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Маргарет Тетчер.Бабакова Елизавета

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ОГБОУ СПО «Смоленский педагогический колледж»
Margaret
Thatcher
Студент: Бабакова Елизавета Юрьевна
Отделение: «Дизайн», курс: 2
Руководитель проекта: Ильющенкова Елена Николаева
Сontents
1.The Iron Lady
2. Early life and education
3.Political career
4. Fall from power
5. Post-political career
6. Quotes
7.Conclusions
8. Sources
The Iron Lady
Margaret Hilda Thatcher,
Baroness Thatcher (born
October 13, 1925) was a
British politician and the first
female Prime Minister of the
United Kingdom from 1979
to 1990. She was the Leader
of the Conservative Party
and still the figurehead for a
brand of politics known as
Thatcherism .Even before
coming to power she was
nicknamed The Iron Lady in
Soviet propaganda .
Early Life and Education
Thatcher was born Margaret Hilda
Roberts in Grantham, Lincolnshire
in eastern England. She did well at
school, going on to a girls'
grammar school and then to
Somerville College, Oxford from
1944 where she studied chemistry.
She became President of Oxford
University
Conservative
Association in 1946, the third
woman to hold the post. She
obtained a second class degree and
worked as a research chemist for
British Xylonite and then Lyons &
Company, where she helped to
develop methods for preserving ice
cream.
Political Career
In the election of 1950 she was the youngest woman Conservative
candidate but fought in the safe Labour seat of Dartford. She fought
the seat again in the 1951 election. Her activity in the Conservative
Party in Kent brought her into contact with Denis Thatcher; they fell
in love and were married later in 1951. She qualified as a Barrister in
1953, the same year that her twin children, Carol and Mark were
born.
She easily won the seat in the 1959
election and took her seat in the
House of Commons. Unusually, her
maiden speech was made in support
of her Private Member's Bill which
was successful and forced local
councils to hold meetings in public.
She was given an early promotion
to the front bench as Parliamentary
Secretary at the Ministry of
Pensions and National Insurance in
September 1961, keeping the post
until the Conservatives lost power
in the 1964 election
Thatcher was one of few Conservative
MPs to support the Bill to decriminalize
male homosexuality, and she voted in
favour of the principle of David Steel's
Bill to legalize abortion. However she
was opposed to the abolition of capital
punishment.
She won promotion to the
Shadow Cabinet as Shadow
Fuel Spokesman in 1967, and
was then promoted to shadow
Transport and finally Education
before the 1970 general
election.
Leader of the Opposition
•
•
On 19 January 1976 she made a speech at Kensington Town
Hall in which she made a scathing attack on the Soviet Union.
The most controversial part of her speech ran:
"The Russians are bent on world dominance, and they are
rapidly acquiring the means to become the most powerful
imperial nation the world has seen. The men in the Soviet
Politburo do not have to worry about the ebb and flow of public
opinion. They put guns before butter, while we put just about
everything before guns."
In response, the Soviet Defence Ministry newspaper Red
Star gave her the nickname The Iron Lady, which was
soon publicised by Radio Moscow world service.
Prime Minister
She formed a government on 4
May 1979, with a mandate to
reverse
Britain's
economic
decline and to reduce the extent
of the state.
Thatcher began by increasing interest rates to drive down
inflation. This move hit businesses, especially in the
manufacturing sector, and unemployment rose sharply.
Thatcher was committed to reducing the power of the trade
unions but unlike the Heath government, proceeded by way
of incremental change rather than a single Act. Several
unions decided to launch strikes which were wholly or partly
aimed at damaging her politically, in particular the National
Union of Mineworkers.
In 1985, the University of Oxford voted to refuse her an
honorary degree in protest against her cuts in funding for
education. This award had always previously been given
to Prime Ministers who had been educated at Oxford.
Between 1983 and 1987, Thatcher had two noted foreign
policy successes. In 1984 she visited China and signed
the Sino-British Joint Declaration with Deng Xiaoping
on 19 December stating the basic policies of the People's
Republic of China (PRC) regarding Hong Kong after the
handover in 1997.
By winning the 1987 general
election she became the first
Prime Minister of the United
Kingdom to win three consecutive
general elections since Lord
Liverpool (in office from 1812–
1827).
Most
United
Kingdom
newspapers supported her, with
the exception of The Daily
Mirror and The Guardian, and
were rewarded with regular
press briefings by her press
secretary, Bernard Ingham.
In the late 1980's Thatcher began to be concerned by
environmental policy, which she had previously dismissed. In
1988 she made a major speech accepting the problems of
global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain and in 1990 she
opened the Hadley Centre for climate prediction and research
that she had caused to be founded.
Thatcher started to lose popularity in 1989, as the
economy suffered from high interest rates imposed to stop
an unsustainable boom. She blamed her Chancellor, Nigel
Lawson, who had been following an economic policy
which was a preparation for monetary union; Thatcher
claimed not to have been told and did not approve.
Fall from Power
By 1990 opposition to Thatcher's policies on local
government taxation, her Government's handling of the
economy, her perceived arrogance and her reluctance to
commit Britain to economic integration with Europe
made her politically vulnerable.
In the first ballot, Thatcher was two votes short of winning
re-election, but on consulting with cabinet colleagues found
a vast majority thought that she could not win on the second
ballot.
On 22 November, at just after 9:30 AM, Mrs Thatcher
announced that she would not be a candidate in the second
ballot and therefore her term of office would come to the
end.
Post-Political Career
In 1992 she was created Baroness Thatcher, of Kesteven in the
County of Lincolnshire, and entered the House of Lords. In
addition, Denis Thatcher, her husband, was given a Baronetcy
(ensuring that their son, Mark, would inherit a title).
She wrote her memoirs in two volumes.
In 1998 she made a highly publicised and controversial visit to
the former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet during the time
he was under house arrest in London facing charges of torture,
conspiracy to torture and conspiracy to murder, and expressed
her support and friendship for him.
During the last few years of her life the Iron Lady
suffered from several minor strokes and senile
dementia. She died on April 8th, 2013.
Quotes
"If you want something
said, ask a man. If you
want something done, ask
a
woman."
"There's no such thing as
society.
There
are
individual
men
and
women and there are
families." (in an interview
for
Woman's
Own
magazine
on
23
September 1987 at 10
Downing
Street).
"Every Prime Minister
needs a Willie" (a reference
to her Deputy Prime
Minister William Whitelaw;
Mrs Thatcher was deaf to
any more euphemistic
interpretation).
"We have become a
grandmother" (March 3,
1989, on the birth of her
first grandchild; this was
controversial
for
her
apparent use of the Royal
we).
Сonclusions
The first female prime minister of Britain, Margaret
Thatcher was a controversial figurehead of
conservative ideology during her time in office. She
cemented her place in history. Thatcher's policies
and actions continue to be debated by detractors and
supporters alike, illustrating the indelible impression
that she has left on Britain and nations worldwide.
Sources:
Statecraft: Strategies for Changing World by Margaret
Thatcher (HarperCollins, 2002)
The Collected Speeches of Margaret Thatcher by
Margaret Thatcher (HarperCollins, 1999)
Memories of Maggie Edited by Iain Dale (Politicos,
2000)
The Iron Lady: A Biography of Margaret Thatcher by
Hugo Young (Farrar Straus & Giroux, 1989)
The Thatcher Phenomenon by Hugo Young (BBC,
1986)
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