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25.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №3 2014

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà
2014
Journal of Siberian Federal University
7 (3)
Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè
Humanities & Social Sciences
Редакционный совет:
академик РАН Е.А. Ваганов
академик РАН И.И. Гительзон
академик РАН А.Г. Дегерменджи
академик РАН В.Ф. Шабанов
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.Л. Миронов
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р техн. наук
Г.Л. Пашков
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В. Шайдуров
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В. Зуев
Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Vladimir V. Zuev
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor
for Humanities & Social Sciences
Natalia P. Koptseva
CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ
Manaswini Pradhan and Satya Prakash Dash
Environmental Challenges, Climate Change & Development
– 370 –
Nkechi M. Christopher
Linguistic Diversity, Code-switching and language Shift in
Nigeria
– 381 –
Olga S. Tolstova
Innovations as Synergetic Effect in Socio-Pedagogical System of
Distance Education
– 394 –
Olesya A. Osipenko
Mourning Themes in the Music of Dmitri Shostakovich
– 404 –
Irina V. Belonosova
From Cultural History of Eastern Trans-Baikal Region: Musical
Culture of Chita Within a Context of Artistic Culture of the City
(pre-October Period)
– 416 –
Elena V. Prygun
Secondary School $ Major Factors of Realization of Music
Education in the late 19th $ early 20th Centuries (on the
Krasnoyarsk example)
– 430 –
Alfiya Ê. Shayakhmetova
Intoning the Qur’an as Musicological Problem
– 442 –
Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой
Подписано в печать 23.03.2014 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 15,6.
Уч.-изд. л. 15,1. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 617.
Отпечатано в ПЦ БИК. 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Consulting Editors
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
David Anderson – Professor, The University
of Aberdeen, Scotland
Gershons Breslavs – International Institute
of Applied Psychology, Latvia
Milan Damohorsky – Professor, Charles
University in Prague
Hans-Georg Dederer – Professor, Passau
University, Germany
Sergey Devyatkin – Associate Professor,
Novgorod State University
Sergey Drobyshevsky – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Oleg Gotlib – Associate Professor, Irkutsk
State Linguistic University
Tapdyg Kerimov – Professor, Ural Federal
University named after the first President
of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg
Boris Khasan – Professor, Siberian Federal
University
Galina Kopnina – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Natalia Kovtoun – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Alexander Kronik – Ph.D., LifeLook.Net,
LLC, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Liudmila Kulikova – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Suneel Kumar – Assistant Professor,
Department of Strategic and Regional
Studies, University of Jammu
Liudmila Mayorova – Ph.D. Associate
Professor, Siberian Federal University
Pavel Mandryka – Associate Professor,
Siberian Federal University
Boris Markov – Professor, Saint-Petersburg
State University
Valentin Nemirovsky – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Nicolay Pak – Professor, Krasnoyarsk State
Pedagogical University named after
V.P. Astafev
Nicolay
Parfentyev
–
Professor,
Corresponding Member of the Peter
the Great Academy of Sciences and
Arts, Honoured Scientist of the Russian
Federation, South Ural State University
Natalia Parfentyeva – Professor, Member of
the Composers of Russia, Corresponding
Member of the Peter the Great Academy
of Sciences and Arts, Honoured Arts
Worker of the Russian Federation,
South Ural State University
Nicolai Petro – Professor, Rhode Island
University, USA
Daniel Pivovarov – Professor, Ural Federal
University named after the first President
of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg
Herel-ool D-N Oorshak and S. Ya. Oorshak
Ethnic Culture and Value System of Students (Based on the
Material of the Republic of Tuva)
– 451 –
Herel-ool D-N Oorshak and Jamts Samdandorj
A Comprehensive Approach to the Development Strategy of
National Culture of Ethnoses in Southern Siberia
– 457 –
Valentina L. Boiko and Sergeó G. Chaikin
Communicative Space œComposer-PerfomerB as an Important
Factor of Creating a Modern Musical Interpretation
– 462 –
Mikhail I. Beniumov
On the Concept of Musical Performance
– 467 –
Svetlana V. Bakuto
Music and Architectural Categories. On the Issue of Semantic
Correspondences
– 480 –
Maria À. Kocheleva
Specificity of Plot Composition of G.F. Handel’s opera
œRinaldoB
– 490 –
Andrey Yu. Sapsuev
Once again on Mozart’s Requiem (Issues of Intonation-andStyle Analysis)
– 498 –
Olga V. Iarosh
Micro Monothematic Tecnhique in Music by R. Schumann
(Based on Piano Works)
– 510 –
Julia Å. Polezhaeva
Demonic and Infernal Images in Franz Liszt’s Instrumental
Compositions: Prosodic Aspect
– 525 –
Dmitry V. Galkin
Against Glamour Technology: Liberation of the Outlook for
Contemporary Siberian Art
– 537 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Igor Pyzhov – Associate Professor , Siberian
Federal University
Oyvind Ravna – Professor, University of
Tromso – The Arctic University of
Norway
Irina Rubert – Professor, Saint-Petersburg
State University of Economics
Andrey Smirnov – Corresponding Member,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute
of Philosophy RAS, Moscow
Olga Smolyaninova – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Vladimir Suprun – Professor, Institute of
Philosophy and Law of SB RAS
Viktor Suslov – Corresponding Member
RAS, Institute of Economics and
Industrial Engineering of SB RAS
Roman Svetlov – Professor, Saint-Petersburg
State University
Elena Tareva – Professor, Moscow City
Pedagogical University
Kristine Uzule – Ph.D. Baltic International
Academy, Riga, Latvia
Eugeniya Zunder – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ
ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г.
Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны
быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на
соискание ученой степени доктора и
кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.)
Sergey N. Sorokopud
Basic Concepts of Chinese National Religious and Philosophical
Doctrines: an Introduction to Social Philosophical Study of
Chinese Society
– 546 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2014 7) 370-380
~~~
УДК 551.588.7
Environmental Challenges,
Climate Change & Development
a
Manaswini Pradhana and Satya Prakash Dashb*
Department of Information & Communication Technology,
Fakir Mohan University
Balasore, 756 019, India
b
Department of Political Science & Pub. Admn.,
Sambalpur University
Burla, Sambalpur 768 019, India
Received 12.12.2013, received in revised form 15.01.2014, accepted 05.02.2014
Development and environment are the two most debatable themes in the present global context.
Both have become incompatible, thereby resulting in controversies, challenges, and contradictions.
The paper presents a moderate background of steps taken for environmental preservation and the
controversy to the north-south debate. It analyses the threat to the global environmental situation in
the context of globalization. It presents the case of Niyamgiri hills in Orissa and its significance in
the context of ‘environmentalism of the poor’. It presents some of the important global meets and its
consequences and relevance. The paper also analyses the action taken by the government of India in
its endeavor to contribute substantially.
Keywords: climate change, environment, development.
Environment is a misnomer to the common
person in the streets of India, particularly in the
smaller towns and rural areas. Concern for the
environment is certainly on the rise in the bigger
cities, but the same level of awareness is lacking at
other places. Reasons for this may be because of
the awareness generated by the advocacy groups,
or the practical problems experienced by the
people, etc. However, to talk of the environment,
as such, in the smaller towns and rural areas dies
not evoke the same response and anxiety. On
the other hand every effort is taken to further
deteriorate the environmental conditions of the
area, very often with the connivance of the officials
*
engaged to protect and preserve the environment.
One reason attributed for the failure to protect
the environment is ‘development’. Due to the
ostensible reason of development, environmental
degradation is expeditiously taking place, and in
the process, the common people suffer from the
double burden of ‘environmental degradation’
and ‘developmental woos’.
Environment though sounds as a simple
terminology, depends upon various factors.
A combination of all these factors contributes
to a good and healthy environment essential
for human existence and survival. Such an
environment cannot be build within a short span
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: satya.csd@gmail.com
# 370 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Manaswini Pradha and Satya Prakash Dash. Environmental Challenges, Climate Change & Development
of time but takes years. However, the same can
be destroyed within a very short period of time
bringing catastrophic effects upon humankind.
The understanding of this destruction is also
known to the destroyers, but the greed to exploit
the natural resources assumes greater proportions
and seldom corrective measures are taken.
The effects of this destruction is immediately
reflected on the people dependent on that
environment, and in the long run, the destroyers
are also not spared due to the havoc caused to
the environment gradually. A bright example
of this is the phenomenon of ‘global warming’,
and the depletion of the ecology on which the
indigenous people are dependent for their life and
livelihood. Many instances of such hazards are
plenty throughout the world. In some cases the
people have protested and opposed the plunder
of the environment and have also successfully
protected the environment. International agencies
and advocacy groups have supported the cause of
the indigenous people in their effort to protect
the environment. This all happens in the name of
development.
No one is against development, and infact
every person wants expeditious development
so as to facilitate life and livelihood. However,
the main question that arises in the process of
development is at whose cost is the development
taking place? Is it the persons who are designing
the developmental plans or is it the persons who
are living in the place where the development is
supposedly to take place. Quite certainly those
who are designing the developmental plans are
remaining at a safe distance leaving aside the
people becoming the victims of the development.
The global north and south are divided over
the development debate. The north accuses the
south of being over exploitative in their run for
development and economic supremacy, while the
south criticizes the north of being intolerant to its
developmental pursuits. At the world Population
Conference held at Bucharest in 1974, the south
rallied under the twin slogans: ‘Development
is the best contraceptive’ and ‘Take care of
the people and the population will take care
of itself’. At the International Conference on
Population held at Mexico City in 1984, the
US emphasized upon the interrelationship
between economic development and population
growth. “The difference between the South’s
continuing insistence on development being the
best contraceptive and the US’s Mexico City
position that ‘sound economic policies’ were
the best contraceptive is subtle but profound.
The South’s call, at least in theory, has been
for development at large, an improvement in
the quality of life, an expansion of economic
options available to the poor; the US view at
Mexico, on the other hand, was a political tactic,
an ideological call for ‘a market economy…..
[which would] encourage a vital private sector’
{emphasis added). In short, the South had been
calling for development; the US was trying to
push a particular brand of economics” (Najam,
1996: 7). At the Rio Conference on Environment
& Development in 1992, the developed north
claimed that the south is responsible to clean
the environment, since due to rapid process
of industrializations in the developing south
countries, the environment is being polluted.
Again, at the Cairo Conference on Population
& Development in 1994, the US stressed upon
strong ‘population control measures’ and the
south on ‘development’. “Principles included
in treaties, for example equity, not only raise
difficult questions and leave them unanswered,
but also have reservations to these principles
recorded in them in areas that deal with issues
in the North-South context. The most important
principles, Principle 7, referring to common
but differentiated responsibilities in the Rio
Declaration [UN 1992], and benefit-sharing in
the Convention on Biological Diversity [UN
# 371 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Manaswini Pradha and Satya Prakash Dash. Environmental Challenges, Climate Change & Development
1993] have not been accepted by the US and the
EU, respectively” (Sanwal, 2008; 51).
Whereas development is essential for all
nations, and more particularly for the south,
effective remedial measures are also required
in order to counter any negative impacts upon
the people due to the developmental efforts.
Development should not be, by any means, antipeople. It should encompass the people living
in and around and contribute for a ‘holistic’
development. While considering the needs of
the people, development should focus on all the
ancillary components on which the needs of the
people are based upon. This includes, land, forests,
water, mountains, etc. The local people and the
indigenous people are very much dependent on
such components for their life and livelihood. It
is not a strange fact that the people living mostly
at a disadvantageous position are worst affected
by the developmental plans of the government.
Their life is threatened by the governments that
pledged to bring in development for their benefit.
The habitations of the indigenous people or the
tribal in India are rich in mineral deposits. The
extraction of these minerals threatens the life and
livelihood of these tribal people and seriously
jeopardizes the natural environment. Barbara
Rose Johnston (1995, 112-3) is of the view that,
Vulnerability to the changes in the
biophysical realm is a factor of social relations:
human action and a history of social inequity
leave some people more vulnerable than others
(Wisner, 1993). In spite of international and
national structures establishing inalienable
rights for all Human Rights and the Environment
113 people, some people experience greater
harm than others. In many cases, this differential
experience is often a result of government
induced and/or sanctioned action: powerless
groups and their rights to land, resources, health,
environmental protection and thus, their future,
are expendable in the name of national security,
national energy, and national debt. It is this
socio-cultural context of selective exposure to
hazardous and degraded environmental settings
that constitute a form of human environmental
rights abuse. At one level, human environmental
rights abuse occurs because people happen to
be living in the wrong place……… At another
level, human environmental rights abuse occurs
because people are in the way of progress and
“national” needs supersede individual and
community concerns.
Environment is a serious matter for the
community dependent upon it and it should be
left entirely to the community to decide how best
to utilize it. The community knows the effective
utilization of their environment and how to
conserve its productive assets. The resources
derived from the environment are never over
exploited by the community. It is not only limited
to judicious utilization of the environment by the
community, but they regard it with reverence
and worship it since their very life depends on
the smooth continuance of the environment.
An example to this is the Niyamgiri hills in
Kalahandi district of Orissa, where the tribal i.e.
Dongria Kondh worship the mountain and forest,
as their survival depends on it. “It is a place of
quiet beauty, of lush green paddy fields and huge
mango trees, where self-sufficient tribes still
share the jungle with elephant, tiger and leopard.
Yet this most unlikely place is now the frontline
in a clash of civilizations that has pitched the
indigenous population up against the corporate
might of the British mining company Vedanta
resources, intent on dragging Niyamgiri into the
modern world” (Chamberlain,www.guardian.
co.uk). Vedanta and the Orissa government did
not care about the ecological and human costs
of mining in the upper reaches of the Niyamgiri
hills in the Kalahandi and Rayagada districts
# 372 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Manaswini Pradha and Satya Prakash Dash. Environmental Challenges, Climate Change & Development
of Orissa, threatening the very survival of the
Dongaria and Kutia Khond tribes, both notified,
in official parlance, as “primitive tribal groups”
(EPW, 2010; 7). The Orissa government issued a
false certificate that the mining land lease does
not come under the Scheduled Tribes and Other
Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of
Forest Rights) Act, 2006, popularly known as the
Forest Rights Act (FRA).
It is the same Niyamgiri hills and forest
that was permitted by the Orissa government to
Vedanta group to extract bauxite and in the process
destroying the forests and mountain. This would
have caused heavy damage to the environment
and ecology of the area. One of the local tribal
stated, “once they start mining, the mountain
will be bulldozed and the rivers will dry up and
our livelihood will be lost. We will become fish
out of water. We don’t know how to adapt and
survive and our way of living is not available
in the cities. We will be extinct” (Chamberlain,
www.guardian.co.uk, dtd. 24.05.2010). The
tribals living here protested and were against the
project. The agitation of the tribal people was not
only limited at the state and national level, but
it went at the international level. Ultimately, the
government of India cancelled the license given
by the state government to the Vedanta group
to extract minerals in the Niyamgiri forests and
the life of thousands of tribal was saved. The
rejection was the most drastic of the measures
taken by the government, which has generated the
impression that noose could be tightening around
Anil Agarwal’s Vedanta $1.7 billion operations
in Orissa. “It is in favor of Niyamgiri’s – and
Orissa’s – poorest of the poor people, and strongly
endorses the concept of environmentalism of the
poor. People across the country are fighting for
survival. They know their poverty will only be
replaced by more destitution if and when these
projects are built, and they are not going to
allow that to happen” (www.cseindia.org). This
‘environmentalism of the poor’ is alternately
remarked by Jairam Ramesh (2010) as ‘livelihood
environmentalism’ and opposed to ‘lifestyle
environmentalism’ of the rich.
The Supreme Court in the Godavarman
case appointed a Central Empowered Committee
(CEC) that reported gross collusion on the part
of government officials in giving environmental
and forest clearance to Vedanta group to mine in
Niyamgiri hills. Highlighting the significance of
the Niyamgiri hills, the CEC reported that:
# 373 #
“Niyamgiri
forests
are
historically
recognized for its rich wildlife population. It was
declared a game reserve by the ex-Maharaja of
Kalahandi. It has also been proposed to notify
it as a wildlife sanctuary in the Working Plan
for Kalahandi Forest Division, and which has
been approved by the MoEF on 16th December,
1998. This area has been constituted as an
Elephant Reserve by the State of Orissa vide
Order N4643/WL(Cons)34/04 dated 20.8.2004.
It contains elephant, sambhars, leopards, tigers,
barking deers, various species of birds and
other endangered species of wildlife. More
than 75 % of the hill is covered by thick forests
with an average density of 0.6. Wild relatives of
sugarcane plant are found here and which are
valuable genetic sources for the future hybrids
and therefore need preservation to maintain a
pure gene bank; it has more than 300 species of
plants, trees, etc. including about 50 species of
medicinal plants. Six of the species are listed in
the IUCN Red Data Book. These forests are yet
to be surveyed properly for their floral and faunal
wealth.”
“The alumina plant and the mining project
linked with it will have serious adverse effect on
the flora and fauna due to mining, overburden
dumping, construction of proposed road through
the dense forests, liquid and gaseous effluents
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Manaswini Pradha and Satya Prakash Dash. Environmental Challenges, Climate Change & Development
emissions, bright illumination, blasting with
explosives, drilling and resultant vibration and
dust, operation of heavy loading and unloading
equipment, pollution etc.”
The globalization era has further
marginalized the disprivileged communities,
threatened their survival and has posed a
challenge to the environment. The government
that is responsible for the welfare and development
of the people is now more eager to bring in their
socio-economic development ostensibly, and in
the process is facilitating the industrial class to
set up their commercial interests. The whole focus
on environment and sustainable development is
very cunningly avoided in order to maximize
profits for the multi-national corporations and
industries. Without government regulation and
pressure from civil society, corporations lack
incentives to protect the environment sufficiently;
they actually have an incentive to despoil it if
doing so saves them money (Stiglitz, 2007; 191).
This also contributes towards the maximization
of problems and hardships for the local people.
“In this highly compartmentalized world,
environment as a concept no longer represents
a natural system of which humans are a part.
It is a commodity controlled and manipulated
by global market forces” (Johnston,1995; 115).
The community is distanced from the decisionmaking mechanism and in its place the MNCs
and government officials take decisions on
behalf of the community. The Indian government
provision, as per the Environment Protection
Act, 1986, of obtaining the consent of the local
villagers through convening gram sabha (village
committee) meetings has turned into a farce.
Though the meeting is convened, the villagers’
opinion is never taken into consideration and
their voice gets suppressed in the presence of
the political-administrative-economic powerholders. The option left before the people is
either to appeal the judiciary/appellate authority
or in extreme case, to protest and agitate against
the design of alienating them from their land
and environment. This is not an easy option for
the poor and disorganized people, but against
all odds the local people try to put forth their
voice unitedly, and have also succeeded in some
instances.
Globalization has directly affected the
environment through the occurrence of global
warming. Large scale commercial and industrial
activities have led to emission of greenhouse
gases causing global warming and other
hazards to the environment. Industrial units and
mining activities are often conducted diverting
the forest lands. The lost forest cover is to be
regenerated by afforestation programmes. “.…
Compensatory Afforestation Management and
Planning Authority, is an innovation ordered
by the Supreme Court in 2002, according to
which every party, whether government or
private, that wishes to divert forest area for nonforestry purposes, has to deposit a certain sum
equivalent to the total value of ecological benefits
lost per hectare diverted for such purpose. ….
This approach has served us well – today we
have almost Rs 11,000 crores available to state
governments for reforestation and regeneration
of natural forest cover” (Ramesh, 2010; 14).
This positive side has been stated by the central
Minister for Environment & Forests, but it lacks
the sincerity and commitment required for the
purpose. Compensatory forestry, as per the law, is
not accorded priority and this decreases the forest
cover. “Unless we lessen environmental damage,
conserve on our use of energy and other natural
resources, and attempt to slow global warming,
disaster lies ahead. Global warming has become
a true challenge of globalization” (Stiglitz, 2007;
17). The most intriguing part of this is that the
polluter is not being penalized for its action
but the effect is experienced by others. Global
# 374 #
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Manaswini Pradha and Satya Prakash Dash. Environmental Challenges, Climate Change & Development
warming is threatening to submerge vast tracts
of land in Bangladesh and the Maldives due to
the melting of the polar ice-caps and subsequent
increase in sea level. It is not surprising that the
world’s worst polluter, the United States, which
adds almost 6 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide to
the atmosphere every year, pretends that it does
not believe the evidence that there is a need to
curtail its greenhouse gas emissions (Stiglitz,
2007; 165). These greenhouse gases (GHGs)
comprise, principally, carbon dioxide (mostly
from fossil fuel combustion and forest burning),
plus other heat-trapping gases such as methane
(from irrigated agriculture, animal husbandry and
oil extraction), nitrous oxide and various humanmade halocarbons. Mit Roomney, the Republican
nominee for the 2012 US Presidential campaign,
said that the Americans use almost twice as
much energy per person as does a European, and
more like three times as much energy as does a
Japanese citizen (www.boston.com). According
to him, human activity is a contributing factor
for climate change and global warming. In order
to reduce GHGs, Roomney opines to pursue
for more oil drilling as well as natural gas and
nuclear energy.
It is the developed and rich countries
that contribute the most towards polluting the
environment, but the sufferers are the people
living in the developing and poor countries of the
south. These people become the victims of global
warming and climate change. The vast majority of
extreme weather events associated with the change
in climate devastate those populations that do the
least to pollute the world. Recent figures suggest
that of the 1.4 million people killed directly by
weather disasters around the world over the past
30 years, 83 % lived in low and lower middle
income countries (www.guardian.com).
In the context of controlling environmental
pollution, the World Bank has undertaken
measures to be implemented while sanctioning
loans to developing countries for its developmental
projects. It initiated the method of triple alliance
to check environmental pollution that was quite
effective and successful. This triple alliance
includes (a) project in-house environmental unit,
supported by (b) Ministry of environment, and
(c) independent review body. The triple alliance
approach has been successfully implemented in
a number of countries including Indonesia, India,
China, Thailand, Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina.
Further, the World Bank has introduced the
concept of ‘Adjusted Net Savings’, also known as
genuine savings, is an indicator of green national
accounts. It measure the true rate of savings in an
economy after taking into account investments
in human capital, depletion of natural resources
and damage caused by pollution. Adjusted Net
Saving helps make the growth-environment
trade-off more explicit, since countries that
choose to prioritize growth today at the cost of
the environment will have depressed rates of
adjusted net savings. According to the World
Bank data, India’s gross national savings was
around 34.3 % of GDP in 2008, but its Adjusted
Net Saving in the same year was 24.2 %, the
difference arising due to the depletion of natural
resources and pollution-related damages, in
addition to conventionally measured depreciation
of the nation’s capital assets (Ramesh, 2010; 15).
“Although the Bank is a marginal player in global
issues, it realizes that the world’s life – support
systems are being overstressed and could break
down because of carbon dioxide loads, CFCs,
deforestation, desertification, toxic wastes,
pollution, and other environmental stresses.
Global environmental problems have started to
hurt the average citizen. But the problems are not
yet perceived to be compelling enough to force
adequate international cooperation” (Goodland,
1990; 153).
Realizing the impact of the greenhouse gas
emissions, the world community met at Kyoto
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city in Japan in 1997 to devise ways to minimize
the emissions of the greenhouse gases and to give
an equal share among the north and the south
in their development agenda. This was followed
by the Kyoto Protocol that stated a specified
level of cut in emissions by the year 2012 by the
developed countries only. However, the United
States has not ratified it due to the opposition to
the protocol in the Senate. With the withdrawal
of the US, the reduction in greenhouse gas
emissions may not be significant. By February
2005, when it went into effect, 141 countries,
accounting for 55 percent of greenhouse gas
emissions, had ratified the protocol. “The world
in general needs environmental policies on how
to manage the global commons prudently and
sustainably. The Montreal Protocol (September,
1987) to reduce some cholorofluorocarbon gases
(CFCs) by only 30 to 50 per cent by 1999, is an
example of what can be done” (Goodland, 1990;
152). It can be expected that just as the Montreal
Protocol of 1987 to reduce the CFCs was a
success, greenhouse gas emissions may also be
reduced to save mankind.
A consequent of global warming is climate
change that will have adverse impact upon
mankind. India is also to experience these
adverse effects of climate change along with
other countries. The Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted that with
climate change, monsoon precipitation patterns
will shift and extreme rainfall events will become
more frequent (IPCC, 2001). The IPCC has also
warned of melting of the Himalayan glaciers and
its complete disappearance by 2035, if the current
rate of global warming is not receded. Apart from
these, climate change will also seriously hamper
agricultural output, rural livelihood options,
health hazards, etc. Climate change certainly
leads to catastrophic events and severely hampers
human activity and occupations. “This has
happened, for example, in sub-Saharan Africa,
with changing environmental and climatic
conditions. Erstwhile productive workers may,
then be without work or earnings…..” (Sen,
2000: 167). Climate change has now assumed
much higher proportions threatening the people
with dire consequences. Civilizations’ came into
existence due to favorable climatic conditions, and
in the event of unfavorable climatic conditions,
the same civilizations’ may be completely wiped
out. Every effort should be adopted to halt the
process of climate change and to save the people.
The IPCC (2007) stated that, “Human
beings are exposed to climate change through
changing weather patterns (for example, more
intense and frequent extreme events) and
indirectly through changes in water, air, food
quality and quantity, ecosystems, agriculture,
and economy. At this early stage the effects are
small but are projected to progressively increase
in all countries and regions”. It is not that climate
change has no positive effect, and one such is
the decrease in death rate due to cold conditions.
However, the negative impacts far out-weigh the
positive impacts. It can also increase the risk of
vector borne diseases carried by mosquitoes, like
malaria, dengue fever, encephalitis, and yellow
fever. Also, algal blooms could occur more
frequently as temperatures warm particularly in
areas with polluted waters, in which case diseases
(such as cholera) that tend to accompany algal
blooms could become more frequent. The IPCC
has noted that the global population at risk from
vector-borne malaria will increase by between
220 million and 400 million in the next century.
While most of the increase is predicted to occur
in Africa, some increased risk is projected in
Britain, Australia, India and Portugal (IPCC,
2007). World Health Organization estimated,
in its World Health Report 2002, that climate
change was estimated to be responsible in 2000
for approximately 2.4 % of worldwide diarrhoea,
and 6 % of malaria in some middle-income
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countries. Environmental pollution is leading to
serious concerns in public health in India. People
are falling prey to the pollutants in the water and
air. Not only is urban India suffering from it, but
rural India is also not spared from its ill-effects.
“Recent reports show that people in different
parts of India are raising serious concerns about
a series of health issues due to air, water and
industrial pollution. Climate change is expected
to exacerbate these already serious public health
problems” (Ramesh, 2010; 15).
Climate change may also be responsible
for increasing the concentration of groundlevel ozone, that can damage lung tissue, and
particularly harmful to persons suffering from
asthma and other chronic lung diseases. Sunlight
and high temperatures, combined with other
pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and volatile
organic compounds, can cause ground-level
ozone to increase.
The international community met at Cancun,
Mexico, in the late 2010 to reach at a decision to
reduce the GHGs so as to halt the climate change
phenomenon. However, the Cancun meet reached
only with modest agreements and not a conclusive
one required bringing concrete measures to cease
global warming. “But it laid the groundwork for
stronger measures in the future, if nations are
able to overcome the emotional arguments that
have crippled climate change negotiations in
recent years. The package, known as the Cancun
Agreements, gives the more than 190 countries
participating in the conference another year
to decide whether to extend the frayed Kyoto
Protocol, the 1997 agreement that requires most
wealthy nations to trim their emissions while
providing assistance to developing countries to
pursue a cleaner energy future. At the heart of
the international debate is a momentous tussle
between rich and poor countries over who steps
up first and who pays most for changed energy
menus” (www.nytimes.com). Earlier at a meeting
prior to the Cancun meet, Jairam Ramesh had
said that, “Equity is the key to the climate change
negotiations. In the context of the 2 deg C global
goal, the issue of equitable access becomes even
more important. The phrase equitable access is
not the right to pollute, but the right to sustainable
development” (www.moef.nic.in). Averting
climate change is no longer a possibility, but its
effects can be far better managed and predicted
and its costs more equitably borne. The best
protection against global warming remains the
spread of the most sustainable technologies – in
irrigation and agriculture and flood defence –
and the more equal distribution of the kinds of
resources – education as well as finance – that
will allow those most vulnerable to its effects to
survive (www.guardian.co.uk).
India, being a developing economy, is
adopting a ‘wait & watch’ policy with regard to
climate change. It is waiting for the response of
the developed countries. India has long argued
for a per capita based allocation framework
as the most equitable approach for thinking
about greenhouse gas reduction commitments,
given the variation in the national attributes of
responsibility and capability (Pew Center, 2008).
Economic growth that propelled India into the
ranks of the world’s major economies coincided
with soaring emissions (King, 2009; 44). India’s
emissions increased 65 percent between 1990
and 2005 and are projected to grow another 70
percent by 2020 (Pew Center, 2008). Jairam
Ramesh, the Indian Environment Minister, at
the Asian Development Bank Conference in
November 2010 said, “Although we are a very
small emitter in per capita terms, we are today
the world’s fourth largest emitter in absolute
terms. China is at number 1, with 23 % of world
greenhouse gas emissions, the United States
giving the Chinese a run for their money at 22 %,
the EU would be about 13 % and India and Russia
are roughly almost on par at about 5 %”. If a per
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capita approach is accepted by the international
community then all the developing countries would
benefit in continuing their development agenda
with a lesser degree of restriction. In 2008, the
government of India notified the National Action
Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). It focuses on
eight areas intended to deliver maximal benefits
to development and climate change (mitigation
and adaptation). However, detailed action plans
for each mission, and any clear targets were not
specified in the report. The Climate Change
Division of Ministry of Environment & Forests
(MoEF) is India’s nodal agency for climate
change cooperation and global negotiations. It is
also the nodal unit for coordinating the National
Action Plan on Climate Change.
The government of India has enacted the
Environment Protection Act, 1986, to safeguard
and protect the environment. In January, 1997,
the National Environment Appellate Authority
was established by virtue of an Act passed in the
Parliament. The purpose of this authority is to “to
hear appeals with respect to restriction of areas
in which any industries, operations or processes
or class of industries shall not be carried out or
shall be carried out subject to certain safeguards
under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986,
and for matters connected therewith or incidental
thereto”. However, the authority was not sufficient
to deal with the environmental cases brought
before it. In February 2009, the Delhi High Court
came down heavily against the union MoEF for
its failure to implement the National Environment
Appellate Authority (NEAA) Act (Rosencranz et
al, 2009; 10). Rosencranz et al (2009) have made
a detail analysis of the futility of the NEAA on
various grounds, and conclude that “the future of
NEAA looks bleak with the central government
now apparently determined to abolish it”. In
2010, the Indian Parliament passed the National
Green Tribunal Act (NGT), which has brought in
a series of specialized environmental tribunals to
safeguard and protect the environment. Initially,
the NGT is proposed to be set up at five places
of sittings and will follow circuit procedure for
making itself more accessible. New Delhi is the
principal place of sitting of the Tribunal and
Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai shall be the
other 4 place of sitting of the Tribunal. The central
government is “now finalizing the establishment
of a National Environmental Protection Authority
(NEPA) that will be a permanent professional body
to appraise projects and monitor compliance”
(Ramesh, 2010; 16).
The Indian environment minister at the
Cancun Meet in December 2010 said that India
is progressing to check the vulnerabilities arising
due to climate change. Among the actions taken in
this regard were, (a) First, reducing the emissions
intensity of India’s GDP by 20-25 % by the year
2020 on a 2005 reference level, (b) Second, taking
firm steps to diversify our energy fuel-mix, (c)
Third, pursuing aggressive strategies on forestry
and coastal management, (d) Fourth, setting up
an elaborate Indian Network for Comprehensive
Climate Change Assessment–an Indian IPCC as it
were, & (e) Fifth, actively engaging in partnerships
with our neighbors and other countries to deal with
climate change. He assured the global gathering
that India will not only be amongst the fastest
growing economies in the world as measured by
GDP–Gross Domestic Product–but will also be
amongst the most responsible in ensuring a high
rate of growth of the real GDP–Green Domestic
Product. This reflects the commitment of India
towards a global problem that is created by the
human community. The core problems with
environmental governance in India are several
and are all embedded in the larger debate on
environment, local livelihoods and development
(Lele et al, 2010; 13).
Environment must be perceived for what
it is-a global security issue, paramount for all
nations, and a common phenomenon. It is a matter
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Manaswini Pradha and Satya Prakash Dash. Environmental Challenges, Climate Change & Development
of the global commons and is not restricted to
any group or conglomeration of nations. Every
national government must act in a sensitive
manner to deliver to the community what they
require the most for their survival in the face of
new challenges threatening their existence. We
are all aware of sustainable development, but in
practice we are adopting destructible development.
Development is in no way antagonistic to life and
livelihood, but it supplements it. Every individual
has a right to development, but this right should
not be implemented without their consent and
concern. The people should give their consent
and simultaneously the governments should be
concerned about the welfare of the people. This
can certainly lead to development in the real
sense and will be welcome by the common people.
Shamelessly, in the name of “development”, the
central and state governments looked the other
way, at times, even conniving in this whole
“profits over people” approach (EPW, 2010; 7).
‘Environmentalism of the poor’ or ‘livelihood
environmentalism’ should be the approach to
any development programme at the national
level. Environment contributes to the fuller
development of the individual with its positive
effect on agriculture, health and well-being,
poverty eradication, etc.
References
1. Chamberlain, Gethin. (2009), “Vedanta versus the villagers: the fight for the sacred mountain”,
www.guardian.co.uk, 12 October 2009, accessed on 24.05.2010.
2. Economic & Political Weekly (EPW) (Editorial) (2010), “Reversing a Trend”, Vol. XLV, No. 44.
3. Goodland, R. J. A. (1990), “Environment and development: progress of the World Bank”, The
Geographical Journal, Vol. 156, No. 2, July 1990, pp. 149-157.
4. IPCC (2001), “Impacts, Adaptation & Vulnerability”, Third Assessment Report.
5. IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of
Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
[Parry, Martin L., Canziani, Osvaldo F., Palutikof, Jean P., van der Linden, Paul J., and Hanson, Clair
E. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
6. Johnston, Barbara Rose. (1995), “Human Rights & the Environment”, Human Ecology, Vol.
23, No. 2, pp. 111-23.
7. King, Samantha. (2009), “The US & India: Making Progress Together”, Indian Economic
Review, Vol. VI, December.
8. Lele, Sharachchandra, Dubash. Navroz K, & Dixit. Shantanu, (2010), “A Structure for
Environment Governance”, Economic & Political Weekly, Vol. XLV, No. 6, 9.
10. Najam, Adil. (1996), “A developing countries perspective on population, environment &
development”, Population Research & Policy Review, Vol. 15, February.
11. Pew Center on Global Climate Change, (2008), “Climate Change Mitigation Efforts in India”,
September.
12. Ramesh, Jairam. (2010), “The Two Cultures Revisited”, Economic & Political Weekly, Vol.
XLV, No. 42.
13. Rosencranz, A. Sahu, Geetanjoy. & Raghuvanshi, Vyom. (2009), “Whither the National
Environment Appellate Authority”, Economic & Political Weekly, Vol. XLIV, No. 35.
14. Sanwal, Mukul. (2008), “Sustainable Development Perspective of Climate Change”, Economic
& Political Weekly, April, 1215.
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Manaswini Pradha and Satya Prakash Dash. Environmental Challenges, Climate Change & Development
16. Sen, Amartya. (2000), Development as Freedom, OUP, New Delhi17.
18. Stiglitz, Joseph, E. (2007), Making Globalization Work, Penguin Books, London.
19. Wisner, B. (1993), “Disaster vulnerability: Scale, power and daily life”, Geojoumal Vol. 30,
No. 2, pp. 127-140.
20. World Health Report 2002: Reducing risks, promoting healthy life, WHO, Geneva, 2002.
21. http://www.boston.com/news/local/new_hampshire/articles/2011/06/04/romney_reaffi rms_
stance_that_global_warming_is_real/, accessed on 05.06.2011.
22. http://www.cseindia.org/content/niyamgiri-vedantas-battleground-bauxite,accessed on
28.5.2011.
23. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/effects/health.html, accessed on 04.06.2011.
24. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/jun/05/observer-leader-extreme-weatherpoor, accessed on 05.06.2011.
25. http://www.moef.nic.in, accessed on 06.06.2011.
26. http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/science/topics/globalwarming/index.html#, accessed on
05.06.2011.
Экологические проблемы,
изменение климата и экономическое развитие
Манасвини Прадхана, Сатья Пракаш Дашб
а
Отделение информационных технологий и коммуникации
Университет Факир Мохан
Индия, 756019, Баласор
б
Отделение политологии,
Самбалпурский университет
Индия, 768019, Самбалпур, Бурла,
Экономическое развитие и окружающая среда являются двумя наиболее обсуждаемыми
темами в сегодняшнем глобальном контексте. Они стали несовместимы, что приводит к
спорам, проблемам и противоречиям. В статье представлен план действий, предпринятых
для сохранения окружающей среды и решения споров между севером и югом. Анализируется
угроза глобальной экологической безопасности в контексте глобализации. В статье
рассматривается ситуация с добычей полезных ископаемых у подножия гор Ньямгири в
штате Орисса и ее значение в контексте «охраны окружающей среды для бедных». Также
представлены некоторые важные глобальные встречи, их результаты и актуальность.
Приведен анализ мер, принятых правительством Индии в своем стремлении решать проблемы
глобального потепления и изменения климата.
Ключевые слова: изменение климата, окружающая среда, развитие.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2014 7) 381-393
~~~
УДК 81'2(669)
Linguistic Diversity, Code-switching
and language Shift in Nigeria
Nkechi M. Christopher*
Department of Communication and Language Arts
University of Ibadan
Ibadan, Nigeria
Received 12.11.2013, received in revised form 15.01.2014, accepted 28.01.2014
Socio-politico-economic developments in Nigeria favour language shift from local languages to
English, a situation making local language maintenance and sustenance difficult while portending
language extinction. Codeswitching between English and Nigerian languages is posited as a stage
in the process of language shift to English and eventual extinction of local languages. Contributing
to the evolving linguistic situation are: extreme linguistic diversity, tenacious resistance to language
imposition, nascency of democratization, people mobility in the quest for survival in a poor economic
environment, the absence of a viable language policy, neglect of local languages in the education
of the child at home and school, and the dominance and viability of the English language for the
individual in socio-economic life of the nation. Nigeria is experiencing linguistic transition that may
eventually see the extinction of many Nigerian languages if unchecked. Under the situation, language
owners may be the best group to save their languages (over 500) from extinction.
Keywords: code-switching, language contacts, language death/extinction, language maintenance,
language shift, linguistic diversity.
Introduction
Living languages grow, those languages
that fail to grow die. Language is a living
entity, changes, grows and expands spheres and
modes of usage from generation to generation.
The extent to which language grows or expands
may be proportional to the expansion of areas
of human endeavours where it is used – once
there is need for communications in the
moon, across the sea, down in the bowels
of the earth, etc. there would be means for
meeting the challenges. In addition, languages
grow as knowledge and experience expand –
words/expressions may be devised within a
*
language for new experience or borrowed from
another language. However, the significance
of a language may diminish, and in extreme
cases it could die out of non-use. Language
extinction has become more alarming in a
globalizing world; since globalization, even in
its elemental stage without ICT, creates a need
for a universal language of communication to
enable people operate beyond their immediate
society. Mühlhäusler (1996:273) observes
of language contacts in the Pacific that, “An
interesting observation is that the sickness of
languages is greatest in areas where English is
the official language.”
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: nmxtopher@gmail.com
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Nkechi M. Christopher. Linguistic Diversity, Code-switching and language Shift in Nigeria
The choice of a national language in
Nigeria was influenced by two factors: language
diversity and the presence of an acceptable
language. The acceptance of English, a colonial
heritage, by all partners in the geo-political
arrangement has given English the lead over
Nigerian languages (and Arabic in the north).
Though a foreign language, English has become
an amalgamating element while Nigerian
languages are codes of dichotomy, creating
or escalating enmity along linguistic/ethnic
lines on matters that have nothing to do with
language itself. Nonetheless, the sheer number
of languages and a people on the move leave
no room for monolingualism. Rather, the norm
is bilingualism (multilingualism) in urban and
semi-urban areas as well as among the educated
in rural areas. Nigeria is therefore a case of
bilinguals in multilingual environments.
Code-switching may become an integral
element of bilingual speech when there is no
functional differentiation between two languages
in contact or restrictions on their use. Where
languages in contact have significant place in
the socio-economic context, code-switching may
lead to the evolving of a “new” language, such
as Singlish, Franglais (Frenglish), Hinglish, etc.
But if one of the languages has a superior position
in the socio-politico-economic arrangement,
there is a tendency for people to shift from the
less “significant” language to a dominant socioeconomically viable language. Education and
mobility of people from their places of origin to
other parts of the country favour shift from local
languages to English in Nigeria. (Hopefully,
a decision taken by the government executive
council on August 23, 2006 to use major Nigerian
languages in radio broadcasting may increase the
status of some Nigerian languages). Already some
children as well as adults in some Nigerian cities
do not know what their parents’ mother tongue
sounds like. For such children, there is already
language extinction, the chain of transfer having
been broken.
Linguistic Diversity
and Evolving Language Situation in Nigeria
It is well known that Africa’s most populous
nation is blessed with, among other wonderful
resources of nature, diverse people and
languages. According to a summary by Gordon
(2005), of 521 languages listed for Nigeria, 510
are living languages, two are second languages
without mother-tongue speakers, and nine are
extinct. There might be truth in the saying that
our diversity is our strength, as it, among other
controls and advantages, checks permanent
domination of others by ethnic entities or
individuals. This, however, has inhibited the
evolution of a national language, much as its
desirability is not in question.
It is expected that a Nigerian should at least
be bilingual in the mother tongue and English:
the constitution and national policy on education
indicate that English and Nigerian languages can/
are to be used for official business and teaching.
According to the constitution of the Federal
Republic of Nigeria:
The business of the National Assembly
shall be conducted in English, and in
Hausa, Ibo and Yoruba when adequate
arrangements have been made therefor.
Similarly for state house of assembly:
The business of a House of Assembly
shall be conducted in English, but
the House may in addition to English
conduct the business of the House in
one or more other languages spoken in
the State as the House may by resolution
approve.
Despite this constitutional provision,
English remains the norm; there are no, or
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indeed need for, facilities in place for such
a cumbersome venture. Besides, it would be
another Tower of Babel if 22 languages are
permitted in the River State house of assembly.
Kari’s (2002) account of the linguistic landscape
in River State is indicative of the problem
of managing language diversity in Nigeria’s
36 states and federal capital territory. Of 23
local government areas, 17 are monolingual,
speaking one of 12 (of the state’s 22) indigenous
languages, while other local government areas
have two to four language groups. Similarly,
with 18 local government areas, Edo State boasts
of 17 languages, with one local government
area (Akoko-Edo) home to 10! (Siebert, 2000).
Over and above these, Blench (1998) estimates
that with 394 languages, the Middle Belt area
has the greatest diversity of languages. The
diversity in language has become more apparent
to Nigerians with the creation of new states
and local government areas. In all, people not
only see the need for bilingualism but are also
desirous of becoming bilinguals.
In addition to diversity of languages are
dialectal differences that sometimes lead to
mutual unintelligibility among speakers of the
same language, even within 25 to 50 km radius
(for example the word “echeta” is “arisa” in
another place less than 25 km away). When
interlocutors with different dialects share another
common dialect, say, the central Igbo or standard
Yoruba, the use of the English language may
not be necessary; but when the contrary is the
case, some elements of bilingualism will obtain,
including code-switching to English.
Although Gordon (2005) refers to Edo,
Efik, Adamawa Fulfulde, Hausa, Idoma, Igbo,
Central Kanuri, and Yoruba as well as English
as official or national languages, it should be
noted that theoretically, all Nigerian languages
can be used officially and no language other than
English is used nationally. In fact, the diversity
and inadvertent empowerment of languages
through state and local government creation has
encouraged language owners to resist other’s
language being foisted on them. However, with
the benefit of hindsight, there are indications
that overtime three national languages could
have emerged from the country’s earlier regional
arrangement. Prior to the balkanization of the
three regions inherited at independence, Yoruba
was the dominant language in the south west,
Hausa was evolving as the lingua franca in the
northern region, Igbo was being learnt by nonIgbo speakers in the south east, and later, Edo in
the (youngest) Mid-west region.
Later development saw Pidgin English
evolve as a lingua franca in various major towns
of the former Mid-west region. Also of note was
the springing up of special dialect of Yoruba in
Lagos. Incidentally, the special Lagos variant of
Yoruba that Lagosians (native and non-natives
in Nigeria’s former capital [in the south west])
learnt is fast giving way today to Pidgin English.
Meanwhile, the Pidgin English spoken in each
area of the country has its own uniqueness and
appeal (with that spoken in the old city of Warri in
Delta State found most fascinating). Interestingly
the army barracks had Hausa language as its
major lingua franca and Pidgin as a minor.
However, with more education and the raising
of standards for joining the Nigerian army, the
linguistic tradition may witness a change that will
see Hausa losing its status as a major language in
the barracks.
The diversity of language and people’s
resistance to the imposition of another
language on them have made it difficult to
work towards upgrading/ developing any of the
numerous languages to a national status. This
is compounded by the difficulty experienced
in implementing mother tongue education in
primary schools and teaching major Nigerian
languages in secondary schools across the
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country. The implicit recognition of all Nigerian
languages in the national policy of education,
which states that a child should be taught first in
his mother tongue, is becoming impracticable as
there are no orthographies and therefore no books
and other resources on many languages. It also
seems that: “the well known fallacy that if you
can speak a language you can teach it, or teach
in it, continues to rear its head” (Gaudart, 1996:
187) and conceal the need to invest more effort in
language development and training.
Furthermore, urban migration encouraged
the establishment of private primary schools
instructing solely in English to cater for children
from diverse linguistic backgrounds. This has
eventually led to a situation whereby children
in private schools speak better English with
more ease than, and to the envy of, children
(and their parents) taught in the mother tongue.
Unfortunately, mother tongue education is also
associated with public schools where resource
provision for teaching by government and
parents are poor, leading to inferior education
which many inadvertently attribute to mother
tongue education. Consequently, to ensure that
their children learn the English language, many
parents patronise private primary and secondary
schools, and some in addition speak “English,”
exclusively, to their children at home, even where
their proficiency in the language could be in
question. Some scenarios as this are inexplicable:
a Yoruba university driver, his wife, a nephew
in senior primary class, and the mother of the
child choose to speak only in English to a grand
daughter of about four years, while everyone else
converses solely in Yoruba. The situation could
be worse among the Igbo, with such an example
of an Igbo young man who had to learn Igbo
from his cousins when he travelled to the United
States after having spent all his life in Nigeria
(Solarin, 2003). Yet proficiency in English in
Nigeria today is inferior to what obtained in the
1950s–70s when both languages in an individual’s
environment were allowed to develop alongside
each other (This is evident in the observable
difference between the performance abilities of
earlier and today’s graduates of the educational
system: a Primary 6 pupil in the earlier periods
could comfortably write letters for relations, but
some university graduates shy away from writing
letters today).
Parents are unmindfully and gradually
creating situations that will see to the death of
Nigerian languages. The onus is on Nigerian
linguists to educate people that a child will learn
more than a language if he is exposed to them.
Denying children access to the local language
which arranges the world they belong to in
preference for a foreign language with limited
models may not be in the overall interest of the
development of children. It will be preferred that
adequate facilities are made available for teaching
Nigerian and English languages to children in
school and at home.
Code-switching in Nigeria
Bilingual speakers often ‘switch codes’,
that is, move from one language to
another and back again in the course of
conversations. Sometimes, it is unclear
which one they are speaking at any
particular point. The process may result
in language mixing .... But in most
cases, one of the languages wins out,
and the other is demoted to subsidiary
status (Silva-Corvalaán, 1996: 246)
Silva-Corvalaán (1996:6) suggests that while
using the subordinate language speakers codeswitch (one of five strategies employed) to lighten
the “cognitive load of having to remember and use
two different linguistic systems.” Code-switching
is a reality of bilingual situations, especially in
informal situations where speakers tend to use
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all shared languages when no restrictions is
imposed.
An Igbo teenager raised in a Yoruba city
may start a conversation with the sibling in Igbo,
switch back and forth to Yoruba and use some
in-group phrases and sentences in English picked
up at school or the neighbourhood. The same
child may allow some utterances in Yoruba while
speaking with the mother, but will not use a word
of Yoruba when speaking with the father, since
most Igbo fathers are usually not eager to learn
the Yoruba language and wish their children to be
fluent in Igbo. While the type of speaker described
here may not have any problem conversing with
a monolingual Yoruba, he/she would likely have
problem holding monolingual Igbo conversation
with peers in an Igbo community, and will
therefore tend towards the common and more
convenient English language. In a situation as
this, code-switching to the superior language is
engendered mainly by poor proficiency in the
matrix language. While this will constitute the
main reason for shifts from Nigerian languages
to English, there are other reasons why people
code-switch.
A study of code-switching among peoples of
Nigeria will reveal that ease of switch from L2
(English) to L1 (a Nigerian language) and vice
versa may vary from one ethnic group to the other.
While switch from English to Yoruba is more
common than vice versa, many Igbo speakers
find it far easier to code-switch to English.
Other than taking pride in speaking the English
language, dialectal differences could create so
much discomfort (and repetitions or explanations
to make up for differences) that using the English
language becomes economical, especially for the
educated who do not have to learn the central or
standard dialects to survive.
Why are people willing to let go of their
mother tongue in preference of English? The
ascendancy of the English language to the pride
of place in Nigeria can most easily be attributed
to the socio-economic viability of English, and its
subsequent/consequent incursion into domains
previously “reserved” for local languages, such
as homes and churches. Englishization of Nigeria
is a trend that can be linked with the observation
that over the years those who occupy important
and enviable socio-economic positions in the
society speak a lot of English, and those who
did/do not are losing grounds. High income
bespectacled doctors and lawyers with raised
shoulders display their dexterity in English, while
low income mechanics, drivers and other artisans
speak the local languages. Proficiency in the
English language, it is believed, must be the key to
changing one’s social status. In fact, the children
of those that live in choice neighbourhoods and
affluence speak a lot English, and rarely make a
show of their knowledge of the local language.
Showing off proficiency in the English
language is one of the reasons some people
code-switch. In some Igbo communities, a man
could say something in English or Igbo and then
translate same into the other as a manner of
speaking. Switching is done for social identity
negotiation, so as to impress it on the listener that
the speaker, having been adequately educated
in or exposed to it, has acquired the English
language and therefore belongs to the prestigious
class. According to Eze (http://uwandiigbo.com/
wb/pages/about-igbo.php), a scholar observes
that “Igbo-English mixture is a conscious display
of the knowledge of a prestigious language,
English…” This reason for code-switching is
obvious in recent Yoruba movies and TV shows,
and one can hear the somewhat educated speaker
quickly switch back to Yoruba in mid sentence
when problem is encountered in a linguistic
voyage.
Another reason people show off their
proficiency in English is to impress on a cointerlocutor and standby listener(s) one’s
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educational qualification/exposure and to
use same as a means of attaining a superior
status in the environment of communication,
consequently enforcing one’s wish or opinion
on others. Such an individual would baulk
in the presence of a more proficient speaker.
When speaking with a person of higher
status and proficiency in English, a speaker
with an inferior knowledge of the L2 could
code-switch to a shared Nigerian language to
conceal inadequacy. However, much as the
pretentiousness of those who can speak English
increases the desire of the less proficient to have
his/her children become fluent in English, the
society still admires and appreciates bilinguals
who are capable of keeping both languages
apart, especially when they are learned.
Among the educated, a topic or a change
in topic may determine language choice and the
extent of switching (or not) that takes place in an
informal situation. Since Nigerian languages are
generally limited in use to home and community,
subjects outside these domains are usually first
encountered and assimilated in the classroom
or books, and therefore the tendency to discuss
them in English, the language of first experience.
In making this observation, code-switching in
this paper is not restricted as Poplack (2001:1)
did in a paper to “the mixing, by bilinguals (or
multilinguals), of two or more languages in
discourse, often with no change of interlocutor or
topic,” but includes Kari’s (2002:5) definition of
code-switching and code-mixing, with preference
for the latter.
Code-switching (the complete change
from one language or code to another
within the same conversational context
by the same speaker) and code-mixing
(the use of two or more languages
or codes interchangeably in a given
conversational context by the same
speaker) …..
Many will consider code-mixing as defined
by Kari as an aspect of code-switching, such as this
definition by Kuntze (2000: 289): “Codeswitching
is conventionally thought of as the mixing of two
languages in an utterance,” since the interchanging
of languages in a given conversation could
involve the use of not only words of the languages
involved but also their different grammars and
morphological features. According to Kuntze,
“if the morphology and syntax are consistent
with only one of the languages, any nonnative
lexical item must be borrowed. If not, then it
is a case of codeswitching” (p. 289). Similarly,
Fasold (1984) considers the interchange of
grammatical structures in an utterance as codeswitching, when the grammatical structure of a
clause is different from that of a preceding one.
This may imply that lexical items may belong
to one language and the grammatical structure
to another. Such covert cases of code-switching
are encountered in students’ writings – deviant
constructions, otherwise meaningless, that are
direct translations of mother tongue. Many
proficient speakers of English are unaware of
deviant sentences and pronunciations in the
Nigerian English repertoire (A lecturer could
pronounce the word “vulcanizer” as “fokaniza,”
just as most people in the city say it). Therefore,
first and second language learners are acquiring
models of English riddled with deviants.
Code-switching in Nigeria is a characteristic
of transitional bilingualism and may indicate
a process of shift from traditional languages
to English. This is unlike Hinglish, Franglais
or the situation of Irish in Ireland where codeswitching is encouraging the “maintenance” of an
endangered language (O’Malley-Madec, 2004).
Non-Linguistic Factors Influencing
Language Situation in Nigeria
Language is central to human interaction
and is a product of human interaction. Language
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reflects most relevant issues, or to what extent
an element of culture is important to a people.
Indeed, it may reflect a person’s or people’s
process of development – as when a people
shifting into a new culture adapt or lose their
language to a new one. An example is the Basawa
people (formerly, Bassa people) of the Middle Belt
area who now speak Hausa having lost their own
language through assimilation (Blench, 1998).
The significance of a language to an individual
or a people is depicted by how much of a person’s
life or cultural elements it portrays.
Nigeria is yet to pay attention to the need
to kick-start a national culture that embodies
the peoples’ beliefs and other various cultural
heritages, which are rapidly slipping away
through urbanization and urban migration.
Struggles for economic and political control in
a nascent democracy by different interest/ethnic
groups without any national creeds have been
inimical to the development and maintenance of
a national identity. There is no collective identity
for the people to defend, and the languages
are slipping away as well. Linguistic pride and
strategic preservation of native languages as
elements of cultural consciousness are yet trivial
in the national development question. If cultural
identity is essential in personal and national
development, language that houses and preserves
culture should not be ignored. Many factors in the
present dispensation are influencing the language
situation(s) in Nigeria, of which some issues in
political developments, socio-economic selfpreservation and education are highlighted here.
Political factors
The significance of numeric and political
powers of linguistically diverse peoples who
cling tenaciously to ethnicity has prevented
Nigeria from evolving a national language,
desirable as most people do realize it is. The three
dominant peoples in the three distinct power
blocks that were amalgamated into Nigeria are
geographically and linguistically separated by
numerous ethnic groups and languages – HausaFulani controlled the northern part of the country
which is separated from the south by the Niger
river at the left and Benue river at the right of the
map (and both flow down together into the ocean
after meeting at Lokoja, dividing the south into
two) and then hundreds of languages; the south
west is predominantly Yoruba, with the Edo
language separating it from the third “power,” the
Igbo who spill across the Niger from the south
east. This natural arrangement has ensured that
none of these power blocks can engulf any other
politically or linguistically, especially since each
block played significant roles in the struggle for
independence. Furthermore, the Nigerian civil
war (1967–70) which saw the Igbo, the least in
numeric strength of the three power blocks,
fighting for nearly three years to secede from the
Nigeria arrangement has made it obvious that
submergence of any group into the other(s) will be
most difficult. This determination of each group
to hold its own politically is most conspicuous
in the resistance to the imposition of any of the
key languages on the other groups as a national
language.
Prior to the civil war, the east was dominated
by the Igbo and the north by the Hausa-Fulani
peoples and languages. The dominance of
the Igbo in the south east was immediately
curtailed after the war through state creation
that separated the other ethnic groups from the
Igbo society, reducing the latter’s influence/
dominance as well as the need for the former
to learn Igbo for economic or political reasons.
This process is also being enacted in the
northern part of the country. The deteriorating
political and ethno-linguistic (and religious)
affiliations that obtained historically across the
country for purposes of economic, religious,
social and political interactions is hastened by
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incessant state and local government creation.
The linguistic manifestation of this trend is that
more people in the older generation of minority
groups than the present speak Igbo (Hausa or
other dominant language). Obviously, geopolitical and socio-economic changes affect
people’s perception and need for hitherto a
dominant group’s language.
The manifestation of linguistic differences of
the recent (1980s–90s) balkanization of politicogeographic entities in Nigeria is most prominent in
the north and Niger Delta areas, the core east and
west being relatively homogenous linguistically.
During the colonial administration, being literate
in Hausa, the lingua franca of the northern area,
could guarantee one employment (Blench, 1998).
However, the carving out of more states overtime
has increasingly diminished the political and
religious powers of the Sokoto caliphate over the
Nigerian Islamic “empire” among the northern
peoples. Therefore, the place of the Hausa
language as a lingua franca is fast diminishing,
especially with non-Hausa-Fulani people resisting
continued domination by the group. The Hausa
language is no longer the language of education
in northern states. Therefore, there will likely
be a reduction in, if not a total halt of, an earlier
trend of language assimilation in the Middle Belt
observed by Blench (1998).
From another dimension, education in
English is now a sine qua non for pursuing
political ambition. A person that is not able to
speak English will most likely be rejected by the
literates and non-literates alike because of the
realization that those without adequate education
(in English) are unlikely to represent the people’s
interest adequately. Thus, to be relevant in the
political scene, people who had hitherto made
their marks in the political development of their
areas get further education, and some others
are taught to speak the English language. This
however has not reduced the importance of
language as an element of political engineering
and intrigues.
Socio-economic factors
As already mentioned, English is
economically viable since most jobs require
the prospective worker to be knowledgeable in
the English language. The effect has been the
abandoning of mother tongue to give the learning
of the English language the attention it is deemed
to deserve. Beyond this expectation, the mobility
of people to other areas is another important
factor that is inimical to language sustenance.
People may leave their places of origin for
another due to transfers. But most importantly,
people mobility is most pronounced on language
in cases where people relocate to other towns for
long sojourns. On the other hand people may be
forced by natural disasters such as desertification
to seek other places of abode. Other causes are
the dislocation of people in the Niger Delta areas
due to oil explorations that destroy sources of
livelihood. Also, wars between neighbours are
contributing to the forcing out of people from
their homelands.
The search for greener pastures takes natives
away from where their presence could help
maintain a language. Whereas in Kano, outsiders
share Sabo, in other parts of the country, the
Hausa-Fulani usually live together in Sabos. It is
most likely that the latter arrangement helps to
preserve the Hausa language outside its place of
origin while the former will increase the use of the
English language, Hausa or Pidgin among people
from different ethnic and linguistic backgrounds
living, doing business and schooling together, as
their own languages are compromised. Codeswitching will be a common feature of the
speech of visitors, especially where the visitors’
traditional language is spoken at home.
When a new language is not a necessity for
survival, there is little incentive for learning it.
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Although the Igbo, probably the most mobile
of Nigerian people, are found in every town
and village, the immigrant often knows enough
English that enables him sell his goods – he may
learn enough local language to get by. Generally,
the women seem more interested in and adept
at learning the language of a new place than the
men.
A major practice that helps to sustain
Hausa-Fulani and Igbo languages outside their
ecology is travels to the homeland for festivities
during the year. Because link is maintained with
homeland, the Igbo and Hausa pass on their
languages to their offspring, unlike some parents
from other groups who do not take part in such
rituals or have plans of taking their children back
to their traditional homes eventually. If there is
no interaction and renewal of bonds between
emigrants and homeland, increasing population
of potential speakers of a language (Blench,
1998) will not work in favour of perpetuating the
language to next generations.
Education
Despite falling education standards,
the education industry has been witnessing
tremendous
growth.
Ironically,
income
inequalities and snail-speed industrialization
make tertiary education about the only option
open to a Nigerian youth for self-advancement
and meaningful preoccupation of idle time.
Under this dispensation, parents realize that the
key to a better tomorrow in Nigeria is English –
even at the forfeiture of mother tongue. In fact,
mother tongue is seen as a hindrance to learning
English and thus, a child can grow up in Lagos
without learning the parents’ language or the
Eko Yoruba. Without intervention, this trend is
likely to continue in Nigerian cities and towns,
enthroning English (and Pidgin English) as the
Nigerian language. In less metropolitan areas
in Ondo State, Ayeomoni (2006) assessed the
process of language use among students and
found that:
. . . in a continuum … Yoruba starts to
be the dominant language at the preprimary period of the child’s language
acquisition; a balance is struck between
Yoruba and English . . . at the primary
school level, with English being used
mainly in the classroom and Yoruba
often used outside the classroom; while
the English language is pre-dominant at
the secondary school stage. . . English
replaces Yoruba as a dominant language
eventually (Ayeomoni, 2006: 93).
Ayeomoni (2006) further observes that
code-switching manifests early in primary school
and correlates positively with an individual’s
educational attainment. We are witnessing in
Nigeria similar characteristics of language
shift observed by Taumoefolau et al. (2002) of
languages in Manukau (New Zealand). They
observed loss of formal register over time (in
Nigerian, sayings and proverbs are disappearing
from people’s speech); children are learning
English as first language, schooling is having
negative impact on local languages, English is
taking over the public domain, and children have
problem with quick recall of vocabulary, leading
to this typical observation:
She also indicated how the shift is
taking place in many of the homes.
Although her parents usually spoke to
her in Samoan, she tended to respond
in English . . . This nonreciprocal use of
the community language between the
generations is a pattern that is showing
up . . . (Taumoefolau et al., 2002)
The use of Nigerian languages in homes in
cities among literate (and semiliterate) parents
now depends on their views about language need
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and acquisition – many do not realize that the
possession of many languages gives the speaker
more linguistic facilities and encourage more
complex thinking, especially in an environment
in which the model of English available to the
learner is too limited. There is no evidence that
those with English as first language perform
better than those with two languages – the Wole
Soyinkas, Chinua Achebes, J.P Clarks, Cyprain
Ekwensis, Chukwuemeka Ikes, Ngugi wa
Thiongos and a host of African writers are yet to
be matched by this generation of students who are
denied the rich cultural heritage these tapped into
to produce their celebrated works.
Unfortunately, facilities provided for
teaching any language are grossly inadequate.
Lack of language teachers ensures that Nigerian
languages are not taught at all in some schools;
while the absence of books and other necessary
materials, in addition to poor management of the
teaching/learning process, especially in public
schools, make it difficult to teach English and
Nigerian languages in meaningful ways. Thus,
bilingual learners have skewed knowledge of
the languages they control: oral skills with no
literacy skills in mother tongue, and literacy
skills with poorly developed oral skills in English.
With these problems many students are placed in
conditions that discourage sufficient and timely
development of the cognition, since this also
depends on language processing.
Code-switching
and Language Maintenance,
Shift and Death in Nigeria
A hypothetical situation in which three viable
national languages were allowed to evolve may
have had its draw-backs (for example language
assimilation), but it could have stabilized the
language question. Right now there is hardly a
language policy being implemented with any
vigour; and this has negative implications for
national identity and culture in the long-run,
and poor execution of education for all in the
immediate. The second aspect of language
planning, corpus planning, is also not receiving
adequate attention from either government or the
language owners; further denigrating Nigerian
languages in education. This is unlike in other
developing countries, such as Malaysia where
some subjects are taught in Malay and others in
English, making it necessary for a prospective
teacher to be literate in both languages (Gaudart,
1996). Christopher (2004: 7) suggests that the
language owners in Nigeria should promote,
preserve and redeem their languages from
extinction, rather than wait on government.
It becomes more imperative because all the
factors recognized by Blench (1998: 9) as being
responsible for language maintenance will soon
cease to hold or remain important as education
increases. The factors include: “a) absence
of adjacent culturally dominant groups, b)
endogamous marriage practices, c) maintenance
of traditional religion/cultural pride, d) existence
of an orthography, e) government oppression
and neglect, f) remoteness, g) access to media,
h) demography”. So far illiteracy and the
remoteness of languages from the metropolis
have proved the most effective elements in the
sustenance/preservation of Nigerian languages.
Mühlhäusler’s (1996: 274) observation is therefore
true of Nigeria:
. . . one of the main processes by which
traditional languages lose their power
is through the loss of functions and
domains. Most noticeable among these
is the function of education where a few
metropolitan languages have displaced
the majority of the world’s languages as
sources of knowledge.
If Nigeria’s. language process would mirror
that described of the Pacific by Mühlhäusler
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(1996), it will hopefully attain the fifth phase
(the second phase is not applicable) through a
conscious effort to retain local languages (Please
see below). At the moment, many parts of the
country are at phase three, tending towards four,
“monolingalism in a powerful language,” with
some individuals already operating at this level.
Equitable bilingualism requires effort which at
the moment is missing in the Nigerian system.
1. use of vernaculars
2. attempts to impose monolingualism in a
metropolitan language
3. transitional bilingualism
4. monolingualism in a powerful language
5. equitable bilingualism (Mühlhäusler,
1996:142).
Nigerian languages are being allowed to
lose out in the public domain and are becoming
less prestigious than English, and there is little
incentive for learning them. English is fast
becoming the dominant language in the public
domain and in some cases at home as well, because
of its perceived political and socio-economic
values. Silva-Corvalaán (1996:7) observes that:
The result is more or less massive
changes in the secondary language.
The extent of these changes correlates
with the speakers’ level of bilingual
proficiency and with extralinguistic
factors. The occurrence of the changes
is further favoured and accelerated by
(a) absence of normative pressures on
the subordinate language; (b) restriction
in the range of communicative uses
of the subordinate language; and (c)
speakers’ positive attitudes towards
the superordinate language combined
with either neutral or negative attitudes
toward the subordinate one.
The alert on the looming language extinction
may sound premature in today’s Nigeria where
all the languages seem to be holding their own.
However, the findings of a study by Taumoefolau
et al (2002) about the change in demography are
instructive:
. . . it is necessary to remember the age
structure of the Pasifika communities.
They have comparatively few older
members and many younger people . .
. So although a high proportion of older
speakers may be fluent . . . they make
up a rather small proportion of the total
community population.
Globalization and ICT are efficient in
extinguishing languages but can be advantageously
exploited, not only to preserve languages but also
to strengthen them through worldwide teaching
and interaction among people across space.
References
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Emmorey and H. Lane (eds.) The Signs of Language Revisited: An Anthology to Honor Ursula Bellugi
and Edward Klima (pp. 287-302). Mahwah, NJ.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
11. Mühlhäusler, P. (1996) Linguistic Ecology: Language Change and Linguistic Imperialism in
the Pacific Region. London: Routledge.
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ncl.ac.uk/ss15/papers/paper_details.php?id=799 (Accessed 5 August, 2006).
13. Poplack, S. (2001) Code-switching (linguistics). A research carried out at the University
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2006).
14. Seibert, U. (2000) Languages of Edo State. Online documents at URL: http://www.uiowa.
edu/intlinet/unijos/nigonnet/nlp/edo.htm (Accessed 10 August, 2006).
15. Silva-Corvalaán, C. (1996) Language Contact and Change: Spanish in Los Angeles. Oxford:
Clarendon Press.
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descent in Latin America. Online documents at URL: http://www.hollerafrica.com/showArticle.
php?artId=78&catId=1 (Accessed 20 August, 2006).
17. Taumoefolau, M., Starks, D., Davis, K. and Bell, A. (2002) Linguists and language maintenance:
Pasifika languages in Manukau, New Zealand (1). Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 41, No. 1, 15-27 (Accessed
as one page in Questia Media America online library).
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Nkechi M. Christopher. Linguistic Diversity, Code-switching and language Shift in Nigeria
Лингвистическое разнообразие,
переключение языковых кодов
и языковая ассимиляция в Нигерии
Н.М. Кристофер
Отделение языковой коммуникации и лингвистики,
Ибаданский университет,
Нигерия, Ибадан
Социально-политическое и экономическое развитие Нигерии способствует тому, что
английский язык начинает преобладать над местными наречиями, что приводит к ситуации,
когда поддерживать местные языки сложно, и они постепенно вымирают. Смена языковых
кодов между английским и нигерийским языками находится на этапе языковой ассимиляции
с английским языком и постепенным исчезновением местных наречий. Развитию данной
лингвистической ситуации также способствуют: значительное лингвистическое разнообразие,
устойчивое сопротивление насильственному сохранению языка, зарождение демократизации,
мобильность людей в стремлении выжить в плохих экономических условиях, отсутствие
эффективной языковой политики, пренебрежение обучением детей местным языкам дома
и в школе, доминирование и целесообразность обучения английскому языку для социальноэкономической жизни населения. В Нигерии происходит лингвистический переход, который
может привести к исчезновению многих местных наречий, если не обратить внимание на
данную ситуацию. Спасти местный язык (в Нигерии около 500 диалектов) могут только сами
его носители.
Ключевые слова: переключение языковых кодов, языковые контакты, смерть/исчезновение
языка, поддержание языка, языковая ассимиляция, лингвистическое разнообразие.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2014 7) 394-403
~~~
УДК 37.01
Innovations as Synergetic Effect
in Socio-Pedagogical System of Distance Education
Olga S. Tolstova*
Samara State Agricultural Academy
Kinel, Samara Region, 446442, Russia
Received 08.12.2013, received in revised form 15.01.2014, accepted 02.02.2014
The purpose of this article is to study distance education through the innovations in its interaction
and interrelation with such innovative processes, as modernization, integration and humanization,
taking place in education. A synergetic approach is a leading methodological approach in our
research. This article also considers socio-pedagogical approach which allowed the author to define
the interrelations of integration, modernization and humanization and to reveal their influence not
only on the internal components (elements) of distance education as a holistic system, but also to
define the possibilities of distance education in the implementation of innovative processes. As a
result the study showed that «innovation» is a priority idea, on the basis of which the integration
processes, education modernization and a humanistic approach to education are functioning and
are being combined in the educational space. Innovations come out as display of the synergetic effect
in the socio-pedagogical system of distance education. Distance education founded on the modern
information and communications technologies application in the educational institutions ensures the
cohesion of the educational system to the demands of the XXI century and will permit to raise the
quality of education and reach the correspondence of education to the perspective requirements of
personality, society and state development.
Keywords: innovation, synergetic approach, socio-pedagogical system, distance education,
information and communications technologies, integration processes.
Introduction
Social and economic changes in Russia are
connected with the processes of modernization,
integration, humanization, introduction and
application of innovations. These processes are
realized in education. The distinctive feature
of education development in the modern world
is an active application of information and
communications technologies (ICTs).
Research actuality is defined with the socioeconomic, socio-pedagogical and socio-cultural
*
situation which our country is in. The education
system modernization is connected with the
active introduction and application of the modern
ICTs in the process of education in the conditions
of the international educational integration.
«Russia needs an innovative break-through
first of all in the field of information technologies».
«It’s necessary to provide an access of all the
Russians to the World Wide Web resources, to
apply the digital technologies in the information
field». The improving of life quality should take
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: stommm3@rambler.ru
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place not owing to the source of raw materials
but owing to the innovative economics, creation
of new technologies (Medvedev, 2010) and as a
consequence the innovations in the education
system.
Modernization of education should
be founded not only on the organizational
innovations but on the changes in the content,
student teaching technologies that will promote
the transition of modern society to the global
information society.
Strategy of Science and Innovations
Development in the Russian Federation up to
2015 is called to provide the combined effects
of government, private business and civil
society institutes on ensuring of «the dynamic
and purposeful» development of the Russian
Federation in the field of science and innovations
up to 2015 and for the subsequent perspective.
Transition of the leading countries to a new
stage of the innovative society formation is the
distinctive feature of modern world economic
development. High level of proficiency, unique
skills and abilities, a skill to adapt them to the
constantly changing conditions of activity are
becoming the main factor of welfare standards
and social status of personality. Investment in
intellectual capital is the effective way of the
resource placing. Application of new scientific
and technical results predetermined the sharp
shortening of the innovative cycle. The place of
Russia in the world innovative processes doesn’t
correspond to the intellectual and educational
potential of the country. The given situation may
lead to the loss of the national competitiveness
in the world markets of scientific capacity
produce, «the irreversible falling behind in
the time of the transition of the leading world
powers to the technologies of the post-industrial
structures» (Strategy of Science and Innovations
Development in the Russian Federation up to
2015, 2006).
The importance of education as a new
quality of economics and society formation factor
is increasing in a modern rapidly changing, fastmoving world. The education system of Russia is
able to compete with the education system of the
leading countries, but in this case it’s necessary
to have a public support of the educational policy
being conducted, restoration of a responsibility
and an active role of the state in this field, the
all-round modernization of education with the
allotment of the necessary resources and with
the creation of the mechanisms of its effective
application (Andreyev, 2005, pp. 108-109). The
main principles of educational policy of Russia
are represented in the National Doctrine of
Education in the Russian Federation up to 2025
(National Doctrine of Education in the Russian
Federation up to 2025, 2000).
Innovations in the socio-economic field
influence on innovations in the educational system.
Education playing the social function shows the
changes in a society. Education development level
is the showing of the socio-economic level of the
country development. Innovations in education
are the consequence and the necessary condition
of the society development.
In this aspect, it is necessary to rethink
the university structure and meaning, taking
into consideration the new social requirements:
the process of globalization, the changing
demands of social practices, the increase in
competitiveness, technological development, the
rapid obsolescence of knowledge, the need for
lifelong learning, changes in the production of
knowledge, the importance of online learning
and work (Bosco, Rodriguez-Gomez, 2011).
It’s difficult to reach the socio-economic
progress without the high qualified specialists
having the innovative thinking, the unique skills
and abilities and a skill to adapt to the fastmoving world. Modern specialists should use
their initiative and take decisions themselves,
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use information and technologies to innovate
and keep ahead of the competition in the today’s
world. Innovations in education are not only the
pedagogical problems but they are the social
ones. Innovations taken place in an education
and a social life should promote the progress.
Innovations in the field of information and
communications technologies penetrated not only
through the society but through the educational
system.
Theoretical framework
«The peculiarities of the pedagogical
problems are in that they have many aspects. That’s
why, the foreshortening, the researcher’s view,
his strategy of consideration and investigation of
the problem is important in the working out of the
problems» (Andreyev, 2005, p. 357).
Our foreshortening of the consideration is
an innovation, distance education study through
the innovations in its interaction and interrelation
with the innovative processes taking place in
education. The synthesis of such processes as
the modernization, integration and humanization
should «work on» the innovations.
It’s important for our research to consider
the etymology of the term «innovation». The
term «innovation» is derived from the Latin
word «novatio». The meaning of this word is
«renovation» or «change». The prefi x «in» is
translated from the Latin language as «in the
direction of». The literal translation of the word
«innovatio» is «in the direction of the changes».
For the fi rst time the notion «innovation» was
appeared in the scientific researches of the
XIXth century. At the beginning of the XXth
century the notion «innovation» got a new
life in the scientific researches of the Austrian
economist of I. Schumpeter as the result of
the analysis of the «innovative combinations»,
changes in the development of the economic
systems. And what is more this notion may be
used to the creative idea which was realized
(Wikipedia, 2012).
An innovation is not every renovation or
renewal, but that which seriously increases the
effectiveness of the existing system (Miloslavsky,
2009).
The newest philosophic dictionary gives the
next definition of the notion «innovation» – «(the
late Latin word «inovatio», the English word
innovation) are the phenomena of the culture
which don’t exist at the previous stages of its
development but which appeared at a given stage
and obtained the recognition in it («socialized»);
(fixed) in the form of signs and (or) in the activity
with the help of the changing ways, mechanisms,
results, content of this activity» (Gritsanov,
1998).
The term «innovation» is used in education
and means «novelty»; the process of creation,
assimilation, «and application of the pedagogical
scientific
and
technical
achievements»
(Simonenko, 2005, p. 343).
A synergetic approach is used as a
methodological base in our research as «a distance
education system is an open system» (Cyrs, 1997,
p. 55).
Synergetics (the word is derived from the
Greek word «synerqeia») – «the science which
studies the processes of the complex systems
transition from a random status to an orderly and
reveals the connection between the elements of
this system, where the combined action in the
system has more than a simple addition of action
effects of each element separately» (Kodgaspirova
and Kodgaspirov, 2005, p. 308).
Synergetics is one of the methodological
principles for pedagogy. Synergetics studies the
open systems, exchanging the matter, energy and
information. The emergence of new information
and communication technologies expands the
possibilities of distance education and has an
impact on the peculiarities of functioning of the
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components of distance education system, on its
regularities, methodological guidance.
The innovative processes in education –
integration, modernization and humanization are
considered in our research not isolated from each
other but as a system.
A synergetic approach puts the main
emphasis on the study of the open systems,
where the system is considered from a position
of self-government, self-organization and selfdevelopment. The principles of systemness and
integrity are in the basis of synergetics.
The laws of synergetisms are of interest
for distance education as a socio-pedagogical
phenomenon and for distance education
pedagogy.
«A synergetic approach deals with such
self-organizing, self-developing systems as biosystems and social systems» (Kodgaspirova and
Kodgaspirov, 2005, p. 56), and distance education
is a socio-pedagogical phenomenon, a sociopedagogical system. That is why a synergetic
approach as a leading methodological approach
was chosen in our research. Distance education
pedagogy as a system of scientific knowledge
is being developed in the framework of a social
system. Distance education pedagogy is a
subsystem of the more common system.
The notion of «synergy» (unity) is revealed
in the context of the analysis of self-organization
and self-development of the large systems. It is a
socio-pedagogical system of distance education
in our research.
There was made an attempt of philosophical
understanding of a synergy theory in the 80s,
as a synergetic approach deals with the selforganizing, self-developing systems, which
include the bio-social systems, the «ideas of
synergy, a synergistic approach as a philosophical
and methodological principle is applied for the
research of educational systems» (Andreyev,
2005, p. 57), and in our scientific work for study of
distance education system as a socio-pedagogical
system.
A systems approach was used to study
distance education as a socio-pedagogical
phenomenon. A systems approach is one of the
most important methodological approaches
aimed at the research, analysis and synthesis of
the complex systems, including the pedagogical
ones.
Understanding the essence of the
pedagogical, social, psychological and economic
phenomena is a necessary condition for
successful and stable functioning of distance
education in the modern innovative conditions.
In addition to the systems approach, it is used the
socio-pedagogical approach in our research. This
approach allowed us to define the interrelations
of the above-mentioned phenomena and to
reveal their influence not only on the internal
components (elements) of distance education as a
holistic system, but also to define the possibilities
of distance education in the implementation of
the innovative processes.
Statement of the problem
Implementation of innovations, advanced
information technologies should contribute to
improving the quality of life and education. The
level of science and technology development,
introduction of the innovative education
technologies influences on the system and the
quality of education (Tolstova, 2011).
Innovations in the field of information
technologies will find its realization in the
educational system. Distance education (DE)
directly connected with the use of information
technologies acquires a new form, more perfect
one. It will be available for each educational
institution and a student.
Distance education is «an innovative
educational form» (Zaichenko, 2005, p. 55).
«Distance education is one of the most dramatic
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of the recent technology-based innovations
influencing education» (Simonson, Smaldino,
Albright, 2006, p. 5). Innovations connected
with the application of the newest ICTs in the
distance education system increase its quality
and contribute to the realization of the principle
of democratization – one of the leading principles
of education. Democratization is a tool of society
transformation. It has influences on the educational
system as one of the subsystems of a social
system. Therefore, democratization influences on
a socio-pedagogical system of distance education
and is manifested in the inherent features, for
example, «sociality» – DE provides an equal
possibility of getting education regardless of the
place of residence and the financial conditions;
«internationality» – DE provides a convenient
opportunity to export and import educational
services. Thus, distance education provides a
wide access to the educational domestic and
global resources.
The democratic processes development in
a society contributes to the revaluation of the
educational system, its goals and objectives.
Transformations in a society require changes
in education. The goal of the Russian system
modernization is to provide the compliance of
education system with the requirements of the
twenty-first century, to create the education
system stable development mechanism. Education
should correspond to the social and economic
needs of the country development.
Modern distance education contributes to
the solution of tasks necessary to achieve the
mentioned goal. Distance education is aimed
at the maintenance of the availability and the
equal opportunities for full-fledged education
and the development of a new modern quality
of education, the improvement of professors’
professionalism.
Distance education based on the advanced
use of ICTs allows us to solve the problems of
educational policy at present stage, i.e. to achieve
modern quality of education and the compliance
of education to the current and prospective needs
of personality, society and state development.
Innovations associated with the introduction
and the active use of ICTs in a society and education
are both the result and the effective means of
transformation of a society and education.
There is the Educational Systems Level and
the Social Systems Level of distance education
in a hierarchy of distance education systems
proposed by Saba (Saba, 2007). The synergetic
approach manifests itself in a socio-pedagogical
system of distance education. The effect of
interaction between the aggregate components:
integration processes in education, education
modernization on the basis of introduction and
application of modern ICTs and humanization
of education is more than a simple addition of
effects of the actions of each of the components
separately and manifests in innovations.
The innovative processes are represented
by the integration processes: the preservation
of the common educational space with the CIS
countries, the Bologna process, integration into
the world educational space; the modernization
of education on the basis of modern ICTs,
innovative technologies in the education system,
taking into account the fact that modernization
should include the moral dimension; a humanistic
approach to education (Tolstova, 2007) in
modern educational space.
«The innovative processes in an education
system» are defi ned as «the managed processes
of creation, perception, assessment and
application by the pedagogical community of
pedagogical innovations, which are considered
in unity» (Kodgaspirova and Kodgaspirov,
2005, p. 245).
«Innovation» is a priority idea, on the basis
of which the integration processes, education
modernization and a humanistic approach to
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education are functioning and are being combined
in the educational space. In a socio-pedagogical
system of distance education synergetic effect
is manifested in innovation. Innovation has
the qualities exceeding the qualities of every
component which is a part of this system.
Innovation has the superior quality of each of its
components.
A modern society is characterized as an
informative one. There is a growing need in the
means of information production, its storage and
application. Increase in the flow of information in
the life of a human – being causes the application
of electronic means for the work with information.
Electronic educational resources of a new
generation are being implemented in a modern
educational process and significantly modernize
education. «Developments in technologies have
often played a critical role in bringing about
social and institutional change» (Collins, 2009,
p. 9). The whole of life and human activities are
being imbued with the ICTs .
Using dialogues in networked online learning
environments (e-learning dialogues) in education
is topical. A dialogue is one of the most important
components of any learning process. «Educational
research has shown that more effective learning
takes place if learners are actively involved
rather than passive listeners. This has brought a
move towards more student-centred experiential
learning» (Webb, Jones, Barker & Schaik, 2004,
p. 93). Thus, a humanistic approach displays itself
in distance education.
A web-based learning system is a promising
learning environment for the twenty-first century.
There are advantages in having learning activities
implemented via the Internet. For example, anyone
can access information, resources and knowledge
from anywhere at anytime (if a student has a
computer with an Internet connection). Webbased learning systems permit global accessibility
and help to promote worldwide collaboration (Yu,
Liu, Chan, 2005). Web-based learning systems
make fast the integration processes in education.
Methods
A theoretical inquiry was used in our
research, i.e., a theoretical review of literature
and conceptual study for proposing new ideas
in distance education. An evaluation research
is aimed at determining the impact of the
innovative processes (the integration processes,
the modernization of education on the basis of
modern ICTs, a humanistic approach to education)
on distance education system. A developmental
research is aimed at developing and evaluating an
existing and newly developed socio-pedagogical
system of distance education.
Discussion
Innovations in the ICTs are realized in
the society and in the education system, for
example, blogs, social nets, company news,
Cyrillic domains, public Internet-services,
Internet-film festivals, new trade formats – the
electronic exchange, Internet-stores and other
types of distance trade, electronic registrar,
used in medicine, and finally, widely spread in
recent times distance education.
Thus, the Bank of Moscow clients can
«touch a financial innovation», it is the so-called
«the bank of future» – a new department of the
Bank of Moscow Digital Office. At the bank one
can watch «the wonders of modern technology».
So, a big video-wall is built into the window –
the window of the bank. The sensors react to the
movement and allow the clients to manage the
image from the street. The virtual buttons are
located on the sides of the panel. If you click on
these buttons, you can get information about the
products, services and terms of service. When a
client needs to make a monthly payment, then he
has to stand in a queue to the ops officer, put his
signature in the payment papers, and then pay for
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them on hand. Using information and payment
terminals with the touch displays, the client of
the bank will do everything himself for a short
period of time several times touching the screen.
The clients of the bank may enter into a personal
office, access their accounts and cards, fill up
them, place money on deposit or pay the fee for
the loan. In this bank there are also a number
of automated teller machines (ATMs) of Smart
Cash which represent a tiny office of automated
maintenance. An information kiosk, an automated
teller machine and a system of communication
with a video call-center of the bank, in case of
questions or problems, are combined in one unit.
The zone of interactive self-service is located in
the main hall. The workplaces with the computers
are at the disposal of the clients. You can fill in
the questionnaire and the application, log in to
the website of the bank and use the services of
Web-banking, make payments and work with
their own accounts with their help. An access to
such services is ensured within 24 hours a day, 7
days a week. An electronic cashier is a product
of an engineering-banking thought. It works at
times faster than a «live» cashier. An electronic
cashier is a hybrid of a powerful safe box, the
counter of banknotes and the determinant of the
authenticity of banknotes. A unique technology –
«an automated banking system» (ABS) combines
all these parts (Semyonova, 2011).
These innovative solutions are planned to
use not only in the Moscow offices of the bank,
but also in the regions of Russia.
The modern ICTs form «a special intellectual
environment». For example, every modern
University that meets the requirements of time
should be equipped with a smart-campus, the
University area may be covered by the Wi-Fi
network, which will allow the students to listen
to the lectures at a distance.
The training programs should be not only in
Russian, but also in English, to get education in
Russia was prestigious not only for the Russian
students, but also for the foreigners. Russian
students, if they wish, can also attend the English
language lectures. The language training should
be intensified for them.
Thus, the universities of Russia will be able
to confidently integrate into the world educational
system, being the core of science and education
in Russia.
Modern science is international one.
So there are no borders for the scientists and
professors. The scientists and professors should
constantly «develop themselves», cooperate
with their colleagues from other countries, share
experience, participate in conferences. The ICTs
help to accelerate and improve such contacts.
For example, the XXVIIIth Congress of
the catarrhal surgeons held in September 2010
in Paris at the Congress center of «Concord».
It was a great international event. In conditions
of full openness the world leaders in surgery
shared with pleasure their latest theoretical and
practical achievements with the colleagues. The
Internet was also used there. The electronic
poster presentations were organized to widen the
acquaintance with the latest technologies. The
terminals with the computers for Internet access
which created the conditions for the viewing of
posters were located in the halls of the Congress
building. The reports of interest could be printed
on a color printer.
The use of modern information technologies
will allow the professors to intensify the scientific
contacts, i. e., to exchange the experience and
knowledge at the scientific video conferences
and the video workshops, to diversify and to
optimize the traditional teaching, to involve
in the process of teaching in the mode of the
video conference the well-known scientists,
professors, educators with the world name,
regardless of their nationality, citizenship and
territorial remoteness. The modern information
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technologies allow the teacher and the students
to see and to hear each other in the real-time
mode. Professors can work simultaneously with
several audiences of students located in different
parts of the globe. They have the possibility of
interactive communication. The students will be
able to learn from the world-class specialists,
from their experience in different branches of
knowledge not leaving the walls of their native
University.
In modern universities it is necessary to
create an environment in which each student will
be able to get an impulse for the development
of their intellectual and creative potential.
Universities should be equipped with the
multimedia classrooms, the interactive classes,
the research laboratories, the congress-centers
of the world level, which should contribute to
the formation of a new University community
with a high information culture and the cult of
educational innovation.
There is an active process of ICTs
introduction to schools of our country: the
computers with Internet access, the interactive
boards, the electronic textbooks, representing a
device which has the size of a book and includes
an interactive tutorial and a notebook for doing
the tasks.
Thus, in 2011 4.5 thousand teachers of the
Samara Region had got the laptops. Absolutely
all teachers will be provided with the computers
within a period of three years.
Due to the wide introduction in the
educational process of ICTs and the use of the
Internet in the educational process, pupils and
students need to know how to make a more
secure communication on the Internet, avoid
harmful information. The students are not always
able to evaluate the accuracy of the information
and recognize manipulative technologies in
advertising. The students should be critical to the
information products, knew about the dangers
awaiting them on the Internet and how to avoid
the Internet addiction, etc. At present the idea of
introduction the course media security to schools
is worked out.
Conclusion
Thus, innovations come out as display of
the synergetic effect in the socio-pedagogical
system of distance education. The effect of
interaction of the whole complex of components:
the integration process in education, the
modernization of education on the basis of
introduction and application of the modern
information and communications technologies
and humanization of education exceeds the
ordinary composition of action effects of every
of the components taken separately and displays
in innovations. Innovations connected with the
active ICTs application in society and education
are simultaneously the results and the effective
means of society and education remaking.
Distance education founded on the modern ICTs
application in the traditional teaching-learning
process in the educational institutions ensures
the cohesion of the educational system to the
demands of the XXI century and will permit
to raise the quality of education and reach the
correspondence of education to the perspective
requirements of personality, society and state
development. Our country will easily integrate
into the world educational space and go away
from the non-effective education models to the
progressive ones based on the new generation
electronic educational resources introduction in
the educational process. High technologies and
educational innovations won’t be the abstract
conceptions but they will come into the everyday
life of a student.
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the USA). Monografiya (Monograph). Kinel, Publishing Center of Samara State Agricultural Academy,
2007. 180 p.
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Инновации как проявление
синергетического эффекта
в социально-педагогической системе
дистанционного обучения
О.С. Толстова
Самарская государственная
сельскохозяйственная академия
Россия, 446442, Самарская область, Кинель
Цель статьи состоит в изучении дистанционного обучения сквозь призму инноваций в его
взаимодействии и взаимосвязи с такими инновационными процессами, как модернизация,
интеграция и гуманизация, имеющими место в образовании. Ведущим методологическим
подходом в исследовании является синергетический подход. В работе также используется
социально-педагогический подход, который позволил определить взаимосвязи модернизации,
интеграции, гуманизации и выявить их влияние не только на внутренние составляющие
(элементы) дистанционного обучения как целостной системы, но и определить возможности
дистанционного обучения в реализации инновационных процессов. Проведенное исследование
показало, что инновация является приоритетной идеей, на основе которой функционируют
и объединяются в образовательном пространстве интеграционные процессы, модернизация
образования и гуманистический подход к обучению. Исследование доказывает, что
дистанционное обучение, основанное на использовании современных информационнокоммуникационных технологий в образовательных учреждениях, обеспечит соответствие
системы образования требованиям ХХI века, позволит повысить качество образования и
достичь соответствия образования перспективным потребностям развития личности,
общества и государства.
Ключевые слова: инновация, синергетический подход, социально-педагогическая система,
дистанционное обучение, информационно-коммуникационные технологии, интеграционные
процессы.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2014 7) 404-415
~~~
УДК 781.5
Mourning Themes in the Music
of Dmitri Shostakovich
Olesya A. Osipenko*
Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre
22 Lenin Str., Krasnoayrsk, 660049, Russia
Received 11.08.2013, received in revised form 15.09.2013, accepted 22.12.2013
The thematic invention is one of the main categories of musical knowledge and theory of musical
composition. Complexity and multifacetedness of this notion being the summary of many themes
provides various ways of considering it. The primary importance of thematic invention in the musical
composition is determined by a complex of functions, which this compositional element fulfills.
Moreover, to understand the themes of the music work it is necessary to study their semantics, genre
and style models.
In this article we use the themes with mourning semantics represented in the instrumental chamber
music of Dmitri Shostakovich. We analyze the thematic invention on the Fig. of the genre model of the
funeral march numerously implemented by the composer in pure instrumental music, as well as in the
music written for theatre performances and films. Special attention is paid to the themes of the Quartet
cycles of the composer.
Keywords: Dmitri Shostakovich, thematic invention, Quartets, funeral march.
Instrumental chamber music of Dmitri
Shostakovich represents one of the important
areas of the composer’s work. In this regard,
the Quartet cycles that the author was creating
throughout his life are especially notable. During
the period from 1938 to 1975, he wrote fifteen
such ensembles in total.
Themes of Shostakovich Quartets are varied
in terms of genre models they contain, which are
enshrined in the historical memory (historical
memory issues are discussed in the article by
O.A. Bozhchenko) (Bozhchenko, 2012). The
composer uses primary genres as the basis: song,
romance, sarabande, waltz, baroque aria, polka,
gallop, serenade, march, and genres that have
*
emerged in the professional works: humoresque,
scherzo, nocturne, elegy.
Among genre pre-images of the String
Quartets’ thematism, the funeral march is
especially important.
As pointed out in N.M. Naiko’s book (Naiko,
2012: 79), Shostakovich’s life circumstances
contributed to the fact that the theme of death
entered his mind early and became if not the
central one, nevertheless a very important and
very attractive one.
The composer chooses certain genre models
to implement the images of death that act for him
as the carriers of mourning semantics (the funeral
march, chant, elegy and ancient dances of Spanish
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: Averkole@mail.ru
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origin: sarabande, chaconne, passacaglia). This
article discusses the implementation of the
funeral march’s features in the Quartets.
In the music encyclopedia, the funeral
march is defined as a kind of a march (from
marche (French) – walking, marching), music of
solemnly mournful character in the rhythm of a
steady, slow step 1.
One of the first creative experiments of D.
Shostakovich referred to the age period of 9-11
years is “The funeral march in the memory of the
victims of the revolution” for piano, in which the
impressions of the author about participation in
the funeral procession are reflected (Khentova,
1985 : 82-83). “Thus, children Funeral March
opens a list of compositions and episodes of the
funeral music that Shostakovich was replenishing
during his entire creative life. Hardly any of the
composers of the 20th century has a longer list
of such music samples. It covers many genres
in Shostakovich works: piano miniatures,
symphonies and string quartets, pieces of music
for theater productions and films” (Naiko, 2012:
79)).
Shostakovich funeral marches are presented
in music for the films “Golden Mountains” (1931),
“Hamlet” (1932) and “The Great Citizen” (193839). There, the composer follows the tradition of
marches devoted to the hero’s death (analogue –
Marce funebre of Beethoven’s Third Symphony
and the Second Sonata by Chopin).
In the Aphorisms for piano, the Eleventh
Symphony g-moll of 1905, Composition 103
(1957) and Shostakovich Quartets, the genre
model of the funeral march is implemented in
an indirect manner. The chamber instrumental
cycles of this group include: the theme of the
central group of the 4th variation of the Third
Quartet, the first and second episodes of the 4th
part of the Eighth Quartet (n. 54-56 and 58-61,
respectively), the second theme of the episode in
the development of the second part of the Twelfth
Quartet, which first appears in n. 46, the first
and second themes of the 5th part (with the title
the “Funeral March”) of the Fifteenth Quartet.
The themes of the quartets’ parts with the genre
designation “Elegy” are adjacent to them by
meaning, namely the first and the second themes
of the 6th part of the Eleventh Quartet, as well as
the second theme of the first part of the Fifteenth
Quartet.
The themes reflecting the typical features
of a funeral march in the works of Shostakovich
are characterized by the use of metric definition,
selection of a quadruple meter, a minor key and a
slow tempo. In the melody (most often it evolves
in a small register), there are fanfare moves per
quarte combined with rounded motives with
“flagging” endings. Dotted rhythmic formulas
are introduced in the theme. With regard to the
structure of the melody, square, syntactically
equal structures get a prevailing value. In the
harmony, the guiding principle becomes smooth
voicing, in the bass the main harmonic functions
are highlighted (T-D, T-S).
A specific feature of the applied march
embodied also in the works of Shostakovich, is
sounding of the percussion instruments – the bass
drum, timpani. It is clearly observed in the funeral
march from the movie “The Great Citizen”, where
the timpani are used (Fig. 1).
The revolutionary march-song “Tormented
to death by a heavy captivity”2 is chosen as a preimage of the theme. The composer turns to it in
other works as well: Symphony No. 11 (the third
part) and the Eighth Quartet (the fourth part).
In the original (Fig. 2) the song sounds
quietly in the medium register (at some points the
register gets wider with transition to head tones).
The most significant melodic turns are: step to
the triad and descending motives in the range
from thirds to sevenths finishing the syntactic
structures. The march features make an impact
on the rhythmic framing of the theme: the initial
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Olesya A. Osipenko. Mourning Themes in the Music of Dmitri Shostakovich
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
anticipated moves3 and dotted rhythm should be
noted.
The March from the film “The Great
Citizen” (see Fig. 1) is outlined by a high degree
of summarizing (it sounds in a quiet dynamics,
in tonical dominant pedal point). The following
texture plans are determined in it: melody (first
violin), which is in the sphere of diatonicism for a
long time, and accompaniment (general in terms
of rhythm for strings and individual for timpani).
In the part of the latter, the composer uses two
methods of playing the drums typical for marching
music. The first method is the tremolo of timpani,
which is implemented by alteration of the 1st and
the 5th degrees in bass. The second method is
rolling. This figure is presented in the form of a
formula in triplet rhythm, the sounds of which are
at one pitch of the tone and then alternate quickly
(see sections 5-9 of the Example).
In the theme of the abovementioned movie,
such sound quality as lyricism is emphasized.
This happens due to smooth melodic lines and
instrumentation (the melody is entrusted to
the group of stringed instruments). However,
attention is drawn to long holding of the tonic
pedal point (the tone “c” in the c-moll tone),
symbolizing the stop of the time. Later on,
Shostakovich introduces such expressive means
in his instrumental chamber cycles.
In the second episode of the 4th part of the
Quartet No. 8 (Fig. 3), the version of the marchsong closest in the intonation appearance to the
original source is formed (it sounds in the quiet
dynamics – pp and the slow tempo – Largo). The
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composer reconsiders the original model of the
genre model changing the meter, significantly
slowing the tempo, eliminating any signs of
marching in the melody (such as the dotted rhythm,
accented melodic and rhythmic formulas), and
leaving only the initial step to the fourth in the
upbeat. This theme sounds concentrated and sad.
Herewith, Shostakovich introduces the
chromatic descending rhetoric figure passus
duriusculus into the melody of the second
violin. It is given as rhythmic increasing, thus
emphasizing its function of a sign. Let us
remember, that passus duriusculus (hard step)
is a type of melodic figures, the function of
which is to deliver emotions. In the Baroque
epoch passus duriusculus was used to intensify
the expressiveness of the words “to suffer”, “to
die”, “sorrow” and “death”. Thus, it supposes
either ascending or descending semitone steps,
as well as the steps to small chromatic intervals:
a diminished third or a diminished fourth.
Moreover, like in the theme of the Funeral
March in “The Great Citizen”, in the 4th part
of the Eighth Quartet the background of “the
time standing still” appears due to the absent
changes in the harmonic functions and due to the
prolongation of the “cis” tone in the parts of viola
and violoncello (tonic pedal point is held for 30
bar-lines).
As a result of the abovementioned factors,
in this version of the funeral march the specific
dramaturgic function is emphasized and the
plan of the author’s interpretation appears in the
theme.
In the third part of the Eleventh Symphony
(Fig. 4) the song melody sounds con sord. on the
background of the violoncello and contrabass, the
voices of which are magadizing. The texture of
the theme in this part is especially moderate and
concentrated, while it combines only two lines. In
the 3rd part of the Symphony, the components of the
funeral march model are not fully implemented (for
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
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example, there are no accented rhythmic formulas
and no reflection of drumming). In the melodic
line of the accompanying part, the descending
steps to minor seconds appear at the end of the
triad. The melody is based on typical formulas,
the pattern of the melody line is “straight” and
has a generalized nature. Shostakovich uses the
minor key with lower degrees: 1st, 4th and 5th. The
determined melodic and harmonic peculiarities
of the theme contribute to creation of a funeral
mood.
The pithiness of the texture and unchangeable
theme contribute to the fact, that it gets the sign
function generally implementing the idea of
inescapable deep sorrow (indicated by the title of
the part: “Imperishable Memory”).
In quartets, the composer uses stringed
instruments to recreate the drumming: drum
rolling. For example, it is presented in the second
theme of the Funeral March from the Fifteenth
Quartet in the lower voice as steps to fourths and
fifths. In the context of the fifth part of the cycle
it gets a different length (from one-two bars, as
in lines 21, 22, 23, 44 , 47-48 to four bars – in
lines 17-20 , 49-52 – Fig. 5). The increase of the
measure happens due to the motive repetition.
On the one hand, in this formula the timpani
sound is modeled, on the other hand, due to the
violoncello tone, it is also possible to hear voice
expression.
Three themes of the quartets (the first
theme of the fourth part of the Eleventh Quartet,
the second theme of the 2nd part of the Twelfth
Quartet and the first theme of the 5th part of
the Fifteenth Quartet) are laconic and textured.
These themes are generalized to the maximum:
leveled in intonation, rhythmic and dynamic
relation (are held in the constant dynamics).
This is also confirmed by small-scale structures
(from two to nine bars) and preserving of the
basic characteristics (in the statements following
the exposition texture, the choral constitution
with monorhythmic movement of the voices,
instrumentation and plan of harmonic functions
are preserved). As a result of the abovementioned
features, these themes are also elevated to the
grade of a sign. In general, they can be interpreted
as a symbol of fateful predestination, inevitability
of death.
In the initial theme of the 5th part of the
Fifteenth Quartet the signs of the funeral march
are maximally exposed (Fig. 6). Its melody is
laconic, generalized, presented in the form of
a concise formula of three sounds in the dotted
rhythm. For each instrument it is formed as a
motive at a constant tone. Herewith, a tonic triad
(es-moll) is formed vertically, the sounds of
which are distributed among all members of the
ensemble. The theme sounds in the loud dynamics
( f ) and is perceived as a threatening sign of an
immutable external start, inevitable fate .
In the texture of the second theme of the
2nd part of the Quartet No. 12 (Fig. 7) the mute
in a very quiet dynamics (pp) is used. Despite
the fact that it contains the funeral march genre
characteristics (meter, dotted formula, slow
tempo), due to harmonizing the melody by minor
triads (g-as-gb-as-g-as-d4), moving parallely,
associations with another genre appear, namely
with chorale. The mournful nature of the theme is
emphasized by the Phrygian mode (in the g-moll
key the 2nd low degree appears). The above-
Fig. 5
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Fig. 6
Fig. 7
mentioned conditions allow to interpret this
Chorale as a sign of the funeral.
In the first theme of the 6th part (Elegy) of
the Eleventh Quartet, despite the ternary meter,
the model of the funeral march can be clearly
identified. It represents itself in equal steps, in
an upbeat beginning of the motives and dotted
rhythmic formulas that emphasize mainly the
weak beat (second or third). This creates a certain
artistic effect and causes a particular type of the
movement in the representation: the alternation
of steps and stops typical for processions. The
melody is given at ff in the octave by viola and
violoncello, the trihord melodies are leading here
(in the thirds and the quart).
The theme is exhibited in the cis-moll
key with the low 2nd degree, thus leading to the
formation of the Phrygian mode intensifying
the gloomy mood. Lowering the 4th degree leads
to narrowing of the range of the motives to the
minor fourth, which adds the hint of tension to
the melody (Fig. 8).
The theme of the fi rst episode of the 6th
part of the Eighth Quartet (n. 54-56, Fig. 9)
has a similar solution as the above theme of
the Eleventh Quartet, which is manifested
in the choice of loud dynamics ( ff ) and
instrumentation (three instruments – the
second violin, viola and violoncello – perform
the melody by magadizing). Just as in the
previous one, in this theme the composer uses
the cis-moll key with alternated steps – low 2nd
(a sign of the Phrygian mode), 3rd , 4th, 5th, 7th
and high 6th and 7th.
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Fig. 8
Fig. 9
This theme is similar to the theme of the
second episode of the 4th part of the Eighth Quartet
being analyzed, basing on the revolutionary song
“Tormented to death by a heavy captivity”. In
particular, they have a common genre nature, one
measure, and contain similar rhythmic figures.
Features of the song appear through chanting
intervals, the leading value of which belongs
to conjunct steps to seconds, and through the
rhythmic freedom (in the process of development
the rhythmic component is constantly updated).
Along with this, some other features typical for
the funeral march can be noted: slow tempo, minor
mode, repetition of figures leading to recreation
of the effect of the step. However, the composer
in the theme of the first episode of the 4th part of
the Eighth Quartet modifies the marching model
by changing the measure to ternary, resulting in
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Fig. 10
the fact that this genre model is embodied in a
veiled, “blurred” form.
Herewith, the melodic figures are introduced
to the musical texture, which fulfill the function
of the author’s understanding. This can be seen
in the part of the first violin joining the ensemble
in n. 55. Its line placed in the middle layer of
the texture (due to the placement in the middle
register), forms a counterpoint in a form of a
“sorrowful” sign written out by increased time
values – the figure of the cross, the introduction of
which points to the manifestation of the Author’s
plan, direct experience of the events by the author.
As a result, a monumental austere image appears
in the theme, on the one hand, striking with
its restraint, and on the other hand by personal
attitude (it is also indicated by the introduction
of “dragging” intonations – turns including the
steps to the minor fourth).
Among Shostakovich marches, the Funeral
March from “The Aphorisms” for piano (1927,
Fig. 10) is especially notable, which is a type of
major Funeral March. Shostakovich complicates
the original C-dur tone by changing some
degrees (higher 1st, higher 4th is the sign of the
Lydian, and lower 7th the sign of the Mixolydian
modes), and possibly simultaneous combination
of high 4th and low 7th (see the 13th bar line of
the example), or the basic and higher version of
one degree (bar lines 5, 6, 7, 13 – f-fis, bar line
14 – h-b). The theme of the piece contains fanfare
steps to wide intervals (triton, steps to a perfect
and diminished octave) and motives at one sound.
The peculiarity of this march is obtained due to:
texture organization (all voices are melodized,
resulting in a polyphonic texture, where each
voice is independent), variable meter (binaryternary) and measure, which persists until the end
of the music piece, frequent change of registers.
In the analyzed “Funeral March” the composer
recreates drumming. The “formula of the snare
drum” appears due to constant repetition of the
pitched tone in the rhythm
. Despite
the fact that the “Funeral March” from “The
Aphorisms” implements the basic elements that
are typical for the genre, it does not become
a genre scene embodying the movement of
the funeral procession. Due to various factors
described above (specific themes, mode and
texture, the prevalence of quiet dynamics) it
enhances the author’s understanding, refracted
reflection of the events described.
In Shostakovich quartets the genre model
of the funeral march is normally presented
immediately upon exposure of the theme (or
several themes). The only exception is the 4th part
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Fig. 11
of the Quartet No. 3 (Fig. 11), where the actual
funeral march features are manifested since the
medial group of variations (it remains in the
recapitulation group). Both main themes in the
initial setting were performed alternately in the
part of the violin. The first theme was performed
by three lower instruments of the Quartet and
sounding initially at ff with octave magadizing. It
is a pathetic recitative full of anger and bitterness.
It immediately showed the signs of genre diffusion
due to the simultaneous combination of the
features of the march, declamation and chanting5.
The second theme is an allusion to the main
motive Andante of the second string quartet by P.
Tchaikovsky. In this theme combining chanting
and voice expressiveness, the flagging ends of the
motives provide its sound with pathetic, mournful
questioning hints.
In the middle of the form, the themes follow
each other, forming a horizontal combination,
the second of which appears as a continuation of
the first arising from its end (the final tone of the
first theme «gis» becomes the initial tone of the
second theme). Both themes are held against the
background of an accentuated rhythmic formula
in a dotted rhythm typical for the funeral march
(three other members of the quartet ensemble:
first – in bar lines 40-44, 48-52, 68-82, the
second – in bar lines 45-47). As the result of this
synthesis of genre models, the genre polyphony
is formed. During the interaction of genres, the
genre memory mechanism “starts working”, when
“the musical material in the minds of listeners,
artists and participants of communication comes
in strong association with the genre situation.
And then, in other circumstances and conditions,
and sometimes in a different historical context, it
begins to act as a reminder of the previous situation
and causes some specific aesthetic experiences
coloured with memories” (Nazaikinskii, 2003:
107).
The genre diffusion is also found in the second
theme of the 6th part of the Eleventh Quartet (n.
37, Fig. 12), while it contains the features of both
the romance song and the march.
The song melody is played by the first
violin on the background of the tone held in the
“cis” bass (violoncello and viola). Due to the
high pitch, wide range and delimitation of other
instruments, its sound is particularly expressive
and “flying”. Its basic intonations are abysmal
lamento tertian motives (also the steps to thirds
appear frequently). In the medium voice of the
second violin, the initial theme of the part gets
further development, from which it gets the
rhythmic formula emphasizing the second beat of
the measure typical for the sarabande genre. Such
combination of models leads to the phenomenon
of the genre polyphony.
Therefore, we can make the following
conclusions. In the works of Dmitri Shostakovich,
the funeral march genre was used as the means
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Fig. 12
with fixed mourning semantics. On the basis
of this analysis, we have determined that the
composer was actively working with the original
model of the genre in various fields of his work.
If in the music for theatrical performances
and films, marches are closer to applied ones
implementing the prototype genre situation, in
the chamber instrumental cycles, symphonies
and piano miniatures, the form of the funeral
march is expressed indirectly. This is largely
due to the assimilation of the genre with other
genres bearing the funeral semantics, namely, the
chorale, the sarabande, the revolutionary marchsong with the relevant content. The combination of
the elements of different genres both horizontally
and vertically leads to the genre diffusion and
1
genre polyphony, underlining the complexity and
ambiguity of the phenomenon being analyzed.
Unchangeable marching themes in the
works of Shostakovich, as well as their brevity
and pithiness allow to interpret them as signs,
symbols with the fixed mourning sense (fatal
predestination, the situation of death, grief).
The composer’s work with this model in
the genres of “pure” music is the inclusion of the
theme of the Baroque rhetorical figures (catabasis,
passus duriusculus) and the cross.
In general, the abovementioned methods
of modifying the original model of the funeral
march implemented by Dmitri Shostakovich,
reflect the author’s active position and lead to
increased understanding of the author’s ideas.
Funeral marches originally were created specifically to accompany funeral processions (later music pieces - funeral
marches of F.Zh. Gossec in the times of the French Revolution). In the next period of time the composers included funeral
marches into oratorio (“Saul” by Handel), opera (“Twilight of the Gods” by Wagner), they began to function as a slow part
of the cyclic instrumental works - symphonies, sonatas, created as separate pieces of music.
Examples of funeral marches are found in the music of the composers of various eras: in the works of Beethoven – “Funeral march on the death of the hero” of the Piano Sonata No. 12 comp. 26 and of the Third Symphony, Chopin - the second
, b- moll Sonata comp. 35, Wagner - in the opera “Twilight of the Gods”, Mahler - in the First Symphony (one of the parts
is called “Funeral March in the manner of Callot”), Grieg - Funeral March in memory of Rikard Nordraak, Arensky - in
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2
3
4
5
suite No. 3 (variations) C-major comp. 33 (No. 7 - Funeral March), Sviridov- in the”Suite”, Anton Webern - in the Music
Pieces, Op. 6 (No. 4).
The author of the music is unknown, the text was written by G. Machtet.
The turn to the fourth opens the theme of the second episode of the 4th part of the Quartet No.8; in the Funeral March from
the movie and in the main theme of the 3rd part of the Symphony No. 11 the step to the fifth is chosen as the beginning.
In the latter accord there is no tertian tone which contributes to the formation of the fifth-fourth chord.
The notions “genre diffusion” and “genre polyphony” were developed by V.N. Kholopova in the book “Music as a Kind of
Art”. Herewith, the notion “genre diffusion” means “such interpenetration, entwinement of specific features of different
genres, when this or that element of the music texture manifests simultaneously features of two or more types of musical
models”. (like, for example, in Es-dur Prelude of Scriabin, where there are features of chorale, march and declamation).
Kholopova calls the genre polyphony “a simultaneous development of two or more texturally different genre plans in
uniform or contrast themes” [Kholopova, 2000: 214-215].
References
1. Bozhchenko O.A. (2012) Faktory formirovaniia istoricheskoi pamiati. Voprosy
kul’turologii[The Factors of Forming the Historic Memory. Issues of Culture Study], (9), p. 57-62.
2. Naiko N.M. Poznavshii tainu zvuka: stat‘i o muzyke i muzykantakh. [Understanding the Secret
of the Sound: Articles about Musci and Musicians], Krasnoyarsk Academy of Music and Theater,
Krasnoyarsk, 2012. 288 р.
3. Nazaikinskii E.V. Stil‘ i zhanr v muzyke. [The Style and Genre in Music] Мoscow, “VLADOS”
Publishing Centre. 2003. 248 p.
4. Naiko N.M, Osipenko O.A. Strunnye kvartety 40-50 gg.: intonatsionnye i dramaturgicheskie
osobennosti [String Quartets of 40s-50s: intonation and dramaturgy peculiarities]– Krasnoyarsk:
Krasnoyarsk Academy of Music and Theater. 2009. 224 p.
5. Novikov V.I., Shklovskii E.A. Literaturaturovedenie ot A do Ia. Entsiklopedicheskii slovar‘
dlia iunoshestva [Literature Studies from A to Z. Encyclopedia Dictionary for Young People] Moscow:
Modern Pedagogics Publishing Centre: Pedagogika-Press, 2001. 526 p.
6. Khentova S.D. Shostakovich. Zhizn‘ i tvorchestvo [Life and Art] Vol.1. Leningrad: Sov.
Kompozitor, 1985. 544 p.
7. Kholopova V.N. Muzyka kak vid iskusstva: v 2 ch. [Music as a Kind of Art: in 2 Volumes] St.
Peterburg: Lan’, 2000. 319 p.
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Olesya A. Osipenko. Mourning Themes in the Music of Dmitri Shostakovich
Траурные темы в сочинениях
Д. Шостаковича
О.А. Осипенко
Красноярская государственная академия музыки и театра
Россия, 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ленина, 22
Тематизм является одной из основных категорий музыкознания и теории музыкальной
композиции. Сложность и многогранность данного понятия, выступающего суммой
множества тем, обусловливают различные варианты его рассмотрения. Первостепенная
значимость тематизма в музыкальном сочинении определяется комплексом функций,
которые выполняет этот композиционный элемент. Кроме того, необходимым для
понимания тем произведения становится исследование их семантики, жанровой и стилевой
модели.
Материалом для статьи выступают темы с траурной семантикой, воплощенные в камерноинструментальном творчестве Д.Д. Шостаковича. В статье содержится анализ тематизма
на примере жанровой модели траурного марша, неоднократно воплощаемой композитором
в сфере чистой инструментальной музыки, а также в музыке к театральным спектаклям и
кинофильмам. Особое внимание в статье получают темы квартетных циклов композитора.
Ключевые слова: Д. Шостакович, тематизм, квартеты, траурный марш.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2014 7) 416-429
~~~
УДК 908; 7071.2; 7071.2
From Cultural History
of Eastern Trans-Baikal Region:
Musical Culture of Chita Within
a Context of Artistic Culture of the City
(pre-October Period)
Irina V. Belonosova*
Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre
22 Lenin Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Received 08.09.2013, received in revised form 21.11.2013, accepted 20.12.2013
The paper studies the process of formation of the cultural environment of the city of Chita – one
of the centers of Eastern Trans-Baikal in the pre-October period. The paper features socio-cultural
panorama of Chita and characterizes activity of representatives of the Russian elite at the moments
of their stay in the city. The study provides examples from the history of theatrical, artistic, literary
life and education, which contributed to consolidation of positions of the academic musical art in
the city. The changes in the cultural environment are identified, their positive dynamics, connected
with the growing interest among the population of the city to all the forms of culture and education
is emphasized. The role and importance of certain individuals – Governors-General, representatives
of different social groups – in consolidation of the positions of musical culture in the new center of
Eastern Siberia is accentuated.
Keywords: artistic culture, Eastern Siberia, Chita, the Decembrists, political exiles, the artistic
intelligentsia.
Artistic culture of Eastern Siberia up to
the present moment is of particular interest to
researchers in the various fields of art: music,
education, ballet and choreography (Belonosova I.,
2005; Kolpetskaia O., 2002; Mymlikova I., 2008;
Prygun E., 2008). The relevance of such studies is
undeniable and is clearly represented by the works
of Russian cultural specialists (Bakulina S., 2012;
Ptyshko L., 2009; Shahmatova E., 2008).
The history of each Siberian center on the
one hand reflects the all-Siberian (all-Russian)
*
processes of formation of economic and sociocultural environment and, at the same time has
its own, unique history.
Artistic culture of Chita dates back to the
event, which, in many ways became its “milestone
event”.
From 1827 to 1830 in Chita prison there
were 85 of 93 Decembrists exiled to Siberia.
Representatives of the well-educated noble
families and Russian military elite were among
them. Educational activities of the Decembrists
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: irinabelay@bk.ru
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Irina V. Belonosova. From Cultural History of Eastern Trans-Baikal Region: Musical Culture of Chita Within a Context...
Pyotr Nikolaevich Svistunov (27.07.1803–15.02.1889)
left a deep imprint on the culture of TransBaikal. Literature, theater, painting, music – the
basis of artistic culture of Russian and Siberian
centers in the early 19th century, were fi rst
brought to Chita by the Decembrists and their
wives (Volkonskaia M., 1991; Hotynhsov N.,
1975).
In February 1828 in one of the houses, where
the Decembrists lived, the piano was brought
and the first concert evenings were organized by
Decembrist P.N. Svistunov:
For the fi rst time in a remote Siberian village
choral works, vocal and instrumental ensembles
sounded. Among amateur musicians there were
nine who had pianos and five singers (two bass
singers and three tenors). Five Decembrists
played various instruments: flute (1) violin (2),
violoncello (1). There were two choirmasters,
four Decembrist composed music and two
Decembrists wrote verses to songs (Pilipenko
V., 1986; Romenskaia T., 1971; Shtympf S.,
1990).
Watercolours of the talented artist
N.A. Bestuzhev (1791-1855) depicted not only
portraits of the Decembrists and their wives, but
also the surroundings of Chita (Zilbershtein N.,
1988: 60 – 63).
The Decembrists acquainted the local
citizens with “home theater” – “tableaux” (Baeva
V., 2000: 269).
Nikolai Aleksandrovich Bestuzhev (1791–1855). Selfportrait. Photocopy taken from the watercolour dated
the 40th of the 19th century
The importance of their stay is extremely
high. It is at this time when special features of
musical and artistic culture of Chita are formed:
Firstly, its dependence on the representatives
of the Russian intelligentsia, as a rule, military
men, political exiles, as well as doctors, teachers,
etc., who came later.
Secondly, dependence on amateurism that
dominated in the city. Thirdly, highlighting the
educational function of culture.
Creation of traditions and their recognition
in Chita was difficult, as it depended on rare,
unpredictable and random “bursts” of creative
activity of the intellectuals who temporarily lived
in Chita. With departure of the vivid personalities
artistic life became poor, all the launched initiative
stopped.
1851 – 1895. Appearance of the new city at the
map of Russia in 1851 was historically important.
Decembrist D.I. Zavalishin, who voluntarily
chose Chita as a place of settlement, was directly
involved in the fate of the city1. He came to Chita
in 1836 from the prison of Petrovsky Zavod and
stayed here until 1863 (Konstantinova T., 1994;
Konstantinova T., 2001: 57 – 59):
Due to D.I. Zavalishin’s perseverance and
reasoned arguments in determining the capital
of the Trans-Baikal region in 1851, Muraviev’s
choice was made in favor of Chita (Timofeeva
M., 1970).
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Irina V. Belonosova. From Cultural History of Eastern Trans-Baikal Region: Musical Culture of Chita Within a Context...
Dmitry Ierinarkhovich Zavalishin
Watercolour by N.A. Bestuzhev. 1839.
(1804–1892).
Pyotr Alekseevich Kropotkin (1842–1921)
According to D.I. Zavalishin, for several
years, as assignment to positions and arrival
of the necessary specialists was “too slow”, he
“gratuitously occupied officers’ posts in the
General Staff in planning and mapping, making
transport routes, city planning, field surveyor on
the city planning and land allocation, an architect
on construction of government buildings, a
health worker who supervised typhoid hospitals,
a counselor, a conciliator and a teacher”
(Konstantinova T., 2001: 50).
Till the middle of the 19th century Russian
trade routes ended at Lake Baikal and Kyakhta,
but later Russian expansion to the Amur
intensified and Chita turned into an economic
and administrative outpost, a small, but important
town.
Governors-general of the Trans-Baikal
region, who wanted to give it an image of the
center of the “young” by the standards of the
region territory, took direct participation in
development of the city. Officials arrived to Chita
from Nerchinsk and other Siberian and Russian
cities to work in the Trans-Baikal District Court,
Trans-Baikal regional government and public
prosecution office, Chita police department and
department of the State Bank.
The 1860s were initial stage of the city’s
cultural life. The necessary administration
buildings were built “from scratch”: printing
office of the Trans-Baikal Cossacks Army (1861),
the first agricultural exhibition was held (1862),
the military hospital, the orphanage and the
first parish school started functioning (1865).
The city “attracted” various experts, including
many educated people. Opening of libraries, the
first of which was created by the Decembrists,
contributed to enlightenment2.
The rise of the literary life is connected
with foundation of the official newspaper
“Zabaykalskie Oblastnie Novosti”. Its editor –
P.A. Savenko (1861 – 1862) came from Nerchinsk
to work in the regional government. In 1861, he
wrote a brochure entitled “About the Universe,”
printed for “people’s reading” (Kraevedy i
literatory Zabaikal’ia; 1981; Savenko P., 1968;
Entsiklopedia Zabaikal’ia, 2000: 96). The
Russian society learnt about the existence of the
new center in Siberia from publications in the
national newspapers by D.I. Zavalishin and the
prince and lieutenant P.A. Kropotkin, who later
became a well-known public figure:
P.A. Kropotkin arrived in Chita in 1862
after graduation from the Page Corps (Kostin N.,
1994). He considered service in Siberia to be his
lifework, and Siberia – the place where he could
stay forever and usefully apply his knowledge.
P.A. Kropotkin took part in scientific researches
on the border with China. A.L. Shanyavsky,
who later became the founder of Moscow
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People’s University and N.M. Yadrintsev – in
the future, a well-known expert of Siberia, one
of the ideologists of regionalism served together
with P.A. Kropotkin under military governor of
B.K. Kukel (1862 – 1867) (Muzykal’naia kul’tura
Sibiri, 1997: 92 – 93). In his diaries in 1862
P.A. Kropotkin noted that he was impressed by
the special atmosphere of Siberian society: “In
contrast to the Russian provinces there are a lot
of separate circles who live as they are pleased”
(1862) (Kropotkin P., 1923: 45 – 50). Thanks to the
initiative of young Kropotkin since 1863 amateur
performances, including vaudevilles were staged
in the city (Delezha E., 1997: 14).
In the house of B.K. Kukel, who played the
piano, live musical evenings were organized.
Kropotkin also wrote about the playing of the
Cossacks’ orchestra, which mostly consisted of
“the Tungus and the Buryats” during the ball
on the opening day of the First Agricultural
exhibition: “The conductor is a man whose
name is Khomiak. He is good in playing the
violin, good in playing the clarinet, tries to be
a composer. Plays Polish dances from “A Life
for the Tsar” (16 October 1862) (Kropotkin P.,
1923: 54).
After dismissal of Kukel all the above
mentioned outstanding representatives of the
Russian cultural elite left Chita. However, music
and theater appeared in the life of Chita residents
and became an integral part of their cultural life.
The 1870s make minor changes in the
cultural life of the city. A progymnasia, a military
paramedic school and a private library of merchant
Nemerov were opened. For teachers, doctors,
soldiers and lawyers3 theater and music was a field
of “intellectual cultural entertainment” (7, p. 16,
17). Military men, who made up the largest part
of the population of the city, comprised not only
constantly updated ranks of theater audiences, but
also amateur actors. The first musical theatrical
productions are associated with the genre of
vaudeville. The repertoire of the citizens of
Chita consisted of vaudevilles by M. Teolov and
A. Shokar “A lawyer under the table” (translated
from French by D.T. Lensky), J.F.-A. Bayard and
Ch. Varin, “A glass of cold water” (translated
from French by N.A. Korovnin), E.M. Labiche
and O. Lefranc “A Duck and a Glass of Water”
(translated from French P.S. Fedorov) (Delezha
E., 1997: 17).
Interest in vaudeville can be explained
by the fact that in the European part of Russia,
where a lot of military men came from, in the first
third of the 19th century vaudeville was popular
in the central cities and in small provincial towns
(Kazmina E., 1998: 7).
In 1881 boy’s gymnasia was open in the city.
It was an educational institution with a high level
of not only general, but also musical and aesthetic
education.
The Gymnasia plays an important educational
and musical-educational role. Choral, orchestral,
theatrical and artistic activity takes place here
(Bardakova V., 1994; Novoselova O, 1989;
Popov A., 1907). Music at the gymnasia doesn’t
stand out from the complex of all the subjects,
and is taught along with other subjects (Otchet
Chitinskoi myzhskoy gimnazii za 1885 god). The
gymnzsia’s teachers visited various, including,
artistic, hobby groups of Chita. The personality
of the teacher of the Russian language, theory
and history of literature, pedagogy, didactics
and methodology – Sarychev – a member of
Irkutsk branch of the Russian Geographical
Society (RGS), a member of the Board of Chita
Amur branch of RGS, a foundation member of
Troitsko-Kyahtinsky Museum, a member of the
hobby group of music lovers is worth mentioning.
A teacher of preparatory class Pavlov and a
teacher of the German language Effert were
board members of the local hobby group of
music, drama and singing lovers; teachers
Sarosek (a teacher of mathematics and physics)
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Chita boy’s gymnasia was built in 1894.
and Marshang (a teacher of Latin and Greek)
were members of the local drama club, a singing
teacher Harchevnikov was a treasurer of the
Mutual Benefit Society for the students who were
short of money in all the educational institutions
of the Trans-Baikal region. Inspector Korenev
and the French language teacher Vishnevsky
de Tournefor were agents of the Russian Drama
Society of Writers and Composers (Kollektsiia
knig XIX veka Vishnevskogo de Tyrnefora;
Novoselova O., 1990).
The 1880s are characterized by revival in the
literary and theatrical life of the city. Publications
of Major-General V.K. Andrievich who served
in Chita from 1881 to 1884 became known even
outside the region. On the basis of statistical
data he publishes “A Short History of the Baikal
Region from Ancient Times to 1762” (Kraevedy
i literatory Zabaikal’ia, 1981: 8-9). P.S. Alekseev,
an assistant of the regional medical inspector
from 1889 to 1895 wrote in Chita a brochure about
the dangers of alcohol (1889), which was later
published with an introduction by L.N. Tolstoy
(Kraevedy i literatory Zabaikal’ia, 1981: 80).
Chita intellectuals considered literary activity
as a mean of attracting public attention to the
vital issues of the city and the region. They cover
the issues of health, geology, statistics, political
life, and penal colonies4 in particular. Based on
the diaries, the chief doctor of Chita military
hospital V.Y. Kokosov wrote “The Tales of the
Vladimir Yakovlevich Kokosov (1845–1907)
Carian penal colonies” (Kraevedy i literatory
Zabaikal’ia, 1981: 47):
The literary life of that period has
characteristics of democratic (especially
intellectual) culture, for which the value of
literature and the art was determined by their
practical utility and relevance to society.
The 1890s were the beginning of a new
period in the development of culture and economy.
In 1895, the construction of the Trans-Baikal
segment of the Trans-Siberian railway, a little
later – the line of the Chinese Eastern Railway
(CER) began.
Musical and theatrical life rises to a new level.
In 1894 Association of drama and opera singers
travels through Chita to the Far East. Thanks to
their performances, music lovers were able to
hear the concerts that were held in the city for
the first time, opera arias performed by E. Morelli
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Aleksei Kirillovich Kuznetsov (1845–1928)
(mezzo-soprano) and Vl. Talzatti (baritone), piano
performances as well as J. Offenbach’s operetta
“The Birds Singing” (Delezha E., 1997: 49). This
brief stay of the actors in the city demonstrated
the possibility of theatrical enterprises including
musicians.
Foundation of the “Association of music,
literature and drama theater lovers” in 1895 was
an important event in the artistic life of the city.
Emergence of various societies, such as Imperial
Russian Geographical Society (IRGO) was a
typical phenomenon in Russia in the second half
of the 19th century. (Sysoeva K., 1994). IRMS
(Imperial Russian Musical Society) performed
the similar educational function (Shabalina L.,
2008; Ydina V.).
In eastern Siberia, the first branch of RMS
appeared in 1887 in Nerchinsk, some time later, in
1901, one of the branches was opened in Irkutsk.
The initiator of the joint efforts of Chita
intellectuals in the 1890s was exile nechaevets 5
A.K. Kuznetsov (1845 -1928) (Chita, 2001).
He was exiled to Siberia and served near Kara,
and in six years of imprisonment, he got permission
to settle in Nerchinsk where he founded the
Society for Care of Primary Education, a museum,
a private school for the dwellers’ children, and in
1885 – a club of music and literature lovers, which
consisted of Nerchinsk’s professional musicians
K.M. Kulikovsky and I.I. Lyatoskovich and
amateurs P.F. Iordansky, T. Masukov, G.D. Sukov,
D.S. Shilov and others (Delezha E., 1997: 36 – 39).
After Kuznetsov’s departure, a school teacher
from Nerchinsk Shilova managed the club for
many years (Kraevedy i literatory Zabaikal’ia,
1981: 115). Thus, in 1889, when A.K. Kuznetsov
arrived in Chita he had already had considerable
organizational experience.
The main objective of the Society in Chita
was educational (Novoselova O., 1989; Shabalina
L., 2008). The members of the Society, their
musical preferences and preferences of amateur
musicians, can be reconstructed on the basis
of circumstantial evidences featured in the
works by O. Novoselova (Novoselova O., 1989;
Novoselova O., 1990). According to the facts
represented in her works, the gymnasia students
were admitted to rehearsals of the Society
with permission of the gymnasia’s headmaster.
This fact didn’t exclude the possibility of joint
participation of the gymnasia’s students and
amateur musicians in the concerts. In their
performance the dwellers of Chita could listen
to folk songs (“Down the Mother Volga River”,
“A Birch Tree in the Field”, “Down the Street
a Young Man Goes”) and music pieces by the
professional composers (“Glory” by M. Glinka,
the choir from “Antigone” by F. Mendelssohn,
etc.). Many teachers could play the piano, violin
and guitar.
Taking into account the fact, that the
gymnasia’s teachers were financially dependent
on their administration and rarely left the city,
we can assume that some of them belonged to the
Society, which contributed to the development of
artistic culture6. In 1897 the Society consisted of
129 members, in 1898 – of 142, 73 members were
musicians, but not actors (Muzykal’naia kul’tura
Sibiri, 1997: 39).
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Foundation of the Society was made possible
by more than forty years work of the intellectuals
from Chita. Art environment, necessary for the
development of musical culture was forming
slowly. Only by 1895 the prerequisites for the
development of the professional musical culture
were created. Let us list the evidences that
confirm their existence: firstly, the dwellers of the
city became familiar with the music in the frames
of musical and theater amateurishness; secondly,
the tradition of military bands is established in
a musical life of the city; thirdly, in the process
of studying in educational institutions, where
singing was mandatory subject among the other
subjects of the aesthetic course, and involved
study of musical notation, musically educated
part of the urban intellectuals were formed; and
fourthly, there was a concentration of creative
forces within societies and hobby groups, bringing
together lovers of different kinds of art.
The artistic culture of Chita in the middle of
the 1890s is characterized by a certain “syncretic
state”:
all its components are in undifferentiated
unity and their special characteristics are
not identified,
people of art were not professionals,
there were no specialized institutions of
culture.
In the depths of amateur theater, in the
system of the course of aesthetic subjects in
the gymnasia and in musical life the main
components of musical culture were represented
in the form of tendencies. These were tendencies
which contributed to formation of musical theatre,
orchestral performance and music education.
1895 – 1917. The end of 19th and the first
decades of the 20th century were pivotal era in
the history of Russia. Rich in political events, it
is remarkable by cultural explosion which was
named “the Silver Age of culture” (Berezovaia
L., 2002: 220 – 237). Of course, in Chita, which
was many kilometers away from the capitals of
Russia – Moscow and St. Petersburg – there were
no such outstanding achievements in literature
and art as in the center. But the “echo” of research
and discoveries, which took place in the center,
was heard in the Trans-Baikal region. There
was an intense rise in all the spheres of artistic
life in Chita, which, with all the complexity and
contradictory of its tendencies led to the first
success in its history.
Due to the efforts of professional musicians
who came from the European part of Russia, from
Dresden, Paris and Warsaw, Chita is characterized
by promotion of classical music, development of
performing arts and laying the basis for music
education. All these processes were possible
under conditions of the city population growth
and complication of its social structure.
At the turn of the century Chita became a
major transportation hub due to construction of
two railway lines: the Trans-Siberian Railway,
which became the main railway line of the
country (the construction of the Trans-Baikal line
started in 1895 and was finished in 1900) and the
Chinese Eastern Railway that construction lasted
from 1897 to 1903s7:
Population growth and recovery in the
economy are accompanied by development of
socio-cultural sphere8. Previously established
class of intelligentsia and students is added by
postal telegraph and railway officials, various
merchants and paraprofessionals, including
railway workers (Kalinichev V., 1991). A
normal school which was opened in 1900
was the second normal school after Irkutsk,
where they trained schools teachers to work
in the vast territory of the Amur and Irkutsk
governorates. The graduates of MedicalSurgical Academy, Moscow, Kazan, Kiev,
Kharkov and Tomsk Universities, the fi rst
female graduates of St. Petersburg Medical
Institute worked in the hospitals (railway and
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“Chita-Gorod” railway station
territorial hospitals) and military hospitals
of the city (Entsiklopedia Zabaikal’ia, 2000:
243). In the period of social uplift – from 1907
to 1917 – 30 out of 45 newspapers published
in the Trans-Baikal region were published in
Chita. Under their influence public opinion and
political consciousness of the dwellers of the
city and the region were formed9. The ideas of
pan-European bonds become more important
than “cultural separatism” common to people
who live in the regions (Delezha E., 1997: 59).
In the early 20th century professional artists
play an important role among the intellectuals of
Chita. In 1905 lecturer S.R. Birnbaum, a graduate
of Imperial Academy of Fine Arts who arrived to
Chita on the distribution, organized the first solo
exhibition.
In the cultural life drama and music theater
becomes “the center of attraction”. Stage plays
with professional troupes replace amateur plays.
Appearance of Chita private theatrical enterprises
coincided with the reforms of the theatrical
business in Russia10. Many troupes in this period
were formed as “mixed troupes” consisting of
dramatic actors and musicians. In Chita, the first
performances of professional touring groups
were held in 1898. Actors R.A. Kurchaev and
P.M. Stroev who stayed in the city organized
artistic association consisting of amateur and
visiting actors (Delezha E., 1997: 54). The
association started its tours in the Trans-Baikal
Region and visited China (1899).
In 1898 Chita dwellers got acquainted with
K.P. Miroslavsky’s Russian-Ukrainian touring
troupe (Delezha E., 1997: 64), which gave 15
dramatic performances. Its repertoire included
“Natalka-Poltavka” by I.P. Kotlyarevsky and
“Zaporozhets za Dunayem (A Cossack Beyond
the Danube)” by S.S. Hulak-Artemovsky. The
performances of Little Russian troupes were
characterized by musicality and spectacularity.
This troupe, without any doubts, had influence on
Chita theatre lovers. In a year after Miroslavsky’s
theater performances with participation of
professional advance man Kurchaev-Krause,
A.N. Verstovsky’s opera “Askold’s Grave” was
staged (Muzykal’naia kul’tura Sibiri, 1997:
140). From 1900 to 1905 Miroslavsky’s troupe
made regular performances in Chita (Delezha
E., 1997: 67).
Activation of cultural life in the city was
accompanied by the growth of theatrical and
musical amateurishness.
In 1902 the largest in the city departmental
cultural center was built: the building where the
Railway Theater, or as it was also called the Club
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of Railway Workers and the Railway assembly
were located. It was not only
“decoration of the station ... but, perhaps,
also, decoration of the city: a huge building with
windows almost in three fathoms, a huge hall
with the columns, a bandstand, a large elevated
stage, a dressing room, private offices and other
amenities” (Entsiklopedia Zabaikal’ia, 2000:
351). At special occasions orchestral and choral
music sounded here, theatrical, choral and musical
hobby groups were in operation.
In the period from 1902 to 1911 there were
already dozens of advance men in the TransBaikal region. The most prominent figure among
them was a former actor of the Imperial Theatres,
E.M. Dolin, who started to work in Chita in 1906.
Before that, for a long time he managed a troupe
in Astrakhan and Omsk, spent few months in
Irkutsk at the invitation of the Directorate of the
local theater11, then he moved to Chita, where
he created a professional drama troupe. He
was called the new conqueror of Siberia, “little
Ermak”, “Irkutsk advance man”, “Far Eastern
businessman”, “Chita advance man” because he
worked all over the region – in Irkutsk, Harbin
and Chita (Delezha E., 1997: 62).
A significant event in the cultural life of
the city was arrival of L.P. Rozanov’s nonrepertory theatre in spring 1908, the repertoire
of which included the following operettas: “The
Gypsy Baron” by J. Strauss, “Beautiful Helen”
by J. Offenbach, “The Bells of Corneville”
by R. Plunkett, etc.; operas “Othello” and
“La Traviata” by G. Verdi, “Werther” by
J. Massenet, “The Slippers” and “Eugene Onegin”
by P. Tchaikovsky. Classical music art was well
perceived by the public, the opera performances
were visited with great interest and the public
“thanked the advance man for them” (Delezha E.,
1997: 71).
In the 1910s, famous Moscow and St.
Petersburg actors Mamont Dalsky (1904),
Vera Fedorovna Komissarzhevskaya (1864–1910)
M.M. Petipa (1905) and V.F. Komissarzhevskaya
(1909) came to Chita with brief guest appearances.
Due to the initiative of theater lovers, enthusiastic
about the idea of creating their drama and opera
troupe, and persistence of the public, in 1911
construction of a stone building of the theater with
700-seats capacity, which was named Mariinsky
(Mariinskii teatr, 2001) was completed12.
Its construction was accelerated when the
outstanding actress V.F. Komissarzhevskaya
(1864 – 1910) came with visiting tour13:
The dwellers of Chita remembered
performances of the Association of opera actors
in 1911. It presented to the audience 7 operas and
3 operettas. The operas “Eugene Onegin” and
“Pagliacci” were the most successful (Delezha
E., 1997: 88). From 1911 to 1913 the troupes of
E.M. Dolin, and then – the troupes of advance
man G.S. Karsky, who worked in Chita till 1913
performed in the theater.
Thus, by the end of the 1900s the dwellers
of Chita were familiar with most of the popular
operas, which were performed in Siberia by the
touring troupes (Muzykal’naia kul’tura Sibiri,
1997: 190). These were the following operas:
“Rusalka”, “The Demon”, “Dubrovsky”, “Eugene
Onegin”, “The Queen of Spades”, “Faust”, “Aida”,
“Carmen”, “La Traviata”, etc.
Relative regularity of the concert musicians’
performances contributed to expansion of the
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genre palette of the musical theatrical plays,
which were staged in the city.
Musical and concert life in the city was
formed in the general tendency of the increasing
number of musical performances, theater groups
and individual actors of the Drama Theatre. The
city’s location on the Trans-Siberian railway line
made it convenient for visiting by many outstanding
musicians from Moscow and St. Petersburg, who
went to long visiting tours to Siberia and the
Far East (Muzykal’naia kul’tura Sibiri, 1997:
360). In the 1910s, the first concerts of visiting
professional musicians were held in the city:
V.G. Zavadsky’s chapels (1907) (Muzykal’naia
kul’tura Sibiri, 1997: 359), S.I. Mamontov’s
Moscow Private Opera (1909) and the Great
Russian Orchestra conducted by Andreev (1912).
V.I. Losev – Siberian St. Petersburg opera singer
and violinist I.M. Mariupolsky gave concerts in
the city during their visiting tours in Siberia in
1912 (Muzykal’naia kul’tura Sibiri, 1997: 360).
In 1914 V.I. Losev, in cooperation with
Irkutsk violinist M.N. Sinitsyn, pianist
V.S. Shpakovkaya and other musicians organized
a group that had a long visiting tour in Siberia and
Japan for the benefit of the wounded soldiers. The
artists started their performances in Chita, and
then proceeded to Sretensk, Blagoveshchensk,
Khabarovsk and Vladivostok. In the same year
in the cities of Western Siberia – Tyumen and
Omsk the concerts of F.I. Chaliapin took place
(Muzykal’naia kul’tura Sibiri, 1997: 360). He also
gave concerts in the Eastern Siberia – in Irkutsk,
Chita, and then – in Vladivostok. Performances
given by such artists stimulated activity of the
local amateur musicians.
Under the conditions of the rich in events
musical theater and concert life the initial forms of
music education were formed in Chita. O.A. DeWitte, a graduate of the Warsaw Conservatory
was among the first professional music educators.
In 1906 she arrived to Chita to her husband’s
duty area and gave private lessons in the officers’
families in the village of Peschanka – a Cossack
village near Chita. In 1910 Y. Sventorzhetskaya,
a graduate of Paris Conservatory, a wife of a Pole
who died in exile, director of the first private
music school (1910 – 1915) began her musical and
educational activity.
In 1913 a singing class led by ZvyaginaPolyakova (Entsiklopedia Zabaikal’ia, 2000:
291), whose initials were not specified, was
opened. Since 1915, the Krushelnitsky family,
who made the most significant contribution to
the development of music education, lived in the
city. A.F. Krushelnitskaya (was born in 1885)
graduated from Moscow Conservatory from
professor A. Safonov’s class with large silver
medal, worked as a accompanier at the Bolshoi
Theater, took part in concerts with the famous
singers. L.A. Krushelnitsky (was born in 1859)
studied at Moscow Higher Technical School
and at Music School of the Fine Arts Society
in Odessa in violin class. During compulsory
military service in Kerch fortress, he successfully
conducted a military orchestra and performed in
amateur bands. In Chita Krushelnitsky first taught
at the vocational school and then worked in the
Mining District. Not only family concerts were
held in the Krushelnitsky’s house in the evenings.
Among the guests were mostly musicians. Friends
wanted to establish a professional educational
institution and an opera company in the city.
Thus by 1917 in Chita
ways of specialization of the amateur forms
of artistic creativity in hobby groups were
outlined,
the foundation of professional music
education in its initial stage were laid,
the local theater, where musical performances
were staged was founded,
due to visiting tours of the prominent
musicians the level of concert life was
increasing.
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Chita was founded in 1653 as a log storage and bundling area on the bank of the Ingoda river. In 1711 it was a jail, and in
1823 – volost’s center. In 1851 it was a small village of a factory administration, which was populated mostly by officials,
Cossacks, service class people and management stuff of Nerchinsk mining factory main office [Chita, 2001: 6 –11].
The library was enriched by literature in foreign languages. The Decembrists’ relatives sent it to Chita. In 1830, the prison
library had about 6,000 books. D.I. Zavalishin was its chief librarian up to the last year of its existence (1835) [Novoselova
O., 1990: 285].
P.M. Lyuboslavov – a lawyer, who graduated from University of Kazan in 1864 lived in Chita till 1877. E.D. Petryaev mentioned him as one of the founders of Sunday school, libraries and theater [Kraevedy i literatory Zabaikal’ia, 1981: 59].
The literature of Chita in this period reflects characteristics of the literary-centered model of Russian culture in 18401880-ies, where journalism played a crucial role [Berezovaia L., 2002: 71; 108.].
Kuznetsov was sentenced to hard labor and permanent exile in Siberia in 1873. In Carian mines he enjoyed some freedom.
Under conditions of dirt, poverty and wild manners, he opened a shelter and workshops for the children exiled convicts,
created a garden, flower beds, a vegetable garden with greenhouses and experimental field, opened a private school, made
performances in the hospital for all the adults and in the shelter for the children. In “The Musical Culture of Siberia” the
hobby group of Kuznetsov, named salon, was mentioned. It is difficult to evaluate his work as there is no information about
the concerts, performances and discussions about this new type of salon. All the members of the hobby group were under
police surveillance and they destroyed all the written evidence of their activities [18, p. 25].
In 1885, a year after the opening of the gymnasia, there were 63 students in it, the staff consisted of one inspector,
four sciences and language teachers, an arts teacher and four employees, the building of gymnasia consisted of 15
classrooms, a physical office, a school hall and an administrative office. In 1909 the city government built a separate
two-storey building. In 1914 the gymnasia had 25 school buildings, a church and a library which contained 2987 books
and 9488 volumes. In January 1915 525 students studied in gymnasia, there were 31 teachers and staff. Till 1921 the
gymnasia successfully taught specialists for the region. After educational reform in 1921 it was converted into a labor
school [Popov A., 1907].
The role of Chita due to transportation increases in periods of wars or preparation for them: in 1900 during the “Boxer
Rebellion” in China, in 1904-1905 – during the Russian-Japanese War, in 1914-1918 – during the First World war, when
the ports on the Black Sea and the Baltic sea were closed and in 1920 - after formation of the FER [Kalinichev V.,
1991].
There was industrial grows in Chita: the main railway workshops, locomotive depot, two stations, steam mills, mechanical, lumber and brick factories were built, coal mines (Chernovskoe) started operating. As a result, in 1897 the city’s population was 11520 people in 1899 – 12 000 people, in 1903 – 26 000 people, and in 1908 – 60 000 people [Entsiklopedia
Zabaikal’ia, 2000].
Till 1906, a professional revolutionary F.V. Gladkov, who later became a well-known Soviet writer lived in Chita [Kraevedy
i literatory Zabaikal’ia, 1981]. In 1915 - 1916 under the name of V. Vasilenko, M.V. Frunze - the founder and the editor of
the newspaper “Zabaikalskoe Review” illegally lived in Chita [Kraevedy i literatory Zabaikal’ia, 1981].
Till 1882 Russian theatre was under the authority of Ministry Of Imperial Court, and was managed by Direction of Imperial Theatres. In the provinces touring or local troupes got stage license from the local administrative and police authorities.
The fi rst amateur theatre in Irkutsk appeared in 1787 and in 1851 the professional theatre was open.
The so-called “Marinsky” theater was often called “Zimny” [Mariinskii teatr, 2001]. Previously, there were a small openair theater and auditorium in the building of the national assembly. Another summer theater was located in “Eldorado”
garden. There was a wooden building of the circus.
Chita newspaper “Zabailalskaya Nov” dated 12 March 1909 reported that, because of the upcoming tour of V.F. Komissarzhevskaya, the city administration discussed the question of theater construction.
“There was a preliminary decision to build a theatre with 850 seats capacity, worth 180 thousand rubles, and the possible
sources of construction funding were proposed”. The building belonged to the military administration of the Trans-Baikal
Cossacks army and was leased.
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Рр. 269–279.
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Russia: Russian musical society in the second half of the 19th century], available at: http://sun.tsu.ru
Из истории культуры Восточного Забайкалья:
музыкальная культура Читы
в контексте художественной культуры города
(дооктябрьский период)
И.В. Белоносова
Красноярская государственная академия музыки и театра
Россия, 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ленина, 22
В статье рассматривается процесс формирования культурной среды города Читы – одного
из центров Восточного Забайкалья в дооктябрьский период. Представлена панорама
социокультурной жизни Читы, характеризуется деятельность представителей российской
элиты в моменты их пребывания в городе. Приводятся примеры из истории театральной,
художественной, литературной жизни и образования, которые способствовали укреплению
в городе позиций академического музыкального искусства. Указываются изменения в
культурной среде, подчеркивается их положительная динамика, связанная с ростом
интереса среди населения города ко всем формам культуры и образования. Подчеркивается
роль и значение конкретных личностей – генерал-губернаторов, представителей различных
социальных слоев – в укреплении позиций музыкальной культуры в новом центре Восточной
Сибири.
Ключевые слова: художественная культура, Восточная Сибирь, Чита, декабристы,
политические ссыльные, художественная интеллигенция.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2014 7) 430-441
~~~
УДК 908:78
Secondary School – Major Factors of Realization
of Music Education in the late 19th – early 20th Centuries
(on the Krasnoyarsk example)
Elena V. Prygun*
Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre
22 Lenin Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Received 27.10.2013, received in revised form 16.11.2013, accepted 24.12.2013
The paper focuses on process of forming music education at singing and music lessons in Krasnoyarsk
secondary schools in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. These very lessons of singing and music gave
students skills in church and folk singing. During this period, due to the participation of professional
musicians singing lessons’ program was modified: children began to study choruses from foreign and
Russian operas, learn the basics of music literacy. Educational institutions created their own choirs
to perform on special occasions. The professional musicians taught their students at music lessons to
play various instruments used in folk and symphony orchestras. At the end of the 19th century within the
framework of the educational process there appeared concert practice that in the first decade of the
20th century developed into some cultural and educational movement. Getting a good musical training
the most talented secondary school graduates successfully entered Russian Conservatories and used to
choose a profession of a musician. Thus, professionally oriented musical training in secondary school
prepared the ground for the opening in 1920 of the People’s Conservatory – the first professional music
school in Krasnoyarsk.
Keywords: music education, singing and music lessons, concert activity of pupils, National
conservatory.
Music education is a natural result of the
society development. It is connected by invisible
threads with a set of different factors of social
life, both external (certain transformations in
administrative and political, social and economical,
humanitarian and educational spheres, as well as
in music one) and internal (development of music
education in religious and secular educational
institutions, formation of music societies,
activities of professional musicians, increasing
popularity of amateur music-making, etc.). These
*
factors represent a conglomeration in which each
of its components is strongly linked with each
other, interacts with it and, at the same time,
influences it. Changes in any of its components
are reflected in the information processes that
affect society directly. According to V. Mironov:
“Activity of information processes ... makes the
traditional elements of culture subordinate to it
and, above all, changes the traditional system of
cultural communication” (Mironov, 2005:30).
The second half of the 19th century in Siberia
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: prigun@list.ru
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became a certain turning point, when the music
culture and music environment of provincial
towns under the influence of aforesaid factors was
actively transforming. Without a doubt, the most
important factor in this process was the changed
role of Russian art in the world.
Let us recall that in the middle of the 19th
century Russian professional musical art became
prominent in the world as a whole: there came first
professional composers and performers, Imperial
Russian Musical Society (IRMS) was created,
within which first music schools began their
work, and finally, Moscow and St. Petersburg
Conservatories were opened. Processes in the
field of music culture stirred up all the regions
of the vast country of Russia, including those of
Siberia, where music tours intensified, theaters
were opened, IRMS departments were created,
municipal societies of music lovers appeared,.
There formed infrastructure of music culture
with the appearance of the guild of musical
instruments’ tuners, shops selling instruments
and notes, private teaching practice, etc. In
the 80s of the 19th century in Siberia at IRMS
departments in Omsk, Tomsk and Irkutsk there
appeared first musical training and educational
institutions. In Krasnoyarsk, there had been
several attempts to organize music classes
before the first professional musical educational
institution – People’s Conservatory – was opened
in 1920.
Invaluable contribution to the development
of professional music education was made by
secondary schools, which included lessons of
singing and music. Since the middle of the 18th
century the study of church music at singing
lessons had important practical application in
public life, as pupils took part in Sunday and
holiday services, held in city churches. We learn
from archival documents that the first theological
school, which opened in Krasnoyarsk in 1759,
carried out teaching of liturgical singing. This
discipline was invariably included in the curricula
of parochial schools, as well as in the curricula of
the public school, which was established in 1790
(Krivosheia et al., 1983:6). At singing lessons
pupils learned church day-to-day life, chants
used during holiday services, as well as basic
information about the musical literacy.
Until the middle of the 19th century in
Krasnoyarsk there was no any secondary school,
despite the fact that by this time the interest of
the local population in such schools was quite
high. Researcher P.N. Meshalkin tells that the
Fig. 1. Krasnoyarsk provincial gymnasium
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Fig. 2. The Teachers’ seminary
nobles, high officials and wealthy merchants sent
their children to study in Irkutsk, Moscow or St.
Petersburg (Krasnoyarsk.Ocherki…,1988: 23).
Through studying the official lists of
hereditary honorary citizens and merchants
of Krasnoyarsk dated by 1877, we can state
that the overwhelming majority of merchants’
wives and children received some home
education (Gosudarstvennyi arhiv ..., 9, 18). So
was the situation in the most respected in the
city merchants’ families of: P.N. Kuznetsov,
G.T. Gadalov, Ye.G. Gadalov. V.G. Gadalov,
P.Ya. Preyn, I.Ya. Rostov, A.A. Svetlakov,
A.V. Ivanov, V.M. Krutovsky, A.D. Osharov
and other. Only a small number of children got
educated in the merchant schools of St. Petersburg
or Moscow.
In order to make the level of education
of young people in Krasnoyarsk adequate
to European norms, for children could pass
examinations to enter universities, it was
necessary to open in Krasnoyarsk a school with
a classical type of education. This happened in
1868, when Krasnoyarsk provincial (for boys
only) gymnasium was established. Soon there
followed the opening of the girls’ gymnasium
in 1869, and in 1873 the Teachers’ seminary was
opened.
The emergence of gymnasiums led to an
increase in the number of educated residents
of Krasnoyarsk. This category of citizens over
some time organically entered the elite segment
of the population, who formed the need in
cultural leisure activities, and later – in getting
the professional music education. Graduates of
educational institutions became members of the
Society or Dramatic Art Lovers or the Society of
Music and Literature Lovers; they successfully
performed in charity concerts, played in
municipal music ensembles and orchestras.
This presence of a cultural stratum of municipal
population created a fertile ground for the growth
of the theater business, active guest performance;
all of these changes had a beneficial effect on
the development of musical performance and
education. These processes are discussed further
in the paper “Krasnoyarsk Society of Music and
Literature Lovers in the 19th century” (Prygun,
2009).
Singing and music lessons, held in schools,
became a powerful means of music education
of the city population. These lessons, originally
designed to teach the basics of the liturgical
singing exclusively, in the early 20th century
acquired a professional direction, instilling love,
directed not only to the church and secular choral
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Fig. 3. Krasnoyarsk Teachers’ seminary. Graduates of 1914
singing, but also to the Russian and European
music culture. Music lessons made children
receive skills of instrumental performance, and
thanks to the introduction of the concert practice
students purposefully carried out the music and
aesthetic education of the citizens.
The need to learn the church music at schools
had its reasons: on the one hand, the bigger
number of school pupils and secondary schools’
students increased the number of choristers
in the city churches and cathedrals during the
holidays, and on the other hand, the church music
was a powerful means of moral and aesthetic
education.
Researcher I.V. Koshmina notes as such:
“Religious and spiritual culture has always
been a part of life of the people; it embodies the
characteristic traits of the folk, its psychology,
features of everyday life, pages of history; a
special sublime aspect of society is imprinted in
it; it has accumulated a huge amount of works
of high aesthetic and moral value ... (Koshmina,
2001: 3). In contrast to the gymnasiums the
Teachers’ Seminary traditionally treated the
musical disciplines with greater attention. During
entrance exams a teacher of singing had to check
the presence of voice and ear for music of a
candidate for training and the teacher’s choice
could influence the decision about successful
enrollment.
Serious attention to the musical disciplines
was due to the fact that the seminary graduates
were usually sent to the outermost corners of the
Yeniseysk governorate, where they had to carry
on singing lessons to the accompaniment of a
violin. This is evidenced by the documents: “...
as rural teachers many of the seminary graduates
with musical ear and voice successfully teach
singing in elementary schools and make choirs,
while the ability to play the violin makes teaching
a lot easier...” (Gosudarstvennyi arhiv…, 18801883: 107).
In the State Archives of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory there was preserved a program for
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Fig. 4. The choir of Krasnoyarsk girls’ gymnasium. P.I. Ivanov-Radkevich is in the centre
singing in the Teachers’ seminary of 1876/77
academic years. Having read it we learn that
the first class of students had their voices tested
with the identifying the amplitude of the voice.
Students used to develop their ears for music.
Besides they studied scales, intervals, durations
of notes, sang prayers for four voices. Students
of the second and third classes learned about the
treble clef, scales, signs of alteration; they were
given information about the pauses, touches
and bars, as well as the knowledge of Italian
terms often used in the singing. In addition to
church singing the program promised to teach
“folk singing with hymns by the method of
G. Roonnov” (Gosudarstvennyi arhiv…, 18731919, 15). In 1881 academic year, “the main
theme was the spiritual and some secular singing
(hymns, songs). In higher classes seminarists
studied teaching techniques (methodology) for
singing and gave practical lessons ... Training
was practiced in the choirs, of which there were
formed two...” (Gosudarstvennyi arhiv ..., 18731919, 34). Thus, already in the last quarter of
the 19th century the seminary graduates at the
lessons of singing were thoroughly prepared for
the multifaceted activities of elementary school
teachers.
In gymnasiums until the middle of the 19th
century musical subjects had not been included
in the list of mandatory subjects. Only in 1888
singing became a compulsory subject as a result
of transformation of secondary school education.
In secondary schools there were certainly created
choirs of students, who participated in all the
celebrations.
On holidays and Sundays as well as on
special occasions in the schools there were run
collective prayers and services. For example,
the governorate boys’ gymnasium only in 1895
held on 11 “particularly significant” events,
in which the choir of schoolboys participated
(Gosudarstvennyi arhiv..., 1868-1919, 1). This
helped to increase the practical orientation of
singing lessons.
High concentration of educational life
with church and solemn services demanded
from choristers not only training, but also good
organization. Participation in the choir was
associated with additional rehearsals that took a
lot of time. In the report of the boys’ gymnasium
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we may read: “Apart from common rehearsals
on the eve of Sundays and holidays there were
assigned special lessons of church singing twice
a week” (Gosudarstvennyi arhiv..., 1868-1919,
131). For this reason, not all the students sang
in church choirs. So, in the boys’ gymnasium
in 1895 the choir consisted of 25 people (there
were 274 students all in all), and in the girls’
gymnasium the choir consisted of 35 people (with
253 students all in all). Besides that the students’
choirs were singing during church services in the
city churches, for example, in 1895, the choir of
the Teachers’ seminary students sang in city’s
Pokrovsky Church.
Pedagogical Council of the institution in
various ways helped the choristers, attracting
gymnasium students to participation in the choir:
“To instill an appreciation of students to church
singing, Pedagogical Council tried to encourage
singing students. Many of them were exempted
from payment of tuition fees, and grants were
provided to other students on purchasing the books
or other school supplies, and also these students
were handed out tickets to concerts and other
permitted entertainments” (Gosudarstvennyi
arhiv…, 1868-1919, 212).
In addition to lessons of singing secondary
schools conducted music lessons, at which
children were taught to play musical instruments.
As reported above, the Teachers’ seminary
graduates were required to master a certain
musical instrument. Having got acquainted with
the preserved in the archives curricula of music
lessons for 1880-81 academic year, we learn that
the seminarists were taught to play the violin, and
were also educated the basics of music theory:
information about musical keys, accidentals, the
structure of scales and intervals. Violin studies
were carried out by the programme of “School of
Mazas and Kindiger” (Gosudarstvennyi arhiv…,
1904, 64). The heads of the seminary took care of
timely replenishment of the musical instruments.
The annual report stated that in the seminary
“there is a considerable stock of violins which are
given to students to practice at home without any
restrictions after they have studied carefully the
musical pitch and the acquired some preliminary
knowledge. Many students eagerly learn to
play the violin and reach certain perfection ...”
(Gosudarstvennyi arhiv…, 1880-1883, 59).
Unlike the seminary gymnasiums treated
learning to play instruments as optional and it was
available only to those who had the opportunity
to pay for lessons. In this case the student could
choose an instrument to be learned and the heads
of the gymnasium tried to invite a necessary
specialist for this. The report of the governorate
boys’ gymnasium of 1895-1896 academic year
stated that “music was taught to 14 people (out
of 274 students): violin – 8 people, flute – 2,
clarinet – 3, clarinet-a-piston – 1. Each student
was assigned to 2 classes weekly, for which
the trained should pay to 2 rubles 50 kopecks
monthly” (Gosudarstvennyi arhiv…, 1868-1919,
135: 20).
Some difficulty in having music lessons
arose at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1903,
Pedagogical Council recognized the results of
musical teaching as unsatisfactory, since “in the
beginning of the year many students had enrolled
in the course and by the end of the year there left
5-8 students” (Gosudarstvennyi arhiv…, 1903,
212: 21). The reason for the interruption of studies
was too high tuition fee for a student of 2 rubles
a month. Worried by this fact the Pedagogical
Council of the governorate gymnasium decided
to “lower tuition fees up to 4 rubles paid half a
year, and the poorest students should be taught by
the money, which is the interest on the capital in
2000 rubles, bequeathed to the gymnasiums by
gold-industry entrepreneurs – the Schegolevs. To
conduct music training continuously and correctly
it was resolved to invite a music teacher with a
charge of 40 rubles a month for the entire year,
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regardless of the number of students studying
music” (Gosudarstvennyi arhiv..., 1903 , 135 : 22).
As a result of these resolutions at the beginning
of 1903 the music class has an enrollment of 20
students, and in the second half of the year – of
31 people.
Convincing proof of the gymnasium’s
Pedagogical Council’s care about music lessons
was the systematic increase in the number and
kinds of musical instruments. In addition to
clarinet, violin, viola, cello and flute, which were
in possession of the boys’ gymnasium in 1895 (a
total of 14 instruments), by 1903 the gymnasium
had acquired French horns of different types
(baritone, tenor), horns and bass drums, so the
whole number of instruments was 23. And from
the report for the 1916-17 academic year we learn
that: “... musical instruments (strings and brass)
were 50 in number...” (Gosudarstvennyi arhiv...,
1916-1917, 456: 17). Thus, during the period from
1895 to 1917 there were purchased 36 different
musical instruments, which allowed students
to successfully develop and create their own
ensembles of various compositions.
At the end of the 19th century secondary
schools began to organize open literary and
musical nights. First mentioning of them
we meet in the “Project of literary student
nights, proposed for the implementation in the
governorate boys’ gymnasium,” dated 1882.
This document sets out the intentions of the
Pedagogical Council to improve the process of
learning by using the experience of the leading
educational institutions of the country: “The
purpose of organizing student literary nights
at the example of the existing in Russia model
gymnasiums is to teach students of 5th-8th grades
to express their thoughts verbally and in writing,
not only in a classroom, but also in the presence of
outsiders, in the most appropriate literary form,
as well the purpose is to encourage them to do
independent work... and thus prepare for hearing
lectures at universities. Upon completion of
reading the students can be assigned to musical
classes, if it may be possible” (Gosudarstvennyi
arhiv…, 1882, 22).
Similar events were held both in gymnasiums
and at the seminary. Students performed at public
concerts, demonstrating their abilities. So, on
December 30, 1903, at the musical-literary night
held in the building of the governorate (boys’)
gymnasium, along with the traditional choral
compositions there were performed works for
flute, violin, piano and clarinet. Teachers tried to
include in the program of singing lessons works
of both Western European and Russian choral
music tradition; they awakened artistry and
creativity in their students. In 1909 the media
reported: “On February 5, the Teachers’ seminary
has hosted “an evening”. There was performed
a vaudeville “Under a False Name”, then the
students sang and read. The choir of seminarists
conducted by P.I. Ivanov sang perfectly several
pieces, including “The Night” from the opera
“The Demon” by A. Rubinstein. Their own string
orchestra played at dances” (Musikal’naia zhizn’,
1909).
In the early 20th century the interest in
playing the Russian folk instruments increased
drastically in Russia. At elementary and
secondary schools in Krasnoyarsk ensembles and
orchestras of folk instruments began to appear
in large numbers. They were called “choirs” or
“balalaika orchestras”. So, in 1904 the boys’
classical gymnasium organized an ensemble of
folk instruments, which was very popular among
gymnasium students.
The girls’ gymnasium also actively held
musical and literary nights. The report noted that
at the open evening on November 14, 1902, the
gymnasium students performed the chorus from
the opera “Samson” by Camille Saint-Saens,
the chorus of girls from the opera “The Maid
of Pskov” by N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov, a scene
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and the chorus from the opera “Mazeppa” by
P.I. Tchaikovsky, and the chorus from Rossini’s
opera “Charles the Bold” (Gosudarstvennyi
arhiv…, 1902, 144: 9a).
Population and the media enthusiastically
supported musically gifted children. In 1917, the
journalist of the newspaper “Voice of the People”
(“Golos Naroda”) wrote: “The pupil of the 7th
grade Chernyayevsky acting in charity concerts
is popular as a talented violinist. Pupils Gefter
and Uskov played the piano, showing uncommon
musicality in doing this”.
In the last decade of the 19th century, students
of secondary schools began to hold performances
together, and in the early 20th century it became
a good tradition. Very popular were vaudevilles –
musical performances with singing and dancing.
Such theatrical concert nights often ended with
dances accompanied by a brass or string (folk)
orchestra of the same educational institution.
Young people led by initiative teachers
took an active part in the city’s musical projects.
Invaluable contribution to the process of involving
the gymnasium and seminary students in the
cultural life of Krasnoyarsk was made by the
teacher singing from the Teachers’ seminary –
Pavel Iosiphovich Ivanov-Radkevich, for more
information see the paper “Saint-Petersburg –
Krasnoyarsk. Continuity traits of music culture
and the musical education” (Prygun, 2008).
P.I. Ivanov-Radkevich in the early 20th century
organized a city combined choir of students
numbering 60 people; and in 1910, upon heading
the city symphony orchestra he invited there the
gymnasium and seminary students, who were
good at playing different musical instruments.
In the second decade of the 20th century the
gymnasium concerts were given a new impetus
via becoming a certain musical enlightenment
movement. Evenings for the students of one
institution turned into public municipal events,
program of which consisted of performances,
literary readings, concerts of musical ensembles
and soloists.
During this period, the gymnasium students
were able to realize complex creative projects:
staging scenes from operas and the whole operas
as well. In 1914 for the first time the girls’
gymnasium students staged and performed the
opera for children “Princess Zemlyanichka”,
written by P.I. Ivanov-Radkevich. Opera had a
resounding success and in the period from 1914
Fig. 5. The Orchestra of the Railway School, 1913-1914
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to 1916 went through eight performances on the
stage of the City Theatre.
What is important is that musical and literary
evenings or Sunday concerts were of purely
charitable nature. Collected funds helped pay
the tuition of the poorest gymnasium students or
were sent to charities and shelters. For example, in
1915 the money collected on the performance of
the opera for children “Princess Zemlyanichka”,
the sum of which amounted to 1069 rubles, was
directed to the orphanage, and in January, 1918,
the City Theatre threw a student evening in favor
of Yeniseysk-Krasnoyarsk fraternity, which
raised 2804 rubles.
In the second half of 1914, the war between
Russia and Germany with Austria-Hungary
began. Common grief of the country united
students in patriotic impulse, allowing reveal
philanthropy and sense of compassion on the
suffering ones. At this difficult for the country
time philanthropy was directed to help the
wounded, as well as to maintain the children of
front-line soldiers: “On November 26, 1914, the
City Theatre will host a concert to raise money
for the wounded soldiers. The concert will be
made by the students of city schools: choirs
of the girls’ and boys’ gymnasiums, eparchial
schools, teachers' seminary, church girls’ school
of teachers. A number of musical pieces will be
performed by balalaika orchestras of the boys’
gymnasium and surveying school, duo of duo of
girls from the eparchial school and soloists from
the boys’ gymnasium” (Musikal’naia zhizn’,
1914).
A characteristic feature of the concerts
was not only gathering of performing students
from several educational institutions, but also
making music together with local professionals,
amateur musicians or artistic groups from city
social clubs. These activities enriched greatly the
musical experience of children, increased level of
responsibility in preparation for the performance,
Fig. 6. Pavel Ivanov-Radkevich
as well as proved their sufficiently high level
of performance. “On January 8 (1812) at the
City Theatre there will be a traditional student
night. There will be performed two miniatures
and a concert with the participation of amateur
musicians: Mr. Gerter (violin), Mr. Golovko
(tenor), Mr. Markson (violin) and Ms. Petrova
(rant)” [Musikal’naia zhizn’, 1912).
Such a tie-up with the city’s musicians
led to the tendency that the most talented
students chose a profession of a musician and
entered Russian conservatories. For example,
W. Pickock, L. Arakina, F. Tyutryumova,
I. Golovko, M. Sladkovsky, K. Gorodetsky,
M. Rutz-Murashova, D. Tokmakova after
their graduation from Krasnoyarsk secondary
schools became students of the St. Petersburg
Conservatory, whereas E. Chernyaeva, O. Klodt,
M. Tokarevich, L. Kozlov-Kaltat, P. Slovtsov, M.
and A. Ivanov-Radkevich entered the Moscow
Conservatory.
Thus, at the example of Krasnoyarsk we see
that in the late 19th – early 20th centuries music
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Fig. 7. 1914. At the stage of the City Theatre after the first night of P.I. Ivanov-Radkevich’s opera “Princess
Zemlyanichka”
education developed quickly as a part of singing
and music lessons in secondary schools. Initiative
teachers created artistic groups, organized musical
nights and staged excerpts from operas and whole
musicals, promoting the development of creative
potential of students. In the early 20th century the
concert activity in educational institutions turned
into cultural and enlightenment movement,
influencing the city population.
The most gifted graduates entered the
country’s conservatories to acquire a profession
of a musician. It is obvious that singing and
music lessons in secondary schools raised an
interest in professional music education with the
local population, as well as contributed to the
preparation of the grounds for opening of the
People’s Conservatory – the first music institution
in Krasnoyarsk in 1920.
References
1. Gosudarstvennyi arhiv Krasnoyarskogo kraya. Krasnoyarskoe kupecheskoe obshchestvo.
[State archive of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Krasnoyarsk Merchant Society] – 1877, Fund 155, d. 9.
2. Gosudarstvennyi arhiv Krasnoyarskogo kraya. Uchitel’skaia seminariia. [State archive of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory. The Teachers’ seminary] Otchet za 1880-1883 g.g. [Report of 1880-1883]. Fund
349, d. 59, p. 107.
3. Gosudarstvennyi arhiv Krasnoyarskogo kraya. Uchitel’skaia seminariia. [State archive of
the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The Teachers’ seminary] 1873-1919 g.g. [Report of 1873-1919]. Fund 349,
d.d.15.
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Elena V. Prygun. Secondary School – Major Factors of Realization of Music Education in the late 19th – early 20th Centuries
4. Gosudarstvennyi arhiv Krasnoyarskogo kraya. Krasnoyarskaia gubernskaia gimnasiia. [State
archive of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Krasnoyarsk provincial gymnasium]. 1868-1919 g.g. [Report of
1868-1919]. Fund 348, d.d. 1, 131, 212.
5. Gosudarstvennyi arhiv Krasnoyarskogo kraya. Otchet o nachal’nyh uchilishchah. [State archive
of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Report on primry schools]. 1904 g. [Report of 1904]. Fund 3, d. 64.
6. Gosudarstvennyi arhiv Krasnoyarskogo kraya. Uchitel’skaia seminariia. [State archive of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory. The Teachers’ seminary] 1880-1881 g.g. [Report of 1880-1881]. Fund 349, d. 59.
7. Gosudarstvennyi arhiv Krasnoyarskogo kraya. Krasnoyarskaya gubernskaia gimnasiia. [State
archive of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Krasnoyarsk provincial gymnasium]. Fund 348, d. 135, p. 20.
8. Gosudarstvennyi arhiv Krasnoyarskogo kraya. Krasnoyarskaya gubernskaia gimnasiia. [State
archive of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Krasnoyarsk provincial gymnasium]. 1903 g. [Report of 1903].
Fund 348, d. 212, p. 21.
9. Gosudarstvennyi arhiv Krasnoyarskogo kraya. Krasnoyarskaya gubernskaia gimnasiia. [State
archive of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Krasnoyarsk provincial gymnasium]. 1903 g. [Report of 1903].
Fund 348, d. 135, p. 22.
10. Gosudarstvennyi arhiv Krasnoyarskogo kraya. Krasnoyarskaya gubernskaia gimnasiia.
[State archive of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Krasnoyarsk provincial gymnasium]. 1916-1917 g.g.
[Report of 1916-1917]. Fund 348, d. 456, p. 17.
11. Gosudarstvennyi arhiv Krasnoyarskogo kraya. Krasnoyarskaiya gubernskaia gimnasiia.
[State archive of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Krasnoyarsk provincial gymnasium]. Proekty
literaturnyh uchenisheskih vecherov. 1882 g. [Projects of litureture students’ soirees. Report of
1882]. Fund 348, d. 22.
12. Gosudarstvennyi arhiv Krasnoyarskogo kraya. Zhenskaia gimnaziia. [State archive of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory. The girls’ gymnasium]. 1902 g. [Report of 1902]. Fund 265, d. 144. p. 9a.
13. Gosudarstvennyi arhiv Krasnoyarskogo kraya. Zhenskaia gimnaziia. [State archive of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory. The girls’ gymnasium]. 1902 g. [Report of 1902]. Fund 265, d. 285, p. 23 ob.
14. Koshmina I.V.Russkaia dukhovnaia musyka. [Russian brass music]. M.: Vlados, 2001.
224 p.
15. Krasnoyarsk. Ocherki istorii goroda. [Sketches on the city’s history]. Krasnoyarsk:
Krasnoyarskoe knizhnoe izdatel’stvo, 1988. – 371p.
16. Krivosheia B.G., Lavrusheva L.G., and E.M. Preisman. Musikal’naia zhizn’ Krasnoyarska.
[Music life in Krasnoyarsk]. Krasnoyarsk, 1983. – 175 p.
17. Mironov V.V. Sovremennoe kommunikatsionnoe prostranstvo, kak factor transformatsii
kul’tury i filosofii. [Modern communicative space as a transformation factor for culture and philosophy].
Voprosy kul’turologii. [Issues of Culturology]. 2005. № 8. P. 30.
18. Musikal’naia zhizn’ [Music life] Krasnoyarets. April 5, 1909.
19. Musikal’naia zhizn’ [Music life] Otkliki Sibiri. [Responces of Siberia]. December 20, 1914.
20. Musikal’naia zhizn’ [Music life] Sibirskaia mysl’. [Siberian Thought]. November 5, 1916.
21. Musikal’naia zhizn’ [Music life] Golos naroda. [Voice of the People]. October 11, 1917.
22. Prygun E.V., Saint-Petersburg – Krasnoyarsk. Cherty preemstvennosti musikal’noi kul’tury
i musikal’nogo. [Saint-Petersburg – Krasnoyarsk. Continuity traits of music culture and the musical].
Musicus №1(10). – Saint – Petersburg, 2008. P. 19-27
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Средняя школа – важный фактор
становления музыкального образования
в конце XIX – начале ХХ века
(на примере Красноярска)
Е.В. Прыгун
Красноярская государственная академия музыки и театра
Россия, 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ленина, 22
В статье рассматривается процесс становления музыкального образования на уроках
пения и музыки в средних учебных заведениях в конце XIX – начале ХХ века в Красноярске.
Именно на уроках пения и музыки учащиеся получали навыки церковного и народного пения.
В этот период благодаря привлечению к педагогической деятельности профессиональных
музыкантов видоизменяется программа уроков пения: вводится изучение хоров из
зарубежных и русских опер, преподаются основы музыкальной грамоты. В учебных
заведениях создают хоровые коллективы, выступающие на торжественных церемониях.
На уроках музыки профессиональные музыканты обучали учащихся исполнительству на
различных инструментах народного и симфонического оркестра. В конце XIX века в рамках
учебного процесса появляется концертная практика, которая в первом десятилетии ХХ
века перерастает в культурно-просветительское движение. Получая хорошую музыкальную
подготовку, наиболее одарённые выпускники средней школы успешно поступали в российские
консерватории, выбирая профессию музыканта. Таким образом, профессионально
направленное музыкальное обучение в средней школе подготовило базу для открытия в 1920
году Народной консерватории – первого профессионального музыкального учебного заведения
в Красноярске.
Ключевые слова: музыкальное образование, пение и занятия музыкой, концертная деятельность
учащихся, Народная консерватория.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2014 7) 442-450
~~~
УДК 781
Intoning the Qur’an as Musicological Problem
Alfiya К. Shayakhmetova*
Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre
22 Lenin Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Received 12.09.2013, received in revised form 11.11.2013, accepted 29.11.2013
The study of music in the context of religious traditions is one of the highly sought-after destinations
in the modern musicology. However, scope of scientific understanding varies depending on different
traditions in one way or another. In particular, in Russian musical science the Muslim tradition is
studied to a lesser extent than the Christian tradition.
The originality of the music intoning of the Qur’anic texts is usually defined by such terms as
“melodeclamation’, “song-like recitation”. It seems, however, that these concepts do not fully capture
the essence of music principality of the religious practices of Islam.
This paper presents a variety of approaches to the problem of intonation of the Qur’an from a scientific
point of view, first of all – from the point of view of Oriental and Ethnomusical studies.
Keywords: Muslim theology, intoning the Qur’an, Tajwid, Maqam, musical and cultural tradition of
Muslim Tatars.
For a long time it had been thought that
melodic recitation prevails in the Islamic cult
and any detailed melodic forms are not accepted,
besides that the sound of musical instruments is
not permitted at all. “The music, which is in the
Qur’an, is enough for the service!” – expressed
Gayaz Fatkullin, Mufti of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory, his attitude to the problem (personal
communication in Krasnoyarsk mosque in 2008).
Indeed, the music principality is postprimary
in religious service: the word, its meaning and
the beauty of its sound, as if outweigh the music.
However, on closer acquaintance with the sound
aspect of Muslim worship we reveal a number of
patterns indicating the presence of a complex,
finely graded system of musical intonation in
prayer texts.
*
Qur’an of Caliph Uthman period. The Topkapi Palace
Museum, Istanbul
Musical and cultural traditions of
Russian Muslims have only recently become
the object of study in science. Recorded by
ethnomusicologists religious music has not been
publishes, and at fi rst it has been treated as a
purely folk phenomenon.
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: alfiya007@list.ru
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region) and the North Caucasus region, which
correspond to Russia’s regions with the largest
spread of Islam, we can name the Siberian region
and, in particular, the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The
Tatars living in the Krasnoyarsk Territory are of
the Volga-Ural group solely1.
In the modern musicology the discussion on
“Islam and Music” takes on a wide scale; starting
from the 90s of the 20th century this problem
Krasnoyarsk Mosque
One of the first works in this area belongs to
the Tatar researcher R.A. Iskhakova-Vamba, who
in 1978 raised the question of connection of Tatar
culture with Arab one; she introduced religious
music of the Tatars in the context of Arab culture
[Iskhakova-Vamba]. In the 1990s, there were a
lot of special studies in this field. These studies
include: an overview of the regional musical and
cultural traditions of Russian Muslims of the
North Caucasus and the Volga region; a review
of the process of their formation, evolution and
forms of existence in the 20th century (a study
of Muslim music of the Volga region is notably
a more complete and detailed than studies
devoted to the traditions of the North Caucasus)
(Imamutdinova, Sajfullina, Sofijskaja, Junusova).
In the North Caucasus, in contrast to other regions
of the Russian Federation, the confession is
associated with the “radicalization of Islam, with
the promotion of new trends, which do not accept
the traditional foundations of culture and everyday
way of life” (Bazieva, 2012: 61). That is, there is
a certain violation of the dogmatic foundations
of orthodox Islam, but there is no any obvious
opposition in the collective consciousness.
Apart from these two large regional traditions
of the Volga region (more precisely, the Volga-Ural
has been studied from different perspectives –
from the etiquette of performing to the features
of intonation of the Qur’an. The latter is of most
direct relevance to the aims of this paper.
The musical component itself in the Muslim
cult is studied by Russian scientists mainly on
the basis of religious practice of Muslim Tatars
of the Volga region (Imamutdinova, Sajfullina,
Sofijskaja, Junusova). Works, which analyze
general principles of religious singing during
service in Islam, are relatively few. Perhaps,
G.R. Sajfullina was the first who began to study
religious singing in the Volga region on the
material of local tradition (Sajfullina). However,
in the center of her attention there are questions
of religious, philosophical and cultural planes,
while the issues of a more private nature, which
relate to the actual religious singing during
service, are though concerned, but need to be
further developed.
Qur’anic singing is considered in the
context of the musical culture of the Tatars in
the works of such researchers as V.N. Junusova,
Z.A. Imamutdinova (Junusova, Imamutdinova).
Turning to the issue of verbal intonation of
the Qur’anic texts, researchers usually come from
commonly recognized existence of two kinds of
such intoning the Qur’an: Qira’at – the method
of recitation for ritual purposes, studied only
in professional religious institutions (Islamic
universities); Tajwid, studied in religious, as well
as in secular educational institutions. Tajwid has
the basic meaning for Islamic culture, it is “a
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fundamental resource for the musical language”
(Junusova, 1997: 26).
Each of the researchers highlights their
own keypoints in the study of the problems of
intonation. Thus, V.N. Junusova emphasizes
the aspect of the genre, focusing on the cycle
of canonical prayers – rakats, including the five
mandatory. Unfortunately, the scientist does not
reveal particular intoning of each.
The structure of the Islamic MCT (musicalcultural tradition, the abbreviation was introduced
by V.N. Junusova) in its version of the Volga
region is shown in the work of V.N. Junusova in
the form of concentric circles, the united center
of which forms the ceremonial (folk in its origin)
layer of Islamic music and cultural traditions. The
researcher also distinguishes the cultural layer –
core Islamic musical and cultural tradition, which
is linked, above all, to services in mosques, and
the formation of a new musical culture, containing
spiritual songs and other genres, performed
usually at concerts. These three layers are typical
for the culture of the whole Muslim world; they
are filled with concrete content in each region.
Their uniqueness is characterized by the features
of ethnic history, language, culture and music.
Their study in the musicological perspective is
based on the idea of the close relationship of the
three discovered layers. It is emphasized in this
relation that in the Russian Federation “recitation
of the Qur’an ...has never been confined to ritual
and it has always been in intimate relationship
with a “sound” (musical) practice. This is an
argument in favor of that this tradition can be
seen in musical and aesthetics terms”. (Junusova,
1997: 102).
In the characterization of the process of
MCT historical evolution special attention is
paid to the problem of genres, their existence and
their functions, while the analysis of musical and
expressive means is scarce and relies only on the
individual samples of Tatar folklore and “book
singing” (in this respect, the study of V.N. Junusova
is close to that work of Z.A. Imamutdinova, who
examines the Bashkir music culture). However,
some analytical musicological observations of
V.N. Junusova have, from our point of view,
certain methodological significance. Let us enlist
them.
1. Genres of secular and religious layers
are in communication, which is witnessed by
the mere practice of inclusion of secular tunes
as models in religious singing, and also by data,
which we find in theoretical treatises (Junusova,
1997: 19).
2. MCT of Islamic world is not isolated
from the world musical and historical process.
It is, like any other tradition, included in this
process, which can be reflected in the following
chain: the musical culture of the ethnic group –
the musical culture of the region – the musical
culture of the whole world (Junusova, 1997: 64).
The object of special study in a number of
scientific papers has been the aspect of religious
holidays, such as holiday Mawlid in the practice of
Russian Muslims (Junusova), and Eid al-Fitr, Eid
al-Adha, Mawlid (Sofijskaja). The musical material
of the last three holidays is analyzed in the study
by A.G. Sofijskaja, who gives a description of the
structure of services, characterizes their dramatic
composition and highlights such common
features, as the prevalence of recitative intonation,
the influence of Tajwid, ensemble performance,
etc. (Sofijskaja, 2004: 21). The research material
includes music samples recorded in mosques in
Kazan, the Madrasah “Muhammadiyah” and
villages in Atninsky and Vysokogorsky Districts
of Tatarstan (during the period of 2001-2003),
and records stored in the collections of Radio
Company “Tatarstan” (it should be noted that in
the study of A.G. Sofijskaja melodies are notated
in the same scale, their original “tonality” is
marked only by the final tone stability, that is set
at the beginning of each chant).
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After the analysis of the collected material
we come to the following conclusions.
1. Musical principality is the most
important component of each of the rituals. In
each separate case, there is a group of tunes, we
are in direct connection with a particular religious
holiday
2. Ritual festive tunes are in line with
the traditional Tatar music. Nevertheless, their
uniqueness is determined to the greatest extent
by their metric and rhythmic structure, which
appeared due to the influence on the structure of
the texts of such systems, as Saj’, Tajwid, Arud.
More typical of traditional Tatar poetry Barmak
system has been affected by the impact of the
latter (Sofijskaja).
3. The specific features of the mode and
scale organization of chants of religious holidays,
compared with the traditional musical and poetic
culture of the Volga Tatars, include: mode genus
anhemitonic structures of small interval-like
composition, pentatonic pitch forms, complex
pentatonic structures, which are turning into the
very anhemitonic pitch structures.
The tradition of reading the Qur’an in the
context of the general laws of the Islamic culture
and the culture of the Volga Tatars itself as one of
the cultural phenomena of the Muslim world is
the object of study by G.R. Sajfullina.
In her monograph she examines the history
of the tradition of reading the Qur’an, ways of
development of traditional Tatar Muslim culture
as a whole (its formation and peculiarities, the
place and role of Islam in shaping its religious
and secular components, and, in particular,
Islamic influence on the Bulgar-Tatar culture).
The study is based on scientific and theoretical
understanding of a wide range of Russian and
foreign sources.
Special attention should be paid to the
indicated by the scientist intonation proximity
between the Tatar tradition recitation of the
Qur’an and the Tatar folk-song tradition – both
at the level of mode organization (anhemitonic
pentatonics), and at the level of the intonation
system. The most stable melodic elements are,
according to the observations of G.R. Sajfullina,
song-like expressive melodic intonations of
three chords in the intervals of fifths and fourths
and characteristic features of cadencing (the
latter are not specified). In addition, there is a
general feature of the ornamentation of melody.
Observations of this kind have been made on
the basis of a comparative analysis of several
verses of the Qur’an’s notated surahs (recorded
by various artists) with the melodies of several
folk songs (notations being borrowed by the
author from scientific literature). The work
resulted in the conclusion about a universal
aesthetic principle, linking the folk and religious
cultures together, in a single unit, on the basis
of which “the formation of a new professional
tradition becomes possible. Inherent in art of the
Qur’an recitation itself harmonious ratio of the
sacred and the music is realized by the artist as
the unity of a narrator and a musician (in the
broadest sense of this word), and a pledge of
this is the very creative nature of the tradition,
which is manifested in original “reckoning” on
the uniqueness of each individual experience”
(Sajfullina, 1999: 180).
Describing the processes taking place in
the musical culture of the Bulgar-Tatar after the
16th century (meaning landmark 1552 year in
the history of this ethnic group, it was the year
of the Kazan fall), the author of this study notes
changes in the form of existence of “many forms
of creativity. Thus, all the wealth of the former
Muslim (primarily secular) traditions as if shrinks
to a single mainstream of the religious tradition
itself and actually exists in two dimensions:
performance by ordinary Muslims of “permitted”
genres of baits2, munadzhats3, chanted reciting of
religious and didactic books (the tradition of the
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book singsong); music and poetic legacy of the
dervishes (having been almost disappeared by
now)” [Ibid.].
The researcher also stresses the “unconscious
desire of the folk artists to smooth phonetic
‘edges’ of the Arabic language and drawing it
closer to the phonetics of their native language ...
<whereupon happens> a formation of recitation in
accordance with the usual ‘sound ideal’, based on
the folk song tradition” [Ibid.] Furthermore “the
Qur’anic recitation of the Muslim Tatars shows
the greatest intimacy in relation to the examples of
the book singsong – traditions that are genetically
connected with the ritual of reading the Qur’an,
and with the content, structural features and
characteristics of existence similar to the Qur’an”
[Ibid.].
The same view is held by Z.A. Imamutdinova
(Imamutdinova). As a result of comparison of
several samples of the Qur’anic recitation in the
Ural-Volga region and Central Asian regions of
Russia, she comes to the following conclusion:
“If the stylistics of the Qur’anic recitation in the
Central Asia was influenced by the tradition of
maqam (understood as a mode structure here),
the Bashkirs (as well as the Tatars) adopted the
expressive means of uzun-küy (plangent song),
improvisational genre and stylistic sphere of
folklore: rhythmic features and motive and
variation development, modal elements of –
pentatonics (Imamutdinova, 1997: 73). We
emphasize that the genre of uzun-küy, in turn,
was formed under the influence of the Muslim
religious art.
On the one hand, this can be seen as a
manifestation of local characteristics of the
perception of maqamat system. On the other
hand, this can be seen as the impact of differences
that exist between the oral and written traditions
of the art of maqam. The first of these traditions
is largely dependent on the experience and
professionalism of the performers, and although
they use the maqam system in their practice,
their choice is quite arbitrary in each particular
case4. This is all the more important, since the
book tradition does not offer any clear criteria for
selecting a particular maqam.
Looking ahead, we stipulate that in the
analyzed material the focus on maqamat – the
main foundation of a modal organization in the
professional music of oral traditions of the Middle
East – has a natural character. At the same time,
however, there is a certain selective tendency, and
sometimes – arbitrariness in the use of various
forms of maqam. However, this selectivity in its
own way has some patterns and its impact on the
intonation of sacred texts is noticeable.
Peculiarities of the local (in this case – the
Bashkir) intoning tradition of the sacred texts,
considered also in comparison with the samples
of national songs, identified in the thesis research
of Z.A. Imamutdinova (Imamutdinova, 1997:
73), where the tradition of reading the Qur’an
and Bashkir folklore are seen as correlated.
The main result of the work was the conclusion
about a “complicated relationship between the
Bashkir folk music of archaic and changed
under the spiritual influence Islam, and of later
acquired legacy as a result of Europeanization”
(Imamutdinova, 2010: 5).
In another study, this researcher focuses on
the problem of articulation in reading the Qur’an,
presented as vocal and melodized forms5. Using
computer means for fixing the smallest changes
of voice and comparing the curves of dynamicarticulating activity, shown by various reciters
(of Ufa, Medina, Cairo), performing the same
initial ayats of a few surahs, Z.A. Imamutdinova
comes to the conclusion that the differences in
the level of articulation activity are caused by
various factors, such as age, fluency of language
skills, individual musical abilities, orientation
on a particular stylistic model, and finally – the
emotional state (See further: Imamutdinova).
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We should note that this conclusion is not
consistent with the findings of the philologist G.R.
Aganina (Aganina), who believes that recitation
of the Qur’an “still sounds almost the same over
a vast area, covering not only the territory of the
huge Arab-speaking region, but the whole area of
distribution of the Qur’an” (Aganina, 2006: 3).
Main prerequisite for such stability G.R.
Aganina finds in orthoepic laws of the Qur’an
recitation, elaborated by medieval scholars in the
science of the Qur’an recitation. In accordance
with these laws a number of sounds and syllables
are distinguished. These sounds and syllables
are prone to the musical intonation – they set the
overall musical structure of the Arabic language,
and this predetermines the chanted way of reciting
the Qur’an. The art of Tajwid is governed by the
same laws and each letter is given the proper
and rightful place and manner of articulation,
nasalization, short length, longitude, and the like
of the rules of reciting the Qur’an (See about this
[2]).
I.M. Gaziev focuses on issues related to
performance (Gaziev, 2009). He considers the
performance traditions in the vocal culture of the
Volga-Ural Muslims as the basis for the formation
of professionalism. The professionals are folk
singer-storytellers, ozyn kөys – performers of
plangent songs, performers of Muslim religious
music of various genres, “scenic” performers.
On the basis of concept of I.R. Eoljan (Eoljan,
1977), I.M. Gaziev characterizes the main genres
in the light of specific traditions of Muslim
religious musicperformance and, namely, on:
adhan (azan), the Qur’an recitation, dhikr, “book
singing” (intoning the Arab-Persian and Turkic
medieval books). Orientated on performance in
front of an audience, these traditions are, in the
opinion of the researcher, the basis of “faithbased” excellence, the main feature of which is
the texts’ written existence (See further: (Gaziev,
2009: 3)).
Some researchers emphasize the form of
choral singing, which exists in Muslim religious
music. For example, as reported by L.A.
Mamedova, “collective singing in Azerbaijan
continued to exist in the Sufi branch of Islam,
based on the ethnic music, on the one hand, and
on the other hand – on the way of reciting the
Qur’an as if chanted, singsong ... In the culture
of Islam collective musical thinking, collective
singing and melodeclamation had its definite
place” (Mamedova, 2006).
A.B. Dzhumaev traced the evolution in
relations of Islamic religious doctrine to the
phenomenon of music (Dzhumaev, 1992).
Without taking into account the properties of
the Qur’an intonation, this author identifies
two main forms of the Qur’an recitation,
generally describing each of them. One of them
is the official one, which is based on standard
requirements and cultivated by readers (qurrā),
having obtained special education in mosques.
This form differs in significant melodiousness,
high uniformity and stability, and relative
complexity of melody. Another, “popular” form
has been practiced in the vast territory of the
Muslim world. Its bearer can be any Muslim.
This form has inherent for this or another
region features of the Qur’an recitation due to
the influence of folk-song culture. Cultivated at
home, this form of intoning the Qur’an is free
with respect to the canon, and the individual
manner of intonation is evident. Such a form
is called folk. Another form of existence –
the official – was formed within the walls of
mosques. Here the orientation on the standards,
“dictated” by canons, dominates.
A broad panorama of music art, covering
folk, professional secular, religious, and household
(urban) layers, is presented in the monograph of
I.R. Eoljan (Eoljan, 1977). Like other researchers,
this author pays particular attention to the
complexities of interaction of art with Islam.
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Religious music is observed in a separate
chapter, where “three types of music are defined
(Eoljan, 1977: 128): “Adhan”, or azan (we shall
indicate that in reality adhan is the start of
chanting in the Muslim service), the Qur’an
recitation (method of intonation) and “Dhikr” –
glorification of God’s name (originally it was a
genre, developed in the context of Sufism).
Despite the lack of musical examples in
notes, the author makes a generalization about
such properties of music of the Arab East as
“the modal colorful structure, high skill of
improvisation, emotional tension” (Eoljan, 1977:
136).
Today we can name many foreign
publications, specifically focused on the Qur’an
recitation in the context of the particular Arab
ethno-regional Muslim culture background;
among the authors we can enlist H. Farmer, H.
Tuma, L. Faruki, K. Nelson.
Exploration of tradition in the light of
the general laws of the Muslim culture and in
connection with other phenomena of musical
practice allowed L. Faruki (al-Faruki, 1986) to
create his own theory that the recitation of the
Qur’an is the foundation and core of the whole
Islamic sound art (handasah al sawt), or “the
art of sound”. L. Faruki reveals the essence
and importance of the tradition of the Qur’an
recitation in Islamic culture.
In her studies ethnomusicologist K. Nelson
consider purely musical issues (Nelson, K., 1985).
The starting point for her monograph is the thesis
1
that the Qur’an recitation is the production of
divine and human fortitude. In the focus of this
scientific view there is the theory of declamation,
where we find the relationship between affective
forces of sound in everyday life and in religious
practice (this issue is discussed on the Cairo
material).
Referring to the ideas drawn from classical
Muslim theology, projected on her own scientific
experiments, K. Nelson captures the artistic and
expressive nuances of declamation, as well as the
dynamics of psychic and emotional interaction
between the reciters (qurrā) and their audience,
in order to detect certain criteria distinguishing
the actual music and recitation. At the same time
the following aspects are brought forward: 1) the
perception of a reciter as an artist, 2) the reaction
of the audience, 3) the interaction between
the reciter and the audience, 4) therapeutic
possibilities of professional reciters, who are some
sort of conductors of divine energy contained in
the words of the Qur’an and detectable by reciters,
who use various means of melody (Nelson,
1985).
So, the overall picture of the music research
in Muslim culture is multifaceted. It covers
religious, philosophical, historical, musical,
orthoepic, and regional aspects of the study.
It shows that by now in various fields of the
humanities there have been developed sufficient
prerequisites for raising the question about the
uniqueness of the musical canon in the Muslim
cult.
In Siberia, the Tatar population growth was mainly due to the relocation of the Volga-Ural Tatars. Thanks to the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway and the conduct of the Stolypin agrarian reform the flow of migrants to Siberia from
different provinces of Russia sharply increased, including migrants from the Kazan and Ufa regions. It was during this
period there appeared many Tatar villages in the Yenisei Governorate. For example, from 1907 to 1910, there were formed
5 mono-ethnic Tatar settlements, and in 1911-1912 their number was 47.
The revolutionary events of 1917 and the Civil War were critical events in the life of the Tatar population of Siberia. Immediately after the expulsion of Kolchak’s forces in the Yenisei Governorate there were set up special Tatar sections in the
structure of the Party and Soviet bodies, as well as in the system of public education.
After the terrible famine of the early 1920s that hit the Volga region, Siberia enjoyed the influx of refugees and in-migrants, including the Tatars. Krasnoyarsk’s citizens gave shelter to tens of thousands of “golodbezhentsy” (refugees from
starvation0, many of whom remained there permanently.
In the following times, there has been steady growth of the Tatar population. The maximum number of Tatar population
was in the end of 1980s – 54 thousand people.
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2
3
4
5
Bait is an epic and lyrical genre of the Tatar and Bashkir folklore. Baits are composed typically of quatrains with rhymes
of types aaba, abcb. Baits have mainly historical and legendary, song and fairytale content.
Munadzhat is one of the oldest genres of music and poetry of the Tatars. The word “munadzhat” is of Arab origin. The
dictionary explains its meaning as follows: 1. Night prayer, secret prayer; 2. Religious hymn; 3. Secret conversation. In
the Tatar folklore “munadzhat” is understood as a particular genre of music and poetry, which has the character of a
monologue-reflection or a monologue-complaint.
Here is one of explanations of this arbitrariness. It should be known that His Holiness Moses (Musa), peace be upon him! [ranked as] the prophet, peace be upon him over us, made the night prayer in parda (mode) Ushshak (Uššaq). Prophet
David (Dawood, or Daud) sang Psalm in parda Husseini. Prophet Muhammad, the Messenger of God – peace be upon
him! – recited the Qur’an as a singsong in parda Rahab. The head of the faithful, the fi rst Imam, Ali ibn Abi Talib – peace
be upon him! – recited the Qur’an as a singsong in parda Ajam (Äjäm). Prophet Noah (Nuh) – peace be upon him! – sang
funeral songs in Segah. Prophet Abraham (Ibrahim) – peace be upon him! – not dead in the fi re, made the night prayers
in Nava. Prophet Ishmael (Ismail) – peace be upon him! – made the night prayer in time of peace in the maqam Bogorg.
Prophet Joseph (Yusuf) – peace be upon him! – made the night prayer at the bottom of a well in parda Arak. Prophet Solomon (Sulaiman) – peace be upon him! – in the perfect melody of Husseini performed nonmetrical vocalization. Prophet
Job – peace be upon him! – recited the Qur’an mostly in Nouruz Haara (Amir-khan kawkabi Risalah-I musigi. Azerbaijan
Milli Academiyasinin Alyazma Instutu. Б-5006).
In a similar perspective, the articulating issues are also seen through the prism of Tajwid in the works of Faruki (L. Faruki)
and K. Nelson (K. Nelson), devoted to the Arab tradition, and in the work of G.R. Sajfullina, who focused on the material
of the Tatar religious music.
References
1. Aganina G.R. Orfojepija rechitatsii Korana: avtoref. dis. ... kand. filologicheskih nauk
[Orthoepy of Recitation of the Qur’an]. Thesis of Candidate of Philological Sciences. Moscow, 2006.
25 p.
2. Al-Faruqi L.L. The Qur’anic Arts of Islamic Civilization. Afkar Inquiry. London, 1986, 3/7.
188 p. P. 40-44.
3. Ashhotov B.G., Rahaev A.I. (2012) Jetnokul’turnaja kartina Kavkaza v kontekste dihotomii
«Vostok – Zapad» [Ethnocultural picture of the Caucasus in the context of the dichotomy “East –
West”]. Voprosy kul’turologii [The Issues of Culturology], (8), pp. 13-18.
4. Bazieva G.D. (2012) Natsional’naja kul’tura v sravnitel’noj perspektive [National culture in a
comparative perspective]. Voprosy kul’turologii [The Issues of Culturology], (8), pp. 59-62.
5. Gaziev I.M. Formirovanie i razvitie professionalizma v vokal’noj kul’ture volgo-ura’skih
musul’man. Avtoref. dis. na sois. uch. st. kand. iskusstvovedenija [The formation and development of
professionalism in vocal culture of the Volga-Ural Muslims. Author’s Abstract of Thesis of Candidate
of Art]. Kazan, 2009. 26 p.
6. Dzhumaev A.B. (1992) Islam i muzyka [Islam and Music]. Muzykal’naja akademija [Academy
of Music], (3), pp. 24-36.
7. Eoljan I.R. Ocherki arabskoj muzyki [Sketches of Arabic music]. Moscow, 1977, 192 p.
8. Imamutdinova Z.A. Razvitie kul’tury bashkirskogo naroda i ego ustnye muzykal’nye traditsii:
avtoref. dis. ... kand. iskusstvovedenija [Development of the culture of the Bashkir people and their oral
musical traditions. Author’s Abstract of Thesis of Candidate of Art]. Moscow, 1997, 22 p.
9. Imamutdinova Z.A. (2010) O fenomene melodizirovannogo chtenija Korana (k probleme
muzykal’noj ritoriki sakral’nogo teksta) [Phenomenon of melodized reciting the Qur’an (in the context
of musical rhetoric of the sacred text)]. Problemy muzykal’noj nauki [Problems of musical science],
Ufa, (1), pp. 17-20.
10. Imamutdinova Z.A. (2009) Chtenie Korana i problemy artikulirovanija [Reciting the Qur’an
and the problems of articulating]. Vestnik Cheljabinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Bulletin of
the Chelyabinsk State University], (37), pp. 173-181.
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11. Iskhakova-Vamba R.A. Tatarskoe narodnoe muzykal’noe tvorchestvo: Traditsionnyj fol’klor
[Tatar folk music: Traditional folklore]. Moscow, 1981. 190 p.
12. Mamedova L. (2006) Islam i horovoe penie [Islam and choral singing] Harmony, (5): [http://
harmony.musigi-dunya.az/rus].
13. Nelson К. The Art of Reciting the Qur’an. Austin, 1985. 199 p.
14. Sajfullina G.R. Muzyka svjachshennogo Slova: chtenie Korana v tradicionnoj tataromusul’manskoj kul’ture [Music of the sacred Word: reciting the Qur’an in the traditional Tatar-Muslim
culture]. Kazan, 1999. 232 p.
15. Sofijskaja A.G. Muzykal’nye aspekty religioznyh prazdnikov tatar-musul’man Povolzh’ ja
[Musical aspects of religious holidays of Muslim Tatars of the Volga]. Kazan, 2007. 224 p.
16. Sofijskaja A.G. (2004) Muzykal’nye komponenty religioznyh prazdnikov tatar-musul’man
(Ramazan, Maulid, Kurban-Bajram) [Musical components of religious holidays of Muslim Tatars
(Ramadan, Mawlid, Eid al-Adha)]. Ezhegodnaja otkrytaja nauchno-prakticheskaja konferentsija
studentov, aspirantov i soiskatelej po spetsial’nosti “Muzykal’noe iskusstvo” [Annual open scientific
conference of students and post-graduate students of the specialty “Musical Art”], Kazan, pp.19-21.
17. Junusova V.N. Islam – muzykal’naja kul’tura i sovremennoe obrazovanie v Rossii [Islam –
musical culture and modern education in Russia]. Moscow, 1997, 152 p.
18. Junusova V.N. (1996) Islam i muzykal’no-kul’turnye traditsii narodov Povolzh’ ja (k probleme
vzaimosvjazi konfessii i hudozhestvennoj kul’tury) [Islam and musical and cultural traditions of the
peoples of the Volga region (stating the problem of the relationship of confession and art culture)].
Etnos i kul’tura [Ethnicity and Culture], (2), pp.19-30.
Интонирование Корана
как музыковедческая проблема
А.К. Шаяхметова
Красноярская государственная академия музыки и театра
Россия, 660049, Красноярск, Ленина, 22
Изучение музыки в контексте религиозных традиций является одним из весьма
востребованных направлений в современном музыкознании. Однако разные традиции
получают научное осмысление в той или иной мере. В частности, в отечественной
музыкальной науке мусульманская традиция разработана в меньшей степени, нежели
традиция христианская. Своеобразие музыкального интонирования коранических текстов
обычно определяют такими понятиями, как «мелодекламация», «напевное чтение».
Представляется, однако, что эти понятия не в полной мере отражают суть музыкального
начала в религиозной практике ислама. В данной статье представлена картина взглядов
на проблему интонирования Корана с научной точки зрения, прежде всего – с точки зрения
этномузыкознания и востоковедения.
Ключевые слова: мусульманская теология, интонирование Корана, таджвид, макам,
музыкально-культурная традиция татар-мусульман.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2014 7) 451-456
~~~
УДК 39(571.52)
Ethnic Culture and Value System of Students
(Based on the Material of the Republic of Tuva)
Herel-ool D-N Oorshak and S. Ya. Oorshak*
Kyzyl Pedagogical Institute
of the Tuvan State University
36 Lenin Str., Kyzyl, 667000, Russia
Received 07.10.2013, received in revised form 15.12.2013, accepted 16.01.2014
In pedagogical science many scientists have studied ethnic culture, formation of ethnopedagogical
culture and value system of students on the basis of philosophical, axiological and cultural foundations
of pedagogy. The authors of this article continue the analysis of theoretical resources developed in this
field, compilation of empirical data on the importance of ethnic culture for students and its compliance
with knowledge in this area, as well as identification of the value orientations of students of the Kyzyl
Pedagogical Institute of the Tuvan State University.
Keywords: ethnic culture, importance of ethnic culture, values, value orientations.
Ethnic culture is a subject of numerous
studies of Russian scientists. Their attention
is drawn to different aspects of ethnic
identity, for example, a traditional way of
life, interconnection of lifestyle and culture
(Yu.V. Bromley), the impact of modernization
of lifestyle on the originality of ethnocultural
environment (A.L. Gayzhutis), study of history
of folk culture (A.S. Mylnikov), ethnocultural
traditions in a family (M.Ya. Ustinova), etc.
A.S. Karmin’s studies show that “in culture of
a developed nation there is always an ethnic
component –culture of ethnoses (one or more)
that the nation was formed of.
Ethnic (folk) culture is the most ancient layer
of national culture. It covers mainly the sphere of
everyday life and carries “customs of ancestors”.
Its features are manifested in specifics of food
*
and clothing, folklore, folk crafts, folk medicine,
etc...” (Karmin, 1997). The author mentions
such characteristics of the ethnic culture as
conservatism, succession going back to the distant
past and focus on the preservation of “roots”.
At the same time, it is noted that the “ethnic
culture is the original basis of national culture,
it is a source of the national language (which
becomes a literary language). Writers borrow
plots and characters from it, composers borrow
music tones and rhythms, architects – design
styles and techniques of building decoration. The
originality and uniqueness of the “face” of any
national culture largely depend on its ancient,
centuries-old traditions. The author also notes the
complexity and inconsistency of a relationship
between national culture in general and ethnic
culture as its oldest component (Karmin, 1997).
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: herel-ool@mail.ru
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The researchers also reveal that ethnic (folk)
culture is substantial and folklore occupies a
significant place in its content (L.N. Kogan,
Novosibirsk).
According to S.N. Artanovsky, both shifts
in people’s life and succession of its development
are naturally imprinted in culture. Culture of a
particular people, ethnic culture is a way of its
life; it is its clothing, houses, food, folklore,
religious views, beliefs, language, and much more.
Ethnic culture is all that belongs to the people as a
peculiar historical and anthropological formation
that changes throughout history and yet remains
in these changing forms some of the more or less
stable characteristics. Thus, we can talk about
culture of the Eskimos, Polynesians, Russian
culture, French culture – they all are ethnic
cultures, for they belong to a specific nation that
has its own ethnos and has created an appropriate
cultural complex” (Artanovsky, 1975). When
describing ethnic culture and its characteristics,
V.M. Mezhuyev notes that “it does not have,
perhaps, the main feature of the national culture –
the ability to correlate, compare, weigh itself
with other cultures, to live with knowledge that
it is not alone, but one of the many cultures and
exists only in conjunction with them and thanks
to them. For this purpose it, at least, needs to
discover these cultures, join their “family”. It is
not that easy, given that its objective is to preserve
and reproduce in an unaltered form a natural
foundation that any ethnos is based on and that
exists regardless of anything else. Ethnic culture
allows each nation to be on their own, but it is
insufficient to live with other nations and contact
with them. When such life becomes a historical
need, the time of national cultures will come”.
V.M. Mezhuyev showed that the transition to the
national culture “will become possible as a result
of fundamental changes in people’s lives, their
entry into a new stage of historical development
breaking through the narrow horizon of their
separate ethnical existence. Nations should go
through this spiritual revolution so that this
transition could take place. And the invention
of writing was this revolution. And it is national
culture that would later emerge in the context of
the written cultural tradition” (Mezhuyev, 1999).
Starting from the mid-1990s, researchers
have been carrying out numerous studies on the
ethnocultural development of peoples in Russia.
They have begun to develop and use different
techniques for the study of ethnic component in
the culture of peoples. According to M.E. Kogan,
“Ethnocultural settings can be found in various
ways: by tests, expert evaluation or with the help
of “indicators”-questions, etc. (Kogan, 1982).
The emergence and rapid development
of mass media have a significant impact on the
individuality of ethnocultural environment. New
means of communication influence on people’s
way of live and its content; they are “wedged into
the sphere of value orientations and modify some
of our traditions and conceptions of the world”
(A.L. Gayzhutis).
Ethnic culture, ethnic values and value
orientations of today’s youth need to be studied
in their interconnection. The study of values and
value system of young people in the educational
process differs by an interdisciplinary nature.
For example, I.Yu. Kuznetsova notes that “one
of the conditions of the society’s survival and
its prospect is the position and activities of the
youth in the present and the nearest future. What
values the youth of modern Russia accepts and
rejects, how they connect with the values of
the “fathers” who had been predominating in
the society for a long time – that is the main
problem in socialization of young people today...”
(Kuznetsova, 2001). Combination of young
people’s and “fathers’” values occurs naturally,
since family is not only a unit of society, but
also an important factor in socialization.
Ethnocultural traditions are passed to the younger
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generation, particularly in a family. The transfer
of ethnocultural traditions (in household labour,
in traditional amateur activities (handicraft)) goes
on in modern families. Family continues to play
a role in the transition of other forms of culture,
particularly the traditional, spiritual culture
(folklore genres). However, it is noted that, in
this case, the position of the family is somewhat
weakened. This is due to the modernization of the
cultural environment. At the same time, changes
in socio-cultural processes have an impact on the
younger generation and the formation of their
value orientations, ideology, moral and cultural
ideals. I.Yu. Kuznetsova examines the impact
on the process of socialization of different social
institutions – schools, student groups, churches;
attitude of young people to a family, leisure
and work, politics and religion, as well as their
assessment of the democratic changes and values
of different spheres of life. (Kuznetsova, 2001).
The problem of values and goals of education
is also analyzed in the writings of Professor
M.I. Shilova who notes that “the value system
fixes universal human values, based on which the
social regulation and purposeful actions of people
unfold”. She has developed a method to identify
the importance of values that can be tested among
students (Shilova, 2003).
E.A. Danilova also notes that, traditionally,
one of the leading roles in the process of
socialization belongs to the social institution of
education. The youth of today highly appreciate
the availability of education to fulfil their life
strategies. At the same time the specificity of
socialization of students is that representatives
of various nations are taught in groups, therefore,
ethno-psychological characteristics of their
communication and ethnocultural traditions,
originality of language and customs are
taken into account (Danilova, 2009). It is also
necessary to continue to identify ethnocultural
value orientations of students. “A human, a child
lives and learns in a particular socio-cultural
environment, belongs to a particular ethnos. In
this regard, culturological approach is transformed
into ethnopedagogical. This transformation
shows the unity of the international (universal),
national and individual” (V.A. Slastenin).
It is known that the category of values
has become the subject of philosophical
understanding in Russian science since the ‘60s
of the 20th century, when the interest in problems
of a human, morality, humanism, a subjective
factor in general has increased. “The category of
values is applicable to the world of a human and
society. The concept of value cannot exist beyond
or without a human, because it is a special human
type of significance of objects and phenomena...
In society any event is meaningful one way or
another, any phenomenon fulfils its individual
role. However, only positively significant events
and phenomena associated with the social
progress can be applied to values”. Successful
socialization of the younger generation in higher
education institution, where the formation
of values continues, also holds considerable
importance in achieving the social progress.
According to the words of V.M. Mezhuev,
“the transition to the national culture” has been
gradually carried out starting from the period
of foundation of The Tuvan People’s Republic
in 1921. The difficulties of this transition for the
Tuvan people and spiritual culture of Tuva are
examined by A.K. Kuzhuget. However, the ethnic
originality of Tuvan culture is retained. The
rich content of ethnocultural traditions, ethnic
pedagogy and their application in the modern
system of education are studied by a number of
researchers (M.B. Kenin-Lopsan, K.B. Salchak,
A.S. Shaaly, T.T. Munzuk and others).
Some results of our experimental work
show that the significance of the aspects of ethnic
culture for students is low (9.2 % of students),
average (67.9 % of students) and high (22.7 %).
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These are the results of only one group. They
show that by the end of the experimental work
the significance of ethnic culture corresponds
with knowledge in this field. Based on these data,
at the implementation of socio-pedagogical work
not only in schools, but also in terms of higher
educational institutions, it is necessary to continue
to form value orientations in relation to ethnic
values, to reveal the importance of values and
their content so that students could comprehend
and learn them during their study. We continue
to collect empirical data on the significance of
ethnic culture for students and its compliance with
knowledge in this field: as in previous years, the
significance level remains high at the beginning
of the course “Ethnopedagogy”. In this case, the
first-year students of the 2011-2012 year showed
an evident compliance of the significance with
knowledge in this area, especially at such aspects
of ethnic culture as language and folklore.
Conclusions: In Russian science the issues of
the study of ethnic culture and value orientations
are considered in the interconnection with ethnic
values. The study of the value system formation
of young people is based on an interdisciplinary
approach.
Culture of Tuva, its forms and types,
historically-established
ethnic
originality,
ethnic values are examined by a number of
researchers, including Doctors of Historical
Sciences, Cultural Studies, Art History and
Philosophy N.V. Abayev, M.B. Kenin-Lopsan,
A.K. Kuzhuget, M.V. Mongush, V.Yu. Suzukey,
O.M. Khomushku and others. Based on the ideas
of A.S. Karmin, we can say that the works of
these scientists are “the product of creativity of
the most talented representatives of the nation,
educated and knowledgeable people”.
In order to form the ethnopedagogical
culture of students, we have been studying
different aspects of ethnic culture of the Tuvan
people for many years. Considering the fact that
in the theoretical papers of the best scientists in
pedagogy and modern educational researches it
was proved that folk knowledge is passed to the
younger generation only within the ethnocultural
traditions (K.D. Ushinsky, G.N. Volkov and
others). A survey among students showed that
they can identify the degree of importance of the
aspects of ethnic culture and value orientations
with the help of techniques. But among them there
are those who still find it difficult to demonstrate
knowledge in the given field. As a result of a
dedicated work in the educational process of the
special course “Ethnopedagogy” that studies
the ethnic originality of Tuvan culture and other
peoples living in Tuva, the students start to show
a higher level of knowledge in the field of ethnic
culture.
It should be noted that the content of the
spiritual and moral development and education is
the values stored in the cultural, ethnic, family
and other social and cultural traditions passed
from generation to generation. According to
G.A. Stanchinsky, “the spiritual formation of
a personality occurs by acquiring cultural and
historical experience of ethnic norms and values
of his/her nation”. Thus, a collective study of
ethnic culture, values and value orientations of
students in their interconnection in the Higher
Education Institution of the Republic of Tuva
should be carried out.
References
1. Artanovsky, S.N. The ethnic identity of cultures [Article] [Etnicheskoe svoeobraziye kultur].
Philosophical and socio-economic problems of culture. L., 1975. Р. 3-16. – (Proceedings of LSIC, V. 28).
2. Bromley, N.Ya. On the question of the relationship of lifestyle and culture [Article] [K voprosu o
vzaimosvyazi obraza zhizni i kultury]. Ethno-cultural tradition and modernity. Vilnius, 1989. Р. 134-145.
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3. Danilova, E.A. Socialization of youth: value orientations and leisure preferences: the
example of the Middle Volga region [Sotsializatsiya molodezhi: tsennostnye orientatsii i dosugovye
predpochteniya: na primere regionov Srednego Povolzhia]: Author’s abstract for PhD in Sociology –
Penza. 2009.
4. Flier, A.Ya. Ethnic values [Etnicheskiye tsennosti] Cultural Studies. XX Century: Encyclopedia.
Volume 2 – St. Petersburg: University Book, 1998. – Р. 404.
5. Gayzhutis, A.L. Ethnos and modernization of the cultural environment [Article] [Etnos i
modernizatsiya kulturnoy sredy]. Ethno-cultural tradition and modernity. Vilnius, 1989. Р. 61-70.
6. Karmin, A.S. Basics of Cultural Studies: morphology of culture [Text] [Osnovy kulturologii:
morfologiya kultury]: a textbook for university students. – St. Petersburg: “Lan”, 1997. 512 р.
7. Kogan, M.E. The role of ethnic orientations in cultural consumption (based on materials
of survey of the Leningrad Tatars) [Article] [Rol etnicheskikh orientatsiy v kulturnom potreblenii]
Ethnocultural processes. Methods of historical and synchronous study. M., 1982. Р. 5-14.
8. Kuznetsova, I. Yu. Socialization of young people at the turn of the century: the regional
dimension [Sotsializatsiya molodezhi na zubezhe vekov: regionalniy aspekt]: Author’s abstract for
PhD in Cultural Studies. 24.00.01 – Theory of Culture. Krasnodar, 2001.
9. Mezhuyev, V. National culture as a concept and phenomenon [Natsionalnaya kultura kak
ponyatiye i yavleniye] Library science – 1999. No 2. Р. 48-52.
10. Shilova, M.I. Theory and methods of education: traditions and innovations: Selected
Pedagogical Works – Krasnoyarsk: Universe, 2003, 712 р.
11. Stanchinsky, G.A. Traditional pedagogy [Traditsionnaya pedagogika]: Monograph – St.
Petersburg, 1997. – 174 р.
12. Ustinova, M.Ya. The transfer of ethnocultural traditions in a modern family (based on the
materials of peoples of the Soviet Baltic region) [Article] [Peredacha etnokulturnykh traditsiy v
sovremennoy semie]. Ethnocultural tradition and modernity. Vilnius, 1989. Р. 145.
13.http://www.textfighter.org/raznoe/Pedagog/slast/obosnovanie_novoi_metodologii_
pedagogiki_aksiologicheskii_podhod_v_izuchenii_pedagogicheskih_yavlenii.php
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Этническая культура и ценностные ориентации
студентов (на материале Республики Тыва)
Х. Д-Н. Ооржак, С.Я. Ооржак
Кызылский педагогический институт
Тувинского государственного университета
Россия, 667000, Республика Тыва, Кызыл, ул. Ленина, 36
В педагогической науке многие ученые осуществляют изучение этнической культуры,
формирование этнопедагогической культуры, ценностных ориентаций студентов на базе
философских, аксиологических и культурных основ педагогики. Авторы данной статьи
продолжают анализ теоретических источников, разработанных в этом направлении,
обобщение результатов эмпирических данных о значимости этнической культуры для
студентов и ее соответствия знаниям в данной сфере, а также выявление ценностных
ориентаций студентов Кызылского педагогического института Тувинского государственного
университета.
Ключевые слова: этническая культура, значимость этнической культуры, ценности,
ценностные ориентации.
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УДК 394(571.52)
A Comprehensive Approach
to the Development Strategy of National Culture
of Ethnoses in Southern Siberia
Herel-ool D-N Oorshaka* and Jamts Samdandorjb
a
Kyzyl Pedagogical Institute
of the Tuvan State University
36 Lenin Str., Kyzyl, 667000, Russia
b
Mongolian State University of Education
Ulan Bator, Mongolia
Received 05.10.2013, received in revised form 11.12.2013, accepted 16.01.2014
There is a problem of preservation of national culture of indigenous peoples of Southern Siberia. This
issue requires a comprehensive approach. A significant role in this issue is occupied by the level of
economic development of the region, especially the republics of Gorny Altai, Tuva and Khakassia,
common culture, as well as natural and social factors. It is important to approach the study of the
problem holistically, with the help of scientists and specialists in different disciplines, including
classical and national cultures.
Keywords: national culture, ethnic groups of Southern Siberia, strategy, integrated approach,
education, economics, physical education.
Currently, humanity is experiencing a
change of world orders; the search for a rational
variant of the future is going on. Radical changes
could not but address issues of ethno-national
being, including the processes of upbringing and
education. Nations and peoples face the challenge
of choosing the paths of their own development
and interethnic integration (Atamuratov, 1992).
A positive side of this phenomenon is that the
peoples have faced the task of revival, preservation
of their national culture and harmonization of
interethnic relations on a fundamentally new
basis while maintaining the humanistic values of
past eras.
*
The new situation requires unconventional
approaches. The only best way to solve the
problems of self-affirmation of peoples as subjects
of historical creativity is preservation of their
traditional culture, formation and protection of
the integrity of their culture. But in this case, acts
the principle of complementarity and historical
interconnection, in the paradigm of which
national cultures remain autonomous under the
ethnic integration (Kotozhekov, 1991).
In this work we have agreed that the national
culture of the peoples of Southern Siberia
(Altaians, Tuvans, Khakas) should be considered
as a kind of universal culture having a complex
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: herel-ool@mail.ru
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structure and functioning as a value formation.
Thus, it gives us an opportunity to build a model
of functioning and development of the national
culture and to improve methodology of the
practice of social management of the cultural
movement in the republics of Southern Siberia,
as well as in the whole region.
The formation strategy of the peoples of
Southern Siberia is the core of the development
strategy of ethnoses. And this, in turn, is a crucial
part of the economic development strategy of the
republics of Altai, Tuva and Khakassia.
Thus, the problem is to prepare well-rounded
people who would have good health, in-depth
knowledge, strong will and versatile physical
and intellectual abilities. In this case, they may
be rightful owners of their country, nature and
themselves.
In the development strategy of ethnos, a
basis is of great importance. In this case we also
need to know its superstructure, namely:
a) correct position of Southern Siberia in
Russia’s economic strategy;
b) establishment of a strong support base
for education, science, culture in general, and
medicine in order to meet the needs of the
strategic development of ethnoses;
c) determination of a level of the real
ratio between psycho-physical and spiritual
development of ethnoses, cultural and economic
development of the region;
d) development prospects of national culture,
traditions, language, ethnopedagogics;
e) strengthening of the status of the family
and its role in upbringing of an all-round person.
The development strategy of ethnos has a
connection with almost all the strategy issues
in the process of development of the market
economy. It is a dialectical connection, a law of
productive activity of society and life.
The level of economic development of the
region, particularly the republics themselves, the
general culture and natural factors has influence
on the development of the national culture of the
peoples of Southern Siberia. Therefore, in solving
the problems of national culture it is very important
to take into account their level of development,
interaction, manage them according to the laws
of nature and the social system (Oorshak, 1995).
Thus, the main political, economic and social
objectives are to enhance the role of ethnic groups
in the region, create a real incentive system that
supports the prosperity of life of these ethnoses,
and create conditions contributing to the full
development of an individual. In connection with
this, the problems of ethnoses in Southern Siberia
appear as a complex. Therefore, it can only be
solved comprehensively by cooperating efforts
of scientists, experts in various disciplines,
including national culture.
Since legal norms, laws and forms of activity
of the society in general exist and operate in
the society, they may either promote or hinder
the social activity of a person. The developed
national culture can enhance social activity of
a person, but it depends on the level of material
well-being, social development, interpersonal and
international relations, psychological climate, as
well as general and special education, the level
of development of political, spiritual, and other
spheres.
All-round psychophysical development and
deep spiritual preparedness of an individual is
one of the most important factors determining
the implementation of strategic plans for the
economy. For example, the problems of physical
culture, particularly physical development of
the peoples of Southern Siberia, especially the
younger generation, are not yet fully resolved.
This is evidenced by the study of physical
development and physical fitness of graduating
students of the Republic of Tuva.
In order to have physically healthy, educated
generation in Southern Siberia, it is necessary
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to conduct a comprehensive study and develop a
number of programmes:
1. A programme of physical and spiritual
development of ethnoses in Southern Siberia,
especially of young students on the basis of
the study and scientific analysis of traditional
culture, ethnopedagogics of the people. At the
same time it is necessary to take into account the
condition and development of national education,
general pedagogy, theory of culture, as well as
the level of economic, scientific and technological
development. Problems of physical development
of ethnoses should be closely linked to the
direction of development of cultural processes in
Russia, to the market economy.
In this regard, we have developed a
comprehensive programme of education in
schools (Ernin Erezi, 1995).
2. The Ministry of Education and Culture of
the Republic of Gorny Altai, Tuva and Khakassia
must radically rethink the issues of cultural
and educational development in the region. At
the same time, it should observe the traditional
(folk) culture, its many forms and means. Only
in this case can we properly assess the role and
importance of the national culture of the people,
gradually overcome its lag behind modern
demands, and achieve continuity of traditional
and classical culture.
In order to predict and set specific tasks, it is
required to use modern methods of forecasting,
improve the quality of education of students in
the light of modern requirements to the national
culture, hygiene and nutrition. It is effective
to use the experience of health promotion for
children and students in the national republics of
neighbouring countries and beyond.
The need to stabilize the standard of
living in Russia and stop the fall of the national
economy encourages people to form a new
model of a person. It is characterized by a high
level of culture, education, intelligence, good
health, mastery of physical qualities, motor
skills providing a highly efficient performance
of public and professional functions. Society and,
particularly, the organizations associated with
culture, education and upbringing are responsible
for the formation of a highly educated, cultured
person, a person of a new type. In this case,
the role of ethnic groups and families is no less
important.
Social factors play a major role in the
personality’s formation. History of the formation
and development of the peoples of Southern
Siberia cultivated their own specific traits of
character and personality. Education strategy that
is a part of the development strategy of ethnoses
must play an important role in the formation of a
fully developed personality.
Character and personality traits of ethnic
groups of Southern Siberia are formed by many
different means. Their mental development,
ethics, aesthetics and especially all-round
education actively participate in shaping the level
of their traditional and classical culture.
If we evaluate the role of oriented and
correctly-set motor activity that promotes the full
development of a person, it must be recognized
that the regular physical education and sport
cultivate intellectual, mental, physical, spiritual
and moral abilities of a person. Such a cultural
environment meets the specific needs of a person
in a particular form of its activities. The positive
orientation of people on the values of physical
education indicates the level of not only physical
but also spiritual and moral culture.
Affecting the development strategy of the
economy and society, as well as big-time politics
serving and obeying the objectives of economy,
the state of culture and education throughout the
whole development process, a person of any age
and status acquires permanent values. It should
also be noted that physical health, spiritual
and moral factors of a person’s development
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have substantially the same value, because a
person as a subject is a combination of all his
powers, abilities, qualities and skills in the
process of economic, cultural and educational
development.
The problems of physical culture of the
peoples of Southern Siberia are now becoming
especially important because, in recent years,
there is a decline and deterioration of their physical
development, general health, and inconformity
with the time requirements. This problem also
remains open and sets great challenges in the
field of motor culture.
Thus, based on the theoretical position, it is
possible to formulate the following provisions as
a conclusion. The actual conditions of the free
development of ethnoses and harmonization of
interethnic relations in Russia will be determined
primarily from the relationship between ethnoses
(peoples and nations) with the Russian people.
Strictly speaking, in Russia the Russian people
playing a major unifying force have always stood
against the destructive processes.
The future of the peoples of the former
Russian autonomies is seen in two directions of
development. On the one hand, it is the formation
of sovereign republics as subjects of Russia, and
on the other hand, integration into one Russian
confederal state, without national-territorial
formations.
However, the main prerequisite is to
create legal and institutional conditions for the
reproduction of ethnic identity of each of the
ethnic groups.
References
1. Atamuratov, S. National culture and national self-awareness in the process of renewal of society
(socio-philosophical aspect) [Natsionalnaya kultura i natsionalnoye samosoznaniye v protsesse
obnovleniya obshchestva (sotsio-filosofskiy aspekt)] [Text]: Abstract of a PhD thesis, Tashkent, 1992,
р. 46.
2. Kotozhekov, G.G. The genesis of the national culture. [Genezis natsionalnoy kultury]
(Experience of the philosopho-sociological and historical analysis on the material of culture of the
peoples of Southern Siberia) [text] – Abakan, 1991, р. 191.
3. Oorshak H.D-H. Pedagogical content of physical education of the peoples of Southern Siberia
[Pedagogicheskoye soderzhaniye fizicheskoy kultury narodov Yuzhnoy Sibiri] [Text]. Kyzyl, 1995,
р. 228.
4. Ernin Erezi (experimental programme for 7th grade). Kyzyl: Tuvinian Publishing house. 1995,
р. 152.
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Стратегия выработки комплексного подхода
для национальных культурных
этнических групп Южной Сибири
Х. Д-Н. Ооржака, Шамс Самдандоржийнб
а
Кызылский педагогический институт
Тувинского государственного университета,
Россия, 667000, Республика Тыва, Кызыл, ул. Ленина, 36
б
Монгольский государственный университет образования
Улан-Батор, Монголия
Существует проблема сохранения национальной культуры малочисленных народов Южной
Сибири. Данный вопрос требует комплексного подхода. Значительную роль в данном вопросе
играют уровень экономического развития региона, в особенности, республик Горный Алтай,
Тыва и Хакасия, общая культура, природные и общественные факторы. Важно подойти к
изучению проблемы комплексно, с привлечением ученых и специалистов разных дисциплин,
включая классические и национальные культуры.
Ключевые слова: национальная культура, этнические группы Южной Сибири, стратегия,
интегрированный подход, образование, экономика, физическая культура.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2014 7) 462-466
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УДК 781.6
Communicative Space “Composer-Perfomer”
as an Important Factor of Creating
a Modern Musical Interpretation
Valentina L. Boiko and Sergey G. Chaikin*
Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre
22 Lenin Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Received 11.10.2013, received in revised form 25.12.2013, accepted 18.01.2014
At the beginning of the third millennium the necessity of integration of approaches, the points of
viewis represented by various forms of knowledge of life, judgment of integrity of the world in the
presence of diverse forms of its manifestations is more and more felt. One of such “points” is music
and musical creativity which accumulate natural and space, biological, social and spiritual essence
of the person acts. The subject of this article is the tasks rising before the performer of music of
composers- contemporaries and determined by direct creative interaction of the composer and the
performer. Modern music has the listener who is characterized by it’s interest not only to new trends
and names in art, but also to identity of the performer. The question “how” becomes as important as
“what”. The musical composition, created as a result of cultural communication of the author and the
performer, ceases to be the author’s monologue broadcast by the performer. The composition becomes
an artifact of joint creativity.
Keywords: musical creating, composer, perfomer, modern musical interpretation.
Music carries out it’s the mission thanks to
ability to keep and transfer the art values put in
it. In musical creativity function of disclosure
of the contents and its report to the listener is
carried out by the performer. Exactly thanks to
his interpretation, that is individual reading and
transfer of sense of composition, we perceive
musical artifacts.
The main part of concert repertoire of the
performer is made by the compositions checked
by time, and therefore having certain traditions,
stylistic norms of reading of the text of any
composer. They are a peculiar reference point for
the musician who has addressed to music of this
*
sort that considerably facilitates a problem of the
interpreter.
Language of each composer is individual. In
turn, handwriting of the performer is also unique.
Therefore any interpretation which has been given
rise in the course of mutual cooperation, will
represent synthesis of two beginnings – author’s
and performer’s. Properties of this synthesis, and,
respectively, interpretations, will depend on degree
of endowments of both participants of creative
process. Cases when the brilliant composition
was “spoiled” by unsuccessful execution and vice
versa, the talented performer opened with the his
playing, unknown to the author.
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: bovalenti@yandex.ru, sergey.chaykin@mail.ru
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Creating the performing concept of classical
work1, the performer is determined by only musical
text which for a long time of the existence finds
the richest cultural and historical context owing
to variety of interpretations, changing of public
taste, instrumental development, etc. Working
with the modern composition and directly
communicating with the author, it appears in a
situation which is characterized by absence of
performing traditions of this work and that art
context which developed in classical repertoire.
However, as interpretation assumes coauthorship,
the personal relation to executed, lack of a context
is filled, on the one hand, with aspiration most
precisely to follow instructions of the author, and
with another – to create a musical image on the
basis of own ideas of author’s intonation of the
composer. Thus, personal contact of the performer
and the composer creates a basis of formation of
performing tradition more widely – an art context
of new work.
Communication of the performer with
the author of music opens a special side of
performing process. Its essence consists that the
composer offers, as a rule, oral recommendations
in addition to the text recorded on a note paper.
Thereby it joins in process of interpretation of
own music. It is led to interaction and formation of
communicative space2 by “composer-performer”
where the first becomes with – the interpreter,
and the second – the coauthor.
The role of the performer as coauthor
increases when appealing to modern
compositions. The matter is that musical
language of the latest time operates with the
elements which are difficult giving in to exact
fi xing in the musical text.
So, an aleatorics, sonoristics, polystylistics3
have no universal expression in system of written
signs, and therefore in the absence of additional
author’s interpretation assume rather free reading
of the text.
Fig. 1
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Fig. 2
It is partly connected with that as researcher
Orlova O. V. notes: “… the relations between
sign system and knowledge structures are dual.
On the one hand, the choice of this or that
semiotics sphere is caused by structural and
substantial nature of knowledge, with another –
the knowledge is caused by means of this or that
sign system” (Orlova, 2010).
The performer in similar cases improvises,
composes the text that allows to speak about
its co-authorship. The composer, thus, itself
programs such co-authorship.
Professional specialization of music
education led to that the performer, as a rule, is
better owning the musical instrument, than the
composer, introduces new substantial nuances
and the means of expression enriching an initial
author’s plan. The striking example to that is
execution of R. Schedrin’s Second piano concerto
by D. Matsuyev. The pianist includes free jazz
improvisations into his interpretation. In essence
he creates own performing edition being anything
other, as the coauthorship act with the composer.
Fruitfulness of cooperation of authors of
music with specific performers is confirmed
by practice of creation of various compositions
counting on certain performers, on their individual
performing style. Let’s call names of A.Shnitke
and Yu.Bashmet, B. Britten and M. Rostropovich,
D. Shostakovich and F.Druzhinin4.
Approbation of practice of cooperation of
authors of music with performers successfully
proceeds for many years in concert’s recitals of
Krasnoyarsk’s musicians – well-known bayanist
S. Nayko, singers V. Nechipurenko, S. Bedrinets,
pianists – V.Boiko, E.Prygun, S. Chaikin, D.
Prikhodko, balalayechnitsa – V. Makarova, choral
collectives of the city. They include compositions
of O. Meremkulov, F.Veselkov, V. Ponomarev,
I.Yudin, E.Markaich, V. Beshevli, V. Primak
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Fig. 1
and other Siberian composers in the repertoire.
Joint activity of these musicians expands scenic
repertoire and propagandizes the best models of
modern Russian art.
The situation analysis in the field of musical
performance reveals the following regularity.
High potential of even one component – composer
1
2
3
4
or performing – makes active another. Good
performers inspire authors on creation of new
compositions, and the music written by talented
composers, finds sooner or later it’s interpreters.
As a whole, the creative tandem between founders
of music and its performers considerably causes
intensity and quality of modern musical life.
In this article under classical we mean the musical artifacts created by our great predecessors, tested by time and having
the conventional art value.
In hierarchy of levels of interaction of communicative space (Gulenko, V.V. – http://socionics.kiev.ua/article/comsp) – 1)
physical, 2) psychological, 3) social, 4) intellectual – for us matter psychological and intellectual.
Aleatorics, sonoristics, polystilistics – methods of musical composition, ways of creation of the musical composition.
Feodor Serafimovich Druzhinin – one of participants of the State quartet by the name of Beethoven. Together with pianist
M. Muntyan F. S. Druzhinin fi rstly executed the Sonata for a viola and piano by D. Shostakovich’s in October, 1975.
References
1. Orlova, O.V. Vliyanie kuljturih na formirovanie kartinih mira [The influence of culture on the
formation of the world picture] “Voprosih kuljturologii”. Moscow, 2010. No 7. Pp. 4-7.
2. URL: http://socionics.kiev.ua/article/comsp/ (date of using 27.02.2013).
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Коммуникативное пространство
«композитор – исполнитель»
как важный фактор создания
современной музыкальной интерпретации
В.Л. Бойко, С.Г. Чайкин
Красноярская государственная академия музыки и театра,
Россия, 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ленина, 22
В начале третьего тысячелетия все более ощущается необходимость интеграции подходов,
точек зрения, репрезентируемых различными формами познания бытия, осмысления
целостности мира при наличии многообразных форм его проявлений. Как представляется, одной
из таких «точек» выступает музыка и музыкальное творчество, в которых аккумулируются
природно-космические, биологические, социальные и духовные сущности человека. Предметом
данной статьи являются задачи, встающие перед исполнителем музыки композиторовсовременников и определяемые непосредственным творческим взаимодействием композитора
и исполнителя. Современная музыка имеет своего слушателя, который характеризуется
интересом не только к новым веяниям и именам в искусстве, но и к индивидуальности
исполнителя. Вопрос «как» встает не менее остро, чем «что». Музыкальная композиция,
созданная в результате культурной коммуникации автора и исполнителя, перестает быть
авторским монологом, транслируемым исполнителем. Сочинение становится артефактом
совместного творчества.
Ключевые слова: музыкальное творчество, композитор, исполнитель, современная музыкальная
интерпретация.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2014 7) 467-479
~~~
УДК 78
On the Concept of Musical Performance
Mikhail I. Beniumov*
Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre
22 Lenin Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Received 03.09.2013, received in revised form 21.12.2013, accepted 10.01.2014
The paper focuses on the controversy term of “performance”. There was given a range of definitions
of the term at different levels of commonness and specificity: performance as a kind of activity;
performance as a part of creation; performance as a kind of intonation, including the real moment
of sound formation; performance as a kind of existence of form-process in the time and the spacetime arts. The author of the paper uses and justifies the notions of “complete” and “incomplete” acts
of intonation. The conclusion is that the structure of the complete act of intonation is an invariant
structure of every music performance in general.
Keywords: music performance, interpretation, intonation, performing technique, musical text, music
composition.
In the vast stream of books and articles on
issues of music and performing arts, there are
not almost any fundamental works, fulfilling the
task of building a general theory of performance,
introducing basic notions, outlining the very
subject of the study of this science. And the first in
a number of these notions to define is, of course,
the musical performance itself.
Today, the musical performance is commonly
understood as “the creative process of recreating
a musical work by means of performing mastery”
(Yampol'skii, 1974: 583). But a piece of music
as a cultural and historical phenomenon has not
always and everywhere existed, whereas the
act of performing has history as long as music
itself – from the earliest times. It is clear that
the traditional concept of musical performance,
in fact, the same as the content of the concept of
interpretation, does not adequately explain other
*
important phenomena of European performances
(such as improvisation, virtuosity) and does not
apply to folklore and extra-European musicalperformance cultures. In this connection there
is the need to construct a universal concept of
musical performance and further development of
this typology of notions. The immediate goal of
this paper is to identify ways to solve this problem,
albeit in a preliminary so far, sketch form.
However, before we begin to consider the
notion, it would be expedient to begin the analysis
with the general concept of performance. Thus,
we determine the next levels of analysis and,
accordingly, the meanings of the terms:
– performance as a kind of activity;
– performance as an extricable part of any
creative process;
– performance as a kind of existence of formprocess in the time and the space-time arts;
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: beniumov@mail.ru
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– performance as a kind of creative process
in performing arts.
Performance as a kind of activity. We begin
with broad meanings of performance: to perform
means to realize, to make something, as a result
of performance something finds real being and
becomes valid.
But not every realization is performance.
When there is rain, snow falls or summer comes,
of course, rain, snow, summer have become real,
but it occurs as a result of natural processes. When
an act, a construction, or a work of art become
real, this process takes place not by itself, but by
the will of man, and as a result of human activity.
If we consider the individual act of the activity,
an object will be presented in two ways: first, as
an image of the object in the mind, secondly, as
the object itself in its objective existence. The
essence of realization is in the “translation” of an
object from the internal to the external being.
In this regard, the most common definition of
performance may be as follows: performance is a
human activity consisting in sensuously objective
realization of human plans and ideas.
Performance in art. The communicative
function of performance. The artistic image
is born in the imagination of the creator and
in initial phase it exists in the mind as an
intentional object, created by consciousness
and implemented in mental form only. But the
mental image is invisible from the outside. In
order to realize it in the vision of other people,
one needs to make an intentional object real,
perceived now by sight and hearing. “Translation
of images” – that is the conventional name for a
specific for art method of social interaction, in
which the communicative function of artistic
performance is revealed, and performance
makes the idea of the creator “visible”, giving
it flesh, translating it into real, sensuously
perceived subject. Active and creative
perception of the latter leads to the formation
of the aesthetic object itself in perceiving
consciousness. Since then, the image begins to
engage in spiritual communication.
Materialized image is the result of art. But it
is materialized not for the further transformation
of the outside world, but for the impact of “on the
man himself – because art is a personal plane of
social practice” (Rappoport, 1978: 25). Internal
in art is to be expressed, discovered in the outer
world; external forms exist only to be involved
in the inner world again. Internal and external in
art are not separate entities, but only dialectical
moments of artistic image, two interdependent
forms of its existence. In interconversions they
acquire the truth of their being. And then they
exercise their mutual connection in artistic
performance and aesthetic perception.
Performance is a necessary moment of
every artistic creation. But if the performance is
just a forced mediation between fully formed in
the mind of the creator ideal image and its material
analogue, isn’t the moment of performance just
a purely technical point of execution? Isn’t it
characterized by a secondary role, while not
participating, in fact, in the process of building
up an internal image? And should not, in this
case, the performance be attributed to the craft,
but not by any means creative aspect of the
process? Italian philosopher Benedetto Croce
wrote in this regard: “When we took possession
of inner speech and imagined clearly and
vividly a picture, a statue, or a musical motif,
the expression had already been born and fully
formed. And there is no need for anything else.
And then if we want to open or really open our
mouths to speak or sing and if we want to hold
out our hands to touch the piano keys or take
a brush or chisel, then it will be an additional
fact complying with quite different laws than
the fi rst…” (quoted from the book: Koryhalova,
1979: 54). But let us think about it: does an
artistic image from its inception and up to the
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full specification reside solely in the mind of an
artist? It is unlikely that this view is consistent
with the actual facts of the artistic creativity.
A work of art is almost never occurs
immediately, suddenly1. The very birth of the
artistic design is accompanied, as a rule, by
the creation of plenty of sketches, diagrams,
rough drafts, fragments, plans, etc., which
find a preliminary, yet vague, not sufficiently
articulated vision of the future work. In the
process of specification and development of a
plan preparatory and auxiliary materials multiply.
Why is this pre-objectification in recurring acts
of performance is necessary? Why, even W.A.
Mozart, an outstanding improviser who could
hear all of his future creation at once, why did
he write a fair copy of sonata allegro only to
the development stage and... stop to clarify for
himself on the drafts the polyphonic parts and
motivic development?
In our view, the point is that the ability of the
internal combinatorics with imaginary objects is
not unlimited (even when it comes to authentic
artistic genius), both in terms of conservation the
results of the thinking process in memory, and in
terms of development, specification and finishing
of the artistic idea. Performance therefore does
not only objectify the artistic image, already
established in mind, it must be involved in the
maturation and crystallization of the idea.
By “externalizing” mental image, really
“placing it in front of himself”, the creator expands
his possibilities infinitely: what used to be held in
the mind is now enshrined in the sensuously given
subject and is clearly perceived by the senses.
Consciousness, freed from a structural problem,
can now concentrate on the following: to work
out some details, to seek their approval, to specify
the proportions and architectonic of the whole,
etc. The results of these actions are synthesized
in clarifying, narrowing inner vision and are
re-objectified in the next act of “performance-
realization”. That is only one round of an endless
spiral of creativity.
Thanks to the performance the artist
himself becomes a spectator or listener of his
own work. Moreover, perceiving his creation as
an “outsider” he becomes its fi rst “interpreter”,
seeks and fi nds in it latent semantic and
expressive capabilities and continuations, and
starts immediately to implement them. The
creative process becomes a peculiar dialogue
of the creator with the created artistic design.
Comparing actual experience with the idea and
fi xing the emerging noncoincidences an artist
specifies not only the physical form, but also
(and most importantly) the inner vision, image.
His fantasy is powered by impulses coming
from the perception, from living, immediate
impressions, found sometimes in unintended
(even random) deviations of the real object from
its ideal prototype. And then these “mutations”
are included in the artistic reality, enriching it
and opening new and unexpected faces of it.
What is the relation between preobjectification and finished product? Strictly
speaking, since during transforming activity there
is substitution of one object by another, followed
by transferring the results to the first object, a
preliminary act of objectification functions as
the model. Often substitution concerns the very
material when the preliminary work is carried out
by a more plastic material, comfortable to handle.
For example, a sculptor before working with
marble, draws a lot, sculpts the plaster model; a
muralist works out the composition on the canvas
of a small size; the composer plays a new symphony
on the piano, often writes a piano reduction before
begin work with the orchestration2. Interestingly,
the model function is performed by the work
itself: it would seem that the work is finally, fully
completed, it happens that it is even published –
and here comes the painful period of countless
amendments, revisions, editorials, transforming
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not only the details, but often, key aspects of the
whole.
Thus, without the execution not only the
communication in art is not possible, but also
the process of artistic creation and artistic
thinking itself. From the point of view of modern
psychology, the human thinking is inextricably
linked with sensuously objective activity and is
implemented in constant interaction of internal and
external processes. Respectively, artistic thinking
in principle cannot be reduced to only subjective
and psychological act of the internal construction
of the image and its reflection, interpretation, etc.
The process of thinking constantly occupies the
area of sensuously objective operating, which
is, performing. Therefore performance is not
only the discovery of the inner work (so that
the practical transformation of the real thing
“exposes” a corresponding transformation of
its ideal source). It does not only, together with
the perception, provide the relationship and
coordination of internal and external plans of the
creative process: sensuously objective operating
is also the most important incentive and the way
of the inner work of the creator.
We reviewed the highlights of the general
concept of performance, universal for all types of
art, which appear equally in all the arts. But, as
we know, a number of kinds of art are combined
for some reason in the group of “performing”
arts; thereby they are distinguished from all
other arts, which are not performing. The time of
performing, therefore, plays a special role in the
first group and has certain specific features.
The specificity of execution in the
“performing” arts. Usually for the reason for
distinguishing performing and non-performing
arts the researchers investigate the way of making
the work of art. In performing (or “active”) arts
work is not considered complete even after it is
completed by the author: recreation (“finishing”)
of the work is carried out every time by the
performer. In non-performing (“passive”) arts
finishing is not required and there is always a
work in its final form. Such are the views of Yu.
Kremlev, R. Zdobnov, G. Cogan, Ye. Gurenko,
V. Kuznetsov. Criticizing the position of these
authors, N.Koryhalova asserts that the performing
arts “are different from the non-performing arts
not in the way to create a piece of art, but in the
way of its existence, its social being”. The product
of performing arts reveals itself in public practice
not as “a ready result of artistic activity” (Hegel),
but “in the form of a constantly renewed process
carried out by a special person – ... performer”
(Koryhalova, 1979: 154).
Indeed, in the temporal and spatio-temporal
kinds of art – music, theater, ballet, etc., an
artistic image has a form of a process and in the
external mode of existence it is as transitory as
the time that it fills. Therefore, the artistic image
is involved in spiritual communication (apart
from audio and video recordings) only to a certain
extent, as its external form – audio or visual – is
renewed in the acts of performance.
In the spatial arts, the creative process has
its own limit; the number of acts of performance
is limited. Whatever the cost of labor for a new
picture is, after its final completion, it will not
require any more effort from an artist. In order to
present this picture for spectators, the artist hangs
it on the wall and that is enough
Not so in the temporal arts. This meeting
with one of the pieces of art every time requires
from creators – artists the actual creative act.
The time of presentation is the most responsible,
decisive phase of creative work, and the product
is presented as a live always work, as a message
of the living subject, addressed here and now to
the present audience. From this follows directly
the specificity of artistic content in these
arts – its special expressiveness, spontaneity,
subjective penetration. Hence the specificity of
the means of expression in using as nowhere
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else “natural” human material: appearance,
character of movements, facial expressions,
intonation and rhythm of speech, voice, live
emotions, feelings – in short, one’s whole being
is becoming, in the words of Hegel, “an animated
work of art”. This explains the improvisational
nature of performance – a unique feature of
“live communication” requires creativity also
in the process of the performing, no matter how
polished and elaborated the idea has been before
performing. An artist is always anew exposed
to artistic images, inspires by them again and
again, and, of course, each time a little differently
works out “an emotional range”, the logic of
imaginative development, drama of the whole,
not to mention separate details. The product
cannot be performed the same way twice, not
because it is difficult to implement technically,
but because it is impossible to go through it
exactly the same way twice.
As for the technical aspect, it has also very
specific role in temporal arts. As performance
is the artistic time subordinate to all the laws of
the artistic whole. This eliminates any chance,
inaccuracy, arbitrariness, etc., thus, requires a
complete and adequate representation of the ideal,
and therefore the reliability of the “apparatus of
performance”. Artistic stability, in turn, is only
achieved when there is clarity of visual images,
in conjunction with the “foresight” of specific
techniques, with the “foretaste” of specific
artistic movements. So the internal processes of
performing thinking develop at least two parallel
planes: imaginary (“what”) and sensorimotor
(“how”), and each foresight in the plane “what”
corresponds to the plane of presentiment
“how”. The same two-way character is applied
to the processes of monitoring and correction.
Although, of course, every division is purely
conventional: performing thinking possesses
special intensity of interaction of internal and
external processes, in which all the moments
of the chain “pretaste – presentiment – action –
incarnation – perception – control – correction”
merge into a latent unity in the moment of time,
which is in the dynamic interaction of all the
previous and all the upcoming “events” of the
idea’s life.
These are the main features of the performing
thinking directly in the performing process. If
we consider the creative process of the performer
during the work on the piece of art, it will appear
that the functions of the performance are here, in
general terms, the same as in any other forms of
artistic creativity: the performing idea is created
in the process of constantly recurring acts of its
incarnation3. The distinction between temporal
and spatial arts is smoothed to a certain extent due
to the appearance of a video and audio recording,
although, of course, it would be a mistake to
believe that the specifics of playing is neglected
completely in the era of film and video equipment,
tape recorders and synthesizers, that the performer
becomes a superfluous and unnecessary figure.
Quite the contrary. Just as the invention of photo
camera has not cut down the value of painting,
but only highlighted its artistic value, which is
not confined to reproducing a physical object,
so the means of audio and video record have not
replaced the performing art, but only emphasized
its independent aesthetic role, not reducible solely
to the function of reproduction of the work.
The validity of this approach becomes
apparent when we remember the earliest forms
of art. In them artistic creativity is inextricably
linked to all other spheres of human activity
(including labor, magic, ritual, military, gaming,
leisure, etc.), here artistic creativity serves as truly
universal way of life of human and society. At
this stage, it would be vain to seek a work of art in
the proper sense – in its origins art is manifested
primarily as a live activity, and created sound
objects are firstly the means of the organization
of this activity itself4.
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But, further, with a complete crystallization
of the fi rst works of art as a new culturalhistorical givenness (i.e. the result of artistic
creativity in the temporal arts acquires selfreliant value, becomes a “fi nished thing”, having
a certain system of stable characteristics), and
so performance emerges as a particular kind
of artistic creativity, designed to revive the
“fi nished thing” and store it in the culture.
However, performance as a live creative activity
as a “way of life”, as the most ancient form of
art retains, in broad cultural terms, the same
significance as previously the ancient magic
action possessed. Performance has its origins in
the latter, being a kind of “representative” of it
in any “slice” of musical culture. Therefore, the
product (the “fi nished thing”) will never be the
exclusive aim for the performance, but it is also
the reason, the means for performing activity,
allowing its incarnation again and again.
The self-worth and primacy of performing
arts was emphasized in the works of A. Tairov: “...
Of course, I knew that the theater organically does
not depend on the literature and that its mission is
not the transfer of the works of the playwright. To
“Glosses of Doctor Dapertutto to ‘Negation of the
theater” by Meyerhold I could add a whole era of
the Roman mime, when there were no authors and
their plays, but theater yet so powerfully charmed
the audience with its self-contained art that even
the all-powerful Caesars were jealous of the
monuments, by which the Romans honored their
favorite memes. I would also recall the brilliant
flash of commedia dell’arte, when Gozzi and
Sacchi reopened theater of San Samuele, which
had been closed once, and jingling harlequin bells
MR
again brought into its walls crowds of Venetians,
easily depriving by sparkling improvisations the
deceptive strength of Goldoni’s success, based on
the written plays. And many more brilliant pages
of the past of the theater I could cite as proof
that the art of theater and actor is primary (the
italics are mine – M.B.) and that Melpomene is
not a colonial negro in a beautiful galaxy of blueblooded muses…
Do I have to say that Actor is the main in
the theater, that in the history of the theater there
were long periods when it existed without any
decorations, but there was not a single moment
when the theater would be without the actor”
(Tairov, 1970: 78-79).
Analysis of the concept
of music performance
Concept’s structure. Taking the formulated
above general concept of performance as the base
for our thought, we give the following narrower
definition: music performance is a kind of
creative activity, which consists in finding sound
representations in adequate to them real sound.
Let us draw the structure of the concept of
musical performance (Fig. 1).
Music performance is different from any
other kind of performance above all in special –
sound, or, more precisely, intonation – objectivity,
by which the activities are carried out. But being
activity in the intonation objectivity music
performance is a kind of intonation and requires
further definition also from this stand.
Researchers distinguish between two forms
of intonation – internal and external. It would
be easy to determine the performance as the
RS
PS
Fig. 1: MR – mental representation of the upcoming sound; RS – real sound; PS – perceived sound image;
MR PS – the adequacy is established by comparing the perceived sound image with the represented mentally
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a) MR
[RS]
[PS];
b) [MR]
[RS]
PS
Fig. 2
external form of intonation. However, such an
idea would have been too poor. Therefore, by
some complicating in the typology of intonation,
we propose to distinguish between full and partial
acts of intonation.
Full act of intoning includes at least four
points: 1) mental representation of the upcoming
sound (MR); 2) real sound formation (RS); 3) back
inverse of the real sound in perceived tonal image
(PS); 4) comparison of MR and PS (feedback,
comparing the actual sound with a mental
prototype). Structure of full act of intonation thus
coincides with the structure of concept of music
performance (Fig. 1). What are then partial acts
of intonation?
Partial acts of intonation are the isolation
of one of two forms of internal intonation, in
which the real sound formation and other form of
internal intonation are present in the “removed”
fashion (Fig. 2).
An example of a partial act is a way of
listener’s intoning (Fig. 2b). Partial act of another
type can be seen in the composer’s work (Fig. 2a).
And only performing intonation cannot be
drastically limited to a mental form only, it must
include the time of real sound formation. Music
performance, therefore, is a full act of intoning.
There may be doubts: is a moment of
real sound formation a specific feature that
distinguishes the performance of other forms of
intonation? We know that the composer from
time to time “realizes” the work in creation on the
musical instrument, the listener hums memorized
tune, the musicologist analyzes the work, while
playing the piano – is not a moment of real sound
formation in all these cases present in one way
or another? May not such acts of intonation be
called – even with some limitations– “full”?
Sure, it is as such. But everyone who
performs the music, no matter who really – a
composer, a critic, a student, etc. – this person
acts as a performer and to a greater or lesser extent
becomes such. At the same time, we intuitively
distinguish between the activities of the artist, on
the one hand, and the composer and listener, critic,
musicologist – on the other, and this complies
with the concept – as non-performing activities
do not necessarily contain in their structure the
moment of real sound formation.
To sum up, emphasizing the moment of
specificity, we give the following definition: music
performance is a kind of intonation, necessarily
including the process of real sound formation.
The fact that the moment of real sound
formation is an essentially required and
specifying element of the concept of music
performance is quite obvious. It is more difficult
to understand whether two other moments of the
full act of intonation are also necessary, and these
are pretaste and perception of the actual sound.
In other words, can partial acts of performing
intonation exist?
Consider first the case when a performer for
whatever reason (e.g., due to a bad cold as it once
was with Pablo Casals – though judging by the
reviews, he played perfectly) cannot hear what he
is playing. We get a partial act of intonation with
a broken feedback (Fig. 3).
Can such a performance exist? Obviously,
in the general case – no, if we keep in mind
the full artistic performance: the reason is
that the necessary component of the concept
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MR1
RS
[PS]
Fig. 3
[MR]
RS
PS
Motor skills
Fig. 4
of performance is the adequacy of the actual
sound to mental sound images, unattainable
outside the continuous, intense “hearing by
the performer himself”, outside the constant
comparing the resulting sound with the ideal
prototype5.
The ability to “listen to yourself” in the true
sense is a very rare quality. Much more often –
especially in teaching practice – we encounter the
unfortunate case when a young musician is not
learned to correctly perceive, evaluate, and adjust
his/her play. Does this mean that our conclusion
(“performance is always a full act of intonation”)
does not correspond to reality? No, it does. We
can say that although the type of performance
with impaired hearing control occurs in reality,
however, it is invalid performance, which is not
relevant to its conception.
And what about Pablo Casals? It is thought
that such cases are classified as the exceptions
that prove the rule. An artist with a phenomenal
muscle memory, perfect coordination of internal
hearing and motor skills, is able sometimes
to accurately reproduce the series of motor
movements; however, these motor skills were
previously found and perfected under intense
auditory control.
Let us now turn to the analysis of another
way to “perform” when the performer does not
pre-hear music, and by making the usual playing
movements he/she plays a kind of acoustic sound,
which they then perceived from the outside. Here
we have another kind of a partial act of intonation
(Fig. 4).
It is easy to see that such a structure of
the performance is contrary to the concept of
performance itself: it is impossible to perform, to
realize something that even before its incarnation
has no ideal form, which is in the mind. Music
performance, in principle, cannot be reduced
only to the acoustic sound generation: real sound
is an expression of something, which has its
sound in the singer’s soul, and which is perceived
and created by the inner ear of the sound image.
Presentiment, by the way, is also a basic condition
for the hearing control: “listen to yourself”
means to compare the real sound with the ideal,
desirable.
Thus, upon closer inspection, both varieties
of the partial act of “performing” intonation
are just different projections of the same
phenomenon – non-creative performance that
does not conform to its concept. We come to an
important conclusion: the structure of the full act
of intonation is an invariant of the structure of
any artistic performance at all.
Formulated in this paper the concept of music
performance is, of course, not our discovery or
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Motor skills
Sound of a
keyboard
Auditory
area
Fig. 5
ɋ
Motor skills
Keyboard
Auditory area
Fig. 6
invention. No matter consciously or intuitively, it
has always been used by musicians because other
methods of performing arts do not exist. So, for
Asaf’ev, the crucial point distinguishing creative
and uncreative performance was listening and
understanding of music by the inner ear before
playing.6.
L.Tseytlin also said in his methodological
discussions about presentiment and foresight”7.
Systematic development of this idea was in the
works of the German teacher K. Marthinsen.
In 1930, Marthinsen introduced the term
“complex of a child prodigy”, denoting by it the
following scheme of the play process (Fig. 5).
It is easy to see the correspondence shown
in the scheme structure of the play process to the
concept of music performance: the sound of a
keyboard arises from a desire to realize a sound
image presented by hearing. So, according to
K. Marthinsen, the play process is for the child
prodigies, the outstanding performers.
The structure of the play process for an
average performer looks quite different (Fig. 6).
The will of motor skills
There is a disagreement between the structure
of performance and its concept: the leading role
is performed by motor skills and auditory area
remains on the periphery of consciousness, it is
not an initiator, but rather a listless observer of
what is happening. It is quite clear that such a
“performance” never exceeds mediocre level.
We are ensured that the correspondence of the
structure of the real play process to the structure
of the concept of music performance is necessary
and foremost condition for all performing arts.
The alpha and omega of the creative music
performance pedagogy has always been and will
always remain the idea that “in the course of
performance the following things are inseparable:
the internal representation of music, consistent
experience caused by the deployment of music
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in time, and hearing one’s own performance»
(Kremenshtein, 1966: 40), that, in other words,
the performance exists only in the unity of all the
moments of full act of intonation.
* * *
Let us continue to analyze the typology of
intonation, deepening its level.
Intonation is, by Asaf’ev, “... a meaningful,
purposeful, and given in some kind of combination
of content and interconnections the sound
reproduction of conceivable (the italics are mine –
M.B.) ... So from the perspective of music as the
meaning – explains further B. Asaf’ev – processes
of musical creativity and performance are equal.
The process of musical creativity includes
composer, internal intonation (“translation” of
the state of consciousness into the language of
musical elements, hearing the composed material
by the inner ear and its technical realization).
The process of musical performance implies
reproduction of the composed work, when
musical art object becomes the common property
of the public conscience” (Asaf’ev, 1971: 264).
In the context of this quotation intonation
for Asaf’ev has double meaning: on the one hand,
“the sound reproduction of the conceivable” is a
transformation of conceivable life content into the
sound images (when “... thinking and feeling of the
composer become the intonation, the processes
of voicing “of the states of consciousness become
the means of music”), on the other hand, “the
sound reproduction of the conceivable” is also
MR
understood in the literal sense – as a realization
of the sound images performed by inner hearing8.
We should also add one more important point:
“the comprehension of sound”, i.e., the back
conversion of the structure of expressive means
in thinking and feelings of a person listening to
music.
We get now three stages of the same full act
of intonation. The first stage is a transformation
of “living content” (LC1) in mental sound images
(MR). The second stage is a translation of mental
sound images into real sound (RS). The third
stage consists of a mirror transformation: a) RS
PS and b) PS LC2.
These stages form the full act of intonation,
the structure of which we can now draw on the
scheme in more detail (Fig. 7).
The applicability of this scheme to certain
types of performance (especially improvisation)
is doubtless. But is there the same situation when
there are three separate functions of a composer,
a performer and a listener?
To answer this question, let us consider
briefly as possible the structure of the performerinterpreter.
The impetus for the creative process for the
interpreter is the perception of music, recorded
by the composer in the musical text. The
creative process, therefore, begins, as if from
“the end”.
Perceived through the mental intonation
musical text (MR) general outlines of the work
are translated into the real sound (RS), and then
RS
LC1
PS
LC2
Fig. 7
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they are transformed into perceived sound image
(PS). Then this primary and, of course, mainly
preliminary, draft sound image is beginning to
increase the interpretative comprehension. The
interpreters experience this draft sound image by
their own means of understanding. The described
act (read prima vista) goes into an endless spiral
of creativity, in the process of deployment of
which there appears the further structuring of
sound material of the work (conceivable and
really sounding), i.e. there happens the revealing
of a complex hierarchical system of musical,
“grammar” and expressive elements, which in
fact comprise a piece of music. Simultaneously,
there is the intonation interpretation of important
parts, the transition from a system of means to
the semantic-expressive content, which may, in
principle, apply to the entire universum of human
existence.
In such a way there happens a semantic
satiation of sound material, and even in case of
the most adequate comprehension of the text,
the content is as authorial, as it is personal, as
perceived as self-generated. In fact perceived
1
2
3
4
5
6
material is perceived only because that it
awakens similar, “resonating” and at the same
time deeply experienced and suffered meanings
in one’s soul. These highly personal content and
images as if soak the sound material. And then
the plural being of a piece of music acquires an
another interpretation, in which the identity of
the composer, refracted through the interpreterperformer’s personality, finds a new being.
So, we presented a number of definitions of
the general concept of performance, and then we
continued the series of definitions by denoting
music performance. What was the reason for
doing so? Every science begins with definitions:
it is necessary to define general principles of the
subject of research, to find specific features that
distinguish this phenomenon from a different
kind of phenomena, but, at the same time, these
features unite by common characteristics all the
phenomenal forms in their diversity. However,
only in a collision with real history and practice
definitions begin to develop, comprising a truly
living concept, equal in its expanded form to the
theory of the subject being studied.
“But what theory do you have, my friend, – Fyodor Dostoevsky wrote to his brother M.M.Dostoevsky, – that the picture
has to be written once, and so on, and so on, and so on? When did you believe in that? Believe that everywhere labor, huge
labor is necessary. Believe me, easy elegant Pushkin’s poem in a few lines seems written once, because it is was too long
once and was worked out for many times. These are the facts. Gogol spent eight years writing “Dead Souls”. Everything
that is written at once is immature. You obviously mix inspiration, i.e. the fi rst moment of painting or movement in the soul
(which is always done), with the work. I, for example, write down the scene immediately and in the way it appeared to me
the fi rst time, and I’m satisfied with it, but then for months, years, I have been processing it, being inspired by it several
times, not one (because I love this scene), and for a few times I add to it something or score something out, that is how it
is for me, and believe me, the result is much better” (Dostoevsky, 1973: 387).
Music notation, while remaining objectification, puts a graphical model outside the realization in the proper sense, under
which not every objectification is understood, but rather an expression of the internal, “in flesh” real semiotic material of
any kind of art, in this case the sound. Music notation only replaces by the graphic means the perfect representation of the
sound and its acoustic equivalent.
B.L. Kremenshtein writes about learning piano music piece: “... playing, the musician hears the music; once he hears – he
feels, thinks, fi nds desires about performing; once he wants anything – he plays again, in a different way now; now he
hears the music again – more fully and better; he feels deeper and wants something new, something more. In this continuous cyclical process there appears an understanding of music and a specific performing idea. Comparing the actual sound
with what he wants to achieve, the artist evaluates the quality of the play, thus obtaining an incentive for further piano
work” (Kremenshtein, 1966: 40-41).
Such, for instance, are the original functions of the historically fi rst means of music: rhythm, tonality, tone, melody (For
further details see: Beniumov, 2011, 2012).
See further about the ability to “listen to yourself” in: (Kremenshtein, 1966: 40-114).
Let us recall the words of Asaf’ev, when he distinguishes between two branches of performing culture, “co-creative with
the composer” and “mechanically reproduced music notation according to the created technical norms (the italics are
mine – M.B.): “Between these faces there are many shades. Yet there are two major categories of performers: some listen
to music and understand it by the inner ear, intoning it in themselves before reproduction, that is, before they hear it from
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7
8
the outside, upon touch of fi ngers or the orchestra’s play”; other, “while not intoning music in their consciousness, take it
from the outside, by reproducing musical text only.” (the italics are mine – M.B., Asaf’ev, 1971: 237-299).
See: (Blok, 1960: 11). M.S. Blok comes close to the concept of performance, defi ning the work on performance technique
as “a process of real incarnation of imaginary sound representations” [Blok, 1960: 8].
Asaf’ev’s formula of “the sound reproduction of the conceivable” contains the defi nition of music performance: when it
concerns “the conceivable”, it is the internal form of sound images; the sound reproduction implies the incarnation of the
latter in a real musical object. Only very large semantic capacity of this very concise formula forces to understand by “the
sound reproduction of the conceivable” the intonation itself, which is a generic term, and music performance is a kind of
this intonation.
References
1. Asaf’ev B.V. Muzykal’naya forma kak protsess [Musical form is as a process]. Moscow, 1971.
376 p.
2. Beniumov M.I. Opyt semioticheskogo analiza hudozhetsvennyh stredstv muzyki [Experience
of semiotic analysis of music art]. Muzykal’naja nauka na postsovetskom prostranstve: materialy
Vtoroi Mezhdunarodnoi internet-konferencii [Musical science in the former Soviet space: Proceedings
of the Second International Internet Conference]. RAM Gnesinykh. (15.01.2011-15.05.2011). Available
at: http://www.gnesinstudy.ru/category/semiotika.
3. Beniumov M.I. Hudozhestvennye sredstva muzykanta-ispolnitelya: paradoks ponjatiya,
istoricheskii genezis, struktura, funkcii [Artistic means of a musician-artist: paradox of concept,
historical genesis, structure, functions]. Krasnoyarsk, 2012. 140 p.
4. Blok M.S. K voprosu o vospitanii muzykal’no-ispolnitel’skoi tehniki [On the education of
music and performance techniques]. Ocherki po metodiki obucheniya igre na srkipke [Essays on how
to learn to play the violin]. Moscow, 1960. Pp. 3-18.
5. Dostoevsky F.M. Ob iskusstve [About art]. Moscow, 1973. P. 632.
6. Koryhalova N.P. Interpretaciya muzyki: teoreticheskie problemy muzykal’nogo ispolnitel’stva
i kriticheskii analiz ih razrabotki v sovremennoi burzhuaznoi estetike [Music appreciation: theoretical
problems of musical performance and a critical analysis of their development in the modern bourgeois
aesthetics]. Leningrad, 1979. 209 p.
7. Kravchuk P.F., Tolkusheva S.A. (2007). Iskusstvo v sisteme social’noi kommunikacii [Art in
social communication]. Voprosy kul’turologii [Cultural issues], (8), pp. 35-38.
8. Kremenshtein B.L. Vospitanie samostoyatel’nosti uchashchegosya v klasse special’nogo
fortepiano [Education student autonomy in special piano]. Moscow, 1966. 120 p.
9. Rappoport S.H. Ot hudozhnika k zriteliu [From the artist to the viewer]. Moscow, 1978.
237 p.
10. Tairov A.Ya. O teatre [About the theater]. Moscow, 1970. 604 p.
11. Yampol’skii I.M. Ispolnenie muzykal’noe. Interpretaciya [Musical performance. interpretation].
Muzykal’naya jenciklopediya [Musical encyclopedia]. Volume 2. Moscow, 1974, pp. 583-591.
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Mikhail I. Beniumov. On the Concept of Musical Performance
О понятии музыкального исполнения
М.И. Бенюмов
Красноярская государственная академия музыки и театра
Россия, 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ленина, 22
В статье рассматривается многозначный термин «исполнение». Предложен ряд дефиниций
этого понятия на разных уровнях общности и специфичности: исполнение – вид деятельности;
исполнение – момент художественного творчества; исполнение – вид интонирования,
включающий момент реального звукоформования; исполнение – способ существования
художественной формы-процесса во временных и пространственно-временных искусствах.
Автором статьи вводятся и обосновываются понятия «полного» и «неполного» актов
интонирования. Делается вывод: структура полного акта интонирования представляет
собой инвариант структуры всякого вообще художественного музыкального исполнения.
Ключевые слова: музыкальное исполнение, интерпретация, интонирование, исполнительская
техника, нотный текст, музыкальное произведение.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2014 7) 480-489
~~~
УДК 781
Music and Architectural Categories.
On the Issue of Semantic Correspondences
Svetlana V. Bakuto*
Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre
22 Lenin Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Received 09.08.2013, received in revised form 18.11.2013, accepted 21.12.2013
The article attempts to compare music terms with the categories of the architectural theory. The subject
of the research comprises such key terms as tectonics and texture, pattern and setting which are
conceptually defined. The position of these categories in the system of expressive means is concretized.
The term “texture” peculiar for musical and architectural lexical means is specified. Certain levels
of correlation between music and architectural categories are identified. As a result we admit the
possibility to exceed the limits of traditional use of such terms as “musical form” and “tectonics”. This
focus of research is considered to be prospective, leading to the opportunity to reveal and give proof
of semantic parallels on the level of structural regularities in the works of architecture and music.
Basing upon the comparative method of analysis, the author suggests a new point of view on the issue
of interdisciplinary researches.
Keywords: architecture, music, synthesis of arts, tectonics, construction, musical form, musical
texture.
The peculiar feature of modern study of
art is its interest to the integration of various
arts phenomenon. Synergy and comparative
studies become new schools of the second half
of the XX century. They focus on the research
of universal regularities in the systems of
different nature, overcoming of subdivision of
contemporary scientific knowledge, and working
out of a unified methodological and conceptual
base. Peculiarities of interrelation between arts
are traditionally studied within closely related
spheres such as, for example, architecture,
sculpture or painting. However, the problem
of search for connections between spatial
and temporal arts hasn’t been worked out in a
*
detailed way yet. The study of nature of a musical
composition’s spatial-and-temporal continuum
fi nds itself in the context of the synthesis of
arts problem roughly in the third quarter of the
XX century. The researchers put the following
question: “Why do numerous analogies spring
up in the course of the development of the history
of art and lead, according to R. Arnkheim, to
‘strikingly similar parallels’ between certain
means of expressiveness in spatial arts and music,
and namely between fi ne art of the Middle Ages
with its aspiration, as S. Averintsev formulates it,
to get rid of a three-dimensional world of things
and monophony of Gregorian chant; between
Gothic architecture and descant, one of the
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: svetlana.bakuto@mail.ru
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forms of early polyphony; between perspective
in painting and harmony in music, between
key and timbre in music and colour in painting
and even between the impressionists’ method
of mixing colours and some phonic effects in
music (“vibrating sound” in Stravinsky’s score,
Bartok’s music, etc., in particular)?” (Berger
1980, p. 61). That’s why the attempt to bring the
forms of manifestation of such a similarity (or
isomorphism) between music and architecture
into a precise system and provide a scientific
proof of it is both rightful and topical.
Music and architectural works are parts
of culture. They contain certain information.
Architectural masterpieces, despite the fact that
they belong to material objects, are nonetheless
“the works of art which are consequently
perceived emotionally” (Nazarova 2012, p. 60).
In this regard they can be compared to musical
compositions though dualism of material
and spiritual origin for temporal art is not
so obvious. The idea of correlation between
music and architecture as spiritual and material
phenomena peculiar to a certain historic
period is of a great interest. There are bright
examples of the creators’ conscious aspiration
for a universal artistic language. The baroque
epoch is marked with attraction to synthesis of
arts. Italian masters contrived original forms
of interaction of various arts. Thus, music and
poetry, architecture and art of a theatre set
were organically interconnected in baroque
theatre. Landscape ensemble displayed not
only the unity of plastic arts and nature but also
the transfer of principles and ways of a theatre
stage’s space design. Academies, propagated
in Italy in the XVII –the fi rst half of the XVIII
centuries and uniting patrons, architects, artists,
musicians and poets, can also serve an example
of such interconnection. The history of a
creative union of Pietro Ottoboni (1667–1740), a
cardinal (Fig. 1), Arcangelo Corelli (1653–1713),
a composer (Fig. 2), and Carlo Fontana (1668–
1708), an architect (Fig. 3), is not widely known.
However, the result of their cooperation was
embodied in a grand idea of the establishment of
Fig. 1. Pietro Ottoboni
Fig. 2. Arcangelo Corelli
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Fig. 3. Carlo Fontana
Fig. 4. Academia Albana (Plan)
a new Academy (Fig. 4). It had to present an ideal
union of all free arts: literature and painting,
sculpture, architecture and landscape art, art
of fencing, and, certainly, music (Arcangelo
Corelli).
As the interaction between spatial and
temporal arts is determined by their syncretical
nature it may be stated that the topicality of the
issue of synthesis of arts is permanent. One of
its possible perspectives is search for semantic
intersections at the level of terms. This article
attempts to correlate some music terms with
primary categories of the architectural theory in
order to reveal their semantic correspondences.
The brightest example of inclusion of
architectural words in a set of musical terms is
connected with the word “tectonics”. This specific
means of architectural expressiveness reflects
a general character of constructive-and-spatial
system by means of architectural forms and their
combination. The universal meaning of this term is
understood on the basis of organic interconnection
of an artistic form and its construction, that
is inner logic of an installation’s structure.
Similar interpretation of the architectural term
correlates with one of the semantic meanings
of a musical form. Peculiarities of a musical
forming are also determined by interdependent
position of a musical composition’s parts and
their proportionality that can be conventionally
showed in its scheme. Meanwhile, it is not always
competent to identify a plan of the parts’ position
and a musical form’s regularities. In the same
way it is not always right to equal architectural
form and constructive building system that can
be hidden from eyes. According to A.I. Nekrasov,
“real situation doesn’t always correspond to the
external expression of forces of constructions”
(Nekrasov, 1994, p. 226). Similar disparity is
revealed at the level of a musical composition
(for example, between semantic (motif) and
constructive (rhythm) structure in a musical
composition that is connected with a musical
form’s dual nature). On the one hand, a musical
composition unfolds in time; on the other hand, it
exemplifies a spatial structure. It is revealing that
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in G. Conus’s metro-tectonic theory the distinction
between semantic and constructive structures is
nominated by the scholar with two terms of the
so-called “integumental” and “skeletal” solidities
the boundaries of which do not always coincide
(Сonus, 1965).
An architectural term’s content presupposes
the search for other musical equivalents,
consonant with its meaning. Thus, the concept of
tectonics is directly connected with the degree of
weight and solidity of constructional materials.
“Interconnection of supporting and supported
parts receives its varied implementation in its
bulk-and-spatial construction, in the system of
segmentation of great bulks, volumes, surfaces,
and plastic processing of parts” (Ocherki, 1960, p.
80). The density of a site development is also taken
into account in an architectural ensemble. Thus,
such main and additional means as space, mass,
density, size, texture are involved in creation
of a tectonic image of an architectural work of
art. The picture of their correlation reveals an
emotional aspect of an architectural ensemble,
demonstrates the combination of various elements
in the whole construction, their connections, the
feeling of lightness or heaviness of the whole.
The enumerated parameters of mass, density,
volume also integrate into a semantic field of such
a means of musical expressiveness as texture.
It becomes quite obvious that the possibility to
explain terminological parallels is not exhausted
with the field of musical forming.
A musical composition is a multi-level system
of various expressive means. Musical texture
fulfills an important forming function among
them. Besides, the field of texture also comprises
the problems of musical texture organization
as a sound, being elementary material of
music, possesses certain physical properties.
A composition’s material side is actualized in a
“stream of sounds” (Tiulin): conceptions of mass
and density, voluminosity and configuration of
sounding arise. In this respect the concept of
sound texture (or musical texture) agrees with
the concept of texture borrowed from the sphere
of plastic art1. In the theory of an architectural
composition it means a physical property of the
material (surface) the author works with. However,
the aspect of their functioning is different due to
a certain specificity of temporal and spatial arts.
Thus, sound texture as one of the components of
the system of expressive means functions at the
level of a musical text. As for an architectural
composition, all its expressive means are a priori
material (excluding space). Musical texture
actualizes musical-and-psychological images;
while the means of an architectural composition
are visual-and-tactile (the material’s texture
is smooth, ribbed, etc.). It should be added that
texture, presenting a certain type of musical
texture in its various manifestations, implements
an emotional-and-sensory level of its perception.
Various factors are taken into account at that:
mass of its sounding, its volume, structure (or
configuration) and density.
The mechanisms of composition of sound
texture’s various components (sounds, lines,
voices) into the whole are considered at a logical
level of musical texture and setting. In the theory
of musical texture these categories also present
different aspects of functioning of a musical
whole. But at the same time they are closely
connected. Summarizing the mentioned above,
it can be stated that a characteristic feature of
the “musical texture” category is its structural
properties. These are represented in the unity
of constituting and subordinated concepts:
musical texture –setting –texture. Each category
functions at a certain level of a composition’s
organization. “Texture is a substance at the
level of which fixation of under-lying prosodic
processes, “objectification” of functional-andlogical relations of a musical text’s elements take
place” (Aleksandrova, 1992, p. 91). The meaning
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of an architectural term doesn’t imply such
structural properties. At first sight such terms as
“the mode of presentation”, “a concrete form”,
“and structure” coordinate with the semantic
meanings of the architectural term “texture”.
However, a semantic range of a musical term
is much wider. Firstly, the category of musical
texture in the system of musical expressive
means doesn’t only cover the question “what”
but also that of “how is the organization of all its
components fulfilled”. Secondly, musical texture
is “an artistically reasonable three-dimensional
musical-and-spatial configuration of sound
texture, differentiating and uniting the whole
set of components vertically, horizontally and
in-depth” (Nazaikinskii, 1982, p. 73). Thirdly,
musical texture takes into account each element’s
functional role and bahaviour as well as their
correlation. In the theory of architecture this
term is unidirectional in its meaning and takes
the “place” of the material (or means) for creative
work in the general system of categories. All
this gives grounds to assert that these concepts
do not coincide systemically. The position of
this category in the system of musical expressive
means, its semantic complexity connected with
a variety of the category’s functions, as well as
it structural properties and a specific role of an
“artistic organizer” of a musical space prevent
from bringing it into correlation with the concept
from the sphere of architecture that seems to be
synonymic to it at first sight. In terms of texture’s
architectonic function and its implementation
at emotional-and-sensory and logical levels
semantic parallels are built with the architectural
term “tectonics”.
K. Bettikher, a German historian of ancient
architecture, was the first to use this term which he
defined as “reality that doesn’t only bring forming
into the stark material needs but also raises
this forming up to the level of an artistic form”
(Ikonnikov, 1986, p. 61). The term’s semantic
meaning was concretized and became wider
later on. It integrated appropriateness regarding
a form’s functions and expressiveness regarding
its implementation. Tectonics artistically changes
a construction but is not similar to it. Texture
is a result of an artistic processing of a sound
matter. Tectonics refers to outer expression of
an architectural work of art, evokes a person’s
sensory-and-emotional response. Being a
composition’s “front side” (Nazaikinskii), musical
texture “materializes the idea of setting”, develops
a sensory-and-emotional image of a musical
composition. A construction functions inside a
building, it is hidden from eyes and is a building’s
inner structure, logic of building. A setting in a
musical composition determines inner logic of its
structure, the structure of musical texture. “Setting
is an invariant of musical texture’s structure: it
is of a sort of a general plan of constructing the
whole texture” (Titova, 1992, p. 21).
The given definitions are united into the
pairs of musical and architectural concepts
consonant to each other: Texture –Setting and
Tectonics –Construction. Their correlation
can be clearly seen in the table. The common
denominator, uniting these terms, is the category
of space.
Musical
categories
Sound texture
Texture
Setting
Levels
of functioning
Material
Music text/
Material
Emotional-andsensory
Audio/Visual
Outer
Logical
Inner
Architectural
categories
Texture
Tectonics
Construction
The presence of three coordinates (a vertical
line, a horizontal line and depth) in texture
provides the grounds for searching for the analogy
with spatial arts, associating specific peculiarities
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of sounding with manifestations of object
environment. The reason of impossibility of literal
correlation is in the following: in music the depth
coordinate is often ephemeral whilst conspicuity
of three dimensions is a base of any architectural
composition. In music this dimension is the
most ambiguous. Hence, texture can integrate
virtual and real space by means of division of
musical instruments or chorus groups within the
space of a concert hall or cathedral. Perception
of depth can be quite evident for ear while its
analytical evaluation unfolds a composition’s
semantic meaning. Volume dynamics and degree
of remoteness of a sounding source favour the
division of texture into planes such as relief
(near) and background (distant) ones. It is this
aspect where numerous metaphoric terms appear.
“Front”, “back”, “middle”, “perspective” are
among them. Due to texture’s three dimensional
structure various components are differentiated
in musical texture. They are lines, strata, layers,
“floors”. According to a vertical coordinate there
are upper, lower and middle ones. According
to a horizontal coordinate such components as
accords, chords, texture cells are distinguished.
In E. Nazaikinskii’s opinion syntactic and
compositional differentiations come in force here
(Nazaikinskii 1982). Diagonal is another special
coordinate for a musical composition. It is evident
in sounding and musical notation of Arcangelo
Corelli’s Concerto grosso №7 (Fig. 5):
The idea of integration of several schools was
embodied in the architecture of the Palazzina di
caccia of Stupinigi by Filippo Juvarra, a famous
architect of Italian baroque (1678-1736) (Fig. 6).
The attempt to correlate musical coordinates
with the system of three dimensions in architecture
is presented below.
Architectural volume is correlation of height,
width and depth. Vertical (as per height) and
horizontal (as per width) segmentations arrange
the elements of an architectural form and reveal
the differences between them. Thus, vertical
segmentations make it possible to distinguish
a building’s top and bottom, their interaction
and subordination as per weight. Horizontal
Fig. 5. Concerto grosso №7 Allegro
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Fig. 6. The Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi by Filippo Juvarra
segmentations enable to limit the surface in the
same direction and compositionally emphasize a
dominating part. One of the conditions of depth
is connected with segmentations of architectural
volume according to these two coordinates. It
also depends on the conditions of perspective or,
in other words, on a form’s position in space and
its remoteness from a viewer. They distinguish an
architectural form’s position in depth, in general
front, in front of other forms. (Let’s remember the
division into relief and front planes in a musical
composition.) The forms which are near a viewer
are perceived clearly, distinctly, as relief ones.
As the distance becomes greater the details start
disappearing, forms’ voluminosity and relief
gradually turn to flatness and silhouette-like,
clarity of colour correlations becomes less, colour
saturation is absorbed…” (Krinskii, Lamtsov,
Turkus, 1968, p. 112). Thus, depth as a form’s
feature manifests itself in dynamics and depends
on a viewer’s motion in space or his active visual
perception (various trajectories of the gaze
motion, noticing significant details). Division
into texture’s planes in music can be comparable
with various positions of an architectural form in
space. Common psycho-physiological sets (active
work of aural sense tracking all the travels of motif
similarly to the work of eyesight) enable to reveal
correlations between three-dimensional systems
in music and architecture. The statements above
can be presented in the form of a table.
MUSIC
ARCHITECTURE
Coordinates
Vertical line, horizontal
line, depth
Components
In vertical line: bottom,
top, middle lines, strata,
layers, “floors”, “tiers”
Coordinates
Height, width, depth
In horizontal line:
texture cell
In horizontal line: floors,
tiers, cells (motifs) as a
building’s dominating
parts
In depth: front plane,
plane in depth, general
plane.
In depth: relief and
background planes
(“front”, “back”,
“middle”)
Segmentations
In vertical line: a
building’s bottom, top,
middle elements
Mass, density and volume are a sound
matter’s object features. They are modeled by
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a co-action of a whole set of musical expressive
means: register, timbre, accents and articulation
means, volume dynamics. Choice and conditions
of their combination determine the appearance
of auditory sensations –light or complicated,
lessened or compact sounding. The concepts of
mass, density and volume are the main in the theory
of architecture. These properties of architectural
forms manifest themselves to different extent.
Visual perception of lightness or weight is formed
due to certain distribution of masses and character
of expression of constructive elements’ work. For
example, a wall’s surface, treated with large rustic
stone, forms a visual sensation of solidity. As
these features specifically manifest themselves
in music and architecture, their comparison is to
some extent conventional. Nevertheless, basing
upon propositions by I.I. Snitkova (Snitkova,
1991), V.F. Krinskii, I.V. Lamtsov and M.A.
Turkus (Krinskii, Lamtsov, Turkus, 1968), it’s
worth while comparing the semantic meanings of
the concepts “mass”, “volume” and “density” in
music and architecture.
Properties of sound
Name
texture
Depends on the
Mass
number of voices
and sound volume.
Depends on the
difference of
musical texture
elements: melodic
line, sound line,
sound “point”, etc.
Characterizes the
intensity of sound
effect. Correlation
between mass,
sound structure
and sound volume
dynamics are taken
into consideration.
Limits: lessening
or compaction of
texture.
Properties of
architectural forms
Depends on
visual evaluation
of quantity of an
architectural form’s
material.
Volume A form’s
geometrical type
when all three
coordinates are
equal.
Density Characterizes the
intensity of filling a
form or territory.
Limits: minimum
(lessened) and
maximum.
All three properties are connected with
a sound’s physical nature. Thus, they can be
peculiar not for musical texture only but for any
of its elements. Object properties of a sound,
(musical texture) correlate with main properties
of spatial forms. The presence of a quantitative
factor attracts at both analytical evaluation
of sounding mass and visual description of
property of architecture. Proximity of a semantic
meaning of the concept “density” in music and
architecture is connected with the intensity
measure and termed with such synonymic words
as “lessened” –“compact”.
As it has been mentioned above, the
“volume” parameter is connected with a
specific, “non-evident” manifestation of the
“depth” coordinate in musical texture. It can be
suggested that possible semantic intersections
will be connected with the concept of sounding
structure. The term suggested by I.I. Snitkova
means the degree of texture homogeneity
or material’s “stratification” and depends
on a defi nite pattern, (ornament) of voices
(Snitkova, 1991). The researcher considers
that ornamentation and “décor” means play a
decisive role here. Emphasizing the expression
“pattern”, (contour) of voices as the main one,
it is possible to notice a semantic correlation
between the musical term “texture pattern”
and the architectural term “texture”. The latter
means an ornament formed on the material’s
surface by spots, lines and stains.
As for musical analogies of such
architectural properties as chiaroscuro and
colour, they base upon associative relations to
a greater extent. “Sometimes spatial-and-visual
associations are evoked not so much by “the
motion” of texture voices as by a certain “visible”
brilliance of sounding: they are reflected in the
descriptions containing “colour” and “light”
metaphors even” (Skrebkova-Filatova, 2001, p.
23). Numerous metaphoric comparisons are of
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principal for the range of problems in the theory
of texture as they corroborate the originality of
such concepts as “musical colour” and “light”.
The study of mechanisms of their embodiment
in music and architecture is beyond the limits of
this article and can be an issue for an independent
research.
Summarizing the mentioned above, it can be
pointed out that the comparison of two theoretical
systems enables to:
1. Corroborate the universal character of
basic concepts (“tectonics” and “texture”);
2. Regard the possibility of establishment
of semantic parallels between the features of a
musical texture’s three-coordinate structure and
the main parameters of architectural volume
measurement;
1
3. Demonstrate direct correspondences
between status and position of certain definitions
in the system of classification of features and
means of expressiveness.
The dialectics of interaction of motion and
quiescent state that manifests itself in both music
and architecture but to a different extent was
once worded in such widely-known metaphors as
“Music is a melting architecture” or “Architecture
is a frozen music”. Comprehension of a musical
composition’s spatial nature changes the context
of these phrases and without prejudices reveals
semantic parallels both at the level of terms and at
the level of structural regularities of architectural
works and musical compositions permitting the
latter to be the subject of an independent scientific
research.
The term ‘sound texture’ was fi rst distinguished as an independent category by Iu.N. Tiulin (Tiulin 1966). Dwelling upon
such peculiar features of musical texture as length and volume of sounding, the researcher transfers this term from a group
of metaphors to an independent theoretical category.
References
1. Aleksandrova, E.L. Texture as an aspect of relief-background’s demonstration [Faktura kak
aspekt proiavleniia rel’efo-fonovykh otnoshenii]. Problemy faktury: sbornik statei (The problems of
texture: collection of papers). St. Peterburg, St. Peterburg Conservatory, 1992, pp. 90-112.
2. Berger, N.A. Garmoniia kak prostranstvennaia kategoriia muzyki [Harmony as a spatial
category of music]. Problemy vysotnoi i ritmicheskoi organizatsii muzyki: sbornik trudov (Problems of
music diapason and rhythmic organization: collection of papers). Moscow, The Gnesin State Musical
College, 1980, Vol.50, pp. 60-82.
3. Conus, G.E. Stat’i, materialy, vospominaniia [Articles, materials, memories]. Moscow,
Musika, 1965. 143 p.
4. Ikonnikov, A.I. Funktsiia, forma, obraz v arkhitekture [Function, form, the image in
architecture]. Moscow, 1986. 286 p.
5. Krinskii, V.F., Lamtsov, I.V., Turkus, M.A. Elementy arkhitekturno-prostranstvennoi
kompozitsii [The elements of the architectural-and-spatial compositions]. Moscow, 1968. 168p.
6. Nazaikinskii, E.V. Logika muzikal’noi kompozitsii [The logic of a musical composition],
Moscow, Musica 1982. 318 p.
7. Nazarova, M.P. (2012). Arkhitekturnye pamiatniki v strukture kul’turno-istoricheskogo
naslediia [Architectural monuments in the structure of cultural-historic heritage]. Voprosy kul’turologii,
6, 60-64.
8. Nekrasov, A.I. Teoriia arkhitektury [Theory of architecture]. Moscow, Stroiizdat Gallery of
Modern Art’91, 1994. 477 p.
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9. Ocherki teorii arkhitekturnoi kompozitsii [Essays of the architectural composition theory].
Moscow, 1960. 294 p.
10. Pietro Matastasio. Poeta dell’Unita cultural europea (2010), Available at: http://
pietrometastasio.com (accessed 12 March 2013). Arcangelo Corelli frao mito e realta storica (Arcangelo
Corelli between the myth and the reality). Available at: http://pietrometastasio.com/arcangelo_corelli.
htm (accessed 12 March 2013).
11. Skrebkova-Filatova, M. Muzykal’naia faktura kak component zhivopisnosti v muzyke [The
musical texture as a component of picturesqueness in music]. Muzykal’naia faktura: sbornik trudov
(The musical texture: collection of papers], 146. Moscow, 2001, pp. 180-202.
12. Snitkova, I.I. Zvukovoi material sovremennoi muzyki i nekotorye aspekty teorii faktury
[Acoustic material of modern music and some aspects of the texture theory]. Faktura v sisteme
muzykal’no-vyrazitel’nykh sredstv: sbornik statei (The texture in the system of the musical expressive
means: collection of papers). Krasnoyarsk, 1991, pp. 3-23.
13. Titova, E.V. K teorii faktury: Istoriia voprosa, osnovnye kategorii [The texture theory: history
of the problem, main categories]. Problemy faktury: sbornik statei (The problems of texture: collection
of papers). St. Peterburg, St. Peterburg Conservatory, 1992, pp. 7 –26.
14. Tiulin, Y.N. Uchenie o garmonii [The harmony doctrine]. Moscow, 1966. 222 p.
Музыкальные и архитектурные категории.
К вопросу о смысловых соответствиях
С.В. Бакуто
Красноярская государственная академия музыки и театра
Россия, 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ленина, 2
В данной статье предпринята попытка сопоставления музыкальных терминов и категорий
архитектурной теории. В качестве предмета исследования рассматриваются следующие
ключевые понятия: тектоника и фактура, конструкция и склад. Определены смысловые
значения данных дефиниций. Конкретизировано положение этих категорий в системе
средств выразительности. Уточняется значение понятия «фактура», которое применяется
в музыкальной и архитектурной лексике. Устанавливаются возможные уровни соотнесения
музыкальных и архитектурных категорий. В результате допускается возможность выхода
за рамки традиционного уподобления терминов «музыкальная форма» и «тектоника». Данное
направление исследования перспективно, позволяет обнаружить и обосновать смысловые
параллели на уровне структурных закономерностей произведений зодчества и музыки.
Используя компаративистский метод анализа, автор предлагает новый взгляд на проблему
междисциплинарных исследований.
Ключевые слова: архитектура и музыка, синтез искусств, тектоника, конструкция,
музыкальная форма, музыкальная фактура.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2014 7) 490-497
~~~
УДК 782
Specificity of Plot Composition
of G.F. Handel’s opera “Rinaldo”
Maria А. Kosheleva*
Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre
22 Lenin Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Received 10.09.2013, received in revised form 16.11.2013, accepted 18.12.2013
The article focuses on “Rinaldo”, one of the first operas that brought G.F. Handel European fame.
According to the researchers, it is considered one of the composer’s best masterpieces. However,
Russian sources provide with the most general information only. Against the background of the
renaissance of baroque opera in stage practice of the XX century there appeared a considerable
research interest to a musical theatre of this period and Handel’s operatic creative work including.
The time to attract attention to a 26-year-old German genius has come. The article attempts to
systematize the available information connected with the history of Handel’s opera creation, to reveal
the specificity of interpretation of the literary primary source in A. Hill’s scenario and G. Rossi’s
libretto, to find out the specific features of the plot composition on the basis of the libretto analysis and
its study in the context of theatre traditions within the period from the end of the XVII century till the
beginning of the XVIII century.
Keywords: theatre, baroque, opera, G. Handel, libretto, A. Hill, G. Rossi, plot composition.
Every Englishman believes that Handel now
occupies an important position in heaven.
If so, le bon Dieu must feel toward him
very much as Louis Treize felt toward Richelieu.
B. Shaw
It was the day of February 24, 1711 when
G. Handel’s “Rinaldo” premièred in the Theatre Royal
Haymarket in London. The opera was composed
to the order of A. Hill, the theatre director. It was
enthusiastically welcomed by the audience and
ran for 15 nights during its first theatrical season.
The composition became not only Handel’s
first opera for the English stage that brought
him fame of an opera composer but the first
Italian language exemplary opera in the history
*
of the English theatre. It is no mere chance that
“Rinaldo” was staged in many cities of the
world: in Prague (June 1923), London (February
1933), at Handel festival in Halle (1954), in
Carnegie Hall (1972), Houston (1975), NewYork (1984), Madrid (1991), at Munich festival
in 2000. In 2001 David Alden, a prolific theater
and film director, suggested the post-modernist
setting of the opera. Later Handel’s masterpiece
was performed in La Scala (2005), Zurich (2008),
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: mary777violet@gmail.com
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Prague (2009), Warsaw (2009), and Versailles
(2011). In March 2012 “Rinaldo” was performed
in Lyric Opera of Chicago (USA). It was staged
by Francisco Negrin to the tercentenary of the
opera composition.
Nowadays there are two author’s versions of
the composition: these of the year of 1711 and the
year of 1731. According to many researchers of
Handel’s creative work, the first version enjoys
the widest popularity. They explain this by
the fact that it is the original that has a greater
vital force and can arouse the audience’s deep
emotional feelings.
This article will attempt to reveal some
peculiar features of the opera plot composition
in which various national traditions of baroque
opera practice meet.
As for the libretto, it should be mentioned
that originally a scenario was written in
English by Aaron Hill, an English dramatist
and miscellaneous writer, and later it served the
basis for an Italian libretto by Giacomo Rossi, an
Italian poet and librettist.
The plot for A. Hill’s libretto scenario is
loosely based on the eighteenth canto of T. Tasso’s
poem “Jerusalem Delivered”. The author doesn’t
fully follow the text of the poem. He uses the key
moments of the plot only (Table 1).
A set of characters is added because of
changes of some plot lines in libretto. The
original characters are Goffredo, Eustazio,
Rinaldo, Argante, Armida and sirens. Additional
characters are Almirena, a Christian magician,
a woman and Araldo. These can be divided into
three groups:
• Historic and legendary characters –
Goffredo, Eustazio, Rinaldo, sirens.
• Feature characters introduced in the
poem by Tasso – Armida, Argante.
• Feature characters introduced in the
libretto – Almirena, a Christian magician,
a woman and sirens, Araldo.
Besides, the opera libretto displays the
change of some Tasso’s poem characters and
substitution of their functions:
1. In Tasso’s poem it is Peter who blesses
Rinaldo before the crusade. In the libretto
this function is fulfilled by Almirena.
2. It is known that there is no such a character
as a Christian magician in the poem.
There are archangels Gabriel and Michael
in it. A Christian magician is likely to
substitute these biblical characters.
The message of the opera “Rinaldo” is the
fight between good and evil in which forces of
good finally win. The image-bearing sphere of
good (light) embraces the characters that uphold
the Christianity and fight for its ideals. The
characters of the image-bearing sphere of evil
(darkness) profess the Muslim religion. They are
helped by the magic forces. The image-bearing
structure of the opera “Rinaldo” can be presented
in the following scheme (Fig. 1)
Thus, antagonism of forces of action and
forces of counter-action is embodied in the
opposition of two camps. This becomes the
mainspring of the development of the action
inspired by a religious idea of Jerusalem liberation
from the infidels.
The analysis of the plot composition of the
libretto of the opera “Rinaldo” enables to reveal
the similarity of the motifs chosen by A. Hill with
those in librettos of Italian operas composed at
the turn of XVII – XVIII centuries.
It should be pointed out that Christian epos
and historic plots were extremely popular with
the librettists at the close of the first third of the
XVII century. Old Roman and modern Spanish
comedies of “a cloak and a sward”1 bring some
variety into the baroque libretto. By the second
half of the XVII century Italian libretto integrates
different plots and themes: history and myth,
fiction and real political events, the comic, the
lyric and the tragic.
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Table 1
Act in the opera, scene
Act I, scene 1
Act II, scene 1
Act II, scene 5
Act III, scene 3 (final fragment)
Act III, scene 9
The relevant fragment in the poem
Verse 2:
Low as he kneeled before him Godfrey cast
His arms around his neck, and kindly said;
“No more revive the melancholy past;
In peace repose the memory of the dead!
And no amends I seek for frenzy fled,
Than that thy wonted valour be renewed,That for the ruin of the foe, thou tread
Enchanted ground, and, for the general good,
From the spells and monsters free the’ inviolable
wood.
Verses 18–19:
He passes onward – the charm works; a sound
Sweet as the air of Paradise upsprings;
Hoarse roars the shallow brook; leaves around;
Sight to the fluttering of the light wind’s wings;
Her ravishing swing dirge the cygnet sings,
Loud mourn the answering nightingales; sad shells,
Flutes, human voices tuned to golden strings,
And the loud searching organ’s glorious swells,Such and so various sounds one single sound expels.
He was expecting, like the rest, to meet
The strange wild groans and thunders of dismay,
And lo, a symphony of sirens sweet,
Birds, winds, and waters, for his pleasure play!...
Verse 30:
A rude Silenus oft the days of old
Have seen unclose, and yield some Goddess fair,
But never yet did sylvan image hold
Charms such as issued from the myrtle rare:
For forth a Lady stept with golden hair,
With angel beauty, angel mien and grace;
In whom, albeit of visionary air,
Rinaldo starts Armida’s forms to trace,
The same expressive eye, fond smile, and radiant face.
Verse 33:
…But he, unmoved by all he sees and hears,
Cautious, not cruel, to the plaints she poured
No longer pays regard, but draws his fatal sword.
Verse 40:
With glad huzzas for victory achieved
Rang the wide hills around, and skies above;
The conquering knight by Godfrey is received
With praise unmixed with envy, and with love…
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Maria А. Kosheleva. Specificity of Plot Composition of G.F. Handel’s opera “Rinaldo”
Two hostile camps
The forces of good –
adherents of the Christianity
The forces of evil –
the Muslims + magical forces
Goffredo
Eustazio
Rinaldo
Almirena
Argante
a Christian
magician
ACTION
Armida
two sirens
COUNTER-ACTION
Fig. 1
Turning to historical plots gives birth to
the opera-seria genre. However, it should be
noted that historical theme turns out to be on
the periphery of the event narration. A love line
becomes a plot making one. This is proved by the
analysis of opera librettos composed at the turn of
the XVII and XVIII centuries. It enables to single
out a set of key motifs for the plot composition
(for example, А. Aurelli “Pompey the Great in
Cilicia”; S. Stampiglia “The triumph of Camilla,
queen of the Volsci”; А. Zeno “Pharamond”,
А. Salvi “Andromache”). These are the motif of
salvation, the motif of mutual love, the motif of
unrequited love, the motif of jealousy, the motif
of recollections (dreams) of love, the motif of
rendezvous, the motif of suffering, the motif
of hatred, the motif of revenge, the motif of
duty, the motif of reward, the motif of disguise/
recognition.
The motifs enumerated above interact in
various ways. The priority is obviously given to
the plot motifs connected with the theme of love.
Besides, a magic dramaturgic line characteristic
for baroque opera is pushed aside, the number of
characters becomes fewer (up to 6-8 characters),
and comic characters are excluded from librettos2.
It can be supposed that while in Italy Handel
learnt this type of libretto which had the greatest
influence on him.
Basing on T. Tasso’s poem as the original,
A. Hill preserved a set of important components
but at the same time shifted a historic perspective,
having emphasized a theme of love. The latter
differently manifests itself in the opera:
• In Scene 5 of Act I the dialogue between
Armida and Argante embodies the motif
of love/partnership. It is here where the
plot starts.
• The motif of mutual love between Rinaldo
and Almirena is materialized in their
mutual duet in Scene 6 of Act I.
• The motifs of Armida’s jealousy and
hatred interacting with the motif of
Argante’s unfaithfulness are brightly
presented in Scene 10 of Act II.
It should be also mentioned that the motif of
salvation, being very important for a historical and
heroic dramaturgic line, gets a new perspective
switching action to a love sphere: “Almirena’s
salvation” becomes the condition of “Jerusalem’s
salvation”.
Peculiar features of the plot composition,
image-bearing structure, integration of plot
motifs and dramaturgic lines characteristic of
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Maria А. Kosheleva. Specificity of Plot Composition of G.F. Handel’s opera “Rinaldo”
“Rinaldo” make it possible to single out several
main themes of the libretto:
• historical and heroic theme (determined
by the literary source);
• theme of love (introduced to the libretto);
• magic theme (integrates the plot motifs
of the primary source with the traditional
elements specific for opera conceptions
of the baroque era).
The choice of the poem “Jerusalem Delivered”
as a primary literary source predetermined the
composition’s genre type, and namely historical
and heroic opera. Interaction with the traditions
of English and French theatres at the turn of the
XVII-XVIII centuries is seen in it3. It is explained
by Hill’s participation in making an opera version.
He couldn’t help taking into consideration those
national traditions of English and French theatres
which were formed and actively interacted in
music-and-drama practice.
A. Hill was known in England as a
dramatist, the author of 17 plays written for
drama theatre. The versions of Voltaire’s Zaire
and Mérope, being adaptations, are specifically
made special mention of by the researchers.
Hill was also fond of satire. One of his most
famous satiric pieces was written on Alexander
Pope 4. He was always burning with the desire
to stage an opera which would be no worse than
Henry Purcell’s “Dido and Aeneas” regarding
the ideas of the plot, harmony of dramaturgy
and staginess.
Hill knew English dramaturgy of the
second half of the XVII century very well.
Philip Sidney and Benjamin Jonson, John Dryden
and William Davenant were among significant
personalities. French classical tragedy as well
as its ideas and principles, which the developing
genre of English heroic drama patterned on,
influenced English literature greatly. Its peculiar
features are the following ones, if given a brief
consideration:
• adherence to drama unity of time, place
and action;
• avoiding of mixing the tragic and the
comic;
• absence of state problems and focus on
the theme of ideal love and valour;
• didactic importance of the plot, aiming at
verisimilitude;
• one-sided outlining of characters, their
sharp subdivision into positive and
negative ones.
Practically all these features can be traced in
the libretto “Rinaldo” that proves the influence of
English heroic drama on making a scenario plan.
A magic dramaturgic line with a set of typical
motifs of the plot (for example, transformations)
doesn’t fit into the traditional outline of Italian
libretto. On the one hand, its introduction is
explained by the inclination for spectacular
effects accompanied with a magnificent theatre
set peculiar for baroque theatre. At the same time
magic scenes are characteristic to both French
and English theatres, and the latter had actively
interacted with strong folkloric traditions since
the period of Elizabethan drama. The origins
trace back to medieval court pantomimes.
Later they flourished as the practice of staging
spectacular performances (“The masque”) at the
English court.
Interesting conclusions are drawn at the
comparison of the plot motifs of the libretto of
the opera “Rinaldo” with specific features of
a fairy-tale introduced by Vladimir Propp in
“Morphology of the Fairy-tale” (Propp 1998).
The researcher points out that all fairy-tales are
similar in their structure. He singles out thirty
one functions the fairy-tale takes to present
the action development. Undoubtedly, all these
functions and patterns do not show themselves
in “Rinaldo” to the full. Hence, there are some
interesting parallels between the opera and fairytales. For example:
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1. Each fairy-tale starts with the temporal
space identification (“once upon a time in a
faraway kingdom”) and either introduction or
enumeration of family members. Act I of the
libretto “Rinaldo” starts with the scene in which
Goffredo, Almirena, Eustazio and Rinaldo (the
main character), surrounded by the guards, are
laying siege to Jerusalem.
2. In any fairy-tale the main hero must
undergo some trials and be rewarded thereafter.
In the libretto Rinaldo declares his love for a
tribal chief’s daughter. Goffredo agrees that his
daughter Almirena will be his bride but only
when Zion falls. Thus, Rinaldo must fight with
Goffredo’s army boldly and assure victory. But as
the scenario of the libretto introduces Almirena’s
abduction by Armida Rinaldo’s motivation “to
get the reward” becomes stronger.
3. “The antagonist’s emergence”. The
fairy-tale presupposes the description or the
emergence of the negative hero who is struggled
against. As for “Rinaldo”, these are Argante’s
arrival at Goffredo in order to conclude a treaty,
on the one hand, and the arrival of Armida who
will abduct Rinaldo’s beloved, on the other hand.
There are all three plot lines here: a historical
line in the first case; magic and love lines (the
moments of collision in historic and love themes)
in the second case.
4. Almirena’s abduction in Rinaldo’s
presence can be regarded as one of the variants
similar to such a plot development in the fairytale as “The antagonist does harm or damage to
one of the family members”.
5. The fairy-tale’s compositional function
(“The seeker hero agrees or makes up his mind to
react”) is usually expressed by a typical phrase
“Let us find your princesses”. In scenes 8 and
9 of the opera’s Act I Rinaldo (a seeker hero) is
about to search for his beloved. At this situation a
new character that helps to solve the task (BabaYaga, a witch, a magician, etc.) is introduced in
the fairy-tale. In “Rinaldo” such a character as a
Christian magician is mentioned. The magician
has got a magic crosier that can destroy Armida’s
evil spell.
6. “A magic object gets to a hero’s
disposal”. In the opera Goffredo and Eustazio
get a Christian magician’s magic crosier after the
latter has destroyed Armida’s bewitched castle.
They destroy a magic garden with it. Despite the
fact that it was not the main hero (Rinaldo) who
made use of a magic crosier there is still the fact
of “getting a magic object into disposal”. This is
the parallel with fairy-tales.
7. “A hero is carried, brought, led to
the location of the object which is needed
and searched for and is usually in a different
kingdom”. In scene 3 of Act II Rinaldo gets into
a boat, surrounded by the sirens, with a woman
in it. They deliver Rinaldo to a magic island. In
scene 6 two spirits bring the hero to Armida who
holds Almirena captive.
8. “The hero and the antagonist enter a
straightforward struggle”. In scene 4 of Act III
after Armida’s attempt to kill Almirena Rinaldo
fights with her. In “Battaglia” and scene 10 the
scenes of the battle of the crusaders’ army and
Argante’s army are portrayed.
9. In the fairy-tale the antagonist can be
shot, expatriated, “tied to a horse’s tail”, he can
commit suicide, etc. There can be also the variant
of “a magnanimous forgiveness”. In the end of
the opera “Rinaldo” the opponents, Armida and
Argante, convert to Christianity. The final scene
is the parties’ reconciliation.
10. “The hero gets married and ascends
the throne’. In the opera’s libretto there are no
wedding scenes but scene 7 of Act III shows the
reunion of the beloved, Rinaldo and Almirena.
Having drawn the parallels with the
structure of the fairy-tale’s composition, it can
be argued that there are quite many things in
common between the libretto “Rinaldo’ and this
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Act I
number
of a
scene
1
2
3
4
5
Act II
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
6
Act III
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1013
Magic
Love
Historical
and heroic
a plot
line
Fig. 2
literary genre. They give grounds to state that
that the peculiar features of such a literary genre
as a fairy-tale has influenced Hill’s scenario for
Handel’s opera.
Summing up the mentioned above, it is
worth while presenting the interaction of main
dramaturgic lines in the opera “Rinaldo” in the
form of a scheme that vividly demonstrates the
priority of a love line in the plot composition as
well as its correlation with other dramaturgic
lines (Fig. 2).
1
2
3
4
Thus, a short analysis of the plot composition
of the opera “Rinaldo” enables to conclude that
the text of the libretto demonstrates the organic
interaction of different national traditions of opera
practice at the turn of the XVII-XVIII centuries:
Italian, French and English. It is probably one of
the factors (along with G. Handel’s great music)
that led to its success during Handel’s lifetime
(after the premiere season a set of performances
in their new versions was staged) and ensured its
great significance for modern theatrical art.
One of such examples is Rospigliosi’s “Heavenly pretender” based on Luis Vélez de Guevara, Antonio Coelho and Francisco de Rojas Zorilla’s “Balthazara comedy” published in Madrid in 1652.
This is explained by the influence of one of the leading principles of classical drama – the principle of non-blending of
genres.
Interesting information about the history and traditions of French theatre can be derived from A.N. Kushnerevich’s article
“Kultura i iskusstvo Frantsii. Programma-prospekt spetsseminara” [French culture and art. A prospectus programme of a
special seminar] (Kushnerevich 2010).
Alexander Pope (1688-1744) is an English poet, reformer of English poetic prosodies (heroic couplets). He translated
Homer’s “Iliad” into English in iambic pentameter. Besides, he was one of those who translated “Odyssey”. Pope is the
author of philosophic (“Moral Essays”, “The Essay on Man”), satirical (“The Dunciad”) and ironically comic (“The Rape
of the Lock”) poems.
References
1. Brewster, D. Aaron Hill: Poet, Dramatist, Projector. New York, 2011. 328 p.
2. Dean, W., Knapp, J. Handel’s operas 1704–1726. Oxford, 2009. 793 p.
3. Elina, N. Poema Torkvato Tasso «Osvobozhdennyi Ierusalim» i kontr-reformatsiia [Torquato
Tasso’s poem “Jerusalem Delivered” and the counter-reformation], Available at: http://svr-lit.niv.ru/
svr-lit/articles/elina-tasso.htm (accessed 15 February 2013).
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4. Fedoseev, I. Opery Gendelia i Korolevskaia akademiia muzyki v Londone (1720-1728) [Handel’s
operas and the Royal Academy of Music in London (1720-1728)]. St.-Petersburg, 1996. 160 p.
5. Ishtvan, B. Esli by Gendel’ vel dnevnik [If Handel kept a diary], Available at: http://www.
biglibrary.info/?act=read&book=56486 (accessed 15 February 2013).
6. Kirillina, L. (1997) Drama – opera – roman [Drama – opera – novel] Muzykal’naia akademiia
[Academy of Music], (3), pp. 3-15.
7. Kushnerevich, A. (2010) Kul’tura i iskusstvo Frantsii. Programma-prospekt spets-seminara
[French culture and art. A prospectus programme of a special seminar], Voprosy kul’turologii [Cultural
issues], (7), pp. 56-76.
8. Lutsker, P., Susidko, I. Ital’ianskaia opera XVIII veka [XVIII century Italian opera]. Chast’
2. Moscow, 2004. 768 p.
9. Propp, V. Morfologiia volshebnoi skazki [Morphology of the Fairy-tale]. Moscow, 1998. 512 p.
10. Simonova, E. Ital’ianskoe barochnoe libretto XVII-XVIII vekov: ot istokov drama per musica
k metastazievskoi drame [Italian Baroque libretto of the XVII-XVIII centuries: From early drama per
musica to Metastasio’s drama] Musykal’noe iskusstvo barokko: Sbornik statei [Musical Art Baroque:
Collection of articles]. Moscow, 2003, pp. 113-130.
11. Tasso, T. Osvobozhdennyi Ierusalim [Jerusalem Delivered]. Saint-Petersburg, 2007. 720 p.
12. Zykhovskaia, N. Motiv v riadu drugikh semioticheskikh kontseptov [Motif in a number of
other semiotic concepts], Available at: http://www.lib.csu.ru/vch/2/200001/008.pdf (accessed 10
March 2013).
Специфика сюжетосложения оперы
Г.Ф. Генделя «Ринальдо»
М.А. Кошелева
Красноярская государственная академия музыки и театра
Россия, 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ленина, 22
Статья посвящена одной из первых опер, которая принесла Г.Ф. Генделю европейский успех –
«Ринальдо». По общему мнению исследователей, она считается одним из лучших достижений
композитора. Тем не менее, в русскоязычной литературе об этом сочинении можно
обнаружить информацию лишь самого общего характера. На фоне ренессанса барочной
оперы в сценической практике ХХ века исследовательский интерес к музыкальному театру
этого периода, в том числе и к оперному творчеству Генделя, значительно активизировался.
Пришло время привлечь внимание к шедевру 26-летнего немецкого гения. В рамках данной
статьи предпринята попытка систематизации имеющихся сведений, связанных с историей
создания оперы Генделя; выявления специфики трактовки литературного первоисточника в
сценарии А. Хилла и либретто Дж. Росси; определения особенностей сюжетосложения на
примере анализа либретто и рассмотрения его в контексте театральных традиций конца
XVII – начала XVIII века.
Ключевые слова: театр, барокко, опера, Г. Гендель, либретто, А. Хилл, Дж. Росси,
сюжетосложение.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2014 7) 498-509
~~~
УДК 783.29
Once again on Mozart’s Requiem
(Issues of Intonation-and-Style Analysis)
Andrey Yu. Sapsuev*
Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre
22 Lenin Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Received 14.10.2013, received in revised form 26.12.2013, accepted 11.01.2014
The article considers the hypothesis of the possible endings of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Requiem
mass. Based on the study of the epistolary heritage of the composer the author attempts to reconstruct
the events of the last days of the great Viennese classics, as well as to identify the Requiem`s author
attitude to death. The author gives reasons for the early end of Mozart’s life, addresses the issues of
philosophical understanding of the problems of death. When considering a vocal-symphonic work
researchers usually apply intonation-and-stylistic analysis that allows to draw conclusions about
the organic nature and thematic unity of all parts of the cycle. The usage of the musical-rhetorical
vocabulary and terminology of the Baroque helped to identify features of the musical text of the
Requiem mass.
Keywords: Mozart, Requiem, requiem mass, vocal-symphonic work, rhetorical figures.
Death is not the end, and it holds infinitely more hopes
than our life gives to us.
G. Strehler
Death is the true ultimate goal of our life
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
A swan song. That is another title, which is
often attributed to the latest creation of Wolfgang
Amadeus Mozart – Requiem. The existence of
the funeral Mass, which began with an order in
July 1791 under rather mysterious circumstances,
even to this day causes a storm of opinions
and arguments concerning the question of the
authenticity of the work. To date, we know the
names of the customer and the messenger in
gray. Mysterious messenger in a gray cloak was
*
Anton Leitgeb (1747-1812). He was sent to Mozart
with the order to create a requiem mass by count
Valzegg zu Stupp. Subsequently the aristocrat
intended to issue a Requiem as his own essay,
written on the death of his young wife. Valzegg`s
decision to ask Mozart to write the mass was
not accidental. Here Mr. Abert writes about this:
“M. Puchberg, providing financial assistance to
Mozart for a long time, lived in Vienna in a house
of Valzegg. When benevolent attitude Puchberg
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: postprintpack@gmail.com
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to Mozart would not be surprising if he is aware
of the financial difficulties of Mozart and willing
to support him, either personally or by drawing
Leitgeb`s attention to the composer or the count
directly recommended him as an author right for
the work. There is no documentary evidence of
this, however, this assumption is justified. It can
be assumed that the name of the customer was not
a secret for Mozart”. (Abert, 1990: 506).
There was also another parallel chain that
connected Mozart with Valzegg through DeimMüller and Leitgeb, who according to one
version worked as a manager at belonging to
Valzegg plaster mills. The owner of a kind of
cabinet of curiosities or a meeting of wax figures,
Deim-Müller was the person, for whom Mozart
created several pieces for the mechanical organ
in 1790 and 1791, respectively. G. Abert points
out: “Deim was also engaged in the manufacture
of copies of classical sculptures, and for that he
needed some cast. So in this way he turned out to
be related to the same Leitgeb, and through him
with Valzegg. Deim, of course, was also aware of
the financial difficulties of Mozart and also could
recommend Mozart as a possible author for the
requiem. This may be just a possibility, but it is
justified”. (Abert, 1990: 506).
What caused Mozart to agree to take
the order and create the requiem? “The main
reason was financial problem. According to the
documentation associated with the inheritance
of the property of Mozart, a special commission
determined his debts in the amount of 918 florins
16 kreuzers. This amount included the sum that
Mozart owed to pharmacists – 204 florins 23
kreutzers. In this case in this total amount was
not included at least 1,000 florins that Mozart
had borrowed from Puchberg, who did not put
forward any claims to the widow” (Abert, 1990:
506-507). For Mozart's Requiem was promised a
substantial sum (100 ducats), half of the amount
the composer received in advance.
The decision of creating the Requiem was
influenced by another event. On May 4, 1791
Mozart took (as a volunteer) the position of
deputy Kapellmeister at St. Stephen's Cathedral,
and the chance to write a large-scale church work
was very helpful. And since Mozart was widely
known as an opera composer, the creation of the
Mass served as a good opportunity to establish
himself as a composer for the church.
The reasons which led to begin the work on
Mozart's Requiem Mass today are known, but
about the music composition and the time of its
occurrence, researchers still have not reached
a consensus. A large number of versions and
proposals that arise around the Requiem, due to
the lack of definitive information that can form
the basis for meaningful hypotheses, which leaves
plenty of room for all kinds of fantasies and even
pseudo-scientific innuendos.
In particular, the German researchers
J. Dal`khov, G. Duda and D. Kerner argue that
the Requiem was written entirely before the
composer’s death. They assert that the basis
for this statement are letters from the publisher
Andre Offenbach, and also letter from the singer
Benedict Shaq. It is reported that Mozart “was
told not to rush to work, and he still managed
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to go to Frankfurt” (on this, see Dal’khov,
Duda, Kerner, Moscow, 121; Sakva, 6). In this
case, the opinion of the researchers contradicts
the historical facts, the visit to Frankfurt took
place in autumn 1790, and the order to compose
the Mass was in July 1791. In addition, if, after
the composer’s death the version of the product
had been complete, Constanze Mozart would
not have had to turn to other musicians with a
request to fi nish the mass.
Supporters of another version say that the
Requiem was partially written by Mozart before
his death and completed by his student – Franz
Xaver Zyusmayer. The researchers G. Abert,
A. Neumayr, C. Sakva pay great attention to
the letters of Constanze Mozart to the Abbe
Maximilian Stadler (1748-1833) on May 3,
1827 and Zyusmayer, in which he informed the
publishers Breitkopf and Herter about the finished
parts of this masterpiece.
The authenticity of this version was also
supported by the expertise. One of the tests took
place in Tuzone in 1987. The object of the study
was the type of paper with Mozart’s autograph.
As a result of examination the experts came to
the conclusion that the type of paper similar to
the one that Mozart used to record the work did
not exist before 1791. Therefore, the recordings
were made after the composer`s returning from
Prague, i.e. in early September. (In July – August
1791 Mozart worked on the opera “La Clemenza
di Tito,” which was premiered on 6 September of
the same year in Prague).
Another graphology expertise showed that
after 20 November 1791 (the first day of his fatal
illness) Mozart did not add to the Requiem a
single note, in the autograph there is no indication
that the composer continued to work on the Mass
being sick.
As a result of various examinations it was
found that Mozart managed to write completely
the four main singing voices and the bass part
along with figures in parts of the Requiem, Kyrie,
Dies irae – Confutatis and Domine Jesu; in the
instrumentation in some places he only outlined
the basic line. The part of Lacrymosa has only
a total of 8 times written with the hand of the
composer. The last three parts were not fixed:
Sanctus, Benedictus and Agnus Dei. It can
be assumed that in the mind of the author the
Requiem existed from the first to the last note,
but the disease, which took him in the grave, did
not allow him to finalize his essay.
As the entire multitude Mozart`s works
show that the author’s style was characterized
by a particular striving for coherence and
consistency of the musical form as separate
parts, and the cycle as a whole. It is embodied
in a thematic unity and fi ne intonation work, as
is exemplified by the Requiem. In this work, the
task based on the analysis of musical texts is to
grasp the essence of the work and try to imagine
how the composer would have completed his
latest creation.
Notwithstanding the magnitude of the work
and the diversity of its musical material, based on
the Mass are relatively few thematic elements,
which are indicated in the first part of the work –
Requiem aeternam.
Consider the intonations which make up
the topic. It consists of two elements: The fi rst
is a tonic to the funeral service, the theme of
“breath.” In the musical vocabulary of the
Baroque period for this melodic turn entrenched
the semantics of grief, crying, otherwise known
as lamento. Start moving melodies with tonic and
a return to it, even within such a short motif is
seen as a sign of predestination, a predetermined
outcome. The entry threads with weak interest in
this context and acts as a symbol of inevitability
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of the impending doom, and a pause gives the
impression of breath. The creation of a tragic
way also contributes to the association with
the genre of sarabande pointed to the emphasis
of the second part. In addition, an important
element of the musical fabric is the instrumental
section «Requiem aeternam», which performs a
rhythmic figure “step”, are evident in a smooth
motion with eighth length-notes in the voices of
the string part of the orchestra. The picture of the
procession complements the dotted rhythm that
occurs in the instrumental parts (from figure 3
of the score).
However, the tragic hopelessness, scheduled
in the first element of the theme becomes
overridden in the subsequent motif. It is a gradual
climbing to the third (tertia). V.B. Valkova
considers that intonation in connection with
the story of Calvary, the upward movement
in the volume of a minor third is associated
with the image of the “last way of the Cross,
processions apocalyptic” (Val’kova, 2000: 691).
The researcher calls the move from stage I to
III to be the motif of “leaving-farewell”1, that in
the context of Mozart’s work takes on a special
significance.
If you consider this element from the
position of tonal vocabulary of the Baroque, you
will fi nd it similar to the rhetorical anabasis,
which appeared in the works of the Baroque
meaning-bearing words “heaven”, “heavenly”,
“climbing”, etc. This allows you to say, that the
composition of Mozart symbolizes the care of
temporal life in a different world: a world of
light, joy and happiness embodies the ability
to break out of the vicious circle, which is the
earthly life, and to fi nd the awaited freedom
outside the death.
Mozart’s string writing, documenting his
thoughts about the death of the mother, can
serve as confi rmation of such a treatment of
the fi rst theme of the Requiem. Being beside
her deathbed, the composer, according to his
words, “imagined how she would be happy in
a moment, much happier than us, and I wished
that for myself at this point to get away with it”
(Mozart – to his father in Salzburg, July 9, 1778,
Paris ).
The two elements which form the basis of
the theme Requiem aeternam combined form
another rhetorical figure, which was formed
already in the works of J.S. Bach: the shape of
a cross. Presented in the works of the author of
“Passion” in various forms, it is a symbol of the
crucifixion, the Lord’s Passion. In the inverted
form of this symbol means “the accomplished
redemption through the cross throes” (Nosina,
2002: 91).
The figure of the cross, which is scheduled
to start Requiem aeternam, is revealed in the first
theme of the fugue Kyrie eleison, which is the
treatment of the figure of a cross. For example,
compare the topic Kyrie eleison with the theme
of the fugue g-moll of the first volume of “Das
Wohltemperirter Clavier” by J.S. Bach:
the fugue Kyrie eleison
the fugue g-moll the fugue g-moll
Thus, a detailed discussion of the topic
shows how complicated is its meaningful
content. The indissoluble unity of the two worlds
is presented in the fi rst bars of the works: the
world of earthly mortal coil in which a person
is doomed to drag out their miserable existence,
and going to supreme bliss, which begins beyond
life. A connecting link in the chain is the figure
of a cross.
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Explanation of the main theme from the
perspective of musical rhetoric is quite natural,
since the subject, which opens the Requiem,
Mozart borrowed from the baroque vocabulary.
Proof of this are the spiritual works of J.S. Bach
and G.F. Handel, which use the common Protestant
chorale melody.
Here are some examples.
Chorale “Herr Jesu Christ, du höchtes Gut”
(“the Lord Jesus Christ, You are the supreme
good”):
Possibly, Mozart`s appeal to the wellknown theme of choral served to Dal`khov,
Kerner and Duda a reason to assume that
the work was created entirely before the
composer’s death. However, even the fact of the
use of common tunes by the Requiem`s author
is no proof of such a release. For, according
to B.V. Asafiev, “Mozart did not create new
worlds – he created a new system of proof.”
And, based on the last-known works in the 17th
century hymns, he created his own authorship,
G.F. Handel, the beginning of the opening
chorus of “Funeral Anthem”:
in which traditional themes and intonations
found a very special meaning. In order to prove
the stylistic unity of the Requiem, we trace
the emergence of the topic and its members in
other parts of the cycle.
The simple visual uses of the initial
intonations of the Requiem in its original form
can be found in the following parts:
№1 Requiem aeternam
g
g
p
g
№2 Dies irae
In the text of hymns used by Bach,
Handel and Mozart human turns to God for
mercy and salvation of the soul after death.
The same meaning is contained in the words
of the chorale “Meine Seel erhebt den Herren”
(“My soul ascends to God”), the melody which
is used in the middle section of “Requiem
aeternam”:
q
№3 Domine Jesu
More complex thematic modifications are
much more common. For example, the use of
treatment as a “primary intonation impetus” for
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countersubject in the middle section of “Requiem
aeternam”, in “Tuba mirum”:
into the melodic movement and are subject to
reconsideration. Thus, in the fifth part of the
cycle in the introduction we find the theme of
“breath” and the upward movement in the hidden
two-voices.
Recordare
The backward movement of the theme is
found in “Rex tremendae”, “Domine Jesu”:
The motif of “breath” throughout the
development of the melody is transformed,
acquiring various emotional shades. In some cases,
it serves as an expression of grief, weeping pleas of
desperation and fear, determination and greatness:
Tuba mirum
Intonations of the theme are often
accentuated in Cadenza elements. According to
the rhetorical music dictionary, this turnover is
called symploce (complexio). For more unity of
the melodic construction, it is performed at the
beginning and repeated at the end. It is significant
that these revolutions are present only in the parts
created by Mozart:
Recordare
Confutatis
Dies irae
Confutatis
Rex tremendae
Domine Jesu
In other cases, it is associated with
descending melodic turns, in which the rhythmic
motif is highlighted:
Requiem
Often individual elements of the theme,
which have independent significance, are woven
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Dies irae
Domine Jesu
Tuba mirum
The organic nature and unity of the musical
material also is reflected in the germination of
the cross theme that is found in the “Recordare”,
“Lacrymosa”, “Domine Jesu”:
Recordare
,
As these examples demonstrate, in the slow
movements, thanks to plaintive intonations,
increased expression of grief, and it is fast
achieving greater drama and pathos.
It is necessary to allocate another thematic
element, adjacent to the main. It is a movement
by the sound of the chord. For the first time the
item is scheduled in the first part of the cycle, and
appears in its crystallized form at the beginning
of the Third Part “Tuba mirum”:
Requiem aeternam
y
,
Lacrymosa
Domine Jesu
“Lacrymosa” is of particular interest in the
light of the topic of our work. As is well known
Mozart managed to record only 8 primary bars
of the score.
Now we shall consider intonation features of
the theme.
Tuba mirum
Like the tune of “breath” in the process
of development, it takes a variety of emotional
tones: swift, melodious, soulful:
Dies irae
Rex remendae
The triad intonation a1-f 2 -d2 is fused with
the motive of “breath” d2 -cis2, so that the sixth
is perceived as a recapitulation to it, and the last
sound of the triad intonation d2 highlights and
exacerbates the expressiveness of the final motif.
In “Lacrymosa” you can also find the first
topic of “Requiem aeternam”, which appears on
the verge of 4 and 5 bars in the soprano. Here
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it is dispersed between two different motives.
But if we ignore the caesura and the difference
in the registers and connect the tune of “breath”
with the beginning of the subsequent huge and
extremely busy upward movement, it is clear that
Mozart put the Requiem initial tone as the basis
of “Lacrymosa”.
p
q
to the second idea, set out at the beginning of the
chorus, develops it. The structure of the melody
first motive is the inverse sequence of 1-7-1, which
is “fused” with of the third of the primary phrase.
In the hidden two-bass tone it is easy to see the
ascending intonation:
y
This part, therefore, is the culmination of
the cycle, which emphasizes the connection to
its main motive meaning-bearing works. Perhaps
that is why “Lacrymosa” is often performed as
a separate concert number, speaking a kind of
master image representation of the Requiem
Mass: mourning a man who died and the request
to grant him peace. After 8 cycles Mozart`s
manuscript breaks off. At first, the widow of the
composer requested to complete the Requiem
J.L. Eybler whose songwriting talent had earned
high praise of Mozart. However, Eybler only
added instrumentation for the parts that had
been completed in the choral score and had the
manuscript received by Eybler from Constanta.
After attempting to complete the funeral Mass,
he refused to continue the process. In the score of
Lacrymosa Eybler added two bars of the second
sentence, which are structurally a variant of the
initial phrases of the choir. He introduced the
theme tune of “breath”, which had been strongly
emphasized in the very first bars by Mozart.
After Eybler`s refusal the work was continued
and completed by Franz Xaver Zyusmayer. This
version is a common practice in the concert, so
we shall discuss it in more detail. By repeating
the text of the first sentence, the music continues
It would seem that Zyusmayer subtly took
the particular thematic work and those melodic
“pulses” that were laid out in Mozart`s manuscript.
However, even with the 11th bar the development
of the melodic line of the upper voice stops,
giving way to a three-fold repetition of the motif
of “breath”, and then there is an impression that
the melody makes no headway (Sakva, 1962: 20).
As if the melody cannot gain its force and “break
away” from the sound d2.
Also seems doubtful the repetition of the
modulation turnover in F-dur at the end of the
second sentence in the orchestra part. Major
arises here as important, psychologically subtle
and precise commentary on the semantic content
of the text (“pie Jesu, Jesu Domine” – “mercy on
(him) Jesus, Jesus the Lord”), associated with
the idea of hope for justice of divine mercy. Rehosting the instrumental voices of music material
in the choral party, by contrast, reduces this
effect.
The third sentence (“Dona eis requiem”)
performs the function of reprise. Occurring in the
24th bar a gradual downward diatonic movement in
the bass part becomes supported by the soprano.
On the one hand, it sounds like a response to the
rising chromatic in the first (soprano) and the
second (the bass party) sentences of the exposure
of Lacrymosa, what makes a musical form of
symmetry, contributing to the achievement of
greater unity and harmony. But, at the same time,
the downward movement marks the beginning of
codes, so the actual reprise is limited only by two
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bars. Such brevity, in our opinion, is excessive. In
addition, Zyusmayer “literally” repeats opening
bars of the first section. Meanwhile, the content
of the text is quite different than in the beginning
of the number. The first sentence refers to the
trembling soul, waiting for doomsday, the text
contains a recapitulation of a prayer for the gift
of the eternal rest, which indicates overcoming
3. The third sketch was not identified with
any of the parts of the “Requiem”.
Wolfgang Plath found that work on the
sketches was done in parallel with the creation
of the overture to “The Magic Flute”, i.e. in the
second half of September 1791.
Let us turn to the sketch of the fugue
“Amen”:
the fear of death. Such musical and semantic
discrepancy could not come from Mozart, who
was extremely cautious about words.
In connection with Lacrymosa and its
possible variants of fi nalization we would
like to touch upon another aspect. In 1962,
on the International Musicological Congress,
which was held in Kassel, a famous expert on
Mozart from Augsburg Wolfgang Plath made a
presentation on Mozart`s Requiem sketches, that
were found:
1. Sketch of the canon of the “Rex
tremendae”;
2. Thumbnail fugue “Amen”;
Its intonation content, of course, indicates
that it was written for the Requiem. This draft of
the exposure of the four-part fugue in the tones
which are very similar to the themes of “Requiem
aeternam”. We may remember that in the text of
the Requiem the word “Amen” occurs only once:
at the end of his third section “Sequenz”, i.e., in
the conclusion of Lacrymosa. It is therefore likely
that Mozart intended to complete this number with
the fugue, the sketch of which was found by Plath.
In addition, such a termination of Lacrymosa was
quite traditional. And yet, it is impossible to say
definitely, Mozart would complete this part of the
fugue, or rather create a different ending. It also
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remains to guess what would have been the final
form of the fugue, if the composer had included it
in the text of the requiem mass.
On the other hand, the well-known plagal
completion of Lacrymosa in the same major
key has its advantages. His sudden and extreme
simplicity and brevity act with great force. And
in order to dare to write such a completion, which
contradicted the tradition, for one of the main
sections of the Requiem, it was necessary to
have the courage and genius of Mozart. Perhaps
this ending was recorded somewhere among the
composer’s sketches, and then Zyusmayer used a
sketch of the composer at the completion of the
work.
Thematic connections between the
latter three parts are more straightforward,
unambiguous. This, according to K. Sakva,
shows the “imitation rather than an organic
continuity” (Nosina, 2002: 10). Described
earlier in this article thematic elements present
in the musical fabric, but remain scattered, as
if isolated from each other, resulting in the
loss of the integrity and unity of intonation,
which were inherent for the preceded parts. In
support of this view we may draw the example
of fugue “Ossana” in the numbers “Sanctus”
and “Benedictus” (№ № 10, 11), which some
researchers call “student.” The figure of the
cross, the underlying theme is losing its sacred
meaning, which is contributed by the dance
(secular) character of the part.
The most controversial and ambiguous ending
of the Requiem was proposed by Zyusmayer.
Following “Agnus Dei” comes a reprise of the
first two parts, which reveals the desire to use
only the musical material created by Mozart.
On the one hand, the return in the latter part of
the theme “Requiem aeternam” contributed to
the unity of the work, framed the composition.
On the other – the connection itself “Agnus Dei”
with “Requiem aeternam”, sounding now with
the new text (“Lux aeternam” – “Eternal Light”),
was carried out without any logical training. In
addition, the shape of the first part of Mozart’s
Requiem was destroyed. In the embodiment of
Zyusmayer it is a three-part form with dynamised
reprise and a truncated exposure. This has led to
the fact that upper tone is not the same with the
structure. There is a sharp contradiction between
the images of the text (turning to God and to
Christ in prayer for the petition “Kyrie” solemn
and dazzling painting of God, surrounded by all
the saints in the final fugue “Cum sanctis”) and
the music itself.
Based on the facts stated above, we shall
allow to express the idea that Mozart would have
written a different ending for his masterpiece.
The rationale for the proposed hypothesis will
serve as the canonical text of the Requiem, his
incarnation in the parts belonging to the hand of
the author, as well as letters and statements by the
composer himself.
The text of the Mass displays two worlds –
the earth and heaven. This perception is due to
the peculiarities of the Catholic rite. Based on this
number 1 “Requiem aetqrnam” Anticipation can
be treated as a person in the face of death and the
priest’s prayer (“Grant eternal rest”) for the soul
of the dying. The middle section is associated
with an appeal to God of the man himself. As if in
confirmation of this Mozart charges the word “Te
decet hymnus, Deus in Sion, Exaudi orationem
meam” (“You sing a hymn, the Lord in Zion, hear
my pray”), the soloist soprano. The last choral
section (Reprise part starting from the figure 4 of
the score) may be likened to a common prayer for
the soul of the just.
Preparing a human for the transition to the
other world, the priest absolves and performs
the rite of communion. This is the last event in
the real life of the just. At the same time it is as
if symbolically closes the door of earthly life
and opens the gates of eternity. The last hours
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or minutes of human presence on the ground
(time-out), perhaps the most terrible and difficult
psychologically because nothing holds the soul of
man, but it is still in the earth’s shell.
Following this interpretation of “Kyrie
eleison” we can treat it as a picture of agony. The
replicas “Lord, have mercy” are requests asking
to rid of the last torment and suffering. A long
and active development leads to the climax: a stop
on DDumVII7 followed by a pause. According
to the dictionary, this baroque rhetorical figure
aposiopesis, serving as an image of death.
The short conclusion sounds like an austere,
unemotional, funeral chant.
The second through the seventh parts outline
the soul’s journey through the circles of hell and
heaven: Judgment Day (Day of Judgment) and
the Terrible Anticipation before the King, and a
petition pleading for salvation (travelogue of the
human soul in the afterlife see Vorob’ev). At the
same time on the ground to make “sacrifices and
prayers” people “for the souls of the righteous
dead” (№ № 8, 9). Numbers 10 and 11 appear as
a universal celebration of All-Good Lord. And in
the final part of the “Agnus Dei” a prayer sounds
for justification and calming the soul, “the eternal
light to shine on them.”
Thus, we can assume that Mozart would
not have repeated verbatim in the completion of
the first part of his work. Especially as the death
of the composer perceived as the highest good,
1
as the transition to eternal life. This is clearly
evidenced by the letters of Mozart.
In a letter to the father there are the following
words “let happen what has to happen, because
I know it is so pleasing to God, who cares for
our well-being (even if we do not understand)”
(Mozart – to his father in Salzburg, July 3, 1778),
which suggest the infinite faith in God, the
inherent true believer in His power, His goodness.
Reading the letters of Mozart, it can be concluded
that the death of the composer was perceived as
“eating the heavenly joys” (Mozart – to his father
in Salzburg, July 9, 1778). Having lost the dearest
person – mother, he consoled himself with the
words: “We have not lost her forever, will we
see her and we will be more than happy in this
world” (ibid.). Mozart always calls the death to
be “true and man’s best friend”, he wrote that
“the image of death not only does not contain
anything terrible, but, on the contrary, gives us
reassurance and comfort! And I thank God for
what he gave me happiness to understand death
as the source of our true happiness. For this bliss
every day I thank the Creator, and I sincerely wish
that bliss to each of my neighbors” (Mozart – to
his father in Salzburg, April 4, 1787).
Perhaps the true light, enclosed in Mozart’s
life, became the key to “eternal life” of his latest
creation, which “seemed to be moving backward
in time: becoming richer, more joyful, more
attractive” (Mysli o Motsarte, 2002: 61).
The same motif is found in the Berlioz Symphonie Fantastique (the beginning of Part IV of “The Procession to Death”),
subject to the entry of the Sixth Symphony P.I. Tchaikovsky, in the introduction to the opera Hindemith “Killer - Hope of
Women”, in a mourning march fi nale of the Fourth Symphony by Shostakovich and others.
References
1. Abert G. V.A. Motsart. Ch. II, kn. 2. Moscow, 1990, 560 p.
2. Dal’khov I., Duda G., Kerner D. Khronika poslednikh let zhizni i smert’. Moscow, 1984, 287 p.
3. Eskina N. Na poroge vechnosti: K 200-letiiu so dnia smerti Vol’ fganga Amadeia Motsarta.
[Muzykal’naia zhizn’. 1991, № 21–22. P. 19–20].
4. Gavrilova L. Katolicheskoe bogosluzhenie: Uchebno-metodicheskoe posobie po kursu
«Istoriia zarubezhnoi muzyki». Krasnoiarsk, 2003, 23 p.
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Andrey Yu. Sapsuev. Once again on Mozart’s Requiem (Issues of Intonation-and-Style Analysis)
5. Kozyrev V. Rekviem Motsarta: http://mozart.belcanto.ru/kosyrev.html
6. Motsart V.A. Pis’ma. Moscow, 2000, 448 p.
7. Musik und Medizin: Am Beispiel der Wiener Klassik by Anton Neumayr. Moscow, 2009,
312 p.
8. Mysli o Motsarte. Moscow, 2004, 222 p.
9. Nosina V. O simvolike «Frantsuzskikh siuit» I.S. Bakha. Moscow, 2002, 156 p.
10. Sakva K. Predislovie. [Motsart V.A. Rekviem. Partitura]
11. Val’kova V. Siuzhet Golgofy v tvorchestve Shostakovicha. [Shostakovich. Mezhdu mgnoveniem
i vechnost’iu: Dokumenty. Materialy. Stat’i. St. Petersburg, 2000, p. 679–716.].
12. Vorob’ev A.V. Mirovozzrencheskii parallelizm drevneiegipetskoi i rannekhristianskoi kultur
na primere predstavlenii o posmertnom puteshestvii chelovecheskoi dushi [Voprosy kul’turologii.
2011, № 4. P. 33–37].
13. Zakharova O. Ritorika i zapadnoevropeiskaia muzyka XVII – pervoi poloviny XVIII veka:
printsipy, priemy. Moscow, 1983, 77 p.
Еще раз о «Реквиеме» Моцарта
(вопросы интонационно-стилевого анализа)
А.Ю. Сапсуев
Красноярская государственная академия музыки и театра
Россия, 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ленина, 22
В статье рассматривается гипотеза о возможном варианте завершения заупокойной
мессы В.А. Моцарта. На основе изучения эпистолярного наследия композитора предприняты
попытки восстановить события последних дней жизни великого венского классика, а также
выявить отношение автора «Реквиема» к смерти. Приводятся версии причин раннего ухода из
жизни Моцарта, затрагиваются вопросы философского осмысления проблематики смерти.
При рассмотрении вокально-симфонического произведения применяется интонационностилистический метод анализа, позволяющий сделать выводы об органичности и
тематическом единстве всех частей цикла. Обращение к музыкально-риторическому
словарю и терминологии эпохи барокко помогло выявить особенности музыкального текста
заупокойной мессы.
Ключевые слова: Моцарт, «реквием», заупокойная месса, вокально-симфоническое произведение,
риторические фигуры.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2014 7) 510-524
~~~
УДК 78 (092) (430)
Micro Monothematic Tecnhique
in Music by R. Schumann
(Based on Piano Works)
Olga V. Iarosh*
Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre
22 Lenin Str. Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia
Received 18.12.2013, received in revised form 16.01.2014, accepted 12.02.2014
The present article studies peculiarities of the thematic structure of music by R. Schumann, where an
important role is played by micro monothematic technique. The essential properties of monothematic
technique associated with depiction of multivariate artistic images, joining their contrasts into a deep
unity, expression of their continuous development and deep ontological transformations are mostly
based on the historical and cultural contexts of Romanticism. Monothematic principle finds an original
deflection in Schumann’s music: it creates the feeling of an integrated whole, bearing common micro
intonations, which, in the end, bond its accord.
The distinctive features of the music’s thematic development reveal themselves in the context
of intonation analysis method, used for studying the field of intramusical semantics, connected to
understanding intonation as a unity of sound and sense, forming a fundament for the living process of
intonation.
Keyworks: micro monothematic technique, Romanticism, underlying intonation, analysis, intramusic
semantics.
Music by Schumann is one of the greatest
phenomena in the history of European musical
art. Its ability to depict lively, flickering, subtle
gradations of human feelings is one of its main
peculiarities, which cannot help touching the
listeners’ souls. The main features of Schumann’s
artistic nature are susceptibility, delicateness,
depth, and at the same time ambiguity,
personification of his own self as though wearing
numerous masks. The latter manifested itself in
his epistolary heritage, in his published articles
devoted to music, and in his musical works as
such. The Romanticist composer’s confessions,
*
aspiration to express the complexity of the person’s
inner world, open in the age of Romanticism,
takes ultimate and an extremely acute form.
At the same time it is important to notice,
that the expression of such delicate, sincere and
genuine parts of the person’s inner life was not
immediately understood and recognized by the
audience. In literature devoted to Schumann
one can often find proofs of his works’ being
misunderstood, perceived as strange, illogical,
chaotic both by general public and famous
musicians and composers: “For the majority of
amateurs his works were too complicated and
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: oliga23k1@yandex.ru
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hard to understand; to expert musicians they
seemed to be too eccentric, deviating from the
everyday routine and the rules, based on the lore
of art” (Ambros, 1988:12).
Such feature of his music as kaleidicity,
instability of images and emotions often makes
an impression of disruptiveness, patchiness,
fragmentariness. Frequently the obscurity of
his works was the consequence of their form,
apparent lengthiness, non-proportional sizes of
parts, apparent excessiveness of some opuses’
length. These traits of Schumann’s music caused
problems both in performer’s interpretation
and in perception of the music by audience.
That is what, inter alia, A. Merkulov writes
about in his research “Schumann’s Piano Suite
Cycles” (Merkulov, 2006). His book contains a
series of quotations from different composers,
performers and musicologists, who deny such
features as wholeness, cohesiveness and unity to
Schumann’s musical works. There are quotations
from N. Zhilyayev, who noticed that “Schumann’s
large forms “suffer of angularity and patchiness”
(cited by: (Merkulov, 2006:6)), B. Asafyev, who
said that in some of his works “the forms know
no measure, no cohesion or any intellectual
discipline” (Merkulov, 2006:6), B. Yavorsky,
who remarked “easy incohesive illustrativeness
instead of a cohesive integrity” in Schumann’s
music (Merkulov, 2006:6) and others.
But in fact, patchiness and kaleidicity of the
major part of the composer’s works are only the
surface, the factors intended to emphasize certain
details of these or those figures. Listening more
attentively, one can open up the evident underlying
connection of the exterior motives that seem
segmentary at first. D. Zhitomirsky pointed at
this peculiarity as follows: “At first, the principle
of simple interchange of comparatively small
isolated constructions hits the eye. It is necessary
for the composer to demonstrate each separate
figure in more details to create the atmosphere
a colourful combination. Upon further thought,
the complicated compositional integrity of the
figures is revealed” (Zhitomirsky, 1964:382).
Schumann himself realized that his music was
difficult for understanding and underlined that
“the main symptom of the unusual is its being
misunderstood: the majority of people is more
susceptible to something more superficial, like
listening to virtuoso pieces” (cited by: (Merkulov,
2006:80).
The main features of the composer’s creative
techniques are closely bond to the expression of
the deep inner world of human feelings. The first
of them is the procedurality, open development of
probabilities: “…almost in all of Schumann’s forms,
there is a rich flow of life. It is mostly manifested
in the intensive continuous development”
(Zhitomirsky, 1964:381). The tendency for open
and intensive development based on underlying
unity of Schumann’s music is defined with the term
symphonism, which stands for such properties as
continuousness and graduality of development.
Besides continuousness, underlying alliance of
intonations, the development intensiveness of
many works by Schumann is caused by bipolarity
of their thematic core, the interconnection of
two contrast condition-characters: Florestan
and Eusebius counterparts. K. Zenkin points
out that Schumann’s music reveals the “logic of
continuous development of character antithesis,
thereby opening up the structure of the process,
either complete and framed, or open, dissolving
somewhere in the unreachable distance”
(Italics by O.Ia.) (Zenkin, 1997:79). Analyzing
“Humoreske”, N. Nikolaeva writes of “typically
Schumann dramaturgy of motion…, which now
concentrates, then increases, and relaxes again,
like a spring. Correspondingly, the melodic
structure of parts contracts and expands as well”
(Nikolaeva, 1990:159). Here we notice such
property of the composer’s music that we shall
define as pulsation.
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Researchers also remark that one of the
most significant features of Schumann’s music is
wide use of variation: “…variation principle, and,
particularly, Schumann’s innovative interpretation
of the principle, is one of the main components
of the composer’s style” (Nikolaeva,1990:134).
D. Zhitomirsky writes about three main forms
of applying variation in Schumann’s works. The
first of them is associated with “austere”, classical
variations: it is based on a complete, clearly
performed theme. A bright Fig. of this form is
“Symphonic Etudes” (Zhitomirsky, 1964:395). The
main feature of the second type is “…the absence
of a complete and totally established main theme,
which is replaced by a thematic “embryo” (Italics
by O.Ia.) (Zhitomirsky, 1964:395). The researcher
underlines, that this variation principle is more
specific, typical of Schumann’s music, which
forms fundament for such pieces as “Carnaval”
and “Davidsbündlertänze”. Quite close to this
type is the third form, which is described as
follows: “In some works by Schumann it is not
a certain theme that is absent, but the source of
variation material. The object for variations are
some forms of motion and melodic elements,
embodied in a different way every time, though
finding an underlying alliance between them”
(Italics by O.Ia.) (Zhitomirsky, 1964:401). Pieces
where this specificity is found are: “Arabeske”,
“Kreisleriana”, “Humoreske”.
Here we would like to emphasize that
two last forms of thematic development
in Schumann’s music, as described by
D. Zhitomirsky, are classified as not variation,
but monothematic development. N. Nikolaeva
in her research (Nikolaeva, 1990) explains the
mentioned method through the term of micro
monothematic technique (Nikolaeva, 1990:145).
It means that the development of Schumann’s
music, embodying multiple characters, tones of
feelings and emotions, gets filled with the subtlest
microintonation, which does not reveal itself
openly; hidden deeply in the musical matter,
somewhere inside, it bonds the diversity of the
musical whole, surreptitiously and secretly.
Monothematic technique is a phenomenon
different from variation; its emergence is
connected to Romanticist music as such, as it
is mostly caused by Romanticist aesthetics:
attention to the realization of an inner, sensual
layer in revealing psychological states, depiction
of such in development and dialectical unity of
contrasts. In the present context, the unity of the
outer (thematic invariant) and the inner (subject
matter), contained in the theme, becomes more
intense and natural in the music of Romanticists,
and, as a result, the themes of such music
acquire the capacity of expressing sophisticated,
ambiguous characters, along with demonstrating
multiple transformations and modifications1.
It is also important to mention Asafyev’s
understanding of intonation as expression of
multidimensional content in music, that implies
a deep, diverse element, the inseparable unity
of “sound” and “sense”, and, simultaneously,
the base of live musical development. In this
understanding of musical intonation B. Asafyev
mostly relies on researches by E. Kurt; his ideas,
in their turn, are continued in the works by
I.Zemtsovsky, E. Nazaykinsky, V. Medushevsky,
N. Kolyadenko2. This trend in Russian
musicology is connected to the cognition of
underlying immanent musical meanings, which
is the field M. Aranovsky defined as intramusical
semantics3.
V. Medushevsky introduces the notion
of “underlying intonation” or protointonation,
parent-intonation, based on the mechanisms
of intonational and plastical generalization,
“simultaneous generalization”, intonational
“contraction”, “constriction” (Medushevsky,
1980:186-187). In this context, the theme of
Romanticist pieces based on the monothematic
principle embodies a sort of ontological basis,
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an underlying parent-intonation, the “gene”, the
“seed” from which grows, shoots, cultivates the
musical development.
In Schumann’s music monothematic
principle is remarkable for its distinctiveness,
caused by the above-mentioned specificities of
the psychological peculiarities of the composer’s
personality and by typical traits of his creative
approach.
In the present work we turn to the piano
heritage of the composer. It is known that the
“piano period” of Schumann is the 30-s. During
those years, he wrote almost exceptionally piano
pieces. The peaks of his piano composition refer
to the mid- and late 30s: “Carnaval” (ор. 9, 1834),
“Symphonic Etudes” (two editions, 1834, 1837,
the third one was published in 1852), Sonata fismoll (ор. 11, 1833-35), “Davidsbündlertänze”
(ор. 6, September 1837), “Kreisleriana” (ор. 16,
1838), “Novelletten” (ор. 21, 1838), “Humoreske”
(ор. 20, 1839).
The 30-s were the brightest time of the
composer’s biography. This is when his “struggle
for Clara” and a year and a half of separation
(January 1836 – August 1837) happened; this
was the time of overcoming the obstacles created
by Friedrich Wiek, and, finally, finding his
happiness. Volens nolens, these events made a
significant impact on his music. As Schumann
wrote to his friend H.Dorn: “There is no doubt
that many of those struggles Clara cost me
reflected in my music, and you understand that.
Of the Concerto, the Sonata, the Davidsbündler,
the Kreisleriana and the Novelletten, she is almost
the sole “(Schumann, 1970:148).
Let us study three works by the composer:
“Davidsbündlertänze”,
“Kreisleriana”
and
“Humoreske”. The first two are cycles (suites of
riddled structure, and the form of “Humoreske” is
usually identified as a single-piece cycle, thereby
emphasizing its similarity to cycles by Schumann:
“There are the same dialectics of contrast and
unity, free flow of thought and, at the same time,
an underlying directing thread... as one can see in
penetrating structure suites. However, here it is all
expressed within the framework of an expansive
single-piece form” (Nikolaeva,1990:156).
In the mentioned works the special Schumann
intonation finds a vivid expression, the originality
of its “natural” development comes up. That is
the reason, why they attracted our attention. The
present work targets at presenting the thematic
development process of the selected pieces as a
spontaneous, multidimensional expansion, tracing
its diapason of meaning as revelation of sensual,
emotional tones of the main psychological state.
“Davidsbündlertänze” (“Dances of the
League of David”) (op.6, 1837) is one of the best,
of the most poetic piano works by R. Schumann.
The whole piece is based on an extract from
Mazurka op.6 № 5 by Clara Wiek. For a long
time it was customary to consider this piece to
be just an epigraph to the cycle, without bearing
any thematic significance. It was not evident at
once, that the “interchanging relations of both
immanent motives, a dashed impulsion and a
melodious downward figure, determine the tone
for all the pieces in their creative diversity”4 (cited
by: ((Merkulov, 2006:22)).
In his book, A. Merkulov (Merkulov, 2006)
quotes the words of the composer speaking about
op. 6 by Clara5, but in fact implying his “Dance”6:
“The pieces are born by such exotic fantasy, that
in this case common skills are not enough to trace
all the exquisite intertwinements of its patterns;
they originated from such spiritual depths, that
every time when all figural ore anyhow realistic
elements recede to the background, a problem
arises: it is genuinely impossible to grasp their
astral, self-concentrated matter. On one hand,
<these pieces> reveal the delicate, overflowing
fullness of inner life, capable of responding to
even the slightest stimulus from outside; but at
the same time, it reveals the richness of unusual
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Fig. 1
techniques and a powerful ability to tangle,
and then, to untie again the inmost, underlying
threads of harmony…” (Italics by O.Ia.) (cited by
((Merkulov, 2006:32)).
The invariant expression of underlying
intonation in Schumann’s cycle is the above
mentioned extract from mazurka by Clara Wiek
(ор. 6 № 5), placed by the composer in the
beginning of the piece:
In the fundament of the parent-intonation
theme (the thematic “embryo”) there are two
micromotives: an upward leap of major sixth
(from V to III degree), enhanced with the
swing rhythm, and a downward major second
(represented in two variants: a step from III to
II degree and from VI to V degree) (Fig. 1). The
potential meaning complexity of this underlying
intonation-theme is connected to the fact that the
activeness of the first motive and the softness
of the second are concentrated expression of
the unity of two contrast states, typical of this
composer, embodied in the major part of his
works. It is well-known that Florestan sphere
means impulsiveness, passion, dramatism, and
Eusebius sphere stands for lyricism, delicateness,
thoughtful self-contemplation. This bipolarity, set
forward in the initial parent-intonation, includes
both the primary, internal meaning of the piece,
and, at the same time, is the impulse for expressing
the musical whole. We can also notice that in the
first edition of the cycle Schumann himself put
remarks: F. (for Florestan) or E. (for Eusebius) (in
some pieces, both F. and E.) to denote that the
order of the pieces is caused by the interchange of
certain characters. This interchange of impulsive,
excited pieces with calm, contemplative ones is
the revelation of the pulse, the inherent property
of a living, organic structure.
If we try to characterize the most general
features of development of a sophisticated
feeling-state, experienced by the composer and
depicted in this opus, then in the fi rst pieces of
the cycle thoughtful and contemplative images
prevail; probably, they are the embodiment of
some nice memories. But then, as the music
develops, the tendency for drama aggravation
is noticed; fi nally, it leads to the climax: pieces
8, 9 and 10, placed by the author in the middle
of the cycle. Here the drama reigns supreme,
embodying the excited, furious and at the same
time dolorous character. After the climax, the
crisis passes, and from this gloomy state and
hopelessness we move towards a light feeling,
which embodies the achievement of a dream.
In the last pieces, light figures prevail, but in
comparison with the beginning of the cycle they
express a sort of lofty ideal, and, in the context
of the whole, such nuances as conciliation,
pacification.
In the context of studying the piece’s
thematic development as an underlying basis
for real, spontaneous establishment of a sensestate, which embodies the unity of two opposite
elements, it seems relevant to compare pairs
of opposite pieces that follow one another in
the cycle. In the present article let us give only
two examples to illustrate the figure-bonding
antitheses with a musical micromotive.
The first opposition of pieces, № 2 (E.)
and № 3 (F.), bares a contrast of a light, subtly
sad, fragile figure-memory and a figure of pure
exultance and celebration. In the latter, the festive
character of music, connected with the depiction
of an exterior element, is emphasized: it is proved
by quotations from “Carnaval”, extracts from
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“Valse Allemande” and “Promenade”. In both
of them, bonding element is a thematic invariant
of the parent-intonation, represented with motto
micromotives.
Piece № 2 (Eusebius imagery) is based on
a downward, or in this certain context, wilting
seconds’ intonation (a minor second step makes
the pinching emotion more acute) which is
represented here by both variants of the initial
parent-intonation, as the combination of degrees
III-II and VI-V (Fig. 2).
The base for Piece № 3 (associated with
Florestan imagery) is the swing sixth-wise
intonation, which, in this variant of motto
micromotive actualization, is filled by forward
motion in duplicated thirds (in the right-hand and
left-hand parts) (Fig. 3).
The next pair of two opposite pieces (№4 –
F., № 5 – E.) is the contrast of an anxious,
dramatic, somewhat dolorous feeling which
is expressed in stubbornly repeated, intrusive
intonation, or, to be more precise, fi s duplicated
in octaves, and a detached, dreamy one,
perceived as a development of retrospective
memories.
In Piece № 4 the first motto intonation
is present, but it is hidden so deep in the
sophisticated multidimensional structure that it is
not easily found. It gets into a different imagery
context, and, as a result, the theme acquires a
brand-new sensual tone (Fig. 4). In Piece № 5
motto intonations are delicately intertwined
with the soft, gentle melody, but also secretly,
inconspicuously, hidden deep (Fig. 5).
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
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Fig. 5
In the subsequent development, new
imagery tones of the primary parent-intonation
theme, containing the internal polar sense-state,
are heard. Though not targeting at tracing it
throughout the cycle, we notice that it is important
to intend to perceive the underlying sensual
background of the musical piece, the exterior
embodiment of which is based on such method
of thematic development as micro monothematic
technique. It is required to emphasize, that in all
pieces of the cycle, with no exceptions, there are
micromotives as an exterior invariant expression
of the primary parent-intonation, which reveal
themselves with great evidence, brightly and
explicitly, or sometimes hidden within the
depths of sounds, bringing the whole of the piece
together. Every time appearing under different
conditions, let it be structural, rhythmical, or
dynamical, these motives express new sides and
tones of emotions and experiences.
Speaking about this work, it is important
to point at the pulsation created in Schumann’s
music with the help of certain rhythmic means.
So, the first piece of the cycle, on one hand,
acts as a microvariation cycle based on the
development of motto intonations, and on the
other hand, demonstrates the technique of
rhythmic contraction and expansion by means
of enlargement or, on the opposite, shortening
of the primary intonation’s (two micromotives’)
rhythmic values, creating the “living pulse” effect:
bars 6-25 expansion, bars 26-33 contraction, bars
34-52 expansion, bars 53-62 contraction, bars 6273 expansion (Fig. 24 a,b). As we have mentioned
before, this technique is one of the typical ones
used by Schumann.
So, the brightest expressions observed in the
present piece, are: the polarity of the underlying
primary intonation, creating metamorphosis
of figures, their internal and natural mutual
transformation-“flowover” of one into another,
and the pulsation feature. Paraphrasing
Schumann’s words, we could say, that this piece
embodies the “overflowing fullness of inner life”.
In this embodiment, the polarity of Florestan and
Eusebius elements of the initial parent-intonation
theme as the underlying spiritual fundament of
the composer can be revealed due to the “deeply
hidden” and “strained threads” of the invariants
of motto micromotive.
The creation of Kreisleriana (ор. 16,
1838), just like that of “Davidsbündlertänze”, is
closely connected to Clara. In one of his letters,
Schumann wrote: “How full of music I am now,
and such lovely melodies all the time! I’m going
to call it Kreisleriana; in it, you and a theme of
yours play the principal role. I want to dedicate
it to you, yes, to you, and no one else! You will
smile such a gentle smile when you recognize
yourself in it” (Schumann, 1970:354).
At the same time, the composer establishes
the ideal of music as deep and high art, created to
spiritualize and dignify a person. We have already
mentioned the specific attitude of Romanticists to
music. Here it is necessary to turn our attention to
Kapellmeister Johannes Kreisler, main character
of novels by E.T.A. Hoffmann, endued with some
biographical features of the writer. Through this
character, in his novels Hoffmann establishes
a special role of music as a subtle, poetic art,
opposing such understanding of it to philistine,
chintzy perception. He wrote: “…art allows men
to sense their higher destiny, and that it will lead
them from the futile hurly-burly of everyday
life into the Temple of Isis, where nature will
speak to them in sacred sounds, unheard before
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yet immediately comprehensible” (Hoffmann,
1990:15). He calls music “the most romantic of all
the arts since its only subject-matter is infinity;
the mysterious Sanskrit of nature, translated
into sound that fills the human breast with
infinite yearning; and only through it can they
perceive the sublime song of – trees, flowers,
animals, stones, water!” (Hoffmann,1990:15).
Consequently, for Hoffmann music is the
“Sanskrit of nature”, underlying, deep, invisible,
intangible. Similar ideas we can find in the
works by many other Romanticists; they were
also appealing to Schumann. In his music there
are no direct plot analogies, adoption of certain
facts from Hoffmann’s novels. It is widely known
that the composer often named his pieces (which
concerns the present cycle as well) after they
were written. But the ideas embodied in the
figure of Kapellmeister Johannes Kreisler are the
gist of what Schumann’s music conveys: deep,
secret meanings, inexpressible in words. Another
important sense aspect of this piece is the fact
that Kreisler, furious, vicious, eccentric, is
mostly close to Florestan character. This could be
the reason why Schumann used Kreisler’s name
in the title of his music: he is a bright embodiment
of such Florestan features, as impulsiveness,
extraversion, impetuosity. On the other hand, in
this piece Kreisler’s figure, is, by all means, the
embodiment of the composer’s struggle for his
ideas, for establishment of some sincere, sublime
sides of the human life, manifested in the dramatic
tones typical of this music.
The drama of “Kreisleriana” finds its
reflection in the penetrating principle of
development, which is distinguished in its intensity,
continuousness, drive, and culmination, the most
spectacular moment of which is the last piece
of the cycle. Consequently, development of this
music follows the way of constant accumulation
of new properties, enhancement, extension of the
initial characters. This is why researchers define
it with the term symphonic style: “It is hard to
name any other work of Schumann, where his
specific “piano symphony”, or the continuousness
and lyrical drive, achieved with only means of
piano, would be expressed with the same force
and integrity, as in “Kreisleriana” (Zhitomirsky,
1964:309). Development of this piece can be also
interpreted as a deeper plunge into the gist of the
primary character, expression and revelation of
its deepest and subtlest tones, gradual exhaustion
of all its capacities.
Imagery and contents of “Kreisleriana”
in many ways is the extension of
“Davidsbündlertänze”.
Just
like
in
“Davidsbündlertänze”, the prevailing image and
emotional atmosphere of this piece is connected
to the manifestation of an ultimate psychological
state, interaction of who sensual images,
Florestan and Eusebius. However, in comparison
with “Davidsbündlertänze”, in “Kreisleriana”
these motives are actively developed: the lyrical
sphere is deeper, it becomes more introverted and
concentrated, intellectualized, and the dramatic
figure gets more acute, tense, determined,
extraverted, thereby expressing the volcanic
outburst of emotions (which reveals the similarity
to Kreisler’s image).
The unity of the two figures composes
the sense configuration of the piece’s parent
intonation. Its invariant component, or the
bipolar intonational core of penetrating thematic
development, comes up in the beginning of piece
№ 1 (Fig. 6). In this theme we can identify 1. An
iambic upward second intonation, the fundament
of Florestan sphere, and 2. An intonation (better
illustrated in Piece № 2 (Fig. 7)), of a gentle move
from I to VI degree, omitting IV degree (in Piece
№ 2 returning to I, following the tonic triad), best
manifested in the lyrical (Eusebius) episode of
the musical work.
Florestan character is actualized with the
help of such techniques as iambic structure,
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№1
Fig. 6
№2
Fig. 7
swing rhythm, fast tempo, domination of upward
steps, expressing determination and activeness.
Inside Piece № 1 the character metamorphosis
occurs. In the background of preserving the
basic microintonations of the primary theme
and the general character of narration, some
subtle parameters transform, thereby creating
a new figure: light, gentle, weightless. The
melody is transferred to the higher register, the
dynamics change ( f for p), the direction of steps
turns downward instead of upward; the active,
determined part of the octave bass disappears.
So, the very first piece sets the bipolarity of the
theme, embodying a multidimensional sensual
image, which brings opposite elements together.
This bipolarity becomes the impulse for the
further development.
Eusebius sphere is connected with such
expressive means as slow tempo, downward or
wave-like steps, but in general, rhythmically
straight. These expressive means determine its
calm, soft, gentle character. The volume and
sophistication of this character’s sound are created
with polyphonic techniques, a wide register
diapason, wide, extensive position of voice parts
(Fig. 7). Its first emergence in the cycle falls on the
main theme of the second piece. It is accentuated
with three contrast episodes: a scherzo-like one,
an agile, agitatedly lyrical one and an image of
a concentrated self-contemplation, a focused
thought. The piece acquires a complicated form
which resembles rondo: ABACDA. The themes
of the accentuatedparts are based on the second
initial micromotive, which, undergoing some
rhythmical transformations, and playing in the
context of a different texture, acquires a different
character.
These moments of accentuation of the
main figure cause close “intertwinedness”
(R. Schumann) of two contrast sphere of figures,
forming the underlying intonation fundament
of the whole work. The active interaction of
contrast figure variants on the basis of similar
microintonations occurs both inside each piece
of the cycle and between different pieces,
representing opposite spheres. Consequently,
everything gets connected and intertwined, both
intonationally and rhythmically. This active
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thematic interaction of the opposite spheres
based on the initial parent-intonation is the
main confirmation of the symphonic style of
“Kreisleriana”.
Another manifestation of symphonic style
is the preparation of the culmination moment,
which is actualized gradually, during the stage
preceding the culmination, thereby creating
the active direction for the development of a
new theme, leading to the development climax.
It is evident on the Fig. of the next themes,
where the main expressive role is played by the
intonation of the downward minor seconds and
swing rhythm: № 1, middle episode; № 3, Noch
schneller episode; № 6, Etwas bewegter episode;
№ 7, Noch schneller episode (Fig. 8).
If in the first pieces (№№ 1, 3, 5) Florestan
motive played in the background, as though
gradually developing on its own, by the end of the
cycle it “comes closer” and in Piece № 7 plays in
the foreground. In № 8 this character acquires the
features of a spatial sound created by such means
as a huge register diapason, diversity of structure
(accord structure combined with polyphonic
techniques). When its sound is through, the
character melts away, disappears in nowhere, as
а
№1, middle episode
,
b.
p
№ 3, middle episode
c.
№ 6, middle episode
d.
№ 7, middle episode
e.
e.
ʋ 8, middle episode
Fig. 8
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№ 8, middle episode
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though embodying the complete exhaustion of
the sensual and meaning contents, endued to the
parent-intonation.
So, if in “Davidsbündlertänze” such
principles, as polarity, pulsation, clear expression
of the underlying intonation invariants are best
manifested, then in “Kreisleriana” the key
property is the symphonic style, expressed, first
of all, through the intensity, continuousness of
development. Its characteristics are gradualness,
successive aspiration for the target, which is
determination, construction of the process
diversity, creation of the primary image. The
peculiarity of the invariant manifestation of an
underlying parent-intonation theme in this piece
is its unobviousness, veiledness, “perplexity”
of the thematic elements, of the way they grow
in the process of development. But still the two
constant microintonations, the mobile parameters
(tempo, rhythm, tonality, harmony etc.) of which
undergo various transformations, are perfectly
recognizable in all pieces of the cycle.
Another peculiarity of “Kreisleriana” is that
every polar character is accentuated, and, at the
same time, emphasized, concentrated, thereby
embodying the plunge into the underlying
meanings of the parent intonation. This
peculiarity is closely bond with Kreisler theme,
with understanding music as an underlying,
inmost, essential expression of life itself, of its
being, “mysterious, Sanskrit of nature, translated
into sound”.
“Humoreske” op. 20 was written by
Schumann in 1839, when he had gone through
a lot, when many of the obstacles had already
been overcome, but the result of the “struggle
for Clara” was still unknown7, so the mood of
“Humoreske” is calm, and at the same time, a little
sad: there is a sort of submission present in it. In
its imagery and emotional content, it is different
from “Davidsbündlertänze” and “Kreisleriana”.
There is no dramatic acuteness, no figures of
clear, open pain or suffering. “Both humour and
lyricism bear a more open, objective character”
(Nikolaeva, 1990:159).
This piece also reflects the idea of
interconnected polar states, which, in the present
case, are the soft, lyrical, a little sad beginning
and an active figure with some ironic traits. Due
to the name of the piece, it is important to consider
the question on how Schumann interpreted the
word “humour”. Many researchers emphasize,
that Schumann “…used the word “humour” not
in its common narrow meaning, as a special form
of wittiness, but also in the wider meaning, in
which it is used in the novels by his favourite
authors, Jean Paul and E.T.A. Hoffmann, as the
expression of integrity of irony and seriousness
in life, of the way it combines laughter and
tears” (cited by (Merkulov, 2006:56). In one of
his letters, the composer wrote: “My dear Clara,
is it possible not to write to you for whole eight
days? But I dreamt of you and thought of you
with such love which I had never known before.
I have been all the week at the piano, composing,
writing, laughing and crying, all at once. You
will find this state of affairs nicely described
in my Op.20, the Grosse Humoreske” (Italics
by O.Ia.) (Schumann, 1970:444). Or, in another
letter: “It may be the saddest of my works”
(Schumann, 1970:501). The mix of sadness and
joy, gentleness and irony, lyrical and active
elements is the essence of this piece’s inner
contents. To illustrate it, we can also quote
E.T.A. Hoffmann, who wrote: “Who would dare
to deny the irony, rooted deep in human nature…
The strongest pain or complaint of hopeless
despair is often reborn into laughter and broad
mirth. The complete cognition of this strange
feature, peculiar of the human nature, may be
the thing we usually call “humour” (Italics by
O.Ia.) (cited by (Literaturnye manifesty…,
1980:214)). In the context of the present research,
the romanticist understanding of humour, which
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Fig. 9
means the focus on the underlying, invisible plan,
on the essence of things, uniting the polarity of
the opposite emotional elements, acquires special
significance.
Invariant of the present piece’s thematic
development, due to which the underlying
intonation constantly finds itself in the text,
includes, precisely speaking, three micromotives
instead of two: 1. Primary expressive upward
second intonation, with the simultaneous harmonic
sequence with an augmented triad; 2. Intonation of
the upward perfect fourth, embodying the active
element; 3. Downward, degree-wise step from IV
to I, the further fundament of the development of
a lyrical image (Fig. 9).
Just like in “Kreisleriana”, thematic
invariant of “Humoreske” is the element due
to which all imagery transformations get
intertwined with each other. The actualization
of the underlying intonation theme in this
piece is made through the line of continuous
development, through gradual accumulation of
two opposite qualities, polar antitheses, forming
the subsequent series of the primary state’s
metamorphosis. Just like in “Kreisleriana”, the
culmination of this development is the ending
part of the piece. Both lyrical and active edges
of the integrated, sophisticated image, acquire
new properties at the end of the piece. However,
unlike “Kreisleriana”, “Humoreske” presents
different sensual tones of the polar imagery
spheres: the mentioned gentleness and the active
element; sadness and joy.
As it has been mentioned above, “Humoreske”
can be divided into four parts and a conclusion.
The first three are based on the three-part
principle and end with a recapitulation; the fourth
one is a united, piercing line, leading the listener
to the final. At the beginning of the piece, the
parent-intonation theme, as an integration of the
lyrical and the ironical, is generally characterized
with such sensual and meaning tones, as softness
and gentleness on one hand, and lightness, joy,
activeness and irony on the other.
In the conclusion of the piece, the active,
living, toccata element, following the spontaneous
and paradoxical logic of Schumann’s dramaturgy,
is suddenly reborn into a pompous figure (Mit
einigem Pomp part), which is the culmination of
this development line. The instrumental signals,
specific for this theme, can be the genre key to the
figure of a pompous, demonstrative, spectacular
element. We can suppose that in the context of
“Humoreske” this pompousness expresses the
emotional pain, reborn into “irony and broad
mirth” (E.T.A. Hoffmann), irony about the
suffering.
The culmination of the lyrical fugure is the
final part of “Humoreske”, Zum Beschluss, when
the figure opens up completely. The piece’s theme
is based on the continuation of the second part’s
motives. If in the active figure culmination the
external element, the pompousness, affectivity,
was the brightest, then here the plunge into
internal states is obvious. The main peculiarities
of development of this figure are: recitativeness,
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wide and long breath, improvisation. The
polyphonic “rollcalls” that appear during the
development process, weaken the lyrical element,
thereby reflecting the aspect of meditation,
contemplation, doubt, creating a sort of distance,
a view from outside. Despite the major tonality,
one can hear the repressed pain and submission
in the music. The tones of meaning for this
image are expressed through the combination of
distance and, at the same time, longing for the
freedom of expression, through the interaction of
light, lyrical and sad states.
So, in “Humoreske” we considered another
variant of micro monothematic technique.
Just like in “Kreisleriana”, here we observe
the intertwinedness, intangibility, but at the
same time deep underlying alliance of opposite
components of the initial theme diapason, in the
exterior connected to each other with invariant
microintonaitons. This alliance is found despite
the difference of the “flickering” images. In
the development process, new variants of the
initial micromotives, on the base of which the
subsequent pieces are constructed, are born; for
this reason we can speak of “melody growth”.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
In general, in the Fig. of Schumann’s
music we managed to study the functioning
variant of monothematic principle defi ned as
micro monothematic technique, which implies
the penetration of the whole with general
microintonations, binding its integrity together.
The specific peculiarities of development in the
studied works by Schumann are: continuousness,
gradualness of accumulating new qualities
through intertwinedness of contrast thematic
elements.
Their
living,
interconnected
development, in the process of which new
intonational variants, or impulses for the next
images, are born, lets us speak of musical growth
as actualization of the initial theme’s creativity,
of the active and deep character of thematic
interactions. Moreover, one of the typical
techniques specific for the composer’s creative
pattern, is the moment of intensive pulsation,
created by rhythmic means.
Consequently, monothematic principle
as self-development expression of a certain
underlying base of a musical thought, embodying
the actualization of a psychological state, finds its
original deflection in Schumann’s music.
See also: (Iarosh, 2 (2010)).
See also: (Iarosh, 7 (2010)).
Research of the musical sense cognition mechanism is also the subject of work by N. Garipova (Garipova, 2011). Study of
the text’s sense organization, found on the border of extramusical semantics and intramusical one, forming on the basis of
timbre character, lies in the fundament of work by I. Basharova (Basharova, 2008).
See also: (Merkulov, 2006).
Collection of piano works of Clara Wiek «Soirées musicales» ор. 6.
It is also important to remark, that the word “dance” in the name of the piece does not imply the obligatory actualization of
the music in dance, but it is fi rst of all connected to the Romanticist interpretation of the dance element as the expression
of genuineness of the lyrical emotion.
Turning to the biography of Schumann, on July 16, 1839, Robert and Clara applied to court in order to solve their conflict
with Friedrich Wiek, which lasted for thirteen months.
References
1. Ambros A. Robert Shuman. Zhizn‘ i tvorchestvo [Robert Schumann. Life and Works] Moscow.
1988. 61 p.
2. Basharova I.R. Smyslovaia organizatsiia muzykal’nogo teksta instrumental’nykh sochineniy
dlia detey Sofii Gubaidulinoy [Sense Organization of Instrumental Music Text for the Children of
Sofia Gubaydulina], author’s abstract from the thesis for the title of Candidate of Arts. Magnitigorsk,
2008. 27 p.
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3. Garipova N.M. O dvukh sposobakh ob“ektivatsii i postizheniia smysla v muzyke [Two Methods
of Objectivization and Cognition of Meaning in Music] // Voprosy kul‘turologii, 4 (2011), pp. 21-26.
4. Gofman E.T.A. Kreisleriana. Novelly [Kreisleriana. Novels] Moscow, 1990. 400 p.
5. Zhitomirsky D.V. Robert Shuman. Ocherk zhizni i tvorchestva [Robert Schumann. Essay on
Life and Works] Moscow. 1964. 880 p.
6. Zenkin K.V. Fortepiannaia miniatiura i puti muzykal‘nogo romantizma [Piano Miniature and
Ways of Romanticism in Music] Moscow. 1997. 415 p.
7. Literaturnye manifesty zapadnoevropeiskikh romantikov [Literary Manifests of West
European Romanticists] Moscow. 1980. 638 p.
8. Medushevskiy V.V. Dvoystvennost‘ muzykal’noi formy i vospriiatie muzyki [Duality of
Musical Form and Perception of Music] // Vospriiatie muzyki. Moscow. 1980, Pp. 178-194.
9. Merkulov A.M. Fortepiannye siuitnye tsikly Shumana [Schumann’s Piano Cycles] Moscow,
2006. 95 p.
10. Nikolaeva N.S. Fortepiannaia muzyka Shumana [Schumann’s Piano Music] // Muzyka Avstrii
i Germanii XIX veka. Volume 2. Moscow. 1990. pp. 128-197.
11. Schumann R. Pis‘ma [Letters] in 2 volumes. V.1: 1817-1840. Moscow. 1970. 720 p.
12. Iarosh O.V. Zapadnoevropeiskiy monotematizm v kontekste filosofii I.V. Giote [West European
Monothematic Principle in the Context of J.F. Goethe Philosophy] // Muzykal‘naia akademiia, 2 (2010),
pp. 167-171.
13. Iarosh O.V. Osmyslenie tematicheskoy organizatsii «Tantsev davidsbiundlerov» R. Shumana
v sinesteticheskom aspekte [Interpretation of Thematic Organization of “Davidsbündlertänze” by
R. Schumann in Synesthetic Aspect] // Musykovedenie, 7 (2010), pp. 28-33.
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Olga V. Iarosh. Micro Monothematic Tecnhique in Music by R. Schumann (Based on Piano Works)
Принцип микромонотематизма в музыке Р. Шумана
(на примере фортепианных произведений)
О.В. Ярош
Красноярская государственная академия музыки и театра,
Россия, 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ленина, 22
В статье рассматриваются особенности тематической организации музыки Р. Шумана, в
которой большое значение имеет принцип микромонотематизма. Сущностные качества
монотематического метода, связанные с воплощением многомерных образов, соединяющих
контрастные стороны в глубоком единстве, запечатлены в их непрерывном развитии,
глубоких, сущностных изменениях и во многом обусловлены историко-культурным контекстом
романтической эпохи. Оригинальное преломление монотематизм находит в творчестве
Шумана, представляя собой пронизанность целого общими микроинтонациями, скрепляющими
его единство.
Характерные черты тематического развития в музыке композитора раскрываются в
контексте интонационного метода анализа, исследующего область интрамузыкальной
семантики произведений, связанного с пониманием интонации как единства смысла и звука,
являющейся основой живого интонационного процесса.
Ключевые слова: микромонотематизм, романтизм, глубинная интонация, интонационный
анализ, интрамузыкальная семантика.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2014 7) 525-536
~~~
УДК 781.5
Demonic and Infernal Images
in Franz Liszt’s Instrumental Compositions:
Prosodic Aspect
Julia Е. Polezhaeva*
Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre
22 Lenin Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Received 14.09.2013, received in revised form 22.11.2013, accepted 28.11.2013
The article views the outstanding Hungarian composer-romanticist’s creative work from the
positions of the image-bearing system of the art of the Romantic era, its specificity and means of
embodiment. The material for research embraces piano and orchestra compositions: five “Mephisto
Waltzes”, “Mephisto Polka”, “The Piano Sonata in B minor”, fantasia quasi sonata “Apres une lecture
du Dante” (“After a Reading of Dante”), the “Faust symphony”, the “Dante symphony” that depict
various manifestations of evil. These compositions are studied in image-and-prosodic plane. The main
method of research is the prosodic analysis approaching the minor integral analysis. Singling out and
description of prosodic “nucleus” as a stable complex of expressive means that serve to re-create the
images mentioned have become the result of the research. This complex is characterized by certain
features (tone, register, articulatory, melodic, rhythmic, tonality-and-harmonic and genre ones) as
well as by regularities of a theme formation and development. Conclusion presents the attempt to view
the phenomena under research from the point of Christian teaching.
Keywords: image of evil, “Mephisto Waltz”, the “Faust symphony”, the “Dante symphony”, Franz
Liszt, musical expressive means, intonation, romanticism.
There is a need in a new repertoire
that could grab the audience’s attention.
Demonic, satanic, perhaps?
Louis Vernon, the year of 1831
Quite long ago I.I. Sollertinskii
characterized romanticism as something
broader and more significant than style or
school in art. Thus, he wrote that “romanticism
is a holistic extensive outlook” (Sollertinskii,
1962, 4). This point of view is supported by
the researchers nowadays, after a quarter of
a century. Iu. Gabai, for example, regards
*
romanticism as “a certain type of perception
of the world”, “a world-view that determines
the rules of art” (Gabai, 1987, 9). Indeed,
irrespective of heterogeneity and singularity
of images embodied in romanticists’
masterpieces, a set of general themes, motifs
are peculiar for their creative work that is
indicative of community of ideas. These are
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: bampo25@yandex.ru
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disappointment in reality, escape from it,
dissatisfaction, loneliness, longing for ideal.
As is known, the romanticists’ imagebearing palette is very rich and multicoloured.
It comprises various aspects of reality (historic
past, exotic countries, a human’s inner life,
pictures of nature, etc.) and fabulousness. At
that emphasizing something specific, individual
and peculiar is of the utmost importance.
Everything unusual, strange, mysterious gets
a special value. The spheres of grotesque and
irony are also of importance. The works on
aesthetics of romanticism issues often mention
the world dichotomy, polarization of imagebearing spheres and dramatics of antitheses
(Druskin, 1981), the feeling of polarity (Gabai,
1987). According to A.V. Mikhailov, in the
romanticists’ consciousness “ethos and reality
of history are located on different surfaces”,
thus a romantic thinker is an embodiment of
contradiction (Mikhailov, 1987, 8-9).
A new image-bearing system, different
from the one peculiar for classicism, is formed in
romantic art. The romanticists themselves noticed
its specific features. V. Hugo, for example, in the
preface to his drama “Cromwell” wrote about
a large role of grotesque, regarding it in its
correlation with the beautiful: “in the Romantic
era everything shows its close and creative ties
with the beautiful” (Literaturnye manifesty…
1980, 451). In the writer’s opinion, the sphere of
grotesque embraces absurdity, ugliness, infirmity
as well as passions, vices and crimes. Grotesque
creates “the ugly and the monstrous, on the one
hand, and the comic and the clownish, on the
other hand. It gives rise to thousands of distinctive
prejudices around religion and thousands of
beautiful images around poetry” (Ibid., 449). Hell,
Satan, witches’ sabbath, Scaramouche, Harlequin
are among them. Hugo highly praises grotesque:
“How impertinently it highlights all these
fanciful images that were so timidly veiled by the
previous epoch!” (Ibid., 449). The writer further
points out a marked predominance of grotesque
over the lofty and beautiful in literature.
Images bearing unkind, destructive forces
that personify the forces leading to death, dismal
world of infernal fantasy, ideas of death and
fate also penetrate into a musical composition’s
artistic space. Even a brief enumeration of
theatrical or program musical compositions is
extremely indicative of unusual attractiveness
of images of the evil: N. Paganini’s “Witches’
Dance”, C.M. von Weber’s “Der Freischütz”
(“The Marksman” or “The Free Shooter”),
P.J. von Lindpaintner’s “Der Vampyr” (“The
Vampire”), H. Marschner’s “Der Vampyr”
(“The Vampire”), G. Meyerbeer’s “Robert le
diable” (“Robert the Devil”), S. Moniuszko’s
“Figle szatana” (“Satan’s Tricks” or “Devil’s
Frolics”), H. Berlioz’s “Symphony Fantastique:
Épisode de la vie d’un Artiste ... en cinq parties”
(“Fantastic Symphony: An Episode in the Life
of an Artist, in Five Parts”), Ch.-C. SaintSaëns’s “Danse macabre” (“Dance of Death”),
L. Spohr’s “Faust”, R. Wagner’s “Faust”,
H. Berlioz’s “La damnation de Faust” (“The
Damnation of Faust”), Ch. Gounod’s “Faust”,
etc. Evident increase of “a specific density”
of feelings tinged with dark colours (vague
anxiety, uneasiness, violent turmoil, despair)
can be noted in the sphere of “clear” music. This
caused changes in the language of music: “in
comparison with major classicism romanticism
undoubtedly extended the sphere of flat and
minor keys, accelerated pulse” (Medushevskii,
1993, 190).
The tendencies mentioned above were
repeatedly mentioned in research literature
(Druskin, 1981; Zhitomirskii, 1981; Medushevskii,
1993). The romanticists’ art attracts modern
researchers’ attention even nowadays. It should
be noted that in musicological works of recent
decades the problems of romanticism chiefly
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appear in style and genre planes. The issues
of form and history of performance are given
comparatively little attention. At the same time
there appear the works on one or another aspect of
image-bearing system formed in the composersromanticists’ creative work.
Thus, romanticism is studied in the light of
typical themes and images in N.G. Nevskaia’s
thesis “Faust theme implementation in the music
of the XIX century” (2011) and N.A. Antipova’s
thesis “The fabulous in German romantic opera”
(2007). The interest to faustianity is presented in
F.S. Tairova’s book “Faust in music (the image
of Faust in the composers-romanticists’ creative
work)” (2008).
In N.A. Antipova’s recently published
articles the author’s attention is focused on
popular romantic themes, characters and motifs
of the plots. Dwelling upon H. Marschner’s opera
“The Vampire”, in particular, the researcher
points out the embodiment of themes and images,
“attracting close attention of artists, writers and
musicians of the XIX century. These are the
spirits’ illusory world meddling in the humans’
peaceful life, lyric heroines’ all-conquering
love, fatal forebodings striking turmoil into
the heroines’ hearts”, and a romantic hero of “a
demonic plane” (Antipova, 2012а). “Favourite
themes and characters of the epoch”, including
love, a witch and a magic drink, a ghost and a hero
performing “devilish deeds from human motives”
also appear in R. Schumann’s opera “Genoveva”
(Antipova, 2013). Establishing the linkage of
L. Spohr’s opera “Faust” with the beginning of
romantic demonism, Antipova considers that
“the problem of the supernatural and infernal is
of the greatest importance in romantic aesthetics”
(Antipova, 2012b). At that the researcher’s
attention is mainly focused on the phenomena of
a musical theatre while prosodic embodiment of
demonic and infernal images is, in fact, described
as much briefly and fragmentarily as possible. It
is of a very general character and doesn’t form a
system. This is obviously caused by the genre and
historical orientation of the works mentioned.
However, the romanticists’ aspiration to
peep into dark infinites of a human’s sinful soul
and their wish to portray various manifestations
of a demonic origin were implemented in purely
instrumental opuses. In this regard Franz Liszt
was one of the most consistent composers. Even
though his compositions often imply the elements
of being programme like, the composer always
faced the necessity to cast his message with the
help of the language of music only.
The problem of the formation of the specific
musical means complex that could embody the
picturesqueness of the sphere of evil that was new
for that period hasn’t received its due consistent
interpretation and deep understanding in musical
science yet.
In the light of the mentioned above the
objective of the article is to give a detailed view
on demonic and infernal images embodied
in F. Liszt’s music (their essential basis and
specific manifestations) as well as on expressive
means of their embodiment. This will enable
to give a fuller idea of the composer’s creative
work and, what is conceptually broader, of
an image-bearing system of romanticism in
general. Limitation of the range of the analyzed
compositions to the genres of instrumental music
is caused by the desire to focus on pure musical
manifestations of the images of evil. Study of the
art of the Romantic era has a great significance
for modern musicology and culture. (It should be
noted that it is, a fortiori, topical if to take into
account that culture and art nowadays, according
to many scholars, are in the state of a deep crisis.)
Some researchers think that “we still live in the
era opened by romanticism, in romantic present”
(Sidorov, 2011, 20).
The idea of evil in F. Liszt’s compositions
is embodied broadly and with great variety. Evil
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origin finds its concrete personified expression
in programme compositions connected with
the image of Mephistopheles (five “Mephisto
Waltzes”, “Mephisto Polka”, the third part of
the “Faust symphony”). Its spirit is vivid in the
pictures of hell, a gloomy underground world,
depicted in the “Dante symphony” and fantasia
quasi sonata “After a Reading of Dante”.
An evil spirit is a “hero” 1 of a whole set
of Liszt’s compositions. “The idea of evil in
the image of Mephistopheles got its brilliant
embodiment in Liszt’s music with such a deep
message and expressiveness that no musician
could ever create” (Asaf’ev, 1981, 72). According
to B. Asaf’ev, this idea follows from the inmost
recesses of a composer’s soul: “Liszt’s activity is
entirely asserting. Mephistopheles is not seen in
it, comparatively few moments apart. <…> This
proves that the fight was in the spiritual sphere,
and it’s very likely that the spirit of denial acted
with equal energy as a light assertive force and
sometimes even with a larger intensity than the
latter” (Ibid., 72-73). Liszt’s Mephistopheles (now
ironically derisive, now mysteriously enigmatic,
now brilliant, attractive, and seducing with
delight) sometimes shows his true nature that
is aggressive, terrifying a human and hostile to
him.
One of the first manifestations of the image
of Mephistopheles in Liszt’s creative work is the
third part of the “Faust symphony”. According to
Ia. Mil’shtein, the idea of the symphony came to
Liszt in 1839 and in 1854 this composition was
completed (Mil’shtein, 1971). Its full name is
“Eine Faust-Symphonie in drei Charakterbildern”
(“A Faust Symphony in three character pictures”).
The first part is “Faust”, the second one is
Margaret’s “portrait”, and the third part portrays
the image of Mephistopheles as a symbol of evil,
denial, scepsis.
“The spirit that denies” appears in the
symphony as Faust’s double, his distorted
reflection. Peculiar features of prosodic processes
in the finale are formed by the idea of denial,
derision of positive values materialized in music
of the first part. There are no intrinsic themes in
the third part (except for the musical material of
the introduction part Allegro vivace, ironico).
The part bases upon parody, ironic interpretation,
caricatured transformation of the material of
the first part. According to Mil’shtein, these are
foremost “the theme of love” in the collateral part
and “the theme of a great heroic deed” in the final
part (Ibid.).
In the finale’s first beats Mephisto’s irony is
materialized with traditional “scherzo” methods:
dynamic, register, timbre contrasts, staccato,
pizzicato, unexpected pauses. Infernal shade
to sounding is introduced by rising tunes in the
volume of a tritone, based on chromatic scalelike movement in the part of violoncellos and
contrabasses, figuration of a diminished seventh
chord in a triplet rhythm played by clarinets and
bassoons staccato (bb. 8-11). Sinister scherzo
character is peculiar for chromatic melodic line in
the part of flutes, clarinets which is later imitated
by stringed instruments.
The first theme from those transformed
Faust-themes is that of the collateral part,
symbol of love. Tender graceful melody is totally
transformed. Clarinets and flutes are taken turns
by bassoons and violins, legato – by staccato and
pizzicato. Low and middle registers are used
instead of a high one, tender “chamber” “p” turns
into “mf”. Meter-rhythmic monotony, deepened
by Allegro tempo, is opposed to former rhythmic
plastics, flexibility of a variable measure (3/4, С)
in Andante tempo. Monotonous triplet pulsation
is opposed to violas’ expressive, melodious
second parts. The impression of mechanicality is
deepened due to the division of the theme into short
motifs performed sequentially (halftones up) and
continuation that its main motif gets (regularly
alternating descending thirds and rising fourths
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in a regular rhythm at staccato). This is how “the
theme of love” loses its lively content, soul and is,
consequently, disclaimed; the idea of a beautiful
feeling, a divine gift of love is denied.
The theme in the introduction to the first
part which initially contains the idea of doubt,
dissatisfaction is also distorted. Concentration of
Lento tempo is taken turn by thoughtlessness of
Allegro on retention of a rhythmic and melodic
pattern. Connected succession of tones (legato)
as a sign of intoning, peculiar for a human’s
voice, gives ways to a “dry”, “prickly” sounding.
Violoncellos’ pizzicato and bassoons’ staccato
symbolize the opposite, deathly point. Agitated
dialogue of themes that render the ideas of doubt
and love and force out the second “participant” is
interrupted by a sarcastic comment materialized
by violas’ and violoncellos’ absorbing chromatic
passages.
The theme of the first part, expressing
mental turmoil, aspiration for perfection and
being prosodically and rhythmically flexible,
loses its lively content, soul and gets schematized
in the third part. It becomes melodically and
rhythmically even and straight, is decorated with
grace notes. Staccato and pizzicato become the
main means of producing sounds.
The finale’s fugue part is based on the theme
of the collateral part of the first part. A living
feeling is subordinated to a rigorous organizing
logic of a rational point. Light colouring of the
theme of E major is darkened with minor flat
colours (C minor, G minor, D minor); the line
of the counter-theme bases on the sounds of a
diminished seventh chord.
In the course of development the theme of
the collateral part of the first part gets the features
of a march (measure C, dotted rhythm, repeated
rhythmic “cell”). Orchestral tutti and “fff”
in dynamics change chamber and “intimate”
sounding; a motor nature of genre changes
that of a vocal one. Thus, the expression of the
individual, inner, entirely personal is forced out
with the implementation of the outer, impersonal.
The lyrical part of a human’s soul is emasculated.
The theme of the final part is also subject to
changes. At a significant acceleration of tempo a
ceremonial march as if degenerates turning into
some fussy, rather comic movement: strict and
expressed in quarter notes melody of a march is
modified with a melodic figuration, each phrase
ends with falling arpeggio passage performed by
the stringed staccato and pizzicato that develop
as a distorted reflection of the analogous passage
but a rising one. Weighty and significant sounding
of trumpets and trombones, playing the melody
of the theme, is substituted with lightweight,
shallow timbre of a high register of stringed and
wooden wind instruments. Thus, “a great heroic
deed” turns out to be a thoughtless joke.
A diminished tonality that appears in the
end of the third part (one transposition displays
itself in the texture’s upper strata, horizontally,
in a falling movement, the other one, peculiar for
violoncellos’ part, displays itself in the opposite
direction) is the sign of irreality, otherness.
It’s noteworthy that in this case the theme of
Mephisto sphere, which is not supported by the
prosodic material of the first part, turns out to be
impersonal, leveled, and based on general forms
of motion, even rhythm and symmetrical artificial
tonality structure.
Mephistopheles’s destructive, corrosive
irony is embodied in a set of compositions that
base on dancing genres. These are five “Mephisto
Waltzes” 2 and “Mephisto Polka”. Reference
to dancing genres is considered to be nonincidental. The scheme of the black art’s rituals
presupposes dances that follow Satan’s sermon
(Konradi, 1987). Liszt uses dancing movements
to express a carnal, spiritually deprived point. At
that structural squareness and rhythmic formulae
make a principle. Ostinato, long play of one and
the same rhythmic “cells”, peculiar to syncopated
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or, on the contrary, extremely even ones, become
a specific feature of the language of music.
This creates the feeling of mechanicalness and
lifelessness.
The sixth episode of N. Lenau’s “Faust”
(“Der Tanz in der Dorfshenke” (“The Dance in
the Village Inn”)) served a poetic base for the first
“Mephisto Waltz”. Basing on the regularities of
a ternary form, this composition is subordinate
to a programme message. The first section
is a wedding feast in progress in the village
inn, with music and dancing. The music of the
central section illustrates the episode where
Mephistopheles, playing the violin, drives Faust
to the path of sin3.
The image of seducing Mephistopheles is
characterized by a lyric, tender and passionate,
full of sensual charm theme played in the key
of D flat major. According to the programme it
is played by stringed instruments, and namely
violoncellos in high register. There is “a fi re
of temptation” and “Bacchic ardour” in the
sounds of “Mephisto Waltz”. Gradually the
waltz movements pass into a furious dance
that is materialized in the change of measure
(2/4) and a remark in an orchestral version –
“wild, rough”4. Music of section three follows
the poetic text: the tune of Mephisto waltz
dominates in the reprise of a synthetic type,
whilst the fi rst theme (A major) is subordinate
to “a dancing whirl” and gets prosodically close
to the material of the middle section. Faust and
his partner dance through the door and dance
through the garden, and dancing hell’s pursuing
them – these echoes of Mephisto Waltz ring
in the orchestra. Flute’s solo before coda is,
probably, supposed to portray a thunder of a
nightingale’s triumphal warble from behind the
sleeping branches. Mephistopheles’s triumphal
laughter seems to be heard in the coda based on
the D flat intonations of a major theme. Similar
associations are given rise by a repeated short
iambic tune harmonized due to the combination
of dense and major triads.
Supremacy of a rationally-constructive point
finds its brightest expression in “Mephisto polka”
(composed in 1883) and become conspicuous on
all the levels:
• in a scale balanced symmetrical
composition (a ternary reprise form with
the introduction and the final part as
well as with concentricity features (the
material of an introductory section is
repeated in the end));
• in regularity and symmetry of division of
smaller constructions and syntactic units
covering 2, 4, 8, 16 measures. (Introduction
is based on 16, the first part – 32+32, the
central section – 32, reprise – 32 + a varied
repetition with the extension which is the
only deviation from a strict squareness,
8+16 appear in the final section);
• in symmetry of a melodic pattern which
combines with a rhythmic uniformity
and fixedness of rhythm patterns that is
typical for the material of the extreme
parts’ introduction.
Ostinato, emphasized by the regularity of
square structures which leave the impression
of mechanicalness in this context, comes to the
foreground on the level of development patterns.
The main ones are repetition, varied repetition,
and sequential repetition. Variation is achieved
by the combination of texture functions (bass,
harmonic figuration, supporting voices). The
principle of symmetry runs through the whole
musical texture in the process of development:
a symmetric pattern of a melodic line of the
accompaniment in the first part of the reprise.
Axis of symmetry can be drawn both vertically
(dividing a melodic line) and horizontally (that
is possible due to the symmetry of melodic lines
of different texture layers). The principle of
symmetry is especially consecutive in the final
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part of the reprise (bb. 169-180): both vertically
and horizontally.
Dwelling upon the direction of the
development, chromatic scale of a musical
texture to the reprise’s end should be noted. A
melodic line is almost exclusively built from
semitones. Eventually it passes into a descending
chromatic scale (bb. 181-188) performed in sixth
and then one-voice like. Thus, the final point
of the development turns out to be a maximum
featurelessness of a theme.
The intonation of tritone becomes more
and more evident in the course of the material
development. Having first flashed in the
introduction (b. 11), it appears at a varied repetition
of the first part, with a supporting voice (fis-his,
b. 50; tritone also appears in a vertical line). As
for the reprise, the augmented fourth is formed
in it in the extreme sounds of a melodic piece,
changing the perfect fourth (bb. 155, 159).
On the whole two groups of melodic
complexes can be distinguished in Liszt’s
Mephisto compositions. The first reveals the
nature of Goethe’s character as a product of
spiritual death, the force which is opposite and
alien to a human’s personality. Depersonalized,
straightened lines, which are either diatonic
(the second “Mephisto Waltz”) or chromatic
(“Bagatelle without tonality”) and base on the
motion due to the sounds of chords and scales,
are often patterned according to the constructive
principle (“Mephisto polka”). Lyrical, passionate
and expressive character, individuated tense
intonations (tritone, minor second, minor and
major sixths) are peculiar for the melodies of
the second group. They embody the idea of
temptation, seduction by outward beauty and false
feeling. Similar themes (the masks of seducing
Mephistopheles alluring with an illusory ideal
and decoying into the abyss) can be found in the
first and the second “Mephisto Waltzes”. The
second theme of the fourth “Mephisto Waltz” is
close to them according to the intonation type
but it is more mechanistic and, consequently, less
lyric. The motif, common for D flat major theme
of the first waltz, C major theme of the second
waltz and D major theme of the fourth one, bases
on rising intonations of a minor second and a
perfect fourth.
Liszt’s last compositions bear the imprint
of his pioneering aspirations in the sphere of
language of music. Changes in the sphere of
harmony favour a bright and deep embodiment
of the composer’s message. Interfunctional fields
(the second, third, fourth “Mephisto Waltzes”),
emancipation of dissonant chord or interval
complexes (fourth chord in the third “Mephisto
Waltz”, tritone complex in the second one),
“soaring key” in “Bagatelle” (according to Iu.
Kholopov) can be found in them. A growing role
of phonism should be also mentioned. At that
domination of dissonant accords are noticed.
Diminished seventh chords, diminished and
augmented triads are more typical.
“The Piano Sonata in B minor” (18521853) has got neither literary programme, nor
programme name but vividness of images and
“theatrical” logic of the form development (it
acts together with the musical one proper) give
the possibility to interpret this composition as
connected with Goethe’s tragedy. According
to Ia. Mil’shtein, “Faust and Mephistopheles
are two sides of Liszt’s contradictory nature”,
“The Piano Sonata in B minor” is “the composer’s
musical self-portrait” (Mil’shtein, 1971, p. 414415). There are two elements in the theme of the
main part. The fi rst one bases on declamatory
intonations, is harmonically unstable and can
be regarded to be the embodiment of Faust. The
second one contains a beating staccato motif
in its “nucleus”, bases on fivefold repetition
of one sound. It characterizes the image of
Mephistopheles. The elements of the theme are in
many ways opposite. Significant sound volume,
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speech nature of intonations, broad intervals in
melody (an octave, a seventh), rhythmic freedom,
and non-squareness are specific for the fi rst
case. Narrow range, gloomy colouring of a low
register, a melodic line in which monotonously
mechanical repetition of tone is followed by
“crawling” chromatic scales, squareness of
pattern are characteristic for the second element.
At the same time there is much in common
between them: harmonic instability, prosodic
tension, basis on the sounding of a diminished
seventh chord either extended horizontally or
gathered in a vertical complex. These common
features are determined by the fact that “the
spirit that denies” is not only Faust’s permanent
companion but a part of himself. Faust’s spirit
poisoned with the venom of doubt is in the state
of extreme turmoil. In the course of development
the fi rst and the second elements of the theme of
the main part converge: as for the dominating
position, it is taken by the “Mephisto” element,
the “Faust” one is subordinate to it. This is fully
expressed in the beginning of the reprise – in
fugato (where the generative development goes
on).
The first element is performed one-voice
like, in a low register on “p”. So is the second
one. Mechanicalness and gloomy-and-scherzo
character peculiar to the “Mephisto” element get
their development in fugato theme (movement,
flattened with the eighth staccato, dominates, a
melodic line bases on the symmetry principle,
keeping its structural squareness).
In the counter-composition there are isolated
and horizontally connected motifs (movement on
the sounds of the seventh chords, a descending
chromatic line). The interlude (bb. 30-33) is
based on the material of the second element. In
the developing section there is a clearly expressed
tendency to subdivision, destruction of the theme
structure. There is not a single full exposition of
the theme in it. At the same time its constituent
parts are segmented falling into common times
and rhythmic motifs.
Polyphony as a rationally organizing basis
heightens the feeling of mechanicalness and
numbness in this prosodic context.
“The mirror of doubt” contained in the
second element of the theme of the main part
apparently determines the direction of the
image development of the sonata’s other themes.
It’s significant that they gradually display the
tendency to disintegration into separate elements
(first of all it’s true for the “Faust” element as it
is divided in the middle section of the main part
already, and this process also continues in the
connecting part and in musical development).
A destructive effect of “doubt and denial” the
medium of which is the theme of the main part
becomes apparent in the transformation of the
first theme of the collateral part as well (in the
musical development it is divided into phrases;
gloomy resoluteness and saraband’s funeral
rhythm sound in it instead of a passionate hymn
to the beautiful ideal).
Carrying on the line of associations with
Goethe’s “Faust”, it is possible to interpret the
second D major theme of the collateral part
(tender, lyric) as the embodiment of Marguerite’s
image. The origin of this melody (it is based on
the second, “Mephisto” element of the theme of
the main part) as well as refinement, concinnity,
abundance of sensual chromatisms, retentions,
improvised passages, decorations, deviations
from the initial tempo (these were supposed to
convey the ingenuousness of outpouring of a
human’s feeling) reveal its inner point: its beauty
(as well as “sensual charm” of the themes of
the first and the second “Mephisto Waltzes”) is
delusion, temptation, seduction.
The first outlines of the fantasia quasi
sonata “After a Reading of Dante” were made
by Liszt in 1837. In 1839 the message of the
“Dante symphony” occurred to the composer
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(the symphony was finished in 1856). Both
compositions were inspired by the images of
Dante’s “Divine Comedy”. The sonata and the
symphony’s first part re-create gloomy pictures
of hell, the place of eternal punishment of outcast
angels and dead sinners’ souls. The image of
hell is a symbol of everlasting tortures and
“outer darkness”. This determined the choice of
expressive means.
In music, connected with the embodiment of
infernal image-bearing sphere, the key position
is taken by tritone intonation. It is this intonation
that sounds in the first beats of the fantasia quasi
sonata. The first expressive means that became
characteristic for the romanticists’ music at
creating the images of evil in the sonata’s first
section (till b. 29) are low register, a large role
of diminished seventh chords, tritone intonation,
straightened melodic lines, octave duplications.
The distinguishing feature of the pattern of
Allegro moderato section (bb. 189-199) is its
mysterious, gloomy and evil character. Short
chromatic melodic segments basing upon the
tones of the diminished seventh chord and
sounding in small and great octaves take turns
with tritone passages and are perfomed staccato
(this way of producing sounds is peculiar for
“demonic” and “Mephisto” themes). The chord of
one pattern – diminished seventh chord (its three
possible transpositions are used) – is sustained in
harmony over the length of 10 beats.
According to Ia. Mil’shtein, the fantasia
quasi sonata’s images anticipate the content of
the fi rst part of the “Dante symphony” in which
Liszt “re-created the generalized image of
Dante’s hell with a striking force” (Mil’shtein,
1971, 479). The part’s beginning (trombones’
sinister sonority, a severe character of the
melody composed in unison) perfectly conveys
a gloomy greatness of frightening words on the
hell’s gate. Truly terrifying threat is heard in the
sounds of trumpets and French horns that start
playing after (it is favoured by the “funeral”
rhythm, and severe recitative, minor tonality,
phonism of diminished seventh chords in
melody). A descending chromatic melodic line,
which appears in bar 22, bases on the repetition
of a rhythmic pattern and is played by the strings
staccato, attracts special attention. Its character
is typical for “demonic” themes. It organically
enters a sequence of sound embodiments of the
images of evil in the second and third “Mephisto
Waltzes”, “Mephisto polka”, “Bagatelle”, “The
Piano sonata in B minor”.
According to V. Medushevskii, “life in its
depth streams in waves of spiritual energies”
(Medushevskii, 1993, 197) that determine public
moods, aspirations, take form of actions and
events, turn into flesh and blood by means of one
or another art.
With their delicate feeling of the spirit of
the age composers-romanticists (each in their
own manner) reflected this spirit in music. The
analysis of F. Liszt’s instrumental compositions
reveals a set of regularities that make it possible
to state some kind of a prosodic “nucleus” of
the sphere of evil. Peculiarities of embodiment
of demonic and infernal images reflect their
essential features in many ways as if pointing out
their objective nature, real character of spiritual
energies that are felt.
Materialization of an infernal point by
means of low register colours is caused not by
a formal following the rhetoric teaching of the
baroque epoch but, probably, by the immediate
feeling of a dark abyss as it is in the baroque
music that a low register was opposed to a high
(heavenly) one and thus performed a symbolic
function due to the generality of theme, its
conventional and “formulaic” character and
on the bases of spatial associations. In Liszt’s
compositions the sounding of a piano in great
and counter-octaves, of low stings, wooden and
brass wind instruments is fi rst and foremost
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perceived sensibly as something causing terror,
crushing with its weight or charming with its
mysterious, dark depth due to the brightness
and relief of certain solutions, distinct emotional
colouring.
The means of performing sounds also
uncover a true nature of the images materialized
by musical means. Contrary to the range of a live,
animate, vibrating tone and coherent intonations
of a human’s speech the most important feature of
this image-bearing sphere is a “dry”, curt staccato
and pizzicato sounding.
A general feeling of a gloomy sinister force
is materialized with “dark” key and tonality
colouring that is often created by minor flat
tonalities (G minor, C minor, F minor, B flat
minor). It is emotionally sensual nature of
intoning but not conventionally conceptual one
that determined a growing role of phonism. This
involved special texture-and-harmonic means.
A dissonant vertical line (fancifully mysterious
augmented triads, intensively sharp, frightening
diminished triads and seventh chords) becomes
a distinguishing feature of harmony. Occasional
symmetric tonality structures (diminished
tonality, double major) and inter-functional fields
(Iu.N. Kholopov’s term) that appear inside tonally
organized structures for which local functional
laws are applied are the sign of irreality, otherness,
the beyond.
Being the main feature of infernal and
demonic images, spiritual numbness specified the
melodies’ position and their prosodic character
proper. In contrast to a lyric melodic pattern,
capable to embody unusual richness of emotional
shades, psychologically subtle, “reacting” to
the slightest turns of thoughts and feelings and,
thus, strikingly varied, a melodic pattern of the
sphere of evil is prosodically impersonal, leveled.
Straightened scale-like lines (diatonic and
chromatic) and passages of chord sounds become
its main “construction material”.
The sphere of evil’s key intonation is tritone.
It is explained by its typical intensively discordant
sounding as well as its semantics (“the devil in
music”) and organic position in various artificial
tonality systems. The second “Mephisto Waltz”,
“Bagatelle…”, the fantasia quasi sonata “After
a Reading of Dante” start with tritone motifs.
Scale-like passages in the tritone volume sound
in the first beats of the third part of the “Faust
Symphony”, the second “Mephisto Waltz”.
Dancing formulae symbolizing supremacy
of the corporal, fleshy often become a genre
mark of this sphere. It is so, probably, due to
an intuitive vision of the essence of evil as the
basis opposite to spirituality, connected with
the disbalance of hierarchical establishment of
a human’s personality in which, according to
Christian anthropology, the body is subordinate
to the soul, whilst the latter is subordinate to the
spirit.
It’s interesting that Liszt’s compositions
reflect Christian understanding of Evil as a
derivative, relative force that can exist in case
it distorts Good. In case a theme is of initially
“positive” semantics, a peculiar process of reintoning takes place. Intonation as the unity
of sound and meaning is distorted. It keeps its
outward form but loses its previous content.
Thus, noble impulses, light dreams, faith in
a higher destination that support a lyric hero
and make him strong are mocked, denied and
destroyed.
On the whole (for all this outer showiness,
the composer’s ingenuity regarding technical
decoration, brilliance of texture design, dazzling
mastery virtuosity) the described complex
of expressive means that enables to re-create
demonic and infernal images makes it possible
to convey evil’s non-constructive, transient
nature, uncover its poverty and frivolousness no
matter how tempting and attractive its forms of
manifestation are.
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Acknowledgement
The author expresses her gratitude to the research supervisor, Natalia Mikhailovna Naiko, Ph.D.
in study of art.
1
2
3
4
This image’s essence can be expressed in Goethe’s Mephistopheles’s words:
I am the Spirit that Denies!
And justly so: for all things, from the Void
Called forth, deserve to be destroyed:
‘Twere better, then, were not created.
Thus, all which you as Sin have rated,
Destruction, aught with Evil blent,
This is my proper element.
The fi rst one (known as the episode from N. Lenau’s “Faust”) was composed in 1859-1860, the others were composed in
the eighties (the second “Mephisto Waltz” – in 1881; the third one – in 1883; two fourths (one of which has the second
name – “Bagatelle sans tonalite” (“Bagatelle without tonality”)) – in 1885).
Mephistopheles: Give me a violin and take my word
You’ll hear its exuberant singing
Thus leading us to a different dance.
Bewitching dancing whirl
Made all in tavern twirl.
References
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Marschner’s “musical thriller”: “The Vampire” opera], Izrail’ XXI. Muzykal’nyi zhurnal, 2012 а,
No. 33, available at: http://www.21israel-music/com.
2. Antipova, N.A. Otkrytie romanticheskogo demonizma v «Fauste» Liudviga Shpora [Opening
of romantic demonism in Louis Spohr’s “Faust”], Izrail’ XXI. Muzykal’nyi zhurnal, 2012 b, No. 34,
available at: http://www.21israel-music/com.
3. Antipova, N.A. Metamorfozy fantasticheskogo v «Genoveve» Roberta Shumana
[Metamorphoses of the fabulous in Robert Schumann’s “Genoveva”], Izrail’ XXI. Muzykal’nyi zhurnal,
2013, No. 37, available at: http://www.21israel-music/com.
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Leningrad, Musyka, Leningradskoe otdelenie, 1981, pp. 69-75.
5. Druskin, M. Izbrannoe [Selected]. Moskva, Sovetskii kompozitor, 1981, pp. 166-195.
6. Gabai, Iu. Romanticheskii mif o khudozhnike i problemy psikhologii muzykal’nogo
romantizma [Romantic myth of an artist and the problems of musical romanticism
psychology]. Problemy muzykal’nogo romantizma: sbornik nauchnykh trudov (Problems of
musical romanticism: Proceedings of the scientific conference). Leningrad, LGITMiK, 1987,
pp. 5-30.
7. Konradi, K.O. Gete: zhizn’ i tvorchestvo. V 2 t. [Goethe: life and creative work. In 2 volumes].
Vol. 2. Moskva, Raduga, 1987. 646 p.
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literary manifestos]. Moskva, MGU, 1980. 638 p.
9. Medushevskii, V.V. Intonatsionnaia forma muzyki [Prosodic form of music]. Moskva,
Kompozitor, 1993. 268 p.
10. Mil’shtein, Ia.I. F. List. V 2 t. [F. Liszt. In 2 volumes]. Vol. 1. Moskva, Muzyka, 1971. 864 p.
11. Mikhailov, A.V. Esteticheskie idei nemetskogo romantizma [Aesthetic ideas of German
romanticism]. Estetika nemetskikh romantikov. Moskva, Iskusstvo, 1987, pp. 7-43.
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12. Sidorov, A.M. (2011). Evropeiskii nigilizm i iskusstvo: o znachenii romantizma dlia
sovremennosti [European nihilism and art: on the role of romanticism for today]. Voprosy kul’turologii,
(6), pp. 18-23.
13. Sollertinskii, I.I. Romantizm, ego obshchaia i muzykal’naia estetika [Romanticism, its general
and musical aesthetics]. Moskva, Leningrad, Muzgiz, 1962. 48p.
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Демонические и инфернальные образы
в инструментальных сочинениях Ференца Листа:
интонационный аспект
Ю.Е. Полежаева
Красноярская государственная академия музыки и театра
Россия, 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ленина, 22
В статье с позиций образной системы искусства эпохи романтизма, её специфики и средств
воплощения освещается творчество выдающегося венгерского композитора-романтика.
Материалом для изучения послужили фортепианные и оркестровые произведения: пять
«Мефисто-вальсов», «Мефисто-полька», Соната си минор, фантазия-соната «По прочтении
Данте», «Фауст-симфония» и «Данте-симфония», запечатлевшие различные проявления
образов зла. Названные сочинения рассматриваются в образно-интонационном плане. Основной
метод исследования – интонационный анализ, приближающийся к малому целостному
анализу. Результатом работы стало выявление и описание интонационного «ядра» –
устойчивого комплекса выразительных средств, служащих воссозданию указанных образов.
Данный комплекс обладает определёнными характеристиками (тональными, регистровыми,
артикуляционными, мелодическими, ритмическими, ладо-гармоническими и жанровыми), а
также закономерностями тематического образования и развития. В заключение предлагается
попытка осмысления рассматриваемых явлений с точки зрения христианского учения.
Ключевые слова: образы зла, «Мефисто-вальс», «Фауст-симфония», «Данте-симфония»,
Ф. Лист, музыкально-выразительные средства, интонация, романтизм.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2014 7) 537-545
~~~
УДК 008-027.21
Against Glamour Technology:
Liberation of the Outlook
for Contemporary Siberian Art
Dmitry V. Galkin*
Tomsk State University
36 Lenin, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Received 07.11.2013, received in revised form 06.12.2013, accepted 15.01.2014
The article is devoted to the problematics which in the cultural researches is associated with visual
anthropology and esthetic theory of the contemporary art. Through the example of the contemporary
Siberian artists’ works the author demonstrates the way in which art forms opposition to the
domineering technical discipline of the outlook and studies identity optics. The basic material for the
research is exhibition project “The United States of Siberia” (2012-2013), wherein, according to the
author, artists form the optics of Siberian identity.
Keywords: contemporary art, visual anthropology, identity optics, poor art, pop art.
From cave paintings to Black Square, from
ancient mimetic sculptures to abstract installations
art has always formed the outlook disposition
that created the optics defining the parameters of
cultural identity. Whether it refers the Egyptian
“Book of the Dead” or Orthodox icon, Hollywood
cinema or paintings of the Russian Wanderers, in
all the cases we are dealing not only with images,
but with the cultural positioning of the outlooks
of this culture’s representative. An artist invites
us not only meet the image-bearing and / or
narrative side of works of art. An artist lures us
to a point from which we can see better and in
which the look and meaning as well as artistic
sign and cultural value harmonize.
This effect is well illustrated, for example,
in the studies by Marshall McLuhan, where
he demonstrates that the visual conventions
*
of cinema (both feature and documentary) – a
cut, the transition of narration through scene
changes, etc. are “natural” only for a Westerner
accustomed to cinematic conventions. For those
who watch a film for the first time (for example
nonliterate tribes), this language is unintelligible
[1, 2]. In the works of representatives of critical
theory, we also find the study of this problematics
as exemplified in cinema. Walter Benjamin
discovers formation of outlook dispositions in its
“mechanization” which is made by the technical
apparatus of filming [3]. H. Marcuse and M.
Horkheimer analyze the effect of doubling reality
due to the “natural” transition of images from the
cinema screen into the context of everyday life
[4].
But what can we say about contemporary
art? Doesn’t it, on the contrary, attempt to set
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: gdv_t@mail.ru
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us free from the slavery of the technologically
imposed outlook? Doesn’t it open up new horizons
and opportunities to experiment with different
optics and methods of identification? Doesn’t
it fulfill the noble task of saving us from the
optics of consumer identity and its technological
discipline?
We’ll consider this question through one
of the remarkable examples in contemporary
Russian art – exhibition project of 2012-2013,
entitled “The United States of Siberia.” The
project was prepared by the Siberian Center for
Contemporary Art (Novosibirsk) and the Siberian
Branch of the National Center for Contemporary
Art (Tomsk) (curator – Vyacheslav Mizin, “Blue
Noses” art-group). For brevity in the further work
we will use the initials of the exhibition project –
the USS.
As befits a contemporary art exhibition “The
United States of Siberia” caused quite a lot of
diverse readings and questions among critics to
measure the depth and event scope of the project.
What art event did V. Mizin succeed and fail as a
curator? Hold a regular celebration in the street of
“Russian Povera”? Study and discover interesting
facets of Siberian identity? Introduce the new
artistic phenomenon to the world – contemporary
Siberian art and artists’ brotherhood? Or declare
a new version of Siberian separatism manifesto?
Make a protest political action in the painfully
familiar “anti-Russian” spirit? Or maybe vice
versa – the USS suddenly appeared as an
apology of Russian patriotism and chauvinism
through the Siberians’s eyes? Perhaps the curator
simply contrived to give a set of ironic comics
based on pop culture for contemporary art?
For what purpose? Quite thought over regional
marketing by the means of contemporary art.
On the other hand, abstracting from the cynical
marketing, in the collected works such a noble
idea of psychotherapeutic impact on the public,
brainwashed by mass culture and political
propaganda is represented. Did the curator
conceive to cure us?
Of course, exposure to the exhibition rather
leaves us puzzled in interrogative bewilderment
than gives answers and dots the i’s. Well, the more
interesting is the attempt to unravel the tangle of
questions and discourses that the contemporary
artists, the inhabitants of the mythical art republic
of the United States of Siberia, puzzle us with,
and understand the optics of Siberian identity that
they offer.
Clear outlook or at the festival
of “Russian Povera”
In the context of contemporary art “The
United States of Siberia” can be placed in line
with the other two historical exhibitions –
“Arte Povera in Space” (1967, Genoa, curator
J. Chelant) and “Russian Povera” (2008, Perm,
curator M. Guelman). They are united by the
same art motifs: an appeal to the “poor” means
of expression (simple, ordinary, readily available
materials), a protest against glamor and elitism
of art – everything stinking rich. One of the
heroes of the 1967 exhibition and 1960-70s arte
povera (poor art in the Italian original) – Jannis
Kounellis – used earth, fire, animals, doors,
bags, window frames, etc. in his works [5].
Valery Koshlyakov – the participant of 2008
Perm Exhibition – creates his work from pieces
of cardboard, adhesive tape and stumbled across
debris, producing art-on-release – ephemeral
art trash (one of the educational projects of the
USS curator V. Mizin was once called – “anyhow
art”).
“Arte Povera” in all its diversity can hardly
be called an aesthetic program that unites artists
(especially in the case of “Russian Povera”).
Rather, it is a common intuition, collective idea
for the aesthetics of contemporary art. It sends
us to the ready made objects. Yes, as well as to
conceptualism, Russian avant-garde of the early
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20th century and to the Soviet non-conformism
and American Pop Art. However, “Povera” is
certainly a claim to a specific optics. Optics of
clear and simple outlook where the concept shines
through uncomplicated poor material.
The USS is permeated with the spirit of
“Russian Povera”. And not only because the
curator of a project and his creativity as creativity
of an artist is associated with this aesthetic
(suffice it to recall “Kitchen Suprematism” by
“Blue Noses” group). And of course, not only
because the exhibition was actively promoted by
“Cultural Alliance” of the same Marat Guelman.
Simply, a lot of works exhibited at the USS are
strong and interesting for this aesthetic.
It all starts with the simplest and most trivial,
ordinary and improvised. Novosibirsk artist
Sergei Bespamyatnykh, for example, praised the
courage and greatness of the political leaders
hostile to the USA – Hugo Chavez, Saddam
Hussein, Ho Chi Minh and others, using glued to
canvas clippings from newspapers and magazines
(series “They Fought for the Homeland”).
Olympic women’s skates by Vasily Slonov (from
the series “Welcome to Sochi 2014”) partly quote
the work by Alexander Brodsky “Gorky Park”
(1997) introduced in Perm in 2008, and develop,
together with Slonov’s axes decorated by Olympic
(and not only Olympic) symbols and slogans,
dadaism experiments ready made. Disposition of
the outlook begins with a simple and painfully
familiar thing, which gains an unexpected status
of an artistic sign.
In the case of axes, Slonov demonstrates
the astonishing conceptual force of arte povera.
The case is that conceptualism allows an artist
to neglect the traditional means of expression –
a brush and paints, marble and bronze, etc. – in
favor of anything that can serve as a form of
artistic expression [6]. And here is the real series
of two dozen of axes included in a symbolic play
around Sochi Olympics: an axe as a symbol of
strength and rebellion (though peacefully stuck
in a plank), as a symbol of creative labour, as a
symbol of Russian patriarchy, primitiveness and
anti-symbol of modernization. On the top of all
that, Slonov on purpose ironically adds some
glamour to his axes using the Olympic symbols
and slogans, turning them into proud glamour of
national images of sports victory celebrations.
Thereby he also establishes “povera” in opposition
to rich and glamorous, and debunks the empty
glossy shine of wealthy elite culture.
Konstantin Eremenko done without art
objects in the spirit of ready made. But its
scenic comics are poor it their way. He uses
aerographics – a tool of street artlike vandalism
and car repair shops that offer a graphical
tuning of cars for the owners with aesthetic
would-be. Another side of the “povera” –
poverty as ontology and illusion of existence
is revealed in Eremenko’s works. Trying to
disperse melancholy of provincial grandeur of
native Novosibirsk, the artist demonstrates the
poverty of life without myth and meaning. It is
better to be in any illusion, like a story about
a concert of “The Queen” during construction
of the underground or evacuation of the idols
of Soviet children – Khrusha and Stepashka
into the Siberian city than live in a meaningless
emptiness of the vast geographical expanses of
Siberia.
“Povera” as a concept is also represented
in V. Slonov’s works. But it is represented in a
totally different meaning, similar to the meaning
that became a symbol of creativity for another
hero of the exhibition in Perm – Nikolai Polissky.
“Povera” is simple, natural and present – as an
axe and a material it processes. “Povera” reflects
and contains something Russian, natural, real –
simple and great, rude and miserable, degraded
and surviving, sincere and false. Poverty is not
shameful, but specific being, full of courage and
tragical anti-pathos. As a result, optics of “poor”
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Fig. 1 K. Eremenko “Khrusha and Stepashka in evacuation”. Novosibirsk. 1942
things turns into the disposition of studying the
new meanings. The next step is identification
with the disposition.
Siberian pop-art
Aesthetics of “povera” is close to the
philosophy of pop art. It is no coincidence that
the main work of the USS which is entitled
precisely the same “The United States of Siberia”
and performed by the author – Omsk artist Damir
Muratov as a white stripes flag of the Siberian
island of freedom, quotes the most important
work of pop art – “Flag” by Jasper Johns. Johns
brilliantly deconstructs the structure of the
artistic sign, demonstrating the difficulty of
distinguishing between the canvas with colored
stripes and stars and the national symbol – the
Star-Spangled Banner [7]. It is absolutely not
clear where the boundary of the sign is. Muratov
develops this method, demonstrating the difficulty
in distinguishing between the snowflakes and
stripes and a symbol of (non)existing (?) republic
(or the island of freedom, as he would call it
later).
“Povera” and pop art are definitely not
only brought together by anti-aesthetic in the
sense of denying of the dominant idea of beauty
and harmony in art, but also a critical attitude
regarding the elite and mass culture. Pop art of
the 1960s in the United States is characterized by
criticizing the society of mass consumption and
demonstration of the hopelessness for art, which
arises in a world where everything is dissolved
in commodity-money relations. High and low
inevitably change places as high becomes a
commodity, and goods and money become the
main value. That is why the images of pop art
in the works by R. Lichtenstein, A. Warhol, T.
Wesselmann and J. Johns exploit “low” genres
and objects – posters and photographs, comics,
consumer products, newspapers, etc. The wellknown tactics is to borrow the means from an
enemy and use them against him [8]. The artists
from the USS continue this game in their own
way.
Damir Muratov and Vasily Slonov used –
absolutely in the spirit of Andy Warhol –
advertising poster format and series of posting in
several rows (because the repetition compulsion
is the basis of advertising impact). What came off
in the end was neither poster no painting, but the
desired provocative artistic gesture, around which
the logic of contemporary art is formed. Slonov
invites us to the Olympics and as if advertises
typically Russian socio-political colour of sports
mega-event. Under the brand “Che” Muratov
“sells” politicians, writers, poets and cartoon
characters.
Comics became the genre basis for the works
by Nikolai Kopeikin and Konstantin Eremenko.
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Fig. 2. D. Muratov “Flag of the United States of Siberia”
Kopeikin (who is probably not a very Siberian
artist from all the Brotherhood of the USS as
he lives and works in St. Petersburg for a long
time) presented touching, sentimental and ironic
“serial” about an elephant who was brought to
Russia for the Emperor Peter I at the beginning
of the 18th century. The story that the Emperor
several times tried to bring the exotic animal to
Petersburg and eventually he got it (he received
elephant as a gift from Shah Hussain) finds a lot
of evidence. One can only wonder what happened
to this animal. Nikolai Kopeikin tries to spark
interest to the definitely undervalued story from
Russian history, trying to suppose what the fate
of the first Russian elephant would be. Here it is
sitting under a birch tree on the river bank feeling
sad about its homeland. And here it is drinking
with the sailors. And here its offsprings came
as plumbers to a man who looks like Korney
Chukovsky: “Who is speaking? The elephant!”.
Is the forgotten chapter of Russian history has
finally returned to the public?
One of the central themes of pop-art is a
mixture of reality and images of mass culture. Due
to the constant influence of the media, advertising
and consumer wealth a modern man finds himself
in a world where the boundaries between reality
of the material world and the world of images
from the television screen are erased. If reality
no longer exists or it is extremely difficult to find
it, it loses its meaning – not for the first time in
history – and realism in art. Siberian pop artists
certainly could not evade this theme.
Damir Muratov in a series of works “If
they were born in Siberia” used the effects in
the spirit of socialist realism to feature pop
stars’ biography. Elvis Presley would certainly
become an accordion player – a favorite of rural
beauties. And Michael Jackson would become a
shepherd. In the mythology of “The United States
of Siberia” art republic simplicity of rural life
and vast expanses of Siberia quite naturally and
hospitably place alternative biographies of the
distant western idols. What is this? Melancholy for
unattainable pop idols in the vast Siberian depth
of the country? Overthrow of the false idols and
their return to the mortal earth? Or an offer for a
refuge in the world of “poor” and real for those
who lost their own reality and lost themselves in
the media environment?
Nikolai Kopeikin develops this theme in
his own way. In the “epic canvas” “War of the
Worlds”, where he ironically depicts great battle
scenes of classical painting and Russian collective
portraits by Ilya Glazunov, he portrayed the
battle of the heroes of Russian (Soviet) and
American cartoons. Shrek and Crocodile Gena,
Cheburashka and Mickey Mouse, cat Tom and
the Wolf from “Ну, погоди!” clashed in the
battle. There are a lot of soldiers in both armies.
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Fig. 3. V. Slonov from the series «Welcome to Sochi 2014»
Outcome of the battle is unknown. However it is
not important. Another meaningful leitmotif of
creativity of the USS brotherhood artists is much
more important.
Optics and policy
of Siberian identity
When we discuss contemporary art we
usually mention the fact that an artist explores
something, looking for an answer to a question or
trying to put this question in the clearest and the
most precise form. What do the artists from the
USS explore? We could answer this question in
the following way: they explore the contemporary
Siberian mythology, conducting experiments on
its formation.
The first part of the experiment is devoted to
America – the present day United States. The USA
became the starting point for the artists, but not
the terminal point. Muratov borrows American
flag and inhabits Siberia with celebrated migrants
(“If they were born in Siberia”). Slonov gets rid
of “the pernicious influence of the West”, placing
the new symbol of Siberian power on the Siberian
steel kokoshnik – a bear plunges Mickey Mouse
in the sexual act. Kopeikin forms an army from
the American cartoon pop heroes making it fight
with the victorious army of the Russian cartoon
heroes. Sergei Bespamyatnykh praises of all those
“great political leaders” who openly opposed the
USA – Ho Chi Minh, Saddam Hussein, Hugo
Chavez and others – on the board (wall or alley)
of fame.
The second part of the experiment on
studying and formation of the USS mythology
is devoted to history. Few people know that the
scanty (though obviously just) patriotic slogan
about the increasing the power of Russia with
Siberia is not the most flattering and interesting
myth about the Siberian land as a part of Russia.
The very phrase “the United States of Siberia”
was defi nitely borrowed by the artists from the
political history and movements of Siberian
separatists (the so-called Siberian regionalism),
which, in fact, achieved recognition of the
colonial status of Siberia, struggled for selfdetermination of its indigenous peoples and
advocated for its separation from Russia,
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Fig 4. D.Muratov from the series «If they were born in Siberia»
intending to create a kind of resemblance to the
United States of America.
Indeed, is there a positive, attractive and
interesting myth about Siberia except the image
of vast expanses of uninhabited wilderness,
harsh and stuck in the unknown past Siberians
or bottomless raw materials appendage of the
Moscow kingdom? Do the inhabitants this vast
territory live with this sensation?
Siberian regionalism in the 19th century
tried to create utopian vision of the future of the
Siberian region, which in the West is traditionally
perceived apart from the vast territory of Russia.
Contemporary Siberian artists create the utopian
art republic “The United States of Siberia” –
a self-portrait of Siberia as an utopian land
(Muratov) thus trying to understand / create
mythology of the contemporary Siberia. And it
is not in the works but in the fact what outlooks,
optics, states and feelings these activities should
provoke / form in a viewer.
In Vasily Slonov’s work we can find
disposition of the Siberian outlook that combines
a bit malicious humor, rude irony and brutal
mockery, global distrust to the official symbols
and officialdom – an outlook of disbelief that fast
and fun sees through any kind of duplicity and
showing off. The outlook that poses humorous
challenge to the seaside Krasnodar glamour
“Sochi-2014” from the point of view of simplicity
and austerity of Krasnoyarsk izba.
Konstantin Eremenko stylized his aerography
as old photos and mocking the power of this
“document” in the “history” of Novosibirsk,
mocks the longing for a big pop-cultural myth
about Siberia creating it spontaneously. From
the point of his ironic-optimistic point of view
everything is possible in Siberia – it is necessary
to start the creative machine which invents new
myths, and then cheerfully and a little bit angry
(in Slonov’s manner) debunk all this nonsense.
Sergey Bespamyatnykh in his works plays upon
the sensation of cult of the ancient Siberian land
in the similar way.
This time members of the “Blue Noses” art
group decided to soar up to the level of large-scale
generalizations – probably trying to reach the
Siberian philosophical outlook and represented
Siberian region as a battleground of the old and
the new, remains of epic bogatyr Rus (in the
image of bogatyr) and contemporary Russia on
the fateful path of modernization (in the form of
suprematist objects by Malevich). The outcome of
this battle in Siberia (in techno parks, Academic
towns, universities, churches, etc.) will determine
the future of 1/6 of the land.
Thus, according to the version of the residents
of “The United States of Siberia” art republic,
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modern Siberian identity has a special mixture of
crude and humorous, dark and cheerful outlook
on life, aggressive and lively disengagement
with the dominance of American pop culture,
distancing itself from the pop national glamor
and officialdom, rediscovering of Siberian as a
poor cultural concept, involving, in particular, a
considerable distance from the national cultural
sensitivity in any of its versions. It is the very
optics the contemporary Siberian artists seduce
us into.
The USS mythic art republic itself is an
object of contemporary art that “hangs out in
the minds”, space and time (even despite the fact
that its residence was temporarily located near
Novosibirsk). Its founders – no less mythical
artistic brotherhood – invite us into the world of
provocative questions, exploring and developing
cultural symbols, endless citation of artistic
tradition, pop culture and politics. Crossing
geographical boundaries – at least, a kind of
unified Siberia is also not more than mythogeography – the adepts of contemporary Siberian
art start the work with the boundaries of concepts,
stereotypes, symbols and images (as Slonov does
in his “Olympic” posters, psychoanalytically
deconstructing social and political context of
the Olympics with the help of graphic symbols).
This is the strategy of contemporary art as “the
factories of senses” – to check the strength of
the boundaries of norms, values, concepts and
symbols. But who does this factory work in with?
After all, the question of identity is always a
political issue.
Indeed, from the very beginning “Russian
Povera” was not simply an aesthetic concept,
but one of the central elements of cultural
branding of the Perm region (we leave aside the
question of how successful this project was).
The “Cultural Alliance” program by Marat
Gelman, within the framework of which the USS
gained international and domestic fame is also
largely focused on mobilization of the regional
cultural resources for commercial and political
purposes (the other question is how viable it
was). Meanwhile exhibition project “The United
States of Siberia” gradually turns into a regional
brand of contemporary art of Siberia and the
brand of several organizations – the Siberian
Center for Contemporary Art (Novosibirsk), the
Foundation for Support of Contemporary Art
“Siberia” and Siberian Branch of the National
Center for Contemporary Art (Tomsk). Which of
the geographical, administrative or commercial
Siberian subjects will contribute to further
promotion of the brand?
One can only speculate. In any case,
political and marketing cynicism is another test
for endurance and viability of curatorial initiative
of the USS – bright, contemporary, multi-layered,
resonant, a little bit drunk, frivolous and brutal.
In conclusion I would like to go back to the
question that was raised at the beginning of this
article. As we can see from the proposed analysis,
contemporary artists deftly and naturally use
identity optics through outlook disposition
formation. On the one hand, they really tend to
destroy and deconstruct the obsessive dispositions
of pop culture, offering to problematize them in
ironic and funny way. On the other hand, they
invite us to try different disposition – their version
of Siberian identity. But in the end they try to make
us the followers of regional cultural marketing –
in other words, return us to the place they tried to
save us from – to the optics of consumer, but this
time much more sophisticated.
References
1. McLuhan M. Galaktika Guttenberga. Sotvorenie Cheloveka Pechatnoi Kul’turi. Kyiv: NikaTsentar, 2003.
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2. McLuhan M. O Ponimanii Media: Esse o Prodolzhenii Cheloveka. M., 2003.
3. Benjamin W. Proizvedenie Iskusstva v Epohu Ego Technicheskoi Vosproizvodimosti.
Izbrannie Esse. M.: Medium, 1996.
4. Horkheimer M., Adorno T. W. Dialiktika Prosvesheniya. Filosofskiye Fragmenti. M., SPb.,
„Medium“, „Uventa“.
5. Christov-Bakargiev C. Arte Povera (Themes and Movements). Phaidon Press, London,
2005.
6. Osborne P. Conceptual Art (Themes and Movements). Phaidon Press, London, 2011 (Reprinted
edition).
7. Henry Madoff S. Pop Art: A Critical History. Documents of Twentieth-Century Art. University
of California Press (Second Edition edition), 1997.
8. Debord G. Obshestvo Spektaklya. M.: Logos, 1998.
Против технологического гламура:
освобождение взгляда
в современном искусстве Сибири
Д.В. Галкин
Томский государственный университет
Россия, 634050, Томск, пр. Ленина, 36
Статья посвящена проблематике, которую в культурных исследованиях ассоциируют с
визуальной антропологией и эстетической теорией современного искусства. На примере
творчества современных сибирских художников автор показывает, как искусство
формирует оппозицию доминирующей технологической дисциплине взгляда и исследует
оптику идентичности. Основным материалом для статьи послужил выставочный проект
«Соединенные штаты Сибири» (2012-2013), в котором, по мнению автора, художники
формируют оптику сибирской идентичности.
Ключевые слова: современное искусство, визуальная антропология, оптика идентичности,
бедное искусство, поп-арт.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2014 7) 546-558
~~~
УДК 81
Basic Concepts of Chinese National Religious
and Philosophical Doctrines:
an Introduction to Social Philosophical Study
of Chinese Society
Sergey N. Sorokopud*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 24.12.2013, received in revised form 11.01.2014, accepted 03.02.2014
The notion of basic concept of culture is substantiated in the article. A new definition of the concept is
given. The history of formation of the notion concept, its differences from the category and concepts
are previously examined. The use of concepts helps to reveal the national picture of the world, not
only at a rational level, but also at the level of sensory representations, at the intuitive level, hidden
in rational terms. There is given in details the discussion, which exists in the national philosophy and
cultural linguistic studies, concerning the question what concept is. It is proved that the conceptual
analysis of Chinese society, the Chinese culture is an effective scientific approach that gives new
results about traditional Chinese culture and modern Chinese political system. Further study may be
associated with the analysis of the basic concepts that will be allocated from the ancient Chinese texts
on the basis of cultural translation and interpretation-translation.
Keywords: social philosophy, research methods, concepts, basic concepts, the Chinese society, the
Chinese government, Chinese culture.
The concept of national religious and
philosophical doctrine allows us to narrow
research space dynamics of Chinese society as
beneath them means two religious doctrines:
Taoism and Confucianism. Buddhism manifested
in the Chinese culture, ranging from about I B.C.
to. Despite the fact that Buddhism is undergoing
significant changes in its philosophical and
religious-cultural base, it remains the foreign
religion in China. Although it is difficult
to overestimate the importance of Chinese
Buddhism on the formation and maintenance of
*
the basic processes of the so-called Far Eastern
civilization, to which the functioning of Chinese,
Korean, Vietnamese, Japanese and other societies,
living in the Asian-Pacific region.
It is also necessary to define the temporal
boundaries of the research space. Traditional
Chinese society in its pure form existed before
the beginning of the XX century, before the
active development of industrial and market
processes, as well as a special era in the history of
China’s socialist period, which began in 1949 and
continues up today, albeit in a converted form of
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: krgsp@mail.ru
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Chinese socialism doctrine which was developed
outstanding Chinese politician Deng Xiaoping1
and his followers.
Confucianism and Taoism represent two
ideological systems of traditional Chinese
society, to some extent ideologically opposed,
while merging into a deep spiritual life
of Chinese society, creating all necessary
conditions for completeness cultural, religious,
ethnic and other forms of social and personal
identity. Thus, they are taken as the national
religious and philosophical doctrines in this
study. Currently, a number of researchers as an
example of successful formation of nation-states
cite the example of the People’s Republic2. Much
of this success is related to the specifics of Taoism
and Confucianism, which, since ancient times,
and acting as ideological systems up to date,
produced a favorable ideological platform for the
formation of a unified Chinese nation in the XXXXI centuries.
The next concept that needs clarification is
the notion of basic concept. The notion of concept
is developed in the complex of Humanities and
Social Sciences, who borrow it from linguistics.
At the beginning of XX century in the social
sciences and humanities is happening so-called
Linguistic turn. This linguistic turn was due to
the fact that the classical social sciences who
have taken as a reference scientific methods of
mechanics and tried to create a kind of social
mechanics, were forced to admit the impossibility
of creating a social theory in the likeness of
classical science. Searches for methodological
framework, adequate complex social reality led
to the study of scientific languages in which
the scientific model of social reality is written.
Linguistic structuralism, created by Ferdinand
de Saussure3, was used and transformed as
one of the leading programs of social research
methodology. Beginning with the first third of the
XX century the social research is largely based
on structuralist approach. Together with the
development of the methodology of structuralism
in the social and human studies come a number
of concepts and categories, proving heuristic in
practice of modern scientific research. So, in the
social and human studies appears and fixed term
concept, which is widely used in such special
sciences as psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics,
cognitive linguistics and cultural linguistics, etc.
However, it is difficult to give one single
philosophical definition of the concept, as
currently the term concept is variable enough.
Various researchers who use and use this term in
their research, contribute to its content significant
subjective moments that cannot be ignored in
the integration of all relevant definitions of the
concept. Total in all definitions of the concept –
it’s his assignment to the mental processes
associated with the presence in them sustainable
(typical) content of cultural phenomena. Concept
has linguistic form and in its being there are
involved verbal and non-verbal languages. In
logical studies, the term concept has been used
as an analogue of the term content of the concept.
Thus, by the term concept in the logic there is
given the clearly distinguishing line between
the various definitions. Concept pointed to a
clear definition of the content of some specific
definition and built the border in relation to other
definitions, which thus belonged to a completely
different concept that referred to a fundamentally
different concept.
Borrowed from the logic the term concept in
the social, humanitarian, cultural studies moved
away from its close connection with the meaning,
and the gap was recorded by scientists who lined
their understanding of the concept, pointing to his
differences with it the logical and philosophical
meaning. Serious and thorough examination
of the concept was made by Yu.E. Prokhorov4,
who has analyzed all the possible definitions of
the concept in philosophy, cultural studies, art
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history, linguistics, art history, psycholinguistics,
sociolinguistics and artistic studies of conceptual
art. As a result of this work Yu.E. Prokhorov
gives the definition of the concept as the element
of a national picture of the world, as a form of
human understanding consolidate peace within
everlasting existential chaos. He writes: “The
concept is a developed set of rules and assessments
for organizing elements of chaos picture of being
determined by the features of the activities of
representatives of particular linguocultural
community, enshrined in their national picture of
the world and broadcast by means of language in
their communication” 5.
Concept is a kind of bridge, connecting point
of artistic, philosophical and logical thinking.
This conclusion is made on the basis of the article
content by V.Z. Demyankov The Notion and
Concept in Literature and Scientific Knowledge6.
Author follows the history of the emergence of
the term concept in a modern space of research
and analyzes the originality of the concept, using
the etymological analysis. Origin of the term
concept refers to its meaning as a kind of initial,
pre-given sense to understand things, processes
and events. V.Z. Demyankov sets the origin
of the term concept from the word embryo and
believes that the concept keeps the prerequisites
to building specific meanings and concepts that
exist in the culture determines the peculiar way
the material embodiment of these meanings in
specific things, events, and processes. He writes:
“Differentiation (of terms notion and concept)
due to the following line: notions are what people
negotiate about, people construct them in order to
have a common language when discussing issues,
concepts also exist by themselves, people remodel
them with different degrees of confidence” 7.
Thus, the concept comes to social,
humanitarian, anthropology and cultural studies,
since the analysis of phenomena in these studies
cannot be holistic and comprehensive, stopping
on creating logic schemes, movements of abstract
concepts and key definitions. Concept indicates
content that was originally stored in the language
culture. And even if it is not manifested in logical
aligned definitions, it still lives in the culture
and continues to influence many of the processes
taking place in the social organism. Concepts
belong to the structures of meaning-birth, they
are stable frameworks of meanings and essentially
form the content of these meanings that over
and over again, century after century inevitably
occur in a particular culture and verbal texts,
and in non-verbal and philosophical ideologemes
and mythologemes of collective unconscious
the bearers of this culture. From this it follows
that the concepts are most clearly performed in
the form of art. However, in modern philosophy
conceptual analysis is gaining momentum, as in
search mechanisms of positive social and cultural
identity scientists refer to concepts as sustainable
and primary repositories of cultural meanings,
reproducing all the historical cycle of existence
of a particular social organism. In contrast to
the notion, concepts are connected with content,
so they often take the form of image with the
help of which a national picture of the world
are reproduced basic structural elements that
distinguish the content of this national picture of
the world from the other national picture of the
world.
Form of existence of the concept of culture
in this social organism is language. Therefore,
at present the most significant research concepts
are held in different linguistic schools. Other
sciences generally use the achievements of
linguistic researches and work with concepts in
an interdisciplinary way. Russia has a serious
scientific schools that are engaged in conceptual
analysis of language, among them are the studies
of N.D. Arutunova8 and her students Logical
Analysis of Language, research group of Professor
Z.D. Popova9 and others.
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In cognitive linguistics concept is considered
in the levels of formation. The basis for the
formation of concepts are: a sensual experience,
the operating objective activity, intellectual
activity in relation to other concepts, language
communication and independent development
of language elements. It may be noted that the
definition of the concepts developed in cognitive
linguistics based on the philosophical base, uses
philosophical language. Thus, E.S. Kubryakova
indicates that the concept is an information
structure, a separate component of mental
or psychic activity, memory unit, conceptual
language system, central nervous system and
element of the picture of the world10. I.Yu.
Nikishin emphasizes that concepts are in the
form of mental images and arise from operating
activities, ensuring the development of cognitive
abilities and the ability to navigate in the world11.
Cognitive linguistics in the study of concepts goes
to the level of interdisciplinary research, with the
help of the language there can be reconstructed
ethno-cultural view of the world where the role of
concept plays cognitive tools and simultaneously
supports sustainable and original cultural
meaning.
Similarly unfolds the psycholinguistic
study of the concept. Representatives of this
scientific field research focused on the direct and
indirect linkages between being first and mental
human activity. A.A. Zalevskaia in her paper
Psycholinguistic Approach to the Understanding
of the Concept emphasizes specially-scientific
interpretations of concept as ‘perceptualcognitive-affective formations of dynamic nature’.
Concept operates in the psyche and is subject to
its domestic laws, so this concept differs from
conditionality concept (which is a pure product of
rational scientific thinking) 12.
In psycholinguistics there is emphasized the
synthetic character of the form and content of the
concept, which is being sufficiently stable unit of
mental processes, bears imaginative, conceptual
and valuable elements of the psyche. Concept
is open in prototyping, through the creation of
Gestalt, frames, scripts, and other more or less
stable mental forms. When this feature is to
describe the concepts of psycholinguistics in the
structure of specific mental processes, concepts
considered here as an individual belonging to a
given individual, and existing only in the context
of its inner life. It is interesting psycholinguistic
description of concepts frames, distinctive cultural
stereotypes, clichйs situations that characterize,
for example, scientific stereotyping imposed
(including the so-called pop-science (the term
of A.Ya. Flier13)). Frame combines linguistic and
non-linguistic forms, creates a stable association
in human mental activity14.
Except the concept-frames psycholinguistics
highlight concepts scripts, concepts, schemes
and concepts-gestalt. Concepts-gestalts are
of particular importance for the social and
philosophical studies, as they represent a holistic
and sustainable way of image combining sensual
and rational components and reflect the diversity
of all the information in the understanding of the
situation that gave rise to this concept of Gestalt.
Concepts gestalt unfold at the mental level of
human mental activity.
Concept occupies a central position in
linguistics, which seeks to explore cultural
processes using linguistic techniques which have
the character of exact and mathematical software
toolkits. In Russia the cultural linguistics is
developed in the writings of S.G. Vorkacheva,
G.G. Slyshkin, V.I. Karasik. The level of synthesis
of linguistics and sociocultural research works of
N.D. Arutunova Y.S. Stepanov, S.S. Neretina,
A.P. Ogurtsov and A. Wierzbicki.
So, G.G. Slyshkin emphasizes that the very
use of the concept in a particular scientific research
points to the socio-cultural conditioning of the
subject of this study. Through the manipulation
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of the concept there is an integration of the results
of scientific psychology, linguistics and sociocultural studies. Concept reflects the existence
of a stable relationship between the direct
experiential knowledge and deep cultural values
and attitudes, and binds them together15.
V.I. Karasik and G.G. Slyshkin point out a
number of essential features of the concept, which
can be used to solve problems of this study. First,
the concept is in the mind of man, and secondly,
the concept is defined by the culture in which it
operates, and thirdly, the concept is manifested
in language and speech, and fourthly, the concept
keeps a certain cultural values; fifthly, the concept
has no specific definition, it is conditional and
blurred concept consists in a meaningful point
of consciousness where there is a core of stable
associations and blurred, moving away from this
point, following the vector of stable associations;
sixth, the concept of variable, including in relation
to cultural norms (may change from positive to
negative evaluation), the seventh, the concept
is a complex of verbal and non-verbal form of
existence of cultural values16.
Currently, research of concepts are
so common that there are works where
distinguished levels of conceptual research.
Thus, S.G. Vorkachev highlights the following
levels: the level of the everyday (naive) national
picture of the world (a broad understanding of the
concept); the level of semantic wholes reflecting
specific subjects carriers of these meanings
(average level); the level of semantic abstract
and general education, cultural generalizations
expressing national specifics culture of peace in
her mental dimension (narrow understanding of
the concept)17.
Great influence on the development of
the theory concepts in domestic trials were
unemployed Austrian scientist A. Wierzbicka,
who develops a sociocultural analysis through
the study of semantics in her works: Semantic
primitives, Understanding cultures through the
keywords, Semantic Universals and Description
of Languages. A. Wierzbicka’s original thesis is
connected with the fact that the national language
carries a national perception of environment and
is representative of national thinking. Despite
the fact that the specific mechanisms of the
relationship between language and national
thinking not significantly clarified, A. Wierzbicka
insists on evidence of their connection18.
A. Wierzbicka demonstrates its research
procedures by examining the so-called keywords.
To understand the specifics of Russian culture
it takes, for example, words such as friendship,
vulgarity, etc. Actually, the problem of cultural
linguistics is seen by A. Wierzbicka in finding
such keywords that can be used to explain the
actual mechanisms of culture, which determine
the specificity of the culture, but not recognized on
an everyday level. Keywords in the terminology
of A. Wierzbicka are identified by her followers
with concepts. Voluminous dictionaries concept
of a national culture should become the research
results. In 1997 Yu.S. Stepanov has published
Constants. Dictionary of Russian Culture19, since
2001 the Volgograd linguistics annually publish
Anthology of Concepts20.
Yu.S. Stepanov defines the concept as the
basic unit of culture that allows to understand the
integrity of the cultural worldview. He understands
the concept very well, philosophically, as a
single historical, universally-cultural and ethnic
memory, both social and individual. Concept,
the scientist believes, is the very meaning,
which takes place in the process of thinking.
Concept is a quantum of knowledge that deploys
particular full of sense knowledge when it
comes to stimulus21. Yu.S. Stepanov considers
the indispensable materializes as the special
features of the concept. Concept is the collective
unconscious of the socio-cultural (especially
ethnic) groups, as enshrined in material
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phenomena: language, ceremonies, rituals, and
holidays. Concepts certainly experienced this
living cultural phenomenon rather than purely
logical constructions. Yu.S. Stepanov distributes
concepts depending on their carriers to individual,
national and universal. He believes the national
research concepts to be the most real.
S.S. Neretina and A.P. Ogurtsova believe
that linguistic and philosophical understanding
of the concepts, however, are different. If the
linguistics concept is associated with stable
linguistic structures, and researcher and linguist
shows there is the sense in these structures, but
the philosophy operates the concept as the way
of sense-birth mechanism that is actualized in
speech communications22.
Generalized understanding of the concept,
which can be used for social and philosophical
studies is suggested by L.V. Mikeshina, who
connects the concept with meaning formation,
defines the concept as quantum of knowledge
about the real and imagined worlds, and sees
opportunities in the sequencing of the concept
of subjective experience, in the classification
of this type of experience. L.V. Mikeshina
highlights panhuman and universal concepts that
take specific forms depending on the different
languages, different cultural environments. She
uses an interesting phrase associative semantic
links that are present in different cultural
storehouses of human knowledge23.
Particular attention is paid to the concept
in the philosophy of postmodernism. Thus,
Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari in the paper
What is philosophy? (1981) are associated with
the philosophy of designing unique, special
notions – concepts. First of all, Gilles Deleuze
and Felix Guattari reject whatsoever similarities
between concepts of science (including
linguistics) and concepts created by philosophy.
Creating a concept – it is the act of creation,
when the chaos of being is overcome through
the creation of new philosophical concepts.
Such breakthrough concepts were Descartes’
cogito, monad of Leibnitz, a priori of Kant,
potency in philosophy of Schelling, duration in
the writings of Henri Bergson, etc. Concept is a
personal discovery of special units of intellectual
space by a philosopher, overcoming the chaos of
being in a particular historical epoch in the act
of creation of conceptual ideas. Concepts always
have an unusual language design, which did not
exist before them. Its source can be everyday
routine, the word selected for fixing the concept
may shock or may be unusually archaic or even
a defiant neologism 24. Thus, Gilles Deleuze
and Felix Guattari broke the ties of the concept
with a purely linguistic research and argued
that the creation of concepts is a philosophical
act. Concepts created during the philosophical
creativity, capable of producing other concepts,
less voluminous content. The thinkers argue that
it is precisely the philosophy that creates concepts,
moreover, it is the main and only objective of it.
Creating concepts, philosophy emphasizes the
revolutionary changes in the culture, embodies
them in the newly created conceptual idea and
thus shows these changes, gives them a free life
in the culture.
For this study, there is no need to consider
the concept of understanding the creators in
manifestos of the so-called modern conceptual
art. Appropriate analysis of these manifestos
was made by A.A. Semenova in the thesis
Methodological possibilities of cultural theory
to analyze the modification of ancient concept
of ‘state’ in the Russian culture of the XXI
century25.
Thus, we can conclude that the application
of the concept is justified in social and
philosophical studies of national socio-cultural
spaces, including the analysis of socio-cultural
space of the Chinese society. It is through the
concept can reveal the deep cultural meanings,
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their content, language expressions associate
these meanings with specific words, and cultural
phenomena such as rituals, traditions, festivals.
Concept necessarily reflect the values cultivated
in the social organism, it is a unit of cultural
memory, played in the socio-psychological and
personal psychological experiences associated
with the unconscious and/or conscious
manifestation of the fundamental cultural
values, norms, and standards in their content
and figurative aspect.
Taking into account the results of applying
the term concept as a tool for the study of social
and cultural processes of a particular social
organism (in this case – the Chinese society in
its traditional form), can be refined the notion of
basic concepts. Under the basic concepts in this
article will be understood the key conceptual
structures, without which this culture ceases to
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
exist. These are necessary and sufficient concepts
that form the foundation of a national picture of
the world, they are the basic units of this painting,
unique national principles concentrated natural
ordering of existential chaos. Learning of basic
concepts allows to catch the rod of the given
culture, to indicate the originality of this social
body, allowing it to stably exist in historical time
and occupy a special social space in the universal
world.
Agreeing with Gilles Deleuze and Felix
Guattari that the basic concepts are generated in
philosophical thinking, and given that the vast
majority of researchers indicate their concepts
embodied in the forms of language (including
verbal), future work will try to allocate more
basic concepts that are typical for the Chinese
society, on the basis of categorical analysis of
ancient Chinese philosophical texts.
See.: De’n Syaopin. Osnovnye voprosy sovremennogo Kitaya. – M.: Politizdat, 1988; Usov V.N. De’n Syaopin i ego vremya. M., «Stilservis». 2009; Ezra F. Vogel. Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China.
See.: Kurginyan S. Nuzhno sozdavat natsiyu [Elektronnyy resurs]// Resurs sayta Fonda «Russkaya natsiya». URL: http://
rusfound.ru/?p=87 .
Sossyur F. de. Trudy po yazykoznaniyu – M.: Progress, 1977; Sossyur F. de. Zametki po obshchey lingvistike. –
M.:Progress, 2001; Sossyur Ferdinand de. Kurs obshchey lingvistiki. – M.: Yeditorial URSS, 2004.
Prokhorov Yu.E. V poiskakh kontsepta. – M.:. Flinta: Nauka, 2008.
Prokhorov Yu.E. V poiskakh kontsepta. – M.:. Flinta: Nauka, 2008. – str. 159.
Demyankov V.Z. Ponyatiye i kontsept v khudozhestvennoy literature i nauchnom yazyke. // Voprosy filosofii. – M., 2001.
№1, s. 35-47.
Ibid.
Arutyunova N. D. Yazyk i mir cheloveka. – M.: Yazyki russkoy kultury, 1998; Arutyunova N.D. Predlozheniye i yego
smysl: Logiko-semanticheskiye problemy / N.D.Arutyunova.— 3-e izd., ster.— M.: Yeditorial URSS, 2003 i dr.
Popova Z.D., Sternin I.A. Kognitivnaya lingvistika. – M.: Vosto-Zapad, AST, 2007; Volokhina G.A., Popova Z.D. Sintaksicheskiye kontsepty russkogo prostogo predlozheniya. – Voronezh, 1999 i dr.
See: Kubryakova Ye. S., Demyankov V. Z., Pankrats Yu. G. Luzina L. G. Kratkiy slovar kognitivnykh terminov. M.,
1996.
Nikishina I.Yu. Ponyatiye «kontsept» v kognitivnoy lingvistike. // Yazyk. Soznaniye. Kommunikatsiya: sb. statey / Otv.
red. V.V. Krasnykh, A.I. Izotov. – M.: MAKS Press, 2002. – Vyp. 21. – str 5.
Zalevskaya A.A. Psikholingvisticheskiy podkhod k probleme kontsepta // Metodicheskiye problemy kognitivnoy lingvistiki. – Voronezh: izdatelstvo voronezhskogo universiteta, 2001. – str. 154 – 173.
Fliyer A.Ya. Pop-nauka: mezhdu poznaniyem i razvlecheniyem /Znaniye. Ponimaniye. Umeniye – 2013. – № 1. Elektronnyy resurs. Rezhim dostupa k resursu: http://www.zpu-journal.ru/zpu/contents/2013/1/Flier_Pop-Science/
Alefi renko N.F. Sovremennyye problemy nauki o yazyke: uchebnoye posobiye. – M.: Flinta, Nauka, 2005. – str. 194.
Slyshkin G.G. Ot teksta k simvolu: lingvokulturnyye kontsepty pretsedentnykh tekstov v soznanii i diskurse. M., 2000.
See: Karasik V.I. Slyshkin G.G. Lingvokulturnyy kontsept kak element yazykovogo soznaniya. // Metodologiya sovremennoy psikholingvistiki: sbornik statey. – Moskva; Barnaul: izdatelstvo Altayskogo universiteta, 2003.
Vorkachev S.G. Lingvokulturnyy kontsept: tipologiya i oblasti bytovaniya. – VolGU; pod obshch. red. prof. S.G. Vorkacheva. – Volgograd: VolGU, 2007.
Vezhbitskaya A. Ponimaniye kultur cherez posredstvo klyuchevykh slov / Per. s angl. A. D. Shmeleva. – M.: Yazyki slavyanskoy kultury, 2001.
Stepanov Yu.S. Konstanty . Slovar russkoy kultury. – M.: 1997.
Antologiya kontseptov. Pod red. V.I. Karasika, I.A. Sternina. Toma 1-8. Volgograd: Paradigma, 2005-2012.
Stepanov Yu.S. Konstanty. Slovar russkoy kultury. Opyt issledovaniya. – M.: Shkola «Yazyki russkoy kultury», 1997.
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22
23
24
25
Ibid. P. 212.
Mikeshina L.A. Kontcept. // Kulturologiia. Entciklopediia. V 2-kh tomakh. T. I. /Glav. Red. i avtor proekta S.Ia. Levit. –
M.: ROSSPEN, 2007. – 1392 s. (Seriia «Summa culturologiae») – str. 985-989.
Delez Zh., Gvattari F. Chto takoe filosofiia? – M.: Aleteiia, 1998. – str. 16
Semenova A.A. Metodologicheskie vozmozhnosti teorii kultury dlia analiza modifi katcii drevnerusskogo kontcepta
«goudarstvo» v rossiiskoi kulture XXI veka. Avtoreferat dissertatcii na soiskanie uchenoi stepeni kandidata filosofskikh
nauk po spetcialnosti 24.00.01 – teoriia i istoriia kultury (filosofskie nauki). – Velikii Novgorod, 2009.
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Sergey N. Sorokopud. Basic Concepts of Chinese National Religious and Philosophical Doctrines: an Introduction…
Базовые концепты китайских
национальных религиозно-философских доктрин:
введение в социальное философское исследование
китайского общества
С.Н. Сорокопуд
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье обосновывается понятие «базовый концепт культуры». Дается новое определение
данного понятия. Предварительно рассматривается история становления понятия
«концепт», его отличие от «категории» и «понятия». Использование концептов позволяет
раскрыть национальную картину мира не только на рациональном уровне, но и на уровне
чувственных представлений, на интуитивном уровне, скрытом в рациональных понятиях.
Подробно рассматривается дискуссия, существующая в отечественной философии и
лингвистических культурных исследованиях о том, что такое концепт. Доказывается, что
концептуальный анализ китайского общества, китайской культуры – эффективный научный
подход, который дает новые сведения о традиционной китайской культуре и современной
китайской политической системе. Дальнейшее исследование может быть связано с анализом
базовых концептов, которые будут выделены из древнекитайских культурных текстов на
основе переводов и интерпретаций переводов.
Ключевые слова: социальная философия, методы исследования, концепт, базовые концепты,
китайское общество, китайское государство, китайская культура.
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