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3
............................................................................................ 8
1.
1.1
1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
(
,
,
)................. 19
... 19
........................................................................................ 23
.............................................. 24
(
) ................. 26
............................................................................................ 28
1.2.4
31
2.
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
............. 33
............................................................ 33
...................... 33
...................................................... 34
2.1.3
....................................................................... 35
37
.......................................................... 37
4..... 37
2..... 38
........................................................................... 40
............................................ 40
2.1.4
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.3
2.3.1
3.
(
3.1
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.3
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
)......................................................................... 43
............... 43
............................................ 47
........................................................ 47
.................. 48
.......................................... 50
............................. 54
....................................................... 54
..................................................... 55
( ITU-T)...................................... 55
4
3.4.4
3.4.5
3.4.6
4
...... 57
.......................................................... 59
.......................................................... 61
(
4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5
4.1.6
4.1.7
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.5
4.5.1
4.5.2
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.4
4.7
4.8
4.9
5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
6
6.1
)........................... 63
....................... 63
................................................... 63
............................................................... 63
.......................................................... 67
.................................................... 67
........................................................................ 69
................................................. 69
....................................... 70
....................................................... 72
....................................................................... 78
........................................................... 83
................................................... 85
.................................................. 87
...................................... 90
............................................. 90
(
-30) ......................... 94
............... 977
..................................................... 988
....................................................... 1000
..................................... 1022
....................................................... 1033
....................................... 1044
.................................... 107
(SDH) .............................. 109
. .............................................................................. 122
. ....................................................... 122
. ............................... 122
........................................................... 132
.............................................. 134
141
...................... 141
5
6.2
6.3.
6.4.
6.5
6.5.1
6.5.2
6.5.3
6.5.4 IP
6.5.5
7
........................................... 144
....................................................... 150
. ................................ 152
...... 157
.......................................... 157
................................................. 158
.......................................... 160
............................................................................... 162
................................................ 164
............................................................................... 168
7. 1
........................................................ 168
7.2
................................................ 169
7.3
........................................................ 170
7.3.1.
........................................................ 170
7.3.2.
. ............................... 171
7.3.3
DSL ................................................... 175
7.3.4
(
) ................ 181
7.3.5
. .................................................................. 182
7.4
........................................ 188
7.5
....................................... 189
7.5.1
(
).................................................................................. 189
7.5.2 IP –
(
) ....... 191
8.
8.1
8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.3.
. ................................................. 197
. ............................................................ 197
. ........................... 198
SDH ................ 198
.................................................... 199
. ............................................. 202
. ............ 214
6
. .
(
)
,
(
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-
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(
xDSL),
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7
.
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,
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-
8
.
10-20
,
.
,
.
: ISDN, IP-
, ADSL,
.
,
,
.
,
-
.
:
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.)
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.1 ,
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,
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,
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.
(TV),
(TBBK)
-
.
.
,
,
.
9
,
.
t,
105
104
103
102
,
101
100
100
102
101
103
104
106
105
107
108
V,
109
.1 -.
,
-
:
1.
.
,
,
.
-
,
-
.
2.
.
.
,
,
(
).
(GSM, NMT
Global Star
.),
(Inmarsat,
.).
3.
.
,
,
.),
,
-
.
4.
.
,
,
,
-
10
,
,
,
,
.
5.
,
.
(
,
,
.).
-
,
,
.
,
.2).
-
.
-
11
1
,
2
,
ADSL
,
IP-
,
-
ISDN
,
-
IP
TV,
,
TV,
-
,
IPMPLS
,
TV+
TV,
.2 -
,
-
12
,
:
,
.
1.
.
.
70-
19
:
(1876
(1878
),
.
(
(
), .
(
.
-
)-
-
)-
-
).
.
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,
.
(
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-
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:
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.
2.3
.
(
),
.
,
.
.
.
,
:
,
,
-
.
.
:
-
(
,
«0»
«1»),
-
13
(
).
-
,
.
90- IP-
,
.
,
-
,
-
.
,
.
.
-
100%.
,
IP-
,
,
,
,
-
.
2.
.
60.
,
-
.
(
,
.).
.
,
,
.
.
.
,
.
-
(-10-8 -10-9),
,
-
,
.
(
)
14
(
)
)
-
(
.
3.
.
«
»
,
,
(
.3).
.3 -.
«
»
,
,
-
.
,
,
,
,
(
).
,
.
,
.
15
,
,
,
»
).
,
«
-
-
,
,
80-
20
.
-
,
(
.
.4).
TV
TV
TV
TV
.4 -
,
.
-
,
.
-
.
,
.
90-
-
,
-
.
,
.
-
,
16
.
.
:
,
-
.
,
.
.
.
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(
.2)
1.
3
:
,
),
-
(
-
,
.
2.
ADSL.
,
BPK
-
ISDN- BRI
PRI.
3.
IP-
,
.
1
.
-
(
,
1
-
»
,
).
-
,
,
-
.
,
(2
)
.
:
17
-
,
,
.
,
.
IP MPLS -
,
,
.
-
,
IP-
ATM.
IP MPLS
NGN (Next Generation Net-
works).
2
,
.
,
.
:
(
)
,
;
-
.
200-300
;
-
100
40
;
18
IP-
IP-
,
-
(3-5)
;
.
19
1.
(
1.1
,
)
,
.
-
:
–
,
,
,
,
.,
,
.
,
,
1.1,
, n(t) –
,
,
U(t).
S(t) –
.
1.1 –
–
-
,
.
.
.
-
.
.
,
-
.
–
-
.
,
.
.
20
,
,
,
.
–
,
-
.
.
–
:
,
,
(
-
.
-
).
.
1.2
.
i
1.2 –
; i–
–
:
(
–
;
;
i
);
–
–
(
)
,
(
,
-
i).
.
.
-
(
),
(
)
(
).
fi (
1.3).
fi
,
-
.
.
-
21
,
(
fi),
».
1.3
«
(
-
),
(
-
).
,
fi.
.
S
f1
fi
...
f1
f2
..
f
fi
1.3 –
-
.
.
(
N=
/
1.4).
,
.
.
S1
t
S2
t
S2
t
S
t
1.4 –
.
-
22
(
1.5)
.
.
S1
1
+ + -
0
+ -
-
+ t
S2
1
-
+ -
-
0
-
+- -
+
t
1.5 –
,
(
)
.
-
100,
.
.
,
,
.
,
.
1.6
-
(
).
,
:
-
«
»
-
;
;
-
«
«
»
-
»
;
-
,
.
.
-
23
1.6 –
)
.
(
1.7 –
.
:
.
1.2
1.7).
24
:
1.2.1
)
(
,
)–
.
-
:
;
–
(
,
-
)
;
-
–
,
.
)
–
,
,
.
.
:
-
;
;
.
(
).
.
–
,
IP-
–
,
(TMN) .
-
.
)
,
.
)
–
.
1.8.
–
:
-
,
-
,
;
-
,
,
,
;
-
;
;
:
,
.
-
25
1.8 –
:
–
–
;
;
–
;
–
–
–
–
–
;
;
–
–
;
;
–
;
–
;
–
;
–
;
–
.
26
TMN
(
1.9).
,
,
(
).
TMN
TMN
1.9 –
TMN
1.2.2
(
:
1.2.2.1
.
)
-
27
,
,
GSM,
1.2.2.2
-
.
.
:
,
,
.
(
).
-
.
,
.
(
),
,
(
,
)
1.2.2.3
.
,
–
.
.
1.10
.
–
,
.
.
(
(
).
-
).
.
.
(
)
,
.
,
.
.
-
28
)
)
-
-
1.10 –
(
):
–
1.2.3
,
,
,
,
.
.
-
,
«
».
,
-
.
:
– International Standartization Organization);
International Telecommunication Union),
(
(
:
(
ISO
ITU –
-
).
.
(
.
) (
. 1.11),
-
29
7
7
Application
6
6
Presentation
5
3
Network
2
Link
1
Physical
3
3
2
2
1
1
Transport
Network
"
Link
Physical
1.11–
:
1 2
3
4
5–7
;
(
);
;
,
(
).
-
,
,
)
-
.
,
:
.
,
.
(
7
,
-
).
.
.
6
(
)
.
(
5
"
Session
4
Transport
"
Presentation
5
Session
4
Application
,
,
).
-
"
30
.
(
)
.
,
4
,
,
-
,
.
,
,
.
3
.
-
.
.
(
,
-
).
2
(
-
).
1
.
.
TCP/IP (
TCP/IP
1) Telnet –
2) FTP –
:
;
;
OSI
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1.12).
IP
Telnet,
FTP,
E-mail
Application
Presentation
Session
TCP,
UDP
TCP
Transport
IP
Network
Link
IP
-
Physical
1.12 –
3)
–
TCP/IP
,
;
-
31
4) UDP –
,
,
5) IP
,
;
,
.
,
7. TCP/IP
.
,
-
.
IP –
.4
(
8
.4
):
16
.
. 16
3
13
.
8
16
8
32
32
»
:
,
.
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,
,
216),
(
»
»–
.«
»–
.«
.
,
»
.
«
-
»
,
,
.
– TCP
UDP.
1.2.4
:
1.
(
)
(
.
,
,
),
,
.
.
–
.
,
,
,
–
.
-
32
2.
.
.
–
.
.
–
.
.
:
-
;
(
).
–
.
-
33
2.
2.1
2.1.1
:
,
U,
I
-
(
) p , pu, pI.
,
:
10 lg
P
,
P0
P,
P0 –
(2.1)
.
:
20 lg
u
U
.
U0
(2.2)
:
-
U2
R
Pcp
lim
T
1
T
T
2
U2
dt ,
R
T
(2.3)
2
R–
–
-
,
;
Pmax .
–
,
Um ,
Pmax –
(
Pmin .
-
10 2 ,...10 5 );
Pmin
.
-
,
Pmin
:
-
P
.
(2.4)
34
Pmax
;
Pcp
(2.5)
Pmax
;
Pmin
(2.6)
10 lg
-
10 lg
-
10 lg
Pcp
Pmin
.
(2.7)
.
2.1.2
.
2.1
2.1 –
(
)
35
)
.2.1
-
Tc
:
FC .
2.1.3
:
-
;
F;
.
,
-
.
F
.
»
Vc:
Vc
Tc
Fc
c.
:
36
-
;
F;
,
(
(
min)
max);
V.
V
T
F
.
Vc<V .
<T , F < F ,
<
.
,
. 2.1.
)
)
:
2.1 –
)
;
)
»
I.
(2, 4, 8, ...)
l.
FT
1
.
TT
I
:
I
– «0»
F –
«1»).
FT log 2 l
,l–
(
).
(
,2
,
-
:
1.
Fm
):
FT
2 Fm .
37
2.
Pc
P
l
1
Pc
P
Pc
.
P
.
P
,
-
,
IA
2 Fm
P
1
log 2 1 c
P
2
c
Fm log 2 1
.
2.1.4
,
,
75
—
75
11700
f120 = 1465
f90 = 1100
f60 = 732
25
1464
= 18 104
35
36000
fmin = 300
fmax = 3400
35 40
8000
15 20000
30 15000
50 10000
6 106
25 60
160000
40
80 106
f
)
,
2.2
2.2.1
44(
.
. 2.2).
0
,
(
(
)
).
1
.
-
38
-13
0
+4
0
+4
-13
0
0
2.2
(
4-
)
-
.
2.2.2
2.
.
,
.
).
.
.
,
)
(
(
.
-
)
(
)
.
(
.
2.3),
2(
-3,5
1
0
)
).
+4,3
-13
0
(
>
-3,5
2
.
.0
4
0
3
<
+4,3
2.3
–
-13
:
;>
.–
;
)
4-
39
,
34 )
12
23 )
41
,
.
20 lg
K
) ei
K(
OC
U
U
,K
20 lg K
( )
–
:
U
U
K
1
,
,
–
,
(
2.4
,
ij
0,6
OC
–
-
).
.
,
.
,
2.4
,
-
(
)
(
2.5
2.5).
40
.
.
,
.
-
.
3
,
Z3,
.
2 4
1 3.
.
– 3,5
»
,
,
«
.
,
,
.
.
.
2.3
.
,
,
-
.
.
:
;
,
;
,
;
;
.
:
;
;
,
.
,
.
.
2.3.1
1.
(
)
.
0.3 – 3.4
600
2.3
.
-
.
.
-
41
1
15-16
(
-
.
– 32
).
=Pmax/P
.
-
– 40
,
= 25
.
2.3.
:
f
-
0.3 3.4 .4 ;
8,7
R0
600
.
k T
f,
;
:
-
P
k 1.38 10
23
–
,
–
,
f –
;
-
(
.).
:
,
-
:
P
P
N
.
P
P
.
2.6)
,
(
-
2.6 –
.
(
)
),
.
(
42
2.
:
3
12
60
300
,
,
,
.
3.
3.
:
64
2,048
8,448
34,368
139,264
155
622
–
–
–
–
–
,
( 1),
( 2),
( 3),
( 4),
–
S
S
4.
-1,
-4
.
43
3.
)
,
,
-
(
1.3).
3.1
,
(
)(
.
,
.
-
3.1).
3.1 –
2FMIN.
65 70
.
2 FMIN
,
f0
:
- LC
-
0.025 0.03;
:
0.005 .
:
.
0.005, 2 FMIN
0.6
,
0 120
«
f
4
,
,
f0
120
30
»
f MAX
f MIN
2 (
.
,
2-
44
)
– 108
12,
~ 60
.
.
:
1.
–
(
-
).
.
3.2 –
.
:
3.2).
.
,
,
.
,
.
12-
-
12
,
.
3.3.
…
3.3 –
2.
(
–
).
LC
45
.
-
,
3.4,
,
.
3.4 –
LC
1
2
2 FMIN 0.6
0.03 –
f 01
20
2 (f 01 FMIN ) 2 (12 0.3)
f 01
120
;
0.2 –
.
LC
2
.
.
.
.
3.5
-
46
3.5 –
3.
–
-
.
3.6 –
3.6).
,
.
,
,
.
12-
.
.
:
47
3.7–
3.7,
–
).
.
,
,
LC(312 552
.
-
5-
).
:
(812 2044
LC
.
2108, 2356
)
5
(1364, 1512, 1860,
).
:
(8516 – 12388
)
3
(10560, 11880, 13200
LC
).
3.2
3.2.1
(
f
,
f
,
.),
.
.
:
.
-
f
-
,
fâ
5ÌÃö .
f
f
-
6
f
;
-
48
f
60
.
f
f
60
.
3.2.2
:
1.
(
3.8).
N
f1- f2
-13
4
f
f
f
f
f1- f2
4
-13
. 3.8 –
.
,
.
,
(
-
)
,
.
.
;
600
;
-
(
)
p
13
p
,
4
.
.
: f 1, f
2
... f
-
N.
,
(
),
.
(
f 1 f 2 ),
).
( )
.
-
49
,
-
.
.
.
2.
.
.
,
-
.
.
. 3.9 –
(
-
3.9).
.
(
(
)
)
.
.
-
,
.
-
.
,
.
-
,
.
.
;
-
50
.
3.
.
,
.
-
.
,
.
,
(
)(
f1
3.10).
f1
f2
f3 f2
f4
. 3.10 –
.
,
(
.
3.3
,
),
51
,
,
-
.
3.11,
3.11, )
,
(
.
.
,
K
.
-
.
.
.
)
)
. 3.11 –
: )
;
)
:
-
(
(
);
-
,
);
-
–
,
(
,
(
-
),
)
(
).
:
-
(
);
(
-
).
(
1.
2.
(
).
(
).
):
52
3.
(
K
fmin
).
tn
tn
tn
t1
t1
t1
f max
fmin
f max
)
f min
f max
)
)
3.12 –
:
)
)
)
;
;
;
tn –
(
.)
3.12
.
(
).
,
-
.
.
:
1.
.
–
.
.
>
3.13 –
2.
.
–
,
,
.
>
3.14 –
3.
.
,
.
fmin,max
(
,
60 . 3.15).
53
fmax
fmin
0
f
–
3.15 –
.
180 .
,
,
.
25–30
>
3.16 –
4.
(
,
).
.
>
3.17 –
5.
(
).
.
54
>
>
3.18 –
3.4
–
,
.
3.4.1
1.
:
(
-
):
-
(
);
(
f1 f2
f3,
,
,
-
.);
-
.
(
,
-
):
(
);
(
-
,
.);
.
2.
:
: S max
(3 10)S .
Smax
:
Scp –
.
3.
:
(100 1000)S ,
,
(
,
.
.
,
.).
,
.
-
55
3.4.2
:
A 10 lg P P
1.
p
p .
Pc
Pc
N
2.
/P
/P
–
.
3.
(
,
-
).
K 1
2
K=0.75
0.3
3.4
f,
3.19 –
+
»
3.19
» (1)
+
«
(2).
3.4.3
(
ITU-T)
ITU-T
-
,
.
–
,
(
.
)
.
,
.
L
3.20).
=2500
,
-60
(
-
56
2500
(
3.20 –
)
2500
(
.
),
(
),
.
.
,
, –
,
)
(
(
2500
: P
).
10000
0
).
(
P
P
2500
P
P
,
0
P
1
,
7500
0 2500
0
3
0
-
1
,
1 3
,
,
,
0
,
.
-
:
-
P
:P
:P
-
P
:P
,
).
(
,
P
7500
1:1.
1 : 1 : 2.
57
3.4.4
.
,
(
),
(
-
)
( )(
3.21).
2
1
1+
2
L
3.21 –
, P
,
-
1
.
.
k T
k 1.38 10 23
f,
/
, f–
–
(3.1)
–
,
.
/
/
N
1
.
(3.2)
,
,
,
.
,
-
(3.2):
10 lg(
) 10 lg(
n 10 lg( N ) –
N)
n,
(3.3)
.
1
.
.
,
-
.
= .
(3.4)
,
= l,
(3.5)
58
–
l –
–
;
,
;
,
.
(3.4),
.
-
,
,
.
=
1
+
2.
.
m
:
m
Pcni(0) =
(0) =
.
(3.6)
i 1
,
(1m
),
(3.6)
(0) = 10 lg Pc
+ d + K + 10 lg m –
=
(3.7)
.
(3.7)
,
(
) d,
,
,
,
1
.
(3.7)
p,
.
l0,
-
,
.
l0,
(3.7)
=
=
(3.8)
l0
m
+ d + l0 + 10 lg
Lm
Lm
–
l0
..
(3.8)
l0
(
3.22).
(
-
)
f
(
).
-
59
-
– d – 10 lg
Lm
l0
l0
l
l0
3.22 –
l0
3.4.5
.
(
)
-
,
.
,
.
,
,
.
:
(
(
)
3.23).
)
(
,
,
-
.
I
a)
I
I
I
)
-k
-k
II
A
II
II
II
-k
-1
l
3.23 –
)
)
:
;
,
,
-
:
1)
,
;
60
2)
(
)
.
,
-
,
;
3)
,
.
.
P
A 30
II
10 lg
P
II
II
p II –
II
–
II
l
I
,
II
(3.9)
;
II;
II
p
–
II
-
.
II
p
-
A0
P
10 lg
P
I
p
II
II
I
.
(3.10)
II
=p I – A0.
A 30
p
II
I
l
0
.
(3.11)
p I = p II ,
A 30
l.
0
(3.12)
.
,
.
(
.
l (3.12)
),
l
-
)
(
( l)<<
(
)
(
0
-
)
.
II
l,
0,
I,
,
A 3l
I
,
=
II
,
P II
I
l
3l =
0
l,
(3.12)
A0
.
-
61
10–40
.
:
1)
;
2)
–
,
,
,
,
.
;
3)
(
3.24).
I
II
fHI
III
fHI
II
fH2
III
fH
fB
fH3
3.24 –
( III).
5–25
.
3.4.6
,
(
,
.),
-
.
.
(
nf1+mf2+kf3+...,
n,m,k = 1,2,3...
)
,
,
U
.
f1,f2,f3... –
-
62
,
-
1
20
a2
a3
,
–
,
10 lg
P
1
P
2
P
10 lg 1
P
3
,
.
2
3
,
,
,
,
–
.
.
,
,
,
(
).
-
63
4
(
)
4.1
4.1.1
,
,
,
,
.
-
4.1.1.
S
c
S
t
t
t
)
,
4.1 –
S (t)
(
S (t).
),
(
,
,
-
)
S (t),
.
(
).
S(t)
,
.
4.1.2
(
:
4.1.2),
64
S
Sa(t)
S
S (t-
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
)
111-7
110-6
101-5
100-4
011-3
010-2
001-1
t
1
3
5
t
5
t
0 0 1
0 1 1
101
101
4.2 –
)
)
)
;
;
(
).
S (t)
S (t–
-
),
.
1
.
2f
(4.1)
.
(
,
4.1.3)
1/ .
:
1/
S (f)
0
2 .
S (f)
1/
f
4.3 –
f
-
65
,
.
-
,
.
(
)
.
4.1.2, )
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
-
,
,
-
.
)
.
-
,
,
.
,
2
( /2) .
,
Sk
-
:
1
=
3 2
Smax
2
2
12
.
(4.2)
n.
,
-
,
.
10 lg
S
2
2
S
10 . 8
20 lg
(4.3)
.
12
:
S = Sm cos
0t,
Sm
2
10 lg
2
2
7 . 78
20 lg
Sm
7 . 78
(4.4)
20 lg n .
12
(4.3)
(4.4)
S=
, Sm –
.
-
=26
.
(4.4),
n=8.
66
.
,
8.
D=40
,
n
r=10.
n=800,
-
,
,
,
.
4.4),
.
.
-
,
(
4.5).
.
r=8.
S
const
S
-
4.4 –
S (t),
,
(
.
4.2, ).
)
(
,
,
,
=
r
r
.
.
S
tg
1/8
1/4
1/2
1
31
95
223
y
ln(1
ln(1
x)
)
S
67
4.1.3
(
<<
)
,
(
S1(t)
-
4.6).
.
(
.
,
,
.
)
.
-
,
:
=
.
S1
t
S2
t
S
1
2
30
1
t
.4.64.1.4
,
4.7, .
:
1)
2)
3)
.
;
;
.
,
,
-
W,
S1(t)
R=1
S2(t)
, = 1 .,
(
4.8).
68
2
W = S1
R
W1 = 1
W2 = 0.5
S22
R
,
.,
.
)
)
11 1010 10000 11 11
1 1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0000
1
1 1
4.7 –
a)
S1
1
)
S2
0
1
0
1
0.5
t
0
t
2
0
2
- 0.5
4.8
(
)
.
(
,
4.7, ).
.
,
-
.
.
-
(
).
4.7,
,
,
.
,
.
(
-
).
,
,
69
,
.
.
4.1.5
(
,
(
),
(
4.9).
,
(
)
),
-
.
a)
S(t)
t
)
V(t)
t
)
V(t)
t
)
V(t)
t
. 4.9 –
:
)
;
)
;
)
;
)
4.1.6
,
(
(
4.10).
),
(
),
.
(
,
.),
,
.
.
.
-
70
.
.
.
.
.
. 4.10 –
(
)
4.1.7
:
.
,
(
4.1.11).
,
-
«1»,
S ;
1
Sy
0
Sy
+
S
t
)
)
t
. 4.11 –
( )
-
( )
-
–
(
4.1.12).
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
;
,
-
71
S
S
l
l
4.12 –
,
,
-
;
-
,
-
,
(
);
,
.)
;
-
,
.
.
-
.
)
.
,
.
,
.
:1,
, 2-
.
-
.
:1, 3-
, 4-
.
,
(
, 2,
.
)l
,
,
.
.
,
C = log2l
72
.
,
-
C1=log2 2=1
C2=log2 4=2
.
,
1).
=2 (0
(
l
-
,
.
,
(2.5)
.).
l
.
l =256.
:
-
,
.
-
,
;
-
.
-
.
4.2
,
-
.
,
-
:
n
n = 2000–4000;
A
2 / 12
,
,
c,
.
,
,
.
;
-
Uc
.
4.13),
(Uc) (
.
,
.
Uc
,
.
.
,
-
:
;
;
;
,
73
;
-
.
(Uc)
Uc
4.13 –
:
1.
(
4.14).
-
,
n = 28 = 256
,
.
,
-
,
.
.
.
t
8
t
t
t
4.14 –
(
4.15)
y=f(x),
y
U
U
1)
–
,
x=
U
U
,
74
Ax
1 ln A
1 ln( A x )
1 ln A
y
= 87,6;
–
U –
2)
0
1
A
x
1
A
x
,
1
,
;
.
–
ln( 1
ln( 1
y
x)
,
)
0
x
1,
=255.
,
–
-
.
,
.
U
N
N-1
3
2
1
U
U
1
2
4.15 –
2.
.
,
,
.
,
.
4.16.
-
75
S
Nc
/
0
128
7
112
6
96
5
80
4
64
3
48
1/2
2
32
1
16
6
0
S /
7
0
0
16 32 64 123 256
512
1024
2048
4.16 –
=87,6/13
8
:
.
0,1,2..7.
Nc
16
N.
.
,
.
=87,6.
0
-
1
0.
16, 13
=87,6/13.
=87,6/13
U
N
.
U
-
N
4.2.1,
0.
4.1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
N
N U ÝÒ
XYZ
0
16
32
64
128
256
512
1024
N
1
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
0.5
0,5
1
2
4
8
16
32
76
2048
128
0,
128
(
256).
=87,6/13
P
–
X
Y
Z
A
B
C
D
(1 –
),
XYZ –
D–
,
S âõ U 3
ýò
; 0–
N
-
,
.
,
00110101
Nc=3
5
3
(64 5 4)
0
N=5.
84
3
85 0, 86
0
0
.
= 4,
00110101
87 0.
0
,
N
2
3 0.
.
2 0.
.
.
:
1)
2)
(
1);
XYZ (
2–4),
N
U
3)
;
(
8),
U
N
5–
,
,
.
3.
.
n=12.
128-
.
.
4.2.
77
4.2 N
12-
8P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
0000000ABCD
P0000001ABCD
P000001ABCDx
P00001ABCDxx
P0001ABCDxxx
P001ABCDxxxx
P01ABCDxxxxx
P1ABCDxxxxxx
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
XYZ
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
ABCD
ABCD
ABCD
ABCD
ABCD
ABCD
ABCD
ABCD
:
1)
2)
3)
« »,
,
;
«P»,
,
;
XYZ,
-
;
4)
ABCD
XYZ;
5)
,
« »,
.
-
,
.
.
P XYZ ABCD
(
XYZ).
U
N
.
N,
-
ABCD
.
,
-
N.
:
N
( À 8 Â 4 Ñ 2 D 0.5)
),
= (U ÝÒ
N
A,B,C,D
0
1, UN
.
:
U
= +934 0 .
101110100110
9
(+1 2 +1 28+1 27+1 25+1 22+1 21)
4.2.2
110,
.
P XYZ ABCD
1 1 1 0 1 1 01
U
-
N
:
N=6
1110
,
-
78
U
= +512
0+(1 8+1 4+0 2+1 1+0.5) 32
0 = (512+432)
+10
0 = 944
0
0,
6=32.
4.3
,
,
-
,
.
,
,
I,
.
),
.
(
–
,
(
NRZ RZ
,
.
(
4.17).
NRZ –
).
:
t
4.17 –
RZ
–
,
NRZ
.
(
4.18).
t
4.18 –
RZ
RZ
NRZ,
.
,
,
,
(
NRZ
RZ
(
4.20)
4.19).
79
S1
t
S2
t
/2
4.19 -
,
NRZ
RZ
.
S1
S2
4.20 -
,
NRZ(S1)
.
RZ(S2)
,
NRZ
NRZ
,
,
), .
NRZ RZ:
- NRZ
(
-
(
RZ
.
.
-
.
4.21).
t
4.21 –
NRZ
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
- RZ
.
(
4.22).
80
t
4.22–
,
RZ
,
,
,
.
(1
(1, 0
–1),
.
0)
.
-
.
.
,
.
( – binary), ( – ternary),
4
(
)(
.
4.1).
,
33=27
-
24=16
.
(16<27)
.
4.3 -
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
–1
–1
–1
0
–1
–1
+1
–1
+1
0
+1
–1
0
–1
+1
–1 –1
–1 0
0 –1
–1 –1
–1 +1
+1 –1
–1 –1
+1 0
0 –1
–1 +1
–1 0
0 +1
+1 –1
+1 +1
+1 –1
2
+1 +1 +1
+1 +1 0
+1 0 +1
0 +1 +1
+1 +1 –1
+1 –1 +1
–1 +1 +1
+1 –1 0
–1
0 +1
0 +1 –1
–1 +1 0
+1
0 –1
0 –1 +1
+1 –1 –1
–1 –1 +1
-
3
0 –1 +1
–1 +1 0
–1 0 +1
+1 –1 +1
0 +1 +1
0 –1 0
0 0 +1
–1 +1 +1
+1 –1 0
–1 0 –1
+1
0 0
+1
0 +1
–1 –1 0
+1 +1 –1
0 –1 +1
4
81
1
+1
1 1 1 1
2
–1 +1 –1
–1 +1
3
+1
–1
–1
,
.
,
.
.
.
(
4.23).
4.23 –
(
1
1
0
1
0
4.24):
0
4.24
:
-
;
.
:
-
;
-
,
.
«
.
»
,
.
,
1
.
-
4.25.
1
0
1
0
0
4.25–
:
(1)
,
,
–
.
,
82
(
4.26).
4.26 –
,
-
.
,
,
.
,
.
I
.
NRZ
,
-
,
.
,
,
,
4.27,
.
1
1
0
1
0
4.27
0
I
(
).
-
.
,
.
,
,
.
HDB-3.
3
.
0000
«V» = +(–) 1.
1.
« »
,
«V» –
2.
– 000V.
,
000V
:
00V,
.
,
00V,
.
,
,
« »
4.28:
83
1
0
0
0
0 1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
4.28
,
,
-
4.29:
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 V
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 V
0
1
1
0
0
B
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0 V
4.29
4.4
,
.
:
-
-
(
f
-
=f
)
;
(
)
(
)
=
4.30
4.31.
-
(
),
.
f
S
1/f
t
S
1/f
4.30 –
t
84
S
t
S
=
t
0
4.31 –
,
.
4.32
.
,
8
,
.
N
.
.
(
).
,
.
.
N
.
-
,
.
8
(125
,
,
)
30
= (N/2)+1
.
.
=
),
.
(
,
)
(
0
1
3
)
.
. . .
0
t
=
t
. . .
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
t
1
2
3
4.32 –
4
5
=
6
n
.
-
85
4.4.1
–
.
,
,
.
.
:1–
;2–
(
,
).
.
.
(
-
-
–
).
.
(
,
).
4.3,
,
4.33).
(
,
-
.
,
:
(
)
.
(
)
S
t
f
0
(
)
fT
2fT
1
fT
K
3fT
S
t
f
0 f
f
1
2
K
1
fT
2
4.33 –
,
,
-
4.34.
,
.
,
f,
.
-
86
t
t
2
t
fT
t
t
4.34 –
,
-
.
.
4.35.
)
t
S
)
S
t
1
2
3
4.35 –
( )
2,
3
.
, HDB-3
( )
.
,
.
,
,
S .
1,
-
.
4.36.
,
.
87
.
U
.
f
-f
4.36–
.
.
–
.
.
(
-
4.37).
f
4.37 –
m
f
-
,
(
(
.
).
,
-
.
4.4.2
,
.
(
4.38).
88
0
1
.
0
0
t
.
1
.
0
t
.
4.38 –
,
,
.
-
,
(
.
.
4.39)
t
.
4.39 –
:
-
;
.
,
,
-
.
,
.
,
,
.
.
(
4.40).
.
:
,
89
. . .
2
1
1
4.40 –
1
2
2
3
4
3
.
.
(
0011011)
,
.
:
(
).
–
1,
,
;
-
–
.
:
(3–4
)
)
(4–6
,
.
-
2.
,
2
.
.
,
,
,
.
.
«
»
-
.
« 1»
,
.
,
.
,
(
)
.
.
2
,
.
(
4.41).
,
,
,
.
-
90
.
,
4.4.12, ,
-
(
-
,
2
,
).
.
)
)
4.41 –
:
)
;
)
4.5
.
4.5.1
,
4.1,
(
(
4.42, )
-
4.42).
,
(
4.42, ).
(
)
(
-
).
,
.
-
91
»,
.
«
-
»,
«
»,
(0 1
1 0).
. 4.42 –
,
:
1.
(
.).
(
, HDB-3,
-
4.43).
S
t
4.43 –
2.
.
(
f
4.44).
,
g(t)
(
)
.
-
92
g(t)
4.44 –
( )(
K( )
y(t)=
Ê0
K0
B
0
B
sin
B
Bt
Bt
4.45).
,
,
.
4.45 –
:
2
B
1
,
f
B
0.213.
g(t),
.
K( )
K 0 ( 0 , 54 )
0 , 46 cos
2
,
B
;
B
0
B.
g(t)
3.
,
.
0.006.
-
93
1
( ) =
(
cos2 4
(1
0
(1– )
) B)
(1– )
B
0
(1+ )
B<
;
(1+ )
B
B;
.
,
,
4.46.
K
=0
=0.25
=1
f/fB
=0.5
=1
4.46 –
g(t)
(
4.47),
sin
Bt
Bt
cos
Bt
2
Bt
1
2
,
=
.
B
4.47–
:
1)
2)
.
;
t=n
g(t)
.
94
,
(
g(t–k ) (
4.48, ).
,
t=k
4.48, )
.
.
,
-
,
,
.
t=k .
-
,
.
)
1
0
-1
1
2
1
1
0
3
4
5
t/
)
1
2
3
4
5
t/
4.48 –
–
,
,
-
.
-
,
.
4.5.2
(
,
-30)
125
N
(
,
-30/32 (
.).
N
ITU-T G.703) 30
ISDN BRI N=3,
16
.
(
)
,
64
.
.
2
,
-
64
-
.
(
N
.
)
-
95
2
,
2 8 N
-
.
= 125
-30
2 8 32
.
0 . 24
-30
.
(
)
4.5.8.
-30
-
32
),
(
(
15;
1
31)
17
16).
0
n
0
n
,
(n=1–8).
1
-
,
,
.
16 –
(
)
.
», «
»
:«
»,
», «
.
.
,
.
i
1
4
5
-30
i+15,
,
i=1 15.
8,
1
6,
2
5
.
4.4.
4.4 -
N
1
1
2
5)
2
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
6)
50
700
3
1
1
96
0
0
1
1
2
2
7
3
14
14
15
15
16
17
30
31
96
1
1
0/1
2
3
0
4
0
5
1
1
6
7
0
1
8
1
0/1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0/1
0/1
0/1
0/1
0/1
0/1
0/1
15
1
2
0/1
0/1
3
4
5
6
0/1
0/1
i
i = 1 15
7
8
i+15
0
1
2
3
4
5
0/1
0/1
.
.
6
7
8
0/1
.
.
.
.
.
1
2
3
4
0
0
0
0
-
.
.
4.49 –
-30
5
6
0/1
.
.
.
7
8
97
=16 =16 125
=2
,
50
.
,
0
(
),
1
4.
6
».
.
= N/2 + 1,
–
,
.
0
2
8
-
8
.
1
.
0
-
3
,
6
,
.
.
0
.
:
-
;
;
–3
>10 ,
–5
>10 )
-30
(
.
-
,
,
.
1984
0
.
4.6
,
(
.
3):
,
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
-
98
,
-
.
,
,
,
,
.
.
,
.
-
4.50 , .
)
S
)
S
(110) 5
(110) 4.5
(101) 4
(101) 3.5
(011) 3
(011) 2.5
(010) 2
(010) 1.5
(011)
t
2
3
4
t
(011) 0.5
(000) 0
5
2
3
4
5
4.50 –
4.50,
(
– 000)
.
-
0.
4.50,
001
0–
,
0,5 .
.
1.5 , 2.5
/2.
4.6.1
,
,
-
.
:
+
i
.
(4.5)
.
i
,
.
4.51
.
99
n
(n+1)
(n+2)
4.51 –
i
:
1)
2)
;
(
,
.).
-
,
,
.
,
:
-
.
-
r n,
n,
n
<<
-
:
=
+
.
(4.7)
,
-
:
2
S
= 2 ,
S
(4.8)
2
S –
S
+
=
2
n
2
(4.6.3)
2
n
2
=
2
+ b2.
2
(4.6.5)
(4.9)
(4.6.4),
S
2
.
2
S2 a 2 b 2 ,
(4.10)
.
-
100
10lg[
a
2
2
(
+ b2)]–1 .
(4.11)
,
-
b,
,
.
,
(V = 64
810
n
= 34
,
=125
)
.
4.6.2
(
4.50).
-
.
,
,
,
4.52
.
,
-
4.50, .
. 4.52 –
,
,
,
-
,
.
4.3
4.4.
101
:
-
/2,
–
(
);
-
,
(
,
-
1/ );
,
-
.
,
,
.
:
2
. .
12
.
(4.12)
.
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
1 ... 2
,
–
.
-
.
–
.
-
,
,
.
,
.
2
Pêâ
i
i
12
(4.13)
P( Sâõi)
P(S i)
.
4.14
4.53.
.
P(S)
0
S
S
-
102
4.53 –
(S )
P (S )
3
2
S
e
,
(4.14)
2.
S
4.6.3
(4.3)
,
.
4.54,
,
-
,
.
4.54 –
.
,
/2,
.
-
4.55
.
,
,
.
103
4.55 –
.
,
.
-
,
,
.
4.6.4
.
S
-
4.56.
4.56 –
S
>S
S
,
S
.
.
-
104
,
.
.
P
2
S
S
2
P(S
.
)dS
(4.15)
S
4.57
A
U
– 8,
U .
– 16.
,
-
1
1000
, 2–
38
.
.
.
,
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
20 lg U /U
-35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5
0
. 4.57 –
U /U
S
.
,
.
-
.
4.7
(
-30)
.
,
,
(n)
,
-
,
.
n
(
4.58).
.
-
105
,
.
.
I
1
II
I
II III IV
2
III
3
IV
4
4.58 –
(
)
.
).
(
:
1)
2)
3)
;
;
.
(
(
4.59)
)
(
-
1
2
3
n
1
2
3
n
).
t
4.59 –
(
4.60)
,
.
-
).
.
,
,
.
32
,
,
33/32.
106
1
-
2
3
n-1 n
n-1 n
1
2
...
n-2
1
2
...
n
...
-
t
4.60
,
,
.
-
,
.
,
f.
-
.
,
,
.
V3
Vc
,
-
.
.
,
,
.
4.61).
(
1
2
……
3
1
2
1
2
1
2
n
…
…
n-1
…
4.61 –
1
2
……
3
n-1 n
1
2
n
1
…
n-1 n
1
…
……
…
…
n
…
n
…
V =V
…
V <V
…
V >V
….…
….…
n
-
107
V =Vc,
.
(
V <Vc
-
).
,
.
.
,
(n-1
,
«
n)
»,
«
«
V >Vc
».
»–
–
.
)
(
.
n
n)
-
.
,
(
)
.
.
(
)
-
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
,
:
,
,
-
,
.
4.8
-30)
(
4.62).
,
,
,
.
-
108
=
256
-120+
-480
-30+
-120
-30
1
2
8448
-1920
)
(2.048
=
576
4368
139264
30
4.62 –
(
(
)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 1 1
0 0
9
10
1 1 0
I
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
4
10
I
5
6
7
8
9
12
III
II
14
I
12
III
15
16
II III
13
IV
I
14
17
IV
-120)
...
263
I
264
III
15
16
17
II III
IV
I
10
I
IV
...
264
263
III
...
I
I II III IV
2-
13
IV
11
.
3
11
II
9
I II III IV
1-
1 2
(
4.63).
IV
263
II
III
II
264
IV
.
.
III
1
2
I
II
3
4
III IV
5
6
I
II
3-
.
7
8
III IV
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
I
II
III IV
...
I
263 264
III IV
IV
.
4
/4
4.63 –
-120
.
1056
.
.
125
,
109
111001100,
.
256
( 9-
) ( -
264,
.
,
–
.
111,
IV.
)
III
(
– 000
III
),
(
5 8
(
)
,
IV
).
5–8
.
9–12
IV.
,
78
,
6–8
IV,
,
.
,
1024 4
,
1056,
-
.
.
,
,
,
-
,
.
,
,
,
-
,
-
.
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
-
,
.
.
4.9
(SDH)
-
.
155,520
.
-
110
,
(Synchronous Digital Hierarchy – SDH).
SDH:
.
1.
2.
:
a)
(
= PDH),
;
,
.
f
;
b)
-30
-480
-120,
;
.,
,
c)
-
;
d)
3.
).
.
(
,
:
1.
2.
155,52
3.
(
).
:
, 622,08
.
–
4.
PDH, ISDN, ATM.
.
-
(Synchronous Transport Module) STM-1 (
, SDH:
STM-1
STM-4,
STM-4
2488,320
;
STM-16
STM-64 (9953,280
).
4.5):.
622,080
STM-16
-
4.5
,
1
1-1
1-2
1,5
2(
2
2
6
3
3
34 (
;
1
-30)
1
2
-480)
3
-1
111
45 (
4
4
)
3
140
4
SDH
.
-
(Container
,
C).
SDH,
.
PDH.
,
4.64
STM.
STM-1
TU
4.64
(TU- ributary Unit).
2
, 34
,
STM, TU
144
.
,
.
?
-
STM. STM
.
)
,
.
(Pointer).
,
STM
.
-
,
.
N
STM-1
1
AUG
AU4
VC4
3
C4
1
TU3
TUG3
7
1
TUG2
TU2
3
TU1
VC3
VC2
VC-12
C3
6
34
(
C1-2
2
)
112
4.65 –
SDH
):
VC –
TUG –
AU –
AUG –
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
:
,
-
,
STM-1:
1.
2.
.
(Path Over Head –
POH)
VC = C + POH.
VC
.
POH,
,
,
.
3.
PTR
-
TU (Tributary Unit)
TU = VC + PTRTU.
PTR –
VC
.
. PTR
-
4.
TUG ( ributary Unit Group).
5.
TUG
VC-4.
-
6. VC-4
SOH,
AU-4.
7.
SOH (Section Over Head)
STM-1 = AUG + SOH,
SOH –
SOH = RSOH + MSOH;
RSOH –
MSOH –
STM-1
;
.
-
113
:
139,264
,
-1920,
-4,
POH
VC-4.
-
.
.
8.
STM-N = STM-i + (RSOH + MSOH)i + AUPTRi,
AUPTRi –
STM
(
4.66).
-
.
M
U
-
M
STM-N
STM-1
-
-
U
X
X
4.66
:
;
MUX
4.66
MSOH.
RSOH
STMN
RSOH
,
,
,
-
.
MSOH
,
,
.
STM-1(
4.67).
-
114
261
9
1
FAS
n-1 (
2
RSOH
)
3
4
PTR
n
5
6
7
n
MSOH
8
9
4.67 -
STM-1
,
.
*155.52
)
STM-1
2430
.
,
270
SDH
19440
9
.
:
.
–
.
(125
-
9
81
).
9
FAS(Frame Alignment Signal),
).
9
RSOH,
261
–
.
261
PTR,
(45
5
MSOH.
.
FAS,
)
4.67
,
-
.
.
-782,
(«
»)
-
.
,
.).
»
,
-
.
STM-1
.
.)
-
115
FAS
.
-
STM-1,
,
.
,
PDH,
.
,
.
),
SDH
).
,
.
.
10-12
,
,
(7-9
H1
).
4.68.
10
H2,
H1
Y
Y
H2
4.68
1*
(
4.68)
1* H3 H3 H3
PTR
STM-1
7,8 H1
1-8 H2.
1023,
-
0-782.
:
D.
I
.
-
±1.
(0 1, 1
0),
-
.
,
.
,
.
NNNN=1001.
AU-4.
N
NNNN=0110,
) AU-3
SS
3
,
.
Y
1*
-
.
RSOH
4.69).
MSOH (
-
116
R
S
O
H
A1
A1
A1
A2
A2
A2
C1
B1
E1
F1
D1
D2
D3
U-4
B2
B2
B2
D4
M
S
D7
O
H D10
Z1
Z1
Z1
K1
K2
D5
D6
D8
D9
D11
D12
Z2
Z2
Z2
E2
4.69
STM-1
A1 A2,
,
(FES) A1=11110110; A2=00101000. C1,
STM-1.
,
STM-1
B1
,
.
STM,
-
STM-4.
BIP-8.
2
.
,
,
.
.
1
2
3
4
01010110
10110110
10101010
………
01010110
11111111
10101010
………
2429
2430
BIP-8
11001101
01100110
11100001
11001101
01100110
10101000
BIP-8
.
E1
8
)
.
F1
.
(TMN).
D1-D3
117
.
B2, E2, D4-D12
RSOH.
K1 K2
,
Z1, Z2,
–
,
,
.
V5
1
35
R
1-32
2
3
BIP-2
4
5
6
7
RE RFI
8
RDI
R
J2
VC-1-2
35
R
1-32
R
N2
(BIP-2)
35
R
1-32
BIP-2
R
4
35
R
1-32
R
4.70
STM-1
VC1-2
C1-2.
-
V1
V5
4.65.
-
R
-
R
.
VC1-2
4.9.8.
V3,J2,N2
POH
K4
V2
,
-
J2
.
36
R
.
.
«
»
VC1-2
R
V3
:
N2
,
.
R
-
011,
36
-
R
.
.
K4
-
R
36
-
V4
R
4.71 -
.
-
118
.
,
– 100.
(010)
,
(PTR)
.
-
.
,
-
.
,
.
J2
,
N2 V5
.
J0
,
K4
.
VC1-2
,
,
,
4.71).
(
,
(POH
H1 H2(
AU-4,
.
V1, V2
V2).
4.72).
V3
.
V3 V4.
V1
R
,
V2
V3
V1-V4
V1, J2, N2, K4
R
36
I
……
I
R
125
V1-V4
I
..
..
I
POH
I
..
..
I
R
I
..
..
I
4
4.72 -
I
I
..
..
I
9
125
TU-12
4.73..
(Pointer) - PTR
I4
TU-12
NPI-
119
(Null point indicator)
RV1 V5 R I
V1V5 R I
(Fixed Stuff Byte)
V1V5 R I
S-
9
(Stuff Byte)
V5(Path Overhead) - POH
12=(3*4)
TU-12*3
TUG-2
V1V1V1V5 V5V5 R R R I I I
V1V1V1V5 V5 V5 R R R I I I
V1V1 V1V5 V5V5 R R R I I I
9
.....
1
2
7
125
TUG-2*7
86=(12*7+2
TUG-3
NPI
S V1V1 V1V1 V1V1 V1V1 V1V1 V1V1 V1V1 V1V1 V1V1 V1V1 V1V5V5V5V5
I I I I
I I
........
9
S
125
TUG-3*3
VC-4
261=(86*3+3)
S S
P
O
H
NPI NPI NPI
S S S V1 V1V1V1V1V1V1V1V1 V1V1V1V1V1 V1V1V1 V1V1V1V1V1V1
I I I
9
.....
S S S
125
261
AU-4
9
9
AU
STM-1
125
270=(261+9)
RSOH
9
AU
MSOH
125
4.73.
SDH
TU-12 TUG-3
PDH:
1.
2.
.
,
.
-
.
3.
:
,
(
,
)
.
120
:
1.
.
,
SDH,
(
.
2b),
,
.
2.
–
+
-
.
3.
:
(
);
:
;
(
);
–
-
.
SDH:
1.
2.
3.
4.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
SDH (
4.74 -
SDH
(
-
4.74).
)
121
4.75
4.76
(TMN)
(
,
-
).
1 2 3 4 5 6
3 4 5 6 7 8
TMN
1
2
7
8
4.75–
1, 3, 4, STMi )
,
.
272 (
(
)
1
63
4.75).
1 2 7
1 2 3 4 5 6
3 4
STM-1
7 8
5 6 8
TMN
4.76 –
PDH
.
STM-256, WDM, DWDM
,
,
4.76).
SDH ,
.
STM-64,
(
122
5.
5.1
.
.
,
,
-
.
,
(
),
(
),
).
(
(
),
-
5.1.
5.1
-
-
.
,
,
0,1
1-50
1
3-20
0,05-300
3-10
1-105
1-200
-
.
-
.
(
)
,
.
.
,
:
12500
25000
-
;
(
100
);
(
,
,
-
.);
;
,
5.2
.
.
–
,
-
,
.
.
,
,
,
-
123
.
.
-
,
.
1
3000.
(«
(
).
,
»).
-
,
.),
10
(
)(
.
. 5.1).
5.1100
4(
5).
.
5.2.
3000.
UTP-3, UTP-
124
5x4
1
2
1
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
)
10
10
)
)
5.2-
: )
)
)
(
.1–
. 5.2 )
,210
.
,
,
«
-
».
.
5.3.
Ï
Å
—
+
E
Í
H
5.3 -
-
.
I.
,
.
(
)
,
125
.
-
.
Ï ,
.
.
:
–V =
,
1
,
-
.
V =
,
(5.1)
–
,
2
2
( 1
2
2
) 1,
–
(5.2)
.
,
,
1
V =
,
(5.3)
2
2
(1
2
2
) 1
5.4
V
1
5.4 -
ZT=
,
(5.4)
126
,
.
ZT=
.
:
,
;
,
;
,
(tg
,
-
0).
.
(
5.5).
R
g
C
R
G
G
C
5.5 -
L
C,
:
)
R(
).
G(
g
-
(
)
R (
).
,
-
,
R=0
L=
ln[
d
r
r
]
127
G=
C=
d–
ln[( d
r) / r ]
ln[( d
r) / r ]
,
,r–
.
G
R
,
L
.
,
(R
ZB
(R
,
L) (G
L) /(G
C)
C)
,
.
-
.
,
5.6
d.
,
25
d=0.4
d=0.7
f
500
1000
5.6 -
-
,
300 – 500
,
.
-
(
5.7).
U10.
. . .
I
U.
U
I
.
128
1
U10
Z1
I
I
I
I
I
I
2
5.7 IM.
,
I
.
IM
-
,
-
5.8.
I
I
I
I
I
I
5.8 -
.
,
,
5.8,
:
,
.
(
.
5.9)
-
129
,
110
L
90
70
50
30
0
10
f,
0
50
100
5.9 -
10
A0
20
0=10lg
P10
P20
AL=10lg
P10
P2 L
AL
2L
,
(
),
0
–
L
-
5.8
.
–
l.
5.10
0
-
130
=10lg
P1l
.
P2 l
5.10 ,
(
)
5.11 ),
.
10
1l
2l
20
)
10
1l
20
2l
5.11 –
:
-
131
;
(
-
5.11 );
.
,
-
,
l.
,
-
d,
150 – 800
.
-
,
.
,
.
,
,
-
.
(
5.2):
,
5.2
R 0,
,
0.4
0.7
0.9
1.2
,
139
45
56.8
31.6
,
45
45
38
43
1.54
0.88
-
ZB,
1164
676
130
113
:
4
.
10
UTP – 3,
.
–
-
;
– 74
100
.
50
– 100
0.1
,
0.056
100 .
.
UTP – 5.
100
– 100
.
150
– 32
0.8
22
-
132
5.3
–
,
(
5.12).
E
H
D
d
5.12 -
.
d
,
-
.
,
,
.
(
)
(
).
5.11.
:
(5.1) – (5.3),
.
,
;
-
ZT (5.4)
ZB=
ZB
),
75
(
1
2
Z T ln
D
d
(5.5)
50
).
(
-
133
.
(
-
)
=
f
2.6 f
D
D ln
d
(
D
d
1) ,
(5.6)
,
.
,
-
f
,
D
D/d.
D
.
d
(
.
=3.6
(5.6)
=
f
21.6
D
r
3
10
D=9.6
=25
D
)
d
(5.7)
, r=1.22
f=100
.
.
5.13
r.
,
±I,
-
.
,
,
:
,
100
1000
.
.
-
134
5.13 .
–
,
.
-
,
.
.
-
,
.
5.4
( 4 – 32
)
.
.
=0.85 – 1.6
170 – 350
)10
5
.
.
( 1.7 – 3.5
-
135
.
,
1 – 10
0.1 – 1
1000 – 10000
.
-
.
,
-
,
.
,
,
.
-
,
.
(3–4) .
,
,
,
-
.
.
–
.
–
n1
n2 (
-
5.14)
n1
a
n2
5.14 n1>n2,
B
(sin
B=
2
),
-
1
.
.
n2=1
.
.
.
-
(
)
-
136
.
.
n1
-
n2
,
.
.
-
,
.
n2=1,46.
.
,
, n1=1,465,
,
>85º.
.
(
-
),
,
-
.
:
2 à ï 12
ï 22
2,405 .
n1=1,5 n2=1.49,
6,8
2
12,8
=1,6
=0,85
.
(
5.15)
)
d
)
d>
5.15 -
( )
( )
-
.
-
,
.
(
,
,
(
)
5.16)
-
137
B
A
5.16 A,
-
,
B
.
NA = sin
A
= n12
n 22
(5.8)
2 à ï 12
V=
ï 22
(5.9)
V 2,405,
-
V2
N=
2
,
a
-
2
.
.
,
5.15 ,
,
,
,
-
.
.
2
2
,
N
.
20 – 50
.
(
5.17).
138
n2
n1
5.17 -
.
n1.
-
n = n1[1-2 (r/a)2]1/2,
=
n1
(5.10)
n2
n1
,
,
A
.
.
(
).
10 – 20
)
(
)
-
),
-
.
.
ô
îïò
( )
n( )
(
(
).
,
2
2
2
,
:
c
2
1
2
c
2
(5.11)
(5.12)
139
-
,
5 7 ,
c=
10 15
n1
n2
n1
,
2/
,
,
-
.
,
,
,
-
= 1,35
.
(
(
100
10
)
-
).
,
)
,
( =1 – 2
.
)
,
.
,
,
5.18.
5.18 -
(
)
0.45; 1.24; 1.34
=1.3
(
0.3
,
=1.55
)
.
(
=1.55
.
.
-
100
)
-
140
=1.3
,
)
.
“
–
.
(0.7 – 1
”
141
6
6.1
:
1.
(
).
(
. 6.1)
,
-
ABCD.
.
,
6.2):
(
-
B
D
2
C
A
1
6.1 –
;
.
142
1
1
2
3
N
N
3
1
2
1
2
2
3
M
1
2
M
3
6.2 :
;
(
)
,
.
.
:
.
50%
,
,
-
,
.
.
10 – 30%;
,
-
.
2.
(
).
-
,
(
).
,
.
6.3
).
(
1,2,3,4
(
A,
)
ACDB
1.
2
(AFDB).
3,4
B
,
ACDB
2
A
2
ACDB.
,
,
B
-
.
.
143
1
2
F
3
4
2
B
D
A
2
4
1
4
2
3
3
1
3
1
C
4
6.3 :
;
;
.
:
(
100%),
,
-
;
,
.
:
,
-
;
,
,
-
.
6.4
.
.
(
, 011111110).
.
,
,
.
-
144
6.4 ,
-
,
.
6.2
.
,
.
-
,
-
.
6.5.
6.5 -
.
,
145
–
.
.
.
,
(
)
6.5
2
4.
.
-
,
.
N
1000.
Nk.
2
2
Nk=N -N=N (N-1) N
N=1000,
N =106 ,
N=5000 N =25·106.
-
.
.
6.6.
1
2
1
3
2
4
3
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
)
4
5
)
6.6 -
,
(
(
.6.6 ) ,
-
.6.6 ).
.
.6.6 .
.
1 - 6,
1, 2, 3
.
.
.
146
–
(
–
(
. 6.5)
6.6 ).
:
;
;
.
-
.
(
2
6.7).
3
4
5
6
6.7 (
),
.
1 –
,
,
.
.
:
2 –1 –5
2 -2 –5
2 –3 –5
.
,
,
-
(1 , 2 , 3 ),
.
,
6.3.
-
147
.
,
(
6.8).
(
)
(
,
).
RK
,
R
Rk -
, R .
.
-
,
(“ ”, ” ”
.).
12
1
.
.
2
34
3
4
1
2
3
4
6.8 -
(
30),
.
6.9).
(
,
,
1
-
.
12
.
(
)
Sy12
2
.
k
-
148
S
1
…
t
0
0
S
1
2
31
12
t
0
S
2
t
0
1
6.9 ,
1.
-
i2
.
3
,
,
34
.
6.10, 6.11.
149
1
m
.
.
.
1
&
.
.
.
.
1
1
.
.
.
.
&
n
&
…
11
.
.
.
.
&
…
1n
m1
mn
6.10 1
.
.
.
1
1
n
.
.
.
m
m
…
m
6.11 -
1
150
“ ”
.
(8
.
“ ”
“
)
,
n-
.
”
-
“ 1n”
y1n,
-
.
m n
,
.
,
,
.
.
6.3.
6.1.
.
(
6.12)
30,
.
-
.
0
1
2
30
31
…
-
…
-
6.12-
(
)(
6.13).
(8
8-
.
.
.
)
-
151
-1
-2
2
1
1
2
-3
.
.
.
.
.
.
6. 13 -
(
-
),
,
.
(
.
6.14).
-
1 2 3 4
A B C D
1
A
2
B
3
C
4
D
1' 2' 3' 4'
C A D B
.
1'
3
2'
1
3'
4
4'
2
6. 14 -
A
1
2'
B
2
4'
C
3
1'
D
4
3'
152
.
CADB.
,
-3142.
-
,
(
)
.
(
-
) Nk,
.
(
.
:
t0,
ö
N
=125
)
k
t
2
–
0
.
t0=0.5
, Nk=125.
-
120,
- 30
.
7-8
,
128 8
Nk
,
.
.
1
.
,
,
,
.
.
6.4.
.
-
.
1.
N =500, Nk=N2=25·104;
.
2.
(
.
,
,
,
mk)
.
m,
.
3.
.
,
100%
-
.
N >10000
-
,
.
,
,
:
;
;
;
;
.
(
6.15).
153
2
18
1
-- 11
2
- N- 2
N N
1
2
18
N
N
-N
6. 15-
–
(
)
(
).
,
.
(
6.16).
1
1
1
1
.
.
.
1.
U
U
1
N N
U
1
1
.
N.
U
U
U
.
.
N N
6. 16 -
–
(
)(
6.17)
N
-
154
n k
N
n
N
1
N
n
.
.
k n
n
n
1
1
.
.
N
n
.
.
.
n
1
.
.
k n
.
.
.
n k
N
n
6.17
.
.
n
.
.
.
N
n
1
.
.
k n
n
6.17-
N
N
n
(N N )
N
,
.
Nk
2 (n k )
.
-
N N 2
N
( ) k 2N k ( ) 2 k
n
n
n
N = 100, n = k = 10
NK(1)=104
NK(3)=3·103
N>100.
6.17.
,
,
k-
.
,
,
N>k.
6.18,
6.19.
N
n k
N
n
1
.
.
N/n
k
N/n
155
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
2
N k
k N
.
.
.
.
.
.
N
.
.
.
.
.
.
N
.
.
.
.
.
.
-
-
6.18 -
-
-
156
2
…
1
3
2
2
1
1
2
…
…
22
…
1
2
23
…
2
1
1
2
T1
…
1
3
2
T2
1
1
2
2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
N
N
2
1
1
…
17
…
2
2
1
…
1
2
23
…
…
1
2
…
22
2
1
1
2
1
…
17
6.19-
(
(
,
).
(
),
(
,
6.20):
-
),
(
),
( ).
-
,
.
(
(ISDN-BRA, ISDN-PRA)
.
,
xDSL.
)
Ithernet
…
157
.
PDH
ISDN
.
SDH
- 30
Ithernet
D
xDSL
.
-
7
6. 20-
gabit Ethernet
.
SDH, PDH, ATM, Gi.
,
6.5
6.5.1
.
:
;
MAC –
;
;
,
IP –
.
(
.
,
,
,
.),
(
)
(
).
-
:
MAC –
.
48
,
22
158
,
24
.
280
;
;
;
:
),
(
-
.;
;
;
,
(
MAC
-
);
–
.
6.5.2
-
(
6.21).
…
1
2
N
6. 21(
i)
.
(
)
“
”
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
(
),
.
-
159
.
.
,
.
,
-
,
,
.
Ethernet (
6.22).
1
1
2
N
2
3
6. 22 -
Ethernet
(
)
-
i
.
(
,
)–
,
,
Rx
Tx
(
6.23)
.
Tx
Rx
2
1
Rx
Tx
Rx
Tx
6. 23 ,
.
Ethernet
.
:
-
160
10 Base-T.
- 12203
– 10
– 576.
,
–
.
-
(
(
) 500 .
.
1024.
) 100 ,
,
,
.
100 Base-T, 100 Base-F,
:
– 100 .,
260 .
– 100
( )
.,
(F).
-
– 136 .,
6.5.3
,
.
Ethernet
6.24).
1
.
3
2
– MAC -
…
1
2
N
6. 24 ,
.
-
,
Ethernet.
,
Ethernet
,
,
.
2
,
,
1
.
1
.
B
-
2,
.
:
-
161
(full duplex);
;
,
;
,
.
,
,
-
.
:
“
” (Cut Through).
.
(
)
150
,
;
(Store and Forward).
.
-
,
12000
.
Ethernet,
:
(8
1500
Ethernet
(
(
7),
Ethernet
–
),
(
16
),
;
-
- 30).
;
,
(16 – 32 – 64).
Ethernet –
4-8
-
.
Ethernet:
1.
,
,
,
–
,
.
.
.
2.
,
Ethernet,
6.25),
.
“
”
,
162
1
2
3
4
6.25 3.
,
“
-
”.
6.5.4 IP
.
,
–
,
(
.
)
-
,
(
. IP
(
IP ),
–
.).
,
IANA,
.)
(
–
.).
,
,
,
,
,
-
.
,
”,
“
4
,
,
. IP
,
, 190.248.15.97.
,
,
-
-
.
,
.
( -
163
190.248.15.0
190.248.0.0
1
1
2
3
N
2
2
1
1
2
3
190.248.0.1
135.15.42.0
3
135.15.42.24
190.248.15.97
6. 26 ,
:
“
,
,
-
,
(
”)
.
1(
6.27)
.
190.248.15.97
190.248.15.0
1
1
135.15.42.24
135.15.42.0
3
2
140.248.0.1
198.248.0.0
3
1
6. 27-
1,
1
135.15.42.24 “
”
1
2.
1.
,
190.248.15.97.
1
,
,
190.248.0.0.
190.248.0.0
3
(
RIP
1.
-
),
OSPF.
:
164
“
”,
,
;
;
,
Ethernet
Frame Relay,
(
.
6.28).
IP
Frame
Relay
Ethernet
Eth
IP
FR
6. 28 ,
Ethernet
(IP)
Ethernet
,
.
,
IP
-
.
Frame Relay
.
6.5.5
-
(VC).
,
,
.
.
,
.
.
,
.
-
165
.
.
(PVC),
(SVC),
,
.
.
,
(10-12
),
4
.
20
.
-
,
,
.
,
.
.
,
.
.
X.25, Frame Relay, ATM, MPLS, Tag –
switching Ethernet
.
.
Frame Relay.
,
(PVC)
.
PVC
Link Connection Identifies - DLCI.
.
DLCI
FR
1
DLCI
2
DLCI
FECN
6. 29 -
,
Data
DLCI
(
6.29)
.
BECN
C/R
EA
DE
EA
Frame Relay
-
166
,
FECN
BECN
,
1.
,
Frame Relay
Q0S,
.
,
(
,
,
(
,
DE
,
.
–
-
),
,
)
-
.
.
,
,
,
,
,
(53
).
,
-
.
-
,
.
VCI,
-
.
VCI
20
,
,
,
.
.,
(PVC),
–
20
(SVC).
PNNI – Private Network
to Network Interface.
,
.
-
VCI
VPI.
,
(
-
6.30).
VCI
(VPI)
6. 30 -
VCI (16
)–
VPI (8
.
)–
-
167
,
.
168
7
7. 1
,
. .(
1.2)
,
.
-
,
,
,
,
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
.
–
,
,
-
.
(
,
,
),
.
7.1.
.
.
7.1 -
-
169
(
(
(
)(
)–
,
,
.–
)
( )
( ).
)
(
.
,
-
,
)
.
.
.
,
,
.
.
-
,
.
.
7.2
.
,
(
.
. 1.10).
(
)
(
-
7.2)
- 30
-
C
.
.
.
C
.
R
7.2 ,
0.3 – 3.4
RJ-45 (
( )
)
)
-
.
).
(
(
,
10
),
.
,
(
).
( C)
170
,
.
,
-
.
,
,
.
,
R
,
-
,
(
)
.
.
PBX (Private Branch Exchange).
(
–
-
–
7.3).
(
(
)
).
.
.
.
7.3-
–
,
,
(
,
)
-
.
–
.
–
.
.
7.3
.
.
.
.
7.3.1.
0.3 – 3.4
.
,
171
128,
34
(
56Flex )
(
V.34 )
56
.
(
-
)
,
,
.(
7.4 ).
( f=3.1
)
7.4 -
(dial up)
7.3.2.
.
(
,
),
3.1
,
,
.
(
7.5).
-
-
- 30
7.5 7.6.
172
,
25
d=0.4
d=0.7
500
f,
1000
7.6 ,
( 3.1
).
75 – 80 ,
-
,
f=500
3-5
.
.
N -
N ,
–
f
=2
,
f log2 1 S
B
S
-
.
500 êÃö
.
(
).
7.7,
( )
( )
2 1Q.
-
.
(4 –
).
173
)
)
+3
+1
t
00
01
-3
-1
0
11
10
+1
+3
-1
-3
7.7 -
2B1Q
2 1Q
7.8.
-
.
S
f
7.8 -
2BIQ
,
.
,
).
,
,
.
.
ITU-T
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) –
.
BRI
2B+D,
–
D–
16
.
7.9.
64
,
174
TE1
U
S/T
.
1
2
.
NT
ATC
3
.
8
R
TE2
ISDN BRI
TA
7.9 -
ISDN BRI
1 –
ISDN,
.
,
S
RJ45
-
.
S
S
.
8
,
2.
ISDN BRI
ISDN,
,
,
,
.
2.
-
S
.
R
,
.
,
,
.
U
.
,
.
160
).
80
2B1Q (
(2B+D+
),
.
-
.
,
,
-
(
).
7.10.
175
.
-
-
+
7.10 ( )
,
-
.
,
”
( ),
.
-
,
. 7.6 ).
.
.
.
,
-
..
S(
(
T)
U
-
) NT.
ISDN-BRI
.
:
64
144
7.3.3
.
.
DSL
1
50
.
,
.
-
176
–
– Digital Subscriber Line.
,
DSL,
.
7.1
[2].
,
DSL
, DSL
-
,
-
DSL
7.1
,
xDSL
-
-
Digital sibscriber
line
0.160
1
8
1.5
2.0
2
2-3
3.5
1.5 – 8
0.016 - 1
1
2.5 – 5.5
1
2.5 – 5.5
1
0.3 -1.5
DSL
HDSL
ADSL
)
High – data rate
DSL
)
Asymmetric DSL
)
Rate adaptive
DSL
-
RADSL
VDSL
8
1
ADSL)
Very high data
rate DSL
)
13 – 52
1.5 – 2.3
,
.
.
,
xDSL
,
,
.
.
1.
~0.5
,
.
,
.
177
2B1Q.
,
.
ISDN – BRI
HDSL MDSL.
,
- 30,
2
,
500
-
.
,
.
2B1Q
:
,
,
-
,
,
.
,
,
-
.
CAP(Carrierless Amplitude and Phase Modulation).
2B1Q.
–
(
(
64
-
3.1).
,
7.11).
128(
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
7.11 -
.
)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
CAP – 64
:
–
,
–
178
,
(
I
lg l
,
.
l–
,
CAP – 64
2BIQ
,
2.
.
2BIQ
l=64, I=6,
)
l=128, I=7.
6
-
7.12
CAP – 64
7.12 -
1168
.
2BIQ
CAP – 64(6.7
)
TC – PAM(Trellis Coded Pulse Amplitude Modulation.
2BIQ
16
(
).
-
,
.
.
.
2BIQ
TC – PAM
,
CAP – 128.
CAP – 64
TC – PAM
)
2.
( 1.5 – 2
.
xDSL
,
.
(
HDSL,
).
-
179
2BIQ
.
2
,
-
.
,
.
,
,
,
-
.
,
.
xDSL
.
: 1)
, 3)
-
, 2)
.
.
(
–
-
),
.
.
,
.
,
,
.
.
3.
xDSL
,
.
ISDN – BRI, HDSL, SDSL.
( .
7.1),
,
,
.
.
.
-
:
–
25
,
,
,
-
,
(
).
,
-
180
ADSL
,
,
,
-
.
(
).
,
ADSL
-
,
,
-
,
(
.7.8).
.
(
(
),
7.13).
2
ADSL
ADSL
-
7.13 -
ADSL
ADSL
dial up.
(
DSLAM
,
DSL
3
,
-
)
0.4 – 0.5 .
,
DSL Access Module (DSLAM).
Ethernet,
.
DSLAM
:
(
)
0.3 – 3.4
(downstream)
1.5
6
(upstream)
15
640
.
-
,
2.048
1.536
.
,
(
).
,
,
181
.
,
.
.
: 1)
140
, 2)
,
0.14 – 1.1
.
-
(DMT).
,
.
7.3.2.).
ADSL2
ADSL2+. ADSL2
-
.
,
.
100
200 .
ADSL2+
(<1500 ).
2.2
20
7.3.4
(
.
)
,
(
,
).
n x 1(
– 30).
:
xDSL
(
. .7.3.3),
-
(
(
),
).
.
(
, 1.31
, 1.55
=0.85
pin-
).
,
.
(
).
(
, =0.85
),
100 (SM, =1.55
G.703 – V.35, V.24, Ethernet.
(SM),
:
).
34
.
182
,
-
,
,
,
.
400
20
.
(5-40 ).
: G.703, V.35, Ethernet.
–
34
,
-
:
,
.
7.3.5
.
7.1.
,
(
-
)
.
.
-
:
.
:
,
(
7.14).
.
-
–
,
–
.
,
-
,
,
.
N
2
– 4,
.
–8
2B1Q
.
-
– 30/32.
4 8
,
–
183
1
1
2
2
N
t
.
.
N
.
7.14 -
(
)
.
.
(
)
,
–
-
, . .
,
(
)
n 64
, 1(2
, Ethernet
.
-
(
/c), V24/RS232, ISDN – BRI, xDSL, V35,
.).
,
,
-
).
.
-
1.
(
7.15)
n 64
/
E1
FrE1
7.15 1 (2
n 64
(
),
)
.
(
).
184
,
1
31.
(31 - n).
2.
7.16)
n
(Fractional E1)
ISDN
-
MUX
RS232
V.35
FrE1
7.16 -
.
,
,
.
-
.
,
2
) – V.35.
32
(V24/RS232),
,
(
ISDN – BRI
2
1.
.
n 2
3.
.
–
(
7.17)
185
4xE1
PDH
1
SDH
xDSL
xDSL
V.35
7.17 ,
,
1200
(
(
64
)
,
.
.
Megaplex – 2200
RAD
).
.
,
–
,
(PDH
.
SDH) (
7.18).
7.18 -
-
186
–
K
l
( )
l.
- 30)
1(
-
,
64
64
30 .
:
–
,
–
,
–
.
,
.
.
,
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
-
(
).
,
,
500
-
2000.
–
34 – 155
.
.
,
,
,
.
(
)
,
,
.
-
.
(
2
1)
2)
:
6000 – 20000 (
100 – 6000 (
)
.
-
12.
))–
-
187
3)
128 – (
)–
.
ISDN nxBRI (2B+D)
nxPRI
(30B+D).
.
ISDN
,
).
7.19
.
-
7.19 :
(
);
;
;
;
;
;
“
-
”;
;
call – back –
“
–
”.
-
.
,
(
,
.)
188
7.4
(
)
),
(
).
.
TCP/IP
.
.
1
nxE1
1
R
xDSL
2
2
.
7.20 7.20.
(dial up)
1
(
),
,
.
.
.
R.
.
n E1
– -
189
)
.
(
) ,
-
x_DSL
(Ethernet) –
.
(
).
.
(Ethernet),
(
(Fast Ethernet).
100
2000
(
72),
,
)
-
.
“
”,
1024.
.
,
(switch).
–
-
,
,
.
xDSL
.
2
-
.
– on line)
,
-
.
100
(Fast Ethernet)
1000
(Gigabit Ethernet).
7.5
.
,
,
.
,
,
,
,
,
.
.
7.5.1
(
).
(
7.21)
(
.
)
190
xE1
U
U
R
7.21 -
1.
),
(
.
(
R
-
)
.
:
1.
,
,
;
2.
(MUX)
,
,
.
,
.
.
.7.21)
-
(
.
ISDN (
– 2
.
7.3.2).
64
ISDN – BRI
,
ISDN – PRI
(
).
“
,
-
”,
2 –4
(
MPEG – 2, MPEG – 4)
.
,
.
30x64
191
7.5.2 IP –
(
)
”
.
,
-
,
).
7.2
-
-
-
,
(
-
,
<150
)
0.05 – 0.1
6-8
0
30 - 100000
7.2.
-
.
(
)
150
,
.
-
,
.
,
-
:
V0 FR (
V0 IP (IP V0 ATM (
Frame Relay)
)
ATM).
IP –
.
IP –
,
,
,
-
:
1.
( <150
).
,
:
(
-
),
,
;
,
,
;
,
(
)
.
IP -
192
2.
.
IP –
IP –
3.
.
.
,
,
.
IP-
ITU –
H.323.
7.22
IP –
IP –
IP -
IP
7.22 -
. 323
:
IP
(
“
(
IP
-
”);
IP
“
ISDN
-
”);
,
IP
(
“
-
”).
:
IP –
H.323 (
7.23)
.
IP
(
)
7.23 -
IP –
-
193
(
–
+
,
6·16
64
/
),
-
,
-
.
IP –
(
),
-
,
,
.
H.323 –
(
IP –
,
H.323,
(ISDN).
)
-
,
IP –
–
.
,
:
;
;
-
IP -
;
,
.
IP –
,
“
-
”,
3
10
(
).
(
).
,
IP
.
-
.
IP –
.
:
;
IP
;
(
IP –
)
-
;
(Q0S)
IP
,
RSVP, Diff – Serv, MPLS .
7.5.3
.
-
194
4
:
1.
-
.
.
-
SDH
(
,
.).
(1,4).
2.
(
7.24)
.
.
.
(
)
,
,
7.24 .
,
(
–
,
).
(HFC).
.
3.
(
,
).
.
.
,
– «
»,
-
,
,
”
,
.
–
(
7.26),
.
195
-
-
7.26 :
),
(
)
(
(
).
-
.
(
).
.
-
.
HFC
(
),
,
(
).
-
,
,
.
7.27.
(
)
50
)
)
(
-
.
,
,
550 – 862
.
30 – 40
QAM – 64 QAM – 256.
(
-
196
1
2
...
n
1
2
...
m
-
-
..
..
)
f,
50
550
862
1000
7.27 HFC
(2 – 10
)
-
(
QPSK.
) QAM – 16
(
)
.
,
,
,
.
”,
.
HFC
,
(ATM, IP - MPLS).
HFC
“
197
8.
.
(
,
,
-
),
,
.
,
,
,
,
-
.
8.1
.
:
-
“
”;
,
-
,
,
,
.
,
,
.
:
-
(
,
,
)
-
(
,
.)
-
:
-
,
(SDH, PDH, Ethernet, V35
-
.)
.
,
198
(
,
.).
.
.
0,05
.
-
1.
.
:
,
,
Gigabit Ethernet.
.
,
SDH (STM-16, STM-64)
-
,
.
.
.
-
.
,
.
RSVP,
Frame Relay
,
.
8.2
.
,
,
-SDH,
, Gigabit Ethernet
,
),
-
.).
.
8.2.1
SDH
SDH (
8.1)
.
.
-
16STM-1,
5
.
(
,
).
(
(
).
.
)
199
NMT-450
GSM.
STM-4, STM-16,
,
,
,
.
(
)
,
-
,
,
(
,
,
).
,
).
-
.
,
-
.
8.2.2
SDH-PDH (
,
8.2).
,
Gigabit
Ethernet.
-
.
.
(IP)
,
.
Fast Ethernet
Gigabit Ethernet
.
-
Mi,
(
dial up,
,
(DSL)
).
ADSL(DSLAM)
200
STM-1
.
GSM
«
-
»
STM-4
SDH
.
SDH
.
.
GSM
STM-4
8.1 -
SDH
201
.
GE
GE
GE
ADSL
ADSL
Dial up
GE
**
GE
GE
.
.
1
2
GE
IP
Dial up
ADSL
.
ADSL
8.2 -
ADSL
202
-*
,
-
,
.
n*E1
SDH
,
,
-
.
.
IP,
.
,
.
-
,
,
.
.
2\10\100\1000
.
.
8.3.
.
,
.
(
,
,
)
:
,
,
,
.
-
,
“
.
.
”,
.
“
-
,
,
”.
-
-
:
(
(
)–
) –
,
–
,
(
,
.)
-
(
)–
,
.
-
203
,
-
,
,
(
.),
(
,
,
,
)
(
,
-
).
,
-
(
)
,
-
,
.
,
),
.
(DSL,
-
.)
,
.
,
),
).
,
-
,
(
,
.).
-
.
.
,
:
(
)-
(
)-
).
,
,
.
,
,
,
( 10, 100
,
,
)
.
-
.
(
)
.
,
.
,
-
,
.
,
,
,
.
204
,
:
1.
(
).
,
-
1984 .
,
:
-
,
(
,
),
,
.
-
-
“
” - ”
”.
,
,
-
,
-
,
(
–
, IP-
, DNS).
,
(
IP
)
(
-
).
2.
-
:
(
).
(
).
,
,
,
,
-
,
.
)
(CSMA/CD,
.)
-
(MPLS
.),
-
,
.)
QoS (
)
.
,
-
,
-
,
.
,
.
3.
,
,
.
205
,
“
”-“
”.
-
.
:
1.
“
”
-
.
2.
.
“
”
.
-
–
.
,
.
SDH(
8.3).
N*E1
STM-1
STM-N
STM-1
STM-N
MBB
P
M*E3
STM-N
8.3 E1, E3, STM-1
(
)
-SDH
-
.
)
,
( ).
,
(
).
-
.
,
1.55
0.2
(
25
~ 25
.
-
)
.
2-10
50-100
.
/c
-
206
STM-4 (622
: STM-1 (155
/c), STM-64 (10
/c).
,
/c), STM-16 (2.5
/c),
.
-
,
.
(
(
8.4)).
1
1
2
1, 2,
W
D
M
N
W
D
M
2
N
N
8.4 -
WDM
,
,
.
WDM (Wavelength Division
STM
.
STM-64,
-
Multiplexing),
N,
80.
(800
).
,
(
2
24
).
.
.
x.25, Frame Relay, IP,
ATM, MPLS,DPT
207
10
Ethernet
.
6,
MPLS.
MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching)-
,
.
(IP)
MAC
MPLS
.
8.5).
(
Ether-
IP
MPLS
net
MAC
,
-
IP
8.5
,
MPLS
-
(
3
2
1
8.6).
IP
IP
IP
IP
MPLS
MPLS
MPLS
MPLS
FR
Ethernet
ATM
PPP
DSL
10 Base T
SDH
DSL
8.6 -
MPLS
IP
MPLS
QoS.
. FEC (Forwarding Equivalence Class).
)
,
.
IP-MPLS
,
8.7.
208
3
1
2
•••
LSR
LSR
4
8.7
MPLS – IP
Mi
LSR- Label
-
Switching Router,
.
.
LSR.
-
LSR .
(OSPF, BGP
.),
,
.
MPLS
.
FEC,
.
,
,
LSR.
,
.
QoS
FEC
.
.
MPLS
QoS
,
RSVP- Resource Reservation Protocol. RSVP –
,
,
,
,
.
QoS
209
.
MPLS
RSVP
.
, MPLS
, RSVP
.
MPLS-IP ATM –
MPLS
,
.
-
-
:
1.
IP -
MPLS
.
2.
.
3.
ATM
-
,
,
ATM
, QoS,
MPLS,
,
IP-MPLS
RSVP
.
NGN – Next Generation Networks –
.
-
NGN:
,
,
,
,
-
.
.
,
,
NGN.
,
NGN
-
:
(
,
-
);
,
-
;
,
;
(Ethernet, V.35+PPP, PDH, ATM
.
NGN
(
.);
-
8.8).
,
–
.
.
-
-
210
(softswitch)
-
-
8.8
NGN
,
.
(softswitch),
(
TCP/IP.
.
NGN
,
8.9).
IP –
NGN
.
-
211
6-7
audio, video
FTP
SMTP
DNS
DHCP
RTP
TCP
UDP
…
4-5
RTP, PTCP,
MGCP
3
-
IP
, IP
-
1-2
Ethernet, V.35+PPP
TCP/IP
NGN
8.9
,
NGN,
.
NGN
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
-
.
.
)
(TCP)
(UDP)
RTP (Realtime Transport Protocol),
.
(IP )
).
RTP –
).
, RTP
UDP RTCP.
RTCP –
(
,
).
NGN
RTP
, MGCP (Media Gateway Control Protocol) –
-
(
(
-
,
.
.
IP
.323, SIP, MGCP, MEGACO
.323
IP –
,
.
7.5.2.
:
212
–
IP
IP
–
(
–
.
,
-
,
.
.323,
SIP (Session Initiation Protocol).
UDP.
8.10.
,
,
.
-
HTTP,
SIP
,
)
(
-
-
)
,
.
–
,
.
SIP
SIP
-
-
8.10
SIP –
,
–
.
NGN
,
-
,
.
,
.
NGN
:
1.
«
NGN (IP –
»
,
).
-
213
.
.
NGN,
2.
.
,
,
IP
3.
-
.
NGN
IP –
.
NGN
,
.
-
214
.
1.
,
.
232 .
2.
.-
/
–
.:
.,
.,
.
,
.
, 2003..
.1 –
.:
, 1998. – 536 .
.
, 1986.-544 .
.
»
3.
:
4.
. .5.
.
.–
/
, 1996.- 559 .
.:
.:
.
.
.
.
, 2002.-751 .
.–
.:
6.
.
. .
344 .
7.
-
/
, 1996-
. – .:
.
SDH. –
.:
-
, 2000.-148 .
8.
283 .
9.
1988.
10.
253 .
11.
,1980.
12.
.
.-
.,
.:
.
, 2001. -
.–
.
.-
,2003 –
. -
.,
.:
.
, 2001.-187 .
.:
13.
,
.:
.
.-
.:
.
. -
,
,
-
, 2005.
14.
.,
.-
.:
15.
.
, 2001. -221 .
.
.-
,1999.-114 .
16.
.
2000.-268 .
17.
.,
- .:
,2001.-334 .
18.
.
2001. -282 .
19.
.
, 2003.-157 .
.
.,
. .-
.:
,
. IP-
.
.:
,
,
215
20.
.,
.
,
«
»,1999.-668 .
21.
.,
.
.
2-6, 2003.
22.
.,
.
.–
,«
23.
.
»,2001.-290 .
. –
.
», 2003.-400 .
. –
.:»
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