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2015-02-16

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LAW
UDC 340
I.Yu. Ostapovich
Gorno-Altaisk state university
Gorno-Altaisk, Russia
ostapovich7@mail.ru
NOTION AND ESSENCE OF CONSTITUTIONAL CONTROL
[Понятие и сущность конституционного контроля]
It is noted that the essence of the constitutional control can be defined taking into account four tasks solved by it.
First, this ensuring rule of the Constitution, secondly, ensuring direct and direct action of the Constitution, in the third,
use of control powers for development of legal space within the constitutional legality. The fourth problem of the constitutional control represents creation of legal opportunities for legislation development within the legal framework
which bases are fixed in the country Constitution.
Key words: Constitutional control, concept of the constitutional control, essence of the constitutional control.
In the modern period quite a large number of scientific studies partly devoted to the definition of the notion and essence of the constitutional control. While a single definition of control in
the Russian legal science is missing; there are definitions, developed on the basis of control theory
(V. G. Afanasiev), shared conceptions of social control, including state, public, municipal, industrial (Z. M. Kardanova), perception of control activities as carried out by specially authorized bodies
(Cherkasov K. V.), etc.
M. A. Nodel in the mid 60-ies of the last century, he was described as a verification of the
laws from the point of view of their conformity with the Constitution [19, c. 233], in the 1990s, after the surge of interest in practical implementation of the ideas of the constitutional control in Russia were formulated more detailed definitions [21].
For example, J. I. Hovsepyan noted that the constitutional control is the means and the ability to ensure the stability of society by sequential and continuous nature of its development through
validation, identifying, finding and eliminating inconsistencies normative acts with the Constitution,
during which the bodies of the constitutional control has the authority to cancel a detected nonconformity [19, c.42]. Among the main specific features of judicial constitutional control it allocates: 1)
higher (after parliamentary control and referendum) position in the system of professional state control among specialized forms of control activities of the state; 2) implementation of the control authority in the management and rulemaking (as implemented by the management apparatus, and the
highest body of legislative power; 3) the sole authority for the protection of the normative act of
higher legal force – the Constitution [20, p. 45-46]. In this definition are four stages of activity of
the organ of the constitutional control, but overall it was too abstract, in virtue of which there is no
membership of these bodies (reference to one of the branches of government, the creation of "
against the ruling culture" structure) nor the mechanism of their work (how is the repeal of the
"gaps" initiative and independently by the control authority or the legislature). Not very clear and
seems the General goal of activity of bodies of the constitutional control: the question arises,
whether but only for the sake of stability in the society they operate, and how it should be understood by itself stability.
D. L. Zlatopolsky defined the constitutional control as verification of compliance with the
Constitution and constitutional laws, as well as checking the compliance of all other acts of the Supreme bodies of the state of the current Constitution [8,9]. Some doubt is checking only in respect
of acts of the Supreme bodies of the state, are not disclosed because the test conditions at the regional level, if the state is constructed on the principle of Federation. In addition, it is difficult to
provide verification of compliance with the Basic law and constitutional laws adopted, as well as
the reason from the scope of verification falls Federal laws are made, for example, the Russian parliamentarians annually in the amount of close to four hundred.
J. Shulzhenko defines the constitutional control activities of the competent state authorities
to verify, identify, ascertaining and fixing the problems of normative acts with the Constitution,
during which those authorities are empowered to cancel a detected nonconformity [32].
V. S. Nersesyants under constitutional control understands ensuring the constitutionality and
legal nature of the whole system of compulsory acts and regulations by denying legal force those
that are unconstitutional, ant privacy character [17]; however, he denies the law-making activities of
the body of constitutional scrutiny on the basis of the current understanding of separation of powers.
The specification of activities of bodies of the constitutional control, starting from the moment of
their appearance in the Russian legal system is also not seen from the above definitions. In the most
simplified form of constitutional control is defined as a form of justice, which consists in the verification of constitutionality of legislation and law enforcement practice, the necessity of which is
caused by the presence of the Constitution and the problems of maintaining the balance between
different branches of power [34], but such a definition is of truncated-practical, can be used to dictionary-encyclopedic level.
In the most complex form of constitutional control is determined, for example, N. In.
Vitrocom and M. B. Smolensk, including control activities not only conformity to the Constitution
of normative legal acts, but also the verification of compliance with constitutional norms of activity
of subjects of public relations, and consider constitutional control as a function of the competent
state authorities to ensure the supremacy of the Constitution and its direct, immediate action [4,
p.26; 25,p.329].
With respect to foreign legal systems were used such definitions as the sum of powers of the
judiciary, to enable them to assess sovereign activities of other state bodies and officials and to carry on such matters is Supreme and final in its legal effects of the decision [3, p. 115-120] (S. V.
Bobotov); a way to limit the power and resolution of conflicts [2] (A. Blankenagel beginning); the
activities of competent state bodies, certifying and resolves the discrepancy of the Constitution of
laws and other normative acts (M. Domagala) [6, c.10]. Here highlights one of the forms of realization of the constitutional control (judicial or extrajudicial) and its purpose (deterrence of arbitrary
power), but the universal nature they don't wear, because are formulated in relation to specific
blocks of the constitutional-legal norms individually in a certain state.
A number of lawyers, considering the concept and essence of the constitutional control,
come to conclusions about the existence in modern Russia, its specific varieties. N. In. Vitruk, for
example, examines the constitutional control as a specific feature (a special direction-tion activities)
the competent state bodies (the President, Parliament, government, judiciary) to ensure the primacy
of the constitutional requirements in the system of normative acts, their direct and immediate action
in the legal regulation of the activities of the society [4, p.25]. B. S. Ebzeev considers constitutional
control as a separate sphere of state government activity and makes a reasonable conclusion that
Russia is undertaking this type of monitoring not only the constitutional Court (although a dominant
position in this area is the judicial constitutional control), but also other state bodies (the President
and the Government of the Russian Federation shall ensure the implementation of the powers of the
Federal state authority throughout the territory of the Russian Federation by virtue of the provisions
of article 78 of the Constitution, the President is the guarantor of the Constitution, rights and freedoms of man and citizen in accordance with article 80) [33, c. 115]. Accordingly, according to N.
In. Waruku and B. S. Ebzeyev, constitutional control is distributed between three branches of government, and equally, albeit in different forms can be any of them.
L. V. Lazarev, in turn, reflects the nature of the constitutional control as ensuring the supremacy and direct action of the Constitution, the constitutional and legal quality of laws and other
normative acts delineated constitutional balance of powers horizontally and vertically, limited government, protection of rights and freedoms of man and citizen, i.e. the legal protection of the Constitution [12, p. 34]. This definition, like several others, discussed above, is abstract, based on General legal attitudes and philosophy of law than on the law.
B. S. Ebzeev and M. V. Baglay distinguish the concepts of "constitutional control" and
"constitutional review" (although in some works they are used as related or synonymous [10, p. 4048]). For example, B. S. Ebzeev claims that the bodies of the constitutional supervision contribute
to the resolution of the constitutional dispute, as a rule; through the decisions of Parliament themselves are like the organs of Parliament. And the bodies of the constitutional control is a independent place in the system of separation of government and independent from other state authorities in
exercising their powers, they make decisions, which are final in nature [33, p.117]. M. V. Baglay
considers harmful to the trust provision of the constitutional legality in the sphere of rule-making
activity of the Parliament as the authority making the laws (self-control will not be effective). At the
same time he believes that the President cannot be involved in this area to avoid the control of the
Executive over the legislative. The elimination method M. V. Baglay justifies the need for the empowerment of the constitutional control of the judiciary (independence from the other two branches
and enforcement activities will contribute to the effective control). The difference of control and
supervision is carried out by the legal possibilities for the abolition of the acts of the subordinate
body or to the indication of improper adopted supervised by the authority of the act, which he can
change or cancel [1, p.654]. In General, the system of legal protection of the Constitution, formed in
Russia, focused on Supervisory powers, resulting in the ratio of control and supervision to stop further believe inappropriate.
Arguing about the nature of the constitutional control, it is necessary to lead and point of
view, formulated by scientists in dissertation research in recent years. The purpose of bodies of the
constitutional control, as correctly pointed out by A.V. Zimin, is not the creation of new legal
norms, it is not within their competence, and such activity would violate the principle of separation
of powers, and its objective is the restoration of "lost" the true meaning of the Constitution and adjustment in accordance with the requirements of the Constitution of normative acts and actions of
the representatives of the Supreme bodies of authority to carry out their constitutional responsibilities, the special constitutional and legal status [7, p.181]. It appears that the author of several mixes
the objectives and main directions of activity of bodies of the constitutional control.
Further, O. V. Romanova rightly draws attention to the fact that in the system of state power, the constitutional Court of the Russian Federation performs the functions as the highest constitutional judicial control, and control over the lawmaking legislative and Executive powers [24, p. 8].
A. V. Molotov defines the constitutional control in two ways: in a narrow sense as checking the
competent authorities of the conformity of normative legal act with the Constitution of the state, and
in a broad sense as verification activities, identifying, finding, evaluating, and resolving inconsistencies of the Constitution not only legal acts but also individual procedures and actions [15, p.11].
In this definition, abstract and concrete began to be mixed, combined procedural and competency
aspects of control activities. A. Proskurin, in turn, believes that the constitutional control is a special
legal institution representing the structural-functional system, which consists of a written Constitution, the object of the constitutional control, the totality of control bodies, as well as entities eligible
to apply to the control bodies [23, p. 40]. In this formulation of a well-formed system drops its nature and causes of the creation, it remains unclear why the system functions.
In several studies, scientists pay attention to the systemic features of constitutional control
activities as one of its essential characteristics. So, N.N. Kharitonov defines the constitutional control as a system of activities of competent bodies of the state, exercised by statutory grounds and
procedures for the protection of the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, the constitutional order,
ensuring the supremacy and direct action of the Constitution of the state [28, p. 78]. It seems that in
this definition, unlike the previous one, there is no systematic relationship between control activities
and actors for its implementation. I. V. Petrova underlining that one of the principles of organization and functioning of the rule of law is the supremacy of the Constitution in the system of normative legal acts, as well as its direct and immediate action, considering the constitutional control as
the center of the whole system of control of the legality of [22, p. 4]. However, in isolation from the
characteristics of the control mechanisms that wording also looks abstract.
The essence of the constitutional control can be defined to suit those four.
The first is the rule of the Constitution – in the framework of this task is the adoption of the
Constitution as the main source of law, which has Supreme legal force. The authority of the constitutional control allows you to disqualify any normative legal act, in either its incompatibility with
the Basic law, while he himself remains uncontrolled from any power of subjects and enjoy full independence, deviation from which can be regarded as an attempt to change the constitutional order.
The legality of the activities of the organ of the constitutional control is guaranteed by the principle
of publicity as a democratic component state management, and also high professionalism of the persons exercising Supervisory powers, and collegial nature of their work [11, p 9-13; 13, p. 1].
The second task of the constitutional control is to ensure immediate and direct action of the
Constitution – the priority of the constitutional provisions directly involves immediate and direct
effect, but a situation may arise when the regulations were not consistent with the provisions of the
Basic law. Yu Tikhomirov, analyzing terminology, the notion of the constitutional provisions that
established that she has all the attributes of legal norms in General, but with individual characteristics, determined, above all, leading a constitutional norm, as the Constitution in General, among legal norms [26, p. 129]. In later works he together with V. I. Kotelevskaya justified the presumption
of a lack of divergence between the regulatory legal act and the Constitution, which does not work
in one case: when the difference is obvious [27, p. 32]. In determining the differences should be applied constitutional provision as having the highest legal force, which has been repeatedly reflected
in the legal positions of the constitutional Court of the Russian Federation (Particularly clearly seen
in the acts of the constitutional Court, dedicated to the issues of criminal proceedings: for example,
in the Decisions of 03.05.1995, No. 4-P, which is not recognized by the relevant provisions of the
Constitution, the rule established in the RSFSR code of criminal procedure, in relation to the circle
of persons entitled to appeal the decision on election of a preventive measure in the form of detention; June 27, 2000 N. 11-P, whereby it is recognized that the provisions of the CCP The RSFSR
does not correspond to regulated by the Constitution the right of defense, etc.).
The third objective of the constitutional control is the use of powers of control in the development of the legal environment in the framework of constitutional legality in this regard, an important direction in some literature it is considered the organ of the constitutional control system
from any of the branches[16, p. 87] that, in General, appears to be wearing a utopian nature, as independent (control) power according to the Russian Constitution is not provided, and even if there
were such a constitutional provision, the constitutional review inevitably would have been in a hierarchical system in which you would have to build the relationship. A rather interesting conclusions
are drawn by S. M. Shakhrai in his large-scale study of the current Russian Constitution: its procedural balance is mostly responsible for the resistance it has engendered political regime, and the diversity of constitutional arrangements (including the existence of the Institute of judicial constitutional control) allowed us to overcome a number of political crises, it is legally allowed [31].
Finally, the fourth task of the constitutional control is the creation of legal opportunities for
the development of legislation in the legal field, which is enshrined in the Constitution. As noted in
some of the works, implementation of constitutional norms in the context of formation of the system of the current law of the country. At the same time, due to the multidimensionality of the state
and politically motivated actions of public authorities [18, p.69; 29, p. 58; 30, p. 21] the process
may actually be inhibited. L.S. Mamut indicates that global experience teaches us that the implementation of the principles and norms of the Constitution, the implementation of the values of constitutionalism, can be successful only when there is a high level of culture (especially political and
legal), the whole society and each individual member, no matter what status he did not possess.
Such a culture is achieved, in particular, if the state installed after the order, organization, discipline
[14, p. 315]. Sharing this position, we point out that the issues of political and legal culture in modern Russia is still largely unresolved.
Generalizing expressed in the scientific literature to determine the constitutional control as
the activities of state bodies with special competence directly in the basic law, based on law enforcement and law-making basis and to promote the supremacy and direct action as adopted in the
state Constitution.
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