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40.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №4 2011

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà
2011
Journal of Siberian Federal University
4 (4)
Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè
Humanities & Social Sciences
Редакционный совет
академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов
академик РАН И.И.Гительзон
академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат.наук
А.Г.Дегерменджи
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.Л.Миронов
чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук
Г.Л.Пашков
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В.Шайдуров
академик РАО, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.С. Соколов
член-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В. В. Зуев
Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Kirill S. Alexandrov
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Veniamin S. Sokolov
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Natalia P. Koptseva
CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ
Eduard G. Kolesnik and Michael G. Tarasov
Impact of the Grunewald Battle Results on the Geopolitical
Position of the Moscovia Tsardom
– 469 –
Alexandra A. Semyonova and Anna V. Bralkova
Title of the Article: Visualization of the Concept of &the North[
in Fine Arts
– 476 –
Anna V. Uryadova
The Decision of the National Question in Soviet Russia in
1920-s in the Perception of Russian Emigration
– 492 –
Rimma R. Valeeva
From the History of the 2005 British General Elections:
The Application of Political Marketing in New Labour’s PR
Campaign During the 2005 General Elections in the UK
– 501 –
Yelena M. Kurolenko
An Aesthetic Experience and Kulture of a Person
– 512 –
Alexei V. Mikhalev
Soviet-Mongolian Commonwealth: Dynamics of Collective
Memory in Post-Soviet Discourse
– 521 –
Michael Yu. Chernyshov
Verbally Expressed Linking Thoughts as Mediators of Text
Sense Integration
– 528 –
Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Consulting Editors
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Gershon M. Breslavs
Sergey V. Deviatkin
Sergey A. Drobyshevsky
Oleg M. Gotlib
Boris I. Hasan
Igor E. Kim
Natalia V. Kovtun
Aleksandr A. Kronik
Pavel V. Mandryka
Boris V. Markov
Valentin G. Nemirovsky
Daniel V. Pivovarov
Andrey V. Smirnov
Viktor I. Suslov
Evgeniya V. Zander
Igor S. Pyzhev
Ekaterina V. Eremina and Valentina A. Kononova
Secondary Language Communicative Environment, or Ager
Publicus (%K?е“2"е……%е C%ле)
– 537 –
Ivan V. Malofeev
Optimization of the Public Home-Care System: a New Model
– 543 –
Natalya A. Rahvalova
Blogosphere as an Expression of Virtual Reality (Nature of
Blogosphere Formation Revisited)
– 551 –
Alexei V. Nesteruk
Cosmology at the Crossroads of the Natural and Human Sciences:
is Demarcation Possible? Part 1: Introduction
– 560 –
Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ
ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г.
Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны
быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на
соискание ученой степени доктора и
кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.)
Natalia P. Koptseva
Materials of the second session of educational, scientific and
methodological seminar &Theory and practice of applied culture
studies[ on the basis of Arts History and Cultural Studies
Department, Institute for the Humanities, Siberian Federal
University, Krasnoyarsk October 14th, 2009
– 577 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2011 4) 469-475
~~~
УДК 94(4) «653»
Impact of the Grunewald Battle Results
on the Geopolitical Position
of the Moscovia Tsardom
Eduard G. Kolesnik and Michael G. Tarasov*
Siberian Federal University
82/1 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 4.04.2011, received in revised form 11.04.2011, accepted 18.04.2011
In meaning Grunewald Battle for Moscovia Tsardom, their on the international position of Russian
State in the process of integration of Russian territories.
The given article is dedicated to the 600-anniversary of the Battle of Grunewald, which was celebrated
in 2010. In the given work, we consider the influence of the victory of the join forces of the Grand
Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish Kingdom and regiments of the Golden Horde over the troops of the
Teutonic Order in 1410 on the external political position of the Russian State. The authors come to the
conclusion that the Grunewald Battle results had negative consequences for the Moscovia Tsardom.
To our mind, the defeat of the Teutonic Order resulted in Lithuania’s, Poland’s and Golden Horde’s
strengthening and it significantly worsened the external political position of the Moscovia State, and
delayed integration of the Russian lands around Moscow for a long period of time, postponed the fall
of the Golden Horde’s yoke and contributed to the rift of the integral ancient Russ nation. The article
also analyses the reasons of formation of the positive estimation of the results of the Grunewald Battle
in the native historiography, and considers the points of view of foreign leading historians on the
results of the Battle.
Keywords: Foreign policy of the medieval Russian State, the Battle of Grunewald, Muscovite Tsardom,
the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish Kingdom.
Point of view
In 2010 we celebrated the 600-anniversary of
the Battle of Grunewald. Native Historiography
has always treated the results of the Grunewald
Battle as positive ones. Though, if we consider
the results of the Grunewald Battle and their
meaning for the Russian State closer, then
we start feeling doubtful about fairness of
such estimation. It has been used to think that
the defeat of the Teutonic Order stopped the
expansion to the East, what corresponded to the
*
1
geopolitical interests of the Moscow State. In
the given article, the authors make an attempt
to analyze this settled estimation from a critical
point of view and raise a question: how much
advantageous was the defeat of the Teutonic
Order for Moscovia. There are various points of
view of the results the Battle of Grunewald in
Native and Foreign Historiography. Considering
the results of the Grunewald Battle, the authors
come to the conclusion that this event had
sooner negative than positive consequences on
Corresponding author E-mail address: mihell@ngs.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Eduard G. Kolesnik and Michael G. Tarasov. Impact of the Grunewald Battle Results on the Geopolitical Position…
the Moscovia Tsardom from the geopolitical
point of view.
There are various opinions concerning the
results of the Grunewald Battle in Native and
Foreign Historiography.
Taking
into
consideration
drastic
consequences of the Battle for the Teutonic
Order, German historians estimate the Battle
of Grunewald rather objectively (Oehler, 1910;
Biskup, 1993). It is generally understandable that
Polish historians consider the results of the Battle
only in a positive key (Kuczenski, 1955; Nadolski,
1996). In the work «History of Lithuania» by E.
Gudavichus, one can also find positive estimation
of the results of the Grunewald Battle for Poland
and Lithuania with the only difference that,
according to the author’s point of view, the decisive
contribution to the defeat of the Teutonic Order
was made by the Lithuanian regiments. Thereat,
E. Gudavichus obviously derogates the role of the
Russian Holy Flags in the Battle (Gudavichus,
2005). Modern Byelorussian researcher I.
Litvin agrees on the whole with his Polish and
Lithuanian colleagues in the general estimation
of the Grunewald Battle. Thereat, he supports
the point of view of E. Gudavichus concerning
the decisive contribution of the Lithuanian Holy
Banners to the defeat of the German knights, but,
in comparison with the theory of Gudavichus,
he does not diminish the role of the Russian
regiments (Litvin, 2007). Thus, in spite of some
discrepancies in estimations of the contribution
of the Polish, Lithuanian and Russian troops to
the victory, foreign historiography considers the
results of the Grunewald Battle to be decidedly
positive. We should also mark that certain
differences in estimations of the course and
the results of the Battle can be traced already
in the works of medieval Polish and Lithuanian
historians (Dlugosh, 1962).
It is quite an interesting fact that native
historians have not paid enough attention to the
Grunewald Battle and its results for Russ. N.
М. Karamzin and V.O. Kljuchevsky practically
avoided the events of the Battle of Grunewald.
S. М. Solovjov just quickly mentioned the
Battle (Solovjov, 1993). The Grunewald Battle’s
significance for Russ is positively estimated by
famous Russian historian Michael Klavdievich
Ljubavsky
(Ljubavsky,
2004).
Michael
Nickolaevich Tichomirov – a famous specialist in
the question of Russian mediaeval times, sticks
to the same point of view (Tichomirov, 1999).
Modern native historian B. Florya considers the
Grunewald Battle to be a result of a complex
interaction of Lithuania and Poland, having been
caused by the geopolitical situation in Eastern
Europe (Florya, 2010).
Example
In 1409, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
launched a war against the Teutonic Order,
striving to win back the Samogitian territory,
which was populated by the Lithuanians. This
way, precisely Lithuania was the initiator of
the conflict. Proceeding from this fact, we
can place the thesis, concerning the Teutonic
Order’s desire to launch a war against the Slavic
territories in doubt. In the course of the war,
Poland was on the side of the Grand Duchy of
Lithuania, and its king Vladislav II Yagellon
was a cousin of Vitovt, the Grand Duke of
Lithuania. On 15 July, 1410, there was a general
battle between the troops of the Teutonic Order
and the Polish-Lithuanian forces on the field
near by the Grunewald village, in Prussia. The
Teutonic regiments were commanded by Ulrich
von Jungingen, the Grand Master of the Teutonic
Order, while the combined Polish-Lithuania
forces were headed by Vladislav II Yagellon,
the Polish King, who was also the commander
of the Polish squadrons. The Polish-Lithuanian
forces were under the leadership by Vitovt, the
Grand Duke of Lithuania. The troops of the
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Eduard G. Kolesnik and Michael G. Tarasov. Impact of the Grunewald Battle Results on the Geopolitical Position…
brothers consisted mainly of the population of
the Russian lands, having been conquered by
Poland and Lithuania. The Polish regiments
included not only proper Polish detachments,
but also regiments of «the land of Podolsk», «the
land of Galitsa», «the land of Peremyshl» and
others. (Dlugosh, 1962). 36 out of 40 Lithuanian
regiments were regiments of Grodnensk,
Polotsk, Orshansk, Vitebsk, Kiev, Pinsk, Brest,
Kremenetsk and many others, having been
formed on the Russian territories, which had been
conquered by Lithuania in XIII – XIV centuries.
(Dlugosh, 1962). And the regiments, which had
been formed from the citizens of Starodub and
Smolensk principalities, completely vanished
in this big mass. Tatar detachments under the
leadership by Dzhelal-ed-din, the eldest son of
Tokhtamysh also participated in the Battle on
the side of Poland and Lithuania (Tikhomirov,
1999). Actually, in 1410, the Teutonic Order was
opposed by the old Lithuanian-Tatar coalition,
which had been already well-known since 1380.
Later, the longtime allies fought against the
Livonian Order. Moreover, they were enlarged
by the Polish Kingdom, and the place of Ryazan
was taken by Smolensk and Starodub.
In the course of the Battle, the troops of
the Teutonic Order were completely defeated.
Thereat, the Smolensk regiments were known to
have no small share in the victory of the PolishLithuania troops. They withstood the onslaught
of the German heavy cavalry, when the main part
of the Lithuanian regiments backtracked, being
endangered by the Germans (Dlugosh, 1962). The
results of the Battle for the Teutonic Order turned
out to be catastrophic. Practically all the Masters
of the Order were killed, including their Grand
Master. A half of 400 – 450 knights perished, and
a lot of them were captured. All in all the losses
of the Order numbered about 13 000 people
(Dlugosh, 1962). Though, the siege of the main
residence of the Order – Marienburg castle, was
a failure from the very beginning. The PolishLithuanian troops did not manage to win the
castle and retracted after a short-term siege. On
1 February, 1411 they signed a peace treaty in the
city of Thorn, according to which the Teutonic
Order ceded the Samogitian territory to the
Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Dobzhinsk
land and contribution payments to the Polish
Kingdom (Dlugosh, 1962). In spite of rather mild
conditions of the peace treaty, the strength of
the Order was depleted and it never managed to
restore its forces and its positions in the region,
and this fact is traditionally considered by the
native historians as a victory of the peace-loving
Slavs over the aggressive Germans. Though, we
think that here the only thing is evident, that the
defeat of the Order was of big significance for
Poland and Lithuania.
But, was the victory of the Polish and
Lithuanian people over the Teutonic knights
advantageous for the Moscovia state from the
geopolitical point of view? Let us consider this
complicated question; moreover, modern native
historiographers estimate the consequences of
the Grunewald Battle exclusively positively.
Since the middle of XIII century, being
weakened by the civil discords and the Mongol
aggression, Russian territories started to pass
under control of the Lithuanian state, which was
young, but was quickly gaining powers. Yet, in
the middle of XIII century, at the times of the
1st Lithuanian Duke Mindovg, Lithuania gained
control over the land of Black Russ and the
Polotsk Principality. The capture of the Russian
lands by Lithuania was continued also at the
times of his successors. Gedimin was a special
success – in the fi rst part of XIV century, he
managed to win almost all the territory of the
modern Byelorussia – the Polotsk, Minsk, Pinsk,
Turovsk and Vitebsk Principalities. Smolensk
also turned out to be dependent on Lithuania.
The next Lithuanian Duke Olgerd captured
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Eduard G. Kolesnik and Michael G. Tarasov. Impact of the Grunewald Battle Results on the Geopolitical Position…
already the entire territory of modern Ukraine –
the lands of the Chernigov, Novgorod-Seversk,
and the Kiev Principalities, and also of Podolia
(Lyubavsky, 2004). Olgerd tried to occupy
Moscow several times, and it would have meant
fi nal establishment of Lithuanian power on all
the territories of the Russian lands. Though,
marches on Moscow, which were undertaken in
1368, 1370 and 1371, ended with a failure for the
Lithuanians. It is quite interesting that squadrons
of Smolensk Duke Svyatoslav Ivanovich and Tver
Duke Michail Alexandrovich were also in the
part of the Lithuanian troops. Besieging Moscow
in 1368 и 1370, the Lithuanian troops had to
raise the siege also because they were anxious
of that, that the Teutonic knights would take
an opportunity and inflict a blow on Lithuania
while Lithuanian regiments were far away. In
1380, the Tatars, Lithuanians and the natives of
Ryazan were ready to unite their forces in order
to attack and defeat the Moscovia Tsardom. And
again, the threat from the Teutonic Order’s side
did not allow the Lithuanian troops take part in
the Kulikovo Battle on the side of the Golden
Horde. It let Moscow Duke Dmitry Ivanivich
to conquer the field and made Moscow the
only leader in the process of integration of the
Russian lands. Nevertheless, the border between
Lithuania and Moscovia passed eastwards of
Kaluga, and the Lithuanian Dukes still hoped
to move it more to the east. The Moscow
Dukes, especially Vasily I and Vasily II, had
to follow a flexible policy, maneuvering among
Lithuania, the Horde, and the Teutonic Order,
and trying to neutralize the Lithuanian threat.
In 1404, Lithuania fully occupied the Smolensk
princedom. In 1406 – 1408 the Grand Duchy of
Lithuania and Moscovia were in the state of war,
because Lithuania strived to capture Novgorod
and Pskov. And again, Moscow managed to
keep those cities in its sphere of influence only
because of dangerous exacerbation of relations
between Lithuania, the Teutonic Order and the
Golden Horde.
By the beginning of XV century, the Grand
Duchy of Lithuania was a huge, powerful,
and aggressive state and it nearly managed to
establish full control over all the Russian lands
and destroy the Russian statesmanship, being yet
young and weak at that very moment. Thus, to
the mind of the authors, precisely Lithuania was
the archenemy of Moscovia, but not the Golden
Horde, which was weakened and sunk into civil
discords.
Moscow was vitally interested in weakening
of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. And defeat of
the Polish-Lithuanian-Horde forces in «the Great
War» with the Livonian Order would have let
Moscow rapidly strengthen its positions. Thereat,
here, we surely do not speak about whatever
inter-allied relations or about consideration of
some common targets or common interests of
the great dukes of Moscovia and the masters of
the Teutonic Order. At that very moment, there
was simply such a geopolitical situation, within
which frames Moscovia and the Teutonic Order
had common enemies – the Grand Duchy of
Lithuania and the Polish Kingdom; the same way
as Moscow was the common enemy of Lithuania
and the Golden Horde.
In this situation, it is impossible to consider
participation of the Smolensk regiments in the
Battle of Grunewald one-sidedly. In fact, they
had to fight on the side of Poland and Lithuania
only because Smolensk and Starodub were won
at that moment by the Lithuanian state.
The meaning of the Teutonic Order’s defeat
is used to be connected to the termination of
the German expansion to the lands of the Slavs.
Though, by the beginning of XV century the
Teutonic Order was already not so dangerous for
the Slavic states. From the military point of view,
the Order did not already have that power, which
it had used to have in XIII – XIV centuries,
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Eduard G. Kolesnik and Michael G. Tarasov. Impact of the Grunewald Battle Results on the Geopolitical Position…
and which had let it have such aggressive plans
in relation to the territories of the Slavs. New
correlation of regional powers made the Order to
change the policy of expansion for the policy of
defense. One of the examples of this fact was that,
that right at that time the Order maintained most
friendly relations with Czech King Ventseslav,
and a significant part of the Czech and Moravian
knights took part in the Battle of Grunewald,
though, the same we can tell about the Lusatians,
Pomorzanies, and Kashubians (Dlugosh, 1962).
At that time, the border of the Order with the
Russian lands had been steady in the course of
several decades, while Lithuania was constantly
trying to expand its vast territories on the account
of the Russian lands again and again and not only
on the account of the Russian ones. Here, we
should recollect that «the Great War» against the
Teutonic Order was started in 1409 and its initiator
was precisely Lithuania. Before that period, in
1406 – 1408, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania had
been in the state of war with Novgorod, Pskov
and Moscow, striving to get the Pskov lands.
Moreover, since 1396 up to 1404 Lithuania had
been striving to capture Smolensk, and finally
it achieved its target. As we understand, under
the mentioned conditions, the Teutonic Order
involuntarily became a geopolitical ally of the
Moscovia Tsardom. The old law was in action “the
enemy of my enemy is my friend”. In comparison
with Lithuania, the Teutonic Order was not a
serious threat for the Russian lands. As it has
been said earlier, the border with the Order had
been stabilized yet in the middle of XIII century,
and the attempts of the Order to probe into the
defenses of Novgorod and Pskov were seldom and
inactive, and successfully defeated by the troops
of those towns.
And what if the Grunewald Battle had
turned out to be a victory of the Teutonic Order,
though, we know that history does not have
any subjunctive mood? In this case, Lithuania
and Poland would obviously have been much
weakened, and the threat from the side of the
Livonian Order for those states would have been
much more serious. And it would have made
them divert their significant forces from fighting
Moscow in order to keep the control over the
western Russian lands. And in the result of
it, at the beginning of XV century, Lithuania
could have been in a situation similar to that
one, which happened to the Polish-Lithuanian
Commonwealth at the end of XVIII century. If
the Poles and the Lithuanians had lost the Battle
of Grunewald, then «the Lithuanian pie» would
have been divided among Moscovia, the Teutonic
Order and the same and again Poland. We can
see an analogy with the Polish-Lithuanian
Commonwealth’s partition among the Russian
Empire, Prussia and Austria. If at the beginning
of XV century, in the result of spontaneous
partition of the territories (a regulated partition
was obviously out of the question) Moscow had
got the lands, let us say, to the east of Dnepr,
Moscow would have much strengthened its
military, economical and geopolitical potential.
It would have let the people get rid of the Horde’s
yoke much earlier and unite the territories of
«their grandfathers and fathers» before they
witnessed the decay of the integral cultural and
ethnical ancient Russian field. The Grunewald
victory of Poland and Lithuania made such a
variant of events development impossible. In
the result of the Grunewald Battle, Moscovia,
Russia had to fight a hot long war in the course
of five centuries in order to unite the Russian
territories, notwithstanding with the fact, that
their population had already lost their common
Russian identity and considered their former
relatives with the increasing animosity. The
time, when one could have gathered together the
pieces of the ancient Russian nation, which had
used to be united, had gone beyond retrieve in
the course of those centuries.
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Eduard G. Kolesnik and Michael G. Tarasov. Impact of the Grunewald Battle Results on the Geopolitical Position…
Results
What is the reason of the fact, that in the
course of centuries the native historiographic
tradition has stuck to the point that the Battle
of Grunewald positively influenced the position
of Moscovia, though its results were drastically
inacceptable for it? There are obviously several
reasons for that. Firstly, in the basis of such an
opinion there is surely a traditional consideration
of the Livonian Order as an absolute enemy, not
only as a military one, but also a religious enemy,
which was striving both with fire and sword to
impose Catholicism to Orthodox Russia. For
centuries, Novgorod and Pskov were standing
against the catholic knights, and their traditional
perception of the Teutonic Oder was formed
under the influence of the negative attitude of
the citizens of those towns. Not the last role in
formation of the given tradition was played by the
fact that the Oder was opposed by much honored
St. Alexander Nevsky. On such a background,
Lithuania is perceived as a lesser evil, as far as
Orthodox church was maintaining its steady
positions in Lithuania for a long time, though
in fact, Catholicism was imposed by force to a
big number of Russian orthodox people precisely
in Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Apparently, in
comparison with the Order, formation of the
positive attitude towards Lithuania was also
influenced by that, that the main part of Russian
aristocracy was of Lithuanian origin. The
Russian «Gedeminovichis» gave way only to
«the Rjurikovichis» by their nobility and status.
In XVI century, negative attitude towards
the Teutonic (Livonian) Order was fixed by an
exhausting, long-term and unsuccessful (that was
the main) Livonian War.
In XIX – XX centuries, anti-German
orientation of the native historical science was
related to Slavophilic moods, which were widespread at that time, and it did not let objectively
estimate the meaning of the Grunewald Battle.
Here, not the last role was also played by the
anti-authority states of mind, which were
typical for the liberal intelligentsia. The ruling
dynasty was sooner of German than of Russian
origin, which was mainly basing on the
conservative Baltic noblesse – the descendants
of the Livonian knights. Such a dynasty could
be perceived as a traditional enemy of the
freedom-loving Slavs, fi rst of all of the Poles,
fighting for freedom and independence against
«the despotic monarchy».
XX century, with its two hot wars, wherein
Russia was fighting against Germany, contributed
to the final setting of the stereotype, which could
be formulated as follows: «everything German is
bad; Germany’s enemies are our friends». And
as any stereotype, it has been preventing us from
objective estimation of the real course of events.
Now, it is obvious, that today the time has come
to estimate objectively, deliberately and with a
cold eye the meaning of the Battle of Grunewald
for Russian history. And its 600-th anniversary,
which was celebrated in 2010, must become a
good motive for that.
References
E. Gudavichus. History of Lithuania up to the Lublinsk Union in 1569. 2-Volumed Edition. V 1.
Moscow: The Fund n.a. I. D. Sytin, 2005.
Ya. Dlugosh. The Battle of Grunewald. Moscow: the AS USSR Publishing House, 1962.
I. Litvin. A Lost World or Unknown Pages of Belorussian History. Minsk: Kharwest, 2007.
М. К. Lubavsky. Historical Essay of the Lithuanian-Russian State up to the Lublinsk Union
inclusive. St. Petersburg: Nauka, 2004.
S. M. Solovyov. About History of Ancient Russia. Moscow: Nauka, 1993.
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Eduard G. Kolesnik and Michael G. Tarasov. Impact of the Grunewald Battle Results on the Geopolitical Position…
M. N. Tikhomirov. Ancient Moscow. XI – XV centuries; Medieval Russia Situated on the
International Ways. XIV – XV centuries. Moscow: Nauka, 1999.
Chronicles of Lithuania and Samogitia (Žemaitija), Full Collection of Russian Chronicles. V. 32.
Moscow: Nauka, 1966.
B. Florya. «The Way to Grunewald», Rodina, 7 (2010), 3 – 8.
M. Biskup. Das Echo der Tannenbergschlaht und der Belagerug Marienburgs im deutschen
Zweigs des Deutschen Ordens im Sommer 1410 // Betrage zur Geschichte des Deutschen Ordens. Bd.
2. Marburg. 1993.
S. M. Kuczenski. Wielka woina z Zakonem Krzyzackim w latah 1409 – 1411. Wyd. I. Warszawa.
1955.
A. Nadolski. Grunwald 1410. Warszawa. 1996.
M. Oehler. Der Krieg zwischen dem Deutschen Orden und Polen-Littaunen. Elbing. 1910.
Влияние итогов Грюнвальдской битвы
на геополитическое положение
Московской Руси
Э.Г. Колесник, М.Г. Тарасов
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82/1
Статья посвящена отмечавшемуся в 2010 г. 600-летию Грюнвальдской битвы. В работе
рассматривается влияние результатов победы соединённых сил Великого княжества
Литовского, Польского королевства и отрядов Золотой Орды над войсками Тевтонского
Ордена в 1410 г. на внешнеполитическое положение Русского государства. Авторы приходят
к выводу о негативных последствиях для Московской Руси итогов Грюнвальдской битвы. По
их мнению, поражение Тевтонского Ордена привело к усилению Литвы, Польши и Золотой
Орды, что значительно осложнило внешнеполитические позиции Московского государства,
значительно задержало объединение русских земель вокруг Москвы, отсрочило падение
ордынского ига и способствовало расколу единой древнерусской народности. В статье
анализируются причины формирования положительной оценки итогов Грюнвальдской битвы
в отечественной историографии, а также рассматриваются взгляды ведущих иностранных
историков на результаты сражения.
Ключевые слова: Внешняя политика средневекового Русского государства, Грюнвальдская
битва, Московская Русь, Великое княжество Литовское, королевство Польша.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2011 4) 476-491
~~~
УДК 7.049
Visualization of the Concept
of «the North» in Fine Arts
Alexandra A. Semyonova and Anna V. Bralkova*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 4.04.2011, received in revised form 11.04.2011, accepted 18.04.2011
In the given article the authors consider an interpretation of the theme of the North in classical
and modern works of art. Theoretical part of the work presents an attempt to generalize the
existing principals and approaches to depiction of northern territories in fi ne art. The theme
of the North in pictorial art is, on one hand, revealed as a unique territory, being far from the
world globalization processes and, on the whole, far from people’s presence and that is why it
lets us perceive the laws of the macrocosm and the nature in their absolute purity. On the other
hand, the North is the area of the native small-numbered peoples’ habitation, and that is why
such nations as the Nganasans, the Nenets, the Evenkis, the Eskimos, the Dolgans, and so on
become the personages of works of art, which reveal the theme of the North. In the given article,
we single out several approaches to a visual interpretation of the northern peoples’ existence:
documentary-ethnographical, philosophical and appeal to the theme of the Northern peoples in
the context of social problematics. The applied part of the article is dedicated to the analysis of
artworks, video-art, installations and artistic projects in the sphere of visual depiction of the
North representation. The part of our art-historical research is dedicated to pieces of graphic
work and paintings of the Krasnoyarsk Region artists, who have gone on expeditions to the North
and have captured the life of the Northern peoples of the region – these are the works of D.I.
Karatanov, А.P. Lekarenko, B.Y. Ryauzov, К.S. Voinov and of other painters. The theme of the
North in the works of the modern artists is considered on the examples of paintings by А. Kirtsova,
А. Ponomaryov, A. Suzdalev and others. Besides, in the given article we study the artworks of
foreign artists. The works of R. Kent represent an example of appealing to the theme of the North
in traditional pictorial art. Besides, we have singled out the works of such authors as D. Almond
and G. Van de Verve among the modern foreign painters. And in the article, we appeal to such
projects as «Arctic Polar Circle» and «Pan-Barentz», as examples of the modern artistic projects
on the Northern theme.
Keywords: concept of «the north»; work of art; the theme of the north in fine arts; theme of the north in
traditional pictorial art; the theme of the north in the works of modern art; documentary-ethnographic,
philosophical and social approaches to visualization of the concept of «the North»; visual ethnography
of the native small-numbered peoples of the North and the North of the Krasnoyarsk Region; D.I.
Karatanov, А.P. Lekarenko, B.Y. Ryauzov, К.S. Voinov, А. Kirtsova, А. Ponomaryov, А. Suzdalev, D.
Almond, G. Van de Verve, The Public Art Action GO PENGUINS, «Penguins» by Timur Novikov,
video-installation «Snow Angel» by Leonid Tishkov, «Angel of the North» by Antony Gormley, The
Exhibition «Pan-Barentz», «Arctic Polar Circle».
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: decanka@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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POINT. Theoretical aspects of the «North»
concept visualization
in the pieces of pictorial art.
Documentary-ethnographical,
philosophical and social approaches
to visualization of the concept
of «the North».
In the modern science it is supposed that the
key notions of the mankind about these or those
cultural phenomena can be not only verbalized
in words, but also visualized in pictorial art.
Thereat, visual images of the concepts most
often represent the deepest world outlook notions
of man about cultural phenomena. In the given
article we suggest to analyze the conceptual
content of the phenomenon of «the North» by
means of studying of artworks of traditional and
modern art, wherein artists pay attention to the
theme of the North.
First of all, we are to decide, what is meant
under the notion of «the North» in the context of
the given research. Topology of the North is the
polar and the sub-polar belts.
The polar belt is the extreme North, which
is practically free from the human penetration,
and it very seldom becomes the fundamental
for the works of pictorial art because of its
inaccessibility. But, if the painter still addresses
to the theme of the extreme North, then «humanless» areas, being always in the state of eternal
sleep under the thick layers of ice and snow, very
often become the symbol of authentic relations
between the man and the nature. And the truth
of these relations is in the following: the nature
is completely indifferent to the human presence
on this planet, and sometimes the symbol is
spread out up to that, that microcosm is even
presented as something antagonistic to the man
in some works of art. The image of a cruel world
and a man, who is defenseless before it, is very
often formed by the works of cinematograph,
starting from numerous narrative stories about
conquerors of the North, who are get frozen in
snows, and finishing with philosophical parables
about that how a man, staying in the Extreme
North and being alone with the apathetic Nature,
goes sometimes mad.
Sub-polar belt is already an areal of habitation
of small-numbered peoples of the Extreme North,
who often become personages of works of art.
Landscapes of the sub-polar belt are already not
the symbol of fatality of human existence in the
world. These landscapes very often represent
real prototypes of abstract pictures because of
unique light effects of the North, as far as being
concentrated, they consist of horizontal lines of
various colors and tints. They can be a white
bar of snow or, for example, a stripe of green
creeping grass, the line of horizon, merging
with the stripes of blue, dark blue, gold and grey
colors, which can be the colors of the picturesque
northern sky.
But most often, the habitants of the subpolar climatic belt become the main subject of
the artistic interest in this belt. They are: the
Evenkis, the Saams, the Nganasans, the Eskimos,
the Chukchi and so on. In pictorial art, there have
been formed several approaches to depiction of
life of these nations: documentary, philosophical
and sort of social. Documentary approach
presupposes drawings and pictorial or graphical
descriptions of the unique ethnical atmosphere:
traditional rituals, traditions of everyday life
organization, rear utensils, clothes, and costumes
with decorative-symbolic ornamentation and so
on. Philosophical approach presupposes visual
embodiment of a thinking process about the
essence of the human existence on the basis of
observations of people’s life. In comparison
with the civilized man, they are more close to
the original way of life, to archetypical bases of
human existence. In the row of art works, which
depict the theme of human life in the North –
for example, in the Barents region – there are
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such works, which touch upon social aspects of
people’s life in those regions: how much does the
life of native small-numbered peoples depend on
industrial resources of the given territories? How
much is preservation of ethnical originality of
the northern peoples important in the context of
globalization processes? Social context becomes
more often the theme for the works of modern
art.
In the given context, we shall consider such
masterpieces, on which bases it is possible to make
such resumptive conclusions. But, beforehand,
we should also outline those reasons, which make
the theme of the North so important for artistic
creativity, and, to be more precise, for pictorial
art. On the bases of painters’ comments and
analysis of cultural attractiveness of the Northern
topology we can single out the following reasons
of their interest in the given topic:
1) Firstly, the North is a space of
phenomenology of life. Here, life exists in a
form, which is most purified from everything
superficial – from social etiquette, political
preferences and so on. Human behavior in
the North is most often reduced to its most
fundamental instincts of survival. Under such
conditions, the man undergoes a sort of test to the
limit of his «humanistic» world outlook positions.
It is not without reason that a lot of books, songs
(«Draw the guy to the mountains – take the risk»
V. Vysotsky) and films «The way I’ve spent this
summer» are created on the topic. Modern British
painter Daren Almond have said the following
about northern areas: «Arctic and Antarctic are
the only places in the world, which have not been
influenced by our civilization, where social and
political relations do not yet exist, and that is why
they can be considered to be the only places of
«the State of the Nature». Thus, existence in the
North lets us perceive such phenomena as «life»,
«nature» or even «macrocosm» and «man» in
their most pure form.
2) econdly, the North is interesting for
the artists because of its pictorial positions.
Northern landscape is a finished pictorial piece:
monotonous, dissolved by the eternal whiteness
with an unlimited perspective, wherever you
look. There are some peculiar picturesque plots:
for example, the round-the-clock sun, which is
much brighter because of its reflections on the
snow. And what a remarkable feeling to see the
northern lights – a natural education book of light
depiction? And to the utmost real reflections of
mountains in crystal pure waters? There is even
nothing to do in order to bring the landscape to
perfection – the nature has created the picture
instead of the artist, who is left only to copy the
presented.
The North suggests the artist to get
experience of a qualitatively new, another space.
Such a space suits both the painters-analytics,
who strive to perceive the laws of the macrocosm
by means of observation of the nature existence,
being freed from all the human, and artistsromantics, for whom the severe North is the right
place for human heroism, which is concluded in
that, that to continue to be a man, even in the
conditions when you are made to live on the level
of your instincts.
The concept of «the North» includes
materially given notions and characteristics:
«snow», «whiteness», «cold», «ice», «without
people», «vastness», and «inaccessibility». «The
North» also supposes qualitative definitions:
«solitude», «emptiness», «flight», «purity»,
and «stupor». Let us single out polar pairs of
definitions of the word «north»: ephemeryeternity (melting snow and eternal frost), solituderest, shine-night (northern lights and polar night),
beginning-ending (cardinal direction – the end of
the world).
«The North» is geographically one of the
forth cardinal points, which corresponds to the
direction of the sun in the midnight. In European
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mapping tradition, the North is situated upwards
in the maps, because it is defined by the only
stationary object in relation to the Earth – the
Polar star. We may suppose that it is a source
of such a characteristic of the North as «hope,
expectancy». The North is the top of the Earth,
and «the top», «the upper world» is given the
status of the «Other» in any mythological and
philosophical system. As the top of the world axis,
«the North» is characterized as «unachievable»
and «mysterious». Moreover, the North Pole is a
point, which belongs to any of the meridians. This
way, «the North» is another existence, which is
present in any point of the Earth. Physical laws
of the North differ from the laws of the Earth –
it also influences the attitude to «the North», as
to another world, and forms «other» principles
of existence. Notions, which form the concept
of «the North», are fully purified from human
existence and carry in itself only the power of
thinking exploration (in connection with its
physical low accessibility).
The theme of the north is interesting as for
the painters of traditional pictorial school, so for
the modern artists, who use new technologies –
photography, video and so on instead of canvas
and colors for creation of their works of art.
EXAMPLE.
Visualization of the concept
of «the North» in masterpieces
of traditional and modern art.
The theme of the north is especially
interesting for the Russian painters. In
particularly, the whole book of researcher
Skorobogacheva Y.A. «Art of the Russian
North» is dedicated to the way, the given theme
is presented in the works of art, predominantly,
of the verge of XIX-XX centuries. In the book,
the main attention is paid to the landscapes of
the north presented in creative works of such
painters as Kuindzhi A.I., Shishkin I.I., Grabar
I.E., Nesterov М.V., Levitan I.I., who travelled to
the Russian North – to the Arkhangelsk province,
to the Vyatka province, to the Solovetsky
Archipelago, along the banks of the Northern
Dvina and so on. Some painters – for example,
Bilibin I.Y. – were interested in the North as
in the source of original Russian decorative
ornaments. We find landscapes and genre-pieces,
describing views of extreme northern territories,
in the oeuvre of some artists. From the point of
view of the native small-numbered peoples’ life
presentation, the oeuvre of Borisov А.А. is of
special interest. He lived among the Nenets for
some time and depicted details of the Samoyeds’
everyday life, their traditional dwellings, funeral
rites, idols, sights of the Kara Sea and so on
in his pictures. Besides, it is also valuable that
А.А. Borisov wrote the book «At Samoyeds’
place. From Pinegi up to the Kara Sea», where
he described painter’s attitude to the theme of the
North; features and details, which could impress
an artist in the North and reasons of his own
interest for this theme: «The extreme North, with
its gloomy, but powerful and mysterious nature,
with its eternal ice and its long polar night, has
always been attractive for me».
Most «northern» painters of traditional
school have worked and are working in the
Krasnoyarsk Region, as far as it practically
adjacent to the Northern Arctic Ocean, and that
is why most Krasnoyarsk painters have made
creative trips to the northern latitudes – they are
Dmitry I. Karatanov, and Andrei P. Lekarenko,
Boris Y. Ryauzov, and Vladimir I. Meshkov,
Konstantin S. Voinov and others. Trips of these
painters to the North have been also connected
with their wish to know more about the life of the
Region, and that is why they have turned out to be
in Evenkiya, Norilsk, and Dudinka on a certain
stage of their life and creative activity, and have
lived in tundra with the reindeer-breeders and
native people.
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On the verge of XIX-XX centuries, American
and European anthropologies went to multiyears’ expeditions to so-called primitive nations,
who have been living in tribes up till now. In the
result of those expeditions, archaic simplicity and
clarity of principles of peoples’ co-existence with
nature and with other peoples have revealed to the
scientists the essence of most of the phenomena
in the life of the civilized man. The way of life
of the northern peoples of the Krasnoyarsk
region is also a source for understanding of most
phenomena of the modern man’s everyday life,
the same as aborigines of the Trobriand Islands
and South America for the founders of cultural
anthropology. In the Krasnoyarsk region, not only
scientists, but also painters pay special attention
to the life of peoples in the area of the Yenisei
bay.
In creative works of most Krasnoyarsk
painters there is presented a whole collection of
ethnographically-valuable visual images. In such
art works, the concept of the North is understood
as a place of human habitation of other culture,
with its peculiar traditions and rituals of everyday
life.
Thus, since 1901, Dmitry I. Karatanov was
travelling to the North and joined ethnographical
or region study expeditions. His trips were
financed by fairy godfathers, whose collections
were afterwards enriched by the painter’s works.
He created masterpieces on the themes of history
of the northern people, painted genre-pieces, and
moreover, he made a lot of drawings of traditional
northern costumes, fixing their everyday life
and utensils. Subsequently, these ethnographic
documents became not only artistically, but also
scientifically valuable. Now, they are kept in the
Krasnoyarsk Museum of Local Lore, History and
Economy and the Russian Ethnographic Museum
in St. Petersburg.
In 1925 Andrei P.Lekarenko decided to
make a journey at first to the South, and then
to the North of the Krasnoyarsk region. In the
North, he made friends with the local people –
the Nenets, the Nganasans, and the Evenkis. He
got acquainted with the native way of living and
was moving on reindeer and dogsleds for more
than two years from one camp to another. From
the reminiscences of Andrei P.Lekarenko about
this period of his life: «having lived for more
than two years among the people of this severe
northern region, I have got nothing to do, but to
admire their cordiality, kindness and readiness
to share their last piece of food, to do somebody
only a favour».
Boris Y. Ryauzov travelled along the
Siberian rivers – Yenisei, Ob’ and Irtysh. The
farthest places for him were Dudinka and
Norilsk. The central place in the oeuvre of Boris
Y. Ryauzov is precisely taken by the landscapes –
the genre, which is traditionally associated
with northern areas. Pictorial works of Boris Y.
Ryauzov can be compared with artistic searches
of impressionists, for whom the main thing is
to «tell» about interrelatedness of the earth and
celestial existence. One can achieve it with the
help of showing the way the colors of the sky
penetrate into the colors of the earth and the
water, and thereat everything is filled with air,
which can be felt. In the artworks of Boris Y.
Ryauzov one can meet similar philosophicalpictorial themes, but if C. Monet and C. Pissarro
draw the red sun is reflecting in the channels of
the Paris Siena River, the Krasnoyarsk painter do
it on the Siberian material. Being fully covered
with snow, the earth does not at all differ from
the white cold sky, and it is hardly possible to
distinguish seldom presence of a man or warm
lights of home in this unlimited whiteness.
Vladimir I. Meshkov is a master of linoleum
engravings. In the Soviet times he was sent to
work in Evenkiya as a painter in the newspaper
«Evenkiya’s New Life». It happened in 1939, and
at that time the Evenkis people did not almost
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speak Russian, and that is why the main material
for the newspaper was the graphics by Vladimir
I. Meshkov, which was clear to all the people
without words. He surely made predominantly
everyday life pictures about the life of the Evenkis.
His most well-known colored engravings are
those, which personages are nature, deer – hosts
of those places, hunters with dogs, and northern
lights. Everything, we know about the North, is
possibly known exactly because of such works.
But, artworks of Vladimir I. Meshkov are first of
all known because of their artistic values: bright
monochromic linoleum engravings, where there
are a lot of variegated stains – northern lights
or the huge northern sun with divergent circles
of light, all the personages are subordinated to
proper compositions. Surely, one should better
see such masterpieces – moreover, exhibitions
of this painter are organized rather often in
Krasnoyarsk.
Pictures of the North by Konstantin S. Voinov
are first of all a philosophical revelation about the
man. And secondly, they show national details of
the northern peoples’ life – more often, ethnical
portraits, authentic costumes and decorations,
national and tribal holidays and rituals.
Artist’s interest to the theme of the North
was also stirred up by his trip to the lower course
of the Yenisei River – a traditional source of
inspiration for the local painters. Naturally,
the unique light of the North, the brightest sun
during a polar day and open empty spaces with a
faraway line of horizon – all this natural beauty,
which every specialist of colors and canvas
strived to see. Moreover, Konstantin S. Voinov
studied the details of the northern everyday life
with the help of daguerreotypes of early research
expeditions, which were kept in the Krasnoyarsk
Museum of Local Lore, History and Economy,
and using the cultural-historical materials about
everyday life, traditions and customs of the
native small-numbered peoples of the region. All
this resulted in a whole series of graphic works,
wherein he presented original traditions of twelve
nations, living on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk
region – Evenkis tribal deer, Kets’ tandoors and
bread cooking, Chukchas’ household, moving
with reindeer and so on.
The North in the Konstantin S. Voinov’s
pictures is, first of all, the people, who populate
this territory; there is no admiration of the
northern landscapes, except presentation of
extremely bright light effects and movement
of clouds, which transfer all the thoughts into
the macrocosmic scale. Images are easily read
and understood by the spectators because of
application of all the traditional laws of pictorial
art and simple compositions.
Image of a man, living in a natural
connection with the nature, is used by the artist
for philosophical generalizations concerning
some objective laws of existence. For example,
in the masterpieces «Two Women» and «This is
Life» he uses a similar principle of artistic image
formation: the spectator is revealed the essence of
changes, which occur to the man from his youth
to his old age. In the picture «Two Women» there
is practically presented one woman – in her youth
and her old age at one and the same time: at first,
it is a girl with a traditional embroidered band
«girl’s beauty» and two decorative ornamental
lateral ribbons, and then, it is an old woman,
who has got her wrinkles-experience, and who
smiles charitably to the world. In the picture
«This is Life», life is getting experience on the
way from a boy, being unsophisticated in fishing,
to an experienced old fisher with a tobacco pipe
of wisdom, correspondingly, with a much bigger
catch.
Besides, in the works of Konstantin S.
Voinov there are certain religious-philosophical
interpretations: thus, some scenes of the northern
life can be compared with traditional canons of
Biblical events representation. It can be especially
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easily seen in the picture «Transpolar Madonna»,
where not only the title lets us draw a parallel
with the religious history, but the very scene of
nursing of a child by a woman in sakhe (or in
dokhe) is sacralized, and it makes the mother
as big as the spherical universal fullness. In the
picture «White parka» one can find parallels with
the scene «Annunciation Day»: sacral light falls
on a woman, who is busy with a humble home
work – darning of a traditional jacket (parka)
with a hood.
On the whole, if one is very attentive, one
can see a revelation of eternal plots of human
existence in any everyday situation, and then
there appears a question – why is philosophical
essence of the life revealed precisely in the people
of the North?
The answer can be found in the paintings
«Confession to the Fire» and «Confession to the
Water», which demonstrate a close connection
of the northern man and the nature. «Confession
to the Water» can be taken literary- it depicts an
aborigine lying at the water and telling about his
feelings to the nature, but when we see that the
curves of his body are similar to the curves of
the river, it lets us understand that natural powers
are really embodied in the northern man. And
piercing, gloomy and thoughtful look of a young
man in a fiery halo makes us suppose that it is the
fire itself being presented in its anthropomorphic
form.
The masterpiece «Wonders» continues the
topic of relations between the nature and the man:
here, a small Evenki boy admires beauties of the
nature – probably the spectator is presented a birth
of a new artist, who will be always from now on
full of desire to capture the sapphire, golden and
scarlet lights of the sky and to place them on his
abstract canvases, which are based on real events,
though it may seem strange.
In general, Konstantin S. Voinov has
created several dozens of pictorial and graphical
masterpieces, which depict northern people as
nations, in whose life simplicity the spectator gets
back his knowledge about his connection with the
laws of natural existence.
Naturally, the theme of the North does not
concern only Krasnoyarsk painters. Let us also
recollect an American artist of XX century –
Rockwell Kent. He is one of those artists, who did
not strive to live his life in warmth and comfort.
His studio was situated not on the last floors of
prestigious sky-scrapers, but in the most northern
American regions – in particular, in 1918-19 he
worked in Alaska, later Kent went farther and
farther to the North and reached Greenland. He
was very famous in Russian, in particular, in the
Soviet times and according to the illustrations
to «Moby-Dick» by Herman Mellwill. In the
pictures of Rockwell Kent, the North is perceived
as some romantic space – the world of freedom
from everything unessential and secondary,
where all the human feelings are purified from
everything superfluous – the world, where a
romantic hero could run away to in order to
obtain harmony with the fullness of macrocosm.
If in the pictures of V.I. Meshkov and B.Y.
Ryauzov the Krasnoyarsk tundra is an unlimited
whiteness, which is endless, then the pictures of
Kent depict the Northern Ocean, which is farther,
full of icebergs and high snow mountains.
In
XXI
century,
ethnographical
(documentary) tasks of visual images creation
are solved with the help of photo camera, and
pictorial peculiarities of the North are already
fully analyzed and carried to abstraction.
Consequently, an era of new artistic tasks,
materials and technologies for the research of the
North is coming.
Thus, traditional pictorial painters and
graphic artists have been interested in the
North, as a place for romantic heroism, and have
approached it from the ethnographical point of
view, and also they have been solving pictorial
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tasks, harmoniously combining unique northern
lights and illumination. However, when the era of
high technologies has come, photo camera starts
helping to carry out ethnographical researches.
In particular, in 2007 photographers Alexander
Kuznetsov and Alexander Sorin implemented the
photo-project «Countermotion» – they researched
Northern and Southern points of the region
by means of documentary photographing. Art
started to work in new forms, genres and with the
help of completely new technical capabilities. We
may say that as for today, pictorial combinations
of northern regions are fully studied, analyzed,
phenomenolised and reduced to a complete
abstraction.
Reduction of traditional northern landscapes
and northern color palette to a pure abstraction
has been performed by Moscow painter Alyona
Kirtseva, at the exhibition with an unsophisticated
title «the North», which has been recently opened
in the halls of the Stella Art Foundation. At this
exhibition there is presented a row of artworks,
wherein the painter shows an evolution of
the northern landscape from a quite realistic
landscape of cloudy tundra to a completely
abstract disintegration of colors: brown, green,
dark-blue, white, grey, and blue with some touch
of other tints.
Though, after all the pictorial possibilities
of the northern latitudes have been exhausted,
there have appeared new technologies in art, and
artists have started to work in other genres, what
has allowed to reconsider the northern theme in
art. Surely, modern Russian painters – such as
for example, Andrei Suzdalev and Alexander
Ponomaryov still continue to create on the topic
of the North.
The work «The Farthest» by Andrei Suzdalev
introduces one more motif into the northern
story, which has always been connected to the
geographical assimilation of the new territories.
The concept of the north is like «graphics»
(«crystal clarity of space, nothing excessive»)
and «mapping», «sensual assimilation of new
territories». Andrei Suzdalev went to the islands
of the White Sea, and in the result of that journey
he presented a map of his untraditional trip: there,
one could see not the geographical places and
spatial coordinates, but his artististic experience
and impressions in the course of his journey. He
inscribed a monitor into a strict black-and-white
geometry, and this monitor showed the stages
of this journey step by step. In the work «The
Northern Foot-Print of Leonardo», Alexander
Ponomaryov made a curtsey to the great Italian
master and brought his creation into the northern
surroundings. The artist painted a submarine of
the sea fleet, paying tribute to its great inventor
Leonardo da Vinci, who, being a real humanist of
Renaissance, would never have invented it, if he
had known those inhumane purposes it would be
used for. Thus, the fresco of the sea fleet submarine
is a hope that it will at last remember its «father»
and will first of all contribute to the cultural
relations, but not to the military purposes.
Russian painters are not surely the only ones,
who are interested in the theme of the North, but
on their example we can comprehend in what
types and kinds of genres Russian art deals with
the theme of the north today. While on the West
films and installations are very popular.
The concept of «the North» is represented as
romantics, as a creation of impressive images for
experiencing of the human existence in the works
of Holland painter Guido Van de Verve. He has
created several video films in the result of his trip
to the Northern Pole – they are both extremely
romantic and impressive. The first film has been
made in the most central place of the Northern
Pole – there, where the axis of the earth’s sphere
is, and around which the earth goes round. The
film is titled «The day, when I did not spin together
with the earth»: the essence of it is that the artist
has stayed at that place in the course of the whole
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day (precisely 24 hours on the severe north!) and
has been gradually spinning counterclockwise,
i.e. against the earth’s spinning. So now, he is
probably the only man on the earth, who has
made practically impossible and has lived in spite
of the laws of physics a whole day long. The other
film of his is «Everything will be well!» – such
an optimistic title has been given by the artist to
his video, where in the course of 15 minutes he is
riding right before the drifting ice.
The example of installation on the theme
of the North is presented in the oeuvre of Daren
Almond. Daren Almond is a world-famous
English artist – he has visited two extreme points
of the globe – Antarctic and Arctic, the points of
maximum north and maximum south, explaining
it by that, that those places are the last pieces of
purity, which are free form political and social
determinants. His works are first of all photos
of primeval spaces, but he has also created an
installation, which he exhibits all around the
world – metallic electronic watch of the size of a
container for floating cargos delivery, the watch,
which independently of the place it is exhibited,
shows Greenwich time. The given work is titled
«In the mean time» and can be interpreted as that
that being far from human presence, the north is
a sort of reference point in everything human.
On one hand, Greenwich is some abstract value,
emptiness, which at the same time is a symbolic
fixation of coordinates of the eternity on the world
map in relation to the rest of the living world.
This way, in his works there is formed a concept
of «the North, in the face of which everybody is
equal».
«The North» includes vividly expressed
opposite qualities, and this antinomy has been
always hypnotizing for the artists. Practical
analysis of the masterpieces, modeling the concept
of «the North» also includes such works as: the
Public Art Action “Go Penguins” (Liverpool,
2010)1, the Object «Penguins» by Timur Novikov
(St. Petersburg, 1989)2, the video-installation
«Snow Angel» by Leonid Tishkov (Moscow,
1998)3, and the sculpture «Angel of the North»
by Antony Gormley (Great Britain, 1998)4.
The project “Go Penguins” was a winter
public art action, which was organized according
to the order of the Liverpool City Council in
2010, and was appealed «to support the Year of
Environment and to energize the New Year’s time»
in the Northern-England industrial city. Painters,
schoolchildren and creative groups created
about a hundred of penguins made of fiberglass,
about one and a half meter in height. The lines
of sculptures installation were spreading out
from the Liverpool city center to its peripheries.
Each penguin had its own unique appearance
and name, which had been given to him by its
author and «patron». These were the titles, which
were connected to the environment: FLORA,
ANTARCTIC WARMING, GO GREEN, A
DRY NEW WORLD, GLOBAL WARNING.
These were funny names: SUPENGUIN,
YOUR NEIGHBOURHOOD HERO!, CUT
AND PASTE, GROW YOUR OWN PENGUIN.
Proper names and nick names: JOHNNY
VEGAS
PENGUIN,
PENGUINELENA,
ENERGY BOB. Metaphoric names: TICKET TO
RIDE, THE ANGEL OF THE NORTH POLE,
WILDFLOWER PENGUIN. Penguin became
a pure form, a pattern, which could accept any
image: from Cheshire cat up to Electricity. The
birds were given «mysterious» names with
practically totemic functions: the embodiment
of an environment defender, of a friend, of the
nature, or of a mythical personage.
Colonies of penguins became «magical
helpers» of people, who united their artistic powers
in order to «defeat the winter». In the city, these
bright objects with an individual appearance and
their own names became recognizable, became
the companions of the citizens, and marked the
grey-white winter with colorful splashes. City
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sculptural objects, in the given case – penguins,
always have had the meaning of a defending
and coordinating pillar, which organizes a
chaotic surrounding around itself. As a northern
unordinary bird, penguin is endured with the
features of an angel-defender, a visitor from
another world with good intentions. Penguin is
a messenger of the northern «otherness»; it has
transformed an ordinary city landscape: maps it
in a new way, having created a geographicallymental connection with the Northern Pole along
the river channels.
The objects «Penguins» were created in
1989 by Timur Novikov, the founder of the project
of «neo-academism» and minimalism, and a
messenger of everything «new» in Petersburg
art of the last two decades of ХХ century.
«Timur constantly felt the border of otherness»5,
which is materially present in most of his works
(consisting of two contrast parts of the space).
In the series of «Horizons» (1987-1989), which
includes the work «Penguins», the painter has
introduced cheap manufactured fabrics into the
list of artistic techniques: two pieces of different
color and texture, which he has sewed together,
using semantically the connecting joint as a
line of horizon. The images, structuring fabrics
as spaces (figures of animals or techniques as
archetypical symbols of terrestrial, water and air
spaces), are placed in accordance with this line.
The object represents a canvas, being
connected along two parts of the fabric of black
and white colors. «Horizon», in the given case
it is vertical: the black wedge steps a little over
the white one in the upper part, while the white
half is bigger in the lower part. Images of small
penguins are placed in the upper part of the white
space, and they are going to the black verge. At the
bottom of the black half of the work the following
inscriptions are whitened: «PENGUINS»,
«TIMUR», and «1989». Animalistic images
endue the border line between black and white
with the plot of «the North»: penguins, boundless
snow and endless night; Penguins at the end of
the Earth.
On the white part, one can see folds of the
fabric, and because of them this space seems to
be dimensional, while the black part seems to be
lower. The white (spectrum of all the colors) is
perceived as everything, and the black (absence
of colors) – as nothing by operation of the law of
the human perception. In the plot of «the north»
the white is perceived as the foundation, the land,
the ice, and the black is as night and emptiness.
Thus, we can apply characteristics of volume,
space and time in relation to the light, which
has become material, fleshy by «nothing» of the
night. Black emptiness absorbs in itself the fi nite,
dissolving in itself. Northern topography lets
us present antimony of existence in maximum
abstraction. «The North» is a combination of
contrasts, practical model of «otherness», with
which help one can reveal universal laws of
life organization. «My work represents an open
text, as far as the space never organizes itself
completely on semantic level. ... I would like to
denote the space in a free way, but not to present
it in detail. ... the picture on the fabric seems to
be always present, but at the same time it is as
if absent» 6.
Images of tiny penguins contrast with a
huge space, which is free from them, and suggest
the spectator to perceive the work from the
position of aerophotography: to put oneself on
the demiurge’s place, on the place of the creator,
observing the Earth. The spectator is objective
because of his direct un-relatedness with the
space, his remoteness from it; understanding of
the world processes, which are beyond the zone of
humane influence, becomes available to him. The
artist works with the psychology of perception,
according to which the individual could percept
only something very small or something very
large. The person can realize the large with the
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help of the small: thus, small images of birds
make the space around them immense.
Apparently, the penguins have been placed
into the space of «snow» made from the same
fabric, as the black part of the space: these are
materialized traces of the «night», which are
coming back. In the Neo-Platonist theory of
emanations and immanations, Absolute spirit
gets its fullness and perfection, materializing
from Nothing into Something, which returns back
into Nothing. In his oeuvre, Novikov develops
the theme of the ideal and the question of the
masterpiece function. «Ideality of «Horizons»
proceeds from both soft friendliness of the artist,
who sees the Earth from some light silky-staple
skies, and absolute harmony of the concept and
its realization, from elaborated asymmetry,
creating the effect of the living picture»7. The
categories of Nothing and Something get material
fabric of the image: the concept of «the North»
clearly visualizes the ideas of materialization and
disfiniting of the Absolute.
The video-installation «Snow Angel» by
Leonid Tishkov (2007) consists of the over-bed
video-projection of a lying doll, covered by the
blanket and with will-lessly dropped cloths of
wings. The lamp under the bed shines weakly
through the white wings, and there are large
slippers near by. There are two sources of light in
the installation box: dark-blue light goes from the
screen and yellow – from the lamp. In the video
we observe the way the man in felt boots and a
hat with earflaps, and with wings on his winter
quilted jacket, makes his way through high snow
banks, sinking in the snow of the Ural Mountains
and Himalayas. Backing the spectator, «Snow
Angel» leads him and the camera after himself.
But, the bed with a sleeping or a sick man does not
let us follow him – he is an apparent author of the
Angel, who can be his dream or his reminiscencethought. As far as the author of the angel is the
painter himself, then the work becomes a self-
portrait, and it reveals the idea of intermediate
of creative work. The figure of the angel is the
archetype of a divine intermediate; consequently,
creative activity is a priory divine. The man on the
bed is materialized: the painter is an earth «angel
in flesh». His «instruments» are: wings and light
(in the given case it is the lamp). Video-angel
leads to the heavenly world, full of hardships and
difficulties – in the form of snow, the same as the
painter infatuates the spectator into a complicated
speculative world of the masterpiece. Here, one
can reveal such notions, being connected to «the
North», as «inaccessibility» (of the heavenly
world), «loneliness» (the way of everyone), «cold»
(detachment from sensuousness), «whiteness»
(purity of idea), and «endless way». «Snow Angel»
looks like a penguin: his wings denote sooner a
symbolic flight, and his main target is to trudge
through obstacles and to lead to an unknown
aim. Anthropomorphity of the intermediate is
presented according to the traditions of angels to
assume human similitude, materializing from the
heavenly world: and the desolate «North» can be
as well the place of his habitation, consisting of
an ephemeral and eternal material.
The sculpture «Angel of the North» of
British sculptor Antony Gormley was erected in
Gateshead (Great Britain) in 1998. It represents a
steel sculpture of an angel of 20 meters height, with
the wingspread of 54 meters and is considered to
be the largest angel statue in the world. «Angel»
stands on the hill, overlooking two arterial roads.
The wings of the statue are bent at the angle 3.5
degrees forwards; and according to the sculptor’s
words, it creates the feeling of embrace. «The
ANGEL resists our post-industrial amnesia and
bears witness to the hundreds and thousands of
colliery workers who have spent the last three
hundred years mining coal beneath the surface.
The scale of the sculpture has been essentially
given its site in a valley that is a mile and a
half a mile wide, and with the audience that is
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travelling past on the motorway at an average of
60 miles an hour»8. The large singular sculpture
in the open space runs back to the tradition of
building monuments in honor of heroic persons,
existing in the history («Minin and Pozharsky»
by I. Martos, V. Yekimov, 1818), mythology
(«David» by Michelangelo Buonarroti, 15011504) or monuments expressing some allegoric
meaning («Freedom, illuminating the world» by
F. О. Bartholdi, 1886), and serves as a cultural
orienteer for the maximum number of people.
The height of «Angel» is approximately
10 times higher than the human height, what
corresponds to the proportions of Doric columns
of the Parthenon. Proportions of «the golden
section» inspire the heroic spirit of the man:
the same way as the Parthenon, «Angel» does
not suppress the man by its size and «grows
higher» in the course of coming nearer to it.
The statue is a ribbed anthropomorphic cocoon
with a huge wingspread, and its solution is
rather geometrical. The stiffening ribs support
the body of the sculpture, at the same time
underlining its silhouette, and symbolically
reminding antique statues’ cyclas. In particular,
Victory of Samothrace is a vivid example of
a winged anthropomorphic deity (II century
B.S.), though, «Angel» does not demonstrate
a flight or an impulse, but sooner a function
of defense and covering. His outspread wings
refer the spectator to the iconography of OrantVirgin, whose presentment with outspread arms
has an intercessory power, while its statics and
symmetry make it magnificent and monumental.
The sculpture is deprived of male or female
attributes. The stiffening ribs dissolve the
powerful stout body of «Angel» by the contrast
play of light and shadow. «Angel» is seen from
most places on the hill as if being above the
clouds; the sun is rising behind its back, its head
props the stars, and its figure is crossed over by
the rainbow – it belongs to the sky, but steadily
stands on the Earth. It is the Messenger of the
North – a powerful superman, who is ready to
cover everybody under its wings. Being seen
from afar, it is a symbol of a guarded land and
people. The former mining town in the north of
England can be considered to be the end of the
earth, while erection of «Angel of the North»
seems to be a new starting point of the system
of coordinates (vertical-horizontal stiffening ribs
and «the cross» of the winged figure). «Angel»
infuses some new sense and value into the
northern land, gives a new hope and recumbence,
manifesting by itself «the Good News» about
a possibility of spirit’s flight in this life. The
sculptor describes his creation as «an attempt to
materialize the other side of the life, where we
all present »9, in other words, to materialize the
other being. Within the frames of the concept
of «the North», «Angel» represents «eternity»,
«defense», «presence of infinity», «axis», «spirit
exaltation», and «hope».
Attention to the theme of the North is
never ceasing. Northern expeditions are always
topical. Abroad, they have even created a special
annual project «The Arctic Circle», within which
frames the organizers rent a special ship with an
experienced captain, which is supplied with all
the necessary painting materials and attributes.
Painters undergo a competitive selection, then
they start on an expedition to the Polar region,
and at the end of it they sell their arctic drawings
in the galleries all around the world and organize
exhibitions.
Social-economical realization of the
northern theme is illustrated by the artistic project
«Pan-Barentz», 2009. Seventeen Norwegian
and Russian painters all together analyze and
fantasize on the theme of the northern region.
In the project «Pan-Barentz», the artists have
been suggested to imagine the future and to
contemplate the present of the Barentz Region –
of the joint Russian and Norwegian North. These
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vast territories are, on one hand, profitable to
use for industrial development, and, on the other
hand, there is a necessity to improve the level of
living of the local population. Most Russian and
Norwegian painters have taken an active part in
this project. Swain Fligary Johanson has invented
an interactive snowman, which readily responds
to the world level of oil prices: it is melting, when
the price is dropping and is growing, when the
price is going up. Yor Nango has begun to solve the
problems of the native people, having suggested
Lappish women to knit sweaters with a pattern of
traditional types of tents, and afterwards to sell
these sweaters as souvenirs right in the gallery.
And the famous Russian creative group «Blue
Noses» has shot a silent film about the story
of relations between two northern populated
localities of the region – Norwegian Kirkines
city and Russian Nikel village. Artists have
demonstrated that visual art is a way of salvation
of the northern regions’ problems, and creative
activity is always a means of improvement of the
region’s life.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Conclusion.
Thus, proceeding from the analysis of the key
visual images, being connected to the northern
theme, we may assert that in the mental scale the
North is a constant reminder of a man, that he is
just a particle of being in the Universe (thereat,
rather insignificant particle), the nature domineers
and enslaves him. The North is the only place in
the modern world, which has not been influenced
by civilization, social and political changes, that
is why the North is such a place, where the man is
first of all a man; and life runs as it is; it is a space
being purified from everything secondary. The
North is its people, whose traditions are unique,
they are to be studied, to be developed and
supported, because it is one of those rear unique
phenomena of the modern world. In pictorial
art, Northern regions are less interesting from
the traditional industrial-practical point of view,
the painters make people consider the North
philosophically and comprehend its significance,
and this way they improve the living conditions
of the northern region.
http://www.gopenguins.co.uk/site/
http://art4.ru/popup.php?aId=134&picId=900
http://leonidtishkov.blogspot.com/2009/03/blog-post.html
http://www.antonygormley.com/#/sculptures/projects/all?stripDetail=056f2150-3338-4e26-ab86-7bdacf18340e&slide=0
A. Khlobystin. A Blind Artist. Strategy and Tactics of Timur Novikov // A. Khlobystin / http://azbuka.gif.ru/critics/
slepoy-hudozhnik/
Timur Novikov from the talk with A. Dragomoshienko, recorded 10.03.1990 // Y.Yu. Andreeva. Postmodernism. – St.
Petersburg: Azbuka-Classika, 2007. – P. 281.
Y.Yu. Andreeva. Postmodernism. – St. Petersburg: Azbuka-Classika. 2007. – P. 285.
Antony Gormley // http://www.antonygormley.com/#/sculptures/projects/all?stripDetail=056f2150-3338-4e26-ab86-7bdacf18340e&slide=0
Antony Gormley // http://www.antonygormley.com
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University. «Humanitarian science» series. June 2010 (Volume 3, Issue 3). – стр. 437-444.
Y.U. Andreeva. Postmodernism. – St. Petersburg: Azbuka-Classica. 2007. – 487 p.
A.A. Borisov. At Samoyeds’. From Pinega up to the Kara Sea. – access mode: http://webirbis.
aonb.ru/irbisdoc/kr/06kp004.pdf
I. Znak, M. Moskalyuk, B. Ryauzov. Pictorial Paintings. Exhibition Catalogue. – Krasnoyarsk:
Platina, 1996.
Representation of the painting «Penguins» of T. Novikov (collection of the Art4ru museum).
access mode: http://art4.ru/popup.php?aId=134&picId=900
Representation of the painting «Snow Angel» of L. Tishkov (author’s blog L. Tishkov). access
mode: http://leonidtishkov.blogspot.com/2009/03/blog-post.html
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Alexandra A. Semyonova and Anna V. Bralkova. Title of the Article: Visualization of the Concept of «the North»…
M. Moskalyuk, B. Ryauzov. Pictorial Paintings. Album. – Krasnoyarsk: Platina, 1999. –
128 P.
Web Portal, dedicated to the Public Art Action “Go Penguins”. access mode: http://www.
gopenguins.co.uk/site/
the Project «Arctic Circle». – Source: http://www.thearcticcircle.org/
Web Site of Painter Antony Gormly. access mode: http://www.antonygormley.com
Y.A. Skorobogacheva. Art of the Russian North. – Moscow: White City, 2008. – 304 P.
A.A. Khlobystin. Blind Artist. Strategy and Tactics of T. Novikov. access mode: http://azbuka.gif.
ru/critics/slepoy-hudozhnik/
Painters of the Krasnoyarsk Region. Album. – Moscow: Soviet Artist, 1991. – 216 P.
Визуализация концепта «север»
в изобразительном искусстве
А.А. Семенова, А.В. Бралкова
Сибирский федеральный университет
660041 Россия, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье рассмотрена интерпретация темы «север» в классических и современных
произведениях изобразительного искусства. Теоретическая часть работы представляет
собой попытку обобщения существующих принципов и подходов к изображению
северных территорий в изобразительном искусстве. Тема севера в изобразительном
искусстве, с одной стороны, раскрывается как уникальная территория, отстраненная
от глобализационных мировых процессов и, в целом, от присутствия человеческого и, в
результате этого, позволяющая постигать законы мироздания и природы в первозданной
чистоте. С другой стороны, север – это ареал проживания коренных малочисленных
народов, поэтому такие народы, как нганасаны, ненцы, эвенки, эскимосы, долганы и т.д.,
становятся персонажами произведений искусства, раскрывающих тему севера. В статье
выделено несколько подходов к визуальной интерпретации бытия северных народов:
документально-этнографический, философский и обращение к теме северных народов
в контексте социальной проблематики. Прикладная часть статьи посвящена анализу
произведений живописи, видеоарта, инсталляций и художественных проектов в области
визуального изображения севера. Часть искусствоведческого исследования посвящена
произведениям графики и живописи художников Красноярского края, которые совершали
экспедиции на север и запечатлели жизнь северных народов края, – это работы Д.И.
Каратанова, А.П. Лекаренко, Б.Я. Ряузова, К.С. Войнова и других художников. Тема севера
в произведениях современных художников рассмотрена на примерах работ А. Кирцовой,
А. Пономарева, А. Суздалева и др. В статье также изучены произведения зарубежных
художников. Произведения Р. Кента представляют собой пример обращения к теме севера
в классическом изобразительном искусстве. Среди современных зарубежных художников
выделены работы таких авторов, как Д. Алмонд и Г. Ван де Верве. В качестве примеров
современных художественных проектов с северной тематикой статья обращается к
таким, как «Арктический круг» и «Пан-Баренц».
Ключевые слова: концепт «север»; произведение искусства; тема севера в изобразительном
искусстве; тема севера в классической живописи; тема севера в произведениях современного
искусства; документально-этнографический, философский и социальный подходы к
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визуализации концепта «север»; визуальная этнография коренных малочисленных народов
севера и севера Красноярского Края; Д.И. Каратанов, А.П. Лекаренко, Б.Я. Ряузов, К.С. Войнов,
А. Кирцова, А. Пономарев, А. Суздалев, Д. Алмонд, Г. Ван де Верве, паблик арт акция go penguins,
«пингвины» тимур новиковов, видеоинсталляция Леонида Тишкова «Снежный ангел», «Ангел
севера» Энтони Гормли, «Пан-Баренц», «Арктический круг».
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2011 4) 492-500
~~~
УДК 94 (47+57)«19»+323.17
The Decision of the National Question
in Soviet Russia in 1920-s in the Perception
of Russian Emigration
Anna V. Uryadova*
Yaroslavl State University
14 Sovietskaya, Yaroslavl, 150000 Russia 1
Received 4.04.2011, received in revised form 11.04.2011, accepted 18.04.2011
Article considers the attitude of Russian emigration to solving the national question in Soviet Russia.
It examines the reaction of emigration on the creation of the USSR and the occurrence of the some
territories in it.
This problem is decomposed into two components – the perception of the Soviet national policy
in general and of the individual nations and territories. This work focuses on the first part of the
problem.
The paper identifies differences in the views of the Russian Diaspora on the problem, the contradictions
in its environment and their causes. Article reveals the views of representatives of emigration:
politicians, lawyers, philosophers. The position of the Russian-language foreign press is also presented
in this paper.
However, emigration is viewed not as a amount of individuals and organizations, but as special
unique social environment, acting in certain conditions and according to definite laws of development.
Therefore, even if there was some controversy on national policy among emigration, article identifies
key moments of its apperception, analyzes their causes and origins.
This paper considers only the Russian emigration, and doesn’t examine other’s nation emigration from
Russia. The reason for this is that, firstly, it is a big topic proposed a special study (in connection with
a broad national composition of emigration), and secondly, the problems of individual nations were
not included in this article, and national immigration has focused mainly on it.
The material presented in the paper, allow to draw conclusions about the impact of private and
common causes on emigration’s apperception of solving national question in the RSFSR and USSR.
Private causes include personal and party motives, the general – the linking of the national situation in
the RSFSR with the past (Imperial Russia and Russia of Provisional Government) and with the possible
future (after the overthrow of Bolshevism).
Keywords: national question, Russian emigration, soviet history, 1920-s
Introduction
There are a lot of works Russian (Egorov,
Nikitin, Vdovin) and foreign authors on soviet
national policy published recently, as on general
*
1
problems of nation-building (Martin, La question
des nationalités, Oushakine, A State of Nations,
Werth, Williams), and in connection with the
study of the history of individual nations and
Corresponding author E-mail address: koukouch@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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territories of the USSR (Eschapasse, Monicault).
Some Articles on the national question published
in the Journal of Siberian Federal University
“(Danilova).This topic has become particularly
relevant in the post-Soviet era, in the modern
geopolitical environment. However, the specific
of this article is that the object of her attention
is not a national issue itself, but its perception
by Russian emigration. Historiography of the
this plot is minimal. The only comprehensive
work on this theme is the study оf Doronchenkov
(Doronchenko).
In the early 1930-s Russian philosopheremigrant G.P. Fedotov has written: «… In Russia
national problem is expressed in tension between
the Russian consciousness and nationalism of
small nations» (Fedotov, 1932:95). This phrase
describes not only the Soviet national policy
and the attitude of emigration towards it, but
also a national problem in Russia in general, for
which she has always been one of the patients.
Multinational state across the vast territory was
forced to either listen to the demands of other
nations and to implement them or resist them.
As did the Russian state, maneuvering between
these two methods to solve the national question.
Each of them had their supporters and opponents,
as they were at the ideas and talents border
countries independence. Therefore, the reaction
of emigration to address this issue is reflected
not only its relationship to politics in it of the
Soviet state, but also echoes of past debates. As
researcher A.I. Doronchenkov specifies: «One of
prominent features of Russian post-revolutionary
emigration consisted that along with nostalgia for
the abandoned homeland in its midst there was a
process of rethinking its painful past, and with it
… the maintenances … of the national question,
which has become one of the “stumbling blocks”
of White movement» (Doronchenkov, 2001:67).
Numerous publications of 1920th abroad
testify to a profound interest, both Russian, and
national emigration to this aspect of the Soviet
policy (Ex.: Articles on national question, 1921;
Miliukov, 1925; Markov, 1930; Boldyr’. 1930
etc.). The newspaper «Novoye Vremia» («New
time») wrote that with the decision of an national
question Bolsheviks «again hit the mark», while
noting that it is even more important than the NEP
(new economic policy)(Letter from Zinoviev to
Kamenev, 1991:197).
The point of view
It is possible to allocate interest of emigration
to two groups of problems thereupon: first, the
decision of the national question in the scale of
state, secondly, the international relations of
some nations and the problems of some areas.
Therefore, on the one hand, comparing its
solution with the previous period, she saw in
the Soviet land consolidation the tradition of
former power and the borders restoration of the
Russian empire. Such unifying tendencies caused
even sympathy for the Bolshevism in certain
emigrants political circles (Quite personally…
2002:281-282). However, emigration was trying
to play on national feelings and ambitions of
non-Russian peoples, in order to set them against
Bolshevism. I.e. it was the patriotism coterminous
with anti-sovietism. In this context, the approach
to the specific national issues in the USSR was
twofold.
Russian abroad unanimously marked
dynamism of the Soviet national policy. Opinions
of emigrants dispersed in estimations of its
concrete maintenance and character. For some,
the paramount importance was in preservation
of country’s unity, its great-power status, others
more interested in the solution of the situation
with non-Russian peoples, that’s why for them a
principle of self-determination and its realisation,
federalism problem was put forward.
B.A. Bahmetev considered that in fact the
Soviet collection of land is exclusively due to the
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past, is the phenomenon useless and ineffectual,
it does not solve questions, but only postpones
it. So with the fall of Bolshevism he predicted
the collapse of the Mirage (that happened a
few decades later). In view of the foregoing, He
called for «a merciless struggle to chauvinism,
which could be carried away by the specter of
great power (“velikoderzavie”)», which must be
stripped of Bolshevism opportunities to achieve
success in this field that could be done, in his
opinion, only by revision the base of European
and Asian systems created by past international
conferences.
Answering him, V.A. Maklakov noted that
the current national program of Russian foreign
policy is carried out by the Bolsheviks: they
“protested against the retention of Bessarabia
by Romania and threatened Romania war, they
will declare war to Poland, obviously, on the
basis of the Riga’s agreement. They have now
grasped already in the hands Azerbaijan and
Armenia, tomorrow will grasp also Georgia,..
rapprochement with Lithuania, and possibly with
other Baltic states, is on the order». Thus, he
concludes – «The Bolsheviks now carry the unity
of Russia, that’s the fact which all is evident»
(Quite personally… 2002:299). He called two
reasons two reasons of such Bolshevik’s policy:
1) they are forced to reckon with the patriotic
elements in the Red Army; 2) this consolidation
gives more chances to extend communism.
Probably, Maklakov wrote, Bolsheviks did not
become nationalists but «they unite suburbs
which have separated… and infect the minds
in Russia by a healthy idea of nationalism and
patriotism; both results are so useful, that is quite
difficult to find out the ideological basis on which
we can not deny their international policy» (Quite
personally… 2002:300). In this sense, referring to
the foreign policy of the Bolsheviks, Maklakov
emphasized their patriotism, believed that they
alone preserve some semblance of the state in
Russia, defending its national interests, and even
return the well-known international prestige
(Quite personally… 2002:302).
This belief was also one of the reasons
of «acceptance» of the October Revolution by
Smena-Vekhites. As N.V. Ustrialov considered
only it is capable to restore the Russian great
power (‘velikoderzavnost’) and international
prestige of Russia (Cit. on: Kvakin, 1991:79).
And one of authors of «Change of marks»
(«Smena vekh») urged to support the slogan:«
Let in power internationalists, but they obviously
create national business!» (Smena Vekh, 1921, №
2:118). Newspaper «Russia» («Rus’») considered
that Bolsheviks in the in contact with foreign
countries only «array themselves in the national
colors» (Rus’. 1924).In light of the problems of
collecting Russian lands, emigration singled out
the creation of the USSR, she have started to talk
about its preparation since the end of 1922 (For
ex: Latest news, 1922)
It is interesting to note that emigration in
joining outlying areas by Soviets did not see much
economic and geopolitical purposes, but agitation
and propaganda, communism distribution in
breadth, in these republics and abroad.
The principle of nation’s self-determination
also has been connected with a problem of
«velikoderzavnost’». Economists A.P. Markov
and S.N. Prokopovich were against the thesis
«own state to each nation», and V.D.Stankevich
(former national socialist) offered for each people
which have voluntary logged in Russia store full
independence not only in domestic but in foreign
economic affairs. He believed that the internal
independence of peoples in the united state should
extend not only to legislative activity, but also on
the armed forces (Nikitin, 1996:8).
Smena-Vekhites viewed self-determination
as a tactical maneuver of the Soviet government,
calculated on a quick world revolution, in what
they were partly right. They did not believe in the
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“proletarian internationalism” and perceived the
desire for unity only as a return to the restoration
of great power (velikoderzavnost’), i.e. as the
researcher Kvakin remained – they were in
the positions of Russia’s nationalism (Kvakin,
1991:79). Opinions of Smena-Vekhites confirm
this (Smena Vekh, 1921, № 4:6).
At the meeting of the members of the
Constituent Assembly (1921) disintegration of
Russia was due to the reluctance of the border
regions identified with Bolshevism. Its resolution
«On the national» documented recognition
the right of national minorities to “national
autonomy”1 (Vdovin et al., 1998:41-42). However,
it is necessary to notice that in it in very florid
form pointed out that in general Assembly does
not approve the desire of the border states to
complete separation and rupture of relations with
Russia nevertheless, justifies its by Bolshevik’s
leadership and hopes that, after elimination Soviet
regime, once again reveal their commonality with
Russia (Meeting of Constituent Assembly, 1921;
Miliukov, 1927:234-235).
It is clear that at such approach creation
of RSFSR and the USSR was perceived by
emigrants with caution. They did not hurry
with the assessment although many of them said
that the rights of the peoples, the principle of
federalism, it is only a declaration of the Soviet
government. However eventually, Russian abroad
has been compelled to reckon with the changes
which have occurred after October Revolution.
So, the Russian Foreign Congress which has
gathered in 1926 has accepted the reference in
which promised the recognition of sovereignty of
border countries in case of changing state system
in Russia.
P.N. Miliukov, analyzing a polity of
the RSFSR, came to the conclusion that in
reality federation in Russia did not exist.
Local authorities executed the decrees of the
central institutions (Miliukov, 1925:186). Other
emigrants agreed with mismatch of the letter of
the law to practice considering the autonomy of
the republics, only a sham. They marked: «On the
one hand, the Bolsheviks proclaimed the principle
of unconditional self-determination for all
nationalities including the right to secession from
Russia, but on the other hand – the prosecution of
the national movements never had reached such
forms ....» (Articles on national question, 1921:910). Socialist Revolutionaries declared that the
Bolsheviks had stolen their idea of federalism,
bringing it to an absurdity, having strangled
national aspirations of the peoples (Kozliakov,
1992:141-142).
P.N. Miliukov compared the attitude of
the two party congresses towards the national
question. At the Tenth Congress of communist
party (March, 1921) under the influence of the
Civil war and military communism, “flexible
federalism” satisfies both: the nation and party.
So Congress declared a national issue resolved.
At the Twelfth Congress (April 1923), traces of
the old optimism, according to Miliukov, were
gone. He ascertained that not only that questions
were not resolved in the RSFSR, but its became
more complicative because of the centralization,
enslavement of power by the Party and total
ignoring of the results reached earlier by national
movements (Miliukov, 1925:186).
The national Union of Protection of the
Native land and Freedom also agreed that there
is increased centralism of the policy of Council
of People’s Commissars (Sovnarkom) on
nationalities and believed that «soon from the
federation, even in its form in which it existed
until now – there will be no trace»2.
Emigration did not consider the establishment
of USSR the exit from the situation – Soviet
Union has preserved the old centralized and
formally promised the independence of the
national states. So if the Miliukov called RSFSR
«strange» federation, than USSR he called «even
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more strange union of countries» (Miliukov,
1925:189-190). G.P. Fedotov considered that this
is due to the fact that there is a contradiction
between a national emigration is not considered
the establishment of Soviet exit from the
situation – he has kept the old centralized and
formally promised the independence of national
states. policies and an international essence of
revolution.
Rather detailed analysis of the nationalstate structure of the USSR (based on the
constitution of 1924) was given by lawyeremigrant N.N. Alekseev. In his view, each
element of the Soviet state has the right to selfdetermination, self-government and autonomy
in theory, but in practice, the decentralization
of power purely administrative. Although
he noted the presence of self-government,
however, he saw all it falsehood (Alekseev,
1998:334,335). Among the features of nationbuilding, Alekseev singled adaptation to the
situation where the occurrence of a federation
(voluntary or occupation) was accompanied
by acceptance of the Bolshevist program and
a new political system. As well as Fedotov,
he pointed out the contradiction between
internationalism and the right of nations to selfdetermination (Alekseev, 1998:336-337). He
agreed with the Soviet politicians concerning
elasticity of federalism, and considered that
with decentralization it is the best form of
government, but doubted that the Soviet
federalism is federalism (Alekseev, w.d.:240),
though marked in it presence of qualities not
found in the western federations, in particular,
force of an attraction and influence which
promote occurrence other nations in the USSR
(Alekseev, 1998:317). In general, he flatterly
responded about structure of the Soviet state,
singled out certain dignity. Many emigrants
who focused exclusively on the shortcomings
of Soviet policy did not agree with him.
In 1926 journal «Sovremennye Zapiski»
(«Contemporary Notes») published a big article
of lawyer N.S. Timashev devoted exclusively to
national law in Soviet Russia (Timashev, 1926).
He considered that, despite the Soviet legislation
giving the right to self-determination and
recognizes the sovereignty of the Union republics,
the autonomy of some areas, in reality the law does
not act, one reason for this is the dominant soviet
centralization. He noted the following features
of Soviet law: 1) it is not the same for different
nationalities (4 categories of nationality); 2) it is
closely intertwined in their implementation with
the beginning of federalism, thus generating
certain paradoxes of discrepancy (the pairing in
terms of equality, for example, the RSFSR and
Turkmenistan (in the USSR) or RSFSR «the
basic kernel» and the Karelian Republic (in the
RSFSR)); 3) it is mostly declarative. Thus, the
author sums up, «the impression produced by a
wide volume of the Soviet national law, is false»
(Timashev, 1926:390-392). Timashev linked
features of the national policy of the USSR, with
its systems. In particular, he attributed it by a
type of states «with a forked power, with power
which is breaking up to two systems, from which
one holds all the honors and the other has all the
real things, which is give the power» – «formally
so called “Soviets” rule, i.e. power theoretically
based on the representation of “workers”, but
practically is in complete subjection to the kind of
social organization called the Communist Party».
He considered that this fact has paramount
importance for «the right of nationalities» because
«to federalism which represents itself one of
the major constructive principles of the Soviet
system, in communist party the strict centralism
corresponds»(Timashev, 1926:394). Therefore he
noticed that the federalism, even just declared, is
a temporary measure, and it will be soon replaced
by centralism. He explained the reasons of this
compelled national policy by three things: 1) the
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need for the development of national communist
cells; 2) the fear of the national movement; 3)
the aspiration to raise the state appeal abroad
(Timashev, 1926:397).
By this and other articles «Socialisticheskii
vestnik» («Socialist bulletin») opened in 1926 in
its pages a discussion on the national question,
which has been picked up by right social
revolutionaries in ««Sovremennye Zapiski»
(«Contemporary Notes»). So M. Verner noticed
change of the national program of the beginning
1920 in comparison with the first years of the
Soviet power towards liberalization and reduce
of national tensions that, in his opinion, helped
preserve the unity of the country. M. Vishnyak,
by contrast, argued that the cultural and limited
domestic autonomy given to peoples by Soviets
only in that degree that «they come into conflict
with the intentions of the ruling elite of the
Communist Party». D.I. Chizhevsky felt it
necessary to approach the right of republics to
independence differentiated (for example, for
Ukraine, he thought it inappropriate to use this
right) (Doronchenkov, 2001:76; Russian national
policy, 1997:308; Egorov, 1998:147 Nikitin,
1996:9-12). Depending on the overall approach
to national problems, expatriates have expressed
different attitudes to issues of some territories and
peoples, and it should be noted, unequal interest
in the various regions and peoples. Discussions
in emigration were caused by Finland, Poland
and Bessarabia territories The emigration of nonRussian nationalities troubled fate of their peoples,
who discussed Russian abroad, to a lesser degree.
It was discussed both an independence of border
countries and occurrence of some territories in
the URSS3.
If emigrants politicians paid attention to
questions of a real policy, the Russian philosophers
staying abroad brought up the questions seeming
at first sight theoretical, but on the other hand, as it
was found out subsequently, reflecting an essence
occurring in the USSR within the next decades.
So, the idea that the Russian internationalism
led to the abandonment of Russian in favor of
international and non-indigenous put forward
(Karsavin, 1992:153; Berdiaev, 1990:349,366-367;
Shoul’gin, 1929:231,232). This point of view was
voiced also at Russian Foreign Congress (1926).
The right wing noticed that Bolsheviks, having
lost national feeling, acted towards Russia as
hostile force. The manifestation of this hostility
they saw even in fact that the name «Russia» has
been was removed from the name of the state,
not to mention the destruction of traditional
structures, of national and cultural traditions,
their replacement by Soviet analogues (Nikitin,
1996:4). It was noted that if other nations in
USRR are worried about their own national
question, then for Russian, this question does not
arise at all, it was overshadowed by other social
and economic problems (Fedotov, 1991:174), and
later, the national content of Russian democratic
movement was divested by Soviet democracy at
all. I.e. by the end of 1920-th emigrants marked
the erosion of Russian national component and its
replacement by the Soviet.
Conclusion
The researcher A.I. Doronchenkov believes
that characterizing the reaction of Russia’s
emigration on the internal national processes, it
should be borne in mind that Russian scientists
and politicians, who were abroad, could not rise
above the class-political antipathies, to avoid the
politicization of evaluations of events occurring
in the USSR change. They were hard to get away
from subjectivity and political bias, and not well
developed scientific tools complicate an objective
analysis of the prospects for Russia, although it
has not stopped scientific thought (Doronchenkov,
2001:11-112). It’s not quite true. From our point
of view, the émigré contradictions assessment of
Soviet policy in general, manifests itself in the
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assessment of national problems. On the one
hand, there is a positive estimation of great-power
aspirations for unity, it flattered the national
vanity Russian Abroad. On the other hand, soviet
nationalities policy was rejected by emigrants,
1
2
3
as conducted by the Bolshevik government. For
emigrants the national question was associated
not only with the present (with Soviet Russia), but
also with the possible future, in which inevitably
would have to reckon with this policy.
SARF (State Archive of Russian Federation), f. (fond) 7035 o. (opis’) 1. d. (delo) 6.
SARF (State Archive of Russian Federation), f. 6055 o. 1. d. 26, l. (list) 191
This is a big topic that requires serious coverage, so in this article, it will not be examined.
References
N.N. Alekseev, Soviet federalism. (W.d, w.p.) – (in Russian).
N.N. Alekseev, Russian people and the state. (M., 1998) – (in Russian).
Articles on national problem (B.V. Savinkov, D.V. Filosofov, V.V. Ulianitsky etc.) (Warsaw, 1921) –
(in Russian).
N.A. Berdiaev, Collected Works (Paris, 1990). Vol. 4- (in Russian).
A. Boldyr’, Bessarabian question. (Kishenev, 1930) – (in Russian).
V.Е. Danilova, Processes of Restoration of Religious-National Identity and Globalization in the
Modern World, Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences, 2 (2009), 151162
А.I. Doronchenkov, “First vague” of emigration about the national problem and the fate of Russia
(SPb., 2001) – (in Russian)
B. Eschapasse, Il y a 88 ans... l’Armée rouge envahit la Géorgie, Historia. (1) 2009 (in French)
V.K. Egorov, The many faces of Russia: XX Century. Philosophical-historical study.(М., 1998) –
(in Russian).
G.P. Fedotov, It is and will be (Paris, 1932) – (in Russian).
G.P. Fedotov, The fate and the sins of Russia. (SPb,1991). Vol. 1 – (in Russian).
L.P. Karsavin, Europe in Russia (Outline of the Eurasian ideology), Logos. St. Petersburg Readings
on the philosophy of culture. Russia spiritual experience.(СПб.,1992) Vol. 2. – (in Russian).
V.E. Kozliakov, “The Socialist-Revolutionary emigration of 1920 on ways to solve national
problems”, Intellectuals in the political history of the twentieth century, (Ivanovo, 1992), 141-142 – (in
Russian).
A.V. Kvakin, The ideological and political differentiation of Russia’s intelligentsia in the period
of the NEP. 1921-1927 (Saratov, 1991) – (in Russian).
Latest news. (1922, 30 December). – (in Russian).
Letter from Zinoviev to Kamenev 30.07.1923, Izvestia of CC SPSU, 4 (1991) – (in Russian).
A.P. Markov, Samostiynichestvo and economic development of Russia (Paris, 1930) – (in
Russian).
T. Martin, The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing, The Journal of Modern History, 70-4, (Dec.
1998), 813–861.
The Meeting of Constituent Assembly. (Paris, 1921) – (in Russian).
P.N. Miliukov, The national question: The origin of nationality and the national question in
Russia. (Prague, 1926) – (in Russian).
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P.N. Miliukov, Russia at the turn: During the Russian Bolshevik revolution. (Paris, 1927) Vol.1. –
(in Russian).
F. de Monicault, Arménie : Envers et contre tout, Historia, (1) 2007. – (in French)
D. N. Nikitin, The national question in the literature of the Russian Diaspora. 1920-1930-s
Massager of Moscow State University. Ed. 8. History. 4 (1996) – (in Russian).
S. Oushakine, Devising the Grammar of Bolshevik Ethno speak (Hirsch’s Empire of Nations)
Current Anthropology, 49-2 (Apr. 2008), 346–348.
La question des nationalités, Historia (10) 2004 – (in French)
“Quit personally and confidentially!” B.A. Bakhmetev – V.A. Maklakov. Correspondence 19191951 (M.,-Stanford, 2002) Vol.1 – (in Russian).
Rus’ (1924, 11 April) – (in Russian).
Russian national policy: history and modernity. (M., 1997) – (in Russian).
V.V. Shul’gin, “What we don’t like in them…” (Paris, 1929) – (in Russian).
Smena vekh (2)1921 – (in Russian).
Smena vehk (4)1921 – (in Russian).
A State of Nations: Empire and Nation: Making in the Age of Lenin and Stalin. Ed. by R.G. Suny,
T. Martin. (Oxford, 2001).
N.S. Timashev, Problem of national law in Soviet Russia, Contemporary notes, (29) 1926, 379399 – (in Russian).
A.I. Vdovin, V.U. Zorin, A.V. Nikonov, Russian people in the national policy. XX century. (M.,
1998) – (in Russian).
N. Werth. La société et la guerre dans les espaces russe et soviétique, 1914-1946, Histoire,
économie et société. (23-2) 2004 (In French)
R. Williams, Russia Imagined: Art, Culture, and National Identity, 1840–1995. (N.Y.,
1997).
Решение национального вопроса
в Советской России в 1920-е гг.
в восприятии русской эмиграции
А.В. Урядова
Ярославский государственный университет
им. П.Г. Демидова
Россия 150000, Ярославль, Советская, 14
Статья рассматривает отношение русской эмиграции к решению национального вопроса в
Советской России. Рассматривается реакция эмиграции на создание СССР и вхождение в него
отдельных территорий.
Эта проблема распадается на две составляющие – восприятие советской национальной
политики в целом и в отношении отдельных народов и территорий. В данной работе основное
внимание уделено первой части данной проблемы.
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В статье выявляются различия во взглядах русского зарубежья по этой проблеме, противоречия
в ее среде и их причины. Статья раскрывает взгляды представителей эмиграции: политиков,
юристов, философов. Позиции русскоязычной зарубежной прессы также представлены в
данной работе.
При этом, однако, эмиграция представлена не как совокупность людей и организаций, а как
особый уникальный социум, действующий в определенных условиях и по определенным законам
развития. Поэтому даже при наличии противоречий по конкретным вопросам, связанным с
национальной политикой, выявляются ключевые моменты ее апперцепции русской эмиграцией,
анализируются их причины и истоки.
В работе рассматривается именно русская эмиграция, национальная эмиграция не
затрагивается. Причиной этого является то, что, во-первых, это отдельная большая тема
исследования (в связи с широким национальным составом эмиграции), во-вторых, проблемы
отдельных народов не вошли в данную статью, а именно им национальная эмиграция уделяла
основное внимание.
Материалы, приведенные в работе, позволяют сделать выводы о влиянии на апперцепцию
эмиграции частных и общих причин решения национального вопроса в РСФСР и СССР. Среди
частных можно назвать личные, партийные мотивы, среди общих – увязывание национальной
ситуации в РСФСР с прошлым (императорской Россией и Россией периода Временного
правительства) и с возможным будущим (после свержения большевизма).
Ключевые слова: национальный вопрос, русская эмиграция, советская история, 1920-е гг.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2011 4) 501-511
~~~
УДК 323 (410)
From the History of the 2005 British General Elections:
The Application of Political Marketing
in New Labour’s PR Campaign During
the 2005 General Elections in the UK
Rimma R. Valeeva*
Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University,
18 Kremlevskaya st., Kazan, 420008 Russia 1
Received 4.04.2011, received in revised form 11.04.2011, accepted 18.04.2011
This article mainly concentrated on the evaluation of the use of political marketing tools in New Labour’s
PR campaign,their efficiency and historical development of the party under T.Blair in 1997-2005. It
could be of interest for Russian academics, historians, PR and political marketing specialists, and
some of the tools and strategies might be considered and applied in Russian political campaigning.
Keywords: Great Britain, 2005 General Election, historic development of Labour Party under T.Blair,
G.Brown, political marketing.
Introduction
The popularity of British Prime-minister
G.Brown was one of the lowest in the history of
the Labour Party. In May 2010 the Conservative
Party leader D.Cameron became the head of the
UK. In the light of the British General Elections
held in May 2010, it was interesting to examine
how the previous elections were won by the
Labour and if there was any possibility for the
party to win the next elections. The article will
focus on the political marketing tools used in New
Labour’s PR campaign during the 2005 General
Elections in the UK.
Nowadays political marketing has
been widely applied in different aspects of
political life. Voters face a great number of
political products on the political market. To
*
1
be able to attract voters and to win elections,
parties may apply various political marketing
tools. The application of a marketing mix is
essential in the successful performance of a
party in the political environment in general
and particularly during an electoral campaign.
The ability of a party to apply the marketing
concept and to adapt to and satisfy voters’
needs is also important in electoral success
(O’Cass, 1996).
The term ‘Political marketing’ implies
the application of marketing tools to political
processes (Maarek, 1995). It helps to improve
the efficiency and quality of communication
between voters and the parties (Harrop, 1990).
Market research allows politicians to base their
campaign strategy on the sound information
Corresponding author E-mail address: kamilla_vr@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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of the electorate’s needs and desires. An
integrated marketing communication strategy,
which implies advertisements, PR and the
like, focuses the attention of the electorate on
the most essential information and, thus, helps
comprehension (Ibid.).
Harrop (1990) suggests for the evaluation
of party performances dividing marketing
into two dimensions: strategy, ‘which involves
providing things people want’ and promotion,
‘which is selling the things you have decided to
provide’ (1990: 277). Strategy is fundamental for
a party’s successful performance. Harrop (1990)
maintains that ‘the purpose of strategy is to take
the party into a campaign with a level of support
which can then be defended [...] through effective
promotion during the campaign itself’ (1990:
288). New Labour’s strategy during the 2005
General Election was to refresh its brand in order
to be re-elected. Promotion is a ‘more specific
and technical task’ which counters the strategy
and covers ‘whether, where and how a party
positions itself in the electoral market (Harrop,
1990: 277). Dean and Croft (2001) maintain
that Blair’s electoral successes can be explained
as ‘the apotheosis of a PR-led party’ (2001:
1206). McNair defines political communication
as ‘purposeful communication about politics’
(McNair, 1995: 4).
Methodology and approach
The analysis of the use of political marketing
techniques in New Labour’s public relations
campaign during the 2005 General Elections
is not yet widely covered by academics. The
sources reviewed in this essay can be divided into
three categories: political marketing, political
public relations and New Labour’s 2005 General
Election campaign.
Various authors have pointed to the use of
marketing tools for political purposes or their
relevance to governmental communications.
Maarek (1995) deals with the general functional
framework of political marketing and its tools,
such as the classic instruments as well as audiovisual methods of communication and direct
marketing tools. He also details the particular
aspects of political marketing in election
campaigns. Harrop (1990) explains how
marketing perspectives can help to improve
party performance, which marketing tools
ought to be taken into consideration in politics
and the differences in marketing strategies of
various political organisations during the preelection period, during an election campaign
and in day-to-day political life. Reid examines
the different stages of a political marketing
strategy. He stipulates that a successful
strategy should be determined by knowledge
of consumer behaviour. O’Cass (1996)
discusses the importance of the application of
the marketing concept to political processes.
Harris and Lock (1996) analyse the application
of political marketing in British politics. They
believe that political brand image is essential for
party’s competitiveness and performance. The
authors maintain that the vast majority of voters
make their choice on the basis of an ‘overall
political package’ (Harris and Lock, 1996: 24).
They, therefore, suggest that a considerable
amount of effort should be focused on the work
of the brand. Dean and Croft (2001) propose a
model of political marketing based on the ‘Six
Markets Model’ of relationship marketing and
the adaptation of the latter to the British political
system. They examine different strategies
applied in each market. Especially they stress
the importance of internal markets for the
whole PR-strategy of a campaign. ‘Careful
management of internal markets prioritises
the links between departments and ensures the
organisation has one coherent set of strategic
objectives to address’(Dean and Croft, 2001:
1205). Lewis-Beck (2006) suggests the direct
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influence of economic perceptions on voter’s
partisanship.
The second category is that of public
relations literature. This group includes books
on public relations and techniques. A scan of the
literature suggests that the most relevant book in
this category was McNair’s ‘An Introduction to
Political Communication’. McNair (1995) explains
the importance of different types of political
communication. This essay concentrates mainly
on the chapter about political PR. The author
examines four types of activities within political
public relations, the importance of each of them
and their influence on parties’ performances
during election campaigns. Further books have
not been very valuable in this essay but they
may be indespensable as books of reference and
may be used in further research. Somerville
(2004) explores the intersection of politics, public
relations and the media. Wood (2004) stresses
the importance of corporate communication and
identity in the construction of the party’s PR
campaign during an election.
The third category comprises literature
related to the General Election of 2005. Kavanagh
and Butler’s (2005) ‘The British General Election
of 2005’ is an invaluable book of reference. It is
the seventeenth book in the highly respected series
of British general election studies. Kavanagh and
Butler (2005) analyse new strategies and methods
of communication which made the 2005 Election
different from its predecessors. The methods
with the help of which New Labour secured a
third term, their campaign, its handling in the
media are examined as well as the new focus on
a more intense struggle in the target seats. Dean
(2005) focuses upon the usage of fear in the 2005
General Election Campaign. This work helped to
highlight one of the aspects of New Labour’s PR
strategy and the political marketing tools used in
it. Sanders, Clarke, Stewart and Whiteley (2007)
point to the use of in-person and Internet data by
Labour Party campaign planners for the estimation
of voters’ turnout and party choice. However,
they assume that “few statistically significant
differences” can be found “between coefficients
generated using the in-person and Internet data”
(Sanders, Clarke, Stewart and Whiteley, 2007:
257). Green and Hobolt (2008) stress out how
spatial model combined with “issue ownership”
approach was applied in the 2005 British General
Elections. They suggest that these elections fully
revealed that competence considerations had
started to outweigh ideological positions of a
party.
The main methods applied in the article
were content and event analysis. New Labour’s
election manifestos, speeches of the management
of the party and the principle events held and
organized as parts of the electoral campaign
were examined. For the allocation of each aspect
of New Labour’s electoral campaign, their
examination and evaluation deductive reasoning
approach was applied.
Historic background
of New Labour’s chances for victory
in 2005 General Elections
The 2005 election campaign for New
Labour differed from the previous two. In 1997
New Labour had been a new fresh brand on
the British political market not biased with Old
Labour’s negative past. Their product – political
programme – had been very attractive. They
had linked traditional Labour’s ideas of a social
welfare state with the New Right’s ideas of free
market, private iniative and neo-liberal economy
(Seldon and Kavanagh, 2005). A member of Tony
Blair’s team commented that in 1997 Labour had
won a mandate for two terms (Ibid.). According
to Kavanagh and Butler (2005), in 2001 New
Labour was in a ‘historically unique position’ as
they had won second consecutive full term and
‘had every prospect of a third’ (2005: 17).
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Nevertheless, the policies of the 1997
and, especially, the 2001 Government changed
people’s attitude towards New Labour. Blair who
“felt instinctively European” and the beginning
of whose premiership aimed at “embedding
Britain in the European Union” seemed to have
changed priorities (Naughtie, 2004: xiii). In his
speech in December 15, 1998 Blair changed
his tone and argued that Britain did not have to
choose between its commitment to Europe or
the US. He claimed that “Britain did not have
to choose between maintaining strong ties with
the US, or strong ties with Europe”. He believed
that “we are stronger with the US because of
our strength in Europe” and “we are stronger
in Europe because of our strength with the US”
(Blair, 1998). Simon Bulmer in his work about
the Blair Government’s European policy argues
that Britain could not sustain its role as a bridge
between Europe and America: “It had to take
sides and chose that of President Bush” (Bulmer,
2005). British foreign policy attached to the US
direction even stronger with the 9/11 attacks.
Bush announced a new Doctrine of pre-emptive
strikes and proclaimed “the War on Terror”, to
which Blair expressed his support: “Now we
have to act on the basis of precaution. What is
more such action will often require intervention
far beyond our own boundaries” (Blair, 2006).
Standing ‘shoulder-to-shoulder’ with the US
administration in Afghanistan in 2001 cost Blair
the loss of many lives and support of British
people. Despite the unpopularity of his actions
at home, Blair gave Bush his support on Iraq in
2003.
The protests in London in March 2003
showed the strength of people’s discontent. The
war in Iraq led to the division of the parliamentary
faction of Labour and the resignation of the
Foreign Secretary Robin Cook. Before the 2005
General Election, Blair, referred to as “Bush’s
poodle”, risked not being re-elected because “the
majority of Britons didn’t want him to be reelected” (Carlile, 2004). It is generally accepted
that Blair’s original modernisation project aimed
at the reconciliation of domestic choices with
foreign policy. However, the 7th of July London
bombings in 2005 indicated that this policy had
not worked. Blair’s foreign policy choices were
damaging not only for the international reputation
of the UK, but also for British society as a whole.
Moreover, following his American ‘brother’
hindered Blair’s efforts on the restoration of
Britain’s role in Europe.
9/11 and consecutive wars in Afghanistan
and Iraq, the loss of many British people’s lives,
Blair’s declining popularity, enormous spending
on the maintenance of the British contingent in
these countries and the large numbers of soldiers’
deaths each year, contradictions between Tony
Blair and Gordon Brown and, as Kavanagh and
Butler (2005) put it, ’24-hour media’ and ‘boredom
factor’ – all these may have led to the diminution
of Blair’s political capital, the Government’s
support and the decline in popularity of New
Labour and, therefore, to the loss of votes. Before
the Iraq war Labour had had a lead in the opinion
polls whereas after the war research shows that
its support fell by some 3-4 per cent (Kavanagh
and Butler, 2005). A member of Number 10’s
staff claimed that the two terms’ mandate that
New Labour had won in 1997 had then run out
and they were trying to renew it (Ibid.).
New Labour’s marketing research
and campaign strategy
The idea of a near-term campaign borrowed
from the USA was used in 2005 as well as in
previous campaigns since 1992 (Ibid.). According
to this strategy, before a campaign starts, a party
launches new policies and mounts advertising
and PR initiatives, hoping to set the news
agenda. During the first three month of 2005
Labour announced plans to help first-time house
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buyers and to increase paid maternity leave to
nine months (Ibid.). It also launched strong PR
campaigns to back up its policies and to attract
more voters.
In 2005, New Labour strongly needed to
change its campaign strategy. Party’s campaign
strategists argued that the top-down permanent
campaigns, used in 1997 and 2001, would not
work in 2005 campaign (Ibid.). Before starting
the campaign New Labour needed to make a party
analysis and find out their strong and weak points
to be able to use this information beneficially in
the campaign. The attitude towards the political
party and its candidates should have been
identified. Opinion polls showed that even though
voters were ‘often satisfied consumers, but when
it came to politics they felt impotent and ignored’
(Kavanagh and Butler, 2005: 18). The negative
impact of salient issues to voters, such as Iraq,
was rather strong. The results of the marketing
research led to the understanding of the necessity
of change in the approach to the public. Therefore,
political parties had to move from interruption
to permission marketing (Kavanagh and Butler,
2005).
Moreover, owing to Labour’s reputation for
spin and revelations about the ‘faulty intelligence’
on Iraq’s WMD the New Labour brand ‘had
become “contaminated” and voters thought
Blair all show and no substance’ (Kavanagh and
Butler, 2005: 18). There was a necessity in the
change of PR strategy. In 2003 Blair announced
a fresh ‘openness’(Kavanagh and Butler, 2005).
As a part of it he held regular ‘on the record’
press conferences and took questions from the
Liason Committee of the House of Commons
(Ibid.).
Having identified the public’s attitudes and
the necessity of transformation of their approach
to voters, New Labour switched to the analysis
of their competitors. According to Kavanagh and
Butler, the opposition remained ‘unimpressive’
and surveys showed that about the third of those
dissatisfied with the Labour Government would
still vote for Labour (Ibid.). However, public and
private polls reported that the Conservatives’
supporters were more likely than Labour’s to turn
out (Ibid.).
When it came to constituencies, PR
professionals advised the party on targeting
key seats the party had to hold if it was to win
a considerable majority in the General Election
(Ibid.). In order to fulfil this aim, new methods
of local campaigning were introduced. More
use of direct mail and email were employed.
MPs were promoted as ‘champions of the
constituency’ (Kavanagh and Butler, 2005: 19).
New professionals were employed to conduct the
national campaign and to help at the local level.
Allocation of resources to key seats and targeting
messages in their key constituencies were new
methods in Labour’s campaigning (Kavanagh
and Butler, 2005). During the campaign itself
most of the Blair’s time was taken up by local
press and broadcast interviews and staged photo
opportunities (Ibid.). E-campaign was aimed at
boosting electoral support on the local as well as
the national levels.
Market segmentation, such as targeting a
particular group of voters in certain constituencies,
was an effective political marketing tool. Another
example of market segmentation may be the
targeting of party members. New Labour needed
to target not only their loyal voters, disillussioned
supporters and disengaged voters but also to
motivate party people. In November 2003 the
party launched the ‘Big Conversation’ aimed
at promoting informal discussions between
ministers and party members.
Marketing research comprised surveys in
marginal seats and national polls. Half of opinion
polls were conducted through cheaper internetbased surveys which led to the increase in the
scale of polling compared to 2001 (Ibid.).
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The renewal of ‘New Labour’ brand
and party image
A key element in Labour’s campaign layed in
the prominence given to the renewal of their brand
and to the relationship between Brown and Blair.
Harris and Lock (1996) stress the importance of
political brand image. It is very important to close
the gap between the presented and perceived
brand. Negative campaigning of competitors can
use this difference and play very well on it. The
perception of New Labour’s brand was different
from what they tried to portray. They needed to
present New Labour united but the contradictions
between Brown and Blair were very serious
and could hinder the party’s performance in
the elections. Nevertheless, Number 10 and 11
reached an agreement to present together in the
campaign. That was a part of the party’s PR
strategy to portray Labour as a team, to make
its brand stronger and attractive to voters. That
was a good strategic step that helped Labour to
stand out from their competitors, especially the
Conservatives who were seen as ‘divided and oldfashioned’ (Kavanagh and Butler, 2005: 57). The
image of Blair as a family man was promoted as a
part of the brand strengthening strategy.
Corporate identity is essential for the
party’s performance in general and during
an election campaign in particular. This term
refers to ‘the combination of ways in which an
organisation’s personality is expressed’ (Wood
(b), 2004). Labour’s logos were considered to be
well conveyed and rather effective (Kavanagh
and Butler, 2005). In February 2005 Labour
unveiled its election slogan: ‘Britain Forward Not
Back’, meaning that despite some failures in its
policies, New Labour still considerably improved
different aspects of people’s lives and voting the
Conservatives would mean a huge step backwards
and especially in the social State. Mid-campaign
the slogan was changed to ‘If You Value It,
Vote For It’ which aimed at bolstering Labour’s
achievements in health and education (Ibid.). The
poster ‘Vote Labour On Thursday Or Wake Up
With Michael Howard’ also stressed that it may
be advantageous for voters to stay with Labour.
A considerable PR campaign in the press around
this poster was launched stressing the dangers of
the Conservatives’ return in case of abstention.
The turnout of 61 %, which was slightly up than
on 2001, showed that this campaign may have
been successful and attracted the attention of
some apathetic voters (Ibid.).
Harrop (1990) believes that ‘A “state of the
art” campaign still requires a rare combination
of circumstances: a sympathetic leader, able
lieutenants, a united team and a good dose of fear
(1990: 286-287). PR and marketing professionals
worked hard to improve the leader’s image, to
portray a party as a united team. Now they needed
‘a good dose of fear’. Labour speakers warned that
‘if one in ten don’t vote’ the Conservatives could
come back. They suggested that the Conservatives
would be a threat to voters’ essential desires and
needs. This phrase was also employed in an
attempt to encourage more people to vote. Dean
(2005) maintains that New Labour’s PR strategy
focused on positioning Blair as a strong leader,
being able to ‘provide protection’ against such
threats as immigration and terror. Nevertheless,
it is worth noticing that compared to other major
parties, the use of negative campaigning by New
Labour may have been less.
The promotion of New Labour’s
political program
In the party’s marketing program product
positioning plays an essential role. The party
platform, its past record, policies, personal
characteristics and the image of the party should
be taken into consideration (Niffenegger, 1989).
According to Harrop (1990), parties seek to
convince audiences not only of ‘their ability to
deliver a quality service but also of their capacity
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to maintain that quality over time’ (1990: 279).
On the 13 of April 2005 Labour launched its new
product – the new manifesto. New Labour tried
to set an agenda especially around sound steps in
improving the education and healthcare systems
(Manifesto, 2005). Alan Milburn made a series of
speeches promoting a third-term ‘for increasing
choice for consumers and diversity of providers,
all to promote social mobility’ (Kavanagh and
Butler, 2005: 55). The launch of the new product
was accompanied by a number of marketing
activities. First of all, the place for the promotion
was chosen very carefully.The event took place in
the spectacular Mermaid Theatre. The promotion
was thoroughly prepared and advertised. The
whole Cabinet was assembled at the back of the
stage behind Blair and his, at that time presumed,
successor, Brown. A number of soundbites were
used to emphasise the quality of the proposed
product. The manifesto promised to ‘personalise
public services’, to help ‘hard-working families’,
to maintain economic stability and to ‘entrench’
the similar to 1945 consensus (Manifesto, 2005).
A central element of the campaign for reelection was the economy (Kavanagh and Butler,
2005). Research showed that this topic was a key
dividing line between the parties and a major
advantage for Labour over the Conservatives
(Green and Hobolt, 2008) and, as Kavanagh and
Butler (2005) put it, particularly attractive to
the party’s target voters. Labour’s message was
focused on its record of economic success and
stability and the Conservative threats of economic
instability and public service investment cuts
(Ibid.). Given the fact that since 1997 New
Labour’s economic policy had correlated with
traditionally Conservative approach, the only
way to differentiate and win was to show greater
competence in the area. As far as New Labour
proved to be highly competent in the most
salient issue for British voters, in spite of their
traditional policy focuses, such as education
and health, this was one of the most significant
contributions to their victory. According to
Green and Hobolt (2008), this fact also shows
that not only competence considerations are
more important than ideological position, but
also “increasing the salience” of certain issues
“brings a commensurate vote gain” (Green and
Hobolt, 2008: 473).
Baring in mind the electorate’s complaints
that the war in Iraq led to Blair losing interest
in lay people’s concerns, especially on the NHS,
education and the standard of living, he decided
to apologise for the the faulty intelligence about
WMD. This was a good PR step. However, his
apology sounded less contrite than the media
expected (Kavanagh and Butler, 2005).
Approach towards target audience
and media management
Wood (2004a) argues that New Labour
advocated the Stakeholder approach. Stakeholders
typically include customers such as voters,
members of the local community, employees –
members of the party, suppliers – various
sponsors of the party. The Stakeholder approach
implies research into identifying the main
stakeholder groups of the party, their needs and
values and the strategy of satisfying them (Wood,
2004a). New Labour also used the ‘Six Markets
Model’ in identifying their key target groups and
their essential needs and wants (Dean and Croft,
2001). In 2005 New Labour needed to target not
only their loyal, but also swing, disengaged and
disillusioned voters using the combination of
cognitive and affective approaches. However, it is
worth noticing that Labour’s campaign strategist
targeted the emotional consumer/voter, as in
aforementioned logos and posters, than rational.
Direct marketing techniques were widely used to
appeal to the voter market. New Labour worked
closely with local communities. An important
part of every PR campaign implies internal
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communications. A separate programme was
aimed at working directly with party members
trying ‘to give more party people a sense of
ownership of what we are doing’ (Kavanagh
and Butler, 2005: 19). The four ‘uncontrollable’
markets were also adressed. Labour PR team
tried to maintain dialogue with business and
trade unions, pressure groups, peer groups and
civil servants directly and using Media channels
to send messages to them.
Media management and information
management, however, had a number of
deficiencies. There was a lack of coordination
between the national and local levels of their
campaign. There was also an absence of a stable
opinion on the important issues of their agenda.
Contradictions between Blair and Brown in
the begining of the campaign almost led to the
creation of two separate campaigns and the
absence of one strong strategy. The political
marketing tools were not sufficiently employed
in these two areas, which may have led to their
unseccessful execution.
A survey from the party’s supporters showed
that lapsed Labour voters were predominantly
middle aged and working class and were twice
as likely to read the Daily Mail as party voters.
Therefore, New Labour’s media choices needed
to address this group of voters through the Daily
Mail as well as the Sun and the Mirror. Blair
achieved the support of The Sun and the Mirror.
However, the Daily Mail was more sceptic and
criticised Blair (Kavanagh and Butler, 2005).
The result of the Election showed that the use
of political marketing tools in New Labour’s PR
campaign may have borne its fruits. Labour had
won a comfortable majority of 66 seats whilst only
35.2 % of the vote, the lowest support they had
had since 1997. It may have been the evidence of
not only the deficiencies in policies but also in PR
strategy and insufficient use of political marketing
tools which if used responsibly and correctly may
lead to more awareness and involvement in the
democratic political process.
Practical implications
and conclusion
New Labour employed quite a few political
marketing tools during the 2005 Election
campaign. Party analysis and research on its
positioning on the political market played an
important role in New Labour’s PR campaign
elaboration. Marketing research was widely
used to identify voters’ attitudes towards certain
issues and to check the potential effects of new
policy directions. Quantitave research, such as
polls, surveys and attitudinal studies were used
to monitor potential voter’s attitudes and the
change in attitudes towards party’s policies and
their potential choice. Qualitative method, such
as focus group discussions, were aimed at raising
participation, engagement and awareness of party
members themselves.
Market research helped to elaborate effective
PR-strategy. New Labour identified the important
segments of the political market and tried to
target them using appropriate techniques. The
application of the marketing concept, stakeholder
approach and ‘Six Markets Model’ was useful in
identifying the key target groups, their desires
and wants and elaborating strategies for each
of them. Direct marketing techniques were
employed to appeal to the voter market. Different
conferences and ‘Big Conversation’ programme
tried to address internal markets, especially
party members, increase their awareness of
the importance of party policies and activities
engaging them in these activities.
Traditional PR methods such as press
conferences, speeches, interviews, exclusives with
newspapers, especially the Daily Mirror, the Sun
and the Mirror (for as marketing research found
considerable part of New Labour’s target voters
red those newspapers) were widely employed.
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They were followed by poster launches. Labour’s
posters used in the 2005 Campaign may be
evaluated as rather powerful and effective.
A central role was given to the improvement
of the party’s brand image. New methods of
local campaigning were introduced and a large
E-campaign was held. A fear factor was present in
the campaign. Political marketing was employed
in different aspects of campaign management, in
agenda setting, in issues and news management.
Overall, the use of political marketing
tools in New Labour’s PR-campaign was
successful. Nevertheless, the use of political
marketing tools in such aspects as media and
information management could have been better
worked on. Despite voters’ dissatisfaction with
the Government and Blair, in the situation of
consumer choice of which political party should
be in government, Labour has won decisively in
2005.
Some of the above mentioned techniques
may be wider used in Russian campaign planning
and its development, especially quantitative
and qualitative research methods, ‘Six Markets
Model’ in order to attract more target groups and
elaborate subtle and effective campaign for each
cluster.
Given all the failures, given all the failures
in British policies under Gordon Brown in
2007-2010 and the drastic drop in popularity of
the leader as well as the whole party, even the
best and most sophisticated political marketing
tools could not have been sufficient for Labour
to be able to win the 2010 General Elections.
According to pre-election polls, Conservative
party was more likely to come to power in May
2010. Therefore, Labour would have won only
if it had undertaken breaking through policy
initiatives necessary for and popular among the
population, especially on taxes and public policy,
promoted them on a very high quality level and
convinced British people that Labour should have
had opportunity to prove that they were efficient
and could be trusted again.
References
A. Blair, (1998), ‘Britain’s role in the EU and the transatlantic alliance’, speech, one hundred and
fiftieth anniversary of the Associated Press, London, 15 December
A. Blair, (2006), ‘A Global Alliance for Global Values’, speech, 14 September, http://fpc.org.uk/
fsblob/798.pdf (accessed on 29 October 2006)
S. Bulmer, (2005), ‘Constructed Abroad But Not Yet Constructed At Home: The Blair Government’s
European Policy’, pdf file http://www.cerium.ca/IMG/doc/SimonBulmer-2.doc (accessed on 23
November 2006)
J. Carlile, (2004), ‘Blair seeks dividends for U.S. alliance’ NBC news, 11 November, http://www.
msnbc.msn.com/id/6453401 (accessed on 29 October 2006)
D. Dean, (2005), ‘Fear, negative campaigning and loathing: the case of the UK Election Campaign’,
Journal of Marketing Management, 21: pp.1067-1078
D. Dean & R. Croft, (2001), ‘Friends and relations: long term approaches to political campaigning’,
European Journal of Marketing, 35, 11/12: pp.1197-1216
J. Green & S.B. Hobolt, (2008), ‘Owning the issue agenda: Party strategies and vote choices in
British elections’, Electoral Studies, Vol.27 No 3: pp.460-476
P. Harris and A. Lock, (1996), ‘Political Marketing – Vive la Difference’, European Journal of
Marketing, Vol 30, (1), pp. 21-33
M. Harrop, (1990), ‘Political marketing’, Parliamentary Affairs, Vol.43 No. 3, pp. 277-292
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D. Kavanagh and D. Butler, (2005), The British General Election of 2005, Basingstoke, Palgrave
Macmillan
P.J. Maarek, (1995), Political Marketing and Communication, London, J.Libbey and Co Ltd
Manifesto, (2005), Britain Forward Not Back: the Labour Party Manifesto, London, Labour
Party
B. McNair, (1995), An Introduction to Political Communication, London, J.Libbey and Co Ltd
M.S. Lewis-Beck, (2006), ‘Does Economics Still Matter? Econometrics and the Vote’, The
Journal of Politics, 68: pp 208-212
J. Naughtie, (2004), The Accidental American. Tony Blair and the Presidency, London,
Macmillan
P. Niffenegger, (1989), Strategies for success from the political marketers’, The Journal of
Consumer Marketing, Vol.6 No 1, pp.45-51
O’Cass, (1996), ‘Political Marketing and the Marketing Concept’, European Journal of Marketing,
Vol 30, (1), pp. 21-33
H.D. Clarke, D. Sanders, M.C. Stewart & P. Whiteley, (2007), ‘Does Mode Matter For Modeling
Political Choice? Evidence From the 2005 British Election Study’, Political Analysis, 15: pp.257 –
285.
D. Reid, (1988), ‘Marketing the political product’, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 22 No.9,
pp. 34-47
A. Seldon and D. Kavanagh, (2005) The Blair Effect 2001-2005. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press
I. Somerville, (2004), ‘Public relations, politics and the media’, in Theaker, A. (ed.), The Public
Relations Handbook, London, Routledge, pp.32-47
E. Wood, (a) (2004), ‘Corporate communication’, in Theaker, A. (ed.), The Public Relations
Handbook, London, Routledge, pp.83-94
E. Wood, (b) (2004), ‘Corporate identity’, in Theaker, A. (ed.), The Public Relations Handbook,
London, Routledge, pp.95-115
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Из истории Всеобщих парламентских выборов
в Великобритании в 2005 г.:
Применение инструментов
политического маркетинга
в PR-кампании Лейбористской партии
на Всеобщих выборах 2005 г.
Р.Р. Валеева
Казанский (Приволжский)
Федеральный университет
Россия 420008, Казань, ул. Кремлевская, 18
В статье анализировалось применение инструментов политического маркетинга в PRкампании Лейбористкой партии на Всеобщих выборах 2005 г. и их эффективность, а также
историческое развитие самой партии при Т.Блэре в 1997-2005 гг. Статья может быть
интересна ученым, историкам, специалистам в области PR и политического маркетинга.
Результаты исследования, инструменты и стратегии, применявшиеся в кампании лейбористов,
могут быть рассмотрены и применены в российских политических кампаниях.
Ключевые слова: Великобритания, Всеобщие выборы 2005, историческое развитие
Лейбористской партии при Т.Блэре, Г.Браун, политический маркетинг.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2011 4) 512-520
~~~
УДК 18
An Aesthetic Experience
and Kulture of a Person
Yelena M. Kurolenko*
Siberian Federal University
26 Kirenskogo, Krasnoyarsk, 660074 Russia 1
Received 4.04.2011, received in revised form 11.04.2011, accepted 18.04.2011
An aesthetic experience consists of bright, emotional, and sensually expressive perceptions
accompanied by experiences and their expressions. These expressive forms and sides of subjects
and the phenomena of reality are accompanied by bright images, experiences and are shown in
appearance, psychophysics and motility of an individual, in his aesthetic consciousness and behavior.
A person’s experience undergo processing, changes, generalizations, shift, hypertrophy or reduction
of features and details, depending on personal tastes and preferences, age, person’s vital aesthetic
experience and a physical condition.
The features of an aesthetic experience characteristic are dynamics and its ability to be easily
recalled in memory and in a sensual aesthetic and art conscience. Person gains his own aesthetic,
cultural and artistic experience, that is received and interpreted individually. It can be realized,
classified and analyzed, becoming a base for the further cultural person model cultivation. An
aesthetic person’s experience becomes a basis for the man further general development. Aesthetic
culture can be characterized as an ability to feel one’s world connectivity, to factually experience,
to express the fullness, profundity and verity of these relations. Aesthetic culture is the measure of
human quality and ability integration creating the character base.
Keywords: Experience characteristic. Aesthetic consciousness. Components of aesthetic experience.
Object-related essence. Aesthetic culture phenomenon.
Introduction
Life experience of a person includes various
ways and models of its accumulation, different
channels of receipt, the value dominants
differentiating not only the sensual character
specificity of concrete experience images,
but also the factors of personality significant
selectivity. Selection on the basis of a semantic
personality context (the previous experience
and its estimation, condition, person ‘s culture
and motivational orientations) appears to be
*
1
defi ning in the aesthetic experience value
comprehension.
In a wide sense, all accumulations of a diverse
person’s activity are presented in the experience.
They fill up memory stocks and are distributed
in the memory with the certain marking of the
near and remote personality semantic contexts.
The most significant, important and valuable
information of the person’s subjective world is
available only for the person. These relations are
expressed in various forms: from the involuntary,
Corresponding author E-mail address: kem58@bk.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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or acquired movements and gestures, bright
emotions to statements, estimations, judgments
and developed thoughts.
Creating the internal creativity environment
in the context of a perceived information, an
aesthetic person’s experience becomes a basis for
the further general development. The aesthetic
imagination enriches, defines, organizes and
realizes a sensual-emotional life experience and
the cultural one in a person’s activity. On the basis
of this informative processes and mechanisms
develop, favoring the learning process and
development of a personality semantic, intelligent
way of knowledge assimilation, effective for a
long period of time.
The ontological approach defines the
following positions of experience characteristics:
a matter of any experience of a subject and subject
forms as the objective side of the outer world
knowledge. In this context it is possible to single
out the following components of experience:
1. External (generic) experience. It is
situational-objective,
sensory
perceived
properties, characteristics, original generic
and individual, material (physical) properties,
features, acoustically fixed at the level of
sensations, perceptions, conceptions.
2. Internal (subject) experience. It is
sensations, perceptions and conceptions, received
earlier through the experience or in imagination,
which have both universal and individual (based
on psycho physiological connections) features.
An aesthetic experience consists of bright,
emotional, and sensually expressive perceptions
accompanied by experiences and their expressions.
These expressive forms and sides of subjects
and the phenomena of reality are accompanied
by bright images, experiences and are shown
in appearance, psychophysics and motility of
an individual, in his aesthetic consciousness
and behavior. The basic “mental substance”,
circulating in this process, is a complex subject-
objective figurativeness – aesthetically accented
images of sensations, perceptions, conceptions,
experiences and imaginations.
As a matter of fact, an aesthetic experience is
everything that occurs in a cultural life of a person
and affects his feelings, aesthetic consciousness
and predilections. These external impressions,
processed in the inner world of a person, keep
the live force of experiences and at the same time
receive durable existence and the ability to raise
new creative interpretations, due to the original
semantic character. Being preserved in memory
traces of figurative experience are always needed
in various vital and cultural situations and make
up the rich association chains. Thus, the internal
experience of a spiritual life becomes a significant
value for a person.
Point
Philosophical
encyclopedias
and
dictionaries consider the term “experience”
as a practice-based, sensual-empirical reality
knowledge. Russian encyclopaedist Dal
connects the person’s experience with his
proficiency, tests and attempts. He singles out
such qualities of experience as availability
of feelings, materiality, comprehension of
new, person’s inquisitiveness to everything
around him. In pedagogics there is a specific
defi nition of teaching experience as a set of
practical knowledge, abilities and professional
skill. Russian psychologists believe, that
a person’s experience includes such an
important component as an experience of
other people comprehension. (Ananev, Teplov,
Asmolov, Stankevich, Polyakova, Pogorelov,
Rachmatullina, Kosolapova, Kvasova et al).
Cognition of a person is an essence of a
vital activity. In this aspect the human culture
(art) is regarded as a concentrated expression.
People probably learn themselves “from inside”.
A man can understand himself as a personality
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only when he compares himself with the others
through the penetration and empathy. In this
case an art became a source of supervision and
communication for a person. Each piece of art
(in a unique figurative style and talented form)
speaks about the people’s outer life reflections
and their perusal and interpretation experience.
The Russian scientists Kagan, Buber, Sheper,
Bakhtin, Kuznetsova, Kalita, Konnikova,
Nevirko and many others develop the similar
ideas. The cultural-aesthetic experience of a
developing personality becomes a key not only
for the culture and art knowledge, but also to
the comprehension of a spiritual life and selfdevelopment. These points of view were reflected
in many works by modern foreign scientists
Duncum, Steenberg, Verene, Welsch, Cooper,
John, Brady,Green at al.
The concept “experience of a person”
should be regarded from the point of view of such
sciences as philosophy, aesthetics, psychology,
physiology, pedagogics, and arts. An aesthetic and
cultural model became a fundamental position
in researches of the theoretical and empirical
problems, for example aesthetic education and
formation (Kargapoltsev,1999).
According to the objective content an
aesthetic experience of a person is distributed
in a subject differentiation: in the impressions
of the natural and subject environment, of
people, according to their original aesthetic look
and manifestation (especially in terms of the
psychomotor, expressive character), of their clothes
and aesthetic individual habitat, of their aesthetic
estimations, tastes, assessments concerning some
art events, cultural phenomena and works of art.
The subjective matter of an aesthetic experience
concerns an introspection, a person’s reflection, an
internal spiritual life (from the aesthetic point of
view), in the reference to a person himself as well
as to the other personalities, individualities, that
are aesthetically developed and highly spiritual,
or, on the contrary, aesthetically uncivilized and
spiritually poor. The objective-subject aspect of
an integrated substance of an aesthetic experience
clears up the person’s attitude to aesthetic and art
objects, i.e. to the variety of transformations from
object-subject to subject-object relations (empathy
experience, creative animation). The cultural
experience is acquired here. Therefore the images
of the absolute objects of an aesthetic experience
are reconstructed from the external, objective
maintenance images into the images of internal
psychological, cultural, aesthetic environment.
They gain the psychomotor, expressive-semantic
features of anthropomorphic, i.e. personal
figurative series.
The aesthetic consciousness also performs
the main comprehension function of information
flow. It is an anthropomorphism, i.e. a way of the
most important personal selection. It happens
when the so-called “strange” images transform
into the “well-known” ones. The aesthetic
consciousness distinguishes ideal, standard,
canonical, abstract models and expressive, clear
expressions, that are convincing in their sensual
form and easily recognized. The first group of
phenomena demands the high level of art and
aesthetic consciousness as well as its reflexion.
The second group of the aesthetic and art
phenomena-images refer to the model of a “big
body”, “wide experience” as a universal, mass,
corporally-sensual and emotional consciousness
(Bakhtin, 2000).
Example
The structure of a person’s aesthetic
experience includes some blocks of activity
experience and impressions of the events
differentiated through the various channels –
sense organs:
- neutral or purely informative knowledge
and images-schemes (i.e. the schemes facilitated
by figurativeness);
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- realized, rational, personal-valuable,
significant, semantic, “live”, pulsing, emotionally
colored;
- imagined bright pictures, complexes,
individual
images-imaginations,
creative
situations;
- partly imagined or realized conceptions
on the basis of personal, aesthetic impressions,
as well as stereotype patterns (ordinary
impressions);
- creative thinking with its inspirations
and intuition;
- vague
images-imaginations
of
subconsciousness which are inconsistent and
contrast.
All these components of a person aesthetic
experience are accumulated during the people’s
life and creates a sensually-emotional, artaesthetic and creatively productive basis, a
figurative-emotional foundation, that defines
the material texture of the sensual-estimated
aesthetic consciousness development.
An aesthetic experience of a contact with
a subject is quite specific. In the aesthetic
experience occurs a phenomenon of a visual
contact, rather than an acoustic one, the contact
between objects and subjects. It happens when an
object “calls for” a person for a communication,
sensation and penetration. Russian scientist
Toporov connects the notion “to call for” with
person’s things (utensils). Not emphasizing
aesthetic qualities and shape, he singles out the
“genetic” correlations i.e. bonds of household
things connecting with the human world. For
example, a life of household things coincides
with a life of a certain individual: their relations
are intimate, colored by self-semantic intonation
(personal clothes, footwear, dwelling etc.),
where each subject has come to the person not
accidentally and has gone through his life not
only in general, but also in a specific way (Saito,
2007). It is shown in a thing through its original
image, functions, changes, its ageing and partial
revival after repair, etc.
Not emphasizing an aesthetic component
of the given relations, it is necessary to note,
however, the existence of the essential features of
shape and functioning of each person’s subject,
which coincide with their individual, aesthetically
“speaking” characteristic.(Bakhtin, 2000) An
aesthetic substance can act in the subject of a thing
as an expression of internal characteristics. Such
an experience of a perception and communication
with any object appears to be aesthetic for a
subject, though even subconsciously.
Really, addressing to things, a person
even unconsciously estimates their qualities,
correlating with the subjects, available in his
former experience. And then a person defines
through his sensations and internal “live” sense,
that he likes a thing, moreover, this thing is suitable
for him, satisfies the purposes and coincides and
corresponds to the previous subjects selection in
existing context. (Bakhtin, 2000) Here appears
an emotionally-aesthetic reaction (from the point
of view of beauty, convenience and benefit), the
response to the shape and qualities of a thing
as anesthetic subject. A design of any thing, an
elite or a mass one, has an aesthetical influence
on a person. This phenomenon always contains
the elements of something already known
and traditional and some new features, some
creative transformation of a subject as well. In
this sense, an aesthetic experience of perception,
communication and application of subjects
enriches and creates a creative vision and a
constructive thinking of a person. The previous
accumulated experience is not only vital, routine
and psychological, but it is also corporal, muscular
and tactual in particular, that allows to feel space,
its borders, the form of objects.
Everything, that is written down in vital
annals of a person’s spiritual and physical life is
constantly reproduced unconsciously, and very
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often accompanies the process of estimation of
every new object, analyzing of any situation,
similar to the one from the previous experience.
But it would be a mistaken idea to substitute this
aesthetic experience, the arising symptoms of
spiritual display for the activity of esthetic and
cultural consciousness of a person. These facts
show only the degree of the involvement into
an aesthetic situation, where a person not only
perceives and estimates a developed picture, a
subject, a phenomenon, but also acts as co-creator
and interpreter in the context of his aesthetic
consciousness and everyday, cultural and art
experience.
However, it is obvious, that it does not occur
automatically and constantly. The dominating
motives, requirements, interests of a person
play the role of the main (“starting”) mechanism
of actualization of some substantial, time and
contextually-situational experience. The level
of individual’s culture defines the spiritual,
material or mixed forms and shades and
prevailing components. All the things mentioned
above influence the systems of conditioned and
unconditioned reflexes on account of an individual
experience. Summing up, the complete selfsemantic sensual experience is available (though
partly) for the internal work of a person, for the
forming of a picture of the world, for the forming
of a perspective-retrospective course of life, for
the analysis of the further development and selfimprovement tendency; for the understanding of
life and other people, for the personal aesthetic
culture enrichment.
Point
A person gains his own aesthetic, cultural and
artistic experience, that is received and interpreted
individually. It can be realized, classified and
analyzed, becoming a base for the further
cultural person model cultivation. It becomes
possible with the help of intelligent inclusion of
a figurative image of every new experience in
the person’s aesthetic consciousness. This new
experience is classified as a live integral product,
produced by a person’s contact with aesthetic
objects of a real life, culture and works of art
(especially through the aesthetic experiences,
perceptions and estimations of a work).
An aesthetic experience of a person
concentrates and keeps within its content such
components as:
1. Images, types, individualities of people,
creations of natural and human world through
the person’s experience of perception and
communication;
2. Socially-psychological
models
of
behaviour and people’s relations and self-semantic
experience of their estimation;
3. Cultural forms of person’s display in all
aspects of life;
4. Historical experience of a person;
5. Natural experience: knowledge of the
natural world and features of mutual relations;
6. Experience of a person’s development
and growth (biographic and autobiographic);
7. Processes of self-consciousness as a
social individual and a personality;
8. Experience of a person’s “occurrence”
in culture;
9. Actual aesthetic individual experience;
10. Experience of understanding the value
of art through the communication with people;
11. Culture
understanding:
creations,
functions, dialogue;
12. Understanding of an aesthetic experience
value in a person’s spiritual life.
Actually every process and form of human
displays can be transformed into fi xed personal
semantic images of memory. The most important
component of a person’s sensual aesthetic and
art experience is expressive images. Firstly, it
is always a memorizable essence of each object
of reality, which is objectively expressed in
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external shape. It is natural, characteristic,
distinguishing each sort and kind, and also
individual external features of the given object
or phenomenon. Secondly, it is the outwardly
represented state of the given object (its age,
activity or passivity, individual condition or
mood). Thirdly, it is the perceived impressions.
A person’s experience undergo processing,
changes, generalizations, shift, hypertrophy or
reduction of features and details, depending on
personal tastes and preferences, age, person’s
vital aesthetic experience and a physical
condition.
Considering “an aesthetic experience”, it is
necessary to note its connection with “an aesthetic
culture” as it arises from an aesthetic experience
forming on its basis. The notion of “an aesthetic
experience” is more general than «an aesthetic
culture» one. An aesthetic experience includes
all forms of both object-practical and spiritual
human-world interactions. An aesthetic culture is
the best, the most significant aesthetic experience
for the mankind (mostly the spiritual-practical
one). One cannot help accepting the statement of
V. Samochvalova the aesthetic individual culture
is specific assimilation and accumulation of the
experience estimated in the light of the holistic
and comprehensive relation, valuable view of the
world (Samochvalova, 1996).
Aesthetic culture can be characterized as
an ability to feel one’s world connectivity, to
factually experience, to express the fullness,
profundity and verity of these relations. Indeed,
aesthetic culture is the measure of human quality
and ability integration creating the character
base. It is both the complex of value personality
vectors in its relations with the world and the
guidelines directing the expressive aspects of
person activity. It is the ability to decipher and
arrange an aesthetic experience, to foresee the
prospects of individual development in the world,
to define its interaction type.
When the term “an aesthetic culture”
was first introduced by F. Shiller, it meant the
experience which is shown in person’s ability to
make use of the experience gradually developing
from sensory knowledge to the thinking in
images. Thereby, an aesthetic culture is the peak
level of an aesthetic experience includes the
most significant experience achievements in its
integrated system, tends the person’s integrity to
be supported .
An aesthetic science wasn’t concerned
enough with the analysis of aesthetic experience
and aesthetic culture correlation both for person
and society since neither in aesthetics nor in
ethics neither in art theory nor in culturology
were considered the aesthetic experience
responsibility for culture development and level
of its humanization.
Aesthetic culture goes through all human
culture, its objective reality. An aesthetic value
functioning is impossible out of synthesis of its
substantive and attributive aspects (Konikov,
1996). Aesthetic culture component is both an
attribute and a substance.
Aesthetic culture is a way not only to form
and improve the person but also to harmonize the
social relations as a relation regulator of person
with the world. It fixes the aesthetic direction of
all person’s activity forms, its experience, reflects
the aesthetic culture form of society as a whole
(Zamyatin, 2007).
Aesthetic education concerns an aesthetic
culture as a special transmission channel of
aesthetic reality learning from generation to
generation, from society to personal aesthetic
experience as a way of forming the aesthetic
consciousness and the skills of aesthetic activity.
Aesthetic education is realized in all spheres of
life activity (family, establishments, material
and spiritual life) by all available means for the
people: the aesthetic arrangement of subject
environment, the art surroundings et al. Scientists
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note the great role of creativity in the aesthetic
culture development (Luzan, 2009). There is an
interdependence of these phenomena. It reflects
in person’s aesthetic ability developments, such
as observance, imagination, creativity.
The universal aesthetic culture is
implemented by, for example, aesthetic work
content and its product that is shown by the work
and its product quality (Saito, 2007).
Conclusion
Therefore features of an aesthetic experience
characteristic are dynamism and its ability to
be easily recalled in memory and in a sensual
aesthetic and art conscience. It is associated with:
1) brightness of impressions which are caused
by expressive, sharp, characteristic, aesthetic
features of an image of personal experience
and a situation of its reception; 2) the personal
semantic importance of content and form of the
given person’s experience; 3) strong emotional
reaction of a person (vital, psychological or
aesthetic, i.e. experiences of feeling of beauty,
tragedy, despair, melancholy or comicalness
of a situation with the further estimations and,
fi nally, feeling of harmony); 4) correlation
with the previous bright vital, aesthetic or art
experience which is close, similar or contrast; 5)
an urgent need to communicate with other people
about the received impression (experience)
and its estimation. The last phenomenon often
occurs in relation to received aesthetic and art
impressions and is the steady characteristic of
cultural activity of a single person or a group of
people, communities in an actual dialogue with
contemporaries and descendants.
Considering some aspects of aesthetic
experience and its relation with an aesthetic
culture we can sum up the following ones:
Aesthetic experience is the experience of
materially practical and spiritual person’s
activity effected by people and object measures
(surrounding world phenomena), includes the
sense experience, emotional ones, conscience,
person’s estimation of the nature, society and
individual world.
An aesthetic culture is formed on the basis
of an aesthetic experience. It is a deciphering,
selection, arrangement of the most valuesignificant aesthetic experience for the person
considering in the light of integral comprehensive
relation. An aesthetic culture is defined as a unity
of materially practical and spiritual aspects of the
personality life affecting the formation, universal
value creation, its spiritual ability formation.
An aesthetic culture can be defined by the
following constituents:
Ability of sensual, value world perception,
arrangement of subject-object relations with the
world;
Complex of human qualities and abilities in
forming the inner world and its integrity;
Ability to decipher and organize the aesthetic
experience, to foresee the perspective of selfdevelopment in the world.
An aesthetic culture is the specific way and
the result of nature and society transformation
oriented to the ideal of beauty as one of the
principal criterion , the way and the result of world
humanization and the person himself as well.
An aesthetic culture means the object-related
essence in things and phenomena. Individual
activity can be possible when he knows himself,
his generic organization. An aesthetic person’s
culture is developed due to the ability of social
aesthetic experience assimilation. The system
of aesthetic person’s relations to the world is
defined on the base of obtained experience. The
importance of aesthetic culture content is the
measure of society spirituality that maintains the
emotional humanity experience.
An aesthetic person’s culture can be
understood as a self-realization, self-development
and self-knowledge forms of the person himself not
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only as a individual but a representative of human
being as well. It is a level of subject development,
his creativity and specific characteristic of the
aesthetic person’s experience.
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N. Kiyashenko, From aesthetic experience to aesthetic culture //Aesthetic culture. Moscow, IF
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T. Kuznetsova, “About aesthetics”, Philosophy and society, 1 (2008), 127-138.
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Z. Rachmatullina, Z. Fatiullina, Aesthetic culture of a person and society: modern measurement,
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Эстетический опыт и культура личности
Е.М. Куроленко
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660074, Красноярск, Киренского, 26
Жизненный опыт человека включает различные способы, модели его накопления, разные
каналы его поступления, ценностные доминанты, дифференцирующие не только специфику
чувственного характера конкретных образов опыта, но и факторы личностно-значимой
избирательности. Отбор на основе смыслового аспекта, состояния, культуры личности и
ее потребностно-мотивационных ориентаций оказывается определяющим для осмысления
ценности эстетического опыта. Культура человека формируется благодаря способности
освоения эстетического опыта. На базе полученного опыта складывается система
эстетических отношений личности к миру.
Ключевые слова: характеристика опыта, суть познания человека, художественное сознание,
компоненты, особенность художественного опыта, феномен эстетической культуры.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2011 4) 521-527
~~~
УДК 947+951.93
Soviet-Mongolian Commonwealth:
Dynamics of Collective Memory
in Post-Soviet Discourse
Alexei V. Mikhalev*
Buryat State University
Russia 670000, Ulan-Ude, Smolin-street, 24a 1
Received 4.04.2011, received in revised form 11.04.2011, accepted 18.04.2011
The article is devoted to problem of historical memory about Soviet-Mongolian collaboration in 19661990 y.
Keywords: collective memory, Mongolia, USSR, Soviet-Mongolian concord, historiography.
Introduction. This research is conducted in
the form of analysis of the historic discourse that
describes the Soviet-Mongolian relations. The
prime attention is given to historical narratives on
politic figures, who contributed to the development
of bilateral relations. The work’s aim is to study
the practices of construction of hero images – the
people whom historians ascribe a special status.
In our case they are I. V. Stalin, G. K. Zhukov,
P. E. Shchetinkin, R. F. Ungern and their place
in the historiography of the Soviet-Mongolian
Commonwealth.
On the modern stage Russian and Mongolian
politic discourse uses the rhetoric of Soviet epoch
as a resource in the development of interstate
relations. An example of this is the signed UlanBator and Moscow Declarations in 2000 and
2006. Definitely in these documents it is possible
to follow the succession of the bilateral relations.
Judging by the current political situation, it is
important to follow the transformation of images
*
1
of heroes of the Soviet-Mongolian Commonwealth
at the present stage.
The studied problem is one of the most
politically biased, since the Soviet era and ending
with the present time. In the Soviet period it was
due to the ideological context of the development of
“the world communist movement”, in that system
Mongolia occupied a very significant place second
in the world of the country that won socialism.
The study of the Soviet political presence in the
MPR (Mongolian People’s Respublic) in that
period demanded particularly careful observance
of the Party principle equivalent to the principle
of science.
In the 1990-s, after the collapse of the
CMEA and the USSR, Mongolia became one
of the so-called Nationalizing States. During
that time, a new genealogy of nationhood and
a model of political succession were forming:
present Mongolia has been leading its succession
since the times of Chinghis Khan, the epoch
Corresponding author E-mail address: mihalew80@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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of the Great Mongolian State. In nationalist
discourse the following people are distinguished
in the history as the key personalities: Chinghis
Khan as the founder of the State, Zanabazar,
Mongolian Leonardo da Vinci, and Sukhe-Bator,
the revolution leader of 1921 (Kaplonski, 2004).
This phenomenon is one of the most studied both
in Russian and in foreign scientific literature.
However, changing foreign policy context
highlighted the study of the Soviet legacy in
Mongolia.
In this context we are interested in
commemoration practices as a tool for the
constructing the image of the united historical and
cultural space in Russia and Mongolia and also
it is interesting how the memory of Soviet and
Mongolian Commonwealth is becoming a part of
contemporary political rhetoric. The background
of our research is the author’s observations, works
of a number of funds of Mongolian museums, as
well as works by Soviet historians devoted to
Soviet-Mongolian relations (1950-1980s).
The basic historiography works about
Soviet and Mongolian relations are the works by
L. M. Gataullina, M. I. Golman, V. D. Dugarov,
M. S. Kapitsa, U. V. Kuzmin, N. P. Shastina.
Taking into consideration the European and
American academic discourse, we note also the
researches that emphasize the colonial character
of the Soviet presence in Mongolia (R. Rupen, J.
Murphy, C. Bowden, K. Kaplonski, T. Kent).
Materials and Methods. Given research
work is fulfilled in the form of post Soviet
research, appeared after the post colonial
ones. Fundamental researches of the field are
presented by works of M. Buravoy, M. Beissinger
(Beissinger, 2006), A. Langenol, U. Slezkine,
R.G. Suny and T. Martin. As for the region of
Inner Asia, there are papers of such scientists as
R. Hamayon, C. Atwood, U, Bulag, C. Kaplonski,
L. Munkh-Erdene and C. Humphrey (Evans,
Humphrey, 2002).
Methodologically, we are guided by works
of Y. Assman, P. Nora, M. Halbwacks, P. Hutton.
This research tradition lets fully reveal studied
problems, adding the written narrative, handed
by oral history.
The source basis of the presented research is
the included observations of author, standard-legal
acts, regulating Soviet-Mongolian collaborations,
materials of Mongolian museum funds, and works
of soviet historians devoted to Soviet-Mongolian
co operations of studied period.
Method’s:
- comparative method
- retrospective method
- systematic method
Results. In the national historical tradition
the Soviet presence in Mongolia is considered to
observe since the events of the national revolution
in 1921. It is associated with the recovery of
Mongolian statehood and the starting-point is
the establishment of the Mongolian People’s
Republic (hereinafter MPR). The representatives
of the Comintern and the leaders of the Red
Army, participating in these events and fighting
on the side of Mongolian revolutionists, became
the first heroes in the history of Soviet-Mongolian
Commonwealth.
The first place among those people took V.
I. Lenin – the founder of the theory of capitalist
development – the way, according to which
Mongolia started the transition to socialism. In
Mongolia there was opened a number of museums,
streets and monuments to Lenin. His meeting
with the Mongolian delegation on November 5,
1921 determined the development of the country
for a long period1.
In the Soviet historiography baron Ungern
was treated as an antihero, he was a reactionary,
Japanese and English spy (Kislov, 1964: 15). A
number of whole chapters of books in the history
of revolution and the theory of construction
of socialism in Mongolia were devoted to the
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exposure of his plans. Rigidity and violent
requisitions were emphasized, which were carried
out on his orders. For Soviet historians the figure
of Ungern embodied the quintessence of the
tsarist colonial policy itself towards Mongolia.
With the color and scale of the personality of
Baron there appeared an opportunity to show the
contrast difference between the old tsarist and
the new Soviet imperial policy towards the Asian
countries. Soviet historical discourse had been
forming under the conditions of the deliberate
policy of silence. The specifics of the struggle
inside the Party in the USSR and Mongolia have
led to the systematic campaign to fight against
the deviations of different kind. For instance, the
fight with the right-wing and left-wing deviations
was carried out in the MPR according to the
Soviet sample. Many participants of Mongolian
revolution, military captains and leaders of
Comintern have been repressed.
Among the Red Army commanders, who
participated in the battles with the White Army of
Ungern, only Shchetinkin P. E. was mentioned in
pages of Soviet books in history of the MPR (See:
History, 1983). The monument to Shchetinkin is
still in one of the main streets of Ulan-Bator. He
was the commander of the Red Army partisans
(it wasn’t acceptable to talk about the open
intervention of the regular troops of the Red Army
in the Mongolian events of 1921). Since 1926,
he served as a consultant in the State Internal
Security of Mongolia (the analogue of “Cheka”,
GPU – MC – SPD – Member of Committee of
the State Police Department) and died in 1927
while on duty in Ulan-Bator. In the history of
Mongolia he went under the name – Timur Bator
zhanzhin – Iron hero – the commander. Only in
the 1990s the names of Blucher V. K., Neiman K.
A. and Rokossovsky K. K. appeared in the pages
of scientific and educational publications. The
Soviet aid to the MPR was mainly presented as
ideological, advisory and technical. They began
to write about Soviet help more open because
of the events in Khalkhin-Gol. It was difficult
to deny the fact of large-scale military aid. Due
to these events Mongolia stood upon the chosen
way of development. In 1945 Mongolia got the
status of a recognized independent state. This
‘acquisition’ is associated with the names of ‘the
three marshals’, who influenced the formation of
the Mongolian State in the 20th century greatly.
They are general-in-chief I. V. Stalin, Marshals H.
Choibalsan. and G. K. Zhukov, thanks to whom
Mongolia acquired an informal status of the 16th
Soviet republic. The image of Stalin is more
ambiguously interpreted in Mongolia rather than
on the space of the former Soviet Union. This is
due to his role in the MPR getting the international
status of an independent state. In the early 1940s
Stalin rejected the request of the leaders of МРRP
Central Committee and the Mongolia to join the
Soviet Union, thus maintaining the sovereignty
of the country. In the spring of 1949 Mao Zedong
turned to the Soviet leaders with the request to
express their views on the possibility of accession
of the MPR to China but was refused by Stalin
(Mikhalev, 2009: 302). For Mongolia the period
‘cult of personality’ was characterized by the
union of two leaders – Choibalsan and Stalin.
Thus the latter had the monopoly to interpret
the theory of Marxism-Leninism. Even at the
beginning of the 1950s the basic works of Soviet
scientists specializing in Mongolia were full of
references to Stalin as one of the theorists of
Marxism. The name of Stalin disappeared from
the pages of historical literature about Mongolia
just after the 20th Congress of Comunist Party
of Soviet Union, but his monument in the centre
of the city was removed only on the wave of
democratic reforms in 1990s. Besides, there
was an attempt to expose the cult of marshal
Choibalsan in the 1960s in Mongolia. However,
the monument to Stalin as well as to Choibalsan
still remain because Stalin’s role was politically
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recognized in the formation of the MPR as a
sovereign state.
Monument to the “father of nations” was
destroyed in 1990. In the late 1980s the name of
Stalin in Mongolia has been mentioned in the
context of repressive policy of the 1930s (Baabar,
1999: 356). For example, there is a separate
chapter, devoted to it in remarkable work by
Baabar B. There Choibasan is characterized
in the literal translation from Mongolian as
‘marionette number one’. Baabar wrote that as
a result of their policies Mongols lost the basis
of their civilized identity, and the bulk of the
Buddhist clergy had been shot. More over, he
accused Stalin in annexation of Tuva-Uryanhaya,
which was claimed by the MPR (Baabar, 1999:
275). In the 1970s Marshal Zhukov became a key
figure in the system of construction ‘military
cooperation of the Soviet and Mongolian nations’.
The majority of scientific works on the history of
the MPR and the history of formation of socialist
statehood underline the special role of the events
on Khalkhin-Gol. However, the name of Zhukov
is mentioned rather seldom there, for example,
in the history of the MPR in the chapter devoted
to the events of 1939 “Marshal of the Victory” is
mentioned among the number of Soviet generals
only once. We assume that silence on his name is
the legacy of the epoch of “cult of personality”
when the basic merit of the defeat of Japanese
army was ascribed to Marshal H. Choibalsan.
“The restoration of rights” began only after new
entry of Soviet troops as a result of the signing
“Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual
Assistance” in 1966.
Zhukov museum in the capital of Mongolia
was opened in 1979 with the conclusion of the
ritual needs of the Soviet army. In political terms,
it was a period when the number of Soviet troops
in the country reached its peak. The reason for
it is the aggravation of Soviet-Chinese relations,
which began already in the 1960s. There were
Soviet military camps and garrisons on the whole
territory of Mongolia. Joint exercises were held
systematically and the Soviet press noted the
local collision in the Mongolian-Chinese border.
Beside the exercises, mutual parades in memory of
different events (Mongolian and Soviet) were held.
One of the essential attributes of the Soviet time
was laying of wreaths at the memorial to Zhukov.
Today, on May 9, this ritual is held by Mongolian
soldiers with Russian diplomats and veterans.
In this situation we point out the divergence
between the official historiography and the
everyday commemoration practices. This gap
was in the episodic references to the Marshal
in the academic and scientific literature and
in the presentation his key role in the museum
complex. L. Undarmaa, museum director gives
the following interpretation of the history of the
memorial: “On one of the central prospects of our
capital there is a small grey one-story building
surrounded by a low fence, at the entrance
sorokapyatki stand on the pedestal. According
to the resolution of the Central Committee of the
MPR Party to celebrate the 40th anniversary of
the victory of the Soviet and Mongolian troops
in the war of 1939 on the banks of the KhalkhinGol, in that house in August 1979 Zhukov
memorial house-museum was opened as a sign
of deep gratitude of the Mongolian people to the
great commander. There are many memory dates
in the history of friendship of the Mongolian and
Soviet nations, but the fight in the Khalkhin-Gol
region occupies a special place. In far 1939 when
there was a threat to the independence of our
Motherland the troops of the Red Army came to
the rescue. It should be mentioned that this housemuseum is the world’s first one that is dedicated
to the memory of a great commander. These
houses were built with the hands of soldiers of the
Red army. They merged with new buildings in
recent years organically. In the house, where the
museum is, G. K. Zhukov lived with his family,
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his wife and two daughters from September 1939
till the mid of May of 1940. Today the dimensions
of the construction are the same, even the brick
walls are left untouched, the internal and external
wall facing of the building and the interior were
changed. Then there were small living rooms
and now there are three spacious halls, where
the museum is situated. Near the museum is a
monument to G. K. Zhukov. Architect N. Urtnasan
is the author of the sculpture composition, and the
author of the bronze bust is an Honored Artist of
the MPR sculptor S. Dorzhpalam. Behind the
bust there is an arrow, embedded in the ground,
symbolizing that the enemy will not go through
our territory and will be destroyed. The basement
of the monument was laid the same year when the
museum was opened. The opening was devoted
to the celebration of the 40th anniversary of
the defeat of the fascist troops near Moscow in
December 1981. In 1980 the museum was given
to the patronage of the Department of Defense of
the USSR3.
Discussion. Soviet historic discourse
about the heroes of the international mission in
Mongolia is a complex set of “layers” of different
political directions of that time. To some point,
the memory of the heroes is the “remains” of the
memory, some kind of depriving elements of such
great ideological campaigns as: “non-capitalistic
development”, “the new democracy construction”,
“the fight against Japanese military force”. After
some time the images of heroes were taken out
from local and political contexts and were written
in the narrative of ‘great’ history and became
abstract symbols of the epoch.
Soviet rituals and their social base Most of
the rituals and practices of memorial character
were considered to be for Soviet specialists, who
arrived in Mongolia, in order to as Lenin said: “…
to give cultural disinterested support to these (to
Mongolian people in our context – A. M.) more
backward and oppressed people than we are”.
Judging by this statement, the Soviet people were
positioned as “an elder brother” to “younger”
Mongolian one (Mikhalev, 2009, 305). It was a
time when most of Mongolian elite had Soviet
education and 90% of the country population
in varying degrees understood the Russian
language. As for Soviet specialists, the majority
of them when coming back home after several
years of work in the friendly country for the most
part did not know the Mongolian language.
In the 1960-80s the number of civilian
experts from the SU in the Mongolian People’s
Republic reached its peak. Every year almost five
thousand people were sent on an official journey
to Mongolia and than the business trip used to be
prolonged, according to the data of 1985 – 5827
people. Besides the civil specialists, two million
of Soviet military people for the entire period (20
years) had served in the army in Mongolia (with
the Mongolian population of three million people).
They all served for ‘the international mission to
support brotherly Mongolia in the constructing of
socialism’. Schools, kindergartens and museums
were built in the country. With so many Soviet
citizens there ‘arose’ the necessity to organize
civil rituals. The holidays November 7 (the Day
of Great October Socialist Revolution), May
9 (Victory Day), May 19 (Day of the Pioneers)
were attached to various objects in the capital
of Mongolia. In particular, Victory Day was
attached to the memorial to Zhukov, the Day of
the Pioneers – to Lenin museum, November 7 –
to the museum to Lenin and to the Revolution
museum. All mentioned regulated and formed
style strategies that were called “Soviet way of
life” in the Soviet ideology.
The images of heroes: revolutionists, soldiers,
who were carrying out international duty, would
support the Soviet identity and be an example for
citizens of the USSR. For Mongolian residents
they were supposed to posses the characteristic
features of the Soviet people – ‘the elder
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brother’, ‘great and wise’ that help on the way of
transformation from feudalism to socialism. The
statement by I. V. Lenin illustrates this direction
more completely: “…with the help of proletariat
of the leading countries the backward countries
can transmit to the Soviet system and through the
definite stages of development – to communism,
passing away capitalistic stage of development”2.
However, by the 1970s the Soviet mission
in Mongolia has lost romantic features of the
construction of socialism, the country became
a basement for carrier and an access to material
values. De-romantisation and de-heroisation
happened while being in Mongolia. Observance
of rituals became a formality. Keeping “the
Soviet life style” – the rule of behavior became
the main task of that time, it included observation
of the rituals and reproduction of rhetoric of
international mission. The embassy and the
Organization of Soviet citizens in Mongolia
observed the rules and maintained the moral
image of Soviet citizens. These institutions were
responsible for filling the every day life of Soviet
citizens in the MPR with ideology. Deviations
from the norm could be punished with ‘sending to
the large land’ – to the USSR. This in its turn was
associated with the loss of a number of preferences
in the form of checks and possibilities to get the
access to the deficient goods. By the way, the
formation of system of prestigious consumption in
the sphere of Soviet specialists in Mongolia, that
was linked with the system of privileges, led to
the gap between every day practice and ideology.
According to K. Kaplonski, who conducted
researches in Mongolia at the beginning of the
1990s, the majority of Mongols characterized the
Soviet presence as colonial (Kaplonski, 2004:
36). The reason for that was the whole system
of privileges and special shops, set up for Soviet
citizens, had the right of extraterritoriality.
These two cuts-off by the mid-1980s existed
independently and while anti-Soviet spirits were
increasing in the country, the work in Mongolia
was becoming only the form of personal ‘profit’.
But for long period of being in the country a lay
of people formed, who were fully integrated in
the given social-and-economic system. For them,
who have lived in the country for several decades,
the Soviet rituals became a part of their ordinary
life style. In fact, in Mongolia there were two
realities: Soviet and Mongolian, between which by
the end of the 1980s have grown a social tension.
Democratic revolution of 1989-1990 caused
massive leaving Mongolia. This process was
accompanied by the increase of extremism and
crime. During that time many Soviet monuments
and museums were destroyed.
Conclusion
The post Soviet period in the history of
Mongolia formed new loyalties and transformed
the old ones. This transition was in substitution
of the brotherly Commonwealth of the Soviet
and Mongolian nations for Diaspora project.
All the symbols and meanings of the epoch of
construction of socialism, which endured the
reforms of the 1990s, have changed and have
become in demand in the project ‘Compatriots’.
The
concept
“Soviet-Mongolian
Commonwealth” under present conditions is
a political resource, demand for guarantee of
Russian presence in Mongolia. In this situation
the canon of historical memory and the policy
of commemoration play up scenes, connected
with the role of the Soviet Union in ensuring the
sovereignty of the MPR. Therefore, G. K. Zhukov
is the most acceptable figure.
In 2000s the pantheon of heroes went down
to the level of Diaspora needs, the only reminding
of the Soviet presence are memorials to Soviet
soldiers. In this context, the image of Marshal
Zhukov is universal. Unlike the leaders of the
revolution and its ideologists, he was the easiest to
naturalize in the frame of new political project.
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1
2
3
V.I. Lenin, Full Collected Works, Vol. 43 (Moscow: Politizdat, 1958-1965),233/
L. Undarmaa “Zhukov’s Museum in Mongolia”, Bulletin of Moscow-Ulaanbaator Center, 7-8 (2006), 8.
V.I. Lenin, Full Collected Works, Vol. 44 (Moscow: Politizdat, 1958-1965), 246/
References
Baabar, From World Power to Soviet Satellite. History of Mongolia (London: Cambridge Univ.
Press, 1999).
M.R. Beissinger, Soviet Empire as “Family Resemblance”, Slavic Review, No 2. Vol. 65. (2006),
294-303.
U.E. Bulag, “Mongolian Ethnicity and Linguistic Anxiety in China”, American Anthropologist,
Vol. 105. Issue 4 (2008), 753-763.
U.E. Bulag, “From Inequality to Difference: Colonial Contradictions of Class and Ethnicityin
“Socialist” China”, Cultural Studies, No 14 (3/4) (2000), 531-561.
Ch. Evans, C.Humphrey, “After-Lives of The Mongolian Yurt. The ‘Archaeology’ of Chines
Tourist Camp”, Journal of Material Culture, No 7. (2002), 189-210
C. Kaplonski, “Prelude to Violence: Show trials and State Power in 1930s Mongolia”, American
Ethnologist, Vol. 35. No 2. (2008), 321-337
History of Mongolian People’s Respubluc (Moscow, 1983).
C. Kaplonski, Truth, history and politics in Mongolia. The memory of heroes (London and New
York, 2004).
A.N. Kislov, Rout of Ungern (about military concord of soviet and Mongolian Peoples) (Moscow,
1964).
A. Mikhalev, “Soviet Political Presence in Mongolia: Memory about Heroes and Rhetorics of
Continuity in Russian Historical Narrative”, Ab Imperio, 2 (2009), 297-315.
Советско-Монгольское содружество:
динамика коллективной памяти
в постсоветском дискурсе
А.В. Михалев
Бурятский госуниверситет
Россия 670000, Улан-Удэ, ул. Смолина 24а
Данная статья посвящена проблеме коллективной памяти о Советско-Монгольском
содружестве 1966-1990 гг.
Ключевые слова: коллективная память, Монголия, СССР, Советско-Монгольское содружество,
историография.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2011 4) 528-536
~~~
УДК 803.000+811.111
Verbally Expressed Linking Thoughts
as Mediators of Text Sense Integration
Michael Yu. Chernyshov*
Cairman for the Presidium of Irkutsk Scientific Center SB, RAS
134 Lermontov st., Irkutsk, 664033 Russia 1
Received 4.04.2011, received in revised form 11.04.2011, accepted 18.04.2011
The paper describes an investigation bound up with application of formal models and methods in
the research related to semantics of language and thought. Some results of investigations bound up
with principles of text sense integration are outlined. A mediator of text sense integration, which is
discovered by the authors and known as “a verbally expressed linking thought”, is postulated. Its
functions in text semantic binding is demonstrated.
Keywords: formal models in semantics; text sense integrity; mediators of text sense integration; linking
thought.
1. Introduction
This paper discusses the principal set of
problems related to text sense integrity as well
as to finding out and analysis of sense. Not only
the senses expressed in natural languages (NLs)
and literature in NLs (novels, stories) are implied.
Implied are the senses expressed by scientific
texts, formulas, tables, diagrams, etc., the senses,
which may be extracted from the data obtained
in observations and monitoring conducted from
or via artificial satellites and spacecraft. These
may be diverse data related to the Earth and
the Sun, senses essential from the viewpoint
of neogeography, neogeology, neogeophysics,
neoglaciology, etc. The crucial point is the
process of perception and semantic analysis of
such diverse data by the tools of contemporary
information technologies.
Furthermore, it is well known that
nowadays the global network known as Internet
*
1
is overfilled with texts and data represented
in various formats. Every week the WWW
sites are complemented with terabytes of new
diverse data. In this connection, contemporary
information technologies experience an urgent
need in tools and software systems, which
would allow the researchers to fulfill analysis
and synthesis of senses contained in these data
in order to be able to retrieve, withdraw, extract
pithy information and use it for the progress of
knowledge.
Semantic relations of texts have been the
objective of research conducted by linguists and
specialists in information technologies during the
period of 1950 to 1980s. We have to emphasize
that the results are hardly ever convincing. The
problem has been and is now bound up with
the absence of plausible and perspective ideas.
Analysis of the available experience related
to investigation of text sense integrity in all
Corresponding author E-mail address: idstu@icc.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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the publications of predecessors, which have
appeared from the 1970s to 2009, gives evidence
that not all the intra-text have been taken into
account in their investigations. Not all factors of
text sense integrity have been discovered. The
system of logic-semantic relations of in texts is
more complex that it has been supposed earlier.
It is advisable to recollect an important
conclusion
made
by
A.A.Potebnya,
S.D.Katznelson, G.V.Kolshansky, I.R.Galperin,
A.A.Strizhenko, E.Coseriu, T.P.Ivanova: the text
semantic content may not be reduced neither to
the sense structure nor to a sum of elementary
senses (ES). The text sense is a qualitatively
new formation, which is constructed in course
of integration (i.e. non-additive combining) of
elementary senses of the segments into joint
whole. No doubt, in the process of modeling,
text information segments may be conventionally
placed into the nodes of some modeling tree,
hierarchy or network, but one can hardly conclude
on such a basis that the text sense structure (SS)
is either horizontal, vertical, hierarchical or
intuitively pyramidal.
Our investigations have given evidence that
the system of logic-semantic relations inside an
extended text is ever more complex than the one
supposed earlier. Neither horizontal, nor vertical,
hierarchical or intuitively pyramidal models of
text sense integrity are good for representing
the text SS. Obviously, integration of elementary
senses, first of all, provides for the structuralsemantic and the content-semantic integrity of
texts1. Nevertheless, it was not clear how these
kinds of integrity are provided. It was natural
to assume that semantic integrity may not be
reduced to only these two aspects.
It has been discovered in a number of
investigations that there may exist various
logic-semantic relations between ESs, which
are expressed by text segments: i) relations
of spatial interdependence (say, reciprocal
positions of persons and objects in the world
described by the text)2, ii) relations of temporal
interdependence (reflected in the sequence of
events), iii) cause-consequence relations3, г)
implicative relations (elements of analysis of
such relations can be found, for example, in
publications by I.V.Arnold), iv) relations of
telicity (i.e. goal making) (Paducheva, 2008).
When analyzing an integral thought (a matter of
communication), it is necessary to take account
of these relations. The reasoning on account
of the above set of relations have aided to
development of new ideas of text sense integrity.
Anyway, the system of logic-semantic relations,
which may form inside the text and condition
its sense integrity is not reduced to either the
above set of relations (i)–(iv) or to the aspects
of structural-semantics and content-semantic
integrity, or else to context senses.
2. Theoretical prerequisites:
peculiar properties of text sense relations
and mediators of text sense integration
We have come to the conclusion that
any text – at the expense of its inclusion into
the cognitive, communicative-pragmatic and
emotional-expressive contexts – on the hole
acquires a logical relation to a definite problem
(objective), spatial-temporal, social-historic and
cultural reality, and it acquires the corresponding
context-dependent senses. This conclusion has
again indicated to the correctness of the idea
of uttered by N.Enquist (1978): plausibility of
conclusions on text sense integration mechanisms
necessitates investigations of texts, which
describe various spatial-temporal and socialhistoric reality and differ in functional styles.
Any text is constructed not only as an
information message, but is oriented to the
addressee (H.Weinrich 1968; P.Hartmann 1971;
Г.В.Колшанский 1974–84). So, for a long time
text communicative-pragmatic relations have
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been considered as important ones. But the system
of such relations for a large text has been found to
be ever more complex than the system outlined in
papers by N.A.Komina (1983) and R.S.Gazarkh
(1987): any text is constructed with the idea of
communication of a multi-aspect sense or even as
a dialog exchange of senses.
Our preliminary investigation has confirmed
I.R.Galperin’s hypothesis that integration of any
text is possible only at the logic-semantic level,
and aids (mediators) of sense integration are
extra-linguistic ones, furthermore, these may be
not obligatorily expressed in verbal form.
The important tips, which helped in
formulation of a new conception of text sense
integration have also included: 1) K.Koževnikova’s
idea that “integrity of a written text… may be
a result of an author’s separate act of thinking,
which joins together a definite set of messages”
(Kukharenko,1978: P.55) (hence, thinking may
be subdivided into acts of thinking); 2) reminding
about “syntactic figures” described for antique
rhetorics and bound up with the superposition
of results of the speaker’s mental reflection over
the text’s kernel sense4; 3) the concept of text
beacons.
In the late 1980s, when summarizing the
results of psychological analysis related to
perception of literary texts, V.P.Belyanin wrote
that a reader, in course of perception of some
text, “swallows the baits” left to him by the
author in the form of verbal units, text beacon,
which assign a definite direction of the speaker’s
thought (Belyanin, 1988: P.120). But repetitions
of verbal constituents cannot be conditions of
sense integration.
Quite useful was the conception uttered by
P.V.Chesnokov (1966) and V.R.Sherbik (1983):
there is a complex logic form of thought, which
forms the basis of text sense integrity and
represents a combination of logemas understood
as “acts of thinking”.
A joint account of the set of above ideas
and our analysis have given evidence that not a
verbal segment and not the fact of its iteration in
the text but an explicitly or implicitly expressed
thought, which conditions such iteration, can
be the mediator which integrates the text in the
sense aspect.
Next, it was important to take account of
aspects missed (omitted) in investigations of the
predecessors. The necessity to construct and
adequate, comparatively complete and relatively
universal approach to the investigation of
sense integrity has provoked us to complement
the investigation with the analysis of a more
complete set of sense relations characteristic
of texts. It appeared obvious that investigation
of text sense integrity has to be complemented
with analysis of a subsystem of specific logicsense relations characteristic of the text on the
whole: 1) logic relations, i.e.: i) integration
relations based on sense associations (in this
connection, we have used the technique of
fi nding out the counterpoint 5 (I.R.Galperin
(1974: P.38), L.N.Timoshuk (1975: P.11));
and the technique fi nding out retardation
(N.G.Ternovskaya (1988: P.162))); ii) relations
of emphasis of separate thoughts; iii) relations
of generalization (on the basis of preliminary
descriptions), iv) relations of following and
implication (based on the ground of logic
analysis of one or several generalizations);
v) relations of inference (constructed on the
basis of logic analysis of generalizations);
2) pragmatic-communicative relations6; 3)
cognitive relations; 4) emotion-expressive
relations. In particular, we have employed
analysis of relations of communicativepragmatic integration between explicitly
structurally expressed segments.
The analysis conducted has allowed us to
draw the conclusion on the necessity of involving
some other, earlier unknown extra-linguistic
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mediators of text sense integration into the
sphere of our consideration. Such mediators
have received the name of linking thoughts (LTs).
The set of above relations of the type of 1)–4)
has formed the ground for a new type of text
sense integrity defined as the text sense integrity
provided for by LTs.
Below, a concept of LT is introduced.
LT is compared to other known verbal text
sense integrity mediators. Possible forms
of representation of LTs and mechanisms of
integration (sense binding) texts with the aid of
LTs are discussed.
3. Theoretical results:
the nature of the linking thought
as a mediator of text sense integration
The linking thought (LT) is a definite thought
(expressed by the author or via a character),
which is iterated into the text (/text segment) and
executes the functions of communicative-sense,
emotional-sense and cognitive-sense integration
of elementary senses of its parts into a text’s joint
kernel sense (KS), hence aiding to the process
of organizing the text (/segment) in order to
efficiently deliver its content to the addressee.
When using LTs (as “text sense beacons”),
the speaker provides the text with important
components (mediators) of integrity (Chernyshov,
2004).
We state that a LT, which is iterated into the
text, may be inserted into it either once or many
times, while developing in the text side by side
with its progress and forming a linking logicsense sequence. As far as identification of a LT is
cognitive integrity
Denotativesemantic integrity
concerned, a text’s sense forms a LF only when:
a) its iteration are easily identifiable in the text
(/segment) via the verbal or structural indicators,
b) fulfill the function bound up with organizing
elementary senses of the text’s parts into a joint
sense in the communicative-sense, emotionalsense and/or cognitive-sense aspects. So, it was
not by accident that the following subsystem of
logic-semantic relations has been introduced into
analysis of sense integration: 1) logic relations; 2)
pragmatic-communicative relations; 3) cognitive
relations; 4) emotional-expressive relations. Their
set forms the basis of text sense integrity mediated
by LTs as texts sense integration mediators.
Our approach implies that different forms of
text sense integrity constitute a unity: the “basis”
of text sense integrity is formed by its integrity
at the level of the kernel sense (the denotativesemantic and logic-semantic integrity) and its
structural-sense integrity; “overlying structure”
of text sense integrity is formed by cognitive,
emotional
and
communicative-pragmatic
integrity (see Fig.1). Analysis of integrity, which
is mediated by LTs, has given the possibility to
take account of the aspects of the “overlying
structure” of integrity in addition to the aspects
of the “basis” integrity.
In our investigation we have taken into
account that in speech a LT may be expressed in
the forms of (i) logic, (ii) verbal, (iii) structural
and (iv) intonation indicators, which may be
communicatively, emotionally and cognitively
pithy. Possible forms, in which linking thoughts
may be expressed on the verbal and structural
levels in texts, are shown in Fig. 2.
Communicativepragmatic integrity
Structural-semantic integrity
Fig.1. The system of forms of text sense integrity provided for by LTs
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Emotional
integrity
Logic-semantic
integrity
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4. Elements of the techique:
on the process of synthesis
of the text sense structure
We investigated the issue of synthesis of the
text sense structure in the mind of the text author.
We have managed to show that synthesis of ESs
of segments into the text sense is mediated by
linking thoughts, which allow one to take account
of the integrity aspects earlier unknown.
In (Koževnikova, 1979; Koževnikova,
1979), the authors have proposed a technique
of identification of verbally expressed linking
thoughts. This technique presumes revealing
the indicators allowing one to identify
communicatively-valuable, emotively-valuable
and cognitively-valuable verbally expressed
linking thoughts.
The fi rst part of this technique
(Koževnikova, 1979) (identification of LTs)
implies the account of the indicators allowing
one to identify the most important linking
thoughts. The second part of the technique
(Koževnikova, 1979) (investigation of the
sense-related organization of text with the use
of LTs) presumes: 1) analysis of the text sense
structure on account of the linking thoughts
revealed, i.e. identification of mediators of
the associative sense integrity in the text,
which are provided for by linking thoughts,
and identification of the functions executed
by these linking thoughts in the process of
constructing associations and integrating the
senses; 2) involvement of additional information
related to the text, fulfi llment of cognitive
The level of senses expressed in speech
Mediators of sense integration
Linking thoughts
Other mediators
The level of verbal and structural (in written speech) or intonation (in oral
speech) indicators of sense integrity
Logic indicators :
Structural indicators :
–– identification of segment
by:
– paragraph division
– centering
– italics or bold face
– speech logic formulas
– retardation
– stream of thoughts
Verbal indicators :
Intonation indicators :
– saturation with articles
– polysyndenton
– sense verbal repetitions
– indication by intonation
accenting
– indication by pauses
– indication by elevated tone
level
Fig. 2. Linking thoughts: representation at the verbal and structural levels
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sense
organization
of text
Logic and denotative
programs of the text’s
author
Constructing main text
propositions
Constructed
logic basis of the
text’s kernel sense
Structural program
made by the text’s
author
Constructing a chain of
propositions for the text
Constructed sense
structure of the text
Cognitive program of
the text’s author
*
Introduction of markers
of cognitive integration
into the text
A system of
cognitive markers
and cognitively
valuable LTs
introduced text
Communicative
program of the text’s
author
Introduction of
communicative sense
links into the text
A system of
communicative
markers and
communicative
LTs introduced
Emotional-expressive
program of the text’s
author
Introduction of
emotional-expressive
sense links into the text
A system of
emotive markers
and emotively
valuable LTs
introduced
Fig.3. The process of synthesis of the text sense structure in the mind of the text author
analysis of the peculiarities revealed to the
end of determination of their extra-textual
associative relations and identification of the
cognitive-valuable and emotively-valuable LTs;
3) analysis of the text’s kernel sense with the
use of its LTs (such analysis with the application
of logic tools represents a complement to the
main objective bound up with investigation of
the text sense integrity).
5. Practical results:
on mechanisms of text integration
with the aid of linking thoughts
On the basis of the experience of formallogic description of the sense content of sentences
available from (E.V.Paducheva 1978–2008), we
have proposed our own logic representation of the
linking thought as an operator and demonstrated
its role in binding text/segment elementary senses
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A model of cohesion
Verbal representation of text
Verbal
segment 1
Verbal
segment 2
RVC
RVC
… RVC
Verbal
segment N
A model of sense integrity provided for by linking thoughts
The sphere of senses
ES E11
ES E12
ES E13
…
ES E1N1
:1 = I1(E11,…, E1N1)
LT I1
ES E21
ES E22
ES E23
ES E2N2
…
:2 = I2(E21,…, E2N2)
LT I2
ES EM1
ES EM2
ES EM3
…
ES EMNk
:M = IM(EM1,…, EMNk)
LT ɋ
: = š(:1, :2, … :M)
Fig.4. A model of text sense integrity provided for by linking thoughts (RVC – repeated verbal connective; ES –
elementary sense of a small segment (utterance); Ωi – kernel sense of a large text segment (chapter, paragraph,
etc.); Ω – kernel sense of the text on the whole)
(ESs) into a joint kernel sense. From the logic
viewpoint, a linking thought I of a segment {Si},
which binds elementary senses Si of the chain of
its utterances-sentences (US) together, may be
defined as an integration operator Pi understood
as the operator, which realizes a sequence of
mappings of the form Pi(I → Si) (where Si is an ES
of the i-th US), for which the LT is mapped into
the ES of each i-th US of the text segment, and,
finally, executes (at the level of logic-semantic
relations) mapping of the set of elementary senses
{Si} into the kernel sense Ω of the segment:
I = def R : {S1, S2 ,K, Sm }→ Ω . These logic-sense
relations are mediated by the mappings I → Si.
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The linking thought (LT) I (= Iij) of text
{Ei}, which links elementary senses (ESs) Ei
of their chain of its components (text chapters/
paragraphs, etc.), may be defi ned as an operator,
which implements a sequence of mappings of
the form R i (I → Ei), in the process of which
the LT is mapped into an ES of each i-th
component of the text. So, fi nally, the operator
executes (at the level of co-sense relations)
mapping the set of elementary senses {Ei} into
the kernel sense Ω of the text as a semantic
whole, i.e. I def R : ^E1, E2 ,, En ` o ȍ .. These
logic-semantic relations are mediated by the
mappings I → Ei. Our model of text sense
integration, which is mediated by LTs, is shown
in Fig.4.
Obviously, the concept of linking thought
differs from such concepts as: 1) a senseindicating sign (in publication by A.N.Sokolov,
G.V.Bondarenko (1976) et al. it is treated
as a lexical unit); 2) an author’s retraction
from the text’s content (I.Bellert 1971: P.75);
3) parenthesis (E.D.Sinenko 1989), i.e. a kind
of text segmentation signal; 4) a verbal logic1
2
3
4
5
6
semantic connective (V.E.Berzon 1980: P.22–
25). 5) LTs are not identical to the mediator,
which Z.I.Khovanskaya (1980: P.102) and
S.A.Megentesov (1981: P.9) qualified as identical
through sense constructions.
So, we have demonstrated how and of what
components the text kernel sense forms, what
relations are formed between elementary senses
of its segments. On account of definitions of LT
I and LT I, the kernel sense Ω of a segment is a
function of the form Ω = I ( S1, S2 ,K, Sm ), and the
kernel sense Ω of a text is a function of the form
ȍ I( E1, E2 ,, En ) , which links the elementary
senses.
6. Conclusion
As a result of our investigations, we
have proposed a method for fi nding out the
text sense, which is based on the conception
of linking thoughts as text sense integration
mediators considered above. On this basis we
have grounded our principles of constructing
intelligent systems intended for analysis of
multi-aspect senses.
The compositional, stylistic, functional and other kinds of text sense integrity are obviously secondary with respect to the
structural-semantic and the content-semantic integrity of texts.
Revealing relations of spatial interdependence cannot by itself aid to disclosing semantic relations between them: often
the author purposefully distorts the natural following of text events, while using a retrospective explication of facts to the
end of achieving a desired communicative/emotional effect. This is a usual approach when, for example, it is not possible
to tell directly (sequentially or in chronological order) about somebody’s death, and it is advisable to postpone such a message. In such a case, the chronological sequence is replaced with a conditional logical sequence presumed by the author.
We have to confi rm, as far as texts, which belong to dynamic functional styles (journalistic genre, drama), are concerned,
in which the actions are sequentially following within a limited space, the relations of spatial interdependence, which
determine the reciprocal position of text segments, are sometimes weakened and replaced with relations of temporal interdependence (N.P.Ivanova 1991: P.11).
These represent the integrity in the aspect of logic development of events and presume not only the “antecedent-consequent” relations for separate events (V.Ya.Golkova (1974), M.V.Malinovich (1987; 1992), but also the cause-consequence
relations for the text on the whole, which explicate the global sense relations between ESs of large text segments.
Reminding of importance of such figures as the aids for «creation and representation of some inexplicitly given sense»
can be found in publications of 1978–2004: V.A.Kukharenko [8], I.V.Arnold (1974), Yu.M.Skrebnev (1994), N.F.Krukova
(1999), N.F.Nefedova (2000), A.B.Bushuyeva (2004).
(i.e. existence of two or several parallel sense flows in the description, e.g. two different fates or two unidirectional or differently directed processes described comparatively)
The idea bound up with analysis of the situation context as a mediator of text communicative integrity was put forward by
W.Quine (1950) and repeated by J.Firth (1958), O.I.Moskalskaya (1981) and G.I.Bogin (1986).
References
V.P.Belyanin, “Psycholinguistic Aspects of Literary Texts” (Moscow: Moscow State University
Publ., 1988), 120 p., in Russian.
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I.V.Bychkov and M.Yu.Chernyshov, “Principles of Constructing Sense Analyzing Intelligent
Systems. Part 1. The Problem of Representing Knowledge About the World”, Contemporary
Technologies. Systems Analysis. Modelling, 4 (2010), 31–40.
I.V.Bychkov and M.Yu.Chernyshov, “Principles of Constructing Sense Analyzing Intelligent
Systems. Part 2. Foundations of the Method of Comparison of Meanings and Senses”, Contemporary
Technologies. Systems Analysis. Modelling , 4 (2010), 41–49.
M.Yu.Chernyshov and I.V.Bychkov, “On the Way to New Information technologies :Vernally
Expressed Linking Thoughts as Text Sense Integration, in Proc. of the XI-th International Conference
“Cognitive Modeling in Linguistics” (Constantza, September 7–14, 2009).– Vol. 1, 272–282.
M.Yu.Chernyshov, “Foundations of the method intended for identification of verbally expressed
linking thoughts as text sense integrity mediators”, Voprosy Yazykoznaniya, 2010, to appear, in
Russian.
V.P.Chesnokov, “Principal Units of Speech and Thinking” (Rostov-on-Don: State Univ. Publ.,
1966, 285 p.), in Russian.
K.Koževnikova, “On some aspects of total text integrity”, In: Text Syntax (Moscow: Nauka Publ.,
1979), 49–67, in Russian.
V.A.Kukharenko, “Interpretation of Text: A textbook for students” (Leningrad: Prosvessheniye
Publ., 1978), 327 p. in Russian.
E.V.Paducheva and M.Pentus, “Formal and informal semantics of telicity”, In: Theoretical and
Cross-Linguistic Approaches to Semantics Aspects, ed. by S.Rothstein (Amsterdam: North-Holland,
2008).
V.R.Sherbik, “Units of text and their semantic organization (short stories in English)”: Thesis
of PhD Dissertation: 10.02.04 / Lenin Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, 1983, 16 p., in
Russian.
Вербально выраженные мысли-скрепы
как медиаторы смысловой интегративности текста
М.Ю. Чернышов
Президиум ИНЦ СО РАН
Россия 664033, Иркутск, ул. Лермонтова, 134
Статья описывает исследование, связанное с применением формальных моделей и методов
в изучении семантики языка и мысли. Представлены некоторые результаты исследования,
связанные с принципами смысловой интеграции (связности) текста. Постулируется
медиатор смысловой интегративности текста, открытый авторами и известный как
“вербально выраженные мысли-скрепы”. Его функции в семантическом связывании текста
демонстрируются.
Ключевые слова: формальные модели в семантике, смысловая интегративность текста,
медиаторы смысловой интегративности, мысль-скреп.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2011 4) 537-542
~~~
УДК 37.014.5
Secondary Language Communicative Environment,
or Ager Publicus (общественное поле)
Ekaterina V. Eremina* and Valentina A. Kononova
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 4.04.2011, received in revised form 11.04.2011, accepted 18.04.2011
The present-day key concept in language teaching known as ‘learner-centeredness’, and recent research
in psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics treat language less as an abstract construct of structures and
forms and more as a dynamic product of psychological and social life. This article is a brief overview of
the ideas connected to the problem of secondary language communicative environment in the modern
university in Russia. The term ‘secondary language communicative environment’ is used here to refer
to the complicated structure of the artificial English-speaking world in the educational institution, miles
from England. The aim of this article is to explore the potential contribution of secondary language
communicative environment to the professional development of the university world’s residents, both
students and teaching staff. The article does not attempt to provide complete coverage of all the aspects
of secondary language communicative environment. It tries to emphasize four particular points:
definition of language environment, particularly, secondary language communicative environment;
attempts of structuring the secondary language communicative environment in academic context;
conditions for creating secondary language communicative environment in the Russian university;
obstacles to creating an effective secondary language communicative environment.
Keywords: language environment, secondary language communicative environment, linguistic
persona, communicative milieu.
Secondary language communicative
environment: definition
The ideas concerning language and
environment were firstly expressed by the noted
American linguist and anthropologist Edward
Sapir and are now known as the Sapir-Whorf
hypothesis which states that the language a person
speaks influences the way the world is perceived
and interacted with. Today there is a number of
different approaches to the relationship between
languages and their environments and all of
them emerge from different schools of linguistic
*
1
thought. Noam Chomsky and cognitive linguists
insist that the human language is independent
of the environment. Another theory, wellknown as ‘social construction of knowledge’,
or ‘constructivism’ (Piaget, Vygotsky, Dewey)
considers that it is socialization, not merely
cognition, which recognizes people as coconstructors of meaningful interaction within
certain environment and active participants with
prior knowledge and experience. Structuralists
and poststructuralists (Bloomfield, Hjelmslev,
Sommerfelt) claim that the world is constructed
Corresponding author E-mail address: katyaeremina@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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by the language, while ecolinguists (Halliday,
Haugen, Voegelin) suggest that the language is
interconnected with the environment as language
constructs it and is constructed by it (Brown K.,
Ed. 2005). All these scholars though are rocking
the same boat in the same sea, they all mean
the native tongue users in their native authentic
environment. Another matter that has not been
touched on so far is dealing with another layer,
which we call secondary language environment.
How
would
we
define
language
environment?
In theory, we may define environment as
the outer world, physical, intellectual, moral
and social milieu people live in. Environment
may also be understood as the inverse pole of
inborn abilities, the areal, resource and complex
of conditions for performance and development
(Zorin, 2002).
In practice, an interesting phenomenon
of environment itself could be encountered in
many fields. We could hear, read and talk on built
and natural, biophysical and social, active and
passive types of environment. ICT community,
or digital natives, talk on language environment
as efficient and consistent means for developing
quality applications with multiple languages in
the complex world of the Internet. But the field of
language environment, though densely crossed is
not hedged by technology.
Some of the recent trends in language studies,
cognitive linguistics particularly, have focused on
the mental processes occurring in mind and their
influence on the linguistic system. Lately also the
relationship between the people’s environment
and their language have aroused linguists’
interest. The term ‘language environment’ was
first borrowed as a trivial name, later accepted and
defined by a number of researchers (Gasparov;
Prokhorov) in the so called theory of ‘linguistic
self’. Y. Prokhorov treats language environment
as communicative field where a certain ‘linguistic
persona’ (языковая личность) is able to answer
his own needs in accordance with the established
particular cognitive and pragmatic rules in the
particular society (Prokhorov, 1999). M. Gasparov
identifies the language with the environment
itself which, he considers, builds the human life,
which does not exist without humans as objective
reality, which lies in us, in our consciousness,
which is shaped and reshaped by every single
movement of our thoughts (Gasparov, 1996). In
the wider aspect of linguistic system, language
environment has an implication of the natural
historically specific linguo-cultural social
medium (Orekhova, 2007).
Recon up, by secondary language
communicative environment we mean a
communicative milieu which corresponds to
people’s needs to socially, culturally, linguistically
belong to the global world.
Attempts of structuring
By
creating
secondary
language
communicative
environment
we
mean
perspectives of developing academic Englishspeaking milieu in modern Russian universities.
Recently, the academic soil of the Russian
universities has been enriched by the English
language. V. Parmon tends to consider the turn
of Russian science to the English-speaking world
as an inevitable challenge. He also claims to reap
the benefits of the time and transform the scheme
of existing advanced and abstract information
(Parmon, 1997). At a time when academic
mobility seems to be more widely available than
ever before, we all are well-aware of the promises
associated with the English language, in terms of
academic benefits for those who speak it fluently.
The underlying message is that a good command
of English can bring plenty of rewards. English
which serves as a lingua franca allows both
–university professors and students – to advance
toward global academic exchange and solidarity
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with the educational institutions and scientific
research centers of the modern world, extending
bonds between people far and wide across the
globe.
For this reason, considering English as an
international language can also bring a sense of
possibility in terms of strengthening what might
be called ‘academic partnership’. Any language
as means of communication performs the most
important function – it fixes new certificated
knowledge on at least two levels:
1) informal (e-mail and conventional
correspondence, friendly discussions,
university TV-interviews, the Internetforums, etc.);
2) formal (conference talks, discussions
and debates; publications in academic
journals, international projects, grant
proposals, lectures of foreign visitprofessors, formal partnerships, websites, academic mobility, etc.).
As a rule, in native-language speaking
environment language acquisition comes through
real life. Non-native speaking environment brings
the opposite way of cognition: reality is accepted
by virtue of language. These considerations
provide the necessity of phrasing the influencing
factors that affect a secondary linguistic persona
in non-native speaking academic environment,
particularly Russian universities (Khaleeva,
1995). These factors could contribute to language
learning, facilitate better and faster language
acquisition, motivate development of secondary
linguisticness and its actualization, which at long
last helps achieve language competence. These
factors include:
1) authentic unimpeachable visual stimulus:
static and mobile patterns, non-verbal
images of sociocultural context in
language environment;
2) authentic unimpeachable audio stimulus:
informative patterns for aural perception;
3) authentic contextual and situational
stimulus: combination of interdependent
components – language situations,
communicative behavior, socio-cultural
stereotypes and cross-cultural language
contacts;
4) intensive cultural background;
5) powerful
language
learning
environment.
The
effective
language
learning
environment might be presented as a clear
methodological structure consisting of at least
seven components:
• well-defined aims and objectives;
• well-designed tailored courses;
• well-thought assessment scheme;
• up-to-date recourses (authentic materials,
premises, the Internet, ICT support);
• competent faculty (well-trained staff);
• responsible learners;
• good rapport in the classrooms: tense but
relaxed, stress-free climate.
Linguistic persona of a university teacher
of English is another important component
of
secondary
language
communicative
environment. No doubts, teachers of English
must possess all the qualities of good teachers,
be proficient in the target language, use varied
teaching methods, maximize exposure to
the target language, and receive ongoing
professional development. But to top it off,
they should demonstrate their competence
in
secondary
language
communicative
environment management and best teaching
practices implementation.
Conditions
The number of non-native English speakers
in the world is increasing every day, and may
even exceed that of native speakers. The pressure
for international intelligibility is very strong, and
may by now be unstoppable. International travel,
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satellite broadcasting, world press and television,
world stock markets, multinational corporation,
intergovernmental agencies, and many other
institutions have guaranteed a situation of daily
contact for hundreds of millions of native and
non-native English speakers (Crystal, 1995).
Consequently, many non-native speakers will
spend a good deal of their time communicating
with other non-native speakers. As a result, it
seems appropriate to create comfortable language
environment to enable sharing professional
experiences and developing professional
competences.
The leading role of the English language,
which is regarded as a mainstream discipline,
is no longer discussed in the world science. The
role of English should not be underestimated:
it is revealing a world that is diverse, and yet
able to create spaces for academic and scientific
actions of the Russian scientists on common
ground. The problem of language barrier should
not be overestimated: it is secondary language
communicative environment that will serve the
purpose of bridging the gaps.
The use of English as an international
language of science (EILS) is by now welldocumented, though the scientific community
recognizes the dual roles of English in scientific
communication. Younger generation of Russian
scientists could hardly imagine the conditions
from the recent past: before 1990 scientists were
not allowed to publish their articles in foreign
scientific journals until they are published and
censored at home. Scientific correspondence was
also under tough state censorship.
English may be seen as a neutral lingua
franca or it may be regarded as a dominating and
overpowering force. Excess of anything might
lead to overbalance. It seems a bit doubtful that
English is sometimes claimed as the only language
to present most valuable scientific achievements.
Even British and American science theorists warn
against such snobbery. The benefit of publishing
research in English might seem obvious, but so
does the problem: authors with a low command
of English find it difficult to compete with their
proficient colleagues. Contemporary evidence
indicates that some provincial universities in
Russia are challenged by English in science and
English for academic purposes.
Language environment promotes language
learning and motivates to raise language
competence. Seen as a whole, the conditions for
creating secondary language communicative
environment in the Russian universities are quite
favorable:
• As a rule, university authorities set
ambitious targets to raise English
competence of the staff.
• The needs of the global world challenged
the attitudes to English as a means for
professional
communication
which
involves a paradigm shift in Russian
universities, a systemic, rather than a
surface, change.
• There is a strong tendency of getting
better recourses.
• The
faculty
faces
wonderful
opportunities of international research
and publications.
• Academic mobility seems to be more
widely available than ever before. It helps
resolve the problem of formerly existing
barriers between scientific schools from
different cultures.
• The Internet serves as a mighty source
and motivation.
• E-libraries give the researchers access to
published scientific results.
Obstacles
On the other hand, some conditions for
creating secondary language communicative
environment may be regarded as obstacles.
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• Certain reluctance of some staff to accept
the challenge of dynamic society in sense
of global languages.
• Mental barriers, especially in provincial
Russian universities, which come about
from relative remoteness from the
big-name academic English-speaking
centres.
• Wide diversity of ‘Englishes’ for academic
and specific purposes, consequently,
insufficient
pre-service
university
training and in-service staff training to
meet specific needs in minor sectors.
• The problem of linguistic and cultural
barriers in the professional communities
is still strong.
• Those who use English for academic
and scientific purposes have to read
great quantities of English text in
books, journals, on the Internet; low
reading fluency leads to deficient current
information in the specific field.
Anyway, in the course of time these
obstacles should definitely turn into challenges
and conditions for better modeling secondary
language communicative university environment
in Russia.
Conclusion
The problem of modeling secondary
language environment encompasses a whole stew
of aspects crucial for language learning. Given
that the field is complex and interdisciplinary thus
laying out directions for future research. Still as
shift happens on a big scale, it might facilitate
second language acquisition, which at present is
equated with intelligence, well-being and lifelong
success.
This subscription to the development of a
secondary language communicative environment
might be viewed as a commitment to a challenge.
This commitment is a necessity, drawing us
out of isolated academic sphere into promising
prospects of the small global world.
References
Gasparov, B.M. Language. Memory. Image. Linguistics of Language Existence. (Moscow: Novoe
Literaturnoe Obozrenie, 1996), in Russian.
Zorin, V.I. Evrasian Wisdom from A to Z. Philosophical Explanatory Dictionary. (Almaty: SozdikSlovar, 2002), in Russian.
Orekhova, I.A. Language Environment: the Attempt of Typology. (Moscow Reporter, 11, Moscow:
Project, 2007), in Russian.
Parmon, V.N. Traditions and changeableness. (Moscow, ECO, 8, 1997), in Russian.
Prokhorov, Y.E. The Communicative Field of Linguistic Persona Through National Culture.
Language. Consciousness. Communication. Issue 8. (Moscow, MAPRYAL, 1999), in Russian.
Philosophical Encyclopedic Dictionary, ed. by Gubsky, E.F., et.al. (Moscow: INFRA-M, 1997),
in Russian.
Khaleeva, I.I.. Secondary Linguistic Persona as Inofon-Texts Recipient. in Language as System.
Language as Text. Language as Ability. (Moscow: Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of the
Russian Language named after V.V. Vinogradov, 1995), in Russian.
Brown K., Ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. (Oxford: Elsevier, 2005).
Crystal, D. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. (Cambridge: CUP, 1995).
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Ekaterina V. Eremina and Valentina A. Kononova. Secondary Language Communicative Environment, or Ager Publicus
Вторичная языковая среда,
или общественное поле
Е.В. Еремина, В.А. Кононова
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, г. Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Одной из ключевых концепций в современной методике преподавания иностранных языков
является личностноориентированное обучение. Последние достижения психолингвистики
и социолингвистики рассматривают язык не как абстрактный набор грамматических
структур, а как динамичный продукт жизнедеятельности социума. В статье представлен
краткий обзор научных идей, связанных с проблематикой вторичной языковой среды в
российском университете. Статья предлагает рассмотреть потенциальный вклад вторичной
языковой среды в обучение студентов и профессиональное развитие преподавателей. Статья
не претендует на полное освещение множественных граней вторичной языковой среды, а
даёт её определение, предпринимает попытку структурирования языковой среды, также
описывает условия её создания и возможные препятствия её функционирования.
Ключевые слова: языковая среда, вторичная коммуникативная языковая среда, языковая
личность, коммуникативное поле.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2011 4) 643-550
~~~
УДК 364.075.2
Optimization of the Public Home-Care System:
a New Model
Ivan V. Malofeev*
IPK DSZN
10 1-st Basmannyj side st., Moscow, 107078 Russia 1
Received 4.04.2011, received in revised form 11.04.2011, accepted 18.04.2011
The article is devoted to the new model for the optimization of the home care system based on modern
organization and information technologies. The article includes the results of the motion and time
study of social workers proving the ineffectiveness and disproportionality of existing home care system.
The article includes the description of an experiment in the introduction of the modern electronic,
communicative and logistic technologies for food delivery. The experiment allows raising the quality
of home care, reducing motion and time expenses and malversations, sparing more social workers for
other in-demand social services.
Keywords: social services, home-care, social responsibility, social assistance, social project.
The given article is dedicated to a new model
of the home-care system optimization, based
on modern organizational and informational
technologies. Here, we present the results of
researching of time- and labor-inputs of social
workers, which prove that the existing home-care
system is inefficient and disproportional. The
article includes a description of the experiment
on the implementation of modern electronic,
communicative and logistic technologies of
products delivery. The experiment let us improve
the quality of the home-care service, decrease the
labor-costs and malversations, disengage a part
of the social employers to fulfill some other indemand social services.
The system of public home-care service has
been started to be formed in our country in the
last decade of ХХ century. The main target of its
activity was to provide assistance, first of all, to
*
1
the poor and lonely old and disabled people under
the conditions of collapse of the previous socialeconomical organization of the society.
Social assistance tasks were determined
by the necessity to provide a normal social
functioning to the serviced people, and that was
why the professional activity included provision
of hot food in the centers of social public
service or in specially-selected institutions of
public catering, food delivery at door; medicine
delivery; assistance in making payments for
utility services and others. Finally, the types of
services, which were rendered to the old people
and the disabled, were included into the list of
social services, being guaranteed by the state –
first of all on the federal level, and later into
the legislation of the subjects of the Russian
Federation. Thereat, the following services were
included into this guaranteed list: social-living,
Corresponding author E-mail address: ivan_malofeev@inbox.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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social-medical, social-psychological and proper
social services (processing and reissuance of
documents, maintenance and re-establishment of
contacts between relatives, accompanying of the
client in the institutions and so on.).
The model of social service realized its
appropriation concerning the support of big
masses’ survival in 90-s of ХХ century, when
the main targets of social activity were onedimensional and it was necessary to provide
support to all the representatives of subsidized
households (the old and disabled people),
independently on their property, social and
family status. Though, at the later stage, when
serious social-economical changes took place
in our country and especially in some subjects
of the Russian Federation, when salvation
from hunger stopped being the main target of
the social safety net system, the social service
continued to develop on its former basis by
inertia and at present time it represents quite
an archaic branch of activity, having been
built mainly on non-market basis and acting
practically without any consideration of the
modern organizational-managerial knowledge
and notions.
Under the conditions of the program
of modernization of Russia, which has been
formulated by the President of the Russian
Federation D.A. Medvedev, bringing of the
social service system to correspondence with
the requirements of nowadays, wide usage of
electronics and informational technologies
become a pressing task of development of the
system of social public service of the Moscow
City.
One of the key tasks of the social service
system modernization is a creation of a more
powerful branch of home-care service of the old
and disabled people.
In order to develop a new model of social
service, we have carried out a front research of
organization and maintenance of home-care
service of the old and disabled people (on the
example of 3 public centers of social service:
CSS «Basmanny», CSS «Obruchevsky», CSS
«Yaroslavsky»). We have measured the timing
of labor costs of social workers, have studied the
organization of their activity, and have maintained
the control of their work from the part of CSS
administration.
Moreover, we have organized a series of
«round tables» and the specialists of social
home-care service (employers of regional
administrations of social service net, chief
managers of home-care service branches, social
workers) have been telling about the existing
problems and about their vision of the problems
of social service organization in the process of
these round tables work.
As our research work has shown: in spite of
a long list of the Territorial bead-roll of the state
guaranteed social services, the biggest amount of
time and efforts in social service of citizens are
taken by the food stuff delivery at door. Daily,
social workers buy and deliver themselves more
than 400 tons of products to the home-cared
citizens of Moscow. That is why, there is left only
not more 15 minutes per person to work directly
with (Table 1).
As it is seen from the table, two thirds of all
the time of social workers is spent for ordering,
purchasing and delivering of food products. If we
add here ordering and purchasing of industrial
products, ordering and purchasing of medicine,
then we shall see that almost 80 % of time of the
social worker is spent for shopping and delivery
of various products, having been ordered by the
client.
Organization of food stuff and goods
delivery is formed on quite a primitive basis: the
social worker writes down the order of the client
into his scribbling-diary, gets the money, goes
shopping (to the stores, chemists shops, and etc.),
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Table 1. Distribution of Social Services According to Their Types (on the example of SI RCSS «Basmanny»,
2009)
The
number
of services
Food products
Industrial
products
Chemistries
Policlinics
Sberbank
Personal work
Other services
(mail, laundry,
dry-cleaning
and so on.)
Including the types of the services
1720
249323
168941
12350
14955
9876
7521
14466
21214
The share of the services
( %)*
100 %
68 %
5%
6%
4%
3%
5%
9%
The number of cared people
* The meanings are rounded up to whole numbers
then he delivers all the products to the client, gives
an account for the spent money, writes down the
purchases into his record-book (note-book), gives
the client the register receipts and the change, if
it is necessary.
Such an order is rather labor-expensive
and difficult in control: trading centers can be
disposed at various distances form the client’s
apartment (especially, in central districts of the
city). The employer has to go to the sales point
(or even to several points) by municipal transport;
himself to carry the bags with the products to
each client separately.
Moreover, there have been cases, when social
workers have overrated the costs of the purchased
products, wangled with the register receipts and
so on. The existing system of control, which is
used in the institutions, uncovers such crimes, and
such workers are dismissed, but the conditions for
potential malversations still remains.
To the number of inflicted malversations we
also refer collusions between the social workers
and owners of the shops and apothecaries:
the social worker can get certain rake-off for
purchasing goods precisely at that very sales
point.
The carried analysis of provision of social
home-care service proves that it is necessary
to optimize the work organization of the given
element of the social public service system of
Moscow.
Pursuing this very aim, we have started
organization of our experiment on the basis of
social service institutions of two districts of
Moscow: the Northern-Eastern and Zelenogradsky
districts.
The target of the experiment: probation and
introduction of the social service public system,
using the modern means of information transfer.
The tasks, being solved in the course of the
project realization:
- Optimization of the public home-care
service system;
- Improvement of the service effectiveness
on the account of the modern
informational-logistic technologies;
- Growth of volume of the socialpsychological services to the clients due
to deeper specialization of the social
employers’ labor;
- Release of the personnel resources of CSS
(CCSS) in order to organize the provision
of home nursing or some other necessary
public services.
In the course of the project we presuppose
to introduce specialization and to deepen the
division of labor of social workers, serving clients
at home.
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The fi rst group (social assistance service
branch) provides social and psychological
services: accompanying of the client in the
public social service institutions, in the state
and municipal institutions, in the policlinics,
in the institutions of commerce and culture
and so on; talking to the client, rendering
help in cooking and maintaining order in the
apartments.
Each of such social workers can serve 15
clients.
At the same time, the task of provision of
services of delivery (food stuff, goods, and
medicines) and of payments (housing and public
utilities, phone, and other services) will be fulfilled
by the second group of social workers, who will
use the modern means of communication and
logistics.
The social worker visits the client and gets
the order in accordance with the project. The
given order is transferred with the help of a
special electronic device – note-pad, – working
in the on-line regime, to AIC «Social Partner»,
where the information (orders for food, goods, and
medicines) is centrally accumulated, processed
and distributed. The means of communication
(note-pads) are passed by «Social Partner» to the
social service public institutions for the social
workers to deal with.
Partners of AIC «Social Partner» are
suppliers of goods with reliable recommendations,
the goods which are in high demand by the social
service clients.
The processing program provides an
automatic addressing to the supplier, who
suggests the best price for the chosen good.
The purchased product is packed and delivered
in the morning the day after the client’s order
has been received. Each order is supplied with
a detailed invoice, which contains the client’s
full name, classification, number of goods and
their price.
Delivery is realized by the transport means
of AIC «Social Partner» to the district, where the
clients, who has made the order of the given day,
live. Social workers, who provide the delivery,
take the corresponding orders from the delivery
vehicle driver and spread them to the clients,
getting money in accordance with the invoices.
Gathered and filed invoices become the means
of control instead of the records in the register,
which are easy to falsify.
The social worker transfers the cash
monetary means, gathered from the clients, to
AIC «Social Partner», possibly, by means of the
cash machine – notes receiver (either after visiting
every client, or at the end of his working day).
It is also possible that the monetary means will
be gathered at the end of the day by the special
representatives of AIC «Social Partner» in the
building of CSS, where all the social workers
will arrive. The social worker sends all the
information on the clients’ payments in electronic
form to AIC «Social Partner», while the computer
center spreads all the gathered money among the
suppliers.
It is possible to organize utilities, phone
and long-distance calls and other payments
on a similar basis: the social worker informs
AIC «Social Partner» concerning the effected
payments by means of his note-pad, and the
money received from clients is transferred to the
destination either by means of the cash machine,
or is handled to the representative of AIC «Social
Partner» for the service suppliers.
Social workers are supposed to visit their
clients twice a week; thereat, the day of the
products delivery can be also the day of the next
order making (Fig. 1-2).
We have suggested the following algorithm
of actions in order to realize the set targets:
1. The specialist accepts an order for
delivery of food stuff, household goods,
medicines, and utilities payments.
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g
79%
Delivery of food stuff and
manufactured products,
apothecary
Communication with the person
Policlinics
Sberbank
4%
Other services (mail,
laundry, dry-cleaning and etc.)
5%
3%
9%
Fig. 1. The existing model of social home-care service. The timing
25%
Communication with
the person
Payments and delivery
services
75%
Fig. 2. The new model (time spreading per a client)
2. The specialist sends the information to
AIC «Social Partner» with the help of his notepad.
3. AIC «Social Partner» realizes the order
of food stuff, household goods and medicines at
its suppliers.
4. AIC «Social Partner» sends the
information to the partnership trading networks.
5. Trading networks send the products to
the Logistic center of «Social Partner».
6. At the beginning of the working day,
specialists of the Logistic center of «Social
Partner» deliver sorted orders to the districts
according to the logistic scheme and traffic
routes.
Specialists of the social home-care service
deliver the products at clients’ doors and collect
orders for the next delivery.
In the course of realization of the experiment,
we have worked out the following model (Fig.
3-4):
Our calculations prove that realization of
the given project will not result in increase of
the number of social workers, but it will bring to
release of some of them for realization of other
functions and problems solution.
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(
g
Milk
)
Bread
Vegetables
Apothecary
Ʉɨɦɦɭɧɚɥɶɧɵɟ
ɩɥɚɬɟɠɢ,
ɋɛɟɪɛɚɧɤ
Mail
Industrial
products
Work with
the client
Shortcomings of the existing model
1. Sometimes, the social worker visits each of the
institutions several times according to the client’s order.
Food stuff, products and services are situated in various
places and it can be difficult to get to there.
2. We cannot completely exclude malversations, as far as
all the purchases and payments are accounted according
to the records in the register.
Fig. 3. Social Worker’s Activity Structure (the existing model)
Goods supplier
Goods supplier
AIC
«Social
Partner»
Service provider
Logistics
specialist
Service provider
Organizations
of housing
and public utilities
The ordered goods and services are delivered to the social
worker for handing them over to the client
Fig. 4. The suggested model
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Thus, if in Moscow there are in average 1100
home-cared people per each CSS (CCSS), and we
need 138 salaried social employees in order to
provide them home-care services (on the basis
8 clients per 1 social specialist), then realization
of the suggested project will lead to that, that the
number of employers of the social service branch
will become 75 – 80 people per the same number
of clients (taking in account their sick leaves,
holidays and etc.).
There must be 30 – 35 social workers (taking
in account their sick leaves, holidays and etc.)
in order to care about the people (payment and
delivery of goods and utilities) on condition that
they serve 40 clients twice a week. This way, the
total number of both groups of social workers of
each CSS must be 105 – 115 people.
The released 20 – 25 employees can be
redirected to the nursing service department in
the social service institution.
The expected results of the project
realization
Specialization
of
social
services,
computerization of goods ordering and delivery
in accordance with the presented social project
will result in the following:
- Labor costs for provision of home-cared
clients with food-stuff, medicines and
utilities payments will be decreased;
- The quality of home-caring will increase,
as far as the clients will get precisely those
goods, which they will have ordered (not
those, which can be bought at the nearest
stores);
- The number of inflicted malversations
will go down, as far as the automatized
system will select the goods suppliers in
accordance with the objective criteria;
- The social work will preserve and improve
its achieved level of home-care services,
but at the same time it will improve
the work with each person, providing
communicative-psychological support to
the citizens.
References
R.I. Yeruslanova. Technologies of Social Home-Care of Old and Disabled People: Educational
Book / Yeruslanova R.I. 4-d Edition. Moscow: Publishing-Trading Corporation «Dashkov and Co»,
2010.
P.V. Popov, I.V. Malofeev. The Main Tendencies of Innovative Technologies of Organization of
Home-Care Service of Old and Disabled People in the Regions of Russian // Social Service. Moscow,
2010, № 7.
L.V. Topchy. Organization of Public Social Service. Moscow, 2002.
N.Y. Uskova. Condition and Perspectives of Implementation of Innovative Technologies in
Organization of Home-Care Services of Old and Disabled People // Social Service. Moscow, 2010, № 7
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Ivan V. Malofeev. Optimization of the Public Home-Care System: A New Model
Оптимизация системы
надомного обслуживания населения:
новая модель
И.В. Малофеев
ИПК ДСЗН
Россия 107078, Москва, 1-й Басманный переулок, 10
Статья посвящена новой модели оптимизации надомного обслуживания, основанной на
современных организационных и информационных технологиях. Приводятся результаты
исследования время- и трудозатрат социальных работников, доказывающие неэффективность
и диспропорциональность существующей системы надомного обслуживания. Статья
включает описание эксперимента по внедрению современных электронных, коммуникативных
и логистических технологий для доставки продуктов. Эксперимент позволяет повысить
качество надомного обслуживания, сократить трудозатраты и злоупотребления,
высвободить часть социальных работников для других востребованных социальных услуг.
Ключевые слова: социальные услуги, надомное обслуживание, социальная ответственность,
социальная помощь, социальный проект.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2011 4) 551-559
~~~
УДК 316.77:1
Blogosphere as an Expression
of Virtual Reality
(Nature of Blogosphere Formation Revisited)
Natalya A. Rahvalova*
Irkutsk State University,
1 Karl Marks st., Irkutsk, 664003 Russia 1
Received 4.04.2011, received in revised form 11.04.2011, accepted 18.04.2011
The article considers effect of mass communication tools onto achievement of a young person’s
personhood on the example of blogosphere as a means of his/her expression in the conditions of a
globally developing artificial environment. Both positive and negative impacts of this activity onto the
process of personal self-actualization are displayed. A theoretical justification of harmony between
the distinguishable extremes is provided.
Keywords: a young man – socialization – blog – blogosphere – virtual reality – mass communication
tools– self-actualization – personality – alienation – society model – noosphere.
Point
The present stage of social development is
characterized by the increasing role of information
in all domains of human life, which entails
growth of mass communication tools existing as
computerized telecommunication technologies,
and Internet technologies, in particular. Such
types of mass media are becoming a key
functional element of communicative space.
The idea that mass communication tools
are becoming a social institute appears to be
more and more habitual. It cannot be stated that
traditional social institutes are vanishing or
losing their value, however the fact of the growing
influence of mass media is evident. Members
of the younger generations utilize these mass
communication tools more actively and become
more susceptible to their influence. The younger
*
1
generation masters the novelties first testing
their personal impact, and only then do novelties
become generally acknowledged and available
to the remaining society. In this way, the future
development of our society is determined.
Of primary importance for achievement
of a young person’s personhood are the
social determination and outlook. A person’s
comprehension of one’s individuality becomes
deeper, as one gains a clearer understanding
of the conditions and norms constituting the
framework, in which one is bound to resolve
one’s vital problems. Mass communication tools
play a decisive role in satisfying these needs.
Development of mass communication tools
has been caused by the technical progress. It
leads to the changes in society, which can reform
the entire system of social relations; the society
Corresponding author E-mail address: nrahvalova@gmail.com
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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is coming into a new state of condition, the
human nature itself is being “adjusted”. Human
is becoming dependent on the very technical
devices that he creates for satisfying his needs.
That is to say, human alienates himself from his
own inventions once again (Narinyani, 2008). On
the one hand, this can result in striving toward
the society of knowledge, while on the other hand
it may bring about the destruction of mankind’s
social basis (Gorokhov, 2007).
Development of mass communication tools
has been caused by the necessity, since they are
our “fabric of life”. Virtually anyone in the most
remote part of our country can have access to a
mobile phone and computer. Getting a connection
to Internet may be a larger problem, but the web
is winning more and more space and popularity
by the day, especially among the youth. This
is explained by the fact that a basic function of
communication is being so fulfilled, while the
participant of these relations is the subject of the
action.
Mass communication tools are developing
ahead of the actual requirement (however
paradoxically, the offer most often determines the
demand) becoming a part of our life (Argonov,
2008). Human is changing under the influence of
mass communication tools, while the latter are
changing to meet human requirements. Losing
one’s mobile phone or a computer is recognized
as a perceivable vital failure (a non-restorable
database is in question most of times). We are
becoming dependent on technical devices, but
in doing so, we are using the entire range of
available opportunities for personal objectives:
development, education, communication, and
eventually self-actualization.
Example
A blog may serve as the source for studying
interaction between mass communication tools
and a young person. Is there anyone now that at
least has not heard about blogs? This means of
communication is still quite fashionable, not easily
accessible to everyone, however the popularity of
it is growing rapidly. Blog is a personal territory,
a “personal voice amplifier”.
A blog (an English combination of the words
“web log”, a “network log or log of events”) is a
user’s personal web site, which is accessible for
public viewing. It consists of entries, images and
multimedia updated on a regular basis, which
presume a discussion between the reader and the
writer. Blogs typically contain short recordings
of temporary significance sorted in a reserve time
order (the last entry comes first at the top). A blog
is differentiated from a conventional diary by
the environment: blogs are public and presume
stranger readers, who may initiate a discussion
with the author. Bloggers are persons maintaining
blogs. The totality of all blogs on the Web is known
as blogosphere. In terms of author’s involvement
blogs may be personal, group (corporate, club …)
or public (open). In terms of their contents, blogs
may be either theme-specific or general.
It should be taken into consideration that
reading blogs and writing ones are different
processes with different contents. Persons
utilizing the blogs’ communicative capacities
beyond the context of maintaining a personal blog
look at the opportunities of communicating with
persons, with whom they cannot communicate
immediately, e.g. with friends living in other
cities. In addition to keeping in touch with
friends and relatives, more objectives pursued
by a blog reader may be distinguished: obtaining
information,
reading
for
entertainment,
tracking public reaction onto particular actions
(in fact, blogs are a finished enormous focus
group), reading for socialization, feeling one’s
involvement into the life of famous people.
The following blog functions were identified
in the course of surveying Livejournal bloggers
in 2005: the most often mentioned function –
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communication followed by, in respective order
of significance, self-presentation, entertainment,
strengthening and maintaining social links,
function of memoirs and psychotherapeutic
function2.
Blogosphere is a term of similar structure
with the term “noosphere”. It denotes a totality
of all blogs as a community or a social network.
Dozens of millions of blogs kept in the world
are normally in a close relation to each others;
bloggers read and comment each other, make
references to each other, and thus create their
own subculture. Participants of blogosphere
create rules, including specific features of speech
and behavior, which are then accepted by their
environment. This activity domain may be
viewed as the channel of entering the panhuman
culture3.
Blogosphere reflects social opinion
expressing expectations of the young people,
their problems, hardships, which they are able to
demonstrate in an indirect public communication.
The study of blogosphere is a very fortunate
method of studying the reaction toward particular
events, including appearance of new goods, values
and interests of citizens in accordance with age
ranking, studying their attitude to various aspects
of social life, as well as promoting a change of
opinion.
Importance of this domain is also proved by
appearance of the Russian President’s videoblog
and its fast-growing popularity13. At first, this event
generated a lot of gossip and skeptical remarks to
text editors. In the course of time, visitors became
allowed to leave comments to entries; the blog rules
and mandatory registration of community members
were treated more ironically. Nevertheless, the
number of hits over a short period of time beat
all previous records (number of activated visitors
amounted to 10219) thanks to popularity of the
person and comprehensive significance of topics
discussed8.
In order to start our research, let us
familiarize with ratings of the most popular
blogs6: the five leader blogs are as follows:
http://tema.livejournal.com/19;
http://dolboeb.
14
http://drugoi.livejournal.
livejournal.com/ ;
15
com/ ; http://abpaximov.livejournal.com/10; lleo.
aha.ru/dnevnik/2009/04/08.html20.
It appears impossible to give an unambiguous
description of the blogs’ messages: looking at
bloggers’ reaction to real events, one may study
modern history and more. Nevertheless, initial
acquaintance with this domain of public opinion
allows the author of the article to infer that the
majority of bloggers use them for personal
positioning (acquisition and maintaining
popularity). Presence of comments to messages
or statements brings popularity to both the
author blogger (deliberately spelled incorrectly
in Russian-speaking blogs as “афтар” (“aftar”)
as opposed to the correct spelling of “автор”
(“avtor”) and readers (“critics”). Therefore, it
is important to say at least something (even
of low significance) or impress the fellow
community members with something appalling
or shocking. Vulgar language of all forms and
manifestations is often used to this purpose.
Appalling statements luring the most discussion
participants are normally based on aggression or
demonstrating one’s antisocial behavior, only,
of course, when the blog’s author and theme so
allow. No external control over the participants’
behavior is exercised, and the common definition
of ethics is lacking.
Show-off behavior is widely spread as
well as attempts to seem more important than
the rest. This is achieved by demonstrating
one’s social status through a lifestyle, which
includes travelling, expensive cars, expensive
clothes or gadgets. Demonstrating one’s lifestyle
appears to be the consumerism cult. This is why
commercialization of yet another interaction
niche of our peers needs to be brought in
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question (blogosphere is becoming yet another
space for advertisement). Each blogger strives
to reach particular blog ratings. A blog’s rating
is determined by the number of readers and
comments left. The more one’s blog is being read,
the more expensive are the advertisement slots in
this blog.
What are the blogs of the top dogs like?
They are all connected with events happening
in the world and in Russia, in particular. The
author states a message (or makes a reference to a
message), provides personal photographs taken on
the spot. Therefore, the top five popular bloggers
are well-known journalists or, as an option, wellprovided personalities. The event’s description is
followed by an evaluation of the fact, by critique
or impressions. The success is determined by
real-life popularity; while the reverse may happen
equally so – virtual popularity may develop into a
real popularity.
In our attempts to be objective, we did not
suffice with studying the themes brought to
discussion in the most popular blogs and respective
behavior of the blogs’ readers, but also ventured
out to study other blogs of smaller popularity.
Object of our research was determined by
random sampling. In accordance with main blogs’
functions, their authors actually try to express
themselves, speak out their problems, feelings
hoping for support and getting it. They write about
art, hobbies or entertainment; while some authors
state their views on problems of social importance
and offer their solutions (18 writes about migration
problems, education, the Munich conference and
missile defense discussions as well as bilateral
nuclear disarmament; 12 writes about work and
writing a book; 11 writes about representation of
social trends in blog ratings; 16 writes about a rally
against slaughtering homeless animals’ 17 writes
about academic activity, attended theatrical plays,
general impressions and many other topics). Selfexpression and translation of one’s ideas are
evident, which constitutes the advantage of this
mass communication tools.
Some of these and also other opportunities
are vividly represented in an advertisement for
a school of young Internet activist published in
blog http://abpaximov.livejournal.com/ (member
of top five), which was immediately responded
by thousands of users: “Each person expects
to be valued. In the age of global information
revolution, evaluation of an event or a human also
depends on what was written about this event or
person. When nothing was written or the message
was not read by anyone, this only means that the
person or event in which the person took part did
not exist!
While in days past newspapers, radio and
television had the monopoly to write and speak,
nowadays each of us has the opportunity to be
heard or valued. BLOG is a personal means of
self-expression, a personal voice amplifier in the
world of the victorious Internet! Everyone has
heard about BLOGS and some have even tried,
but very few have succeeded! A BLOG is not an
AK-47, although at times it can become equally
or even more effective. Keeping a BLOG is an
art, creativity, trade – you name it! All of us treat
it in a personal way. This is something we may
learn and should learn to do to win attention and
disposition of our audience”.
The author enumerates the following basic
advantages of keeping a blog: standing one’s
ground, advancing personal projects and topics
in the Internet, getting new knowledge and skills
through communicating with experts, developing
analytical capacity, acquiring new social links,
gaining popularity, professional management of
blogs and monetary remuneration for the effort.
With a correct approach and skills, blogs open
dozens of potentials ways for self-actualization
and self-expression 10.
However, certain authors, such as Leonid
Kostyukov in his article “Blogs’ plain” [9], stress
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a number of disadvantages to this method of selfexpression. Here are just a few of those objections:
A word (lying between verbal and written
language) ceases to bear semantic load being
reproduced as all mass production. Brief and clear
expressions become more popular (as opposed to
deep and intelligent).
Blogosphere is an endless comment – a
reaction to the external stimulus, which does not
promote internal motion. Comment distracts a
person from life.
Events migrate from people’s actual lives
into blogosphere. In this way, blog participants
alienate themselves from responsibility, which is
an integral part of life. Brilliance in blogosphere,
but not in life is perceived as lack of mental
speed, elegance of speech and concentration.
Blogosphere normalizes a deferred reaction and
does not motivate a person to fight against one’s
drawbacks.
The level of argumentation is extraordinarily
low; therefore skills of building logical ideas or
conducting arguments degrade too.
In a democratic field, no person is entitled
to mark a period; the argument goes on until the
last participant speaks, thus knowingly leading
nowhere.
There are a few features in comments and
statements format used in blogs, which impede
the advance toward the truth: the level of
argumentation and lack of a mechanism to draw a
line under the discussion. The situation is absurd
in principle: any issues cause equal avalanches
of opinions – for and against. This, basically,
exhausts the “discussion”.
Pseudonimity and anonymity continuously
generate slippery, ambiguous and ethically
dubious situations.
Like any other social and cultural
phenomenon, Internet communication has
generated a small addition to the language. New
words, word combinations and syntactic moves
are a percent’s fraction of the total number of
opportunities, but language was much reduced
to these fractions. A blogger seeks to position
oneself as “member of the club” by marking
his/her language with these linguistic means: at
the end of the day all become alike when not a
thought, which is not trivial, can no longer be
expressed.
Resume
Each new participant of blogosphere
assimilates norms and rules of behavior
acceptable in this community. Topics of
discussions and methods of self-expression for
young people are determined by the spirit of time
and may become quite diverse. Nevertheless,
discussion of meaningful events runs down to
generating meaningless phrases, which cause the
impression of the discussion’s meaninglessness
and absurdity.
Blog is absurd per se. A diary is a tool of
self-knowledge, it is intimately personal, which
is exactly the reason, why it cannot be public.
Whereas blog claims to be a method of selfexpression and self-research, but it is public
and therefore deprives of the opportunity of the
personality’s public “exposure”. This is why its
contents appear empty and absurd, while the
messages look meaningless.
Absurd (of Latin absurdus – “discordant,
awkward”, ad absurdum “stemming from
the deaf”) – is something, which is illogical,
awkward or contradicts common sense1. Absurd
is a notion actively used by fiction writers.
Absurd is not meaningless; it is something that
does not receive a rational explanation. The
purpose of absurd is to act to repair the meaning.
While knowing that keeping a blog is important
for the author, we must fi nd the meaning,
perhaps together with the author. On the basis
of the contradictions we observe, we come to
conclusion that this activity should either result
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in progressive advance or a logical dead-end,
where all development ceases.
Today’s world has a great deal of virtual
reality in it. This is caused by development of
information and communication technologies.
Content of the blogosphere is a presentational
expression of a person’s virtual condition.
Blogosphere is the society’s model, which is
built through virtual deflection or exhibition of
virtual reality. Virtual reality (Latin virtus –
“potential, possible” and Latin realis – effective,
existing) – is a world created by technical means
and conveyed to human through habitual senses
of perception9.
Although the term only appeared recently,
virtual reality was studied as a phenomenon since
times immemorial in the shape of collective ritual
actions, using mind-altering substances, sleep or
art. People have always been lured by virtual
reality. Given the modern level of technological
development, the objective is becoming
accessible thanks to technical equipment. Virtual
reality acquires a new meaning formed under
the influence of surrounding reality, in which a
subjective perception prevails.
Plunging into virtual life is associated with
failure to self-actualize in common life, with
search for positive emotions or endless replay
of uncompleted emotions, with attempts to
reach full culmination and satisfaction. It is also
viewed as various ways of escaping the reality,
in which a person fails to fi nd one’s place,
implement one’s potential or get a true natural
pleasure.
On the other hand, we have no grounds
to doubt that virtual reality creates enormous
opportunities for personal self-actualization. The
extent, to which we will be able to utilize these
opportunities for a truly creative, professional and
spiritual personal development, will primarily
depend on recognition of the threat conveyed by
virtual freedom.
Human has always been wishing to alter the
world, its understanding and one’s place in it. Not
every individual may achieve this in reality. A
blog allows to set up communication, in which
the author of messages, a commenting reader or a
plain reader are the subject of action, and each can
try on a role, which suits one best. Participating
in blogosphere inspires imagination and provides
the opportunity to overcome the limits of reality,
to cancel one’s desertion and finiteness, to gain
security and assuredness. Subjective attitude to
reality is decisive.
Vulgar language and appalling behavior,
which are such an easy way into community
and a method to find soul mates, may
become the consequence of lacking language
expression to correspond with the new
realia. Image plays a decisive role in mental
activity of a modern person’s outlook versus
aural perception; the word is losing its initial
meaning. Blogosphere, same as all other types
of Internet communities, makes attempts to
create such a language, which now only exists
in the form of slang – Internet memes, whose
list is provided at 5.
Blogosphere is a virtual model of the world,
which embraces meaningful characteristics of
young people. In the course of discussing a topic,
the comments tree is growing and the discussion
drifts away from the main line providing the
opportunity to deepen its meaning. Discussion
of topics in blogs is perceived as chaotic,
meaningless, and absurd. Still, it may appear
useful in the sense that it provides an opportunity
to communicate with oneself, to analyze others
and oneself. It is in collective work that the
individual displays itself and yields to recognition.
Taking part in blogosphere allows young people
to feel for something important, something of
value; they require to obtain a meaning and a
target, to find their own place in a strange world
(Nazaretyan, 2009).
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Participating in blogosphere has a number
of negative consequences, the biggest of which is
devaluation of personality. Public demonstration
of intimate component of a personality deprives
the person of his/her individuality, and the person
becomes a mediocrity. Blogosphere may become
a territory of perfect personal self-alienation,
therefore, one needs to channel efforts to preserve
personal value of each participant when selfactualizing in blogosphere. For a full-fledged
development of the system, a harmony is required
in presence of extremities.
Radical changes in social design, lack of a
generally accepted normative system, disparity
between social layers, age groups and youth
subcultures cause the younger generation to seek
for methods of adapting to these conditions, and
the blog becomes a means to a desired end, a
fashionable method of self-expression and selfactualization.
Mass communication tools being the
product of the latest informational revolution are
one of the key channels translating values, which
can be referred to as basic values. We are able
to witness that general human values, religious
values, liberal (democratic) values, socialistic
values, consumer values and tradition values are
interacting in the society. All of these are values
existing in various societies, which are justifiable
at a particular stretch of time, or even throughout
the entire duration of the society’s existence.
Young people are typical of the search
for oneself and one’s place in the world. They
often have critical perception of proclaimed
statements, which is determined by nurture,
education, material and domestic conditions of
life, by economic, political and social situation
in the country, as well as, last but not the least,
by the effect of mass communication tools. The
anomic world presses the youth to make a choice;
and, naturally, they select what may seem to be
the most acceptable in the current conditions. In
our view, this is what explains such a diversity of
judgments related to the younger generation.
Is there an opportunity to affect methods
of youth’s self-actualization? Of course, there
is – by providing the opportunity to select
the most significant guidelines of activity.
As discussed above, a blog is a spot for
trusted communication among peers. Also,
existing ratings allow for identifying the most
authoritative blog authors, whose opinion will
be followed. These features make it possible
to draw the attention of a huge audience to the
existing diversity of opinions, evaluations,
priorities offering the choice of the most
important elements for everyone. This is
an opportunity to take part in forming new
generations, which will determine our future.
Mass communication tools actively affect
achievement of personhood by a young person,
however their dependence on human may be
observed. This is especially vividly displayed
in blogs. We subject ourselves to changes in
accordance with the purposes of a blog: this can
be viewed in two dimensions – either we lose a
fraction of value ascribed to our own personality,
or supplement the latter with a large amount of
meaning, greater functionality, if I may put it this
way. In doing so, the blog changes as well being
influenced by us. There cannot be a blog without
a personality, while the blog is an important
element of the personality.
We are observing an increasing interaction
between human and mass communication tools
(Gurevich, 2009), which reminds of Vernadskiy’s
theory of technosphere – an extremely close
interaction of human and machines altering the
human nature. At a later point, this will bring
about the emergence of noosphere – the highest
step of society’s development. Nevertheless,
the idea’s author warned mankind against
potential hazards associated with this type of
development. Progress requires an unheard of
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level of responsibility, which mankind may not
yet be ready to accept.
Noosphere is a new highest level of
biosphere’s evolution, whose emergence is related
to development of human society causing profound
impact onto natural processes. In noosphere theory
Human appears to be embedded into Nature,
while the “artificial” is regarded as an organic
part and one of the factors (growing with time) of
the “natural’s” evolution. Recapitulating human
history from a naturalist’s viewpoint, Vernadskiy
arrives at the conclusion that throughout its
development, mankind is gradually turning into
a new strong geologic power, which transforms
the planet’s face with its thought and labor.
Accordingly, in order to preserve itself, mankind
will have to assume the responsibility for the
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
development of biosphere turning into noosphere,
which will require a particular social organization
and a new environmental and simultaneously
humanistic ethics7.
Given all power of mankind, its weakness lies
at surface. Simplification of life, which progress
entails, leads to the need for human to assume the
responsibility for his future, and for the future of
the entire society. It is hard to say, in fact, how
much mankind has advanced toward this goal.
People are not becoming wiser due to abundance
of information (or rather abundance of means,
which may be used to obtain information), while
they find it more difficult to navigate through this
information. Let us hope that future will compel
mankind to care for its environment and care for
the image of the future’s human.
Absurd, in on-line encyclopedia, http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Абсурд.
Blog, in on-line encyclopedia, http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Блог.
Blogosphere, in on-line encyclopedia, http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Блогосфера.
L.Costucov, Blogoploscost, http://www.polit.ru/author/2009/06/07/blogoploskost.html.
Internet meme encyclopedia, http://lurkmore.ru/Категория:Мемы.
Internet portal Yandex, http://blogs.yandex.ru/
Noosphere, in on-line encyclopedia, http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ноосфера.
The Medvedev’s blog has established a record, Dni.ru, Internet media, 09.02.2009., http://www.dni.ru/
society/2009/2/9/159062.html.
Virtual reality, in on-line encyclopedia, http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Виртуальная_реальность.
http://abpaximov.livejournal.com//
http://anarkhisty.livejournal.com/1857.html?thread=27969.
http://annet-popova.livejournal.com/
http://blog.kremlin.ru/post/5.
http://dolboeb.livejournal.com/
http://drugoi.livejournal.com/
http://fea idiota.livejournal.com/12669.html?thread=33661.
http://frederik-zl.livejournal.com/312954.html.
http://saintgermain-lj.livejournal.com/
http://tema.livejournal.com/
lleo.aha.ru/dnevnik/2009/04/08.html.
References
V.Yu.Argonov, “Artificial Programming of Human Needs: a Way to Degradation or a New
Development Impetus?”, Philosophy Issues, 12 (2008), 22-37.
V.G.Gorokhov, “Practical Research Policy in the Society of Non-Knowledge”, Philosophy Issues,
12 (2007), 65-80.
P.S.Gurevich, “Phenomenon of Human Deantropologization”, Philosophy Issues, 3 (2009), 19-31.
A.P.Nazaretyan, “Formation of Meaning as a Global Problem of Modern Times: a Synergetic
Approach”, Philosophy Issues, 5 (2009), 3-19.
A.S.Narinyani, “Between Evolution and Super-New Technologies: the New Human of the Near
Future”, Philosophy Issues, 4 (2008), 3-17.
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Блогосфера как выражение
виртуальной реальности
(к вопросу о характере становления блогосферы)
Н.А. Рахвалова
Иркутский государственный университет
Россия 664003, Иркутск, ул. Карла Маркса, 1
Рассмотрено влияние средств массовой коммуникации на становление личности молодого
человека на примере блогосферы как средства его самовыражения в условиях глобально
развертывающейся искусственной среды. Показано как позитивное, так и негативное
влияние этой деятельности на процесс личностного самоутверждения. Дано теоретическое
обоснование гармонии между отличаемыми крайностями.
Ключевые слова: молодой человек, социализация, блог, блогосфера, виртуальная реальность,
средства массовой коммуникации, самореализация, личность, отчуждение, модель общества,
ноосфера.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2011 4) 560-576
~~~
УДК 141.201
Cosmology at the Crossroads of the Natural
and Human Sciences: is Demarcation Possible?
Part 1: Introduction
Alexei V. Nesteruk*
University of Portsmouth,
Lion Gate Building, PORTSMOUTH, PO1 3HF, UK 1
Received 4.04.2011, received in revised form 11.04.2011, accepted 18.04.2011
The paper discusses the problem of demarcation between the dimensions of natural and the human
sciences in contemporary cosmology. In spite of a common presumption that cosmology is a natural
science, the specificity of its alleged subject matter, that is the universe as a whole, makes cosmology
fundamentally different from other natural sciences. The reason is that in cosmology the subject of
cosmological research and its “object” are in a certain sense inseparable. Any study of the universe
involves two opposite perspectives which can be described as “a-cosmic” and “cosmic”, egocentric
and non-egocentric. Cosmology involves two languages, namely that of physical causality (pertaining
to the natural sciences) and that of intentionality (pertaining to the human sciences). On the one
hand the universe can be seen as a product of discursive reason, that is as an abstract “physical”
entity unfolding in space and time. On the other hand the universe can be experienced through our
participation in, or communion with the world understood as the natural context of living beings.
This dichotomy between reason and experience, abstract construction and concrete participation,
originates in the essence of human persons understood as unities of the corporeal and spiritual. On
account of this dichotomy it is hard to set up a strict line of demarcation between the elements of the
human and the natural sciences in cosmology. This confirms the intuition that any realistic world view
is incomplete without a knowledge of what it means to exist as a human being. Conversely it is likewise
impossible to understand human existence without considering its natural setting, that is the universe.
We conclude that anthropology is incomplete without cosmology and vice versa.
Keywords: cosmology; philosophy; universe; knowability; humanity; participation; manifestation;
phenomenology; beliefs; coherence of explanation
Introduction
Contemporary physical cosmology is a well
established and vast enterprise which includes
astronomical observations, space programmes,
research institutions and funding strategies.
Cosmology develops fast. Every day one discovers
dozens of new publications on the internet archives.
Monographs and popular books telling stories
*
1
about the universe, about its study and those who
study it are in abundance. Cosmological ideas are
used and misused in science fiction and fiction
in general. Cosmology becomes a sort of a cult
reading as if humanity touches upon something
ultimately sacred and indispensable for its life.
Cosmology gathers numerous conferences,
workshops and public lectures resulting in further
Corresponding author E-mail address: alexei.nesteruk@port.ac.uk
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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publications of collective volumes. Apart from
physical scientists, cosmology attracts historians
and philosophers of science, as well as millions
of those who adore science and trust its final
word on the nature of things. This is a dynamic
set of enquiries about the world around us which
constitutes an integral part of contemporary
intellectual culture. It is exactly the popularity of
cosmology in mass-media and among ordinary
people which manifests that it affects a collective
consciousness of people and has existential and
ethical implications. Cosmology is involved
in the dialogue with religion: it becomes an
arena of theistic inferences and justifications of
otherworldly transcendence when the results
of its theories are brought into correlation
with theological convictions. Contemporary
cosmologists are often seen as exercising a
certain priestly role in modern society as if
cosmological ideas had an immediate existential
and social impact that would catch and fascinate
public opinion.
In spite of all these facts cosmologists’
confidence in cosmology’s ability to explain
the essence and contingent facticity of the
universe is far from being justified. Some
cosmologists raise doubts whether cosmology
can pretend to be following rigorously what is
called scientific method1, understood so that
all knowledge including mathematical theories
leads to experimental verification. It is a fact of
cosmology’s sociology that there are extrapolations
and conjectures in cosmology’s claims for truth
which go beyond scientific justification and this
involves the whole field into an interdisciplinary
discourse in which the criteria of validity and truth
are much more vague that those in the natural
sciences. Correspondingly, the objective of this
paper is to elucidate the nature of cosmology’s
claims for the value and truth of its theories in a
cross-disciplinary context related to knowability
of the universe and its relation to human agency,
its history and self-understanding. This will
be done in the perspective where cosmology is
treated as a mode of human activity contributing
to the “infinite tasks” of humanity, its culture and
spiritual advance.
Physical cosmology
and an input of philosophy
Cosmology, understood as part of theoretical
physics, forms a subject matter that by its
very nature tests the boundaries and the very
possibility of scientific explanation. Indeed,
cosmology describes itself as a science which
deals with “the universe as a whole”, the universe
as the all-encompassing, singular and unique
“object” of cosmology. However the usage of the
word “object” applied to the universe as a whole
is problematic simply because the mainstream
understanding of objectivity does not allow
the concept of the universe to fit in it. Indeed,
according to this view the universe consists of
independent individual things (objects) which are
embedded in space-time. These things as objects
are individuals, because they have a spatiotemporal location, they are a subject of predication
of properties, and they are distinguishable from
each other through some properties. The universe
as a whole cannot be thought as an object (or as an
individual) because it is as a whole not embedded
in space-time (it is rather a totality of space
and time which transcends their characteristic
features such as extension).2 The universe is
unique and cannot be distinguishable from
anything through particular properties because,
by definition, it comprises everything. The
predication of the universe as a whole in terms
of properties is problematic because the universe
does not attain original givenness in the manner
characteristic of particular individual things.3
The constitution of an individual thing as an
object, that is as a thing subjected to thematisation
and objectification assumes as a condition the
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release from “environmental confinement”4 or
the context in which a thing is looked at. The
universe as a whole cannot be released from such
a confinement because, in a way, it is itself, by
definition, the ultimate environment and context
for everything.5 Thus the standard meaning of the
phrase “object of explanation” as if its identity has
been defined cannot be applied to the universe
with any ontological clarity.6 But we do indeed
understand and use this expression “the universe”
and therefore there must be a manner in which the
universe is given, a consciousness of the universe
that bestows sense on such language. This implies
that before any philosophical deliberation or
scientific thematisation of the universe, there must
be experience of the universe as the recognition
that there is the permanent and persistent in the
background of change or the variable. There is the
sense of identity of the universe as an intentional
correlate of subjectivity, but the identity as ideal
and unfulfilled. A possible scientifically reductive
approach to identity of the universe as an inherent
and non-relational aspect of an entity or a logical
subject does not clarify the ontological status of
this identity. Within these, so to speak, existential
delimiters, the universe of cosmology, being
thematised, naturally represents the ultimate
noematic limit in the process of scientific
exploration and explanation. Nothing further is
empirically or theoretically accessible to which
recourse can be made in order to explain the most
general properties of the universe as a whole and
the facticity of its own existence.7 In one way or
another, natural scientific explanation stops right
there.
The very existence of the universe turns
out to be the precondition for physical science:
the latter describes and explains phenomena
which take place in the universe as something
which is already given. This is the reason why
the universe (as the totality of being) is not itself
subject to a physical explanation. The phenomena
with which physics deals have to be present.
Physics simply takes the existence of its objects
for granted. The laws of physics are laws that
hold within this universe; they do not purport to
be laws that hold across “universes” (which in
this sense would be universal for many universes
with different contingent properties), whatever
that would mean. Physics is not able to enquire
into the underlying facticity of the phenomena
within the universe. If this facticity is associated
with the contingent appearance of phenomena
(as contingent outcomes of physical laws8) as if
these phenomena manifest the radical coming
into being of that which has not been before,
physics definitely cannot link the being of these
phenomena with that something (non-being) they
come from. In other words, physics can deal with
the manifestations of being but not with the ground
of these manifestations in “non-being”. It deals
with something that obeys laws which are already
in being. In technical philosophical language the
same idea can be expressed differently: since
physical cosmology is capable of apprehending
the interior of the universe, the universe exhibits
itself as intelligible; but because of the contingent
nature of this intelligibility (it cannot explain
itself, otherwise it would not be contingent) the
universe embodies a semantic reference beyond
itself. Cosmologists cannot themselves deal
with this “other-worldly” reference and conduct
a proper philosophical work. Some physicists in
an attempt to address the foundational questions
in cosmology make manifest a “philosophical”
mode, not because they adhere to a realm of
“philosophy” but because they do not follow the
normal ways of theory-assessment in the natural
sciences. This was the original motivation, for
example, for inflationary cosmologies which
aspired to explain away the problem of the special
initial conditions of the universe responsible
for the contingent display of the astronomical
universe. A similar motivation lies in ideas of
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multiverse. However, these models, having a
developed mathematical basis and being employed
for problem-solving, raise philosophical problems
and need competence and appraisal through
borrowing methods of philosophy and insights of
the human sciences.
One can generalise by saying that on the one
hand physical cosmology avoids touching upon
ultimate questions; on the other hand, because of
the special status of its subject matter, that is the
universe as a whole, as well as the fundamental
inseparability of human subjectivity from the
universe, cosmology is imbued with these
questions and in order to attend to them one has
to invoke a philosophical attitude to cosmology.9
By conducting a philosophical analysis of
cosmology one can on the one hand articulate
the qualities of cosmological theory which make
it scientific, and identify the naturalistic limits
within cosmological methodology. On the other
hand, by transcending these limits through an
enquiry in cosmology’s facticity, one inevitably
brings cosmology beyond the scope of the natural
sciences since, de facto, here humanity enquires
into the facticity of its own historically contingent
subjectivity. Philosophy here manifests itself
as a method of enquiry into the sense-forming
activities of human subjectivity in the subject
area of the universe as a whole.10 However, since
philosophers do not have a supply of knowledge
about nature in advance, on which they can draw
or to which they should refer, it would be wrong
to take the philosophy of cosmology as dealing
with issues independently of the research going
on in physics and mathematics. But in spite
of the obviousness of the fact that the origin
of scientifically motivated facts lies within
cosmologists’ thinking, the sense of cosmological
ideas and their significance for the constitution of
the noetic pole of the enquiry (that is for human
subjectivity), exceeds the scope of the natural
sciences and thus requires an appeal to the
methods of those sciences which are not restricted
in their scope to the causality of nature.
The special status of cosmology
as a natural science:
from substance to manifestation
The special status of cosmology among
natural sciences is determined by the decisive
factor that its subject matter is unique and cannot
be represented as an outside object, so that there
is a fundamental inseparability of the enquiring
intellect and the universe as a whole. Said
philosophically, the universe enters all forms
of human cognition as the ultimate horizon of
contexts.11 Here we are confronted with a question
about the status of cosmology as a natural science.
In an attempt to study some particular aspects
of these contexts cosmology exhibits certain
features of the human sciences in the sense that the
humanly made choice and emphasis of topics of
investigation through their naming, methods and
goals have a genetic historical priority over the
post-factum made non-egocentric claims about
the reality of the universe as if it is in itself. The
same is true with respect to any part of physics.
However, the seeming epistemic priority of the
human element in cosmology is linked to the fact
that the human world (or the “premise-world”)
associated with the conditions of embodiment has
object-noematic priority over all “other worlds”,
for cosmology, unlike other sciences, has to
predicate that reality which is far away in a generic
sense from the premise-world. This predication is
being made not only as a bottom-up explanation
(that is based on ascending series of physical
causation from the macroscopic empirical
phenomena to the additive totality), but also as
a top-down inference based on the workings of
the intentionality of human subjectivity.12 This
intentionality includes, for example, the very idea
of the universe as the overall totality. From the
point of view of empirical physics the invocation
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of this idea is optional. Correspondingly the idea
of the origin of the universe does not proceed from
earthly physics: it enters the discourse through
an intentional interrogation into the ground of
the universe’s facticity, an interrogation which is
not part of the enquiry into physically causality,
but rather is a philosophical quest for the sense
of being. To understand, in an existential sense,
intentionality invokes intelligible, invisible
entities in order to “explain”, or more precisely,
to interpret the phenomenal. Cosmology in this
respect provides an endless chain of illustrations.
When we accentuate the presence of the
language of intentionality in cosmological
discourse we effectively involve physical
cosmology (which is by its status a science of
the abstract, and detached from human reality,
universe) in the context of the human affairs, thus
exhibiting in a characteristic way that intrinsic
ambivalence in cosmology which originates in
the paradoxical human condition as “both being
a subject of the world and being an object in
the world”.13 Being a subject of the world man
articulates the whole universe on the grounds of
its existential inference of its commensurability
with the universe. Being an object, human being
realises its insignificance for the whole universe
and thus its incommensurability with it. It is the
sense of commensurability which is embedded
in cosmologist’s intentionality of believing in
and predicating of the universe as a whole. And
it is the sense of incommensurability which is
implied by cosmologists’ physical embodiment
that advances their search for the structure of the
universe based on physical causality. In spite of
its paradoxical standing this twofold perception of
the interplay between humanity and the universe
reflects an inevitable feature of any disclosure of
being by human agency. In this sense the unity
of opposites in this paradox is still preserved
by the uniqueness of humanity as the centre of
disclosure. Correspondingly any pretence of sheer
objectivity for the knowledge of the universe as a
whole is blatantly incorrect so that a simple relief
from this tension would be to conjecture that
the content of cosmological knowledge (that is,
astronomical facts and theories of the universe as
a whole including its alleged origins) should be
considered not as contraposed and “transcendent”
to human subjectivity, but as transcendentally
constituted. In other words cosmology itself must
be seen as part of the transcendental discourse, that
is the discourse of the conditions which allow the
universe to manifest itself (in particular, through
mathematical expressibility). Correspondingly
one should make a subtle distinction between
the principles which coordinate knowledge of
the universe and those connecting principles
(expressed mathematically) which state the
relation between the properties of objects which
are already constituted. It is this transcendental
constitution which, being restricted by the outer
universe through the stabilisation of patterns of
thought, has a fundamental human origin in the
very act of its intentional launching, that is an
expression of interest and participation in that
which gives itself for being constituted.
Seen in such a way the intended “subject
matter” of cosmology (the universe in its totality)
exceeds the scope of the physical sciences for it
refers not only to the content of what has already
been manifested, but to the conditions of this
manifestation which are not part of the physical
description per se. Seen in this perspective only,
the phenomenal universe is a sort of a static image
in the ongoing process of manifestation. By its
constitution, physical cosmology provides us with
a particular, logically and physically accessible
pattern in the interpretation of the universe which,
however, does not exhaust the whole sense of
human presence in the universe as the condition
for its manifestation.14 The transcendental sense
of cosmological discourse arrives from the
recognition that the universe is not that which is
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manifest, but that it is the manifestation related
to humanity. In this sense the universe is always
our universe. By its sense the discourse of the
universe as the manifestation has to comprise
not only the current scope of observations and
theories about the universe, but the whole history
of formation of views on the cosmos as well as
all philosophical and theological issues on the
conditions of knowledge of the universe, the telos
of this knowledge and its value. The universe as
manifestation implies a constant participation or
communion with it which is tantamount to saying
that the universe as manifestation means life.
The conditions of manifestation of the
universe which are always implicitly present
behind its empirical appearances and theoretical
representations yet escape an explicit constitution.
They reveal themselves through an excess of
intuition over logical simplicity and mathematical
thoroughness which delivers the paradoxical
sense of presence of the universe, the sense which
is never disclosed in discursive terms thus leaving
one with an immanent awareness of the universe’s
absence. Put differently, the universe is, but there
is no answer to the questions “What is it?” The
incompleteness of any physical description of the
universe brings us to that stance in knowledge
which is called “apophaticism”, that is a mode of
experience in which that which is intended to be
signified through discursive description is never
exhausted through its signifiers.15 The ambiguity
of the presence in absence of the universe deprives
a genuine cosmological project of any flavour of
foundationalism understood as an epistemological
correlate of the notion of an ontological ground
be it the constituting subjectivity of the self,
or the outer universe as underlying substance.
Cosmology has to function in the conditions of
the classical paradox of human subjectivity in
the world which arises in this context and points
to the fundamental difficulty in attempting to
formulate the ontology of the universe in terms
of ground-grounded relationship. The universe
as manifestation thus escapes any accomplished
definitions and descriptions and, because of this,
human subjectivity itself is being constituted
through its openness to the universe to the extent
it cannot comprehend the universe. One sees thus
that cosmological discourse (as a mode of the
natural sciences) cannot pretend to be complete
without recourse to the essence of the agency
disclosing the sense of the universe, that of human
beings. 16
The nature of manifestation
and ontological commitment
In some cases cosmology claims the existence
of things on the grounds of theoretical consistency
and a fit with other plausible constructs, but for
which we can have no observational evidence
(that is, the principle of direct correspondence
with empirical reality is not applicable).17 Such
a situation, for example, happens in the extreme
case of the construct of the multiverse18, where
no direct observational or experimental tests of
the hypothesis are possible, and the assumed
underlying physics is probably untestable in
principle. These possibilities do not by themselves
prove correct epistemic justification, even less do
they point to the truth-content of what theories
claim. It is seen that here a sort of philosophical,
that is trans-scientific insight is invoked.
In the case where cosmology predicates
things beyond their verification through
correspondence it appeals first of all to the
method of extrapolation (understood in a wide
sense) which itself must be evaluated as tacitly
committed to a sort of realism grounded in belief
of the efficacy of extrapolation. Philosophically
and scientifically the problem of extrapolation
arises from those limits of scientific explanation
which are set by the observational constraints
inherent in our earthbound home-place. All that
is in principle directly accessible to observations
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is positioned on the surface of the past light-cone
with its apex on the planet Earth.19 Outside that
cone one has the uncertainties of extrapolation.20
Thus the extension of a cosmologist’s insight
into the universe from earth, in the attempt
to encompass the universe in a single vision
(including its absolute origin), requires an
inference from what is already known to what is
as yet only conjectured. For a form of knowledge
that rests its claim on its empirical, observationbased, access to the world (most of the natural
sciences), these limits raise clear difficulties.
One could claim that “extrapolations”
(inferences) towards the fundamentally nonobservable and untestable are simply physical
hypotheses that are assessed along a variety of
lines including observational tests as one of them.
These hypotheses may rely on appeal to analogy,
on consistency with other cosmological contexts,
on logical fertility and explanatory force, or a
mathematical consistency and elegance. Over
time they may be woven into a more and more
tightly connected set of beliefs and ideas, each
element of which derives support from the set
as a whole.21 One can claim even further that
extrapolations in cosmology itself (whatever
this means, including a shift of “home places”22
in the cosmological principle, or a free eidetic
variation23 of the parameters of the whole world
which happens in theories of multiverse) implies
an extended sense of “scientific justification”,
for example epistemic coherence which does
not necessarily refer to tests and observations.
This, in turn, entails a different commitment to
realism.
For example, in the models of origin of
the universe, the major presumption is that one
can extend the laws of physics (comprehended
by us through mathematical formulae) towards
something which can not be physically
independent of its mathematical gestalt. In other
words, such an extension presumes effectively a
set of beliefs that it is possible to catch the sense of
reality beyond the sensible (corporeal, in a sense
of physical equipment as extension one’s bodily
function) as its efficacious identity (which could
be either on the level of the alleged substance or
on the level of ideal forms) through time in spite
of the postfactum resistance of reality to this.24
The validity of these beliefs can only be justified
on the grounds of their coherence as well as, to
a lesser extent, agreement with that border-line
physics which through observation is linked to
the empirical validation. The situation when
justification is linked to beliefs is dealt with by
that part of contemporary epistemology which
is called the coherence theory of epistemic
justification and which holds that a belief is
justified to the extent to which the belief-set
of which it is a member is coherent25; what is
at issue in a coherence theory is a matter of a
proposition’s relation to other propositions, and
not its ‘coherence’ with reality or with the facts
of matter.
Now we see that it becomes a task for
philosophy to discuss the various sorts of
hypothetical extrapolation that cosmologists
make as a regular part of their work and the
implied philosophical beliefs which drive them.
As a matter of illustration let us refer to the
basic assumption underlying the very possibility
and foundation of modern cosmology, that is
the principle of uniformity of space-time and
matter (cosmological principle) which is based
in extrapolation (in the certainty of a belief in an
indifferent location of humanity in the universe)
that the average isotropic picture of the large-scale
distribution of matter in the universe as observed
from the Earth can be transferred to all possible
locations (thus implying spatial homogeneity).26
This extrapolation makes manifest a certain
philosophical and, may be, even a theological
commitment which acts in the cosmologist’s
mind as a regulative and indemonstrable belief.27
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The implication of this belief in cosmology is a
particular causal structure of the global spacetime of the universe; that is, this belief as an
act of intentionality cascades down to physical
causality.
Another illustration comes from inflationary
cosmology: it confesses a belief that there exists
a field Φ (inflaton)28, which is described through
a corresponding theory and which drives the
evolution of the universe during the very early
inflationary period. This belief coheres (as
justification) with another scientific conjecture
(belief) that there was a period of evolution
of the universe with an exponential growth in
time which, in turn, solves some problems of
radiation-dominated cosmology29 and hence
makes the so called standard cosmological
model even more coherent. One must stress here
that all beliefs surrounding the construction of
a quite sophisticated theory of the inflationary
universe are driven by the hidden desire to
explain away the contingent facticity of the
initial conditions of the universe as well as its
present display. Contingency as eventuality and
historicity is not a part and parcel of physics
and thus here we observe a certain “pseudotheological” commitment to overcome the
“latent horror of the unique event.”30 A similar
situation occurs with the idea of the multiverse.
Since no correspondence with empirical reality
is possible, all speculations about the multiverse
work in the certainty of belief that there is an
extended meta-reality which comprises our
universe, so that any justification for a theory
of such a multiverse can only be based on the
grounds of epistemic coherence, which is related
to convention at the level of the community
of cosmologists. The fact that the idea of the
multiverse is driven by a pseudo-theological
commitment to justify this universe through
the reference to the transcendent can easily be
detected by pointing to the by no means rare
discussions on how multiverse competes with
the idea of creation of the universe ex nihilo
by God.31 In the case of the multiverse, in fact,
no realistic reference is even required. We deal
here with a situation where the mental states
(of cosmologists) affect our sense of reality and
even contribute to its theory. 32 The idea of the
multiverse can be approached from a different
point of view if considered phenomenologically
as an eidetic variation of the parameters
pertaining to the actual universe. This variation
takes place within human subjectivity and aims
to articulate some apodictic features of that state
of affairs which accounts for this actual universe
(as a unique event). In this case the invocation
of the idea of the multiverse is a legitimate
phenomenological procedure in order to reaffi rm
with a new force the inevitability of the given
contingency of this actual universe. But certainly
in this case the causation which is implied by the
model of multiverse is of a rather mental kind,
so that the analysis of conscious states becomes,
in a sophisticated way, the datum of scientific
facts and cosmology as such becomes a form of
phenomenological explication of the working of
human subjectivity.
We see thus that the effectuation of
the coherence of epistemic justification in
cosmology (which implies a communal or
transcendental dimension in cosmology) leads to
a different stance on ontological commitment in
cosmological discourse. Cosmology is now seen
as an enquiry into the condition of appearance
of the universe, attaining reality such as it gives
itself to be apprehended by human beings and
their communities, the very reality of the world
in which every sensible entity, astronomical
objects, physical bodies including human beings
themselves find their place and their meaning.
However, this discourse of the appearance
does not deal much with a description of what
appears at the level of observational astronomy
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and constructs of theoretical physics, but in a
more profound sense with a characterisation
of the very conditions (related to the reality
of the human) which govern the possibility of
appearance (manifestation) of the universe.
In other words, it is not, properly speaking, a
discourse of the phenomena as such (related to
knowledge of facts about the universe), but a
discourse of the process of phenomenalization of
the universe. In a traditional mode of language a
discourse pertaining to the conditions in which
the phenomenon constitutes itself as phenomenon
is called transcendental. By becoming more
and more conscious of its constraints and
possibilities (as related to the place of humanity
and its communities in being), the discourse of
philosophy of cosmology becomes more and more
a transcendental discourse. Correspondingly this
discourse reveals itself not only as the discourse
of the universe, but as a discourse of human
beings.
By being engaged in the discourse of the
universe as a whole human beings themselves
are involved into and subjected to the process
of their phenomenalization: on the one hand
they take it as their task to control this
process through advancing (astronomical)
praxis dependent upon their theories; on the
other hand the universe remains that overall
context and horizon of all horizons which
escapes constitution by discursive reason
so that it is rather human subjectivity that
is constituted by the universe to the extent
it cannot comprehend the universe. In this
sense cosmology represents not so much
that which is manifest, that is the universe as
such, but the manifestation, the manifestation
which involves the universe and conscious
human beings into the endless constitution. 33
Cosmology reveals itself as a contributor to
the phenomenological project, as realization
of a transcendental discourse.
Phenomenological insight
in cosmology as explication
of the human
A phenomenological insight into cosmology
makes a reversal of its meaning by shifting the
centre of its enquiry from the noematic content
(that is related to object) to its noetic pole (related to
subject), that is the generating human subjectivity.
When scientific reason attempts to enquire into
the origin of the universe in an absolute sense
the strategy of extrapolation acquires some
features of philosophical transcendence. But here
transcendence is not through physical causation
(this would be an impossible break beyond
the immanent), but through retaining in the
background of all physical representations of the
universe, in terms of stages of its evolution, an
excess of the universe’s intuitive donation in the
act of life. Transcendence points towards a simple
truth that the reality of the human embodied
condition in the universe is not exhausted by
those physical aspects which position humanity
as temporally and spatially insignificant and
hence incommensurable with the universe.34
Correspondingly cosmology, if it is narrowed
to the physical and expressed mathematically,
cannot account for the ultimate sense of the
universe because it cannot account for the
ultimate sense of the human.35 Since no science
can give such an account, the question here is
about the boundaries of the human in science.
The atomic bomb, for example, being a human
creation, characteristically points towards the
inhuman, that is to the limits of humanity as such.
Thus the atomic bomb as a scientific achievement
defines in an apophatic (negative) way the sense
of the human. Cosmology plays a similar role:
it provides some hints and pointers as to where
human comprehension and articulation of the
universe becomes paradoxically inhuman (the Big
Bang, for example). In this sense the cosmology of
the Big Bang becomes a characteristic, although
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apophatic, explication of the sense of humanity as
that formation in being which is looking for its own
origin and its own history.36 A phenomenological
insight into the sense of cosmology as explicating
humanity’s quest for itself thus compensates for
the incompleteness of cosmology and reinstates
its human creator to its ontological centeredness
in disclosing and manifesting the universe.37 At
the same time the limits of physics and scientific
philosophy, tested through cosmology, in fact test
the limits of humanity to understand its own sense
of existence. The incomprehensible universe
invokes in the human scientific mind humility
and discernment in order to realise the limits
of its pretensions to knowledge of the universe
which resists disclosure and exceeds the capacity
of understanding.38
Since cosmology assessed, phenomenologically, retrieves the “natural” centring of all
non-egocentric tendencies of its world-building
narrative in human hypostatic subjectivity, this
assessment indirectly calls into question the
purported neutrality and objectivity of some of its
claims with respect to realities which are beyond
empirical verification. It could suggest instead that
such “neutral” descriptions of the world operate
on the basis of existential concerns formulated in
a set of beliefs (or myths, which may or may not
be related to the faith of theology).39 In this sense
the phenomenological stance rejects the view
that cosmological knowledge describes the world
in itself40; rather these descriptions are seen as
interpretations that are governed by beliefs which
can be qualified as controlled to the extent that they
are related to a particular path of science in human
history.41 For example, if one is to understand and
explain the past of the universe as constituted
through human history, one must conceive it
in terms of past possibilities of this history
rather than as a defined and finished product.
In this case the cosmologist’s own historical
consciousness is involved in “archaeology” of
the universe and, in analogy with historical
science, cosmological discourse reveals itself
as a form of consciousness which humanity (as
community) has of itself.42 By revealing the telos
in the historical path of cosmological explanation
(as related to the representation of the ultimate
origin of the universe)43, phenomenological
analysis discloses the hidden “theological
commitment” in cosmological research, meaning
that the beginning and the end of the universe
in human thought is just a mode of this same
thought speaking of its own beginning and its
own consummation implying a transcendent
reference. Seen from a slightly different angle
this “theological commitment” corresponds to
an attempt to know and see the universe as “all
in all”, as that primary existential memory in the
human constitution which drives cosmological
research.44
Regardless of possible scepticism with
respect to objectivity and neutrality, scientific
cosmology remains an extremely important
and useful instrument in demonstrating just
how human embodied subjectivity affirms
itself through the non-egocentric tendencies of
its “natural” attitude. The universe that science
depicts as something different from us and
devoid of our influence and presence, represents
in fact the articulated words and thoughts of
humanity. By creating a cosmological narrative
we affirm ourselves in a non-trivial sense.45
Indeed, by creating a physico-mathematical
narrative cosmologists loose control over
the intentions they are driven by, since the
introspection upon their creation is not in the
focus of scientific enquiry. To understand the
“data” lying behind this narrative one must
consider it as manifestation of an expressive act,
that is to move from their given meaning to their
giving meaning, from their pure phenomenality
to the intentional life which generated them. By
predicating the evolving universe and attempting
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to phenomenalise the mystery of its contingent
origin, human subjectivity employs that
intentionality which effectuates the telos of human
subjectivity’s ever-going incarnation as “coming
to presence” assigning thus a dynamic character
to personhood’s manifestation.46 As expressed by
M. Munitz: “The goals of cosmology are goals of
human beings”. However, the universe as such
benefits from these goals: “Through the measure
in which they are reached, the universe becomes
understood, perhaps for the first time anywhere
throughout its vast stretches in space and time”
(Munitz, 1951, p. 338). By reflecting the goals
of humanity, cosmology exhibits the traditional
features of all mythologies, namely that the
perceptible aspects of the universe are expressed
in terms of human social, behaviorial and
existential concerns. In this sense the picturing
of the universe as a historical process cannot
avoid containing erratic facts associated with
the human condition, to be more precise with
the intimacy of personal communion with the
universe and the extent of not being attuned to it.
Any imaginable attempt to disregard these facts
1
2
3
4
5
6
and assess cosmology only on the basis of lawlike ordered concepts would be incomplete and
historically inadequate: in this case cosmology
would provide us only with a fringe of the
universe’s phenomenality. The other “part” of
the universe’s phenomenality which reflects the
erratic fact of not being attuned to the universe is
rather reflected in poetic and artistic depictions
relying on ecstatic act of personal being in the
universe as communion. This only confirms an
already formulated view that cosmology cannot
dispense with anthropology, not only in a high
philosophical sense, but in the mundane sense
of human affairs. 47 The so called mythological
aspect of any cosmology thus naturally arises
from the intention to interpret erratic features of
the human universe through a reference to the
astronomical order and it is this aspect that brings
with a new force a “coherence” dimension in its
epistemic justifications which was mentioned
before: indeed mythologies never present gaps
in their “explanations” and are invoked by the
communities of adherents on the ground of
coherence of their claims.
A careful analysis of methodological weaknesses in cosmology has been done in a paper of George Ellis (Ellis,
2007).
The word “object” cannot be legitimately applied to the universe because the universe as a singular and self-contained
whole cannot be detached from human insight and thus positioned as something which is outside and devoid of the human presence. There is a fundamental inseparability between the universe and the knowing subject who is always a part
of the universe. Another problem emerges from the universe’s uniqueness which cannot be set among other universes.
The modern view of the universe as developed from a singular state (Big Bang) which de facto encodes the universe in
its totality invokes a counter-intuitive sense of the universe as a singular, that is unrepeatable event (not an object!) with
respect to which the natural sciences experience the sense of fear and desire to explain it away. Edgard Morin expressed
the idea that the cosmos reveals itself as the universe and event. On the one hand the physical universe constituted through
regular repetitive features, on the other it is a singular event as phenomenon, the phenomenon which evolves for more than
ten billion years. The temporal unfolding of the universe which appears to human contemplation lies indissolubly in the
advent-event (avènement-événement) of the world (Morin, 1982, p. 120).
It is because of the inseparability between the human observer and the universe that the conditions of the universe’s observability and mathematical expressibility are constitutive of the very concept of the universe. In this sense the “physical
objectivity” of the universe cannot bear an independent reality in a classical sense. Indeed, unlike in classical physics, the
basic conditions of the constitution of the universe as a whole have not been permanently available and thus have to be
questioned (Cf. Bitbol, et al. 2009, pp. 4, 18.)
Terminology of M. Heidegger (Heidegger, 1998, p. 413).
Here one sees an original sign that cosmology in a way has some features of the human sciences, because it is known that
the release from environmental confi nement is not necessary for thematisation and objectification in the human sciences,
where a perspective on reality is crucially dependent on the researcher’s intentionality originating in the existential and
socio-historical condition (and thus cannot be environmentally free). Applied to cosmology this would mean that if one
implies that the in-itself of the universe (as its identity) be studied, it must preserve this identity as free from any change
through the release from environmental confi nement, that is from the inherent subjectivity of a knower of the universe.
C.f. Theses A1 and A2 in (Ellis, 2007, p. 1216.)
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This was always realised by cosmologists themselves. As an example one can refer to D. Sciama’s interview of 1978
where he underlined the existence of a borderline between the ultimate questions about the universe’s facticity and the
exploration of its properties: “None of us can understand why there is a Universe at all, why anything should exist; that’s
the ultimate question. But while we cannot answer this question, we can at least make progress with the next simpler one,
of what the Universe as a whole is like.” (Quoted in (Kragh, 1996, p. xi).
However the very contingent appearance of things in the universe points towards the laws whose outcomes supply these
appearances: there must be these laws in order to have these particular things. It is difficult to separate in the universe as
a whole between its factual (material) and nomic (law-like) features. In this sense one can talk about facticity of physical
laws themselves as linked to the boundary or initial conditions in the universe. See, for example, in this respect (Balashov,
1998, pp. 147; 2009, pp. 269-277).
It is this mentioned inseparability which makes the cosmological idea (that is the idea of totality of the world) fundamentally different among other ideas of reason, such as the idea of soul or the idea of God. Kant wrote that neither psychological nor theological idea entail contradiction and contain antinomies. (Kant, 1933, A673/B701). Practically this means that
one can easily deny the existence of a soul (let us say, on materialistic grounds) or deny the existence of God (on atheistic
grounds). However it is impossible to deny the existence of the universe for it would deny the empirical world of sense
which is part of the universe and which contains the foundation of all knowledge about universe. The antinomian nature
of reasoning about the universe originates exactly here: by being in the sensible world one cannot disentangle from the
universe, at the same time the universe as totality is never fully materialised in the world of the senses.
The fact that the encounter with the problem of the universe as a whole represents more an epistemological issue than
anything which can be associated with the natural sciences, was understood long before by such thinkers as Nicholas of
Cusa and Kant. The very concept of “learned ignorance”, which amounts in modern terms to the apophaticism of knowledge in general, and which had been drawn from astronomical-cosmological considerations, had most of all an epistemological meaning pointing toward the limits of reason and puzzles which it has to encounter while dealing with such a
limiting concept as the universe. (See, for example, (Koyré, 1958, pp. 5-19). A similar sense was attached by Kant to his
famous cosmological antinomies, which were indications of the fundamental paradoxical structures of reason rather than
any constructive theories of the universe. Here is a characteristic quote from a contemporary treatise on Kant: “Because
reason examines itself in order to extract laws from within itself, instead of simply greeting these laws, the cosmological
antinomy is the place where the innermost depths of our humanity manifest themselves. In the antinomy, nature speaks to
our inquiring minds in the most direct possible way, precisely because, as a complete whole, it is exposed to the danger of
being lost in obstinacy or despair.”(Kerszberg, 1997, p. 101).
Here, in analogy with Husserl’s defi nition of the “world-horizon” the universe as such is never given in a manner pertaining to ordinary objects. The universe as a horizon of all contexts in the physical and mathematical enquiry in the structure
of the world cannot be an object and is distinct from any object given in the background of contexts. The universe is coperceived as the necessary horizon of all individual beings (astronomical or terrestrial) which are immediately experienced.
(Husserl,1977, pp. 70-73); see also (Steinbock,1995, p. 104.)
This distinction can be elucidated by a quote from a paper of C. Harvey: “It is common parlance to say that whereas the
natural scientists seek to explain, the human scientists seek to understand. This distinction between understanding and
explanation, however is itself predicated upon the deeper distinction between intentionality and causality. If the natural
sciences rely upon physicalistic causality as the human sciences rely upon intentionalistic motivation, and the intentionalistic motivation is shown to be prior to causal rationality, then natural science will be shown to be posterior to, because
ultimately explainable in terms of, human scientific motifs”. (Harvey, 1995, p. 125. Emphasis added).
This paradox is a perennial problem of philosophy and was anticipated by ancient Greek philosophers and Christian thinkers. It was express differently by such philosophers as Kant (see, for example, Kant’s conclusion to his Critique of Practical Reason.) Among phenomenological philosophers who dealt with this paradox one can mention E. Husserl, M. Scheler,
M. Merleau-Ponty, E. Fromm and others. The general discussion of this paradox can be found in (Carr, 1999). The decisive
role of this paradox in discussion on science and theology can be found in (Nesteruk, 2008, pp. 173-175). Applied to the
study of the universe the paradox of human subjectivity can be formulated as follows: on the one hand human beings in the
facticity of their embodied condition form the centre of disclosure and manifestation of the universe as a whole, modelling
it as overall-space and time which exceeds the limits of the attuned space related to humanity’s comportment on the planet
earth (the home place). On the other hand the depicted universe as a vast continuum of space and time positions humanity
in an insignificant place in the whole totality making its existence not only contingent (in physical terms) but full of nonsense from the point of view of actually infi nite universe. Said bluntly the actual infi nity of the universe is attempted to be
articulated from an infi nitely small part of its formation. One could express this differently: through its insight humanity is
co-present in all points of what it observes in the universe, or imagines while physically being restricted to an insignificant
part of it. Cosmology as the discourse of the universe as a whole brings one face to face to a general philosophical objective of avoiding any sort of foundationalism in knowledge of the universe which insists on the ground-grounded relation
between humanity and the universe leading either to an idealistic reduction (subjectivity as the ground of the world) or
to a materialistic, mathematically deterministic diminution of consciousness to illusion. In either mode of reduction the
reality of the ground absorbs the grounded and the grounded is reduced to the categories of the ground. To avoid these
reductions, the embodiment, as a premise of the person’s grasp of the world, must be rather considered as that “over here”,
where a particular and immediate indwelling of life and the universe comes to presence. It is this coming to presence that
determines that “place” which constitutes person as a centre of disclosure and manifestation of the universe.
This concerns fi rst of all the dimension of personal (hypostatic) embodiment. Indeed the discursive or linguistic expression of experience of the universe does not rule out the immediate corporeal presence of the universe on the level of sheer
consubstantiality between human beings and the universe. Correspondingly if this dimension is overlooked then the per-
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ceived inability of cosmology to make results personally meaningful can be alienating and frustrating for non-specialists:
for example, the sheer insignificance of humanity on the cosmic scale can create a sense of anxiety and despair related
to the meaning of human life. However cosmic physics does not exhaust the sense of the human experience of space, or
astronomical objects. Our experience of the universe as that mysterious environment with beautiful night skies and warming presence of the life-giving sun exceeds and is much richer than just knowledge of astronomy or solar physics. The
problem is that the formalised and mathematised science sometimes has the effect of de-legitimising and de-appreciating
other ways of communion with the wonders of space. (Nieman, 2005, pp. 383-388).
One can mention that the “apophatic” conviction applied to some limiting situations in cognition is well known in history
of philosophical and theological thought. Generalising this conviction towards knowledge in general, C. Yannaras describes “as “apophatic” that linguistic semantics and attitude to cognition which refuses to exhaust the content of knowledge in its formulation, which refuses to exhaust the reality of things signified in the logic of signifiers (Yannaras, 2004, p.
84). In philosophy, for example, it originates from an epistemological argument pertaining to a sort of linguistic reformulation of the Kantian transcendentalism (which is typical for post-structuralism) that language conditions the accessibility
and intelligibility of reality. In this approach the very phrase “there is” points to a referent which the very language cannot
capture because the referent is not constituted by language and by defi nition is not the same as it linguistic effect. According to this view there is no access to the referent outside the linguistic effect, but the linguistic effect is not the same as
that referent it attempts but fails to capture. This situation entails, in analogy with theology, a variety of ways of making
such a reference, where none of which can claim it exclusiveness and true accessibility to what the reference is made. A
phenomenological philosopher J. Ladrière, without using the notion of apophaticism, points towards the same feature of
any knowledge, more precisely to the apophaticism of that fashion in which the human existent approaches the encounter
with the world. An object is never a pure reference to itself, but is also a revelation of the fashion of its comprehension.
(Ladrière, 1970, pp. 448, 450). The range of cognitive situations which fall under the scope of apophaticism can be found
in works of J.-L. Marion under the name of “saturated phenomenon”. See (Marion, 2002).
C.f. “A philosophy of nature and a philosophy of man are mutually complementary;… neither can be completed unless it
shows itself as the counterpart of the other”, (De Laguna, 1966, pp. 81-82).
This, for example, can be related to the cosmological principle which postulates uniformity of the universe beyond observational limits. Another example is a famous “inflaton” field which drives the exponential expansion of the early universe.
Multiverse proposals in cosmology refer effectively to the old idea of the plurality of worlds understood either in a physical
sense as an ensemble of worlds with all possible physical conditions, or a variety of mathematical structures which have
or do not have their incarnation in the physical. In this case the existence of our universe in its contingent facticity is explained away through a reference that it simply belongs (in a generic sense) to an ensemble of universes which through its
totality contains whatever is possible. (The literature on the multiverse is vast, as an example see a paper (Tegmark, 2003)
or a book (Carr, 2007) with a variety of papers on different aspects of the multiverse debate.) In all multiverse proposals
the question of existence, that is of the contingent facticity of this universe, is thus quite illegitimately transferred to the
question of selection, whereas the issue of the existence of the multiverse itself cannot not addressed at all for obvious
philosophical reasons.
There is a tiny piece of the human observer’s world line which relates to the immediate cosmic environment like the earth,
planets in the solar system, stars in our galaxy which, in terms of cosmic times and thus space, are “close” to us so that
their separation from us is in a way “commensurable” with the humankind’s life span. We assert the existence of such
objects in terms similar to those of the earthly objects.
Thesis B1 in (Ellis, 2007, p. 1220).
See, for example, (McMullin, 1994, pp. 119-120).
This is the terminology of E. Husserl (Husserl, 1981).
On eidetic variation in phenomenology see e.g. (Sokolowski, 2000, pp. 177-84).
This is a longstanding point made in (Meyerson, 1964).
See, for example, (Dancy,1989, p. 116).
There are discussions at present that the universe may not be uniform at large and that the observed uniformity is the result
that we are centred in a sort of void.
Discussing the cosmological principle in close connection with the so called Copernican principle, E. McMullin points
out that the Copernican principle has to be understood in terms of what it rejects, namely older teleological beliefs about
the uniqueness of the human and the likelihood that humanity has a selected position in space, for example being a
cosmic center.( McMullin, 1993, p. 373). However the desire to abandon the teleological explanation is itself based in
intentionality, rather than any scientifically demonstrable conviction. The indifference postulated by the cosmological
principle is indemonstrable because it itself lies in the foundation of the very possibility of scientific demonstration applied
to cosmology. Thus it is based in the belief in knowability of the universe which has a different motivation in comparison
with that one of teleology (but related to the latter).
In spite of the fact that the hypothesis of this field, its very existence, is very efficient in a qualitative and quantitative
modelling of observable phenomena, the physical nature of this field, that is its relation to a certain class of observed
particles, remains obscure. This is one of the major points of scepticism with respect to inflationary theories, which has
been raised, for example, in the abovementioned paper of Ellis (Ellis, 2007, p. 1210). (See a similar point made in (Penrose,
2005, p. 751) and in (Weinberg, 2008, pp. 202, 217)).
These are famous horizon, monopole and flatness problems. See e.g. (Weinberg, 2008, pp. 201-208). See also (Penrose,
2005, pp. 753-57), in what concerns a certain critique of the inflationary hypothesis.
C. f. (Torrance, 1996, pp. 166-7).
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See, for example, discussion of this issue in (Leslie, 1989), (Temple, 1994), (Stoeger, 2007), (Collins, 2007).
This thought was anticipated by Henry Margenau who believed that modern physics could provide an evidence that the
nature of its reality is determined not only through causation in empirical reality, but also through intentional acts of
thought. In his approach to the nature of physical reality he posed a question: “Is sensed nature the only field of departure
or arrival in the process of scientific verification, or will inspection of the eidetic structures of consciousness function in
a similar way as dator of scientific fact?” (Margenau, 1944, p. 278).
C.f. (Ladrière, 1972, pp. 169, 173, 176).
In the context of the so called anthropic inference this was pointed out by (Bitbol, 1993). In a wider philosophical and
theological context this excess of humanity beyond nature was discussed in (Nesteruk, 2001).
The cosmic environment provides the necessary conditions for human corporeal existence (and this is exactly detected in
anthropic arguments) whereas the sufficient conditions do not belong to the sphere of physics and point towards human
morality, ethics and some eschatological commitments. See discussion in (Nesteruk, 2003, pp. 200-214).
One can point to similarities between the phenomenology of birth and the aspirations of cosmologists to disclose the sense
of birth (origin) of the universe. See (Nesteruk, 2008, pp. 247-66). “Is there not, when we read it sufficiently profoundly,
an analogy between the deep structure of nature and the structure of human existence as openness, creativity, possibility
of accord with the event? The problematic of nature can thus be linked with the problematic of human existence.” (J.
Ladrière, 1972, p. 186).
The idea that a research into the underlying sense of science leads to enlightenment of the ways and telos of the human
spirit was clearly formulated by many phenomenological philosophers starting from Husserl. Here is a quote from J.
Ladrière: “The detail of the life of science must […] be investigated in order to know something of the nature of reason and
of its becoming…The destiny of reason is outlined […] in the incessant comings and goings that defi ne the life of science.
It is in the patient advance of its history that its fi nality reveals itself” (Ladrière, 1970, p. 455).
The phenomenological construct of “presence in absence” can be easily applied to cosmology. For example: we see the
universe back in time along the so called past light cone, so that the inference about the universe outside this cone can be
considered as an attempt to deal with the universe as a whole which is present in its empirical absence. A similar thing
can be said if one remembers that according to present-day model the visible matter represents only 4% of the whole
material content of the universe. The other 96% (dark energy and dark matter) is postulated in order to balance the model
with observations. In other words the universe is present to us through 4% of what is visibly manifested but in empirical
absence of the 96%.
A basic and unavoidable structure of any cosmological myth, including its contemporary scientific arrangement is the
duality between the factual and empirical on the one hand, and the intelligible (as allegedly stable and underlying) on the
other hand. See e.g. (Ladrière, 1972, p. 153).
As it was eloquently expressed by A. Gurwitsch, “the goal of phenomenology is not an exhaustive description of an infi nite
variety of immanent data, but the investigation of those contexts of consciousness owing to which there is a perceptible
world, the universe of physical constructs, etc.” (Gurwitsch, 1992, pp. 43-44).
It is the presence of this concrete path of science which confi rms our previous stance on cosmology as the working of
constitution, that is a re-enactment of the production of the world. To clarify this point one can quote another paper of J.
Ladrière: “The theoretical apparatus is thus not a description in the ordinary sense, as presentation of an entity, supposedly
given, and of its properties, it is the characterisation of something which is not a thing, but a structural path along which
a thing comes, from the ultimate horizon of every givenness, to the actual presence in which it is effectively given to
apprehension.” (Ladrière, 1989, p. 138). (Emphasis added.)
C.f. (Aron, 1938, p. 80).
See (Nesteruk, 2008, pp. 250-254; 2009, pp. 78-81).
Physical cosmology makes it clear that the world line of the human observer starts at the Big Bang, so that whatever we
have on our physical content is directly related to that undifferentiated something lying in the foundation of all possible
form of mater in the universe.
See, e.g., (Swimme, 2005, p. 7), (Mathews, 1991, p. 5), (Kline, 1977, p. 423).
C.f., (Heelan, 1972). See also in this context (Compton, 1967, p. 82).
As was provocatively conjectured by an author from the camp of the human sciences and arts, we need “a sort of “mythoscientific, neo-anthropomorphic” theory, one that would stay operational by combining the fi ndings of mainstream science
with conjectures based on mythological thought. This type of theory would map features of the universe through images
taken from the domain of human social behaviour….Although anthropomorphic theories might not be operational, they
can lead to a better understanding of the universe.” (Friedman,1993, p. 361).
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Космология на перекрестке естественных
и гуманитарных наук: возможна ли демаркация?
Часть 1. Введение
А.В. Нестерук
Университет Портсмута
Лайон Гэйт Бюлдинг, ПОРТСМУТ,
РО1 3НF, Великобритания
В статье обсуждается проблема демаркации элементов естественных и гуманитарных наук
в космологии, понимаемой как дисциплина, занимающаяся изучением вселенной как целого.
Акцент сделан на феноменологическом анализе предпосылок космологии, подчеркивающих
ее исторически случайный характер, связанный с положением человека в космосе. Одним
из тезисов является предложение понимать космологию как отчасти гуманитарную
дисциплину, изучающую человека. Точнее то, что познавательные структуры физической
вселенной в естественно-научной дисциплине космологии неявно эксплицируют структуры
человеческого субъекта, озабоченного пониманием своего положения в мире. В этом смысле
исторически-случайный характер естественно-научной космологии дополняется абсолютным
и универсальным содержанием, относящимся к проблеме человеческого.
Ключевые слова: космология, философия, вселенная, познаваемость, человек, соучастие,
манифестация, феноменология, верования, когерентность объяснения.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2011 4) 577-612
~~~
УДК 304
Materials of the Second Session of Educational,
Scientific and Methodological Seminar
«Theory and Practice of Applied Culture Studies»
on the Basis of Arts History
and Cultural Studies Department,
Institute for the Humanities, Siberian Federal University,
Krasnoyarsk October 14th, 2009
Natalia P. Koptseva*
Siberian Federal University
82 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 4.04.2011, received in revised form 11.04.2011, accepted 18.04.2011
The second session of educational, scientific and methodological seminar «Theory and practice of
applied culture studies» was held on the basis of Arts History and Cultural Studies Department,
Institute for the Humanities, Siberian Federal University (Krasnoyarsk) on the 14th of October,
2009.
The subject matter of the second session is «Methods of applied culture studies: structural functionalism
version. Part 1: The general theoretical principles of Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski’s and Alfred
Reginald Radcliffe-Brown’s conceptions». The following questions are to be discussed here:
1. B.K. Malinowski’s and A.R. Radcliffe-Brown’s methodological and methodical potential of structural
functionalism;
2. Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski’s theory of culture and its methodological potential;
3. Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown’s theory of society and the consequent methodological
program;
4. Social engineering as a goal of cultural anthropology.
The methods and methodologies of applied culture studies, classical for foreign culture science, within
the frames of structural functionalism are discussed in these materials of the seminar in connection
with their potential used for solution of the problems of the Russian culture studies and reality.
Keywords: Cultural anthropology, structural functionalism, methods and methodology of applied
culture studies, social engineering, Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski, Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown.
The subject matter of the second session is
«Methods of applied culture studies: structural
functionalism version. Part 1: The general theoretical
*
1
principles of Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski’s and
Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown’s conceptions».
The following questions are to be discussed here:
Corresponding author E-mail address: decanka@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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1. B.K. Malinowski’s and A.R. RadcliffeBrown’s methodological and methodical potential
of structural functionalism;
2. Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski’s theory of
culture and its methodological potential;
3. Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown’s theory
of society and the consequent methodological
program;
4. Social engineering as a goal of cultural
anthropology.
Koptseva Nalatia Petrovna
(Doctor of Philosophy, professor,
Head of the Cultural Studies Department,
Dean of Arts History
and Cultural Studies Department):
Good afternoon, everyone! We are glad
to see you at our seminar. I should explain to
those, who are taking part in the seminar today
for the fi rst time, that there was stated the
problem of the ways of development of human
sciences in Russia, whether the human studies
correspond to the international standards and
what should be done to reach correspondence
to the international standards. While cultural
studies exist only as a short terminal course at
the vast majority of universities and institutes
of our country and city, when the Siberian
Federal University started training specialists
in cultural studies three years ago and bachelors
of cultural studies two years ago, we have been
entrusted with a task of realization of more
serious approaches to training bachelors and
specialists in cultural studies. It is clear for us as
the representatives of the university community
that the courses we teach are to be based on our
own scientific research and then the question of
form and content of our scientific investigations
passes into the space of educational meaning:
what we are to teach our future specialists
for five thousand hours, the purpose of their
training, which competences we are to give
them, which scientific studies we should develop
to train our students. Is there any succession of
science in 2000s and that one of 1960s-1980s
or should we break that succession? There are
lots of questions. Having summarized, our
honorable academic and educational community
admitted that whichever conceptual fundamental
studies we carried out in the 20th century, our
investigations, which are for our own sake,
survivability, and needs, must obtain strongly
marked applied nature in the 21st century. There
has been raised a question about what can be
called «applied nature» of culture studies. Our
dear participants in the seminar have pointed
out several subjects which could develop that
applied nature. At the same time we understand
that we should put away self-admiration and
identify our place in the international cultural
studies exactly and objectively. As a result, we
have a very interesting discussion and quite
informative reports of our dear professors and
students. Eventually, we even have an idea to
publish a book titled «Dialogues about culture
at Siberian Federal University» for we’ve got a
dialogue, and its content is not as trivial as it
could be in a regional university.
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SOCIAL ENGINEERING AS AN OBJECT
OF CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Koptseva Natalia Petrovna,
Doctor of Philosophy,
Art History and Cultural Studies department,
Institute for the Humanities,
Siberian Federal University
The present level of culture studies in the Russian science makes us solve the problem of application
value of those studies. The aim of all human and social sciences as well as cultural anthropology is
social engineering, rational control over social process and scientific prevision of possible purposeful
and casual changes of social institutions. From the very start, cultural anthropology positioned itself as
a science capable of formation of a scientific apparatus for positive social government.
Scientific control over social processes is a task for many centuries. But the modern Russian
culture studies are in danger of turning into one of the variants of the old scholastic ideology combining
peripheral research areas. At present maintenance of international standards at culture studies requires
a program of applied culture studies as a basis of modern cultural education.
An educational program at «culture studies» is starting being realized at Siberian Federal
University. The first steps of training of the future bachelors at culture studies require the necessity
for implementation of the standards of international education in the sphere of human and social
sciences.
To work out our own methods of cultural studies applied for social government, it is necessary to
explore the research methods developed in cultural anthropology in the 20th and 21st centuries and then
to form methods of study of cultural space important for the current Russian society.
We think that the program of development of culture studies formulated by A.R. Radcliffe-Brown,
one of the founders of British social anthropology (together with B.K. Malinowski), is of special value.
The potential of functional and comparative method for the modern culture studies is to be discussed,
and the program of training of specialists at the sphere of applied culture studies is suggested.
There are different definitions of «social engineering» concept in contemporary dictionaries. It
was unexpected for sociologists that the term began to be used in computer-programming and often
in a negative sense in connection with the problems of «cracks» of concealed information by socalled «hackers». However the primary scientific and theoretical meaning of «social engineering» is
connected with the influence of science on real social processes. There could be given two definitions
of social engineering. The first one is very general and could be applied to many other notions (for
instance, science as a whole, human activities, etc.) besides social engineering. It runs as follows:
«Social engineering is a specific branch of applied social science representing a complex of applied
social methods and practice connected with the use of knowledge acquired in general social theory,
applied studies, and in practice of productive and other activities for solution of everyday and perspective
problems of improvement of control over social objects»1.
In point of fact, are perfection of social control, social progress, sensible influence on the world
around us (human world most of all) not global purposes of existence and progress of the humankind?
What is the specific role of social engineering in that process? The second definition of social engineering
we would like to cite here could show the more exact specific features: «Social engineering (Germ.
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Ingenieurwesen, soziales) is a complex of approaches of applied social sciences oriented to changes of
human behaviour and attitudes, solution of social problems, adaptation of social institutions to mobile
conditions, and maintenance of social stability»2.
The weak point of this definition of social engineering is that it is formed through inductive
citation and indication of some social situations where the term «social engineering» could be applied.
But its strong point is that it specifies the most important goals of social engineering, which appears to
be the most urgent problem and aim of the whole science: 1) solution of social problems; 2) change of
human behaviour according to the most humanistic purposes; 3) development of social stability due
to refinement of the existing social institutions.
We suppose that social engineering appeared together with philosophy and all other sciences
in the great antiquity, in the «axled time» (K. Jaspers), simultaneously and independently of each
other, in three cultural-geographical areas: Ancient Greek, India and China. It is evident that we
shouldn’t forget Ancient Egypt, Central America and other cultural areas. However the question
is not that we should identify a maximally exact list of those areas, but our aim is to point out coeternity of philosophical and scientific studies, on the one hand, and social engineering, on the
other hand.
Social engineering is not only a local applied scientific approach developed in local scientific
sociological schools, but it is the old dream and necessity of the humankind to rule itself basing on
its sense, it’s the way of something localized in the activity of one of social classes or social strata.
B. Obama meant that necessity when visiting the Russian economic school in Moscow repeatedly
cited the phrase of a written work of one of the alumnus of that school: «The world is much less
rational in reality than that one in paper» – in his program speech on interrelations of Russia and
the USA.
Social engineering is a fi nal goal of the whole science as application of the results of research
work to control social processes. As we’ve mentioned, this scientific aim was formulated together
with appearance of science: remember the social projects of Confucius, Plato, Augustinus Aurelius,
Christian, Islamic, Buddhist social theories… But social engineering was accentuated in the works of
some outstanding thinkers, including representatives of English-speaking human and social sciences,
at the beginning of the 20th century. Thus, the great thinker John Dewey, a founder of pragmatism,
wrote that «Philosophy is revived when it stops being means of solution of philosophers’ problems
and becomes a method… of solution of problems of the humankind». He believed that modern
human and social science was of infant age since it had stored large quantity of knowledge but it
wasn’t used while control over people was to be carried out through scientific knowledge. That John
Dewey’s thesis was caught up by all the eminent scientists in the 20 th century, who created many
kinds of scientific apparatus to study the real social organism and specified many ways of influence
on it by means of different instruments. It is evident that politicians need those instruments most of
all. But civic society is broader than political sphere. Social self-government is always implemented;
however the consequences of chaotic self-government can be discovered in a large number of
historical tragedies «enriching» the 20th century. We could remind J. Ortega y Gasset’s well-known
work «La rebelion de las masas» where the Spanish philosopher admonishes that the mass solves
all problems through violence, and it inevitably engenders a leader as its «voice», who personifies
that violence in its most insane aspects. J. Canetti’s investigations are analogous; he was one of the
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fi rst researchers, who began to develop the problematics of the elementary forms of human power
over a man proving that a man makes himself «a mass» as far as he solves many important problems
in that transformation. It is clear that we shouldn’t forget S. Freud’s and E. Fromm’s hypotheses, as
well as those ones of many contemporary philosophers, social and political scientists discovering
the problems of social chaos from very different points. The deepest research work was carried out
by Michel Foucault dissecting power relations and proving that violence was reproduced in the very
concept of social norm, which makes large social spaces be simultaneously and fatally interpreted as
pathologic. Social norm is the underside of social pathology. This Michel Foucault’s conclusion was
brilliantly substantiated in his concrete studies of history of psychiatrics, prisons, sex, and structure
of human language.
We think that cultural anthropology is human and social science, which consciously seeks to
be one of the instruments of social engineering and works out methods of applied culture studies to
optimize social processes and maintain viability of social organism at the highest level.
Auguste Comte was the first, who asserted the necessity of concrete science studying society in
order to optimize processes of social control; he also gave the term «social science». Herbert Spencer
had already elaborated such essential concepts as «social aggregate» and «social organism» in his
works. The works of those thinkers and their active pathos promoted appearance of the British school
of social anthropology, which was transformed into in the school of cultural anthropology in the works
of Franz Boas and his disciples in the United States of America. That’s why these two concepts are
often combined together in modern text-books and articles: it is written or said either «social (cultural)
anthropology» or «cultural (social) anthropology».
We suppose that one can find methodological basis and instruments for applied culture studies
in the works of the founders of the British school of social (cultural) anthropology when the aim is
social engineering. Aleksey Nikishenkov’s research work «History of British social anthropology»
holds this point of view, where a whole chapter «Social engineering» project» deals with the proof
that the founders of the British school of social anthropology (Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski and
Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown) were inspired by the ideas of social engineering in their scientific
investigations3.
However Aleksey Nikishenkov restricts his excellent investigation by the British school of social
anthropology. Our aim is to retrace the dynamics of formation of methodological and methodical
apparatus of social engineering in cultural anthropology during the whole 20th century. That will provide
for a serious conceptual basis of applied cultural studies in the modern Russian cultural science.
Koptseva N.P.: We have some prepared reports on the problem we suggest that we should listen
to and discuss today.
1.
2.
3.
«Social engineering» // National encyclopedia of social science // http://voluntary.ru/dictionary/572/word/
«Social engineering» // National encyclopedia of social science // http://voluntary.ru/dictionary/662/word/
Nikishenkov, A.A. History of British social anthropology. – St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg University Press, 2008. – P. 315324.
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PENDULUM AS A MODEL OF METHODOLOGY OF B.K. MALINOWSKI’S
AND A.R. RADCLIFFE-BROWN’S CULTURAL
AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDIES
Reznikova Ksenia Vyacheslavovna,
Assistant, Chair for Culture Studies,
Department of Art History and Theory and Culture Studies,
Siberian Federal University
Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski, an English ethnologist and social scientist supposed to be one of
the founders and leaders of the English functional school in British anthropology, perceived culture as
an integral system with its parts connected with each other: a single phenomenon of culture is to be
considered as a component of the system only. B.K. Malinowski claimed that every aspect of culture
should have been considered not only as an element of the system but as a functioning part inside
cultural context. Therefore the main purpose of the research work carried out by B.K. Malinowski and
his followers was comprehension of the mechanism of culture and its functioning represented in the
functioning of every particular institution. The mechanisms of culture can be revealed by means of
institutions only, therefore scientists should rest upon field studies. B.K. Malinowski insisted on the
fact that scientific hypotheses about mechanisms of culture requiring practical verification are to be
put forward by the field, since mechanisms of culture can be revealed by no other means than through
institutions. Having carried out field studies in Mailu, the Trobriand Islands, and Oaxaca State in
Mexico, B.K. Malinowski repeatedly turned to the collected materials to corroborate the hypotheses
emerging in the way of discovery of the maximally general principle and mechanism of culture.
Thus, taking into consideration B.K. Malinowski’s theoretical evidence on field studies and
assuming him to be an ideal researcher, when he was in the process of study of the aboriginal tribes,
one can conclude that he proposed pendulum as a model of methodology of carrying out of cultural and
anthropological studies. That is a permanent oscillatory motion from direct field studies to theoretical
conceptualization of the discovered facts; and then, again, from theoretical conceptualization to the
field of substantiation of research ideas in practice in order to obtain new material. And the motion is
endless.
If we pay our attention to the ideas of Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown, a British anthropologist
and a founder of structural and functional approach in anthropology, we will find out that he
differentiates two sciences in his research work: ethnology and social anthropology. The main
parameter of differentiation is the key method applied by ethnologists and social anthropologists. The
method, which underlies ethnology, is called historical method by A.R. Radcliffe-Brown; its application
helps to interpret a separate institution of society and retrace its formation. Thus, ethnologists using
historical method survey causation of a separate institution in time. But ethnology cannot escape the
major problem of doubt of the results of all investigations carried out by means of historical method
in this sphere. As A.R. Radcliffe-Brown posits it, that problem is complete or partial deficiency of the
empirical data required for the study. Hence there is no need to mention objectivity of the process of
gradual determination of any social institution restored by the researchers working within the frames
of historical method, for the investigations are of deeply speculative character.
A.R. Radcliffe-Brown points out so-called functional method based on induction as a method,
which underlies social anthropology. That method is built on the thesis similar to B.K. Malinowski’s
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ideas that every institution is an organic part of culture and exists as one of the mechanisms of culture,
predetermined by the whole. A.R. Radcliffe-Brown says that all phenomena of culture are subordinated
with the natural law, and that thesis makes possible to discover general laws through some kind of
logical operations where separately considered institutions are special cases.
But having differentiated two sciences and methods, A.R. Radcliffe-Brown doesn’t give any rigid
estimation; he doesn’t deny the right to existence of ethnology and historical method. Conversely,
he tries to find out positive aspects in rather scientifically useless construction of hypothetic stories
of origin of many separate cultural phenomena. A.R. Radcliffe-Brown points out complementarity
(additionality) of two methods and sciences. Thus, pointlessness of the use of historical method only
could be conveyed in two key moments. Firstly, it is impossible to retrace formation of every separate
cultural phenomenon because of their immense number. Secondly, it is impossible to estimate any
separate stages of development of institutions out of their connection with the stages of development
of other institutions. But functional method removes these two moments. It helps to derive laws of
functioning of culture and society as a whole and has purposeful function in ethnological studies.
Thereby A.R. Radcliffe-Brown doesn’t refuse existence of ethnology, on the contrary, he
acknowledges its necessity, but only combined with social anthropology. He claims that correctness
of every step for discovery of a general law through induction is to be empirically verified mainly by
means of historical method of ethnology. A.R. Radcliffe-Brown believes that, from scientific point of
view, the constant interchange of functional and historical methods is a process of ideal study aimed
at reciprocal substantiation of the enunciated hypotheses. In other words, again, the process of ideal
study carried out in cultural anthropology can be represented by the model of a pendulum oscillating
between historical and functional methods.
Totalizing this, we can state that both of the researchers needed the idea of pendulum as a
model of methodology of cultural and anthropological studies. The extreme points of the oscillation
amplitude of the pendulum of B.K. Malinowski’s model of study could be marked as so-called field,
i.e. an object of study, which evidently implies absorption of a researcher and his followers in it. On
the other hand, there is theoretical conceptualization of the collected materials and modeling of the
processes observed in the field. One should notice that, according to B.K. Malinowski’s conception,
the pendulum gets impetus of motion in the field conditions. The extreme points of the amplitude are
historical and functional methods in A.R. Radcliffe-Brown’s model of cultural and anthropological
study. Both of the models could be combined with some stipulations if we take into account the fact
that historical method is intended for the study of separate institutions in their apartness and functional
method is directed to inductive revelation of general laws. Then B.K. Malinowski’s direct field study
would correspond to the ethnological component of A.R. Radcliffe-Brown’s research works, and B.K.
Malinowski’s theoretical construction would accord with A.R. Radcliffe-Brown’s inductive derivation
of general laws. Such combination seems to be productive since, in some degree, it diminishes obvious
domination of one of the components and dependence of the other, which exist in the both researchers’
ideas. Thus, while B.K. Malinowski struggled for the priority of the field-study component, A.R.
Radcliffe-Brown insisted on the supremacy of functional method. When there appears the combined
model, it turns out that both complementary components of cultural and anthropological study are
equal in point of fact. Thereby it removes the necessity for the accents put on either of them. But still
there is an obvious necessity for constant oscillatory motion between them.
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Koptseva N.P.: You’ve controlled the student practice this year. Did the students try to find some
ideal kind of study? Or did they have just chaotic investigations? Were the students given any pattern
of study?
Reznikova K.V.: There wasn’t such a task – to seek for an ideal type of study – but they got it.
We proposed a scheme of study but without rigid frames. In point of fact, the students projected that
scheme by themselves under our supervision.
Koptseva N.P.: For example?
Reznikova K.V.: The third-year students explored cultural-semantic field of Krasnoyarsk city.
Having made surveys, learning cultural objects, they collected hypotheses about condition of the
society and some kind of cultural map, which became a ground for the suggestions concerning the
ways of changing of the present situation. And now we can return to the field of study and prove our
hypotheses in practice. The pendulum has started.
Koptseva N.P.: We have two student reports prepared. These are our third-year students in culture
studies, who explored the space of Krasnoyarsk city during their summer practice this year. They
applied strong conceptual basis for the obtained interesting results.
METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF RELIGIOUS PHENOMENA
IN CULTURALOGICAL TEXT «MAGIC, SCIENCE AND RELIGION»
OF BRONISLAW KASPER MALINOWSKI
Bakhova Natalia Alexandrovna,
Assistant, Chair for Art History and Theory,
Department of Art History and Theory and Culture Studies,
Siberian Federal University
Savramenko Yulia Alekseevna,
Student, Culture Studies,
Department of Art History and Theory and Culture Studies,
Siberian Federal University
The fundamental idea of functionalism is a belief that a man is a biological creature who constantly
needs satisfaction of his wants. A sum of ways of satisfaction of wants is transformed into institutions
out of which traditions and norms of behaviour in society come up. Thus, culture is some kind of
integrity where every aspect takes its own important function. Functional method is based on eduction
of functions of various aspects of culture.
B. Malinowski applies functional method to description of the Trobriand life in his research work
on culture «Magic, Science and Religion». The researcher defines the components of that life: sacred
and profane spheres.
Totemism is of special importance in the sacred sphere. The function of totemism is to form
deference to nature and belief in relationship between a man and nature as a personification of
God.
Describing primitive human life, B. Malinowski particularly attends to the rites and rituals
connected with search for food. Food is one of the most essential biological human needs. Search for
food as a core of life is connected with many rituals and rites for a primitive man. All interests, aims,
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and emotions of a tribe are crystallized around it. Thus, search for food as one of the most essential
cults of the primitive society becomes a tradition out of which culture grows.
Moreover, B. Malinowski studying eating cult discovers its public character. But what is the
significance of publicity and its function? The public character of eating cult as a religious phenomenon
forms values and fixes them in the society.
Obsequies also are of great importance in the primitive society. A primitive man pays special
attention to death. That is connected with the fact that a savage man dreads dying, that’s why we find
lots of rituals intended for getting over those fears there. The aboriginal people, who believe in afterlife,
are terrified by a clod and they are afraid of spirits. A man recoils from a dead body, and all the rites are
directed to overcome that disgust. Therefore there appears a contradiction: on the one hand, the desire
to conserve a body as a memory of a person and, on the other hand, to get rid of it.
On the whole, B. Malinowski’s research work on culture «Magic, Science and Religion» reveals
social function of the myths. According to functional methods, the main function of a myth is
interpretation of social actions. There can be pointed out a system of behaviour revealed by a myth.
A mythical plot is actualized, and the personages act in the myth like they do in reality. Myth is a
foundation of social activities. Thus, there can be drawn a conclusion that the functional method is
the most effective for contemporary applied studies and provides for studying of social life in all its
aspects and helps to control it.
Koptseva N.P.: How were the conceptual propositions, you’ve represented in your report,
demanded in your own practice? Are there any examples or parallels, perhaps? How did the studying
of B. Malinowski conception favour your research on Krasnoyarsk city?
Savramenko Y.A.: I studied Sverdlovskyi section in our city. The section is completely industrial,
and there are very few cultural centres there, which are isolated and in bad condition. The cultural
group prevailing in the section has specific needs. And the function underlying it doesn’t receive any
influx of suggestions about its implementation. I realized that, in order to improve the cultural situation
of the section, it is necessary to study needs of the population, to understand the functions underlying
them, and to correlate with the suggestions existing in the section and the prospects which could be
developed in the future.
Starikov P.A. (Candidate for philosophy, assistant professor, Chair for Social Sciences,
Siberian Federal University): Malinowski felt easy on distinction myth from non-myth: everything
uncorrelated with the European point of view is a myth. So, what about the contemporary society when
we try to point out a myth? Are there any criteria of distinction between myth and non-myth? Does
Malinowski give such criteria, which could be used now? Or does he describe a myth as a subject of
other culture, a non-European one?
Savramenko Y.A.: He describes social actions as signs of a myth and comprehends myth as a
total form of social life.
Panteleeva I.A. (Candidate of philosophy, assistant professor, Chair of Art History and Theory,
Department of Art History and Theory and Culture Studies, Siberian Federal University): What do
you think of the situation today? Are there any displays of funeral cult and that one of public eating?
Koptseva N.P.: We can assume. When a family spends its annual earnings on funeral and
thinks it is necessary to do so, I suppose, that is one of the most powerful cults both of Krasnoyarsk
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city and Russia on the whole today. And that is characteristic of everyday culture of the modern
society.
Starikova E.P. (Graduate student, Chair for Social Sciences, Siberian Federal University):
Aren’t these two aspects of social life of a tribe – eating and obsequies – two basic metaphors
structuring the life of a tribe now and in the past: eating metaphor as taking something new and
funeral metaphor as disposal of the old? Are those aspects the two poles constructing all our cultural
life, perhaps?
Savramenko Y.A.: I suppose that eating cult is displayed in primitive societies more clearly, for it
had deeply sacred significance. And Malinowski asserts that eating implies share of food with spirits,
which means a very concrete ritual.
Starikova E.P.: I wonder if some concrete rituals in the past remaining in our social memory
could grow into some other forms.
Koptseva N.P.: Indeed, Malinowski was sure that any social action was based on myth-creation.
There can’t be any cooperative and collective action unexplained by a myth. The substantiation of any
social action is mythical. That is a proposition, which could be applied as a methodological basis for
very different activities in the present situation.
METHODOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM
OF CLAUDE LEVI-STRAUSS REPRESENTED IN THE BOOK
«LA VOIE DES MASQUES»
(METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF RELIGIOUS PHENOMENA)
Bakhova Natalia Alexandrovna,
Assistant, Chair for Art History and Theory,
Department of Art History and Theory and Culture Studies,
Siberian Federal University
Kivkutsan Galina Alexandrovna,
Student, Culture Studies,
Department of Art History and Theory and Culture Studies,
Siberian Federal University
The method of culture studies given by Claude Levi-Strauss, a French researcher, is called
structural (structural and functional) analysis.
The structural anthropological school takes a leading role in contemporary science and it aims
to integrate all the components into systems since the methods of study suggested by the school give
the most objective interpretations of one or another theory by synthesizing the methods applied in
other schools and bringing them to a new quality. C. Levi-Strauss’ method is based on functionalism
methodology but it is enlarged and improved in its own way. Structural and functional analysis enriched
functionalism in its original variant with new methodological means, which made vast amount of
information be analyzed and structured, thus, embracing culture in all its aspects. Levi-Strauss was
the first, who started describing culture proceeding from interrelation of all its elements, not separated
and isolated parts. Thereby we can see some kind of transformation of functionalism method, which
points up its efficiency and topicality.
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Discovery of features of methodology of structural and functional analysis is the result of study
of Claude Levi-Strauss’ fundamental and cultural work «La Voie des Masques».
Thus, the ritual dance masks of the Indian tribes from the north-western coast are considered
in correlation with the myths connected with those masks from the point of study of methodology of
religious phenomena analysis.
The feature is that a mask is to be studied together with its characteristics, which belong to
different aspects of culture. First, there should be pointed out characteristics of a mask as a material
object, then its function in connection with semantics of myths, and, finally, its social and religious
characteristics.
It is possible to draw an exact scheme projecting the methodological algorithm of research work:
1) firstly, the religious phenomenon (of a mask) is considered in all its aspects (i.e. not in historical
development, but from the point of interrelations between its basic elements in a certain period) in
synchronic section, thereby revealing specific features of logic of myths; 2) secondly, there can be directly
educed the structure of a religious phenomenon and analysis carried out on identification of objective
laws of existence of a religious phenomenon, i.e. the connection between masks and some myths is found
and all possible significant factors are considered; 3) then there is to be carried out the work with data and
functions of those structures from the point of social organization and special models and constructions
are to be made (such structural models are fixed with every logical deduction by the scientists in the text
considered); 4) finally, semiotic origin of a mask can be discovered on the basis of the whole study.
Thus, mythological data, social and religious functions, as well as plastic form (of a mask) are
definitely functionally connected though those are dissimilar phenomena. Basing on such constructs,
one can not only study structure of actual cultures and interrelation of their models but also predict
behaviour of members of society in different situations with the highest probability.
Moreover, there is a possibility to discern and identify function and origin of one or another
phenomenon of culture due to structural models.
Such method, which allows us to draw exactly reasoned but generalized conclusions, is of
special topicality in Russian culture studies characterized by extremely small number of concrete
generalizations.
Koptseva N.P.: How did your study of C. Levi-Strauss’ theoretical work helped you in your
practical research work during practice in Krasnoyarsk city?
Kivkutsan G.V.: It helped me a great deal for I primarily paid attention to that function which
could be realized by the centers I studied.
Koptseva N.P.: Did you get any surprising results?
Kivkutsan G.V.: The amazing thing was that everything had its logical explanation. For example,
even situation of non-formal cultural centers was always connected with assignable choice of cultural
field. Besides, it was found out during the study of the Central district reputed to be elite that actually
it is pseudo-elite. In spite of the fact that its residents feel some superiority to the people living in the
outskirts, their cultural needs don’t differ in any specificity.
Vasilyev V.K. (Candidate for philology, assistant professor, Chair for Russian and Foreign
Literature, Siberian Federal University): Did you find out opinions of the residents? What methods
did you apply?
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Kivkutsan G.V.: There were interviews, questionnaire survey and observation of behaviour of
visitors of cultural centres. All those favoured the formulation of such hypothesis.
Koptseva N.P.: Accordingly, there were two hypotheses proposed in your study. The first one
is connected with the fact that the Central district is an elite cultural zone because cultural centers
are concentrated there and the people living in the district posit themselves like that, etc. But the first
profile of cultural situation indicated that it’s not true and that departmental offices of the place don’t
mean that the cultural values of the residents somehow differ from those ones of the people living in
other districts of the city.
Kivkutsan G.V.: Exactly. It’s important to notice that the main audience of cultural centres of the
Central district is residents from other districts of the city.
ON «TYPICAL» METHOD AT HUMANITIES
Vasilyev Vladimir Kirillovich,
Candidate for philology, assistant professor,
Chair for Russian and Foreign Literature,
Siberian Federal University
I appeal to the names and works of A.R. Radcliffe-Brown, B.K. Malinowski, C. Levi-Strauss,
and other foreign anthropologists when I have to tell the students about formation of scientific methods
and study of society and culture. A.A. Nickishenkov has formulated the postulates, which «are called
«scientific revolution» at anthropology now and again». They are based on the description of the
methods represented in A.R. Radcliffe-Brown’s («The Andaman Islanders») and B.K. Malinowski’s
(«Argonauts of the Western Pacific») monographs published in 1922:
«- a study of society should be based not on a second-hand bench speculative analysis of facts but
on a continued direct examination of its life carried out by researchers – a theorist and an observer
should be combined together;
- not particular phenomena of culture but an entire culture as a functional whole should be
considered as an object of study;
- a scientific interpretation of social phenomena cannot be reduced to presumable estimations on
their origin; it implies indication of a function of a phenomenon in social life of a certain nation»1.
I’ve italicized those widely scientific formulations, which would be stated by any researcher in
society and culture today. These postulates can be called original for specification of the method of
study of an object as a complex of functioning elements and structure/system.
Development of the Russian science is connected with the creation of the same ideas (and it is
quite logical). For instance, there is a significant fact of global influence of V.Y. Propp’s monograph
«Morphology of the Folktale» published in 1928 on the representatives of foreign structuralism. C.
Levi-Strauss had written about the colleagues, who began folk studies a quarter century later: they
«with surprise, they find out coincidences in formulations there, sometimes there are even identical
phrases though they know they haven’t borrowed them»2. The Russian science (not only humanities)
had stored unique and vast potential by the 1930s. Then there was a collapse caused by extra-scientific
sources. Tartu-Moscow structural semiotic school headed by Y.M. Lotman appeared grounding on
continuation of the intentionally broken tradition at the end of the 1950s – the beginning of the 1960s.
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No sooner had they understood structuralism with its results that it was followed by poststructuralism and deconstructivism. Consequently, there appeared a complicated situation raising lots
of questions. For example, B.M. Gasparov with his ideas of «motif analysis» of a text was attached to
post-strcuturalists3. Why? Because his conception of structure didn’t coincide with that one of Y.M.
Lotman4. But if Boris Mikhailovich argued with Yuryi Mikhailovich, does it follow that their analytical
methodologies should be necessarily attributed to different poles?
V.Y. Propp thought he dealt with morphological analysis in the 1920s but in 1960s he admitted that
he had selected «morphology» term inauspiciously5. In point of fact, he studied not form but structure
of a tale. After all, his method was called structural method6 and «Morphology of the Folktale» was
accepted as classics of structuralism. V.Y. Propp pointed out not «motif» but «function» as an essential
element of plot and compositional structure of a tale. Though he criticized «motif» conception proposed
by A.N. Veselovskyi (as an elementary and even indivisible unit of a plot7), it isn’t difficult to make
clear that «function» term is very close to «motif» term. Thus, V.Y. Propp’s description of a tale’s plot
as a system of functions (= motifs) doesn’t contradict B.M. Gasparov’s ideas of motif analysis of a
text – moreover, it scientifically coincides with those ideas. In that case, B.M. Gasparov is a follower of
V.Y. Propp, a classic of structuralism. So why has he been enlisted in post-structuralism? It is possible
only if structuralism is reduced just to the first works of Y.M. Lotman and those, who not only think
themselves to be his successors but also implicitly follow the analogous ideas concerning structure and
analysis. But it is known that Y.M. Lotman didn’t keep to the methods of his first works afterwards.
There is always a bond «structuralism – post-structuralism» in discussions concerning method but
the fact that there are also the problems of typology and typological method adjacently is overlooked.
And that’s rather funny forasmuch as typology is the very structuralism only under another name! The
task of typology is to study a structure of objects and phenomena and to reduce them to common types
or models based on generality of structures. The typological methodology is applied in many analysts’
research works but nobody thinks of proclaiming a post-typology era.
Thus, we have many terms describing one and the same analytical method: «structural»,
«systematic», «structural-systematic», «structural-functional», «structural-typological», «typological»,
and «systematic-typological». We can add «motif» including «topics» analysis8. In our opinion, the
latter provides more effective operation with intertextuality as a typological problem.
Why do we have so many terms describing one and the same phenomenon? Because that
phenomenon has quite complex character and different terms amplifying each other delineate its
various aspects.
Thus, we deal with an obvious fact: structuralism as a method is in good condition despite the
fact that many authors declared its impropriety and even death long ago. Moreover, for example, there
are opinions that method is in a very bad condition at literature studies (let me remind that TartuMoscow school was mainly literary). «If study of literature is a science, then do literature studies have
scientific method? (As far as there is a cant opinion that literature studies are just an idle talk, more
or less terminological)»9. It is essential that those words were uttered from the high tribune within
the walls of RAS Gorky Institute for World Literature. V.V. Ivanov outspoke the same reproach more
seriously (he addressed it to the world literature studies): «The world literature studies, except for
special and specified branches (statistical verse studies, narratology), needs a deviation from traditional
and pseudoscientific (deconstructive and sociological) stamps. It doesn’t correspond to the level of
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contemporary knowledge (at molecular biology, linguistics, and physics). It should seriously deal with
methodological problems…»10.
Certainly, methodological problems are very complicated. But it is impossible to consent to the
honoured authors because their statements don’t match to the real state of affairs. The structuraltypological method is alive; moreover, it turns out that the method can be successfully applied not
only in the analysis of archaic folklore texts but also in the study of unique works of literary classics
(often large in volume). Its application brings similar results. For example, the conclusion concerning
structural repeatability of all folktales is analogous to the deduction drawn from the study of kinds of
hagiography: each of them has its absolutely concrete structure of the same type. I have mentioned the
classics with reason though they are special subject11. In this case the main point is that the method has
great prospects and a large unexplored field. So we don’t have to speak of any crisis at all.
Lots of myths have gathered around the abovementioned terms («typology», «structuralism»,
«post-structuralism», and «deconstructivism»). The very terms have become myths in some degree,
so they are a problem for humane researchers (who are often unconscious of that problem). There is
no any good in that fact. Even the most complicated term should be clear of near-scientific mythology,
transparent as far as possible, comprehensible and certainly functional.
I have been investigating into the problems of method and methodology for many years and I have
come to some conclusions I am going to try to represent. The scientific methodology of text analysis
begins to be formed in the Russian human science in the second half of the 19th century (the process
becomes noticeable and quite productive starting from that time). The process of its formation hasn’t
been completed even now. Nevertheless, there have been developed principles of the methodology I
would call «typical».
A text has structural nature from the point of this methodology (the object = the world as a
text). The elements of a structure are connected with systematic and reiterative links. Perception of
those links brings to the possibility of discovery of the laws of structures of society, text, creation,
thinking, mentality, depth psychology, cognition of «the inner man», etc. The latter categories should
be dwelled upon particularly. It is known that «depth psychology» term was forced into application
by C.G. Jung in science. His analysis of «the collective subconscious» is based on revelation of
«archetypes» – the original structures concealed in psychics and displayed as representations, ideas,
motifs, etc., also in creative process. C.G. Jung’s theory is remarkable but, having proposed it, the
scientists didn’t give any acceptable methodology of analysis of the archetypes. But we should remark
that he didn’t have to – that wasn’t his aim. C.G. Jung «intruded» in the field where creative process
was studied but he used its key terms. But that field has been developing analytical methods of
other disciplines for many centuries: folkloristics, literature studies, and linguistics. So the meeting
was very productive: the described typological methodology of text analysis matches the study of
archetypical structure well.
Thus, it is certainly a question of typological methodology of culture studies. Here colleagues at
humanities, representatives of different disciplines, can find it useful to exchange opinions about that
methodology and the obtained results. We can take the situation connected with the problem of research
on mental as an example. Historians, linguists, and specialists in study of literature very actively seek
for approaches to its solution. Historians usually prefer facts (apparently, that is a rejection reaction
to «the universal» and «all-explanative» Marxist method). Philologists usually pay great attention to
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organization of material through method. Linguistic analysis of a language and text according to their
«key words/ideas» is actually the same thing as «motif analysis» for literary historians. The latter
propose to observe maximal units of a language and meaning not in words, phrases or «concepts» but
in a complete literary text, in an incessantly repeating archetype producing a colossal unit – a system
of texts. Consequently, there are fantastic possibilities for the study of a lingual, mental «model of
the world», solution of the problems, to which science has been recently searching for approaches. So
cooperation of representatives of different disciplines can be not only quite useful but also there is a
necessity for its realization in any forms.
Why do I call this methodology a typological one? Because it’s general for science. And because,
I’m deeply convinced, everyone, who chooses science as his profession, should learn the method.
For example, if somebody chooses medicine, he cannot help learning the method of therapy and
operationalism. Otherwise, he mustn’t be admitted to patients. However we often face the situation
when a scientist in the humanities operates without any method, only on a descriptive level. Hence,
certainly, there is a short way to the result of such work, according to A.B. Galkin, – «an idle talk».
There is a crisis and failure of method when somebody tries to work without any method. Here we can
agree with both A.B. Galkin and V.V. Ivanov.
First of all, I would like to address to the students. The question of learning method is the question
of professionalism. It is difficult to master a method because you have to read hundreds of works,
without exaggeration. And that’s not just reading, but you should understand them. That’s, certainly,
serious labour. But you should be prepared for it from the very start of your scientific work for method
is an entrance to science, but now it’s just professional knowledge since it has extremely thickened.
The fact of today is that most of the students of the humanities fall out of the process of study from the
very first course because they are not able to learn materials intellectually through method and theory.
Their further stay within the university walls becomes only a formality. And that’s the problem more
than just important, it should be solved. But it remains unobserved. In particular, the solution can be
seen in training in typological methods, which should be started as early as possible: to make special
topics and courses (but not to waste hours for the general course «Introduction to…» or «Theories…»),
to compose textbooks, and so on. It would be better if high school education was based on typological
methodology.
As for deconstructivism as a free reading of any text, there are some questions here. V.V. Ivanov
defined deconstruction as «pseudo-scientific stamp». Will subjective interpretations be necessary for
a reader and science? Aren’t they just a number of near-scientific anecdotes, perhaps, interesting and
amusing, but nothing more? Don’t we mix up artistic sphere and science? Deconstructivism proclaims
human sciences to be a field of subjective interpretations. In that case, it stops being science. According
to such logic, universities and departments for the humanities should be abolished: there is nothing to
cognize, but one can play with boundless meanings…
There is no point in insisting on absoluteness of structures and typologies. Structures have historical
nature; typologies can have mistakes and can be precised. The analysis of extra-structural elements is
more important. We always deal with variants of structural and typological interpretations in practice.
The typological methodology doesn’t have to insist on anything more than comprehension of meanings
within the frameworks of semantics and contexts of the studied lingual units. It is necessary to observe
new practical achievements brining improvements in methodology.
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All the mentioned above is open for a dialogue, polemic, correction. Nevertheless, it seems that
the described typological method is the very microscope so necessary for specialists in the humanities
to cognize their hypercomplex subject, «the inner man».
Koptseva N.P.: According to the course of the problem today, it’s a very good observation
indicating that if the history of ideas is not mythologized and if the patriarchs’ works are considered to
be a basis for methods, it turns out that such methods are valid.
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Nikishenkov, A.A. A.R. Radcliffe-Brown’s structural-functional methods in history of British social anthropology. //
Radcliffe-Brown A.R. Structure and function in primitive society. Essays and lectures. – Moscow, 2001. – P. 258.
Levi-Strauss, C. Structure and form (Thoughts on one of Vladimir Propp’s works) // Foreign studies in folklore semiotics. – Moscow, 1985. – P. 18.
Gasparov, B.M. Literary leitmotifs. – Moscow, 1995.
Lotman, Y.M. Lectures on structural poetics. // Y.M. Lotman and Tartu-Moscow semiotic school. – Moscow, 1994 (the
fi rst edition – 1964); Lotman, Y.M. Structure of an artistic text. – Moscow, 1970.
Propp, V.Y. Structural and historical study of the folktale. // Propp, V.Y. Folklore poetics. – Moscow, 1998. – P. 217.
V.Y. Propp applied that term. Finishing «Morphology of the folktale», he stated: «We have considered a tale from the point
of structure up to now» (Propp, V.Y. «Morphology of the Folktale». – Moscow, 1969. – P. 103).
Ibid., P. 18.
Rudi T.R., a member of IRLI, quite fruitfully deals with «topics», a typological analysis of repeating elements in a text,
using materials on various kinds of «hagiology» genre. Her analysis is actually an «inchmeal» study of a text (Rudi, T.R.
The righteous women in the Old Rus’ (on the question of the typology of sanctity). // Russian literature, 2001. – №3. – P.
84-92; Rudi, T.R. The Mediaeval hagiographical topics (imitatio principle and problems of typology). // Literature, culture
and folklore of the Slavic peoples. XIII International Slavicist conference (Lyublyana, August, 2003): The Russian delegation’s reports. – Moscow, 2002. – P. 40-55; Rudi, T.R. «Imitatio angeli» (the problems of the typology of hagiographical
topics). // Russian literature, 2003. – №2. – P. 48-59; Rudi, T.R. «Like a fi rm pillar» (concerning one hagiographical
topos) // The works of the department for the Old Russian literature. – St. Petersburg, 2004. – Vol. 55. – P. 211-227; Rudi,
T.R. On one motif of the venerable fathers’ lives («Settling in the desert»). // From the Middle Ages to the Early modern
period. – Moscow, 2005. – P. 15-36.; Rudi, T.R. Topics of the Russian hagiography (questions of typology). // The Russian
hagiography: studies, publications, polemics. – St. Petersburg, 2005. – P. 59-101; Rudi, T.R. On composition and topics of
the venerable fathers’ lives. // The works of the department for the Old Russian literature. – St. Petersburg, 2006. – Vol.
57. – P. 431-500; Rudi, T.R. On topics of holy fools’ lives. // The works of the department for the Old Russian literature. – St.
Petersburg, 2007. – Vol. 58. – P. 443-484).
Galkin, A.B. Literature studies as myth. // Literature studies as problem. – Moscow, 2001 (http://lit.lib.ru/g/galkin_a_b/
literaturovedkakmif.shtml).
Ivanov, V.V. Selected works on semiotics and history of culture. // Articles about Russian literature. – Vol. 2. – Moscow,
2000. – P. 628.
Vasillyev, V.K. The subject typology in Russian literature in XI-XX centuries (Archetypes of the Russian culture). – Part
1. – Krasnoyarsk, 2006.; Vasilyev, V.K. Notes concerning not only men losing their ways, but states, or «Blyadin son» &
К°. // Philology – Journalism 2006. – Krasnoyarsk, 2006. – P. 242-271.; Vasilyev, V.K. I.S. Turgenev’s novel «Nov’» in
the light of the archetypical plot about Antichrist. // The Old Russian spiritual heritage in Siberia: scientific study of the
works of traditional Russian book-learning in the Russian east. – Vol. 2. – Novosibirsk, 2008. – P. 345-370.; Vasilyev, V.K.
Concerning semantics of Chichikov’s character and life. // Materials of the Ninth International Gogl lections dedicated to
the author’s bicentenary. – Moscow, 2010.; etc.
FUNCTION OF CREATIVITY AS A PHENOMENON OF CULTURE
Starikov Pavel Anatolyevich,
Candidate for philosophy, assistant professor,
Chair for Social Sciences,
Siberian Federal University
Complex interdependence of social, political, economic and religious problems is being acutely
delineated in the situation of system crisis of natural human existence at present. On the one hand, the
increasing complexity of environment continues to extend the differentiation of social subsystems. The
social world falls to many pieces existing as if they were separate. According to Niklas Luhmann’s
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concept, that process prepares the ground for «considerable resonances», disastrous changes emerging
because of disintegration of the whole system. On the other hand, when the human society meets the
challenge of difficulties, it seeks for possibilities of actualization of integrative processes.
There is a search for a new methodological paradigm within the frames of which adequate methods
of analysis of complex social and cultural systems could be formed, as well as eduction and application
of concealed potential of development and emergent effects. The further development of the conception
of structural and functional approach is an important methodological resource for comprehension of
stability and objective laws of the evolution of social and cultural systems. The specific feature of
such an approach is realization of the fact that distinction of the system’s elements as certain and
separate items is rather conventional. Within the frames of functional way of thinking, the world can
be perceived not as a sum of things but as a complex of relations and omnifarious connections.
For instance, Anokhin’s theory of functional systems accentuates such character of wholeness
where an organism consists of functional systems, not organs. Therefore development of an organism is
system-genesis, not organ-genesis. In practice, the concept of functional system provides differentiation
of effective functions and various «ways» of realization useful for a whole organism.
A complex system’s welfare can be secured by harmony of inter-functional relations while its
disorder is a straight consequence of disturbance of that harmony. Therefore separate parts shouldn’t
be «cured» only, but the harmony of inter-functional relations should be recovered as an indispensable
condition of protection and evolution of a system as a whole.
There can be pointed a close connection between evolution of functions and creative process in
a system. Escape from objectification, externalization of functions, and functional stereotypes, i.e.
«concrement» of functional purpose and means underlies innovative processes and contemporary
technologies of creative work. The complex of creative methods directed to harmonious combination
of functions makes non-stereotyped and effective decisions be taken. Thus, today there is a prospect of
integration of creative and functional approaches in a common conception of system-creativeness.
The obvious function of creativity is evident and it can be expressed in creation of something
new, which can be represented in many definitions of creative process. Organization of the processes
of integration, adaptation, transcendence, and formation of new cultural models are the less obvious
latent, but still more important functions of creative work in modern culture.
Taken in the context of the formed holistic paradigm, the creativity conception involves not only
«manipulation» with information to find a decision, but it also includes a man in multidimensionality
of the cosmic creative process when a subject of creation is also transformed. The universal patterns
of a creative act can be equally efficient on all the levels of organization of life: biological, psychical,
social and cosmic.
In point of fact, evolution of culture and society can be considered as a cycle of positive backcoupling: development of creative abilities – great wholeness and integration of an individual –
noospheric amplification of social, cultural and natural systems – actualization of development of
creative abilities.
Abraham Maslow is one of the main researchers, who tried to create a creativity conception
adequate to contemporary challenges of the epoch. He thought that an effort to measure creation by
«product» categories and unconsciously connect creative work only with certain acknowledged spheres
of human activity is a mistake. Maslow equates creativity with ability to integrate and unite different
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and contrary elements. A great artist makes wholeness of incompatible colours and forms. The same
thing is done by a great theorist when he combines strange and contradictory facts so we could see that
virtually they are the parts of one whole. A great statesman, a great inventor and a great parent do the
same. They are all «integrators» able to unite various and even contrary elements.
Maslow’s idea of interrelation between the inner integration of an individual and his ability to
integrate everything he does in the world is of interest. Synthesizing, constructive and unitive degrees
of creativity depend on the inner integration of a person.
Here, according to Maslow’s and other authors’ ideas, we can see the formation of a new viewpoint
on creative process, adequate to the modern ages, where the centre is an interaction of complex,
unique self-developing systems (such as all the living creatures and any real object due to the actual
connection between all things), i.e. every act of interaction with complex living systems is a creative
act of integration and transformation of an object and the very subject of creation – co-creation.
The following functions of creative process can be preliminary pointed out basing on the
accumulated experience of humanistic and integral psychology:
- transcendencies: a person broadens his scope being identified with the systems larger than
individual Ego in the moment of a creative act;
- integrations: there appears an integrations of all the languages of consciousness and material
reflection, a complex communicative system of a personality is formed;
- entirety: a person feels and acts as a source of universal essential forces.
The results of the questionnaire surveys carried out among the students of Siberian Federal
University in 2007 and 2009 (according to the sampling 294, 200 respondents) made possible to educe
complex multifunctional comprehension of creative process being formed in the culture nowadays.
The traced groups of associations confirm a necessity for development of ideas of creative process
just as system-creativity. Such ideas (in decreasing order) are more closely associated with creative
process: imagination, self-expression, talent, inspiration, pleasure, self-development, originality,
spontaneity, liberty, intellect, interest people, abundance of energy, devotion to an idea, intuition,
good, subconsciousness, play, spirituality, the inner human core, essence, entirety, mystery, success,
innate nature, instinct for life, adventure, health, marvels, magic, co-creation.
The analysis of the maximal correlation bracket in that module of variables has shown that,
according to the students’ ideas, creative process makes interrelated semantic complex where the centre
is such characteristics of creativity as good, abundance of energy, the inner core, essence, entirety,
health, liberty, independence, mystery, and spirituality.
Bronislaw Malinowski defined the function of magic in primitive cultures as ritualization of
human optimism. The function mentioned is more often fulfilled by the institution of creativity being
formed in the modern society. It combines system, rationality and marvel resources.
Panteleeva I.A.: Being a lecturer, who tries to realize «Theory and practice of creative activity»
course, I’d like to specify it. The American and British researchers connect most of the associations
you’ve mentioned with the term «creativeness» and «creativity». Anyhow, have you differentiated the
notions «creativity» and «creation»?
Starikov P.A.: I admit the fact that the meanings of these two notions always differ and I can see
that differentiation as a methodological question. If I substitute the word «creation» for «creativity»,
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we will, surely, get some other aspects of the meanings. However we haven’t set differentiation of the
meanings of these notions as a special goal in this investigation.
Pimenova N.N. (Head lecturer, Chair of Art History and Theory, Department of Art History
and Theory and Culture Studies, Siberian Federal University): How does your method together
with its results make possible to draw a conclusion concerning the function of creation in a certain
period?
Starikov P.A.: Functions make a very complicated question. Two researchers investigating one
and the same phenomenon can get two different sets of functions since the very functional analysis is
subjective in its own way. But the «function» notion becomes more distinct in the study of dynamics
of a system. A function cannot be changed and it is always displayed as the original destination of a
certain sub-system. And only the genetic approach will allow us to distinguish functions and put away
subjectivity. It seems to me that we should pay more attention to functional way of thinking while
training students. In my opinion, the functional approach is an integral and creative way of exploration
of the world.
CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY CONCERNING MAN
AS AN OBJECT AND SUBJECT OF CULTURE
Boronoeva, Nina Alekseevna
Candidate for philosophy, assistant professor,
Chair for Philosophy,
Institute of Professional Development,
Siberian Federal University
Contradictions and risks of the globalizing space are concentrated around the problem of a human
being in the situation of unstable social and cultural field. The unprecedented social dynamics of the
present-day world demands new identifications and high speeds of integration from a man but the
cultural human essence cannot make personal forms in globalization rate. New life worlds of men are
formed and different systems of needs and motivations appear, social and cultural priorities and values
change, new mentality, world outlook and attitudes arise. Individualism grows, expectation of one’s
own force prevails, collective and personal connections and generally significant values are broken up,
and there is a substitution of collective interests for corporative ones. A person virtually loses criteria
of truth as a result of information and psychological technologies Mass Media actively applies. In this
sense, Mass Media is one of the main socializing institutions. An individual is formed among a large
amount of opinions, possibilities and styles under an extreme degree of fuzziness of any authorities.
Norms and values as a core of social institutions are to stabilize a social and cultural system. These
conclusions accord with the theory of B. Malinowski, a father of functionalism, one of the fundamental
trends of the contemporary cultural anthropology.
The attenuation of cultural mechanisms of social reproduction of an individual as a socialized
and inculturated member of society actualizes a task of formation of socially adequate personality
as a way of reproduction of social order and cultural norms of the Russian society. Therefore, it
seems that one of the most important subjects of philosophical reflection should be wholeness and
integration of personality in the situation today. A human being becomes a problem for himself in
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the periods of breaking and crises when a representation of the world and a man is ruined and he
tries to understand himself through his personality, individuality in his wholeness and entirety.
«Identity» becomes a central concept for many culturally oriented discourses starting from the
middle of the 20th century.
The space, where an individual finds himself as Wholeness and where he grows, is a field of
culture. The definition of culture as an «extra-genetic mechanism of inheritance of social experience»
proposed by Y.M. Lotman has generalizing power. Such field of scientific investigation as cultural
anthropology deals with the problem of genesis of a human being as a creator and creation of culture
in phylogenetic and ontogenetic aspects. The objective content of cultural anthropology is an area of
relation of internal and external. Here its own fundamental conceptual apparatus and methodological
basis are formed. There can be drawn many conclusions and positive observations by cultural and
anthropological conceptions according to which fundamental features of a personality are determined
by an individualized system of culture including a man. Cultural anthropology appeared when it
became clear to the scientists that it is impossible to describe one or another nation and, moreover, to
learn its laws of existence without description of its culture and cognition of laws of its development.
The change of research courses took place at cultural anthropology in the 1980s-1990s when there was
an enlargement of the very field of study and enrichment of the tendencies. If studies of the ancient
culture had dominated before, then there was a conversion to comparative anthropology of all cultures
dialogizing with each other including the culture of postindustrial and information society.
Most generally, the object of cultural anthropology is Homo Creans. As a creator and product of
culture, he takes all responsibility for the creation act and its results.
Koptseva N.P.: You’ve specified characteristics of the Russian ethnos. How did you get them?
Especially those ones concerning the Soviet culture for the new generation is unrelated to it. And
secondly: there have been mentioned the national characteristics directed to separation from the other
nations. Thus, isn’t it a formation of the social myth coding another nation as an absolutely different?
Boronoeva N.A.: I agree with you that there is a question of mentality of the generations of
the pre-restructuring (pre-perestroika) period, and the attributes mentioned above are prevailing for
them. As for the ethno-cultural characteristics, the estimative categories such as «good» and «bad»
are inappropriate.
Koptseva N.P.: I’ll define my thought more exactly. The matter is that when we say that one nation
has its certain qualities while another doesn’t have them at all, we put an abyss between them. And how
would they communicate with each other then? I suppose that ethno-cultural characterization is a very
serious subject and requires the most scrupulous analysis for it is a field of the applied culture studies
we are discussing now. On the other hand, the methodological principle is to ascribe certain features
to one nation only and not to try to fi nd them for another nationality – perhaps, such principle is
absolutely invalid and dead-end because it opposes those nations, isn’t it? But when we assume that
we are similar to others, only the forms of general ethno-cultural characteristics are specific, maybe,
we’ll undeceive ourselves and the study of those forms of ethno-cultural characteristics common for
every ethnos (only because we distinguish such concept as «ethnos») will be more productive. What
do you think?
Boronoeva N.A.: I agree with you.
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Kotseva N.P.: So let’s work out such methodological approach together when we could find not
only ethno-cultural characteristics but also study their specific forms. Anyway, today’s seminar’s
pathos is to begin to study the things, which seem to be obvious, by means of some concrete methods.
Perhaps, in the result, like our students, we’ll find out some discrepancies in our original and customary
ideas of those obvious things.
SUBCULTURE OF THE PEOPLE WITH LIMITED ABILITIES
FOR DEVELOPMENT FROM THE POINT OF B.K. MALINOWSKI’S
AND A.R. RADCLIFFE-BROWN’S STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM
Potylitsina Lubov’ Aleksandrovna,
Candidate for philosophy, assistant professor,
Chair for Philosophy,
Institute of Professional Development,
Siberian Federal University
Today «subculture» concept has been firmly fixed at cultural anthropology and many other
adjacent disciplines. Subculture is comprehended as a sum of specific social and psychological features
(norms, values, stereotypes, styles, etc.) influencing on a life style and thinking of certain nominal and
real groups of people allowing them to realize and affirm themselves as «we» different from «they»
(other representatives of society)1.
On the one hand, a number of various subcultures (in fact, structural elements singling some
cultural groups out of society) grows in the contemporary society. On the other hand, there is an
increase of unitive tendencies accompanied by growth of reasons and possibilities of communication
between various structural elements of society, and, accordingly, a number of people with experienced
at intercultural communication grows2.
These world tendencies involve the community of people with limited abilities for development.
On the one hand, it can be seen in the tendency of integration of the people with limited abilities for
development into a community; on the other hand, there is a tendency of autonomy of such people from
society. According to the principal idea of autonomy, a man with limited abilities for development has
right to be different from the normal majority and not to feel that he is a derelict in society but a bearer of
another subculture. Specialists of the system of special education acknowledge integration of the people
with limited abilities for development into society within the framework of subcultures as the optimal
variant of combination of these two tendencies of interrelation between society and the people with limited
abilities for development. The most adequate attitude to the people with limited abilities for development
is expected to be in the situation of leveling of contradistinctions of different countries and comprehension
of society as a sum of many equal cultures interacting with each other through a dialogue.
Methodological approaches of such lines at culture studies as functional trend (B.K. Malinowski)
and «structural functionalism» (A.R. Radcliffe-Brown) afford ground for taking a look at character of
subculture of the people with limited abilities from a certain point of view, which necessarily should be
applied together with other methodological approaches. On the one hand, the methodology of structural
functionalism helps on consideration of subculture of the people with limited abilities for development
as a stable social structure; each element has its certain function and orient to elicitation of general in
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origination and functioning of particular elements of subculture of the people with limited abilities for
development. On the other hand, it makes for consideration of subculture of the people with limited
abilities for development as an element of society on the whole, which have its certain functions (in
the first place, function of socialization of the people with limited abilities for development). In our
opinion, from the point of structural functionalism, B.K. Malinowski’s theory of needs is of particular
interest for the further research into subculture of the peoples with limited abilities. According to
the theory, culture is a secondary sphere which is to be constantly supported and reproduced. A.R.
Radcliffe-Brown’s theory of social evolution, where the evolution process is considered as development
of methods of external and internal adaptation, is also of great interest3.
Studying structural functionalism, we’ve found out that the basic methodological theses of this
trend mostly correspond to some conclusions on the laws of origin and functioning of subculture of
the people with limited abilities for development we drew in the dissertation research dedicated to the
factors of socialization process of the peoples with limited abilities for development. Let us illustrate
those conclusions:
1. The concept «intellectual impulse» has been applied in the research. It can be understood
as information adopted or sent to society when a man needs a developed ability for operation with
abstract ideas to perceive, process and reproduce such information.
2. Subculture of the physically handicapped people is considered to be an objective fact of
the social world as a structure capable to self-organization and self-development. The components
of that structure (individuals with physical handicaps for development, groups of such people) can
generate «intellectual impulses», process them and send information of intellectual value to society
again. In general, subculture of the physically handicapped people expects not so much intellectual as
informational and psychological support of the social world.
3. Subculture of the people with intellectual disabilities is not capable of self-organization and
self-development at the present stage of development of society. Organization and supporting efforts of
society are necessary for its appearance and existence. The ability to generate «intellectual impulses»
is lower within the frameworks of subculture of the people with intellectual disabilities. Therefore
that subculture first and foremost needs intellectual and emotional support of society. Receiving it,
the people with intellectual disabilities become capable of productive emotional, physical and creative
interaction with society4.
Koptseva N.P.: I think that the only guideline inside which we can be human towards such people
is comprehension that we, perhaps, don’t give them anything important, but, on the contrary, those
people gibe us something very significant. The sooner we understand our urgent need for such people
and the functions they carry out for us, the faster intercultural communication can be established. What
is the special point the people with disabilities for development can give us? What do you think?
Potylitsina L.A.: It seems to me that it’s rather difficult to determine what they concretely give.
But such people have special world outlook, and they more sharply and deeply perceive the world
around and themselves in it.
Koptseva N.P.: Do you think that when we go to communicate with them as to some feat, it
corresponds to no reality? Which concrete social technologies could be undertaken to eliminate the
situation of «psychological feat»?
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Potylitsina L.A.: To begin with, they are to be perceived as subjects. There should be made TV
shows about their everyday life showing that they have families, favorite work, children, and the fact
that they are similar to the other people, without any supernatural distinctions and not worse. They are
different only because they require some specific conditions for socialization.
Koptseva N.P.: Nobody denies that they are different in comparison with ordinary people in the
technologies I mean. But they are different and better than us. That’s what such social technologies
actively used, for example, in Hollywood posit.
Potylitsina L.A.: I suppose that’s not right to contrapose using «better-worse» evaluations.
Koptseva N.P.: But the idea «different» is always measured according to the scale «better-worse».
If one doesn’t assert that the other is better, it automatically means that the latter is worse.
Semenova A.A. (Assistant, Chair for Culture Studies, Department of Art History and Theory
and Culture Studies, Siberian Federal University): I think that we should start with infrastructure in
order such people could go out like in Europe, where everything is specially provided and organized,
where such people could feel that they are a centre of the world.
Potylitsina L.A.: Besides, there could be legislative solutions, for example, on integration of
education, in order such people could study together with ordinary men taking into consideration
the degree of possibility of such situation. One more line is correction of «Ego-image» of such
people.
Koptseva N.P.: This is really a very interesting subject. Maybe, a whole seminar should be
dedicated to this subject with access to some concrete social technologies. Thank you very much!
1
2
3
4
Mudrik, A.V. Human socialization. – Moscow, 2004. – 304 p.
Ikonnikova N.K. Perception of intercultural differences in the situation of contact of cultures. – Person. Culture. Society. –
Vol. 2. – Moscow, 2000. – P. 104-122.
Vasilyev, M.I. Introduction to cultural anthropology. – Velikyi Novgorod: Yaroslav-the-Wise Novgorod State University
Press, 2002. – 156 p.
Potylitsina L.A. Characteristics of the socialization process of the people with limited abilities for development (sociophilosophical analysis). – Krasnoyarsk 2007.
APPLICATION OF THE METHODOLOGY OF A.R. RADCLIFFE-BROWN’S
THEORY OF SOCIETY IN HISTORICAL COGNITION
Nagornyi Nikolay Nikolaevich,
Candidate for philosophy,
Chair for Philosophy,
MIA Siberian Law Institute
The English anthropologist A.R. Radcliffe-Brown’s methodology of structural and functional
theory of cultures is of interest for the philosophers reflecting on epistemological and social significance
of historical cognition. He enunciated the theory of social evolution, which considered two kinds of
social adaptation: external and internal. The external adaptation is to be understood as an interaction
of a man and the natural world while the internal adaptation (social properly) is implemented through
establishment of an integral system of social contacts and interrelations between men. The fundamental
thesis of A.R. Radcliffe-Brown’s theory concerning the fact that social structures (social and cultural
institutions) and their functions develop from simple to complex is confirmed by the results of cognition
of the historical past.
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A.R. Radcliffe-Brown distinguished two cognitive strategies in the study of society: ethnology
and social (cultural) anthropology. In his opinion, ethnology is a historical study; as for social
anthropology, eliminating historical individual and unique, it educes generally social and generally
cultural tendencies of development. That’s the difference between A.R. Radcliffe-Brown’s conception
and B.K. Malinowski’s point of view, for structuralists’ skeptical attitude to historical study is wellknown; they are interested in culture and society in their present and actual existence, «here and
now».
We believe that these epistemological conceptions are not separated but synthesized in historical
cognition. There is a description and evaluation of individualized phenomena of the past social existence
as well as revelation of essence and objective laws of social and cultural development. Otherwise,
epistemological and social role of historical cognition is lost and history turns into a chaotic «collection
of facts», able to entertain but not to transfer social experience (to teach), out of «the teacher of life»
(the Romans called it in this way).
To give social estimation to historical cognition, one should apply the thesis stated by A.R.
Radcliffe-Brown on practical (praxeological) significance of historical knowledge obtained in
the result of historical cognition and its use in practical social activity (for instance, in political
government).
Having agreed with this A.R. Radcliffe-Brown’s thesis, we admit a certain epistemological
and social status of historical cognition. Thus, G. W. F. Hegel gave the following proposition in
«Phenomenology of Spirit» (1807): a result is to be comprehended together with its formation. It’s
impossible to understand the present and to give a substantiated prediction of the future of social
development if knowledge of a previous social development and historical existence is not found or
doubtful.
However, there is also epistemological «historical pessimism» denying a possibility of obtainment
of objective historical truth and proving political partisanship and subjectivity of a historian-researcher
immanently natural for historical cognition. Really, there is a large number of examples of «rewriting»
of history for both objective (introduction of previously unknown sources into scientific use) and
generally subjective (another axiological valuation, social government order) reasons. Therefore, it is
necessary to sift «the wheat from the chaff».
«The historical revolution» of social consciousness has taken place in some states formed
after the collapse of the Soviet Union (Baltic countries, Ukraine, etc.) recently. The reasons are not
epistemological search of historians but a straight political order of those states aiming at formation
of a new national ideology and identity. Unfortunately, the «new view» is a construction of the old
nationalistic myths bringing up the youth of those countries in hatred and confrontation with other
nations, especially with the Russians. Odious historical figures are glorified (traitors to the country’s
interests, accomplices of the Nazis), for example, Hetman Mazepa or Stepan Bandera in Ukraine. The
educational literature on national history published in those countries shows that history lessons are
turned into «lessons of hate».
Socio-philosophical and cultural analysis of such processes suggests that distortion and falsification
of the results of historical cognition are not mandatory and required, that is a social «disease» unnatural
for healthy cultures. The political governance of our country realizes the importance of historical
knowledge for the Russian society and culture. The President of Russia D.A. Medvedev has formed
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a committee to resist falsification of history. A.R. Radcliffe-Brown’s point of view should become a
standard of impartial and objective approach to comprehension of social and cultural phenomena for
modern researchers.
Thus, we think that the inductive method of cognition (perception of culture as a whole by its
elements) implied by structural functionalism is to be complemented with consideration of society and
culture in their historical genesis and evolution. The historical method of cognition can be applied not
only at history but also at anthropology, culture studies, philosophy and other human sciences.
Koptseva N.P.: That is a very serious subject since starting from the activity of such great
researchers as Malinowski and Radcliffe-Brown the methodological refuse from the historical method
at culture studies has taken place. That is because of the thought that the result of historical cognition
most probably will be so called fictitious history. A century has passed since then. The scientific world
has always registered one’s own research tradition. There is a refuse from any kind of conclusions in
a research in general. The methods and their application are suggested to be demonstrated, as well as
results are to be given forth but without any conclusions because everyone draws one’s own conclusions
subjectively. Furthermore, reflection of one’s own research position and display of its limitation are
welcomed. That’s why it’s very surprising and original that you think the fathers of such a refuse from
the historical method can be methodologically applied in historical cognition.
Nagornyi N.N.: That’s right, they denies objective historical truth and believe that a researcher
is always subjective. I think that relativism has its own limits because objective historical truth exists.
It is determined by morality and a certain axiological approach required for history, which is not
supposed to be a tool for political manipulation.
Koptseva N.P.: I see. But as for the question about methodology of historical investigations,
unfortunately, it often remains without any clear answer. That is a very serious problem of political
current interest. Perhaps, you have really found such a point when both Malinowski, using the
methodology of functionalism, and Radcliffe-Brown applying structuralism want to obtain the most
reliable result.
Nagornyi N.N.: They say that there is a tendency of search for objective laws and reflection on
facts in historical cognition.
MYTHOLOGICAL FEMALE IMAGE IN SOCIAL AND CULTURAL SPACE
Starikova Evgeniya Pavlovna,
Graduate student,
Chair for Social Sciences,
Siberian Federal University
Formation and search for models of human behaviour in society are an important aspect of
social engineering. Those models take a part of a map of social territory: they help to orient oneself
in social space and understand the logic of things happening. Like a chess game, every social piece
acts according to its own rules, goals and functions. An interaction between an individual and a
social system is impossible without comprehension of that logic. J. Friedmann and J. Combes wrote
that «social realities are constructed by representatives of culture in the extent of interaction with
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Table 1. The connection between the ideas about a woman and the corresponding myths
«Sophia»,
«Vasilisa-the-Wise»
The women are weak, credulous
The women are more enduring and The mission of the women is to
and hurtable (cor. index 0,35)
psychologically stronger than men love and be loved (cor. index 0,25)
(cor. index 0,3)
The women are more enduring and
psychologically stronger than men
(cor. index 0,23)
The women treat the similar types The women are more responsible
The women are more responsible
as contenders (cor. index 0,22)
and thoughtful leaders than men
and thoughtful leader than men
(cor. index 0,24)
(cor. index 0,18)
The family of my parents is a good
model to follow (cor. index 0,24)
Culture and morality of the modern Only a woman can take care of a
A woman is a tutelary for a man
society displays irreverence
child (cor. index -0,2)
(cor. index 0,3)
towards a woman today (cor. index
I forgive any faults of my beloved
0,3)
man (cor. index 0,24)
The requirements for appearance of Every woman able to become a
a modern woman become tougher person has her spiritual pillar and
(cor. index 0,2)
Faith (cor. index 0,26)
«Lonely and defenseless»
«Strong and courageous»
each other, generation after generation, day by day. People make History and stories and children
born and growing up fi nd themselves in some stories where a certain place «awaits» for them in
History».
The aim of our research was an elicitation of social and cultural mythological bases for description
and comprehension of universal images structuring ideas of women. There have been interviewed
200 students for the questionnaire at Siberian Federal University. The correlative analysis of the
respondents’ answers on female image in the modern society has shown the existence of three closely
connected groups of features we have interpreted as semantic complexes (myths) at the level of mass
consciousness. Those complexes can be correlated with the mythological images traditional for the
Russian culture.
The first semantic complex combines such variables as «intelligent», «spiritual», «creative»,
«enchanting», «supporting», and «magic». This type coincides with one of the most magical and fair
images of wise and charming enchantress, attentive and empathetic Vasilisa-the-Wise (The Swan
Princess); the image of Sophia, whom the Russian philosophers described as wise, high, womanly,
and meek. The following semantic complex is represented by an interrelation «defenseless», «timid»,
«delicate», «lonely», and «dependent». Perhaps, this «bunch» of meanings responds to the images
of immature and inexperienced characters such as Snow-Maiden, Alyonushka, and a miserable
stepdaughter. The third group combines the meanings of a «strong», «imperious» and «pragmatic»
woman. And «the strength» of that woman is displayed through «male» traits; it’s interesting that there
is a lack of connections of this «bunch» of meanings with «spirituality», «heartfulness», «magic», and
«charm». The traditional Russian literature shows that this image colligates the features of tyrannous
tsarinas, severe and freaky ladies demonstrating their authority only for their own ambition (this
complex of features is not connected with «spirituality», «heartfulness», and «support»). Maybe this
bunch of meanings reflects the myth being formed now and attractive for the modern women – the
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myth concentrated on «strength», «courage» and «power». However this myth isolates a woman from
her traditional traits, which, probably, represents the conflict between male and female features in the
mass consciousness.
In order to identify the respondents’ opinion on the role and status of a woman in the modern
world, there has been used a specially constructed selection of propositions concerning appearance and
inner life of a woman and her relations with men.
There have been analyzed the correlative connections between the ideas of a woman and the
variables reflecting the semantic ranges educed above.
On the whole, the educed connections allow us to mention three key modi of the problems
characteristic of each of the three semantic complexes. «Sophia» and «Vasilisa-the-Wise» complex
is characterized by an idea of a woman as affectionate, forgiving, psychologically stronger and
more enduring than men, with spiritual support and faith. The complex «strong and courageous» is
characterized by desire for leadership and be recognized from the point of «male» values. On the other
hand, a woman «is about to deliver» her role of parenthood to men and feels pressure from society,
which demands strict compliance with the standards regulating her appearance. The representatives
of «lonely and defenseless» complex are concentrated on their own vulnerability, contention and
disregard of society for a woman.
There have been educed the correlation indexes between degree of satisfaction with life and the
ideas of women’s status in the modern world. There is the strongest connection between «Sophia» and
«Vasilisa-the-Wise» semantic complex and satisfaction with life.
The elicited semantic complexes could be involved in social engineering to comprehend the stable
social models of behaviour and tendencies of their development, as well as to form of the personalized
style of communication and control.
The methodological approach, which underlies the research (eduction of the semantic complexes
and their correlation with the traditional myths and actual conflicts), can be adapted for a wide range
of issues of the modern social and cultural engineering.
Libakova N.M. (Assistant, Chair for Culture Studies, Department of Art History and Theory
and Culture Studies, Siberian Federal University): Tell us, please, did you take into account the
respondents’ sexual identity during questioning?
Starikova E.P.: Certainly, we did. We tried to involve in questioning both boys and girls
equally.
Libakova N.M.: So the represented results are the opinions of boys and girls together, aren’t they?
Perhaps, it would be more efficient to separate the results according to gender? The ideas of men and
women can differ greatly.
Starikova E.P.: The fact is that we were interested only in the ideas of women, but the same
questionnaire was given to men for purity of the study. However their answers were not taken into
consideration.
Sertakova E.A. (Assistant, Chair for Art History and Theory, Department of Art History
and Theory and Culture Studies, Siberian Federal University): Did you consider the type of Baba
Yaga?
Starikova E.P.: No, we didn’t.
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Bakhova N.A.: What shall I do if I cannot correspond myself to any of the images you’ve
proposed? As for me, I couldn’t find any image to be matched with in the raw.
Starikova E.P.: I was also commoved by this question. But it seems to me those three key myths
allow women to regulate the existing ideas of themselves. I agree that a more detailed classification is
required in prospect.
Koptseva N.P.: That’s a very interesting investigation. But if we complicate it a little bit? Certainly,
we can distinguish some very stable images, name and classify them. Still we can see an unprecedented
social dynamics and predict its further strengthening. You propose some fundamental points of
identification. If you could promptly admit that those processes of strengthening of social dynamics
are equally characteristic of the Russian society and any other; and, probably, it is even noxious to fix
them in purely national mythical categories. In this sense, if we mention the mythological lines, they
should be vast starting from Kali devouring her children to Vasilisa-the-Wise. But you’ve taken only
white archetypes. If the principle of social dynamism were introduced in your research, there would
be possible to build such social engineering, which would nearly correspond to our turbulent and
vehement social reality.
CONSANGUINITY AS A BASIS OF SOCIETY. SPECIFICITY
OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A MOTHER’S BROTHER
AND A SISTER’S SON
Libakova Natalia Mikhailovna,
Assistant, Chair for Culture Studies,
Department of Art History and Theory and Culture Studies,
Siberian Federal University
Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown intensely pays attention to consanguinity in his studies of the
society’s structure. He considers consanguinity as a basis of social structure and a source of regulation
of social relations between individuals. That regulation is arranged by formation of the invariable
schemes of behaviour for the relationship of every category of relatives accepted. The standards of
behaviour are determined by the general principle: behaviour of a person towards a father’s brother is
formed by the attitude towards his own father, as well as his attitude towards a mother’s sister is based
on the way he treats his own mother.
A special model of behaviour is developed in a relationship between a mother’s brother and
a father’s sister when those relatives take part of male mother and female father. Proceeding from
the fact that it is prescribed to respect and obey a father while a mother is considered to be a
source of tenderness, care and clemency, there can be formed a peculiar model of behaviour: one
should respect and obey a father’s sister while a mother’s brother is expected to have clemency
and care.
Special attention is to be paid to the fact that one should take into account gender belonging of a
relative in the formation of a model of blood relationship. Plainness and familiarity of communication
is supposed to be only between persons of the same sex. A man ought to treat women-relatives more
respectfully than men-relatives. Hence, a nephew should honour a father’s sister even more than his
own father and he can talk to a mother’s brother with such familiarity, which is impermissible even in
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relation to his own mother. A mother’s brother is a relative, who is expected to have benevolence and
care; liberty can be allowable in communication with him.
In the primitive society, the principle of formation of a model of behaviour in relation to a mother
is applied to all the relatives on the maternal side including maternal deities – ancestors of the mother’s
group. In the same way, the principle of formation of a model of behaviour in relation to a father can be
spread on the relatives on the paternal side and paternal gods.
A.R. Radcliffe-Brown points out a very essential principle implying the fact that all the social values
are retained in various ceremonies, rituals, and customs in the primitive society. The characteristics of
an attitude of a person towards his maternal relatives can be also reflected in some ritual forms.
A.R. Radcliffe-Brown takes the lobola rite (redemption for a marriage) as an argument. The
essence of that rite is to secure the status of children in a father’s family and to modify the strongest
social connection «mother – child» and to make the children, born after a marriage, real members of
a father’s family.
Proceeding from the fact that the main function of rituals is always a fixation of some types of
behaviour, consequently, we can find knowledge about specificity of interrelations between individuals
of a society analyzed and understand the character of a structure of such society by the study of some
concrete rites.
Starikov P.A.: Is it possible that such relationships can have inhuman character and be programmed
by nature?
Libakova N.M.: Quite possible.
Starikov P.A.: So, how is a ritual connected with those preprogrammed relations?
Libakova N.M.: A ritual avails a research on such relations because they are not displayed
properly as such. A ritual fixes relations in their invariable manifestations, which allows us to identify
and discern them. We study relations through a ritual.
Luzan Vladimir Sergeevich,
Assistant, Chair for Advertising and Socio-Cultural Activities,
Department of Art History and Theory and Culture Studies,
Siberian Federal University
I will orient to the definition of social engineering as a complex of approaches of applied social
sciences (including applied culture studies) referred to purposeful transformation of organization
structures, which determine human behaviour and providing for control over it, or the complex approach
to the study and modification of social reality based on the application of engineering approach.
Thus, today social engineering is a complex of knowledge oriented to practice at control over
social structures and processes, including cultural ones. I will closely dwell on importance of control
over them.
In this connection, I would like to point out some basic principles of socio-engineering practice at
control over cultural processes in the situation of globalization.
Firstly, that is the principle of integration of social, cultural and individual transformations
nonidentical to each other.
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Due to its specific character, social engineering is concentrated on typical, iterative and routine
procedures and operations falling for technologization in a larger degree than any other processes.
The second principle establishing priority of the development of both the sub-systems of civil
institutions and the very institutions of civil society is the principle of acceleratory development of
culture (a cultural sub-system) in relation to the social organization. It runs: new social systems and
institutions can be established only providing maturation of cultural preconditions and by selection of
the most vital cultural models. Thereat, it is to be excluded direct copying and transference of models
of other culture to the national ground without any preliminary adaptation and assimilation at the level
of the institutions existing. New social forms are the result of not only task-oriented human activity but
also continued cultural evolution.
The next principle of social engineering arranging an adequate correlation between different
types of institutional transformations is proportional and well-balanced development of individual
and social spheres of civil society and its institutions.
It implies such condition of successful socio-engineering activity as consideration of social
character of people involved in transformative processes changing, as it is known, much slower than
the very social institutions and their material ambience.
Thus, the scheme of progression of institutional transformations «social changes – cultural
changes – individual changes» is to give place to another scheme: «culture – individual – social
organization».
We’d like to remark that the growing interest in maintenance of the existing cultural diversity,
rich cultural traditions of different nations, and perception of the danger of cultural unification in
consequence of globalization of the world – all these factors can be combined in the problems of
international security, dialogues of culture and their integration in the world community. Culture has
become economic strategic priority for the developed countries. That is connected with the fact that it
has managed to generate a powerful sector of creative industries in itself.
Therefore, realization of creative potential of culture requires the necessity for integration of
various kinds of knowledge at this sphere of mental life within the frames of one scientific discipline –
applied culture studies as some sort of bridge bringing to the world of culture of an individual or a
human community.
The principal orientation of applied culture studies is housel of a man to culture. The subject of
that process is social and cultural activity; one of its chief tools of realization is state cultural policy.
Thus, applied culture studies can be defined as a complex of conceptions, methodological principles,
methods, and cognitive procedures oriented to practice at different fields of social interaction and
achievement of some practical effects at those spheres.
Let me analyze the details of control over cultural processes, for example, in Krasnoyarsk region.
Transformation of the present economic situation makes cardinal adjustments in the fabric of cultural
space. Those processes are more complicated than they seem to be at first sight. Those processes are
very vehement in Krasnoyarsk region since the scenario of formation of its resource basis mutates. The
industrial resource region is being transformed into an area of primary producing economy.
The key social and cultural problem of the developing economic situation in Krasnoyarsk region
is a change of the traditional way of life of the people, which eventually influences both on cultural
requirements of the population and their quality, and often on the possibility of their providing.
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The situation of transformation of the scenario of economic development is multidimensional
where three central contradictions can be pointed out:
1. The way of life of the population. The most powerful migration streams connected with «the
shift-work method» break the habitual settled way of life of the people, which forms new variants of
social and cultural activity in the region.
2. The way of life of the cities. The status of big transpolar cities and the structure of labour
market change, and there is deflux of intellectuals in the whole population upsurge in this territory of
the region.
3. The way of life of the indigenous peoples. The form of life of the small groups of indigenous
peoples changes because of the promotion of economic projects in the north of the region. The traditional
kinds of social and cultural activity are not available for them now, and new forms of activity haven’t
been developed yet.
There is a process of substitution of cultural activity for cultural acts characterized by mass and
simultaneous nature and entertainment. The consumption society directed to entertainment is formed
here, which is supported by:
1. Decentralization of cultural space in the region. We are sure that this practice is coordinated
neither with the substantial component of work nor with understanding of significance and functional
role of institutions of culture by many heads of settlements. Consequently, the decentralization process
doesn’t provide worthy quality of a cultural product in Krasnoyarsk region as a participant of that
process because the local specificities and cultural and historical traditions of the population are not
taken into consideration.
2. The appearance of new subjects of cultural activity with their entertaining technologies
oriented to mass and up-to-the-minute aspects. The new participants of the process gradually push
out the traditional forms of cultural practices such as education, intellectual leisure, and usual
communication.
Thus, it is obvious that the cultural part of social engineering requires new creative breakthroughs
and development of innovative technologies of activity of all the subjects of the cultural process not
only in Krasnoyarsk region, but also in the whole Russian Federation in the situation of globalization
processes.
Koptseva N.P.: What do you think, what concrete steps can be made in the situation of increase
of migration streams in Krasnoyarsk region in order to avoid inter-cultural conflicts?
Luzan V.S.: One of such steps is organization of national festivals and international holidays,
which gives representatives of different nationalities a chance to find out something concerning their
cultures and to make contact with each other.
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FORMATION OF «COMMUNICATION» CONCEPT BASING
ON A.R. RADCLIFFE-BROWN’S STRUCTURAL APPROACH
Sertakova Ekaterina Anatolyevna,
Assistant, Chair for Art History and Theory,
Department of Art History and Theory and Culture Studies,
Siberian Federal University
Various interpretations of communication based on different methodological paradigms accentuate
its essence either as complexes of media of transmission of social information giving the basis of
formation and development of «information-oriented society» (technocratic and rationalistic approach)
or as a means of understanding of one person by another (interactive approach) or as principles of
formation and functioning of a language (linguistic approach) thereby pointing out only some aspects
of a phenomenon but not a whole phenomenon.
Such correlation of forces makes necessary our reference to the content of «communication»
concept, which had existed long before it found its substantiation in the modern science. Generally,
fixation of a concept doesn’t mean its creation, but it’s just a starting point of the research on its
meaning. That way of «communication» concept can be defined by the following deepening levels:
• Technocratic level (formation of communicative means – mainly mass media that influence
and reorganize communication process; mechanism of communication lines);
• The level of social sphere (communication as a bottom of organization of society, information
received and comprehended by men; the content of a message);
• Linguistic level (communication as functioning of a system of signs and their meanings in
a language according to a definitely organized scheme of rules; organization of message
transmission);
• Comprehension of information as a universal semantic-formative category (the problem of
correlation between language and reality when the former takes the leading part, appearance of
essences as information messages about nature, society and culture; meaning of a message);
• Correlation of information and transcendental source (the problem of unity of material and
spiritual aspects of existence, language, consciousness, and transcendental source; the original
goal of a message).
The educed scientific approaches at the study of communication comprehended in implicit aspect
examine a phenomenon in its isolation basing on some concrete conceptions. However it’s wrong to
consider them separated from each other.
Thus, for instance, if we turn to A.R. Radcliffe-Brown’s theory of social structure (as far as
communication is a basis of organization of society) and functionalism method, all those various
displays of communication necessarily can be considered in their wholeness and interconnection putting
the question of dynamics and development of phenomenon aside. One can observe that those levels are
certain elements interrelated with each other and providing integrity and identity of «communication»
definition. The evidence is the fact that the scientists studying communications in different fields of
knowledge took one and the same communication chain as a basis making insignificant corrections
according to a proposed conception. Furthermore, there become apparent analogous methodological
orientations, principles, and points of view on the character and core of the very process in the
approaches.
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So, we can state that, in point of fact, all the aspects of communications educed in one or another
conception are the components of the structure of the very notion. It’s not by chance that in the ancient
grammar and rhetoric the very meaning of «structure» concept was explicated as an organization of
a sentence or a composition of a speech or a text for deeper acquirement and comprehension, i.e. for
better communication.
Basing on A.R. Radcliffe-Brown’s conception, we can remark that «communication» term is
not a structure but a sum of structured units with certain functions depending on solutions of various
problems vital for a man (that’s the reason of dozens of interpretations of the phenomenon). Existence
and use of this term is considered to be functioning of its structure.
All the approaches are essential for formation of a more integral idea of the essence of
communication with many aspects displayed in different situations and conditions. It consists of
them as elements of structural knowledge with settled connections. Having considered them in
integration, we can draw a conclusion that, as distinct from the accustomed ideas and most of the
scientific defi nitions, communication is not just a channel of information interchange or an act of
communication, but a complex poly-structural and poly-functional system dynamically developing
and implying transmission and exchange with certain signals (signs), meanings, content (sense),
i.e. information according to defi nite rules and schemes, violation of which is fraught with barriers
and troubles. That process is realized by means of various communicative systems (biologic, social,
technical, etc.) in nature, culture and society; it implies information exchange between two and
more participants (interindividual communication «a person – a person»; art communication «a
spectator – a work of art»), from the point of systemology, – between systems of different levels
and purposes (including «a man – the world» system where communication has noumenal and
phenomenal character).
Due to A.R. Radcliffe-Brown’s integral consideration of phenomena of social life, the represented
concept of communication has certain mobility and flexibility of structure. It can be applied both
for consideration of concrete (aspect) display of communication phenomenon and for operation with
amplitude of content in examination of more abstract moments in its realization.
Koptseva N.P.: What do you think about the nature of communication? Who makes rules of
communication and what are the grounds?
Sertakova E.A.: If communication takes place on the Internet as communication between a man
and a computer, the rules are proposed by the people, who program the computer. If communication is
between men, it seems to me that the rules are formed by the very process of communication and are
not imposed from outside.
Koptseva N.P.: Still, the question of the character of rules of communication is very important and
complicated. Where and at which moment do such rules of communication appear? Those questions
are connected with the problem of a researcher’s immunity. Vladimir Kirillovich, when does a rule
appear in communication, especially in the situation of communication with a work of art?
Vasilyev V.K.: For instance, rules of communication are frequently ascribed to grammar and to
convention in some other systems. And there are the laws laid down in advance. In the case of a work
of art, if you believe Carl Gustav Jung, the nature of rules of communication lies in the unconscious,
that’s why it cannot be thoroughly described, but, still, something can be fixed.
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AN EDUCATED PERSON IS A GUIDE TO THE FUTURE
Busyigina Olga Mikhailovna,
Senior lecturer,
Chair for Information technologies of education,
Institute of pedagogy, psychology and social studies,
Siberian Federal University
Methodological bases of cultural anthropology bring us to a discussion of forms of the future,
which we try to recognize basing on historical and cultural essence of human existence. Structural
and functional method allows us to objectify complex phenomena generated by processes and
relations formed in culture. Thus, the phenomenon «educated person» as an estimation of education
process and its result requires reflexion on its polysemy and incorporation of integrality. That is a
meta-mark of a man, who changes himself and cognizes his surroundings and the world, is fi lled
with various characteristic features in different cultures and historical periods. Descriptions of
a present well-educated Japanese, an Englishman, a Czech, a Russian or an Azerbaijanian will
surely differ. Certainly, there is an invariant permanently present in samples: possession of a
system of knowledge, developed thinking and intention of development of cultural values by a
person.
We can find a direct correspondence between a cultured man and an educated one in the Russian
philosophical tradition: «education is neither more nor less than culture of an individual»1. Innovative
processes in education, priorities of human development proclaimed in educational policy revive that
tradition and need research results influencing on effectiveness of actions.
We are interested in such questions: how do complexity of sign systems, today’s social and cultural
situation in education, and challenges of culture – order for an educated person – influence on the idea
of an educated person of the students at Siberian Federal University? What kinds of impressions,
judgments, and emotional responses are spread and articulated in the essay on this topic? What are the
components of the complex determining the idea of an «educated person»?
Last-year students (77) of the Institute for Mathematics, Siberian Federal University, took part in the
research work. The essays they had written («talking out» and an essay-contemplation) were analyzed
in two stages. According to the meanings of judgments and by modeling of spheres of meanings, there
were distinguished components of the idea of «educated person» at the first stage. Subsequently, those
components became categories of a content-analysis, which helped to consider realities of the idea.
The carried out qualitative-quantitative analysis allowed us to find specific weight of the accentuated
category and to formulate conclusions about the positions (preferential and peripheral) on significant
judgments more distinctly.
The first component of the «educated person» image is Knowledge (learning process): awareness,
knowledge of the world order, model of the world, comprehensive knowledge, «experienced in many
fields», and assimilation of a system of knowledge. We also took into account the students’ opinions
that there should be «not only knowledge», but also «openness to knowledge», willingness to share
knowledge and bring its light to others.
The unit of competences as abilities and facilities to reorganize, transform society and life around,
and achieve success in professional activities by using knowledge, abilities and skills, includes the
following variables:
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- instrumental competences, the core of which is professional training and information
management supplemented with developed skills in oral and written communication, mastering
of computer activities, etc.;
- competences of system character: developed thinking, analytical abilities, search for truth,
sense for intellectual activity, realization of abilities, etc.;
- interindividual competences: tolerance, cooperation, understanding of other people, «teamwork»,
success in interpersonal communication, respect for the values of other nations, etc.
The pragmatic values of benefits, fast career, elevation above others, and ambition as a personal
trait of an educated man are rarely named. We can say that they are isolated so don’t deprive the unit
of judgments on the Competences of productive orientation.
The represented variables of names and partly content coincide with the classification of general
competences proposed by V.I. Baidenko. We should remark that creativity and creative activity were
included into the Level of Culture unit due to their belonging to deep and self-valuable «layers» of
human culture and spirit.
The Level of Culture unit as a search for adoption of norms of culture, the highest values of
existence, self-realization in creativity is represented by the following generalizations:
- aesthetic development: cultural perceptivity, knowledge of languages of culture, «ability for
seeing beauty», «music education», activity at reading, etc.;
- creation: creativity, «theoretical creativity», «creative initiative»;
- morals: dignity, «deed», spiritual and moral force.
The unit of Self-perfection includes needs and values of self-knowledge (search for a true vocation,
«search for oneself», the ability to overcome internal crises, etc.), self-education («education during
a whole life»), self-upbringing (control over feelings, self-control, value of health, self-criticism, selfrestraint, etc.), and self-development (self-transformation, development of a person, personal growth,
willingness to choose, self-confirmation, ability to «take responsibility», focus on human capabilities,
etc.).
The ascent to spirituality of an educated person fixes the following judgments: acquisition of
spiritual image, «to be an individuality», to develop one’s personality, to develop spiritual abilities,
«faith, hope, and love» as values, liberty, «humanity», harmonization of intellectual, moral and physical
development, «man of the epoch», «formation of a truly human image», etc.
Inclusion of judgments on development of individuality in the content of the «Ascent to spirituality»
component is based on understanding of individuality as spiritual dimension of a person and relentless
reflection: «Individuality is always an internal dialogue of a man with himself, a breakthrough beyond
one’s own self, going beyond the boundaries of the eternal, universal, and simultaneously an entrance
into the unique identity of oneself»2. One can suppose that the students’ judgments reflect this point of
view as perception of request to the authorship of one’s own life.
All the essays point out that an «educated person» undoubtedly has knowledge. The second place
is taken by the instrumental and system competences according to frequency of mentioning: 79 % and
78 % correspondingly. And the interindividual competences are mentioned only in a half of the cases
(55 %).
There is specific weight of judgments concerning the components «self-education» (65 %) and
«self-development» (65 %) in the unit of Self-Perfection. «Creativity» (42 %), «morals» (42 %), and
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«ascent to spirituality» (42 %) take the prominent place in the essay. «Self-upbringing» is less common;
only every third student finds it in the field of his attention. The students rather rarely mention «selfcognition» (16 %) and «aesthetic development» (14 %) in the description of an «educated person».
Consequently, self-education and self-development are slightly based on self-cognition, which points
to their external predetermination, but not internal one.
In the students’ opinions, an educated person seems to be someone who acquires knowledge,
professionally trained, tolerant, cooperating, seeking to maintain moral values and realization of his
individuality in creative work and spiritual formation. However, we cannot help noticing gaps in the
emerging image: the lack of need of self-cognition and aesthetic development.
The research results have marked a system of bases for evaluation of education of a person
and identified deficiencies of the process of his formation. There should be taken into consideration
creation of conditions for real aesthetic development and support of the process of self-cognition and
creative realization of young students in projection of cultural processes in the university and region
and development of technologies of liberal education. This way provides for ascent to spirituality and
finding ways of truly human life. In the future, the problem of criterion for education of a person,
systemic in its nature, can be solved according to the conception of man of culture.
Koptseva N.P.: Dear friends, thank you all!
1
2
Gessen S.I., 1923.
Slobodchikov V.I.
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