close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

9.Вестник ОрелГАУ №1 2010

код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
1(22)
2010
:
?
-
.
?
:
.!. (
"#
".!. ( .
"
$.%.
&
&.'.
&
".".
&
.".
&
!.$.
(
.).
(
".(.
( *
.!.
+
%.(.
,
!.).
) *
.".
".$.
. /.".
'
!. .
'
. .
'
0. .
% #
".!.
%
!. .
.1.
.1.
.!.
.).
$
!.).
$
'. .
2 # !. .
3
".). (
1 #
.'. (
)
)
$ +104 " )1
)
(
2
+
2 #
"
;
.
)
)
%
77?21514
$
. .
% 18.02.2010
# 24.02.2010
60"84/8. &
.
.
%'( 7,5
. #. .
) 300 * .
+, 302028,
.
,%
%
, 19.
,
, !021325
23.02.1999
+.
0
+
(
2
.
2
"
#
)
%
".!.
).$.
*
*
. /
#
"
% ,
#
"
+, 2010
+
'
+
%
)
'
: 2 %"3 )
#
#
????????????????.???. 2
%
01
"
/????????????..?.. 6
???????????????..?
)
,
%
#
"
????.????..??
*
"
%
"
#???????????.?.??
??.?..
2
2
10( $&1014 1 )1 ! "
9
11
13
20
-
#
*
#
?????...??.
). . /
2
#
0#
01 "
0#
?????...?
$.%., $
.$., $ #
".1.
"
???????.????.??.??.
.(.
*
#
"
"
2
2
"
?????????????????????????????...?..
".%., '
.(.
%
"
#
#
" #
#
1
"
1???????.??..
/. .,
1 #
%.".
# "
?????????????????????????????...?.?.
!.%., 5
&.+.
)
??????????????????..???..
$.$. 3
#
" *
#
"
????????????????????...???????????....?
$.!.
'.+.,
6-
11.07. 2005 .
" #
?
!. ., %
# "
%
6
:
,
.
, 69.
: (4862)454037
: (4862)454064
E ? ma i l : n i c h 1 @ o r e l s a u . r u
E?mail: nich gau@yandex.ru
$
%
%
) 01 "
)
).!.
*
" ")
. /.". / %
#
%.(.,
".(. %
2
".!. /
$
$
%10"
!"5)) ! 6-$ ' " "5)) $1'7$- 2 ,89$ !1
*
302019, .
!
2005
%
#
%);1$-)1 "$ 1- : 0",!) )8 "(0"0
(
$1-
21
23
25
28
30
32
35
39
0"
'.!.
#
-*
"
"
?????????????.?.........................................................??
'.)., "
. .
"
"
"
"
%
????????????...?
".'., (
".(. +
0
#
"%
:
??????????????.?.?
$.".
#
"
????????????????.??.??.?
/.!. 1 "
????????????????????...??????????..?..
". ., %
).!.
%
) 1 "*
#
???????....?..
42
45
50
53
55
57
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
44 . 5
. 3/
,+
5
6,7 / 8 9:;
.6
.644<8 $ = 4
4 /
+ 1?(10)
6,
+>/ 621:338.45; 658.011.46
,
+.
).!. (
0(" ),"5)
.
1
&1$ 1;1 )1 0"5)
"'7
" 6 " "2 )2 4 ), 1
#
+
"
9 + '( !1;
( 5)-'"
!
.
:
,
,
,
,
,
.
)
,
,
2 "
2
%
Keywords: machine elements, product life cycle, machinebuilding production, organizational factors of manufacture,
rational durability, technological discipline of manufacture,
production recycling.
1. .
#
)
%
%'
,
"
,
#
#
2
2
, *
0%
.
"
%
2
(
,
0
%
)
#
"
2
,
#
"
2
)
*
%
2
2
#
*
)
)
.
#
)
5. 4
*
"
(
"*
:
)
) [6].
"
2
- "
" ")
%
#
)
,
,
.
*
,
)
"
"
01
?
?
*
)
"
, #
%
%
2
#
..
"
?
0
01
.
"
*
"
2
)
[5].
"
"
0
"
%
%
%
#
0
)
"
%"
"
%
i-
"
"
6.
)
#
0#
4.
.
,
,
[4].
*
"
%
(
"
,
*
#
[3].
% "
:
*
)
#
"
{"i } , {"i } ?
*
01 ,
)
#
.
,
)
,
{"i } ? {"i } ,
.
01 "
"
2
2 "
%
2
)
%
)
%
.
,
..
- "
0
#
#
#
"
2
%
2
#
. )
0
#
%"
*
%1 ,
#
).
%
0
,
3. .
.
#
?
)
)
)
#
,
"
*
(
#
,
)%
,
"
"
"
*
2.
#
"
"
[1, 2].
,
2
#
,
#
0
#
01
1 "
, "
"%
.
"
)
#
%
"
)%
% )
"
"*
#
%
#
%
%
)
, #
*
(
1 "
),
"
1
.
)
$ ) +1 "'19 %"3 )
The primary goals of organizational support of life cycle of
machine-building production are defined. The system of
organizational actions providing rational durability of separate
details from positions of reduction of expenses in spheres of
manufacture, operation and recycling of products of mechanical
engineering is offered.
,
,
"
$
(
)
* :
" #
" #
,
"
%
)
" *
"
,
;
2
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1?(10)
6,
44 . 5
0(" ),"5)
" 6 " "2 4 ), 1
0 1- )0 !" )1
),(
%
,+
5
% 0
2
/
%
/
#
" #
1
"
%
)
%
"
%
%
#
#
%
*
)
#
?/
#
#
#
,
"
"
,
%
%
#
)1 "
%
)
"
0
#
2
)
"
#
%
)
#
% "
0
#
"
%
(
?
)
%
"
.
0
%
"
"
"*
%
#
"
)
"
"
%
"
#
%'
,
"
.
#
01
0
.
%
,
. 3
00
,
)
#
#
#
. .
)
)
[7])
*
"
2
2
#
0
%
%
,
"
01 ".
#
)
01
%'
#
0
(
#
(#
#
#
%"
#
"
1
"
,
% # ",
,
01 "
"
%
*
) "
01 "
"
%
)%
% 0
.
"
#
) %
%
%'
"
"
#
.
%
#
%
"
"
2
*
,
"
) 2
), #
,
#
#
;
2
"
2
.
"
0
%
"*
%
"
"*
,
"
*
%
"
*
,
#
%
%
"
%
%
%
)
"
",
.
#
)
%
" #
,
"
#
?
%
*
"
?
%'
"
2
% # 01 "
0
*
*
)
% # "
#
#
)'),"5)8
"
#
%
.644<8 $ = 4
6-$ ' " "5)8
*
"
6,7 / 8 9:;
: 1 %10
0)8 )8
( 5)-'" ),+1')8
!'1 )1
#
#
"
. 3/
)
,
%
(
)
2
,
#
3
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
44 . 5
. 3/
,+
5
6,7 / 8 9:;
)
#
( "
01 "
1
4
#
)
%
)
(#
(
)
"
"
).
01
"
%'
%
,
)
.
2
)
(
,
)
,
,
)
4 %
)
%
#
#
01 "
"
:
"
1.
(
#
%
"
%
;
#
"
(
) 1 " ),
")
;
%
";
)
;
#
"
,
#
% %
"
)
01 "
%
.
%
#
#
.
2
%
0
01 " %
#
,
,
"
% # 01 "
#
)
#
"
% 0
)
%
%
#
#
%
,
01
"
)
%
#
%
%
"
"
#
#
"
,
*
,
" *
0
(
2
"
2
).
#
,
"
#
"
".
1
#
" #
"
2
:
"
2
"
"
"
" "
%
*
#
*
" 1
0 ..
)
#
1
0
3?4
#
"
)
"
2
,
" #
%
2
"
*
"
2
2
.
"
[8]:
,
%
,
)
%
-
#
;
"
#
(
#
;
%
#
%
.
2
,
"
2
?
2
%
2
#
0
"
2
0
#
?
"
4
)
,
2
%
?
.
*
1
%'
%
0
%
#
3
)
?
"
"
#
,
)
1 01
0
#
)
*
.
.
"
*
)
01 "
"
-
)
%
1 1
*
%
0
)
.
%
.
"
%
%
)
.
.
#
"
3
,
2
"
#
3.
,
2
#
*
)
0#
%
.
.
1
2.
%
%
"
"
$
"
"
"
"
,
% # "
% # "
#
%
"
*
%"
"
;
01 "
"
#
#
0
, #
2
"
"
"
2
%
),
# ,
%
%
#
" *
%
2
0.
#
0
#
+ 1?(10)
6,
0
)
"
4 /
)
.
,
%
.6
.644<8 $ = 4
-
#
"
"
;
%
%
[9].
#
,
?
"
,
4
#
2
.
,
#
"
,
#
2
:
"
0,
#
2
.
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1?(10)
6,
44 . 5
01
#
#
"
"
)
#
"
" "
),
)
*
"
2
:
),
,
"
"
2
,
;
"
,
01
0
)
#
;
2
#
%
,
%
2
)
%
#
01
,
#
0
0
0
.
>
,
%
"
"
%
#
,
% )
"
", % ).
)
"
%
2
%
#
*
2
"
2
($
),
2 "
"
..
""
*
2
"
1
#
2
1
%
0
-
,
"
.
"
,
%
# "
*
2 % "
*
2
*
#
%
1. .
)
#
:
,
,
#
)
,
#
#
0
"
)
"
01
"),
"
"
#
.
%
,
#
"
%
*
,
)
0
#
*
%
01 "
(
)
,
0#
% #
"
*
0
"
"
%
?
#
.
"
?
.
01
#
#
)
01
%
1
2
-
2
#
"
",
#
2
%
#
2
.
#
"
2
)
?
(
%
#
)
%
( " ,
.644<8 $ = 4
. ,
,
"
.
"
%
01 "
0
"
. /
,
,
6,7 / 8 9:;
)
)
2
#
, #
*
( . .
?%
?).
>
*
)
2
5
1
,
%
,+
"
%
%
%'
*
. 3/
.
,
#
'
, ..
. $ 2
[
] /
..
.
.
, .. 4. & 0"
. ? $.: .
,
. . "
2. 2 .,
2001. ? 304 .
2.
, . .
: # %
[
] / . .
, $. &.
,
. ./
. ? $.: $ 2
, 2007. ? 721 .
3. /
% , . .
#
) )
[
] / . . / % , . 4.
#
, . 6. &
;
. . . / % . ? $.: $ + . 4. 3. &
,
2008. ? 296 .
4.
, . . 4 #
"
2
[
]
/
.
.
,
. $. >
. ? $.: $ 2
, 2002. ? 684 .
5.
# , /. .
2
(
)
)
[
]
/
/. .
# . ? $.: . 2. 2 ., 2005. ? 470 .
6.
, 6. ..
)
)
2
.
. "
.$
.$
[
] / 6. ..
. ? $.: > ?$.$?, 2003. ? 264 .
7. 3
,
.
>
[
] / . 3
. ? $.:
&
, 1997. ? 224 .
8. , #
, 3. ..
" #
% )
%
[
] / 3. .. , #
//
,
,
. ? 2004. ? ! 4.? . 3642. ? ! 5. ? . 18-25. ? ! 6. ? . 32-38.
9. /
1
, .. 6.
)
2
"
2
"#
[
] / .. 6. /
1
//
,
,
. ? 2005. ?
! 1. ? .4-6.
*
"
"
,
"
01
*
5
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
44 . 5
. 3/
,+
5
6,7 / 8 9:;
.6
.644<8 $ = 4
4 /
6,
+ 1?(10)
+>/ 621.794.61:669.056.93
. ,
+.
/.". - %&) )0 !"
"
(&$ ),
-
!
.
.$
.
:
Key words: supersonic gas dynamic spraying (GDS), micro arc
oxidizing (MAO).
.
- "
#
#
"
"
#
0
# 01 "
,
0
"
0
.
"
%
,
0
#
#
%"
#
#
"
"
0,1
%
.
% :
1
%"
%
, #
;
%
3
2
1
.
0
,
;
:
#
2
.
1 "
"
;
;*
,
,
#
"
.
,
%
,
#
;
)
)
)
#
%
3
0
"
%
01 "
,
1
;
0
#
%
"
%
1?
"
#
# 01
01
#
0
/
"
%
,
#
1
"
.
"
#
%
.
"
)
3
"
,
,
0
"
2
"
0#
"
"
"
"
-
#
"
,#
#
#
0
$
1
"
"
%
.
%
%
G-AlSi12
"
(
2
/7,
),
12818410 .
"
)
%
"
?> $6 -403?.
#
0
.
$>
,3?
:1?
#
4
1
"
"
#
*
#
%
>
/12,
)
0
,
0
.
%
%
4 )
%
"
"
, $>
)
)
, 2?
"
,
#
%
#
2
($> ).
#
2
#
"
0
0
[1].
1.
"
2
6
!'1 )8 )
The suggested new combined technology of element
reconditioning by means of supersonic gas dynamic spraying
(GDS) with the following hardening by micro arc oxidizing
(MAO) allows to obtain the coatings with high physical and
mechanical exploitation qualities. The results of the
experimental tests of adhesion and wear resistance of the
coatings being formed are given. The general technological
recommendations on practical realization of the developed
technology are also given in the paper.
!
,
"
"8 01$ 0$ $&101("/< "8 12
' ()8 ! $$ "
0 ; 1 )8 +1 "'19 %"3 ) ) & 0 + !" )8 " -
(#$%)
,
#
+
-80-13.
2
%
%
" *
: ) *
.
)
"
%
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
+ 1?(10)
?' %-Na2SiO3?; %) *
?'
' %-H
% 3BO3?.
>
0
",
%
)
%"
>4
) "
#
,
.
#
"
"
"
.
*
#
2 ).
%
#
1
1
40
2
2
%
0,5
0,7
,
0,9
1
(
%
50
2
(
0
400
"
#
"
"
#
>4
.
/ #
,
#
" $>
?' %-Na2SiO3?
?' %-%3( 3?
"
",
, #
"
"
% 0
,
)
,
#
01
"
" $> ,
#
/12,
2
,
.
0,6537
0,5375
12
>4
)
#
0,7829
0,5768
G-AlSi12
AlSi12
+
(
"
?. 99
#
"
3 ?9 #
.
2
"
%
18
)
%
?
-
1
%
3.
"
2
5? 6
.
0,1081
"
,
%
#
7? 7,8
"
0
,
)
)
#
2
0
?' %:
#
,
0,8
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0
(
"
%
(
" ? 400 )). 1 ?
,
"
"
"
2
"
2
+
>4-
60
d,
)
"
#
70?100
70?
100
**
40
>4: )
)
"
.
0
$>
$ +
+-1
?
)
0
/7#, G-AlSi
AlSi12 (
>4 %
-80-13.
13.
20 #
. >
,
1
#
**
" >4
#
2
,
$> . >
0
20
*
Na2SiO3?,
01
' % ? 3 / ; Na2SiO3 ? 6 / .
2
$>
1 01
600
,
?
#
, #
" "
#
)
) %
2
2
30
200
#
0
).
(? 60
1
2
30
" (const
const) ? 400 0));
); %)
%
(const
const) ? 0,7 & ); )
? 0,7 & ,
? 15
;2?
,#
%"
#
"
1
40
2
%)
%
"
,
. 2 ).
1
50
1
2
#
"
2
60
)
2 ? 99
%
70
40
30
#
#
>4,
1
2
.
,
60
1
.
#
,
70
60
"
)
2
#
" #
01
,
,
*
2
70
%
*
.
,
,
50
,
#
#
. $
)
#
"
2
>4
4
2
?
**
%
"
%
%
(
2%),
, #
*
2
2.
"
.
#
"
2
"
(
#
%'
, *
#
.
.6
.644<8
$ = 4
%
%
.
0
>4
"
6,7 / 8 9:;
#
2
"
5
%
#
"
,+
0,0217
%
. 3/
0,0103
)
%
$
44 . 5
0,0132
6,
0,0219
4 /
0,0167
.6
, #
#
?
"
-
2
.
#
7
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
44 . 5
*
(
. 3/
,
1?
)
>4
,
>4
$>
%1
"
188
???
???
0,0277
0,0338
0,0295
???
0,0397
???
0,0065
,
4.
0
0
0,
)
% %
,
,
"
,
#
?
#
"
,
#
,
2
%
.
%
2
#
+ 1? (10)
6,
#
>4
)1 0
-
%
$
/12
/7#
G-AlSi12 (
,
*
)
-
4 /
*
%
?
"
.6
.6
.644<8
$ = 4
2
#
,
4,1? 5,2
0
).
$
#
6,7 / 8 9:;
)
#
%
5
6
"
>4 %
2
,+
)1 "
"
" #
"
, /
"
#
.
%
,
,? %
13
%
-
?
,
2
% %
"
)
"
.
4
2 2 "
2
,
2
?
,
#
0
)1
%"
-80-
2
1 0
?> $6 ?. 9
"
2
0,05? 0,15
.
*
1
#
55? 65
,
? 45? 50 & .
$
1
*
"
01
:
) ' % ? 2,9? 3,6 / , Na2SiO3 ? 4...6 / ; %) ' % ?
4? 6 / , H3(O3 ? 20? 25 . $>
%"
15? 20 */ 2,
)
0 100? 120
. [2].
!
.
%
%
"
0
" #
"
",
01 "
,
"
0
"
"
.
#
"
#
"
150-200%
200%
2
0
.
0
&
)
1. /
, @.
'
.
,
[
%)
4 ? %1
%
2
: ) %
; %)
+
#
8
] / @.
2
"
./
"
*
!6. ? .27-28.
2. /
, @. . .
"
"
#
#
$10.281-2005 [
] /
. 4. & 1
. /
/ +
)
>
" #
%
.?
+. ? 15 .
#
?5
/7# %
%
.
#
// $ "
. ? 2005. ?
?
@.
1
.
$
?
.
,
/
" #
#
"
-
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
44 . 5
. 3/
,+
5
6,7 / 8 9:;
.6
.644<8
$ = 4
+>/ 621.892.7:621.81
,
%.(. +
".!.
"
+.
"
) 0)-5)
:1
0) ! $$ "
,
,
:
.
,
,
)
2
0
%
)
/ #
#
)
)
#
"
*
2
%
,
:
*
2
.
01
#
,
01
)
,
,
. .
,
"
* "
,
-
4
%
#
,
%
%
)
#
*
"
0,2
,
*
*
*
%
%
"
2
.&
,
#
#
.
%
,
540
* "
.
2
.
% #
"
0
0
2
"
"
#
,
#
.
,
)
,
2 ".
%
,
.4
"
1
"
(
.1) [1].
#
#
%
4 %
,
.
%
,
)
.
1 "
%
#
0
. 4
%
)1 "
,
)
".
)
,
"
" .
2
#
%
. .
. .
.
%
%
,
)
%
#
%
"
%
)
,
#
2
,
.
"
0
% %
3
,
,
)
.
% %
*
,
,
"
"
,
+ #2
"
%
)
"
.
"
#
"
0
#
"
:
#
Key words: lubrications, coating, graphite, metal, detail.
,
%
*
.
,
2 "
2
%
"
+
At reconditioning of machine elements surfaces antifriction
coatings with solid lubrications are widely used which in the
course of work reduce the wear rate and increase element
resource. The well-known
known material being applied as solid
lubrication is graphite which content in materials
significantly affects the value of friction factor.
,
.
!
"
-0
-0:
)8 $ !10+: %) $%",-"%)
!'1 )) +1
+ "'19 %"3 )
.%
,
#
,
)
)
1?
,
>
,
%
2
%
"
)
,
%
%
%
,
"
"
*
#
#
)
#
#
, #
#
. 4
)
% ?*
- %
2 "
. +#
,
0
#
"
%
,
. , %
#
60
. $
,
",,
#
? *
#
0
.
0
0
"
"
2
#
"
)
2
%
,
#
) 0 ,
#
.
9
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
44 . 5
. 3/
(
.
%
>
)
)
"
#
"
)
.
#
#
,
.
>
#
#
2
%
2
)
#
#
#
,
*
%'
,
01
%
. .
)
%
$
15 %
0
)
,
#
2
"
.
2
#
,
#
.
%
#
#
"
"
)1
)
#
)
"
2
)
)
"
%
.
2
,
#
-
"
/
,
10
10-
#
"
#
-2
0
0
01 "
,
0#
.
#
#
"
#
%
$
#
"
0
-
[2].
#
. .
.
"
"
1
.
,
#
.
'
. +
[
. .
. ? $.:?
ISBN 5-88070-119-0.
2.
#
, . $. /
. $.
#
, ,.
, 1988. ? 404 .
.
"
". .
0
0
,
,
] /
-
"
,
.
,
"
)
"
".
2 ,
.3
%
"
)
"
"
)%
,
0
2
#
)
%
#
,
#
0,
,
2
#
%
"
"
%
1. $
0
*
.
2 ?$
4 %"
)
#
"
.
%
)
)
,
"
,
,
#
%
#
" % #
#
.2)
.2),
"
#
1%
#
*
"
2 ,
"
"
)
0
#
#
%
%"
%
)
.
%
-
"
4 - 7%.
*
#
. 4
"
*
(
#
#
,
"
0
)
*
.
%'
"
"
"
2 0
%
.
#
)
%
#
%
#
"
)
#
#
#
,
,
*
0
)
)
30%
+ 1? (10)
#
"
*
1
"#
%
6,
,
,
#
#
#
[2].
%
%
"
4 /
.
)
,
. .. %
-
%
#
1%
*
#
)
-
#
10
%
,
#
.
"
#
"
0
#
4
1
"
#
#
)1 "
90% ( % .1).
1
%
.6
.6
.644<8
$ = 4
2,2-2,4·10?
/ ?)
, %
01 "
#
0
#
"
#
#
.
*
)
6,7 / 8 9:;
,
%
% # "
1
%
1
"
"
5
#
".
0
,+
01
,
. . $ 2 ,
?, 2007. ? 192 . ?
. ? /
#
[
: 4
]
]/
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
44 . 5
. 3/
,+
5
#
"
6,7 / 8 9:;
.644<8 $ = 4
+>/ 621.81:621.9.048.4
!. . 2
# ,
"
).$. . ,
+.
+
!: 3 1 )1 ), $ $ 9- $ ) "'751! 4 " - ,10
& 0 ; : 2 %"3 )
6'1- 0 )$-0 !: %)
-0: )8%), &0", !"
: %) 6'1- 0 +"%) ),"% 0
:2)
"
-0)$ "'');1$-)2 $ '"! !
(
,
,
:
, !
The article presents the results of studies of wear-resistant
coatings produced by spark cutting machine parts processing of
modern harvesting equipment, electrodes of nanocrystalline and
amorphous alloys.
!
!
,
,
.
,
,
.
$
)
John
)
%
) 1
)
#
% 0
#
# "
) 0 , #
%
#
. .
0
%
) "
) 1
2
,
-
) 1
"
,
%
90%
,
.
#
*
#
2
"
,
,
,
%
01
.
%
"
"
#
"
#
)
)
"
%"
.
%
0)
"
) 1
%
.
2
) 1
#
%
)
,
,
% %
"
%
*
.
#
, #
% 0
1
* "
(3
)
,
[3].
0
"
#
% %
#
,
"
)
% 0
,
1
"
.
1
.
,
)
%
,
0
%
"
1
*
2
#
% %
"
.
2
0
% %
)
. A
"
)
,
) 1 "
, #
20-25
#
-1000.
$
#
% %
#
*
"
*
0
"
# . 3
%
#
-
" %
,
*
#
0 ,#
)
#
"
"
$
" #
#
* " #
*
UR-121
0
,
2
) %
" %,
,
0
HITACHI
2.
) 1
) 1
.
1.
01
2
"
"
"
*
1,5-2
%
% 1
#
)
)
%
)
,
"
#
%
,
"
. .
)
"
*
)
,
). =
%
%
#
*
;
%
) 1 "
.
#
, #
" [1,2]
) 1
9560,
.
./
;
) 1
> 4 -1500, John Deere
New Holland
X840
#
%
84/8
%
%
Deere
",
"
#
"
1147,
*
5&>
)
) 1 "
.
"
"
#
:
#
Key words: finger reaper, protivorezhuschaya plate, wear,
electro spark processing, nanocrystalline structure, the
amorphous.
#
%
)
.
# "
) 1
%
%
"
.
1-1,2 ,
0
%
)
%
#
*
,
0
) 1 "
" %
2
.
"
%
2
.
%
#
%
2 0
%
"
) .
)
0,1-0,07
,
% 0
.
% %
% %
) 1
11
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
44 . 5
. 3/
,+
5
6,7 / 8 9:;
.6
.6
.644<8
$ = 4
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
%
1 ?>
)
)
)
, %
3
4
#
#
1
#
#
#
,
%
% )
12
2 ?$
*
% )
) 1
) 1
%
)1
)1
#
.
) 1
.
#
"
%
> -1500, %)
)
John Deere 1147, )
*
New Holland X840,
X
)
John Deere 9560
%
*
84/8
1
2
:
"
, %
%)
% %
*
:
5&>
,
2
#
.
#
4.
0
,
(
3 ?+
" )
#
(
*
)
#
"
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
44 . 5
. 3/
,+
5
6,7 / 8 9:;
. "
.6
.644<8
$ = 4
1
) 1 "
#
.
Holland X840 John Deere 9560
4
,#
#
2
#
",
"
) 1 "
!
. 4
"
50-60%
50
.
) 1 "
,
,
1.
)
) 1 "
John Deere 1147; %)
New Holland X840.
840.
; 2 ?%
;i ?
)1
)
1?
:
%
%
2
.
,
#
. .
1
) 1
'
)
) 1
] / . .
%
. ? 1981. ?
,
4. 4.
//
4
63. ? 105-111 .
2.
# , .. 4.
2
#
"
" 2 / .. 4.
# .?
$.: $ 2
, 1971. ? 102 .
3. 8
, .. 4. 3
% %
"
%
#
"
%'
"
"
#
[
]
/
.. 4. 8
, . . /
, . .
2
//
+
# 01
"
. ? 2009. ? !4
(52). ? . 23-26.
%
4 ?9
1,5? 2
2
2
*
#
20 ? 25
New
.
2
)
%
[
%
+>/ 631.3: 621.85-192
,
+.
".(.
&1$ 1;1 )1 6
,
!
.
!
,
!
,
!
!
:
,
,
,
-!!
%
*
)
,
.
,
,
.
"
,
2
Key words: the cardan issue, bearing node, resource of the test,
stand, longevity,
y, maintainability, technical-econ
technical
mic method,
technical maintenance, repair.
"
80 %
%
%
1%
Decisions are brought In article on increasing of longevity,
maintainability and non-failure
failure operation cardan issue
autotractor technics for the reason increasing of efficiency to
usages of the cargo cars. The Base data action forms the system
approach on stage of the development, fabrications, test and
usages product with market by estimation on factor of
competitiveness.
.
" #
" #
#
1
)
" 2
1
,
,
# .
2
*
#
8
1- )!
9 6-$ ' " "5)) (0 , !: 2 "! % &)'19
!: 3 1 )8 "+14
$ ) -"0+"
: 2 101+";
(
,
"
&
%
%
,
,
"
"
%
[1].
%
2 0
)
1
.
*
%
'
"
*
"
13
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
44 . 5
. 3/
,+
%
2
5
6,7 / 8 9:;
0
2
#
"
.
2
*
"
"
2
" [2]. . "
" 2
"
(%
)
2
,
% # "
"
"
2
,
)
#
[3].
% # "
"
2
2
,
#
"
.
4 /
- "
,
2
*
"
%
% # "
#
2
,
"
.
+ 1? (10)
6,
,
)
#
"
#
.6
.644<8 $ = 4
*
)
0
#
(
%
%
"
"
2
"
,
1
#
"
"
#
1
01
#
%
)
0
,
#
)
%
#
)
% # "
% #
)
,
2
"
,
%
. &
" 2
2
#
%
,
#
#
0
01
*
0
)
, ,
,
%
*
%
2
)
#
%
#
.
"
*
=*
.
1
01
%
2
"
?
*
"
# ,
2
,
%
*
" "
#
,
#2
#
"
# "
,
*
,
%
.
%
"
2
)
"
#
"
1
%
. . , 2
.4.
, .:. 9
" #
"
,
"
#
, #
%
*
%
2
)
2
"*
"2
.3
)
%
.. . /
. . >
, &. .
2
, ..&. 9
6.4.
, .. . . 2
, .. . ,
@./. 6
-, 2
.
,
)
,...
8
. &
,
.$.
, ../. /
#
@.4.
>
,
.4.
%
%
%
"
#
*
)
)
#
, #
%
)
,
)
1
01
"
"
2
"
2
"
.
.
% "
" #
" $. . ,
..:.
# , &...
, >.4.
2
... /
3. .
, #
#
, %
#
"
%"
%
2
"
#
14
"
"
% # "
"
2 "
".
)
#
.
.
)
"
#
*
-*
.
#
,
,
%
0
01 "
)
%
[4, 5],
%
"
,
"
"
#
%
01
t
#
#
"
?
)
)
(
. 1)
) ? = ()
)
+)
) ? min .
(1)
" #
0
*
*
"
"
.
% 0
+
"
:
(1)
.
%
"
0%
%
:
0
n
=
)
i =1
,
)
Coi ? ?(t ) i =
=
n
i =1
?(t) ?
)
"
Coi ? m ? H (t ) i , (2)
r
i =1
Fr (t ) i ,
(i=1,2,3);
"
)
%
i-
)
(t ? R )
,
(vR2 + 1)
Rr +
2
(4)
;
)
*
#
t;
%
.
% (t ) =
?R ?
;
?
i-
#
Fr(t)i ?
r#
:
(3)
(i=1,2,3);
)
)
m ?#
%(t) ?
?Rr ?
+R ?
i =1
1
"
,
,
n
Coi ? m ?
)oi ?
,
,
,
,
,
.,
"
"
.
;
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
1?
$
(1),
%
44 . 5
-**
"
#
#
%
+) )
d (C
dt
,
- "
#
-**
%
2
9
"
"
1
%
#
,
)
"
#
*
%
>
*
#
-**
#
2
"
2
1
"
# ,
"
*
% 01
*
8
..:.
0
"
)
,
2
#
# %
"
%
2
#
2
*
"
(SU ! 970169),
% 2 #
%
0
",
"
"
"
"2
0
"
%1
#
%
%
#
"
2
#
#
.
.
2 0
"
,
%,
)
"
#
"
#
"
"
"
2
. 2)
SU
#
2
"
"
3,
"
" [8],
# ((RU 2134412),
)
#
#
*
"
(
%
970169
"
"
.
&
0
")
#
#
01 "
"
2
,
4 $ , 4
,
*
%
0
?
" %#
"
#,
)
)
,
*
*
0 [7].
%
)
" #
-
#
2
)
0
)
"
%"
0
"
%
"
)
#
%
2
#
.
)
*
"
>
%
"
"
#
2
(
(5)
.6. +
#
)
#
/
/-700
[6].
%
01 "
2
#
%
%
"
0
2
"
%
.
#
#
. 8 $.
1
"
0 "
#
.
, #
2
*
*
2
.4
0
0:
)
#
$. . >
.6
.644<8
$ = 4
=
*
"
2
*
"
0
,
#
)
dC?
=
dt
6,7 / 8 9:;
#
,
01
01 "
)
5
"
#
#
,+
#
"
0
. 3/
"
%
2
"
"
#
#
(RU
RU 2205377) [9]. >
#
)
#
"*
.
"
"
15
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
44 . 5
. 3/
,+
5
6,7 / 8 9:;
.6
.6
.644<8
$ = 4
3) *
4
)
,
( "
,
4 /
#
%
).
* " *
, %
#
.
+ 1? (10)
6,
,
)
0
#
"
)
?
)
)
%)
( )
2? "
2 ?*
,5?
2
,6?
,8?
2
,3?
1
,4?
,7?
,9?
, 10 ?
1
11 ?
, 13 ? # , 14 ?
16 ?
,19 ?
2
-2
, 21 ?
-
, 12 ?
) , 15 ?
17 ? 2
, 18 ?
"
, 20 ?
%)
(%)
%1
:1?
,
3? "
1 ?*
4?
)
( )
,5 6?
, 9?
0
4
%
,
,3 8? ,
,7?
) 01
#
2
"
2
01
"
# %
2
#
2
#
"
" 2
#,
#
" *
#
)
2
"
, #
0
.
1)
,
2)
"
"
#
% %
"
#
01
"
"
, #
2
:
*
(
)
2
! 804707/4 10.
#
"
VII
,
"
)
#
"
)
"
%
,
%
"
%
2
,
%
. 4
#
)
#
?
2
,
?2
?
. >
%
*
16
2
"
(RU 2106548),
)
2
2
)
.
)
2
>
)
2
"
;
#
:
%
)
2
%
#
"
,
%
.
)
);
#
"
%"
0
,
)
01
,
"
1
,
#
#
"
"
#
1 0
2
.4
"
" *
)
(%)
%1
,2?
#
,
#
%
?
%
*
#
#
%
#
01
?
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
"
44 . 5
,
"
2
2
1,28
#
%
%
*
#
%
)
"
50 %
"
#
,
926 #,
90% ? 910 #.
*
)
#
'
#
50 %
2
15800 #, 90 % ? 15500 #.
0
2
"
#
)
2
(RU 2075878),
01
1
% # "
"
*
2
"
"
"
%
. .
*
)
#
# 0
*
,
,
%
2 "
#
2
,
0
% # "
"
2
"
2
"
%
.
90 %
#
-*
*
%
% # "
"
%
*
B120? 180?
#
% # "
"
? 2? 3
,
)
#
2
"
)
"
67? 88
%.
%
%
2
*
%
#
"
,
, #
)
)
% # "
"
2
"
" #
% )
%
%
" %
#
50%
? 918 #,
90 % ? 850 #.
*
)
% # "
"
2
"
%
#
0 50 %
15770 #, 90 % ? 14900 #.
%
,
%
"
"
#
#
*
"
)
*
2
#
' d ≈ 2,5 .
#
2
"
)
*
2
#
2
2
#
,
01
?,
"
2
.
0
,
2
0
)
0
. 4
)
"
(
,
2
"
"
)1
,
#
#
#
"
"
2
% # 0
2
% #
0, #
2
,
#
"
2
#
.
2
/
"2
)
%
)
- %
#
%
#
'
,
'
01
"
"
)
"
2
0
%
,
)
"
2
01
%
.
)
2
>
(RU 2215207),
)
)
0
,
) " 2
% )
"
1
*
01
,
2
,
# .
"
,
"
,
'
"
#
2
2
,
#
"
),
2
2
"
#
.
01 "
"
%
2
*
0
,
#
"
(RU 2205304),
2
#
#
?
#
% #
)
*
?2
,
"
#.
1
#
,
)
2
%
#
"
RU 2106548
RU 2075878
% # "
"
"
%
% )
2
1
1
.
%
"
/
)
2
#, "
,
01
2
%
"
2
' d ≈ 3,7 .
2
"
2
#
4
0
#
#
"
. . *
)
*
2
01
"
)
.
)
.644<8 $ = 4
,
"
%
'
2
6,7 / 8 9:;
*
,
, #
#
5
0
%
"
,+
*
"
2
2
. 3/
#.
2
"
%
% # "
" #
#
#
2
%
%
"
"
2
#
2
"
0 RU 2234008 ( . 4).
%
17
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
44 . 5
. 3/
0#
,+
5
,
%
6,7 / 8 9:;
,
#
"
2
,
1
% #
1
)
0
#
"
#
"
2
2
#
"
%
,
,
4?
.
"
#
(3),
#
%
(2),
(5),
2 (6),
*
0
#
"
"
#
/ $
(www.kamdetal.ru).
%
1
#
"
?/
9? . 4 %
.
#
)
0
*
#
2
"
2
.
,
(
. 5).
%
*
#
, #
2
,#
#
.
# (RU
(
2234008)
,
*
%
,
*
(8).
"
"
#: 1 ?
3 ?
,
)
4 ? *
,
01
%
0
%
-
18
"
(4),
5
2
?
,7?
(7)
#
%
.
,
,5?
#
*
2
2
1
.
#
%
#
"
,
#
*
#
#
2
%
:
-**
"
"
"
(1),
%
,
*
#
2
"
0
.
%
6?
#
#
#
%
(*
)
#
)
)
*
,
"
0
% # "
0%
,
+ 1? (10)
*
>
.
2
2
0,8? 0,9
0
%
#
6,
2
"
"
*
*
4 /
). .
,
90°
)
180°
"*
2
.6
.6
.644<8
$ = 4
#
50 %
1,5? 2,0
"
0
% ,#
.
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
44 . 5
. 3/
,+
5
3. 4 %
2
2
0
6,7 / 8 9:;
*
)
%
)
%
. .
,
%
"
%
#
)
.6
.644<8
$ = 4
"
,
"
"
#
01 "
"
"
"
"
" #
.
'
, @.
.
" #
*
[
] / @. . &
, . . &
,
.;
. . .. /
. ? $.:
, 1983. ? 488 .
2. 5
#,
.
. 4 )
%
[
] / . . 5
#,
&. 6. $
, .. . > 0 . ? $ .: 4
"
,
1985. ? 143 .
3. &
,
. ..
%
[
] /
. .. &
, @. /. 6
-, 2 ,
$. ,. 4
, ..
. A
2 ;
.
. .. &
. ? $.: /
, 2001. ? 496 .
4.
, .. :.
#
)
"
"
[
] /
.. :.
, ,. ..
2
. ? ,.: ,
,
1985. ? 204 .
5. .
, $. .
%
#
)
%
$ 9
*
[
] /
$. . .
, . 6.
% , ,. 8.
6. . /
;
. 6. . /
. ? $.:
, 1977. ? 183 .
6. >
, $. .
" #
"
#
/
/-700
[
] / $. . >
, . 6. +
// "
"
. ? 1975. ? ! 11. ? .73-74.
7.
, .. ,. $ 2
[
] / .. ,.
,
4.
. >
, .. 4.
.;
.
>. 4. 2
. ? $.: $ 2
, 1979. ? 343 .
8. $
"
"
2
"
#
[
] /
.: . .
" , . $.
. ?
&
, 1997. ? 4 . ? ( , / &
54 ,
! 11-97).
9. $
"
"
2
"
#
[
] /
.: 6. .
2 , . .
" . ?
&
, 2004. ? 5 . ? ( , / &
54 ,
! 07-029-04).
1. &
%
.. $. .
5?
%
8
2
(
%
)
,
#
)
"
,
)
%
0
2
"
"
2
"
2
#
#
%
)
%
"
)
#
, # "
. 1). .
%
?
(
,
)0
)
#
0
#
)
%
%
#,
#
? . .
"
"
"
)
??
"
(
%
,
#
2
"
)
#
#
% )
)
t??
.
#
)
%
#
)
t??
)
2
0
#
,
#
)
# ,
%
,
#
%
>t .
%
)
"
.
%
!
0
.
1. %
"
"
#
,
2
#
*
(/
%
,
"
01
#,
*
9, $ 9, +
2
%
)
)
%
.)
,
)
?
# .
2. >
",
"
%"
"
"
%
2
#
"
*
"
#.
19
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
44 . 5
. 3/
,+
5
6,7 / 8 9:;
.6
.6
.644<8
$ = 4
4 /
6,
+ 1? (10)
+>/ 621.794.61
,
".!.
- %
,)5)
:1
(
.
!
:
,
!
,
2
,
2
#
*
,
"
$> % #
*
.
#
# 0
"
%
#
,
#
#
,
),
$> -
,
#
#
,
,
,
(
-
.
*
"
", #
#
*
,
.
%
,
, # ,
2
"
*
.
, "
#
"
*
,
*
%
"
"
,
#
0
, #
%
%
,
"
"
%
*
[1]
#
#
2
,%
1
,
%
*
"
" *
2
#
%
,
%
:
(%
*
.
"
Key words: micro arc oxidizing, MAO, electrolyte, composite
coating.
"
,
% %
,
1
)
0
,
#
.
,
,
*
2
% ,
"
%
#
(
"
#
" )
)
)1
1
#
"
"
0
01 "
0
/
"
#
0
,
"
#
0
#
% 0
2
Cr2O3, Fe
2
#
*
.
,
[2],
"
#
"
# "
*
2
.
"
,
,
#
,
%
%
0
%
,
20
, &$ ,
.
"
-$)+)0 !" )8
In article application of electrolits for microarc oxidizing
(MAO) with addition of composite materials that allows to
reduce essentially
ssentially duration of formation of coverings with
demanded properties in comparison with usual electrolits is
considered.
$> %
2
%
$> - "
*
"
-0: )8 %)-0 + ( ! (
!
(&$ )
,
" #
9+
+.
)
)
,# ,
#
TiO2,
%
,
0
1 ?.
*
:1?
3?
%
.
$>
#
% 2
2
" $> , #
%"
"
" )
%
;4?
" $> ;2? %
;
"
0
#
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
346
%
#
#
,
#
)
#
.
*
.
2
>
%
2
)
2
2
1
*
%
)
*
"#
0
%
,
)
2
( %
(% % )
.4
"
. /
-
"
"
#
"
)
2
"
#
1 0
*
#
:
01
2
% #
1 0
"
%
%
0
"
"
#
HV,
2
2
/
S,
",
!
,
,
#
40,00
. 2).
,
"
.
*
#2
)
#
#
%
20,00
#
(
"
.
2,
1
% #
,
2
"
*
"
.
2
0
"
2
.
,#
"
)
.
2
,
,
%
)
,
1,5
[4]
,
#
*
"
0
"
#
"
*
1
)
.
,
80,00
60,00
.
*
,
0
#
100,00
HV,
,
#
80-90
90
2
.
%'
(
%
,
"
%
2
1
,
" $> -
2
)
.
*
(
Neophot
Neophot-21.
2
01
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
" #
0,00
#
(
!
$
2?
%
$> "
%
1
" *
2
2
#
0
(
,
"
%
. $> #
0
/7#
#
)
$> ?
#
%
"
% #
"
*
2
%
90
2
,
: 1 ?%
%
; 2 ? Al2O3;
3 ? TiO2; 4 ? Cr2O3; 5 ? Fe2O3; 6 ? SiO2
4
1
'
1. > " , . . 3
&. .. >
. ? $.: 4
2. $
2 , .. 4.
"
. 97.
)
2
. >
[
]/ . .> " ,
, 1976, 332 .
% " #
"
"
[
] / .. 4. $
2 ,
$. ..
% // . . >
#
1 "
2 . .
4. ? $.: $ 2
, 1990.
1990 ?
106-109 .
3.
% , . .. $ "
" $> [
] /
. ..
%
// 4 #
9+
(
)
). ? $.:
9+, 2002. ? .104 ? 107.
4.
. 2291233
,
25 D
11/08. 3
0
[
] / . 4. & 1
.?
% . & . ? !1. ? 2007.
2007
+>/ 621.891
,
+.
$.!. $
"
&
#
"
8
0)& ' ();1$-)1 "$ 11 : 6 10(1 );1$- 9 1 0))
,
,
!
According to bases of energy theory of friction the conception of the
impact of friction modifiers on the formation of surface layers
layer of
rubbing surfaces is given. There is given conception of the impact of
friction modifiers on the formation of surface layers of rubbing surfaces
according to bases of energy theory of friction.
.
, !
.
:
,
.
*
#
,
,
Key words: realiability,
ealiability, wear process, lubricants, energy theory
of friction, secondary structure.
,
,
)
2
2
0
#
.
21
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
346
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
?
* "
.6
#
(
,#
,
#
"
"
.
#
"
% 0
#
#
"
,
2
%
%
,
#
:
"
1 1
-"
. 9
"
)
#2
1
)
#
#
" %'
"
"
A
#
,
*
,
#
"
"
*
#
#
#
%
0 ?H, #
)
0
0# 01 0
*
3
% #
0
% *
0,
3 =3
#
#
,
.
01 "
",
#
"
%'
/
%
#
*
*
3 , . .:
,
"
"
22
:
%
%1
#
&.
#
#
#
,
,
"
"
,
%
#
(3),
#
*
",
,
1
3 =3 ,
)
(2)
3 =3 +3 ,
3 ,
"
#
#
"
0
,
"
(3)
#
(4)
.
"
*
%
2
"
.
#
#
"
,
#
*
) 01 0
(5)),
%"
01
.
*
%
*
", #
#2
0
"
0
.
)%
)
(5)),
#
*
)
#
)
)
#
"
#
,
#
",
/
I
??
%
Q
"
" .
#
*
#
3 : 3 = Q+?H, (1).
"
*
3 ,
0,
0
1
0
3 :
+3 ,
(2)
"
" )
" 1 1 "
,
.
(
(5)
%
*
,
% # "
.
)
0
) ,
"
"
"
",
)
#
%
,
",
* "
%
#
.
.
#
0
#
.
"
%
"
*
"
*
)
.
,
,
0
0
%
1
>
+ 1? (10)
6,
, %
"
:
= [Q + 3 ] + [ ?H + 3 ],
? ? ? ? ? ?? ??
?
,
/ >
"
#
%
#
" *
,
0
.
"
%
.
"
%
-
"
#
.
#
"
01
"
? *
1
#
)
.
%'
,
"
"
"
"
#
,
#
"
#
%
01
%
01
%
3 +3
?? 3
%
01
%
,
2
"
#
,
"
)
,
). .
4 /
)
1
* "
*
#
(
*
"
%
.
,
#
)
#
.
*
%
%
%
1
*
#
2
"
*
#
3
#
.
"
*
,
#
#2
*
%
k,
"
,
2
*
%
#
01 "
01 "
%
"
,
.
3 = k·3 ,
)
01
)
(6)
'
, >. 4.
% "
: # %
/ >. 4.
. ? 2.,
%.
. ? $.: $ 2
, 1989. ? 328 .
2. & 2 , $. .
,
2
" / $. . & 2 . ? $.:
, 1987. ? .
100?101.
3.
,
.
. .
#
)
/ .
.
,
. .
, .. .
//
,
1988. ? .9 (!3). ? . 524?527.
1.
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
346
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
+>/ 621.316.542.9:621.3.038.6
,
). .
#
+.
'.+. $
-
,
" #
)
"
+
0 '7 $ 13
( "! %" );1$- (
! 0
( !-'/;1 )8
$1-5)
)0 /< )2 !: -'/;" 1'19 ! ') )) - '751! 9 $1 )
The way of the control of switching of switches in the
partitioned line of a ring network is considered
:
,
/
)
2
-
,
50 ? 80% [1].
*
#
"
2 "
"*
)
2 "
*
,
,
%
,
.
*
0
%)
)
0#
0# 0
"
0#
0#
0#
#
#
0
(
0#
%
0#
)
%
.
( . .
*
#
2
*
#
0
0
"
,
. .
2
. 1).
, "
. ., %
" (
#
/1).
*
.
#
#
0#
0#
,
#
)
,
)
,
0#
% 2
. .,
01
2
.
.
%
% #
0
0#
Q3 [3].
0
.
0
2
,
1
2
Q7
Q8
=2
=1
Q2
Q6
W2
W1
,
, . .
Q5
/2
/1
Q4
1? "
2
1 "
.
Q3
.
"
"
#
W1
. .
%
(
.
%
0
)
#
01
0#
%
01
1
Q3,
. . 6
"
0
Q3.
. .,
0#
,
#
0#
%"
Q5,
0
%
Q1
)
0
*
?
#
%
.,
*
( . .
#
),
0#
%)
.
#
,
#
%
2
0
)
%
"
(
0#
Q3
#
0#
.
2
0
0#
)
% #
2
.
#
..
# 0
0 ),
, "
)
%
"
)
0# )
.)
2 ")
2 1 . [2].
*
*
.
#
(
0#
"( %
)
,
. .,
2
,
#
%
)
.
),
0#
0#
. "
>
.
.
..
0#
01
"
"
01
0#
#
. .,
01
0#
,
0#
*
(
0#
. .
%
0
. .,
#
"
2
#
0#
#
0#
0#
0
.
"
#
"
#
#
0#
#
>
*
#
( . .). 9 #
"
,
2
Keywords: the control, switching of switches in the partitioned
line.
,
.
0#
0#
: 1
2?
0#
1
2; : Q2 Q6 ?
0#
W1 W2; Q8 ?
2 =1 =2; Q3 Q5 ?
01
W1 W2; Q4 ?
0#
. ; /1, /2 ? #
. .
; Q1
Q7 ?
23
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
346
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
.6
"
2
.
Q3
( ) 1,
(> /9) 2, *
9 >6 - / 4 10, >4 . &
8 12,
01
>
%
3
,
01
1
%
"
,
"
,
%
0# . 4
"
,
> /9 2
#
"
"
#
)
.
%
7.
*
46 6
8
"
*
*
Q3
#
% #
0#
#
>4 . &
"
"
) :
$: 7 3
9,
5, 7 11, 46 6,
( +) 13.
"
"
"
,
*
"
.
?
)
.
0#
2.
#
01
H6 6.
2
,
$: 7 3
"
0#
*
8. . *
0#
*
46 6,
*
. 3,
)
4
)
%
1
)
%
%
2
.
+ 13
12
2
. &
6
>4 -
$: 7
9
7
4
55
8
8
. &
10
. &
11
5
+
2?
%
24
..
6=4 6
13
. Q3
#
/1
#
%
5
> /9 2
1
2
#
#
>4 -
$: 7
3
"
01
7
9 >6 - /
4
12
/,@A64
>4 -
46 6
9
Q3
11
9 >6 - /
10
3
0#
0#
Q3
t0
"
> /9 2,
*
1
+ 1? (10)
4
W1
#
6,
t1),
$: 7 3 *
"
*
46 6
#
,
*
" *
8.
2
> /9 2,
*
" *
9 >6 - / 4,
#
,
%
1
01
Q3.
"
*
4
"
>4 . &
5. 3
*
,
?%
?
3
" *
( . 3,
t2)
01
0#
Q3
..
> /9 2 #
"
.
"
*
" *
8.
"
(
4 /
3 ?>
t1
t2
t3 t4
"
"
"
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
346
#
"
,
$: 7 9
"
"
"
"
0
"
+ 13.
*
+ 13
, #
2
0#
01
0#
Q3.
,
2
" *
9,
" *
9 >6 - / 10,
"
#
,
)
.
01
0#
Q3.
#
*
10
"
>4 . &
11, *
*
,
%
*
9
" *
12.
*
0#
Q3
0#
.
# ,
0#
%
2 ,
"
1
#
%
> /9 2,
#
%
*
>4 . &
7.
2
"
>4 . &
7
"
*
12. 3
0
"
,
+ 13
%
#
, #
2
2
.
01
0#
Q3.
6
) . .
#
/1 %
#
,
0#
Q3
0#
0#
.
*
"
> /9 2
0#
Q3
. 3
"
,
%
*
13,
%
+
8
*
%
0#
#
01
#
0#
Q3.
0#
Q5
0#
0
/2 ( . 1)
)
/
2
. .
1
,
"
#
#
2
. .
*
W2.
%
"
,
#
0 %
0#
0
01 "
1.
,
#
%"
10
%
)
.
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
,
0#
Q3 Q5.
2
'
.
.
*
*
"
. +# %
%
.+9
[
] /
.
.
, ..
. /
,
.. .. /
.
.. . $
>. 3
.-$.: 3
, 1994. ? 428 .: .
2.
*
[
]/
7.,
%.
. ? $.: >6 4, 2004. ? 656 .
3.
2337453
$ /7
4 02 J 13/00.
%
0#
2
#
0#
01
0#
[
] /
,. >.,
. 4.,
=
.. .,
%
+
.
+
. ? !2007139420/09;
. 23.10.2007;
% . 27.10.2008, &0 . !30. ? 6 .: .
+>/ 621.3.088
,
$.%. "
.$. $
)$$'1+ !" )1 + $
!10
$ ))
,
>
8!'1 )) - 0
.
*
,
#
)
,
(/9),
01
. . [1]
"
#
%
/ )
)
0#
"
#
2
2
0#
#
"
( . )
( .)
" 6-10 .
)
%
#
,
0#
" *
#
)
0#
1
%
.
, "
,
%
0#
#
)
"
. ,
,
,
%"
"
,
"
#
2
%
,#
.
.
,
%
/9
0
#
%
*
)
,
,
"
",
#
#
,
%
#
/9
.
* "%
)
.
%
"
. .
#
%
,
,
,
%
"
"
"
&
#
0#
.
#
%
/9,
0# , #
01 "
%
"
.
,
01 "
4
.
. 4
",
,
. .
1
)
%
,%
-)2 ,"%: -" )9
The procedure of the study of the authenticity of information
about the appearance of short circuits in the distributive
electrical networks 6-10 kV.
Key words: authenticity of information, current surge of short
circuit, remote control.
%
#
#
#
#
"
, )
+
0%"5))
6-10 (.
,
!
:
"
, ".1. $ #
+.
,
".
)
#
%
0#
25
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
346
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
,
)
#
4 /
%
)
.. A
" "
%
%"
,
0
,
#
"
%
%
+ 1? (10)
6,
"
,
.
>
.6
%
/9.
.
.
2
#
,
01
"
01
"
)
0:
0,
0
)
/9,
%
)
2 0
)
%
0.
/
'
#
/9
6-10 ..
#
,
>
%
# %
/9,
)
)
-
#
0 /9,
0 -(. ));
2
01
#
"
(
1
/9
"
)
#
1
,
#
0,
"
"
)
0,
0
/9,
0 -(. ));
0 -()));
#
?
%
,
,
0 -( )).
#
?
"
"
,
> , ?
%
',, ?
0
; '/ ?
0
%
(
%
,
" "
#
)
/9,
"
#
"
)
"
2
;
"
/9;
,
>
?
" "
,
?
/9.
-()) %
" 1
, #
2
6
6-10
01
#
"
)
" /9; >/ , ?
%
>/
;
, %
1
#
/9,
%
,#
k.
%
. 3
%
)
:
.,
,
(? t ) k ? ? t
?e .
k!
,
)
t
#
#
"
(
01
#
1
t?
0#
2
)
,
.
1
#
.
,
)
"
.
, #
?
4
#
)
0 (3),
(3) #
)
)
#
"
. >
2
"
)
,
:
*
"
-( )
)
)
2
%
0,5.
1 ,
#
:
2
#
1/3
.
.
,#
)
"
2
#
(3)
"
?
, #
#
,
1
01
%
2
%1
(
):
0#
)
; > , >/ ?
,
.
)
2
)
:
26
"
)
.
#
/9,
#
2
"
%
>
%
=
#
2
/9,
-k(t) =
[2].
].
#
*
)
:
-(/0) = -(. ) 1 -(. ) 1 -()) 1 -( ),
(1)
-(/0) ?
, # %
,
%
/9, %
" )
"
%
.
#
/9
)
%
#
2
/9
/9.
9
%
,
%
" )
"
,
) 0 (1)
)
%
/9, . .
,
%
%
)
:
-(/') = 1 ? -(/0),
-(/0)
(2)
>
#
) 0
(2)
01
-(/0),, #
)
(1).
.
-(. )
)
%
)
01
0:
-(. ) =
#
1
/9
"
#
?
(
#
)
/
-
2
/9,
%1
,
%
#
2
)
0#
"
%
#
/9
:
01
(
%
;
0
,
, %
%
01
?
#
0
,
0 (3),
)
)
"
%
,
. .
#(
*
)
.
#
1
,
%
"
01 "
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
346
%
/9
1
,
2
, #
",
,
%
)
%
01
)
)
. A
)
#
"
%
. >
%"
0 (4). 6
#
,
%
*
)
"
%
"
#(
%
,# :
0#
)
#
#
/9,
%
0
)
0#
#
3
,
%
/9,
[3].
]. A
,
%
"
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
"
)
#
)
(
.
#
#
.
%
"
9
,
)
"
)
*
#
,
%
"
"
)
*
)
%
)
.
?
2
"
%
.
%
.
.
&
:
#
%
# . 9
%
(2)
(4),
#
#
2
)
4
%
4
(2),
#
)
, #
#(
2
1,00
= 3 10 -.8.. 3 1
.
#
#
(4)
#
*
(2)
0 (4).
"
"
/9
1
(4),
0-6
.
"
#
%
-
2.
t = 0, 5
0,99
(&/)
=31
0,98
=3
0,97
.
0,1
0,2
0,3
1?
,#
#
1 ,
, #
2
. .
(2)
)
(
/9.
1 (
"
%
)
"
)
""
0,95
) ""
),
)
%
/9). .
" )
#
2
"
"
"
1
), #
%
/9.
2
#
1
0
#
(#
)
0,5
, 1/
%
100
#
%
01
,
)
"
(
).
/9
. 6(
)
1,
#
)
2
2. /
% 2 *
" ) ""
2
*
=2c
/9
"
#
%
t=1
,5 c
0,4
#
"
,
10 - 7
,
=1c
= 3 1 -7
0 ,t
0,96
0,95
0 -7, t
#
6
#
""
18
, #
1,
#
.
2 0,1
0,3
#
" ) ""
0#
( 0,9
1).
27
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
346
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
.6
= 3 10 -7
1,00
(&/)
=3
0,98
.
=3
10 - 7
=0
,5
0
0,5
1
$
)
/9
2
.
)
.
.,
,
#
/9
",
/9
1
*
% )
:
2
. ? .
):
?/
?, 2005. ? 188 . ISBN 589609-077-3. . 15-16.
2. /
, ..
.
#
[
] / .. . /
. ? $.: . 2. 2 ., 1991. ? 400 .
3.
# , .. .
)
"
"
[
] / .. .
# ,
$. . @
// $ "
*
"
, 2001. ? !8. ? . 19-20.
, #
" 6-10 .
%
#
.
"
)
%
#
)
#
)
" %
.
] /
. $.
" //
"
'
. $.
2
" 6-10 . [
" ,
"
1 ,
)
#
1.
2
#
,
"
"
1 ,
1,5
)
2?
%
3
10 -7
0,96
0,95
+ 1? (10)
= 0,2
= 0,
0,97
6,
= 5 10 -2
= 3 10 -7
0,99
4 /
+>/ 622.233.5-82
.(. ;
,
+.
01+1'1 )1 6 10(1 );1$-)2 ) +19$ !)8 ! ,"!)$)% $ )
:
,
,
,
,
.
,
(
# "
1
#
%
2
28
.
,
,
,
, !
(*
#
,
% %
"
%
)
1
"
#
,
"
.
#
"
,
(
Keywords: research, calculation, a method, the machine of
shock action, pulse system, destruction, mathematical model, a
hydraulic drive, energy of blow, productivity, functionality,
properties of a material.
)
,
,
"
0
"
In article results of research of hydraulic impulse system of the
technological machine intended for destruction of strong
natural and artificial materials are presented.
,
$
"
#
+
$ 0 - )! : 2 "0"%1 0 ! %"3 )
+"0
$! 9$ ! 0",0 3 "1%: 2 %" 10)"' !
(
,
"
"
*
%
#
"
% #
"
) " % ,
)
% 0
%
# "
"
",
.
#
2
2
"
0,
#
"
0
%
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
6,
+ 1? (10)
346
*
"
"
2
#
>
.
*
"
(
"
2
#
).
,
#
0
2
%
01
)
0
#
2
0
5 ? 6
# 0
#
.
2 ,
%
#
,
,
%
2
%
0
2 "
*
[1,2].
2
#
% # "
"
#
#
2
0 *
#
*
"
2
2
"
2
)
"
0#
)
#
"
%
#
,
% #
2 "
)
0
#
#
>
)
#
%
*
%
1
.
,
2
#
3.$ [3,4].
#
%
(2 ).
%
?t=0.00001
=0.00001 .
#
2
1
)
.
,
1
,
2
#
%
.. #
; P2 ?
i
?
% #
, ;t ?
%
,
)
-%
% ?
"
"
?
#
"
,
"
, ;
"
,
#
,
#
#
0
".
,
*
,
0
2
1
%
:
1
% #
"
:
( .2).
#
3.3
01
% #
&
,
, #
S2
)
3.5
% #
. >
%
,
"
#
#
%
.
: P1i ?
"%
;t ?
#
)
"
"
%'
*
#
"
3
2
% ,
"
% # "
.
"
,
,
;
%
1 ?5
"
#
:
.1)
)1
1
"
, %
% # "
%
#
- %
%
(
?
"
"
%
,
0
2
01 "
,
#
/ >,
2
)
" #
.
#
#
#
,
%
0
0
.
*
,
%
/.
" %
0
;
,
1
? 16 $
3
#
.
#
"
)
*
2
2
#
%
3.5?10-3
.
)
#
,
0
) 01 0
0
,
"
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
3
"
(
A1i
0#
A2i
A3i
3.$
#
#
#
)
2.5
A4i
2
2
%
,
,
,
#
".
>
%
#
#
(0), ub(0), uz(0),
1(0), 2(0), %(0),
y(0), x(0), d 1(0), d 2(0), d %(0), d (0),dub(0), duz(0),
dy(0), dx(0)
t=0.
2
1.5
1
0.57 0.5
2
2.4
2?
( >))
S2 (?10-3 2):
*
3
4
5
Si
6
6
*
($ )
A1i; A2i; A3i; A4i ?
= 6; 10; 15; 20 $
29
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
346
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
.6
"
*
% # "
1
%
2.4?10-3;
-3
-3
-3
-3
2
3?10 ; 3.6?10 ; 4?10 ; 5?10
"
? 6; 10; 15 20 $ (Q =3.5?10-3 3/ ).
"
"
"
%
"
2
"
.
"
[1,2,3]
,
#
*
" 2
,
)
,
,
*
#
.
%
,
2
,
,
*
#
,
?
#
%'
*
,
2
2
. 3
%
"
0
"
2
.
,
# "
"
"
,
#
"
",
*
",
%
",
,
#
*
%
# "
#
"
"
#
"
.
1
0
*
"
.
3
2
% 2
"
)
"
#
" *
) 700 ? 1800 >).
2
2
#
%
#
*
#
.
2
%
*
4 /
"
"
#
1300 ? 1700 >)
"*
4
%
%
%
#
#
%
1
,
#
1700 ? 1800 >) %' *
.
)
2
"
#
"
#
%
"
"
"
130 ? 150
1
[2].
+ 1? (10)
6,
,
3
,
.
*
2
%
*
"
#
" ? 200 ? 250
'
, ,. .
#
2
[
]/ ,. . +2
, @.6. /
,
.. . / #
. ? $.: $ 2
, 2000. ? 416 .
2. +2
, ,. .
"
#
"
[
] /
,. . +2
.?
:
+, 2009. ? 264 .
3. A "
, 4. . . %
"
#
[
] / 4. . A "
:
?
. " .
.?
:
+, 2004. ? 175 .
4. A "
, 4. . $
#
"
[
] / 4. . A "
,
,. . +2
// $ "
2
,
#
%
:$
)
#
22-24
%
2000 . ?
:
+, 2000. ? . 106-109.
1. +2
+>/ 519.6:681.3.06
,
,
2
+.
".%. %
.(. '
"
#
"
+
0 &'1%" 20" 1 )8 $ ;
( 0"$ ) 1'7 ( $: 078 ) ,"+";)
1 ' 12 );1$- ( 0"$;1 " ! < 1-"0
1'120" )')<
In article are considered positive and negative sides of storage
of juicy agricultural production and a heat exchange design
procedure in storehouses. Necessity of perfection of methods of
calculation of storehouses is shown.
(
/
.
:
/
,
%
" ,
#
"
#
* "
.
)
#
.
)
#
, #
"
%
"
1
%
"
1 "
,
0
2
#
"
#
"
)
,
*
" ) 01 "
"
A
"
1 ,
2
*
"
"
1 " (
30
)
2 %
,
) %
"
% "
)
1 "
,
%
"
-
"
2
1.
%
,
,
"
2
% 2
2 ".
%
%
"
",
30
1
"
#
%
)
"
Key words: non-stationary heat exchange, storage of juicy
agricultural production, storehouse, mathematical model.
%
#
0
1
: %
"
.
#
"
,
"
#
%
,
,
%1
%
.
-
.
%
0)
01
?
(%
)
0
",
% ?
)
%
01
%'
% .
"
"
(
" 1
0
2
,
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
1
,
2
346
01 "
%
1
#
"
.
3
"
"
%
)
)
1
4 %
1
:
0
*
0
"
)
%
.
" "
1
1
#
%"
#
2
)
,
)
.,. .
[1]: R =A /G0,26,
R ?
)
,
%./ ; G ?
"
1 , ;A ? *
,
1
.
>
"
0 800? 2000
)
: F? =2,94/G0,12 ,
F? ?
1
"
)
"
1 , 2/ .
.
%
?8
?
[5]
%1 0
% )
* ) " "
20? 40 . 4
"
"
"
# #
"
,
1 0
0
,
01 "
.
#
%
2
1
)
"
1
%
"
"
1
"
.
. .
# , #
%
(
75%)
"
1
[2].
%1
#
)
"
1 #
0#
)
2
#
"
"
) 01 "
.
4 %"
"
,
01 "
%
#
"
1
%
)
)
"
#
"
)
,
) 0
%
2
" #
#
"
1
0 #
#
"
%
.
1 "
1
0
%
,
" "
"
, %
, "
#
)
,
)
1
#
% %
. .
"
0
0
%
",
)
%
"
%
" *
".
#
", #
*
"
.
2
"
#
"
)
)0
"
%1
1
"
.+
#
1
0 10
#
. .
36o .
%
#
-%
1
"
1 %
&
%
?
9
"
1 ,
"
)
.
1
,
,
1
1 0
%
#
"
0
"
#
.
%
%
0
/ #
1
#
,
1
)
"
%
#
#
".
*
,
)
%
) 01 "
%
#
. >
1
"
%
1 .
"
,
"
.
)
, # %
.
#
"
%
0
)
#
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
,
".
,
. /
#
"
)
0#
#
)
2
#
"
"
) 01 "
.
A
#
"
)
0
1
"
# .
"
)
#
.
.
% " [7, 8]
)
#
#
) 01
)
)
#
)
)
" .
$
#
#
) 01 "
)
#
*
#
1
2 %
#
#
,
1
%
.
4 %"
"
,
01 "
%
#
"
1
%
)
)
"
"
)
,
#
2
" #
#
"
1
0 #
#
"
%
.
.
% [4, 6]
#
2
% 2
#
#
%
.
)
)
1
%"
2
%
*
#
>
.
2
1 "
1 "
%
"
"
01 "
# ,
"
1 "
2
"
"
%"
31
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
346
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
#
. 8
0
Fn
*
"
.6
"
m
0
?
1
2n ?
?, = ?
n?
?°
,
,
#
m=0,36; Fn=76,8
,
?
"
.
.
1 ? (1 ?
:
4
,
2n=0,7 / 3; 2 ?
#
2=1,095 / 3; d ?
(
)
, d=50
2 3
/ .
3
0
,
"
m = 1 ? ?n / ? ;
0
Fn = 6(1 ? m) / d ,
,
0
0# 0 *
.
"
)m
1 + (n ? 1)m
01
, 4-
,
3b
?
n = 3? /(2?b + ? ) = 1, 471 ;
2 %
" , 3b=0,025 . /( /), 3 ?
*
, 3=0,56
. /( /).
/
#
,
? "
?
,
"
:
?6
,
Wq = ?0,0383 ? 10 ? exp(bt )
) 01
.
0 , #
#
"
0
" )
1
"
.
>
%
" #
#
1 "
1
%
#
0
,
0
# ,
1 0
%
.
%
1 "
1 "
#
0
% 2
%
#
"
.
%
0
#
%
0
1
#
)
#
" ?*
"?
,
1. .
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
.
#
-
,
3
#
%
"
#
%
"
"
#
"
1- . 2- , 3-
#
,
'
.,.
,
1 ",
"
[
] /
.,. .
. ? $.:
, 1989. ? 240 .
2. > # ,
. .
)
"
"
# "
[
] / . . > #
// 8
"
. ? 1981, !4, .43-46.
3. ,
..9.
#
"
"
#
[
] / ..9. . ? $.:
1
2
, 1972. ? 154 .
4. /
, .
"
[
] / . /
, >. 6 . ? $.: 4
, 1964. ?
488 .
5. /
, 6. . 8
[
]
/ 6. . /
, 4. .
. ? ,.:
$ 2
, 1980. ? 622 .
6. ,
,
...
%
[
] /
... ,
. ? $.: 3
, 1972. ? 560 .
7. $ #
,
..>.
#
[
] / ..>. $ #
. ? $. ? ,.:
, 1939. ? 325 .
8. =
, 6. .
"
"
%
1
[
]
/
6. . =
. ? $.: /
, 1978. ? 309 .
"
2
1
+>/ 004.021
/. . 0
$ 0 -
0"
, %.". 1
# ,
+.
,
.
!
.
:
,
,
.
,
%
%
4
)
#
2
)
#
2
32
)
"
..
"
#
"
0 (0"%%
( - % '1-$" "! %" ),)0 !"
9 $)$ 1%:
)$$'1+ !" )9 0)-5)
( $51 '1 )8 0"- 0"
(
.
+
1
"
*
#
,
In clause the problems costing at designing of drives of
coupling of tractors are considered. Use of the automated
system of scientific researches for the effective decision of
mathematical and organizational problems Is offered. The
structure of the software of the automated system using
mathematical model of a drive of coupling Is offered.
Keywords: coupling of tractors, drives of coupling, automated
system.
%
.
#
.
,
" ; :2
#
,
2
.
)
*
#
%
#
2 % #
"
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
346
#
#
"
%
0
(
"
%
)
:
"
1
,
. )
"
*
0
,
4 )
%
,
,
"
2
0
)
#
#
, %
&
#
#
"
0
$
#
2
$
*
,
0#
$
",
.
)
. "
,
$
$
"
#
2?
4
#
1.
#
.
#
"
",
"
.*
#
#
#
9
"
,
"
)
)
#
"
"
)
2
#
,
* "
#
.
"
,
%
"
. #
.
.
.
"
0
"
"
#
"
)
"
0%
,
1 0
#
"
)
# -
)
,
",
.
$
01
?
9
%
[2].
,
.
%
0
"
,
$
,
)
, #
)
0
*
"
"
01
,
,
.
)
2 [3,4].
"
#
#
#
,
0
)
% )
.
)
[1]. 9 # *
0# 01
,#
%
" #
" 2
.
"
#
2
#
#
2
2
0#
2
,
"
,
2
.
#
#
#
#
" * "
2
"
)
,
#
"
#
"
0
)
>
.
1
1
"
.
*
#
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
.
"
2
#
1?
#
$
:
/
#
,
"
*
%
01
"
0
"
%
2
%"
,
.
#
. >
#
*
.
*
.
0. $
%
*
# .
$
) 2
,
0
# ,
01
%
"
"
0
0
#
"
#
# ,
1
#
"
"
,
*
0
2
"
. 4
:
33
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
346
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
#
.
"
*
- %
",
.6
)
0
$
%
,
1
#
%
1
#
)
0,
..
"
01
)
)
1
.
6
%
)
# ,
2
%
,
#
)
)
,
#
01
#
#
%
#
,
)
,
"
)
2 %
*
.
"
)
"
)
"
*
%
1 0
"
?
[4].
%
)
#
" *
%
%'
)
).
#
, %
,
.
0,
*
"
#
)
1
, #
#
)
,
) .
4
#
34
,
,
01
. . *
"
2
#
(/ )
2
#
3
#
0
)
0#
)
0
% )
#
0
'
%
.
,
'
$. .
4
6
%
*
)
,
./
)
%
2. /
#
"
@.4.
? XXI
# (
,
"
,
2
"
0
.
4
)
)
//
. / $
#
53). ?
. . A
[
3
.
]
-
0
6. . >
.49-50.
"
// .
[
/
-
, 2004. ? 358 .
[
]
/
.
, 6. . >
, @.4.
) // .
0
"
"
"
.
!11. ? 2007. ? .3-8.
3. 6
, ..$. $
"
)
"
"
) "
#
" #
" *
[
] / ..$. 6
.. . 9 #
.? / : /, 1991
1991. ? 18 . .
4. 6
, ..$.
# - " #
*
[
] / ..$. 6
. ?/ : 4
>
, 1978. ? 232 c. .
5.
) , @.4. $
"
/
0,
*
#
*
)
#
*
0
$. .
. .
01
0#
0#
%
#
-130
#
(
)
%
1. 6
. /
*
)
)
1 .
"
( )
"
%
2
"
1
#
#
)
2
%
#
,
#
#
"
,
%
*
#
.
%
#
#
%
.
4
2
#
,
,
". /
% %
"
*
)
01 "
#
"
3 ?9
(/ )
(t))
#
"
#
%
)
)
.
%
:
% "
"
#
%
)
"
1 .
2
)
:
"
"
)
%
%
%
)
), #
,
) 0
2
%
# 0
61
(
*
#
#
#
,
#
+ 1? (10)
6,
3
# .
2
0
1
#2
) ".
.
*
4 /
.
?
,
"
.
"
] / @.4.
) ,
+ ? ! 1(16). ? 2009. ?
+.
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
346
&6 6- 64 6 .
/
+>/ 664.724(075.8)
,
!.%. +
&.+. 5
$
! :1-
51
"'7 : 1
"
,
.
.
!
&
,
,
.
"
"
)
% 0
9
%
,
)
)
#
*
,
#
) .
# " %
"
%
"
)
#
)
. .
"
,
%
(
&
. 1).
!"
(
% #
"
&
1
"
?)
?
!
%
.), # %
#
2
2
9
= , /
,
"
,
2 2
6
". .
,
%
,
" %
"
2
"
#
#
.
%'
"
%
%
.
#
"
"
%
#
-
)
.
"
"
"
[3,4], *
%
1 "
#
"
0# 0
%)
1?
, #
.
)
)
2
?*
?+ '
?
,
? %
,
)
.
%'
'
"
)
"
0
"
"
.
#
!"
3
""
,
0%
&
,
.
0
%
"
#
(
#
*
5
)
"
,
" %
'
?
# "
,
# .
0
)
% %
#!
#
.
2
# 0
%
) ,
"
%
(
)
%
"
"
,
,
"
2
" , #
#
#
"
)')0 !" )8 ,10 "
01
% %
"
,
#
!1
,
2
,
*
(
In the article are given the main principles of grain aerations.
The classification of grain aeration systems according to
aeration rate is presented. The article is intended for specialists
of agriculture. It can also be useful for designers of grain
storage.
Key words: grain ventilation, classification of grain ventilation
systems, cooling, drying and conditioning of grain.
,
#
"
+
' 4 1 )8 "- )!
.
.
"
#
"
(
:
#
#
"
( )
"
(%) %
"
,
1
2
, %
/
( = ) (1930 Fenton F.C.,
Swanson C.O.) [4,5]. 5 0 * "
%
"
,
%
%
,
)
2 01
0
)
0
35
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
346
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
.
"
.6
3
)
%
)
#
, #
/ /
#
,
"
"
*
%
./". =
%2
%
"
#
.
)
" "
40-"
#
1 ".
2
.
,
.
"
"
, . .%
1
1 0
0
#
%"
"
%
2 "
1
.
.
)
" ,
"
1
% #
0
"
1
.
.
(
" ,
"
" ( *
#
. 2).
,
)&
%
15
,
-
10
3
"
/
2
&.
,
"
"
"
"
,
4 %
)
'
,
.
-
2?
#
*
,
.
1
"
% #
0 %
%
"
.
..
2
,
100
)
1 .
)
0
1
% ;
%
%
0#
%
,
0
(500
:
2
*
2
.
#
)
,
"
%
#
#
"
)
*
.
1
1500
. /
,
"
"
" )
"
.
"
"
"
0
" )
2
)
,
#
%
,
*
"
0
:
. 4
01
%'
)
;
" )
#
2
1
,
,
,
" )
,
.
"
"
( 2 . )
>
% 2 " %'
%"
%
)
*
,
#
"
01 "
"
%
- V- %
"
1 ;
0
#!
1
)
#
)
,
,
,
"
%
#!
2
36
"
,
)
, #
(4? 7 /
1
)
0
(>18%)
>
"
#
"
2
" )
%
" ,
,%
2
?
)
.
)
"
)
,
2
2
'
&
'
!
-
5
3
,
%
. .
;
)
%
)
. 4
2
%
.
"
"
20
4
.
"
)
"
"
"
.
0
"
#
,
- " )
)
- 2 .
/ )
?
1
.
01 "
,
%
0
, %
#
01 " )
#
, / /
,
.
/
.
,
#
.
*
*
1 " %
",
"
[5,7].
"
%
"
"
+ 1? (10)
6,
"
" .
1
%
[5,6].
"
%
)
%
,
,
"
#
0
1950-"
0 *
#
1960-"
1970-"
% 2 "
,
%
1,73
"
2
" "
1960-"
#
/ )
*
" )
1? 2%.
,
1
, %
)
%
4 /
.
000
"
*
)
#
. 4 %
"
%) 0
%
#
2
%
.
;
"
.
)
;
.
1
"
1 . 4
# 1 0
)
%)
#
2
%
.
,
"
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
+ 1? (10)
6,
"
346
"
#
1.
%
[1,6]
,
#
-
#
,
#
1
, 2
2,5
5,0
7,5
10,0
12,5
15,0
17,5
20,0
22,5
25,0
30,0
35,0
40,0
45,0
50,0
55,0
60,0
65,0
70,0
75,0
80,0
85,0
90,0
95,0
100,0
2
0,03
0,07
0,10
0,13
0,17
0,20
0,23
0,27
0,30
0,33
0,40
0,47
0,53
0,60
0,67
0,73
0,80
0,87
0,93
1,00
1,07
1,13
1,20
1,27
1,33
"
%1
2
#
%
#
,
"
%
"
"
)
)
%
"
)
. 3).
31
28
22
19
25
5-8
10-15
20-30
7
'
"
"
"
"
40-60
"
13
10
3-5
&%
16
80-120
"
160240
"
+ '
.
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
# ,
'
,%
( )
40
35
. 2)
) Na
"
#
30
25
#
" % #
" )
01 "
%
# ":
2
(
),
#
,
150
01
2
7
#
"
8
,
9
10
'
11 12
,%
13
14
(%)
"
.
%
6
0
"
" )
2 01 0
-
+ '
.
"
,
/
0
" )
"
0
" ,
#
2,5 / / (
1/8? 1/5
2 ).
.
15
5
#
.
20
10
2 .
"
"
,
(
" : Vo=V x Na ( / )
#
"
1
$
0
1
(
( *
%'
#
'
( / / );
- "
"
2
.
>
3;
0
2 , #
.
:
-
%'
2
2 ,
0,05
0,10
0,15
0,20
0,25
0,30
0,35
0,40
0,45
0,50
0,60
0,70
0,80
0,90
1,00
1,10
1,20
1,30
1,40
1,50
1,60
1,70
1,80
1,90
2,00
01
%' V
0
"
)
"
, °)
250
500
750
1000
1250
1500
1750
2000
2250
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
7500
8000
8500
9000
9500
10000
-
#
"
#
#
,
'
/
" ,
%
-
&
"
2
2
1?
%
,
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
.
"
, °)
4 /
&
.6
3 ?&
(%)
"( )
"
)
" )
:
)
- "
;
1
"
;
37
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
346
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
.6
-
#
"
"
, "
"
"
2
-
(
" );
#
#
%
"
)
"
#
% %
)
#
%
" "
;
% )
2 .
.
;
%
"
#
)
"
0
)
0
,
,
#
%
#
"
%
,
"
.
"
"
"
*
%
)
0
0,5 / / )
" (
2 "
.
-
)
.
%
2
#
0
)
, %
"
%
#
#
.
"
,
,
%
#
!
1.
%
%
%
%
2.
#
)
;
2 0
"
2
"
#
;
3.
%
#
"
"
%
)
"
.
#
>
"
..
2
"
"
1
%
1 .
#
"
1
.
2
"
*
.
2
:
1
%
"
"
#
"
"
#
#
)
2
#
(
2
%
% %
;
2
"
;
,
)
"
%
, #
0
"
.
1
#
.
"
)
"
)
#
)
4.
;
2
2
#
%
% 2
)
""
"
)
.
38
-
#
1 ;
-
"
% )
01 "
"
0
. &
"
#
0
"
;
2
"
#
"
1
%
)
-
2
#2
"
;
#
0
2
1
-
-
)
.
;
*
#
,
#
,
"
-
#
"
.
,
"
;
"
#
"
#
,
) 01
)
)
%
"
$
". >
"
-
-
,
#
0
;
- "
,
)
, %
"
" )
0 :
)
"
,
,
"
2
%
;
)
"
"
"
+ 1? (10)
;
#
% )
"
;
" "
" )
6,
%
#
;
#
4 /
",
"
"
0
,
% #
.
'
1. ASAE D272.3 DEC01 (2003): Resistance to airflow
of grains, seeds, other agricultural products and perforated
metal sheets. ASAE Standards, 569?576.
2. Brooker D.B., Baaker-Arkema F.W., Hall C.W.
(1992): Drying and Storage of Grains and Oilseeds. Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
3. $
, &.6. .
[
] /
&.6. $
, $.: /
, 1970, 183 .
4.
, ,. . 8
[
] /
,. .
, $.: /
, 1975, 399 .
5. Hukill W.V.. Grain Cooling by Air. Agricultural
Engineering. Vol. 34, p. 456, July, 1953.
6. Robinson R.N., W.V. Hukill, and G.H. Foster.
Mechanical Ventilation of Stored Grain. Agricultural
Engineering. Vol. 32, p. 606, November, 1951.
7. Theimer Otto F.. Ventilation of Grain Storages.
Agricultural Engineering. Vol. 32, p. 106, February, 1951.
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
346
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
+>/ 005.52.003.1:631.371:621.311(470.319)
$.$. (
+.
$
6-
%);1$-)9 " "'),
-5)
+
!
!
!
.
,
!
,!
#
*
,
#
1
*
*
"
"
#
2
*
0
"
#
",
#
2
,
3
" #
"
"
,
"
#
"
) 2 0
"
*
"
2
#
.
# *
#,
%1
#
1
, %
"*
)
*
)
*
,
,
#
*
"
*
*
#
%
3
*
%)
", *
%"
#
#
*
2
*
*
%
,
) 20-30% [4].
0
%'
0
# *
1 " *
)
2
"*
.
.
#
*
*
"
#
*
#
.
60%
2 9,4%
. [5]
*
"
)
)
1
#
,
"
0
.
%
%1
"
*
%
*
#
,
"
%
"
#
11 #
,
%
? 18-19 #
#
" 10-
"
"
(
)
%
21-22 #
#
(
).
*
0
*
,
.
-
* "
"
*
"
*
"
#
*
#
"
"
( "
%
"
).
*
%
#
,
.
"
%
"
1
"
-
.
%)
"
*
*
. >
"
)
,
%
,
*
*
# *
0 ,
"
)
*
0.
%
#
"
*
# 0
) *
%
# (
.
3
%
*
%
%
2
%
#
"
. . -
"
%
*
,
*
"
,#
"
%
",
#
0
% 0
",
-
"
2
" *
%
%1
.-
"
*
), #
+
".
.3
1
1
#
#
), #
4-5
"
"
.2 ..
*
2-3
/
#
12
)
)
%
%'
*
2
%)
%
#
-
4
0
#
. . ,
500
0 160
2
.
,
#
#
#
.
"
#
"
%1
*
55,7
*
*
#
",
%
"
,
"
1
#
"
*
%
#
%
#
-
0
#
)
%
0
*
%
%
1990
"
"
%
"
"
#
%
%
( 3 ),
.
*
.
%
",
%)
*
)
%
. -
%
.
#
#
%
*
)
%)
#
"
2 01
%
*
%
1
*
01
%)
,
*
Key words: efficiency, functioning, electric networks, electrical
supply, deterioration.
*
%
%"
)
+
2
)
,
.
"
#
Functioning of agriculture of the country is impossible without
reliable and qualitative work of agricultural electric networks
which are a finishing link in a supporting system of users the
electric power and are in direct interacting with a concrete
user.
,
:
)
. .. .
)0 !" )8 $1'7$-)2 6'1- 0);1$-)2 $1 19
4
!
,
%
*
*
#
.
0
"
39
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
346
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
6$ 4
#
.6
>4
4 >6- 4
"
*
,
)
6 6; ?
7
,
(
0# 01
)
)
0
*
)
0
#
0,
"
#
+> .,6 . 644
7
4 + ,+
)
0
%'
*
*
,
%
-"," 1')
.
"
"
)
)
"
# "
*
0
1?
%)
%
+
.
2
%
6,5
9,8
33,6
8,8
19,8
21,5
100,0
"
.
)
#
1
*
0
"
%1 "
,
% )
"
"
#
)%
*
3
#
#
"
1. .
2
*
0,4-20 .
)
%
-
#
)
-
"
#
)
#
"
%
"
"
"
*
" #
10/0,4 .
%
," =
t
Ta
#
"
" *
*
"
#
)%
*
"
40
%
#
,
%"
,
10
10-0,4
.
)
Ta
#
)
. >
Ta =
1
,
a
16,7
4,4
22,7
#
, %;
*
t
)%
;
0?
, %
*
5a ?
,
*
"
*
#
;
a?
, %.
*
t
," =
,
"
, " = t a ? 100,
2.
#
(
,
. .) ( % . 2).
6,0
0 = 0,
,
*
"
*
01
t (100 ? 0 )
;
)%
%
25,0
*
%
"
4,0
:
#
? 100,
#
,
1 "
33,3
#
," ?
)
#
0,3
"
," =
"
"
"
1.
2
)0, % % ,
0
*
"
"
#
",
%"
*
*
1?
%)
#
,
2.
.
01 "
-
( % .1).
1. +
2. .
3. 9
4. #
5.
6.
#
#
%'
, %
2008
%
1. +
2. .
3. 9
4. #
5.
6.
#
2?
%
%
,
0
,
*
1 "
"
, %
)
)
%
*
*
7,
)
*
*
+ 1? (10)
6,
"
*
*
/ A6
4 /
,i
1
/
? 100 =
t Ao
/
? 100 = t a ,
?
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
t
+ 1? (10)
6,
346
!
1.
,i ?
1
)% ,
#
"
,
%.
%
#
"
," =
- ?
t
,
)
Ta
+
,
#
#
)%
#
*
?
#
#
*
1
#
#
#
,
.. %
#
"
%
%"
. .
,
%
"
#
"
0
*
# "
01
#
%
#
,
( % .3).
2
%'
0
,
%
*
.
63
2
%
*
#
)
.
%
3?
%
*
%'
*
,
%
.,
0
,%
-
+
.,, %
,
-
&
53,3
51 - 100
2 100
:
.
%.
,
#-
. .
!' - 10 !:
50
#
*
0
*
%
)
)
2
) ,
#
1. .
%
%
0
)
627,1
596,7
30,4
36,2
426
405,3
20,6
10,5
122,9
117
5,9
100
1175,9
1119
56,9
"
*
"
"
"
)
%
-
"
%
*
#
")
#
#
"
"
*
#
.#.
#
(
"
1 0 * "
, "
01
%
) 0
)
#
#
"
).
4.
*
#
#
)
#
.
.
*
,
"
"
1
3.
1
#
2 "
,
%'
.
*
(
.
>
%
t
%.;
*
#
>
#
% )
0
*
"
0
)
,
2.
%
,
/ +-
2 %
#
# ,
*
*
t
t
%
%
),
"
"
*
,
-
#
(
*
.
/ ?
*
"
#
#
"
"
%"
%.; Ao = a ? / ?
,
3.
*
/ ? %
%.;
:
>
#
/
&6 6- 64 6 .
,
#
*
"
0
,
".
'
.. . 3
, . .,
"
/ 6. .,
2007. ? 390 .
2. /
, .... 6
)
"
0 . ? $.: /
,
#
*
/
..../
, . .&
.?3
-Info. ? 2006. ? !12
(38).
3. $
, 4.$. 3
)
/ 4.$. $
// $ "
*
"
. ? !10. ? 1997 .
4.
# ,
.. .
)
"
"
/.. .
# ,
$. . @
// $ "
*
"
. ? !8. ? 2001.
5.
%
)
*
%
#
"
"
%
"
#
*
0) "
:
#
4
(
0#
)/.4
$3 8;
?
..>. / . ? 5 102 9; !
01.20.0215666. ? $.,
2005. ? 109 .
!' - 0,4 !:
50
51 - 100
2 100
:
51,4
788,7
751,6
37,1
35,1
538,8
513,4
25,3
13,4
206
196,3
9,7
100
1533,5
1461,4
72,1
41
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
3/ 4 $ A6 / 6
6/ <
9.
:
4
.6
6/
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
+>/ 631.15
,
'.!. +
.
)
9;)! -6
$ 0" 1()8 $
2
+
1- )!
( 0",!) )8 $1'7$- 2 ,89$ !1
01+ 0)8 )9
,
-!
: !
.
,
,
!
,
,
* ',
.
"
#
"
",
"
,#
"
.
)
9
%
3
,
.
"
"
"
,
)
)
2
",
,
,
- "
..
60-70-
%
%
,
2
#
%
0
,
#
"
"
# 0
. 3
"
*
.
2
"
#
,
2
#
,#
)
,
.
4 %
,
,
1 0
%
"
42
1
. .
"
2
?)
0
*
1
4
2
" *
# 0
[1,
,
.
)
.
%
588,7
)
"
"
%
#
#
"
" #
"
1995
74%.
0
.
"
"
$
5A
,
0
"
>
% 0
"
,
"
#
#
.
2
.
2
)
0
#
. 173], #
% 0
2
#
$ )
#
"
"
1
"
"
"
.
01
"
.
1
#
#
#
. . )
#
"
&
?.
#
% %1
0
*
,#
.
?
#
" ,
%
%1
#
1
*
"
.
1
?*
%
,
"
)
*
#
"
? *
%
4 %"
*
"
*
%
#
.
1 0
#
. 4
#
"
*
)
*
)
1 0
", %0 )
#
,
%
.
,
%"
"
#
#
*
,
2
"
2
*
0
*
*
.
0
)
%
,
,
.
"
.
% #
#
)
,
01
1
*
,
"
"
2
3000 ,
%
"
#
0
.
"
"? [3, . 772].
0
,
,
) 01
[2, . 7].
3
#
%
"
#
?...
*
2
)
%
*
#
#
1
"
,
1 "
#
,
,
#
,
)
,
"
. . 90-
?
4.@.=
0%
:2
The question on necessity of the complex approach to formation
of strategy of development of the agricultural enterprises
functioning in modern social and economic conditions is
considered.
Key words: economic strategy, economic potential, the system
approach, logistics in agrarian and industrial complex, the
scenario of development, complex development of the
enterprise.
,
% #
2
/.>.
"
2
.
1
"
%
%
"
"
.
2
0
.
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
2
3/ 4 $ A6 / 6
%
,
#
,
.
,
,
)
#
"
"
0#
2
%
?
%
%'
,
.
%
4
)
2,5
#
%
. .
.
%
%
%
#
2
%
# .
"
"
#
%
"
"
.
4
)
*
01 "
#
,
"
"
"
400
0
.
#
- "
#
"
* "
#2
%. (
,
01
.
#
,
0
,
2
6
6000
0). . "
). 4
)
,#
)
,
.
2
5
%.
?
1
,
.
4
,
%
"
2
01 "
%
, #
2
"
)
400
0
6-7-
1
2
"
2
/?
)
".
#
..
#
"
%
1100
300
1
1200
%
.
%.,
? 508
"
,
. /
#
%0 )
"
"
"
2
%
2 "
%
1
9 #
)
%
0
%
( #
)
2 "
)
,
..
.
)
)
"
%
.
"
,
400-600
)
"
"
)
0
#
1
%
)
?
%
, #
)
"
"
,
-
2
,
2
)
%
,
2000
? 800
#
,
)
)
#
300
.
? 100
.
%. 9
108
. %. %1
%.
%
.
#
. 4
. 4
"
%
#
"
1
.
"
%
-
.
,
#
%.). >
)
%
0
24
(50
. %.). >
"
% 0
(13
. %.). %1
.
(99
. %.).
"
2
.
2200
4.
#
0
%
2
(
400
%.), %1
(36
.
#
)
,
#
(90000
.
%
%
"
%.). 4
)
" . 4
.
6/
(360
% )
%
1
.
%
#
%
,
".
,
3.
"
1
,
,
"
#2
1
[4, .
,
%
#
2.
#
#
*
%
1
2
,
.
.
%
2
2 "
%
%
,
%
. .
10-13
.
,
" )
). .
%"
",
"
",
. .
01
.
0
.
0
0
46-51].
1. 4
-
-
#
.
#
"
-
"
"
"
"
%
%
"
"
0
"
0
(
. /
, #
4
*
"
#
"
.
8
,
55
#
%
1
%
",
%
,
*
4
)
0
%
:
"
,
2
"
"
-
9.
,
%
2
)
)
#
2 "
"
. .
,
)
2
6/ <
,
2
"
,
, #
"
"
. 4
,
.
#2
#
*
,
%
2
"
#
43
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
3/ 4 $ A6 / 6
6/ <
9.
:
4
,
%
#
0
%'
"
.). 4
#
"
%
)
. 4
0
%
)
(
% #
.
% 2
%
"
(
%
#
).
)
) 01
"
#
"
#
"
0
#
,
%
0
%
#
.4
) 1 , #
. 4
2
,
, # 5A
% 1
,
#
%
,
%
"
#
%
#
.
2
?3
%
#
1
100
4
,
%
1 ,
%.
#
+
,
%
,%
%
/
)
#
%
2
%
.
.
%.
/
?,
) ,
. 4
44
#
. -
, #
%
.
".
%
). $ )
%'
,
?
%
(,
?
).
,
,
2
2
"
% 1 "
)
(2006 .)
%
?
8
?> )% ?
/ "
?, #?
/
./
347,0
181,5
951,2
58,0
424,7
42,5
189,7
7,5
262,15
29,41
615,47
4924,93
3827
6,3
154,43
30,76
643,29
2846,08
7046
25,1
236,22
21,60
495,95
3448,09
4928
15,8
208,95
25,62
549,89
4824,75
4930
25,2
126,07
20,40
624,81
5748,27
5150
51,9
%
",
%
,
",
"
,
(7-8
)
% 0
%
,
%
"
#
50%
,
).
1.
"
) 2 0
,
#
#
#
-
,
01
120,0
6,8
*
,
"
0
31,6
17,1
211,0
20,1
4251
"
. 2 "
)
"
( %
#
" )
#
%
%
, %
)
,
./
,
32,0
25,4
174,1
30,2
3919
*
%
*
0. >
"
/
%
? ,
0
"
, 8
?, #?
14,0
18,0
206,0
6630
"
"
%
36,1
179,4
5000
,
.
%
#
)"
)
.
",
2 "
0
,
%
0#
"
%
%
*
#
#2
1
,
18,8
14,4
128,6
14,9
3587
,
"
-*
"
,
.). 4
0
4
"
%
#
"
?
?> )% ?
. "
.
)
,
2 ,#
.
".
, /
)
)
/ ?,
"
.
+
"
+ 1? (10)
6,
"
"
"
#
"
"
#2
4 /
"
,
"
"
"
%"
()
%
"
%
?
)
,
%"
%"
, #
,
)
#
,
"
.6
6/
'
,
-
)
"
"
,
.
9. .
3
#
/:
,
,
:
/ 9. . $
. ?.
):
+.
. +, 2008.? 292 .
2.
, ...
*
#
#
2
*
"
:
.
...
.
*
.
/
...
. ?.
), 2006. ? 24 .
3. )
. .
/
. . )
, 4.@.=
.-$.: 2005.-939 .
4.
%
#
// 4
"
.? 2008.?
!6.? . 46-51.
$
2
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
3/ 4 $ A6 / 6
6/ <
9.
:
4
6/
+>/ 330.142.211:303.7+330.322
. ."
,
'.).
,
+.
*
#
"
+
" "'), 0 51$$" ! $ 0 ),! +$ !" $
! : 2 $01+$ ! !
$1'7$- 2 ,89$ !1
: 2 0(" ),"5)82 ) " 0"!'1 )8 "- )!),"5))
) !1$ )5)
9 +18 1'7 $ ) ! 0' !$- 9 &'"$ )
$
.
.
.
:
,
.
.
"
/
%
,*
"
"
,
,
,
The level of the equipping of the agricultural organizations of
the Orel region with the basic means is estimated. Structure of
the sources of the investments in reproduction of the basic
means is considered. Directions of the activation of the
investment activity in the Orel region are determined.
Keywords: basic means, agricultural organizations, Orel
region, investments in reproduction of the basic means,
directions of the activation of the investment activity.
"
"
3
,
"
-*
)
.
2
"
.
"
.
%
#
*
#
%
1
*
%
- %
;
#
.
*
;
;
"
;
#
-
"
;
#
;
"
- *
"
#
)%
-
%
#
"
%
-
;
-
01
-
;
*
%
#
.
*
,
#
%
#
2
?*
4
,
"
0
"
%
1?
.
2
,
"
"
,
01
(
.
%
2
?
"
#
#
"
?
2
.
)
.
01 "
(
*
#
. 1).
?
%
"
1
01
"
" 2
",
*
*
:
%
,
;
#
"
,
%
:
"*
1 ? .
.
"
"
?
.
#
%
";
#
)
;
*
"
?
"
"
"
#:
;
"
1
?
0
01 "
%
#
"
" #
;
#
?
"
"
0,
"
.
#
"
"
%
0
#
"
2
#
"
%
"
#
#
"
#
"
)
0#
" #
.4
.
.
6
"
,
45
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
3/ 4 $ A6 / 6
2
.
?
"
"
"
"
?
3
1
4
"
5 ?
6
"
#
2
. 9
"
"
#
1000
(
01 "
, 2 .:
%
# "
%
%
# "
%
%
# " 2
(
)
, :
%
#
%
%
#
%
# 0 2
"
1000
%
#
"
%
"
%
. .
% 0
%
#
"
%
#
)
%
#
"
"
,
"
2
%
) "
)
%
%
.
*
, #
" #
)
,#
0
%
"
*
2000
2008
.
,
/
1,
%
/
% 0
%
)
"
#
. 2
4,3
. 2
%
# "
%
%
# " 2
. 2 . [1, . 209]. %
/ "
)
"
[1, . 209 ? 210]
,2 .
.
,
"
#
,
"
.
"
2008
3,9
;
1,4
#
0
,
10,2
#
. 2 ;
0,6
0,2
)
%
0.
%
2000
7,5
133
2001
7,2
139
2002
6,7
149
2003
6,2
162
2004
5,8
171
2005
5,4
184
2006
5,0
199
2007
4,6
218
2008
4,5
221
5,7
89
17
5,4
74
17
5,1
71
18
5,8
68
13
4,7
49
15
3,9
45
13
4,0
41
8
3,4
41
4
2,6
29
3
175
11
59
185
16
58
195
17
56
173
12
76
211
20
68
254
22
75
251
25
126
294
24
285
381
35
300
%
1
#
1,7
, #
#
1000
%
#
2
?
3
"
"
,
%
-
% ,
,
%
%
2008
#
2
"
:
"
2?
"
2008
$ 2
+
,
"
)
,%
"
/ *
/ *
*
:
27,5
24,1
8,4
6,5
32,4
%
"
0
,%
2
"
6,0
"
"
%
#
%
%
%
*
9 #
9
.
"
#
"
%
;
#
"
2.
%
2
01 "
? 52,0 %;
0?
32,5
%;
? 30,4 %. &
"
%
,
)
, #
2
#
"
1
,
2
*
2
.
"
.
,
2
" #
"
1000
%'
"
%
#
"
%
%'
)
%
1
)
"
% ,
"
. .
"
"
2
"
.
"
"
0
2 01 0
,
0
*
"
"
"
,
+ 1? (10)
6,
"
)
#
*
. 3
.
4
%
.
1? %
"
#
#
*
0
0
%
46
"
4 /
0
%
.
#
?
.6
6/
*
"
%
*
.
.
4
%
"
1
. 4
)
0
:
*
.
.
9.
*
"
.
?
"
#
*
.
01
4
*
6/ <
0,12
0,21
%
)%
[2]
#
"
01
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
. 4 %
2
)
0
0
,
%
3/ 4 $ A6 / 6
)%
,
"
*
%
"
%
(
$
?
? . "
"
-.
4
?
"
?
8
?
0,40)
$
"
%
%
(
,
/
)
/
?
?
,
"
"
"
%.
"
100
2 74,9
?
,#
"
",
%
(
.
%1
%
+
(
1
"
"
( *
(? 9
. "
1 0
)
"
?
,
1
. 3
0
*
#
0 %
-
, #
"
.
,#
.
,
,
)
0 #
0
%
"
)
.
2,65
2,53
"
%
)%
[1, 2]
%'
(
)
"
%'
"
/
)
"
.
2008
"
%
, 8947
. .
-
2
6132
# "
,
#
"
"
806
,
#
"
.
(
"
70 %
, % 2
). [3] /
"
"
,
,
)
#
1,41
2,5
"
10924
8060
# "
%
"
2
3310
"
)
"
%
1,04
%1
"
.
% -
%
%
)
,
17,9
#
1
)
*
#
18,2
,
"
#
0
"
.
2 " %'
,
"
22,0
%
"
"
. 0
"
3
,
%
2
*
12,8
#
,
27,6
"
%
"
?
,
%
"
2304 2200
#
,
?
?
1930
%
2 140 %./
)
, 9
- "
+#
%'
%
,
918
)
#
"
.
# (
2008
2
33,1
)
.
,
# %
28,2
%'
"
"
.
.
100 %.
? %
"
. %.
5,8
1
15,9
"
"
,
2007 2008
"
( 953,8 2728,1 6112,7 5576,4
2 "
%'
%
)
.
*
%
%.
01 "
1
%1
%.
.
)
#
?, 87,3
%. 3
100
.%
.
, #
.
,
(
"
8 ?/
?,
9
%
.
#
")
.
"
01 "
)
%'
"
"
,
)
,
( *
2 1, #
.
,
%'
.
"
2005 2006
8
"
"
%
)
,
,
?
%
(0,06-0,10)
"
*
?> %
?9
9
"
%
0,25
?
(
"
*
6/
"
3.
"
, #
"
4
%'
3
.
"
?
?/
?
%
.
%
"
"
:
%
3?
%
9.
"
"
0.
. / *
%
2
"
% 0
%
2
6/ <
"
?
4
% 0
/?
. >
"
- "
.
2
%'
(
#
,
"
%
$
%
%
%
47
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
3/ 4 $ A6 / 6
6/ <
9.
+
%
%1
. 4
9
?,
4
4
?
.
,
"
,
.
?
#
.
"
)
%
"
,
%
%
,
)
#
F1 ? 80
? 54
#
"
G
.
. (
).
4
"
*
45
,
.
)
%
4
#
2
"
..
#
*
"
"
"
% 0
#
"
"
4?
%
:
":
%
48,1 51,7 47,1 44,9 44,8 32,0 32,5 32,0
31,0 31,0 23,8 17,7 14,3 12,6 15,0 17,1
14,4 17,2 20,8 22,2 23,7 15,2 14,9 11,9
#
51,9 48,3 52,9 55,1 55,2 68,0 67,5 68,0
":
9,5
%
"
%0 )
":
%0 )
%0 )
%0 )
14,3 9,7 1,3 11,0 6,5
%'
"
5,3
8,0
7,7
7,8
7,7
8,7
4,3 4,0
3,4
3,5
4,3
2,8
5,1
1,8
1,8 0,5
0,6
0,9
0,8
0,3
0,9
,
0
.
#
0 2001
16,1 %
#( "
48
7,1
10,2 7,8 8,4
"
%'
5,3
%
"
#
2 32 % %1
#
%
2008
. "
2008
#
%1
%'
68 %. .
% 2
)
495
.
-
2
0
16
52
%
.
.
.
%1
%'
#
,
) ,
)
(?
%"
#
"
? ?
, ?P.O. . @
.
.
*
,"
*
,#
"
"*
120
"3600
*
*
??
1200
),
#
120
.
). [4]
%
0
/
,
#
$? ?
)
?
) 01
.
)
0
)
2
2
2
.
4
*
,
2
01
1
:
-
%
"
6,3 20,5 32,1 15,7 19,3 25,6 17,1 22,3
#
/
5,7
%.
2
2,8 5,9 18,5 16,2 22,9 33,6 23,8
20,0 13,5 13,1 9,3 12,3 13,0 11,2 13,9
.
/ %
.
/
"
, % [1, . 329]
100
,
%
? 1,3
, 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
#
/
1,5
#
%
. % .
3
? .
? (2,5
.
%.),
?@
? (1,3
. %.),
+/ ?/
?
(3,4
. %.); 9
?P.O. . @
*
? (3,8
.
%.);
?
"-$? (3,9
. %.) [4].
.
1
?
2
?
2 %
,
%
?$
?9 ( ??
%1
%'
1,4
.
% . +)
380
.
% ./
?
? #
0
)
( % . 4).
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
%
%
%
/
#
%
.
"
. %.
& 2
" #
%
#
1
#
,
"
1
)
#
.
%0 )
%0 )
%
-
+ 1? (10)
6,
%
%0 ) .
1
2009
"
2009
%
#
4 /
%
"
9
"
0
#
)
%
.6
6/
09
.2
2
1
0 10
"
/ ?
?
1
# "
/ . & 2
1
.
:
%
)
; #
"
#
%0 )
"
"
"
"
,
;
,
";
#
"
"
;
#
"
%
%
;
%
"
-
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
3/ 4 $ A6 / 6
"
"
01 "
)
4
"
)
0
,
%
#
./
"
%
%
#
"
0#
0
,
#
"
,
.4
%
,
,
,
"
1 "
1
#
.
. )
,
%
#
%
01
",
"
"
.
2
",
-
"
%
%0 )
"
.
#
"
,
,
"
"
0
0
%
%
:
01
% )
;
0
%
;
%
%0 )
"
"
#
)
" #
"
#
"
"
;
)
%0 )
%
,
2 0
*
01 "
)
2
#
;
0 %
%0 ) ,
)
?;
)
,
*
"
,
"
,
-
"
;
#
"
,
*
%0 )
" ?
-
01
, % ) 01
%
#
) .
)
0#
%
/.
#
"
,
%
,
"
#
#
1
2
%
#
;
"
#
2
-
#
"
?
)
)
0
*
;
"
?
,
2
;
?
#
2 01
#
,
#
#
"
?
);
).
,
:
?
%
#
#
#
".
"
?
#
#
,
0
2
%'
;
(
"
"
)
%
#
-
*
%
.
"
..
"
01
%
%
%
)
#
%
0
6/
#
. 4
"
4
%
%
"
01
) :
%
"
:
)
#
"
# 01
#
)
,
% 2 0
%
(
#
#
#
)
.
%
%
"
9.
% "
) ,
.
%'
01 "
%
>
"
-
*
6/ <
. 4
0# 0
,
0
0
0,
)
"
"
)
,
1
,
%
"
0
"
0
,
"
%
.
'
1.
%
. 2000 ? 2008
:
%. ! 0905 /
)%
%
.?
. ? 2009. ? 353 .
2.
%
:
%. ! 0907 /
)%
%
. ? (: (
. ? 2009 .
3. $
- " #
%
"
2008
:
#
%
3
"
. - ! 9.
2009. ? . 79 ? 81.
4.
, .. $.
/?
[
] / .. $.
//
?
?. ? ! 89 (25043) 24.06.2009 .
5. 9
,
. @.
*
#
/[
/ . @. 9
// 3
"
"
%
01 "
. ? 2007. ? ! 11.
C. 43 ? 46.
.
.
//
?
]
?
.
49
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
3/ 4 $ A6 / 6
6/ <
9.
:
4
.6
6/
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
+>/ 336.713:330.322.1:005
,
".'. '
*
,
+.
".(. (
0"!'1 )1 ) !1$ )5)
,
,
/
#
,
,
.
!
*
.
!
,
?
%
,
,
,
%
,
0%
#
+
Major factors of management are defined by investment activity
of commercial banks, the short analysis of introduction of credit
and investment products is presented to development of real
sector of economy.
Key words: management, investments, investment activity,
commercial bank, the factor, risk, incomes, real sector of
economy.
-
*
,
#
%
*
%1
)
0
"
,
%
%
%
#
/
,
0#
%
)
,
.
% #
,
1
#
#
)
% # "
,
)
*
)
.
#
%
#
2
#
"
%
#
)
.
#
%
#
"
"
#
(
, #
",
.
, # %
%
,
#
,
%
)
(
)
"
"
)
#
"
# ,
"
,
%
#
0
,
3
)
,
*
.
%
#
#
?
#
%
) ,
0
*
,
1
%"
"
0
0
"
, #
1
01
2
>
#
.
%
0
(
"
0
"
*
%
0.
: #
.
"
2
01
?
,
;
.
0:
+$
(1)
2
#
; $ ?
2
?
#
%
*
)
1
* "
"
.
#
)
#
,
#
) )
,
#
)
"
%
#
"
,
#
%
)
0
"
)
,
"
(
#
"
1
#
)
%
,
,
)
0
%1
2
%
%
%
"
%"
.
,
%
).
)
,
,
2
"
0
%
#
50
*
"
,
)
#
-
)
). 6
)
"
?
+
%
1
%
.
)
%1
,
%
"
%
"
"
%
,
#
?,
%
%'
1
1
#
"
,
.
1
?
%
.
2
%"
%
"
)
,
0
: %
#
" %0 )
"
"
#
"
*
%
, %
,
)
) 01
.
,
.
"
*
.
#
#
,
,
?. A 1
#
*
%
0
#
,
#
. 6
1
". /
%
01
#
"
1 ,
" *
#
%
#
*
%
%1
"
9 +18 1'7 $ 7/ - %%10;1$-)2 &" - !:
! : 1 " 0"!'1 )8
$
:
#
2
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
6,
+ 1? (10)
%
)
#
#
,
%
01
.
%
, > ?
; 5
)
"
3/ 4 $ A6 / 6
?
$ = >-5
"
2
(2)
"
,
.
#
%
,#
,
.
"
"
"
2
%
(
)
1
).
%
"
*
%
,
0#
%
./
#
)
%1
,
%
:
%
,S?
?
,
"
#
,
#
,
*
%
%
.
"
%
"
%
%
.
% "
*
)
%
#
.
* ,
4
)
*
S= %+
#
)
"
#
, #
%
%'
,
,
)
"
)
.
%1
"
"
,#
"
%
0
#
"
2
"
)
.
"
.
#
).
"
#
01
?
#
?
01 "
( .#.
, #
*
%
,
;
"
"
;
"
%1
"
#
"
,
"
%
*
01
"
,
0
2
12,310,8
10,711,2
2006
2007
10,211,1
11,410,2-8,4 8,5-8,9
10,2
7,5-7,0 6,4-7,6 6,0-7,4
"
"
,
13,217,0
8,4-8,0 7,4-9,3
1
%
0
%'
2008
#
"
,
)
%
,
0
1
"
2
0
.
%
%
%
%
,
? %
;
?
?
?
#
%
, PR
;
,
,#
#
%
"
%
) ,
"
"
.
%
(
.
.
%
01
%
:
PR=>%+>% -S
; >% ?
#
"
,
"
;
,
, PR ?
>% ? %
%
:
)
#
*
%
)
)
#
"
,
%
*
2
>
%
. 9
5,1-6,0 5,8-4,7
0
#
#
,
"
.
01 "
"
"
.
"
,
. .). >
)%
2008
10,111,0
( "
"
,%
2005
,
"
. .)
"
"
2004
",
"
( % . 1).
1 ?>
%
",
)
,
#
%
( #
"
*
(3)
;
#
#+
%
"
%
.
01
%
"
,
0
2
"
"
#
,
%
. .
1 "
,
* "
6/
#
)
"
%
4
%
%
2
#
3>
:
01
#
2
9.
-
)
)
)
6/ <
%
%
)
0
"
"
"
"
.
#
"
(4)
;
,
",
:
?
"
"
.
, #
", "
,
) 0
PR => + >% - S
%
"
(5)
,
"; > ?
,
#
"
*
0
#
"
,
51
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
3/ 4 $ A6 / 6
6/ <
9.
:
4
.6
6/
"
,
) ,
"
1
,
%
2
,
%
.
%
0
, #
%'
0
,
01 "
%
"
,
"
%
1 01 "
. .
" %
=
,
" %
,
+
0
2
"
%
, #
,
#
" %
"
2
, #
"
"%
" %
"
.
" %
.
,
.
%
"
.
+.
%1
"
%
1
#
:
1
"
"%
%
2006-2008 .
01
01
"
0,0
0,0
19,3
0,0
0,0
19,3
#
%'
0
#
)
#
.
. .
0
,
,
"%
%
.
2006
2007
2008
164,2
787,1
168,7
2,7
.
"
,#
#
%
%
,
01 "
"%
,
,
0,5
0
,
*
24,1
153257,2
185040,8
28,7
204444,1
247403,8
159594,1
15,3
0,0
"
1,6
1.
,
%'
198485,0
:
30,2
% "
. %.
#
.
%"
;
"
" %
. % .
5
5
0 %
:
,
"
%
, #
0
,
*
+#
"
* , %
%
2008 .
. % .
. % .
2007 .
,
"%
1,2
%
"
%
,
0,0
207,5
0,0
0,0
95,1
59,4
164,2
484,5
109,3
13930,3 29369,1 35566,2
5
2 ? %'
.
52
#
"
2006 .
%
%
4
)
"
( % . 2).
%
1
:
- %
-
,
0#
#
3 ? %'
1
#
%
2006-2008
%
)
.
%
,
#
?
"
%
%
%
.
%
%
#
) . $ )
, #
0
%
"
,
) %
%
#
#
#
,
"
, #
) ( % . 3).
"
" %
) , #
*
-
)
"
,
%
"
%
*
.
% 0
"
"
)
" %
)
%
"
#
%
"
-
#
*
,
%
#
#
. .
0
1
+ 1? (10)
6,
0
#2
"%
%
,
0
. +
1 "
"
"
1
,
"%
.
%
#
%
,
)
4 /
'
.
)
%
;
01 "
;
#
;
.
4
"
0 *
0
%
/ .
// &
. ? 2006. ? ! 9. ? .52.
2. $ 2 , .
*
#
.
.2./ .$ 2 . ? $:
, 1993. ? . 38.
3. , . . %1 *
#
(
*
)/
.
. .,
.. ..
. ? $:
$ ? $
. ?
2007. ? 608 .
4.
%
%0
.
2008: 5
%
&
%
.?
, 2009. ? 11 .
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
3/ 4 $ A6 / 6
+>/ 336.77+330.322
,
$.". +
( $ +"0$ !1
"8
* '.
:
,
?
,
,
,
#
/
11%,
,
.
)
,
#
#
"
"
*
0
,
,
.
,
"
*
1
%
#
) 2
"
,
,
%
.
13%
15%
/.
%
2
"
/
"
#
[1]. 100%
?
,
1
1?
)
)
"
"%
.
%
%
2
3
4
. &
%
" %
2008
"
/
#
1.01.2009
80,2%
"
01
?
2008
373,4
".
,
%.
,
%.
/
.
2147,5
700,1
2147,5
1851,6
899,6
368,9
121,6
111,8
2
" %
.. )
51,9%
.
%., #
[8].
"
0
?
%
#
%
, 8
2
%
-
)
"
#
2
"
"
#
" %
1
1
*
,
)
/
"
#
1.01.2009 .
%
4
%
)
0
#
$
1
( % . 1)
)
, %
01
1?
?,
" %
%
%
*
%
%
10%
2008 .
/ 8
1
,
12% 12%
1%
5%
%'
)
7%
0%
,
"
2008
19%
20%
"
"
?
/
0
:
2008
234,5
.
25%
25%
)
#
?
" %
1 [7].
10%
)
.
?
#
"
&1$ 1;1 ))
%
2008
3,8% [7].
, %
)
.
)
%
%.
"
6/
"
"
"
"
4
%
.4
)
:
The article shows the role of "RAB" in providing agricultural
credit resources, as well as the bank's participation in the
implementation of state programs for the development of
agribusiness.
Key words: bank, agriculture, credit resources, the state
program, the financial crisis, the loan agreement, financial
improvement, the loan debt.
?*
,
%
,
,
2
*
,
,
,
.
#
+
9.
) " $ !"8
') )-" 0 $$)) ! -01+)
$1'7$- ( 2 ,89$ !"
?-
(
*
+.
6/ <
"
#
,
%'
.
%'
#
%
?
/?
2
"
,
2006 . ? 9,4
. %., 2007 . ? 13,4
. %., 2008 . ? 16,8
. %. [5].
4 % 2
0
%'
) ,
1 "
#
%
"
. 4
0 *
4
?
/? %
%
2006
17,3
. %., 2007
23,7
. %. . #
2008
%
%
0#
127
.
"
%1 0
20
. %. >
%'
"
2008
, 8
2 [4].
2
53
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
3/ 4 $ A6 / 6
2,5
.
6/ <
9.
:
4
.6
6/
21,9
.
,
%. [5].
0#
%
%0 )
1,5
" %
)
)
)
#
)
,
"
1,0
)
0,5
.
0,0
%
%
%
%
0
0
.
2 ?>
%'
"
54,9% (
, 8
.
28.12.2006 !827 ? %
%0 )
1
" %
2
"
#
? 1,6
.
# 2 "
, 4%
#
%
,
1
4
#
%
0
1
#
.
, 8,
"
2006-2007
%
)
,
,
1.01.2008 .
1
%1
"
?, %'
%
"
%., 54%
5
"
1
,
)
1
,
"
,
% 1
,
2 "
[4].
" %
) ,
%
"
"
"
[7].
#
. .
%
0
>
%'
)
#
"
"
(2006-2007
/ /
%
#
4,6
"
1,373
%
1
.
%
2008
-
2008
.
[5]. .
%
:
1
"
.
.
90% [5].
#
,
%
,
4
%
"
#
"
)
)
)
,
)
,
%
1
%
"
"
1 "
"
"
*
%
%
1
.
%
,
24,3
, #
)
,
)1
. %.,
01 "
"
.
-
"
#
#
0
&
%
.
#
,
"
#
%
"
1
" %
#
%
#
-*
" %
#
/
2
"
"
%
,
2 %
0
"
2
,
#
%1 0
%'
%1
?
" %
0
.
. )
4
)
%.,
"
"
"
.
#
#
2
)
%
#
". 9
.)
"
?
%
3
"
%
1.01.2008 .
>
%
#
1
%
01
%
?
" %
" %
,
#
%
,
1.01.2007 .
?
2
%
,
1.01.2006 .
>
&
%
"
15,3%
0,0%
75% %'
)
,
,
70%
54,9%
40,4%
3 ?>
"
45,1%
84,7%
10,0%
)
"
%'
2008
59,6%
30,0%
20,0%
42%
0
"
2006
50,0%
40,0%
"
%
0
,
"
,
15,3%
"
/,
. 3) [8].
90,0%
80,0%
70,0%
60,0%
%
#
#
%
100,0%
)
%0 )
%'
,
-
"
%
"
"
54
+ 1? (10)
6,
%.
2,0
8,1
%1
4 /
?
1
" %
!8595.
)
"
?
.
%
%
*
#
4 [2].
01.07.2009
.
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
3/ 4 $ A6 / 6
%
#
*
2
#
,
%
21%
%
,
"
38%
3%
4?
?
193,6
,
/
#
?
2006
#
1
, 8. 4
*
2006
%
. %.,
2007
? 124,1
. %.
2007
%
%
14
. %.
? 11
12
. %. [3]
0
2
" %
%
)
*
52,8
%
*
%
%1
0
*
%
%
"
",
%
0
"
1
.
,
#
)
)
2
*
"
#
)
,
"
"
)
,
"
:
4
0# 01
.
6/
01
#
# )
,
'
1. >
?
1%
9.
,
*
*
7%
#
30%
6/ <
?
-100. &
[3
]
/
?
" % ??$
, 2009. ? )
:
www. rshb. ru
2.
%
%0
+
&
%
2009 /
. % . + 5& . : [%. .],
2009. ? 12 .
3.
%
%0
+
&
%
2008 /
. % . + 5& . : [%. .],
2008. ? 30 .
4.
?
" % ?
[3
] /
?
" % ?. ?
$
, 2009. ?
)
: www. rshb.
ru/gosprograms/now/
5.
?
" % ?
[3
] /
?
" % ?. ?
$
, 2009. ?
)
: www. rshb.
ru/gosprograms/apk/
6.
2 , @...
" % :
#
?
%
/ / @...
2 //
3
"
"
%
01 "
. ? 2008. ? !12. ? . 18-21
7.
2 , @. /
/ / @.
2
//
/: *
,
. ? 2009. ? !5. ? . 1522
8.
2 , @...
" % :
%
#
/ @...
2 // >
. ? 2009. ? !8. ? . 3-9.
# 01
+>/ 332.82:336.1-044.372
/.!. )
-
%
-- %%
4 )')<
,
*
"
6 '',
.
)
"
:
?
-
.
-
7
?6
,
.
7
?
7
(6 ''),
"
-
"'7 : 9 - % '1-$ ! $' !)82
,
,
#
?,
?,
) " $ ! (
Public power (federal, regional, municipal) as qualified partner
is one of the main instruments of achieving long-term goals in
the HCC sphere and a perspective way out of the chronic crisis.
Key words: housing and communal complex (HCC), ?stateprivate partnership?, emergency housing fund, ?Housing?
program, communal infrastructure.
)
1
1
"
, #
)
"
1
(- //)
.
" *
#
%
#
%
#
- //
1
0
.
"
)
- //,
. .
)
# "
2 % "
-0),)$"
- //
)
.>
0,
,
)
% ) ,
# . >
*
%
.
55
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
3/ 4 $ A6 / 6
6/ <
2
"
9.
%
01
,
?
:
4
.6
6/
- //
,
% 2
01 ,
#
-#
"
#
"
.
%
.
.
)
%
%
#
,
2
%
"
*
#
" $
%
)
2 %
"
%
. &
.
0
,
2007 . %
?
)
#
*
-
1
)
%
01
%
%'
"
"
1
%
2
200
. .
, %
. /
.
%
%
,
.
?
0 - /8?,
( # 2
%
)
%
2
"%
,
%
[1].
%
?
,
#
,
230
#
%
.
#
0
0 - /8
%
"
#
. $
?30%
? *
,
,
,
15 0
2008 .
"
"
?
%
.
#
%
)
1
0
*
%
"
0#
#
%
%
#
,#
- /8,
- /8
,
,
)
,
)
#
?
%
?,
2
. ,
2008
.
240
. %.,
2008 . ? ) 180
.,
% 2008 . ? 75
. [2]. .
%
2008 .
- /8
,
% 1
#
% 2008 .
)
2
25
.
%
" %
,
%
*
.
*
,
0
215
. %.,
%1
# ,
%1
.
9
0
2008
, 23
% ,
$
"
%
,
1
%
?
0
- /8?.
9
. A
, #
#
%
)
-*
#
:
?/
,
#
,#
"
%
,
0
%
)
#
"
%
#
,
0
#
)
,
- //
0,
. >
,
%
1
.
%
?,
#
1
.
? *
#
#
0
"
#
- //
,
,
240
1
"
"
?
,
%
$
,#
" %
#
% # "
%,
%
-
,
[3].
1
#
%
%
(
- /8).
#
*
#
2
, #
%
)
#
%
% #
%
,
5
,
)
0
?
"
3,5%, # , %
.&
,
1
"
%
%
)
,
"
%
)
0
%
#
1
1
%
.
.
"
:
)
)
- //
,
.
, 20
%
2
/
)
.
2 2
2 10
?
)
#
%
"
%
)
,#
,
,
*
%
%
)
%
56
,
#
,
.
, #
- //
%"
230
,#
*
.
%1
1
? [2].
.
,
*
#
*
$3
"
?
$
- //
#
)
- //,
#
%
+ 1? (10)
6,
)
"
"
#
?. >
#
)
"
,
5&.
4 /
*
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
3/ 4 $ A6 / 6
,
#
%1
*
%
,
%1
) 24
, #
%
%'
"
)
2008
#
,
"
.
?
%1
2
,
#
1 .
%
,
% 1
%
)
)
, #
0
" %
,
%
1
)
)
"
'
1. $
?
*
#
, #
%
2008
2 , #
*
.
)
#
.
%
[3].
6/
.
?
)
.
#
,
?- /8 %
.. &
,
4
%
)
%1 , #
1 ?%
80
.
%
, #
) 1
#
0
:
,
0
.
%
.. &
9.
,
"
?. A
#
)
6/ <
.6.
",
- /8
"
[3
] /
.6.
$ "
<http://www.rosvodokanal.ru/ru/presscenter/aboutus/index.php?id4=622>.
2.
%
# - /8
[3
]
<http://www.comhoz.ru/NewsAM/NewsAMShow.asp?ID
=9817>.
3.
- /8
[3
]
<http://www.irn.ru/news/29322.html>.
+>/ 332.821-044.372
". . '
,
*
#
"
2
1 "
(
%
,
).!. %
4 # 0 &'1%:
*
-!
:
-
(6 )'),
-!
, !
,
2 "
#
(- /)
1
?
%
1
)
,
-*
0
,
#
2
%
1
)
)
2
. 4
#
.
XXI-
#
-
/
,
%
"
1
#
0
. .
2
,
, #
%
#
%'
.
,
%
%'
%'
,
",
#
"
#
- /
"
- /.
1
,
%
#
"
*
"
,
)
,
#
%
,
)
"
"
0 #
0
#
"
,
%
..
)
, #
*
",
?
"
#
#
%
.#.
%
)
,
)
,
)
-
*
)
/
Key words: residential housing complex ( RHC), system socialeconomic reforms, economic crisis, investments growth,
multiplier effect.
0
)
"
*
- % '1-$" !
.
!
.
)
?
The system of social-economic reforms, aimed at intensification
of the investments into the house building sphere, is introduced
in this work.
.
!
%
"
-5)
)0 !" )8 4 )')<
-$ 0 ) 1'7 (
$' !)82 6%);1$- ( -0),)$"
,
, #
#
?
)
#
0
,
#
)
- /
"
#
":
%0 )
"
%
#
%
"
"
) 1
#
57
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
3/ 4 $ A6 / 6
6/ <
#
"
"
:
%
% ,
4 %"
)
,
#
#
,
%
%
#
%
.
?
)
*
%'
)
,
1
,
#
,
)
%
)
) ? )
)
#
)
2007
1,5-22
)
*
1
)
)
%
#
%
.
%
)
,
2
,
&
)
"
%
15
)
%
" [1,
,
#
,
)
. 90-92].
,
)
;
#
"
:
?
,
)
?
) )
%
0
"
#
"
%'
"
?
.
?. .
, #
. ? *
,
%
,
10
0
.
, #
"
#
0
#
(
)
?
#
/
.
,
)
,
)
)
#
%
1
)
1
)
$
4
58
.
%
.
)
#
2
):
)
, #
%
2008 .
,
)
%
2006 .
" )
%
, 2008 .
(
1
"
,
2
, #
%
)
2,13
,
#
,
#
,
?
?
"
#
%
?
2
#
1
?
%
1
.
)
).
2
2
0,
,
)
?/
,
%
.
30.12.2004) [2]
#
. . #
#
,
)
)
2 )
)
.
%
,
#
)
% 0
,
%
"
"
1
? ?
#
)
#
.
#
.
2
%
%
%
#
"
#
1
0)
#
"
2
, #
#
4
%1
%
- /
%
"
%
,
.
- /
. )
#
%
,
)
%
(
")
2
#
*
"
)
1
#
1 "
:
%
,
"
+ 1? (10)
6,
- /
,
#
%
%
.
,#
"
4 /
"
#
)
%'
.6
6/
,
"
,
%
4
. /
"
#
#
0
9.
305 %'
,
,
)
.
,
,
2008 .
)
) 1 ,#
?
?
,
1
(
)
) 1
?). .
1
#
)
2
, #
1 " (! 214- 9
- /
1
%
?$ * ?,
"
)
)
$2838
1 2
)
, 2007 . ? $3680
1 2,
#
43%
23%
. $
#
, #
?
?
2
2008 .
)
$4295 1 ,
2009 . ? $5437
1 2.
*
2008 .
#
1 2
?
?
13%,
2009-2011 .
"
")
*
)
)
.
2
,
1
2
2
$
"
1
.
/
.
1
#
%
.
*
#
)
%
. .
%
I . 2008 .
1-1,5 %,
,
"
%
#
2 2
. >
?
? % %
?
#
8,25%
"(
1
1
).
%
,
)
? % % ?,
I . 2008 . ) %
#
%
1,8%
)
. >
%
5
13,5%
"(
1,25% 3,375%).
.
#
2008 .
?
?
#
",
) 01
*
0
01
.
*
"
"
2 2
0
2
,
%
2
) ??
?
?
?:
,
# %
)
# %
.
*
#
,
) 2
2008 .
,
#
%
,
" 1 0
.
,4 .
"
, #
"
(&/ )
3
2008 .
25,61%. >
#
% %1
#
( A )
.
A
# "
,#
A
"
#
(
0#
%
,
2 "
1 350
. %
)
,
A
"
3
2008
39 816,4
. %.).
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
.6
4 /
+ 1? (10)
6,
290. .
3/ 4 $ A6 / 6
)
400
:
%
%
%
$
. .
,
.
2
#
#
, #
,
1
%
$30
. . #
% )
,
)
"
.:
,
#
,
)
,
#
. $
#
.
1
,
2
*
,
0
,
0
0
%"
%
[3],
)
)
)
%
,. $
2 %
2
" #
01 "
%"
)
)
2
2007 . ?
?
"
. 8
0# ,
)
)
,
/
..* "
%
.
.
. $
- /
01
%
%
?
%
6/
,
%
%
#
, #
?)
" *
0
#
,
4
#
30%
#
#
1
*
:
"
#
)
*
0#
9.
, #
#
,
6/ <
= .
#
"
)
,
(?#
%
1.
)
[
$ /
2.
%
'
, 4.&.
] / 4.&.
, 2008. ? 192 .
#
"
,
?,
%
/
)1 ,
. .).
.4. ,
. ? $.:
"
%'
)
[3
]:
.
30
. 2004 .
! 214- 9 (
. 9
18 0 . 2006 . ! 111- 9,
16
. 2006 . ! 160- 9): [
.>
22
.
2004 .:
%
24
. 2004 .]:
# ?/
0 ?.
3.
$ 30
. [3
]
<http://www.infox.ru/business/realty/2008/11/26/investor.phtml>.
59
Copyright ОАО ?ЦКБ ?БИБКОМ? & ООО ?Aгентство Kнига-Cервис?
/ 4
/ 4 : 4
.6
$ 5 :
).!. (
,
#
"
/.". -
%.(. +
. ,
" #
"
"
#
"
!. . 2 # ,
" #
".(.
"
#
"
,
"
,
#
"
$.!. $
,
" #
"
'.+. $
,
"
".!.
"
$.%. "
#
,
"
.(. ;
,
#
"
".%. %
"
/. . 0
!.%. +
"
,
%
#
,
#
,
'.).
,
*
*
/.!. )
*
#
,
#
*
$.". +
60
"
"
'.!. +
2
". . '
"
,
$.$. (
)
".'. '
"
,
#
"
"
*
,
"
#
,
"
#
,
#
"
"
+ 1? (10)
?
%
?
+
?
+7(4862) 76-17-54; ryn1979@inbox.ru
.
# - %
8-916-83-69027; vdrincha@list.ru
$
. .. .
#
,
+7 (495) 976-78-75, gres-777@yandex.ru
.
)
+
/.>.
+7 (0732) 53-86-31, main@vsau.ru
%
%
?
+
?
+7(4862) 76-12-09, audit@orelsau.ru
"
# )
2
# )
2
# )
2
# )
2
# )
2
# )
2
# )
2
# )
2
# )
2
# )
2
#
)
%
%
?
# )
2
%
%
?
# )
2
+
?
+7(4862) 45-30-80, fin2@orelsau.ru
"
6,
0%"5)8
+.
&
8
+7(4722) 39-29-00, serwastr@belgtts.ru
%
%
?
+
?
+7(4862) 76-44-69, finigor@rambler.ru
%
%
?
+
?
+7(4862) 75-15-60, Astakx@rambler.ru
%
%
?
+
?
+7(4862) 76-44-69, teploteh@orelsau.ru
%
%
?
+
?
+7(4862) 40-23-34, puare54@rambler.ru
"
#
"8 )
+.
?$
+7(495) 275-37-28, i_govorov@mail.ru
%
%
?
+
?
+7 (4862) 43-32-69, metrology@orelsau.ru
%
%
?
+
?
+7 (4862) 43-32-69, metrology@orelsau.ru
%
%
?
+
?
+7(4862) 43-07-41, chrom@orel.ru
%
%
?&
"
?
+7 (4722) 30-85-03, pastukhov_ag@mail.ru
#
+7(498) 66-24-492, do@rgazu.ru
"
,
"-
4 /
+
?
+7(4862) 76-11-28, invest@orelsau.ru
%
"
-
+7 (812) 316-99-65, 316-32-61, arhstroi@spb.cityline.ru
1 " %
+7 (495) 514-21-21, info@gasis.org
2
Документ
Категория
Фундаментальная
Просмотров
30
Размер файла
3 423 Кб
Теги
2010, орелгау, вестник
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа