 4)
происходить из французского или латинского языков; 5) более грубый язык;
6) определенные факты в истории нашего языка; 7) сравнительно редко
используются в обычной речи; 8) привычные понятия нашей жизни; 9) с
другой стороны; 10) из уст матери.
III. Translate from Russian into English:
1. Это приспособление предназначено для мытья окон.
2. Разве я не предупреждал тебя не вкладывать деньги в этот проект?
3. Хорошо ли будет, если мы будем поддерживать надежды молодой
4. Известно, что воздействие свинца разрушает мозг у маленьких детей. 5.
Основной фактор риска развития рака кожи – это ультрафиолетовое
6. Пользуйтесь кремом от загара. Не забывайте о пляжных шляпах. Не
загорайте в полдень.
7. Между набережной (embankment) и морем виднелась узкая полоска
песчаного пляжа.
I. Correct the mistakes:
1. Ouch! You stand on my foot!
2. They have always breakfast in bed.
3. They get married last year.
4. I turned on the TV, but the match has already finished.
5. I woke up because the telephone were ringing.
6. ‘This bag is so heavy.’ – ‘I am going to help you.’
7. I have never been in Oxford.
8. We have been knowing each other for ten years.
9. Liverpool played badder than Manchester.
10. You don’t have to touch this kettle. It is hot.
11. They can’t wait because they were in a hurry.
12. If you will not work hard, you won’t pass the exam.
13. If I were you, I will go away.
14. If I didn’t go to that party, I wouldn’t have met my wife.
15. She gave up to smoke.
16. I’m saving money to buying a new car.
17. Death in Venice was direct by Visconti.
18. Calina cars made in Russia.
19. English is spoke all over the world.
20. Julia is a woman which works with me.
II. Translate from Russian into English:
В прошлом году я совершил свою первую поездку в Нью-Йорк. Этот
мегаполис называют столицей мира. Как только попадаешь сюда, ты
чувствуешь, что твой пульс начинает биться быстрее. Движение здесь
насыщенное, но пробок не так много, как в Москве.
Вот и наступило лето. Кто-то уже собирал чемоданы для отпуска, а кто-то
все еще планирует предстоящую поездку. Мы собираемся поехать в Париж,
самый романтичный город в мире. Если бы я была волшебницей, я бы
ускорила время. Я жду с нетерпением того момента, когда я смогу
прокатиться на кораблике по Сене и отведать известный французский сыр.
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