Кокин Василий Евгеньевич ГАПОУ РК «Сортавальский колледж» «Механизация сельского хозяйства» 3-й курс Руководитель - Валиченко Елена Николаевна Clive Staples Lewis and John Ronald Reuel Tolkien. The fri... Tolkien Lewis A Literary Friendship and Rivalry of the two writers Everyone has ever heard about two famous worlds: The Narnia and the Middle-earth. They have not so much in common but not everybody is aware of that fact if there weren’t one of them there wouldn’t be other. I want to tell you about close friendship of two legendary and my favorite British writers of fantasy. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892 in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State (South Africa) in the family of Arthur Reuel Tolkien (died when John was 4) and Mabel, nee Suffield. He came back to England in 1895 and his mother decided to stay there (because of her husband’s death). In his childhood he was being studied with his little brother home by their mother. In October 1911 he started studying in Oxford. Initially he studied classics but changed his course in 1913 to English language and literature. Young Tolkien When Britain entered The First World War in 1914 young Tolkien decided not to join up the British army immediately and their relatives were surprised by that. Finally he was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in 1915 and later in 1916 he went to France. After the war he worked as a professor of the history and etymology of words at Oxford. At the age of 16, John met Edith Mary Bratt, who was three years him older. His guardian didn’t see in her worthy lady for him and their meetings were prohibited. They married only on 22 March 1916 after his returning from the war. Clive Staples Lewis was born on 29 November 1898 in Belfast. His father was Albert James Lewis, mother was Florence Augusta Lewis, nee Hamilton. He really liked reading and their house was full of books. Lewis was schooled by private tutors before being sent to the Wynyard School in Watford which was closed later because of lack of pupils. Before entering Oxford where he met Tolkien he had to endure The First World War. In 1917 he was conscripted into the British army. He was strongly impressed by the war and that confirmed his atheism. Clive Lewis Two founders of such kind of literature as fantasy were closest friends. They worked at Oxford university, were members of informal literature club “Inklings”, helped and backed each other when they wrote their tales and were the first readers each for other, criticized and pointed what is necessary to be fixed according to their opinion. John was uncertain, indecisive with his works, he usually was long in doubts before to submit a new tale even inside of the Inklings not to mention general public. Clive was absolutely not like him and released his books not paying attention to criticism. But despite these differences they anyway were best assistances for each other. C. S. Lewis J. R. R. Tolkien They discussed the meaning of Christianity much and first time Lewis denied their importance saying “that it’s not more than a myth like those Scandinavian myths which we like so much and myths are lies” for what Tolkien answered “Yes. You’re right. That’s a myth but true because that has really happened” John believed any myths are what keep humanity on the right course while as and a technical progress leads only to the abyss.. Tolkien was a devout catholic and under his influence Lewis came back to Christianity but he became a protestant. Afterwards Lewis preached Christianity in his books more openly unlike to Tolkien who aimed to hide the Christian moral deep in text. “There must be echoes in tales but we should not put them forward from main theme as you make it” - he argued in one of talks to Lewis Their friendship was not cloudless. Especially it became noticeably when they had written and released their main books. Once best friends start to compete for auditory. And here fame of Lewis due to the fist book “The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe” in 1950 easily eclipses Tolkien who had then reputation of an oddball so to speak. Only when he finishes his famous trilogy in 1955 it totally changes things. Their meetings are rarer, they have less in common till the friendship fades away fully. They were keeping cold relations until Lewis dies from a disease of kidneys on November 22 1963, just a week before his 65th birthday. Upon the death of Clive Tolkien wrote his daughter that “feels like an axe-blow near the roots.” Clive Lewis is buried in the churchyard of Holy Trinity Church, Headington, Oxford John later repeatedly mentioned Clive in interviews confessing that he misses his friend. Tolkien was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1972 New Year Honours and received the insignia of the Order at Buckingham Palace on 28 March 1972. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien died on 2 September 1973, his grave is located on Wolvercote Cemetery, Oxford where he was buried with his wife Edith died one year earlier. It’s hard to tell about contribution of these two professors and writers to English literature and culture at all. Certainly it was great and not only to English literature but in world one. Screen versions of the Tolkien’s trilogy and also Hobbit by P. Jackson and the main book of Chronicles of Narnia – The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe made friends known to whole world and immortalized their memory. But anyway meanings of their works still haven’t been opened fully www.wikipedia.org www.christianitytoday.com www.literarytraveler.com www.goodreads.com Thanks for watching!