54.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №7 2013код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà 2013 Journal of Siberian Federal University 6 (7) Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè Humanities & Social Sciences Редакционный совет: академик РАН Е.А. Ваганов академик РАН И.И. Гительзон академик РАН А.Г. Дегерменджи академик РАН В.Ф. Шабанов чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.Л. Миронов чл.-корр. РАН, д-р техн. наук Г.Л. Пашков чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В. Шайдуров чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В. Зуев Editorial Advisory Board Chairman Eugene A. Vaganov Members: Josef J. Gitelzon Vasily F. Shabanov Andrey G. Degermendzhy Valery L. Mironov Gennady L. Pashkov Vladimir V. Shaidurov Vladimir V. Zuev Editorial Board: Editor-in-Chief Mikhail I. Gladyshev Founding Editor Vladimir I. Kolmakov Managing Editor Olga F. Alexandrova Executive Editor for Humanities & Social Sciences Natalia P. Koptseva CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ Ana Pujol Dahme, Valentina A. Kononova and Liliana Tolchinsky Triptych Approach: Cognitive, Social and Linguistic Perspectives for Analyzing Academic Writing – 943 – Alexei V. Nesteruk The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology – 957 – Sahar Farrahi Avval The Toolkit a Translator Should Carry to Produce an Acceptable Piece of Translation – 1002 – Ranjit Singh Working of Indian Parliamentary Democracy in the 21st Century: an Appraisal – 1007 – Anatoly G. Anikevich and Elena P. Cheban Democratic Constitutional Ideal and Problems of Political Culture in Russia – 1021 – Yuri N. Belokopytov General Organization Theory – 1027 – Natalia P. Koptseva Orthodox Theology at Modern University: Main Approaches to University Curriculum – 1033 – Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой Подписано в печать 23.07.2013 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 12,3. Уч.-изд. л. 11,8. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 2777. Отпечатано в ПЦ БИК. 660041 Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Consulting Editors for Humanities & Social Sciences: Gershon M. Breslavs Sergey V. Deviatkin Sergey A. Drobyshevsky Sergey M. Geraschenko Oleg M. Gotlib Boris I. Khasan Galina A. Kopnina Natalia V. Kovtun Aleksandr A. Kronik Pavel V. Mandryka Boris V. Markov Valentin G. Nemirovsky Daniel V. Pivovarov Andrey V. Smirnov Viktor I. Suslov Evgeniya V. Zander Igor S. Pyzhev Vladimir I. Suprun Liudmila V. Kulikova Olga G. Smolyaninova Nicolai N. Petro Dr. Suneel Kumar Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г. Alexander V. Malko and Alexey Yu. Salomatin The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Comparative Legal Policy and its Significanse for Legal Reform – 1038 – Konstantin K. Markov and Oksana O. Nikolaeva Theoretical and Methodological Problems of Psychomotor Qualities Formation in Volleyball – 1043 – Alexey E. Prokopovich and Oleg Yu. Lyutykh Political Reforms in Russia and Improvement of Political System in Russia at Beginning XXI Century – 1057 – Mikhail D. Severyanov and Larisa U. Anisimova Abortion as a Means of Family Planning in Russia in the First Quarter of the Twentieth Century – 1066 – Michael V. Lukyanenko, Oleg A. Polezhaev and Natalya P. Churlyaeva The Problems of Engineering Education and Graduates’ Development in the Workplace – 1075 – Nukolai L. Shamne and Larisa N. Rebrina Category of Memory: Principles of Linguistic Description – 1085 – Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора и кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.) Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2013 6) 943-956 ~~~ УДК 81’42 Triptych Approach: Cognitive, Social and Linguistic Perspectives for Analyzing Academic Writing Ana Pujol Dahmea, Valentina A. Kononova * and Liliana Tolchinskya a Universitat de Barcelona 585 Corts Catalanes, Gran Via de les, 08007 Barcelona, Spain b Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia b Received 20.12.2012, received in revised form 11.02.2013, accepted 07.06.2013 Academic writing has several functions and allowing the integration of their members into different discourse communities is one of them. Students have to cope with the specialized language of their discipline from the very first steps of their educational path. The overall aim of this paper is to review some studies on the research article; we will focus on argumentation frameworks to assess their strengths and weaknesses for knowledge representation, and also two main approaches based on discourse analysis. One of them studies the internal organization of texts by means of qualitative methodologies. And the other approach focuses on language use; studies of this kind have been quantitative on a large scale, based on corpus methodologies. In doing so, first, we highlight some gaps in the literature, and second, we attempt to show, that what we call a triptych approach to the analysis of academic writing can shed some light on the structure of the argument, the organizational pattern and the linguistic features of scientific texts written by students. Keywords: triptych approach, academic writing, research article, argumentation, moves, clusters. Circe gave the potion to the sailors of Ulysses turning them into pigs, who forgot their homeland, the ability to argue (Bordes, 2011). Academic writing has several functions: communicative, epistemic, dialogic, and constructive of social identity and social integration. The communicative function of writing allows people to discourse together, informally or formally, through publishing works in different media that persist over time * (Bazerman, 2005). In an academic context it involves the transmission of knowledge to other members of a specific community, e.g. scientific community (Swales, 1990, 2004). Academic writing also opens a problem space functioning as a tool for learning more, an epistemic tool. Writing transforms and builds © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 943 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ana Pujol Dahme, Valentina A. Kononova… Triptych Approach: Cognitive, Social and Linguistic Perspectives… up knowledge: a set of cognitive activities are mobilized to clarify and enrich the understanding of a topic, ideas are modified because they need to be organized and synthesized (Bereiter & Scardamaglia, 1987, Gallbraith, 1999). Language plays a mediating role in the social construction of the mind. Thus, just as the mind is formed dialogically, texts adopt a stance of polyphony or dialogism (Bakhtin, 1981). The writer identifies himself with a particular discourse community, therefore, social identity (e.g., as a researcher or academic author) is discursively constructed (Berkenkotter & Huckin, 1995; Ivanic, 1998; Lillis, 2001). As the writer identifies himself with a discourse community, he uses its texts as a source and these, in turn, are related to previous text by intertextuality1 ( Kristeva ,1980). But intertextuality is not just a reference to other texts; it also indicates how the writer is positioned to make his own statement (Bazerman, 2004; Prior, 2006). Hence, writing is a medium to participate in society. From primary school (Tolchinsky & Simó, 2001) beyond university level, written language allows the integration of scholars into different discourse communities. Each community has its own discursive practices, that is, their members use written language according to certain purposes and epistemic values (Bazerman, 2004; Carlino, 2005; Ivanic, 1998; Prior, 2006). In Catalonia, one of the autonomous communities of Spain, high school students, at the age of 17-18 years, must complete a research paper as an academic requirement of their curriculum. The research article is an outcome of guided personal research which must be submitted in a written form. This assignment allows them to develop general skills to investigate, argue and express their ideas, much like in scientific discourse communities. Further, at the university level, students must submit a research paper when they complete their master studies. So students, from very early on, have to train their skills for research. They have to work on a problem space, that is, mobilize cognitive skills, enriching the understanding of the topic. Likewise, they must quote and use other texts (intertextuality) to attempt to become part of a scientific discourse community. In this attempt, the use of specialized language and genre, i.e. the language of the community of reference, is essential. The acquisition by students of the specialized language is reflected in their textual productions. But which are the distinctive characteristics of the specialized language in research articles and how do they relate to these aspects analyzed in students’ texts? We aim to show that a simultaneous use of three different approaches is useful to attain this characterization: (1) a discourse analysis focusing on the argument structure, that shows how writers construct the evidence in their research articles through the fundamental steps of any argument, that is, how general claims are supported by specific data through warrants; (2) an analysis of the general pattern of the organization of the research article, through its moves and steps and ; (3) a corpusbased analysis of the linguistic features, that characterize the texts, such as clusters, that account for the audience awareness. This triptych approach is based, in a broad sense, on a discourse analysis perspective; discourse is a generic term, which has three dimensions: communication of beliefs (cognition), interaction in social situations and language use (van Dijk, 1997). As we focus on a specific genre, the research article, we take a genre based approach with a corpus linguistic methodology into account. By genre is meant a group of texts, which represents how writers use language in recurring situations. The cognitive dimension of genre relates to how the information is organized. In research articles knowledge is represented in # 944 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ana Pujol Dahme, Valentina A. Kononova… Triptych Approach: Cognitive, Social and Linguistic Perspectives… the form of arguments. The social dimension of genre relates to how the information follows the requirement of a specific discourse community (Bruce, 2008). Specifically, the use of moves and steps (Swales, 1990) which are characteristic of a particular genre relates to context or disciplinespecific content. Besides the global organization realized through moves and steps, a number of linguistic features, like clusters may serve also as distinctive genre. Furthermore, these clusters differentiate novice from expert writers and they can give some evidence of how the awareness of audience develops. The article is organized as follows: Firstly, we focus on argumentation frameworks. Secondly, we point out some studies that have analyzed the internal organization of texts in terms of moves in research articles. Thirdly, we highlight research on linguistic features, such as multi-word expressions. Fourthly, we make some remarks about our “triptych” approach. In doing so, we attempt to show that a synergistic approach to the analysis of academic writing can shed some light on the structure of the argument, the organizational pattern and the linguistic features of research articles written by students. 1. Argumentation models In the following lines, we present some rationale for focusing on argumentation. As pointed out by Sampson and Clark (2008) scientific inquiry is a knowledge-building process in which the development of explanations is essential, to make sense of data and, for its debate, revision and critique by the scientific community (Driver, Newton, & Osborne, 2000; Duschl, 2000). So, scientific inquiry has two steps, one is a knowledge -building process and the second is a discursive mode of argumentation that is tied to epistemic goals valued by a discipline (Sandoval & Reiser, 2004). The whole inquiry process can be described as follows: formulating a problem or asking a question, formulating a hypothesis or answering the question, the design of the research, collecting and interpreting the data and drawing conclusions. Therefore, scientific inquiry can be summarized as a process of asking questions, generating data through systematic observation or experimentation, interpreting data, and drawing conclusions (White & Frederiksen, 1998). Once the inquiry process has ended, the findings of the process should be communicated to the scientific community for its debate. This communication is done by means of research articles through argumentation. So, argumentation is the discursive mode directly linked to the research article to successfully inquire into any discipline. Novice members must acquire not only the ability to generate a convincing argument, that is, be consistent with the epistemology criteria used by the scientific community (Sampson & Clark, 2008; Sandoval & Reiser, 2004) but, they also have to know the formal properties and schematic structures of this kind of genre, the research article, used for the scientific communication. Therefore, below we will mention some properties of the research article (i) and then its discursive mode, the argumentation (ii). (i) Swales (1990) defines the RA as follows: The research article or paper is taken to be a written text (although often containing non-verbal elements), usually limited to a few thousand words, that reports on some investigation carried out by its author or authors. In addition, the research article will usually relate the findings within it to those of others, and may also examine issues of theory and/or methodology. It is to appear or has appeared in a research journal or, less typically, in an edited book-length collection of papers (p. 93). # 945 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ana Pujol Dahme, Valentina A. Kononova… Triptych Approach: Cognitive, Social and Linguistic Perspectives… Research articles are characterized, generally, by a fixed structure in their organizational level (macro-structure): Introduction, Method, Results and Discussion (IMRD) which follow the steps of the research process and give coherence at the rhetorical level. In the Introduction section the text is organized through a transition from the general topic to the particular aim, by describing an inadequacy in previous research that motivates the present study. So, it contains the essential elements of context, focus and justification. In the Method and Results section the information is presented on a particular level: the former, detailing the steps, which were used to obtain the fi ndings and the latter, providing evidence with the own data. The Discussion section like a mirror reflects the introduction section, by moving from specific fi ndings to wider implications of the topic (Swales, 1990). (ii) As we mentioned before, the discursive mode of the research article is commonly the argumentation. So, for the purpose of this review we clarify what we mean by argument and argumentation and its functions in academic contexts. Following Kuhn and Udell (2003) we use the term argument for the product, a piece of reasoned discourse and argumentation or argumentative discourse for the social process or activity. Science use analytical, grounded in the theory of logic, dialectical, which are part of the informal logic domain and rhetorical arguments. But dialectical and analytical, due to focusing on evidence are more exacting and representative of high quality scientific argumentation (Duschl, 2008). Arguments like other modes of discourse, i.e. narration and exposition, have a specific structure, which accomplish a particular function, in this case, convince the scientific community. Standards such as consistency with theoretical knowledge of the discipline and the use of appropriate methods make the discourse coherent, because they respond to the expectations of the reader, the community of peers (Sandoval & Milwood, 2005). An argument has both an individual and a social meaning and there is a link between them (Kuhn, 1993). The individual meaning refers to any piece of reasoned discourse, that is, the development of a point of view (Billig, 1987). This reflective thinking unfolds critical thinking, because it’s a way to seek evidence for beliefs (Siegel, 1992). It also has a component for emancipation, as it enables students to understand themselves and the world and this provides them the capacity to transform society (Freire, 1970). The social meaning refers to the debate of different positions between people. Argumentation that occurs in a social dialogue enhances the higher order thinking by externalizing internal reasoning (Erduran & Jiménez-Aleixandre, 2008). As argumentation puts its emphasis on claims which are supported by specific data through warrants, it enables students to develop epistemic rational criteria, because they have to choose among theories or positions and that underpins the enculturation in the scientific community (Duschl, Erduran, Jiménez-Aleixandre, Sandoval & Milwood, 2008). Epistemic practices are the ways members of a community propose, justify, evaluate and legitimize knowledge claims within a disciplinary framework (Kelly, 2008). Despite the retreat from hard distinction between rhetoric, the study of persuasion, and dialectic, associated with ideals of reasonableness (van Eemeren, Grootendorst, Jackson & Jacobs, 1997) for our approach, we will highlight the importance of making the distinction between argumentation as persuasion and as knowledge justification. The former involves rhetorical moves and the latter commitment to evidence (Erduran & Jiménez-Aleixandre, 2008). # 946 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ana Pujol Dahme, Valentina A. Kononova… Triptych Approach: Cognitive, Social and Linguistic Perspectives… Argumentation as persuasion is related to rhetoric as it deals with arguments based on the beliefs and preferences of a particular audience. This kind of argumentation is meant to get audience acceptance by generating non-reflective emotional reactions. Therefore, as rhetoric uses the assumptions of a particular audience, it cannot be called universal and it is ineligible to be considered an ethical discipline, which means, the responsibility to be rigorous, relevant and honest (Bordes, 2011). Instead of that, argumentation as justification addresses any audience and is universal in nature, as it tries to convince by means of reason, so it represents a commitment to evidence. Further, Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca (1958) distinguished persuasive argumentation, which only claims validity for a particular audience, from convincing argumentation, that presumes to gain the adherence of every rational being and is universal in nature. For these authors the strength of the argumentation depends on the writer’s knowledge and his adaptation to the audience. The writer has a mental representation of the audience to whom he addresses the argumentation. The universal audience will assent to good arguments and reject poor ones. Hence, based on Perelman’s theory that there is a close link between the writer’s thinking and his representation of an audience which conditions their argumentation, in our approach we propose to separate the rhetorical moves from the argumentation structure. In doing so, we can assess through the product, the RA, some cognitive processes, such as the representation that have students of the addressee. We would see in the moves if students have appropriated the discursive practices of a particular audience, the scientific community. And in the argumentative structure, with its justification of claims and on the coordination among claims and evidence, we would see if students have addressed to a universal audience, which implies the quality of the argument. We will discuss the way to analyze the rhetorical moves in section 2 and in the following lines we explain some empirical research, which have described and evaluated students’ arguments in their structure. Argumentation has been recognized as an essential part of the formal educational process, because of the functions described above (Erduran, Simon, & Osborne, 2004; Kelly & Crawford, 1997; Sandoval & Reiser, 2004; Zohar & Nemet, 2002). To see how students’ argumentation, in terms of quality, differs from those ideally employed by scientists, some researchers (Bell & Linn 2000; Kelly & Takao 2002) have developed analytical frameworks for examining students’ argumentation in writing. In the review made by Sampson and Clark (2008) they showed how each of the five frameworks revised by them can inform us about the quality of students’ arguments. The authors used each methodology for analyzing the quality in a sample argument. We only point out three of them, those which represented the continuum, from structural to content analysis. Despite these frameworks have focused on issues of structure, content, and justification, much research on argumentation in science education have centered their attention on argument structure, in terms of the distinction of claims and justification, to determine quality. According to classical logic, an argument consists of two propositions: one of them is a set of premises, in form of statements, which are used to justify a claim: the conclusion (Bordes, 2011). But the pattern which has mostly influenced science education research is Toulmin’s (1958) argument structure of claims, data and warrants. For example, studies in the science discipline (Bell & Linn, 2000; Jimenez-Aleixandre, # 947 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ana Pujol Dahme, Valentina A. Kononova… Triptych Approach: Cognitive, Social and Linguistic Perspectives… Rodriguez & Duschl; 2000) which are based on Toulmin’s argument pattern (1958), consider that the quality of an argument is given if it includes the following structural components: data, warrants, backing and qualifiers to show the validity of the claim. But, as the interrater reliability is hard to achieve, because the structural components could be classified into multiple categories, the usefulness of this framework for studying students’ arguments in science is questionable (Duschl, 2008; Kelly, Druker, & Chen, 1998). A significantly different way of thinking about structure is the framework presented by Kelly and Takao (2003), because it does not make a fundamental distinction in terms of claim/justification dichotomy. It distinguishes between structural components in terms of epistemic abstractness, that is, a higher level which appeals to theory within a particular domain and the connections between individual propositions, that is, lower level descriptions of data. This framework does not measure content quality directly, but it is an intermediate focus on content. The examination of epistemic status of knowledge claims could show how students adhere to the genre conventions. One limitation of the framework is that they not include appraisal of the sensibility of the links between propositions and the scientific accuracy of the propositions. The absence of these evaluations makes it difficult to determine whether students understand the theories or how well the data support the conclusions. Kelly and Takao pointed out this limitation in their own analysis (Sampson & Clark, 2008). At the end of this continuum from structural to content analysis, there is Sandoval’s scheme (2003) to analyze the quality of high school students’ argumentation. It focuses on justification and content and offers a mechanical specificity in terms of content quality. He uses a software tool ExplanationConstructor which provided facilities for students to link data that they considered as important evidence for their claims into the text. But the subject-matter-specific nature of this framework makes it difficult to adapt to other contexts. This research highlights the difficulties students have to engage in productive scientific argumentation. For example, they struggle with coherence and linking ideas (Kelly & Bazerman, 2003) or do not support their claims with multiple justifications (Sandoval & Millwood, 2005). Through the review of the different frameworks made by Sampson and Clark (2008), these authors point out that the decision, if students have generated a high quality argument, depends on the framework chosen for their analysis. They state, “These differing assessments result from both the divergent foci of the frameworks in terms of relative weights placed on structure, content, and justification as well as differences in how the frameworks define structure, content, and justification” (Sampson & Clark, 2008, p.469). They also point out the need of approaches which do not focus only on atomized aspects of arguments, but also in a more holistic form, like in content, structure, epistemic and social aspects. In the following section we focus on the rhetorical moves, which could account for social aspects like the appropriation of the discursive practices of a particular community, from a discourse perspective. 2. Discourse analysis The term ‘discourse’ has received many different definitions, depending on the perspective adopted (Biber, Connor & Upton, 2007), these definitions can be grouped (Schiffrin, Tannen & Hamilton, 2001) in the following categories: 1) the study of the structure ‘beyond the sentence’ and 2) the study of language use . # 948 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ana Pujol Dahme, Valentina A. Kononova… Triptych Approach: Cognitive, Social and Linguistic Perspectives… 2.1. The “Move” structure 2.1.1 The study of the structure ‘beyond the sentence’ We define text as a “multidimensional entity that brings together the functional dimension, situational, thematic and grammar of the language “(Heinemann, 2000). The higher dimensions- functional, situational and thematicare realized in the linguistic elements and at the same time they reveal the choices made by the writer (Ciapusco, 2005). This definition leads us to consider the text as a polyhedral product. So, it can be analyzed from different perspectives. The study of linguistic structures ‘beyond the sentence’ focuses on the lexical-grammatical features in the higher level of the sentence (e.g., paragraphs). It describes the discursive functions that perform certain words (discourse markers). These markers indicate the internal organization of discourse or text. Studies of the structure beyond the sentence are usually qualitative and they use a top-down methodology to analyze few texts and of a specific gender, because their analysis is laborious it must be done manually (Biber, Connor & Upton, 2007). The starting point, therefore, is on a macro-structural level, with the focus on the functional / communicative lengthy text units (Cohen & Upton, 2009). As mentioned in section 1, Swales (1990) created a model CARS (Create a Research Space) after analyzing the introductory section of the papers. He found that most of their introduction sections had three moves. “A movement is a discursive or rhetorical unit that performs a coherent communicative function in a spoken or written discourse” (Swales, 2004, p.229). Analysis of movements had been developed as a top-down approach where the focus is on the study of meaning and ideas of the discourse. The model of Swales (1990) distinguishes: Move 1: establish a territory, that is, introduce the general topic. Move 2: establishing a niche within the overall theme of a more specific place. Move 3: fill the niche, the present study derived from the specific topic. However, years later, he proposed variations on this model postulates that all items are neither empirical nor are experimental (for example, Astrophysics is still in the logic of argument) Swales (2004). The Introduction section of a research paper is usually characterized in by the following features: an introduction of the topic or subject; a review of the previous research; an identification of the aspect not studied (gap); an explicitation of the objectives of the study; a presentation of the findings, and an explanation of the article structure (Biber, Connor & Upton, 2007). Swales’s model (1990) was used to analyze different sections of scientific papers, e.g. Kanoksilapatham (2005) analyzes the movements and lexical-grammatical features of these movements of the 4 sections (IMRD) of 60 journal articles in English biochemistry. Years later, he did the same with Thai articles and compares the results to the study done with English articles (Kanoksilapatham, 2007). He found that the two languages shared some similarities and differences; these are due to special characteristics of the expectations of the research community and in general of the Thai society. Other studies focuses on the organizational rhetoric of abstract experimental science articles in English and Spanish (Swales & Perales-Escudero, 2011, Martin, 2003) and articles on the English language compared with the French ( Bonn & Swales , 2007). There are also studies that examine isolated sections from different disciplines such as biology (Samraj, 2002), computer science (Posteguillo, 1999) and medicine (Williams, 1999) (as cited in Cohen & Upton, 2009). In the academic genre, rhetorical movements were studied in the introduction sections in # 949 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ana Pujol Dahme, Valentina A. Kononova… Triptych Approach: Cognitive, Social and Linguistic Perspectives… Spanish PhD theses in Computer Science (Gil, Soler & Carbonell, 2008). The results of this study reveal embedded and recurring movements that form a cyclical pattern attributable to the strategy used by students to contextualize their research. A methodological problem of this approach is to have well-defined unit of analysis (Cohen & Upton, 2009). Identification of rhetorical moves or functions can be very subjective, and indeed this is the main criticism of this methodology. However, this subjectivity can be minimized with a high reliability among judges (Phuong Dzung, 2008). Another difficulty is to control all the variables in a cross-linguistic comparison (Swales, 2004, cited in van Bonn & Swales, 2007). This author stated that to control the variables it is better to choose publications in English, which have a low impact factor, to be able to compare them with publications with less impact, usually those of other languages. Although there is a lot of research on the organizational structure of the individual sections of the research article in different disciplines (Dudley-Evans, 1997; Golebiowski, 1999; Lim, 2006; Samraj, 2002; Swales, 1981; Williams, 1999), there are only a few studies which attempt the article structure as a whole (Kanoksilapatham, 2005; Phuong Dzung, 2008; Posteguillo, 1999) and also which had compared the structure as a whole across disciplines (Phuong Dzung, 2008). Despite this gap it is important to account for the complete rhetorical structure of the research article (Kanoksilapatham, 2005). Therefore, it is the goal of our triptych approach to analyze the RA in a Catalan corpus in its entirety in two disciplines, history and biology to gain greater insight of the rhetorical structure and how it evolves through the educational levels. In the following lines we also stress quantitative methodologies, which together with the qualitative one just mentioned above, facilitate a complete analysis of RA. 2.2. The linguistic features 2.2.1 The study of ‘language use’ The study of ‘language use’ generally addresses the issue of linguistic variation in the discourse or text. Both the study of ‘language in use’ and the study ‘beyond the sentence’ share the main focus on the linguistic form and how language structures are used for communication. Studies of ‘language use’ focus on the distribution and functions of surface linguistic features. Most corpus-based studies belong to this category. These are quantitative studies that use large corpora of written texts analyzed with computational tools with usually a bottom-up methodology (Biber, Connor & Upton, 2007). First, they analyze the lexis and form and then the discourse unit types emerge from the corpus pattern. A corpus2 is a set of occurrences of natural texts, oral or written, kept in electronic format (Conrad, 2002). More specifically, to form a corpus of authentic texts should be collected systematically, capable of processing automatic or semiautomatic. The texts are selected according to explicit criteria to capture the regularities of a language or variety of language (Tognini-Bonelli, 2001). Beyond that, there is a distinction between corpus based approach which is an inductive approach and corpus driven which is deductive, arising from corpus. The distinction between the two terms is becoming more diffuse as they are extremes of a continuum (Corpas-Pastor, 2008). Furthermore, corpus analysis allows accounts for the variation in the texts and the complex interactions among linguistic components. This has a practical impact, since many materials for language teaching are based on insights about the use of language. It is through studies # 950 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ana Pujol Dahme, Valentina A. Kononova… Triptych Approach: Cognitive, Social and Linguistic Perspectives… of corpus (Altenberg, 1994, Kennedy, 1991 and Sinclair, 1991, cited in Conrad, 1996), that we can highlight the contrast between the insights and the real patterns of use. Many studies have used a top-down analysis of the discourse but the bottom-up approach has been developed recently for analyzing the discourse structure in studies using corpus. For example, Biber, Connor & Upton (2007) use the bottom-up approach as follows: the first step is to segment automatically the full text of the discourse in units (based on linguistic criteria). Each unit of discourse is then analyzed and classified on linguistic categories, as a result of this classification it can be described functional patterns of text. With this method it is possible to analyze the discursive patterns in large amounts of text with computational tools. Corpus analysis not only allows the analysis of discursive patterns, as we just explained, but also the analysis of linguistic elements that differentiate novice from expert writers, such as multiword clusters and within these, those who mark the consideration towards audience. The writer includes an expert fictitious audience, allowing him to anticipate possible criticisms and interpretations of his writing. The consideration of a reader’s point of view is what separates a novice writer from a mature writer (Kellogg, 2008). The consideration towards the audience is a construct, but can be measured through indicators (Hyland, 2004). The multiword clusters are a set of words that appear together, are fixed distinctive collocations of a particular genre. Clusters are not only crucial in academic writing, but also crucial to differentiate genres. Skilled writers are able to use them in a particular genre; however the absence of these clusters indicates little command in a specific genre by the novel writer (Hyland, 2008). Research on this topic highlights the considerable variation of clusters in different genres (Biber, 2006; Biber, Conrad, & Cortes, 2004; Scott & Tribble, 2006), but there is still uncertainly at how far they diﬀer by discipline (Hyland, 2008b). One of the main criticisms of using this methodology (corpus-based) is that it does not take into account the context of the text (Biber, Connor & Upton, 2007; Flowerdew, 2005). To counter this criticism, texts must be seen in different contexts and disciplines. It should be consider the sociocultural context in which the texts were written. In this section we have explained that the linguistic features of discourse can be studied from two main approaches. One focuses on the internal organization of less than five texts by using qualitative methodologies. And the other approach focuses on language use, so studies of this kind have basically been quantitative, based on corpus methodologies. Combining these two approaches is a current challenge of corpus linguistics (Biber, Connor & Upton, 2007, 2012). Conclusions Through this review we attempt to show that is necessary to see the research paper in its polyhedral form, which could be addressed through a triptych approach. That means analyzing the cognitive dimension of genre in its argumentation schema, its social dimension in its move structure and its linguistics features such as audience awareness. If research has highlighted the important role of argumentation in science and education (Lemke, 1990) and analyzing the students’ texts has shed some light into the structure or into the content of students’ argumentation, we require, as stated by Sampson and Clark (2008) new approaches that examine structural, epistemic and social aspects of argumentation in a synergistic way. Therefore, it is the goal of our triptych approach to focus on argumentation, # 951 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ana Pujol Dahme, Valentina A. Kononova… Triptych Approach: Cognitive, Social and Linguistic Perspectives… organizational structure and linguistics features to analyze a Catalan corpus of research papers from high school and university master studies to gain greater insight on how these three aspects displayed and relate and, even more importantly, how they evolve. We called it triptych for three main reasons: (1) It can be established as an analogy between academic writing and the fine arts. In academic communities as well as in fine arts an apprentice becomes a full member by copying, adapting and synthesizing from the work of other members (Ivanic, 1998). (2) To some extent, a scientific text resembles a piece of art: the reader unfolds it and acquires the cognitive and social knowledge of the writer, who in turn also unfolds his knowledge while writing. (3) As we mentioned above the triptych approach is based on a discourse analysis 1 2 perspective, which merge genre based, cognitive and social, with a corpus linguistic methodology. We agree with Sampson and Clark (2008) when they argue that analytical frameworks are tools created for specific tasks to investigate specific questions and that readers need additional information to interpret the results of a study to understand in that context what is meant by quality of argumentation. We also share the proposal of using small, specialized corpora where the compiler is the analyst, as it allows knowing the sociocultural context in which the texts were created (Flowerdew, 2003). Our paper suggests that all three dimensions – cognitive, social and linguistic, as well as the context under which the texts are written – are valuable in order to develop proper instructional guides. Further work needs to be undertaken in the sphere of academic writing to let an apprentice grow into a master of his trade. For a more detailed overview of intertextuality see Bazerman (2004) and Allen (2000). For further information about corpus see Biber, Conrad, & Reppen, 1994; Parodi, 2008; Teubert, 2005; Tognini-Bonelli, 2001. References 1. 2. 3. Allen, G. (2000). Intertextuality. London, England: Routledge. Bakhtin, M. (1981). The dialogic imagination. Austin: University of Texas. Bazerman, Ch. (2004). Intertextualities: Volosinov, Bakhtin, literary theory, and literacy studies. In A. Ball & S. W. Freedman (Eds.), Bakhtinian perspectives on languages literacy, and learning (pp. 53–65). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 4. Bazerman, Ch. (2005). Communication in the scientific community. In S. Restivo (Ed.), Science, technology, and society: An encyclopedia (pp.55–61). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Bazerman, Ch., & Paradis, J. (Eds.). (1991). Textual dynamics of the professions. Historical and contemporary studies of writing in professional communities. Madison: University of Wisconsin. Bell, P., & Linn, M. C. (2000). Scientific arguments as learning artifacts: Designing for learning from the web with KIE. International Journal of Science Education, 22(8), 797 – 818. Bereiter, C., & Scardamaglia, M. (1987). The psychology of written composition. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Berkenkotter, C., & Huckin, T. N. (1995). Genre knowledge in disciplinary communication: Cognition/culture/power. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 5. 6. 7. 8. # 952 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ana Pujol Dahme, Valentina A. Kononova… Triptych Approach: Cognitive, Social and Linguistic Perspectives… 9. Biber, D., Connor, U., & Upton, T. (2007). Discourse on the Move: Using Corpus Analysis to Describe Discourse Structure. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 10. Biber, D., Conrad, S., & Reppen, R. (1998). Corpus-Based Investigations of Language Use. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics (2008),16,115–136. doi:10.1017/S0267190500001471 11. Billig, M. (1987). Arguing and thinking: A rhetorical approach to social psychology. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 12. Bordes, M. (2001). Las trampas de Circe: Falacias lógicas y argumentación informal. Madrid, Spain: Cátedra. 13. Bruce, I. (2008). Academic writing and genre: A systematic analysis. London, England: Continuum. 14. Carlino P. (2005). Escribir, leer y aprender en la universidad. Una introducción a la alfabetización académica. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Fondo de Cultura Económica. 15. Conrad, S. (1996). Investigating academic texts with coprus-based techniques: an example from biology. Linguistics and education, 8, 299–326. 16. Conrad, S. (2002). Corpus linguistic approaches for discourse analysis. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 22, 75–95. doi: 10.1017/S0267190502000041 17. Cortes, V. (2004). Lexical bundles in published and student disciplinary writing: examples from history and biology. English for Specific Purposes, 23(4), 397–423doi:10.1016/j.esp.2003.12.001 18. Driver, R., Newton, P., & Osborne, J. (2000). Establishing the norms of scientific argumentation in classrooms. Science Education, 84(3), 287– 313. 19. Dudley-Evans, T. (1998). Genre analysis : a key to a theory of ESP ? Ibérica, 2(2), 3–11. 20. Duschl, R. (2000). Making the nature of science explicit. In R. Millar, J. Leach, & J. Osborne (Eds.), Improving science education: The contribution of research (pp.187–206). Philadelphia, P.A.: Open University Press. 21. Duschl, R. (2008). Quality argumentation and epistemic criteria. In S. Erduran & M. JimenezAleixandre (Eds.), Argumentation in science education: Perspectives from classroom-based research (pp. 159–179). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. 22. Erduran, S., Simon, S., & Osborne, J. (2004). TAPping into argumentation: Developments in the application of Toulmin’s argument pattern for studying science discourse. Science Education, 88, 915 – 933. 23. Flowerdew, L. (2005). An integration of corpus-based and genre-based approaches to text analysis in EAP/ESP: countering criticisms against corpus-based methodologies. English for Specific Purposes, 24(3), 321–332. 24. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. (M. Bergman, Trans.). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin. (Original work published 1968). 25. Galbraith, D. (1999). Writing as a knowledge-constituting process. In M.Torrance & D. 26. Galbraith (Eds.), Knowing what to write (pp.139–160). Amsterdam, NL: University Press 27. Gil, L., Soler, C., & Carbonell, M. (2008). The move structure of the introductory sections of spanish phd theses. Revista Española de Lingüística Aplicada, 21, 85–106. 28. Halliday, M.A.K. (1994). Functions of language. 2nd ed. London, UK: Arnold 29. Heinemann, W. (2000). Textsorten. Zur Diskussion um Basisklassen des Kommunizierens. Rückschau und Ausblick. In K. Adamzik (Ed.), Textsorten. Reflexionen und Analysen (pp. 9–29). Tübingen, Germany: Stauffenburg. # 953 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ana Pujol Dahme, Valentina A. Kononova… Triptych Approach: Cognitive, Social and Linguistic Perspectives… 30. Hyland, K. (2008). Academic clusters: text patterning in published and postgraduate writing. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 18(1), 41–62 . 31. Hyland, K., & Tse, P. (2004). Metadiscourse in academic writing: a reappraisal. Applied Linguistics, 25(2),156–177. doi:10.1093/applin/25.2.156 32. Ivanic, R. (1998). Writing and identity. The discoursal construction of identity in academic writing. Studies in written language and literacy. Amsterdam,The Netherlands: Benjamins. 33. Jimenez-Aleixandre, M.,Rodriguez,M.,&Duschl,R.A. (2000). “Doing the lesson” or “doing science”: Argument in high school genetics. Science Education, 84(6), 757 – 792. 34. Jimenez-Aleixandre, M., & Erduran, S. (2008). Argumentation in science education: An overview. In S. Erduran & M. Jimenez- Aleixandre (Eds.), Argumentation in science education: Perspectives from classroom-based research (pp.3–29). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. 35. Kanoksilapatham, B. (2005). Rhetorical Structure of Biochemistry Research Articles. English for Specific Purposes, 24, 269–92. 36. Kanoksilapatham, B. (2007). Rhetorical moves in biochemistry research articles. In D. Biber, U. Connor & T. Upton (Eds.), Discourse on the Move: Using Corpus Analysis to Describe Discourse Structure (pp.73–119). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 37. Kellogg, R.T. (2008). Training writing skills: A cognitive developmental perspective. Journal of writing research, 1(1), 1–26. 38. Kelly, G. J. (2008). Inquiry, activity, and epistemic practice. In R. Duschl & R. Grandy (Eds.), Teaching scientific inquiry: Recommendations for research and implementation (pp. 99–117). Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense. 39. Kelly, G. J., & Bazerman, C. (2003). How students argue scientific claims: A rhetorical-semantic analysis. Applied Linguistics, 24(1), 28 – 55. 40. Kelly, G. J., & Crawford, T. (1997). An ethnographic investigation of the discourse processes of school science. Science Education, 81(5), 533–559. 41. Kelly, G. J., Druker, S., & Chen, C. (1998). Students’ reasoning about electricity: Combining performance assessments with argumentation analysis. International Journal of Science Education, 20(7), 849 – 871. 42. Kelly, G. J., & Takao, A. (2002). Epistemic levels in argument: an analysis of university oceanography students’use of evidence in writing. Science Education, 86(3), 314 – 342. 43. Kristeva, J. (1980). Desire in language: A semiotic approach to literature and art. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. 44. Kuhn, D. (1993). Science as argument: Implications for teaching and learning scientific thinking. Science Education, 77(3), 319 – 337. 45. Kuhn, D., & Udell, W. (2003). The development of argument skills. Child Development, 74(5), 1245–1260. 46. Lillis, T. M. (2001). Student writing: Access, regulation, desire. London, England: Routledge. 47. Martín, P. (2003). A genre analysis of English and Spanish research paper abstracts in experimental social sciences. English for Specific Purposes 22(1), 25–43.doi:10.1016/S08894906(01)00033-3 48. Parodi, G. (2008). Lingüistica de corpus: Una introducción al ámbito. Revista de Lingüística Aplicada, 46(1), 93–119. # 954 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ana Pujol Dahme, Valentina A. Kononova… Triptych Approach: Cognitive, Social and Linguistic Perspectives… 49. Perales-Escudero, M. & Swales, J.M. (2011).Tracing convergence and divergence in pairs of Spanish and English research article abstracts: The case of Ibérica. Ibérica 2, 49–70. 50. Perelman, C., & Olbrechts-Tyteca, L. (1958). La nouvelle rhétorique. Traité de l’argumentation. Brussels, Belgium: L’Université de Bruxelles. 51. Phuong Dzung, P. (2008). How can Learning about the Structure of Research Articles Help International Students? ISANA International Educacional Association INC. Retrieved from http://www.isana.org.au/files/2008%20Conference%20Proceedings/paper_Dzung.pdf 52. Posteguillo, S. (1999). The Schematic Structure of Computer Science Research Articles. English for Specific Purposes 18(2), 139–58. 53. Prior, P. (2006). A sociocultural theory of writing. In Ch. MacArthur, S. Graham & J. Fitzgerald (Eds.), Handbook of writing research (pp.54–66). New York, NY: Guilford Press. 54. Sampson, V., & Clark, D. B. (2008). Assessment of the ways students generate arguments in science education: Current perspectives and recommendations for future directions. Science Education, 92(3), 447–72. 55. Samraj, B. (2002). Introductions in Research Articles: Variation across Disciplines. English for Specific Purposes, 21, 1–17. 56. Sandoval, W. A. (2003). Conceptual and epistemic aspects of students’ scientific explanations. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 12(1), 5 – 51. 57. Sandoval, W. A., & Millwood, K. (2005). The quality of students’ use of evidence inwritten scientific explanations. Cognition and Instruction, 23(1), 23 – 55. 58. Sandoval, W. A., & Millwood, K. (2008). What can argumentation tell us about epistemology? In S. Erduran & M. Jimenez- Aleixandre (Eds.), Argumentation in science education: Perspectives from classroom-based research (pp.71–91). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. 59. Sandoval, W.A., & Reiser, B. J. (2004). Explanation driven inquiry: Integrating conceptual and epistemic scaffolds for scientific inquiry. Science Education, 88(3), 345 – 372. 60. Siegel, H. (1992). On defi ning ”critical thinker” and justifying critical thinking. In H. A. Alexander (Ed.), Philosophy of education (pp.72–75). Urbana, IL: Philosophy of Education Society. 61. Swales, J. M. (1990). Genre analysis: English in academic and research settings. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 62. Swales, J. M. (2004). Research Genres: Exploration and Applications. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 63. Schiffrin, D., Tannen, D., & Hamilton, H. (Eds.). (2001). The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell. 64. Teubert, W. (2005). My version of corpus linguistics. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 10(1), 1–13. 65. Tognini- Bonelli, E. (2001). Corpus linguistics at work. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 66. Tolchinsky, L., & Simó, R. (2001). Escribir y leer a través del curriculum. Cuadernos de educación, I.C.E. (pp. 159–165). Universidad de Barcelona: Horsori. 67. Toulmin, S. (1958). The uses of argument. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 68. Upton, T.A., & Cohen, M.A. (2009). An approach to corpus-based discourse analysis: The move analysis as example. Discourse Studies,11(5), 585–605. doi:10.1177/1461445609341006 # 955 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ana Pujol Dahme, Valentina A. Kononova… Triptych Approach: Cognitive, Social and Linguistic Perspectives… 69. Van Bonn, S., & Swales, J. (2007). English and French journal abstracts in the language sciences: Three exploratory studies. Journal of English for Academic Purposes,6(2), 93–108 doi: 10.1016/j. jeap.2007.04.001 70. Van Dijk, T. (1997). Discourse as structure and process. Discourse studies: A multidisciplinary introduction, vol.1. London, UK: Sage. 71. Van Eemeren, F.H., Grootendorst, R. Jackson, S., & Jacobs, S. (1997). Argumentation. In T. Van Dijk (Ed.), Discourse as structure and process. Discourse studies: A multidisciplinary introduction, vol.1. (pp. 208–230). London, UK: Sage. 72. White, B.Y., & Frederiksen, J.R. (1998) Inquiry, modeling, and metacognition:Making science accessible to all students. Cognition and Instruction, 16, 3–118. 73. Zohar, A., & Nemet, F. (2002). Fostering students’ knowledge and argumentation skills through dilemmas in human genetics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(1), 35 – 62. 74. Williams, R. (1999). Results Section of Medical Research Articles: An Analysis of Rhetorical Categories for Pedagogical Purpose. English for Specific Purposes 18(4), 347–66. Триптих-подход: анализ академического письма через когнитивные, социальные и лингвистические перспективы Ана Мария Пужольа, В.А. Кононова , Лилиана Толчинскиа а Университет Барселоны Гран Виа де лес Кортс Каталанес, 585 б Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 б Статья представляет собой обзор последних исследований в Европе и мире в области анализа научных статей с точки зрения когнитивных, социальных и лингвистических параметров. Ключевые слова: триптих-подход, академическое письмо, научная статья, аргументация, кластеры. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2013 6) 957-1001 ~~~ УДК 24-17 The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology Alexei V. Nesteruk* University of Portsmouth, Lion Gate Building, PORTSMOUTH, PO1 3HF, UK Received 12.03.2013, received in revised form 06.06.2013, accepted 19.06.2013 In this paper we continue to study the epistemic nature of cosmological claims, in particular the status of the notion of the universe as a whole. It is demonstrated that this notion has a status of a construct with some epistemic links with empirical reality. However, it is argued that the effective methodology of contemporary mathematical cosmology related to the modelling of the very early stages of the evolutionary universes, consists not in the principle of correspondence of its theoretical constructs with empirical reality, but in the coherence of epistemic justification which relates to belief-like commitments of the community of cosmologists. As a case study, the inflationary model of the early universe is analysed and it is demonstrated that the coherence of justification leads to the transcendental problems in the style of Kant. Keywords: beliefs, cosmology, coherence, correspondence principle, epistemology, extrapolation, universe. The real world is not a thing founded in itself, that can in a significant manner be established as an independent existence. Recognition of the world as it comes from God cannot … be achieved by cognitions crystallising into separate judgements that have an independent meaning and assert definite facts. It can be gained only by symbolic construction. Hermann Weyl, Mind and Nature, p. 50 In this paper we explicate a simple truth that the standard cosmological model entirely depends upon the belief in the uniformity of the universe thus making the whole cosmological enterprise as having sense in rubrics of a certain faith-commitment which, as we have explicated previously (Nesteruk 2012), has teleological * overtones related to human activity in general. The strength of our argument is to come from a particular observation that modern cosmology functions not only through the conditions of correspondence with empirical reality, but also through the principle of epistemic coherence of justification of its constructs. © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 957 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology The universe in the image of the human history Our intention now is to provide a concise and symbolic (graphical) description of the universe as a whole in order to explicate an epistemological meaning of such a description, in particular its dependence upon some irreducible beliefs making this description possible. To do this we need to give a brief overview of the major methodological presumption in cosmology, namely the cosmological principle (Nesteruk 2012). Since we cannot empirically verify the statistics of distribution of matter from other locations in space we have to speculate on the overall distribution of matter in the universe, appealing to philosophical and hence physically untestable assumptions. The universe seems to be isotropic on the scales corresponding to clusters of galaxies. This local isotropy, being an empirical observation, is a contingent fact and it does not entail that the universe should look isotropic from every possible location in it. However the idea of our indifferent position in space was a prevalent trend after the scientific revolutions of the 17th century, so that modern cosmologists felt obliged to apply the observable isotropy to all locations in the universe. This principle of indifference, the cosmological principle, postulates the uniform distribution of matter in the universe and the uniformity of space1. It is not difficult to understand that only under this assumption is any scientific methodology of studying the universe as a whole in cosmology possible. Indeed, the uniformity of the universe is needed in order to predicate its properties in terms of the same physical laws in locations which are fundamentally inaccessible to our reach. The integrity of our intelligence must correspond to the integrity of the cosmos, and this integrity is best expressed in terms of its uniformity. The global picture of the universe would not be possible if, in every corner of it, physical laws would be different and objects and phenomena would be infinitely varied. The cosmological principle reduces the description of “cosmic matter” (with the constituting element of this matter to be a cluster of galaxies) to two macroscopic parameters – density and pressure2. Indeed, theory cannot deal with the variety of specific and concrete objects which are astronomically observed. The contingent facticity of these objects is transferred to the contingent facticity of the generic symmetry, that is to the uniformity of their distribution in space. However the introduction of the cosmological principle does not explain away the contingent facticity of this principle itself: as such it does not explain why the universe is uniform. The postulate of cosmic spatial uniformity introduces a fundamental construct of cosmic matter which makes it possible to talk reasonably about the universe as a whole including its spatial structure. The “cosmological principle” changes our perception of the contingency of our spatial position in the universe. If the universe is uniform a potential observer travelling across the universe would observe statistically one and the same picture of the universe. This evidently diminishes any drama related to the spatial contingency of humanity in the universe associated with its large-scale structure: we could be anywhere and would observe the same. This means that that fragment of the universe which is visible to us, while being limited in its particular image from the vantage point, gives a fair representation of that all which is possible. The situation is more complex in terms of that particular temporal era when we are present in the universe if the universe is subject to change (evolution). If, hypothetically, the universe as a whole were to be static, that is without any large-scale change in time, its description would be very simple and correspond to a couple of contingent numbers (its density and pressure) which characterise the large-scale structure and # 958 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology dny change and becoming would amount to the evolution of specific objects, such as galaxies and stars. The novelty in the universe would emerge from the local physical processes whereas the overall large-scale universe would remain the same. On the large scale the displayed uniformity would remain and no hope for its “explanation” would exist. This is the reason why the idea of the evolution of the universe as a whole becomes so important: it gives a chance to transfer the problem of its contingent facticity as observed here and now to the problem of its origin from some unknown initial state which would exhibit, either in terms of known physical laws or some mathematical argument, apodictic features, so that the annoying question about the facticity of its display could be removed if the initial conditions leading to this display are explained. Cosmology received this chance when the experimentally observed red shift in spectra of galaxies was interpreted as their mutual recession due to a universal kinematic expansion of the universe3. The link between expansion of matter and expansion of space is asserted by general relativity theory through the relationality between them. This expansion, observed through luminous objects such as galaxies, seems to be isotropic. In combination with the “cosmological principle” the observed expansion in the universe is presented as taking place uniformly in all locations in the universe. This means that our image of the expanding universe can be transferred to any other location in which the picture of expansion would be the same. In this sense there is no geometrical centre of this expansion: one can talk of the expansion of the universe about every particular point. This is a counterintuitive result which refines the cosmological principle as related not only to spatial locations, but also to how the evolution of the universe looks from these locations, namely that it looks the same. In combination with the fact that the received signals come from remote parts of the universe one can state that the past of the universe looks the same from different locations. And this leads to another counterintuitive result that the universe is seen as the frozen past4. The past of the universe is made manifest through its present image. Thus the distinction between the universe’s past and present, which is usually made by analogy with human history (some events in the past of the human history are not definitely in the present), is problematic: one cannot understand and interpret the universe as we see it here and now without referring to its past: when one pronounces the word “universe” one affirms the totality of its temporal spans. In this sense the subject matter of cosmology, that is the universe in the entirety of its spatial and temporal spans represents the unity of all its locations and eras, unifying all differentiated happenings in the universe in a kind of event5. As we will see later this is related not only to the visible universe, but to the universe as a whole. The cosmological principle applied to geometry predicts three possible models of the spatial structure of the universe (closed, flat and open) all of which now must be linked to the universal expansion of space corresponding observationally to the mutual recession of galaxies and their clusters. The three models of space can easily be generalised in order to accommodate this expansion through introducing a notion of the universal scale factor a(t) as a growing function of “cosmic time” which stretches the spatial metric corresponding to all three models. There are two points that must be noted about this new cosmological construct, fi rst of all “cosmic time”. This notion is a construction obtained through imagination that one can place clocks everywhere in the universe, for example in all galaxies so that they move along their world lines together with the overall kinematic expansion, and somehow synchronised at its # 959 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology beginning understood here simply as a reversal of expansion to its initial point. After introducing the construct of time it becomes possible to describe the overall geometrical becoming in the universe, its evolution in terms of the scale factor a(t) as a function of time t. The dynamics of this scale factor as well as the dynamics of cosmic perfect fluid is subjected to Einstein’s equations. These are differential equations with respect to time t reversible in time, that is they can be used either to predict the solution in the “future” given the conditions posed now, or, alternatively to formulate the solution in the “past”6. In this sense they just describe the reversible transition of the universe from one state to another: they do not describe the real becoming as emergence of novelty in the universe. Then this implies that the contingent empirical values of the cosmological functions, for example a(t0) at present time t0 do not stop being contingent if the cosmological expansion were to be reversed backward in time: their values are just recalculated through the solutions of the Einstein equations at the initial conditions. It is in this sense that one must be aware that the cosmological expansion cannot be associated with the arrow of time which is observed empirically7, so that it seems to be that the “t” variable of the cosmic time has little to do with the time of human experience which is intrinsically irreversible. The dynamics of the universe at large scales is reversible and thus does not account for the second law of thermodynamics which, as it is believed is linked to the special initial conditions8. From a philosophical point of view the geometrical model of the evolving universe provides simply a description of certain changes which happened at large scales, but real becoming as creation and transformation of new forms of matter at smaller scales requires for their description an appeal to physics which has a rather “local”, earthly origin. The solving of the Einstein equations for a(t) requires one to start with a particular equation of state for matter. If the point of departure is the present universe in which free propagation of light takes place, its matter content can be treated as “dust” with no pressure. In this case the density of matter decreases as the universe expands in inverse proportion to the so called commoving volume which grows in time as a3(t), so that ρ(t)~a-3(t). If time is reversed, so that the expansion becomes contraction, a(t) decreases and, as result, the density of matter grows. Theory predicts that it grows to such an extent that the evolution of the universe divides roughly into two completely different stages: the present stage where matter is decoupled from radiation; and the early stage when the spatial size of the universe was less than a thousand times than it is at present, and the universe was opaque. Before the transition to the dust-dominated era, according to theory, the universe represented a mixture of radiation and hot matter. From the very inception of this nonstationary model it was a great temptation among cosmologists to extrapolate the contraction of the universe in the reversed time order to a limit, when the spatial size of the universe tends to zero. This mathematical limit represented a problem of interpretation, since all physical parameters such as density, pressure, curvature etc. acquired non-physical infinite values. The limit t=0 together with a(t)=0 was treated as the temporal beginning of the visible universe. The construct of this beginning seems to be contentious because one can hardly understand whether t=0 indicates the beginning of the visible universe only (and all other potentially physical universes admitted by the cosmological principle), or the beginning of the overall spatial structure if it is taken as pre-existent (similar to the Newtonian absolute space). # 960 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology As we mentioned above, the way of proceeding to the construct of the beginning of the universe, or, in different words, cosmological singularity, is based on extrapolation of the visible display of the astronomical universe backward in time. In this case all contingent facticity of the present-day visible universe at large scales is transferred to the cosmological singularity which becomes the initial condition for cosmological equations and which exhibits some idiosyncratic properties because of the infinite values of all physical parameters in it. It was understood long before that cosmological singularities represent strange “initial conditions” of the universe, whose facticity can hardly to be explained within available physics. It was admitted that classical physics collapses at the singularity9 and since no credible quantum description of the initial state of the universe exists so far, we deal here with a problem which exceeds the scope of physics and tests its limits. For example, it is difficult to understand what the beginning of the universe could mean in terms of space and time. Did time or space exist before the expansion started; in other words: did the expansion begin in pre-existing space and time, or were space and time brought into existence at the origin and thus their actual presence explicates the act of their beginning. It is possible to use a simple diagram to illustrate the problems arising with the interpretation of the origin of space and time of the universe10. This diagram attempts to express the unity of space and time as being generated from their non-originary origination “event” depicted by a point at the centre of the diagram. The diagram consists of series of expanding concentric circles which aim to represent spatial sections of spacetime. The circles expand from the initial zero point which symbolizes the origin of the universe. The radii correspond to the world lines of particular objects (clusters of galaxies, for example) which originate at the singularity (corresponding to Fig. 1 zero linear scale) and diverge in all directions. It is along these lines that time, associated with imaginable clocks of all galaxies experiencing the overall kinematic expansion is measured (this time is somehow synchronised at the zero point, that is the beginning.) The fact that the spatial sections (that is, concentric circles) in this diagram are compact must not be interpreted as if we deal with a topologically closed universe. If these imaginable circles are associated with some structural units of the universe (galaxies or their clusters), their expansion reflects only the process of the mutual recession of galaxies. The major conceptual difficulty with the interpretation of this diagram is to conceive the meaning of the point of origin of the world lines. One must not treat this diagram as if it depicts the actual process of expansion in pre-existent space or time. Actually this origin is not in space and in time, so that its depiction as a point in the plane of the page is a metaphor. However, the diagram as a whole can be treated as representing the global structure of space and time in the natural attitude, that is as if they existed objectively and independently of the human observer who appeared in the universe at its late stage. The distinction between past, present and future has a purely symbolic nature (associated with the radius of a circle, # 961 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology or progression of the world line) as divisions in abstract objective time. It is worth noticing that the enquiring intellect is implicitly present in this picture: this picture is a mental creation, that is its content is the product of human subjectivity which is present in all articulations of the universe; it places the diagram with singularity which is supposed to initiate all being, including this same incarnate subjectivity, outside itself. This is the reason why this subjectivity experiences difficulties with explicating the sense of the cosmological singularity: it is impossible to explicate within the natural attitude that which is supposed to be in the foundation of everything with which this subjectivity deals, including the facticity of subjectivity itself. When the enquiring intellect draws such a diagram it positions itself outside the universe as if it could look at it from some vantage point. However, this mental operation is possible only in abstraction, because one cannot get out of this universe, which would be tantamount to breaking the conditions of consubstantiality with it. To get out from the universe would also be tantamount to breaking the conditions of the embodied consciousness in order to “look” at its origin from outside its own incarnate facticity which is impossible to the same extent as it is impossible to transcend the universe (Cf. Marcel 1965, p. 24). The construct of the initial singularity brings into play a certain correction in perception of causality in the universe and of temporality. Logically, the ideas of the initial singularity appeared as the result of theoretical reversal back in time of the presently observed expansion of the astronomical cosmos. This reversal corresponds to the reversal in the solutions of cosmological equations which are extrapolated to their nexus at the point with time equal zero. The thus obtained state represents the initial state of the universe in the past. However, since the Einstein equations are time-reversible they transfer (according to efficient causality) the information encoded in the present state of the universe backward in time. In this sense, technically, the state of the universe at the singularity (related to its largescale structure) is isomorphic to the state of the universe at present, that is, to what is observed here and now, in spite of the fact that the numerical values of some cosmological parameters become unbounded at the singularity. One can say that the distinction between present and past is a matter of common-sense convention, for, as we have mentioned above, the cosmological expansion does not account for the growth of entropy, that is for irreversibility of time. If the cosmological singularity is only considered as a construct which outlines the limits of physics in exploring the nature of facticity of things, then cosmology does not run into a problem of justifying the physical status of this singularity. Singularity, in this view, becomes no more than a parable of the mystery of the facticity of the universe whose appearance in cosmology is inevitable, simply because the efficacious telos of cosmological research requires one to introduce a notion of the overall unity of the universe whose role is played by the singularity. However, if the singularity is considered as the point of initiation of all contingent display in the universe in a physical sense (as a nexus finalis in the reversed temporal order), so that the distinction between the singularity and the present state of the universe is associated with the asymmetry between past and future in existential, irreversible time, there arises a problem because the singularity is fundamentally non-observable (apart from its remote consequences in the present), so that any claim for the viability and truth of its concept must follow a different pattern of justification in comparison with that for experimental science. This can be simply understood if one realises that, by placing the singularity in the past as the # 962 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology foundation of the explanation of the present and assuming temporal causality between past and present, one exercises an act of belief in which a characteristic transition from an intelligible entity (construct of singularity) to the empirically real (present day universe) takes place. This kind of transition does not follow the pattern of explanation based on the principle of correspondence because there is no independent empirical verification of the idea of the singularity. It fits theory on the grounds of epistemic coherence and aesthetical criteria. Correspondingly the cosmological scenario of the origin of the universe cannot be verified because the universe cannot be subjected to physical experimentation11, so that all inferences in cosmology are grounded in the realm of extrapolation and analogy with other “historical” natural sciences. One may further clarify the spatio-temporal representation of the universe in the standard cosmological model and, in particular, the sense of the cosmological singularity or the Big Bang by taking into account the special position of the human observer in the universe. In spite of the fact that the cosmological principle claims that the location of human observers is mediocre in order to create an average statistical picture of the universe it turns out to be that “what” human agents can actually observe is subject to general causal limitations following from the physical laws established in the terrestrial domain. The universe, considered as luminous objects, invisible radiations and cosmic particles, is perceived from the given space-time location through the so called past light cone along which electromagnetic signals travel with the speed of light. In Fig. 2 this situation is depicted through photons (γ), travelling on the surface to the curved light-cone and reaching the observer at present. In this case the geometrical manifold of the observable universe represents two symmetric Fig. 2 curves that originate at the cosmological singularity and reach the observer’s location. The universe is observed along the past light cone and the maximal spatial distance of objects whose radiation could be detected is determined by the linear size denoted in Fig. 2 as lmax (Rothman, Ellis 1993, p. 886). It is not necessary to be a qualified mathematician in order to realise that if the wholeness of the universe as space-time is anticipated in this diagram as the two-dimensional interior of the circle with the radius corresponding to the present time t0, then the observable universe represents a one-dimensional manifold whose quantitative measure with respect to the whole universe is zero. In other words, the observable universe in this view is an infinitely small contingent piece of the allegedly existing whole. This result is not surprising, because it follows from the contingency of the observer’s location in space at the present moment of time. In Fig. 2 this is indicated by a random choice of the point (with a tiny human figure) on the circumference symbolising the whole space at present. Since there are infinitely many potential locations on this circumference, the contingent choice of a particular one (linked to the contingent choice of the past light cone) makes this contingency acutely felt through the incommensurability in # 963 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology measure of the one-dimensional circumference and a chosen point which, strictly speaking, has no dimension at all. One could raise an issue here as to whether it is legitimate to attempt to infer to the universe as a whole from an infinitely small part of it. One must remember, however that the Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 are both drawn in the natural attitude, that is both treat the universe within the phenomenality pertaining to objects; correspondingly, in order to make sense of these objects one had to appeal to the cosmological principle which allows one to speculate about the universe as a whole while being chained to one single point of it. Indeed without this principle any representation of the universe as a whole would not be possible: we could responsibly speculate on the origin and evolution of the visible astronomical universe but not about the universe as a whole originating from the same Big Bang. The cosmological principle makes irrelevant the question about observer’s location on the circumference, because, according to it, all its points corresponding to all possible spatial locations are equivalent (for example, the density of cosmological matter is the same at different points such as O, P, R, S). This means that we, as observers, could be anywhere. Correspondingly the past light cone could be anywhere, giving, in accordance with the same principle, a similar picture of all possible observable universes. In Fig. 2 this situation would correspond to rotating the light cone keeping its apex on the same circumference thus covering entirely the interior of the circle. It is because of the possibility of this rotation that the difference in measure between the interior of the circle and the past light cone disappears: the infinite multitude of light cones corresponding to all possible contingent locations of observers covers entirely the interior of the universe giving thus statistically the same picture of its structure from any imaginable location. The result of this simple analysis is that the cosmological singularity whose existence is inferred from the expansion of the visible universe is unique because it would be predicted in all possible cosmological scenarios based on observations from all possible locations. This implies that the construct of the cosmological singularity as related to the whole universe is ultimately based on the cosmological principle. It follows then that similar to the certainty of belief from within which originates the cosmological principle, the validity and truth of the construct of the cosmological singularity is also situated in the certainty of belief. Together they form a coherent framework of interrelated beliefs which form a basis of cosmological methodology. One can also add that the cosmological singularity (or the Big Bang), as a direct consequence of the cosmological principle, reveals itself as a transcendental principle of explicability of the universe as a whole with corresponding teleological connotations related to the methodology of research: to provide a coherent view of the universe as a whole one has to introduce a unification principle of all, which is imitated by the concept of the Big Bang. The cosmological principle removes the ambiguity of the human observer encoded in Fig. 2 (this ambiguity is another explication of the paradox of the human subjectivity in the world; see on this paradox (Nesteruk 2008, pp. 175-84; 2011, p. 571)). Indeed, on the one hand human subjectivity is present outside the schemata of the universe, because the universe as a whole (including its observable part) is the result of a theoretical hypothesising: it is reflected in Fig. 2 through an eye looking over the universe. On the other hand, human observers, being embodied creatures, establish their insights of the physical universe from a particular location in space thus selecting that part of reality which is linked through physical causation to the place of embodiment. The cosmological principle # 964 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology allows one to balance these two approaches to the universe by telling us that our particular location in the universe and its constructed image can be reproduced from all possible physical locations. The universe becomes not only intelligible, which is implied epistemologically by the cosmological principle, but also intelligent: the universe is represented as a continuum of potentially possible human-like observers. However this latter intelligence is de facto disembodied in the sense that it is not related to the sufficient conditions of embodied consciousness on the planet Earth. Correspondingly the phenomenality of the physical universe is reduced to the phenomenality of an object explored by the postulated disembodied and anonymous reason. Historically such a point of view can be contrasted with that of ancient philosophers who treated the universe in terms of “cosmos” (as beauty and order). The universe as cosmos denotes the way the reality of all nature is; it denotes not “what” the allencompassing reality is but its “how”. In this sense the cosmological principle professed with respect to the universe manifests the expression of the personal relationship to the universe in which the universe as a whole is recognised and valued through existential participation in it and not only through an abstract knowledge. This personal relationship (an instantaneous synthesis or communion) receives its expression in the belief in the universe’s uniformity as its intelligibility. In this case it effectively reproduces an old idea of Plato that the universe is alive in a very non-trivial sense: the universe allows the presence of human intelligence in it not only in an anthropic physical sense, but in that sense that all predications about the universe contain the deposit of the human hypostatic subjectivity. It is clear from Fig. 2 that human observers in their contingent and indifferent location in the universe, see only the past of the universe: while gazing at the celestial sphere they see the images of that which was emitted by cosmic objects long ago. These images are delivered to us by photons travelling through space for billion of years: these are images are of the past. On the level of the perceived phenomena we deal with the image of the past in the present. However, this past is not a fixed past referred to a particular historical stage of the universe, but it is the accumulated image of different objects at different distances, and hence different eras. Theoretically we deal not with a particular past which could be marked in terms of a fixed figure of years passed after the Big Bang, but an integrated past bearing images of different galaxies and their remote ancestors since the times of their formation. This can be illustrated with the help of Fig. 2 which shows that we receive simultaneously signals from galaxies A and C which are at different distances from the world line of the observer. This simple geometrical fact implies that these images correspond to different times at which signals from the galaxies have been emitted: the images of the galaxies A and C come from the same location in the celestial sphere, but they correspond to objects which have crossed the surface of the past light cone at different moments of time. It is not difficult to see from Fig. 2 that both these galaxies are beyond our reach at present (their world lines at present are separated from us by a space-like interval) so that we receive only the optical signatures of their past existence. When we observe the images of these galaxies we must, on strictly philosophical grounds, assert their existence only as phenomena. Any hypothetical affirmation of their physical existence can only be made by using the language of past tense. Some elucidation of the assertion of the accumulation of the past in the universe’s display as a phenomenon, can be achieved by changing the perspective and not considering the Big Bang as “out there”, but contemplating it as being encapsulated in the display of the # 965 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology The maximum distance we can see along the past null cone γ γ Incoming photons γ γ γ γ l max The visual horizon hvh γ The observer here and now γ γ γ γ γ^ lmax γ^ γ γ The last scattering surface: the universe is opaque inside it LSS Fig. 3 universe here and now (see Fig. 3). This is in correspondence with a simple truth that the point of the beginning of the universe has no location in space because space appears together with this point, so that while looking at all possible directions in the sky we, strictly speaking, look towards nowhere which appears to us in the disguise of everywhere. Whatever comes to us from the singularity, goes through the maximal distance lmax. so that the initial singularity is perceived by us as the boundary of the circle (with the radius lmax) with the centre at the point of observation: independently of the direction of observation in the sky, one encounters the singularity; the singularity is out there but, at the same time, it is nowhere (compare with the graph of “The Cosmic Spheres of Time” (Primack 2006, p. 135), (Abrams 2011, p. 74). A similar graph can be found in (Cazenave 1995, pp. 57-9)). On the level of a phenomenological reflection Figs. 2 and 3 are seen not to be equivalent since the position of the observer in Fig. 2 is spatially contingent, so that a selection of what is observed is not the whole universe. However, this contingency is removed through the cosmological principle making all points on the circumference in Fig. 2 equivalent, so that it is believed that the picture of the universe in Fig. 3 gives a generic view of the universe as a whole. In view of this a comment must be made related to the cosmological principle. Let us recall that this principle, as affirming the uniformity of distribution of matter in space, is based on the observed isotropy of this distribution from our vantage location. One may ask what is the meaning of this isotropy; from Fig. 2 it is clear that the observed isotropic distribution of matter in space corresponds not to what “happens” in the universe at present, but is related to the past, because whatever is observed as a phenomenon corresponds physically to the accumulated past. In this sense the alleged isotropy of “space” is not isotropy in the present, because we cannot observe spatial locations of distant objects at present apart from our galaxy (which is depicted in Fig. 2 by the bold line going down from the point O) and which is not isotropic at all. In other words, one can assert that the distribution of matter is isotropic only in the sense of the accumulated past. It is from this fact that an inference is usually made, by means of extrapolation, to assert the isotropy and then uniformity of matter not in terms of the integrated past but at every particular era of the past and in present. Formally this is expressed, for example, by assigning to the density of matter a constant value for all possible locations at a given moment of cosmic time, that is at all locations on the circumference in Figs. 1-2. This observation strengthens the conviction that the cosmological principle, that is the universe is uniform at any space-life surface corresponding to a moment of cosmic time, is based on the idea that the integrated image of the past of the universe can be decomposed in terms of consequent stages of the universe’s evolution. Said philosophically, in order to deal with the contingent image of the frozen past of the universe in scientific terms, one should decompose this image into consequent layers of reality corresponding to different cosmic eras. Thus it is from this decomposition that the # 966 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology idea of the universal cosmic time receives its epistemological justification. Generalising what has been said so far, in observational cosmology we deal with the phenomena which, according to theory based in the laws of relativity, are living images of the past or its remote consequences. Unlike the events of human history whose re-enactment requires the appeal to the witnesses of the past through documents and archives, through the communion with the mind of those who were present behind the artefacts, in cosmology we have a different situation in which a certain past of the universe is constantly present: the artefact of the universe’s past is always given to us and is being constantly gazed at. Since this is not a fixed past, but the accumulated past, the past stretched through time but frozen in its image given to us, human beings live in the presence of the extended and never-ending event of the past whose contingent facticity remains a mystery. Thus the contingent facticity of the observable universe represents the contingency of the accumulated image of the past: the universe is contingent being “an event” with extended spatio-temporal characteristics. This event, theoretically explicated through the past light cone of Fig. 2 is linked to the human observer which itself represents an extended event of the overall human history12. A scientific attempt to unfold the phenomenon of the observable universe as existing in space and time presupposes an idea of the continuum of space and time as pre-existing entity. However, all objects corresponding to their observable images “exist” in different moments of pre-existent time. In this sense our intuition of existence of these objects manifests itself as fundamentally nonlocal in time, that is we affirm existence not in proportion and connection with the fact of our existence, which is local in space and in time, but as supra-temporal or trans-temporal when all moments of allegedly pre-existent time are reduced to the facticity of their observability at present13. The universe as a phenomenon is here and now: it is that which we see in the sky and perceive as an immediate medium of our indwelling and embodiment. There is no distinction between past, present and future in this phenomenon. In this sense the phenomenon of the universe as a whole is contingent because it is given. Scientific cosmology, in its instinctive desire to overcome this contingency, appeals to the idea of the originary origin of the universe (for example, its temporal origin), in order to objectify the contingency of its givenness by shifting it into the remote past under the disguise of the ill-articulated apodicticity. However, the idea of time and the “past” which stands behind such an appeal, ultimately originates in human historicity whose facticity cannot be scientifically accounted for14. The universe as a construct: its rationality in rubrics of faith Let us reflect upon the links of the notion of the universe as a whole to the life-world as attuned medium of all contexts and thematisations of the universe associated with the conditions of corporeity. The reader will have noticed that we have used the term “construct” several times when introducing some basic mathematical statements about the universe; for example Fig. 1 depicting the expanded space-time can be considered as a construct. “Construct” in this case represents a certain departure from the immediately given and a combination of the empirically given which has already been accumulated in knowledge of the universe (for example astronomical observations) with an intelligible image of reality as a whole (global space-time manifold). The validity and efficacy of constructs in theory is determined through the rules of correspondence with the reality of the empirically given (what could be called reification), the rules which also include # 967 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology other forms of approval and reference to truth relying on the experience of communities in the life world (this could be called objectification) (Margenau 1977, p. 70). For example, the construct of the spatially uniform cosmological fluid is obtained from further extension of that ideation which is used in earthly physics to construct the notion of the ideal gas. The ideal gas is used as a gestalt for a cosmological fluid where its elements (atoms) are replaced by clusters of galaxies. The notion of a cosmological fluid has its origin in empirical physics, but in its content it exceeds the realm of the empirically observed and relies on an intuition of the global space which represents another construct. The construct of a perfect cosmological fluid can have verification through astronomical observations at the home place of Earth. However, as mentioned before, the constituents of the cosmological fluid have a precarious ontological status related to their non-locality in time, so that it is the human mind which brings together different elements of the cosmic display in order to construct a model of this “fluid” as if related to a particular moment of time. It is important to realise that constructs, as mental accomplishments, do not presume any strong commitment to realism. In this sense if one asks a question about the correspondence of cosmological constructs to empirical reality, one must admit that this correspondence exists for sure only in that sense that the constructs are produced by us who are part of this reality. Certainly the concept of the universe as a whole depicted in Fig. 1 must contain a place for the reality of the life-world. But, as has been already stated, the quantitative measure of this reality is infinitely small with respect to the universe as a whole, so that in physical terms the diagram in Fig. 1 has a link to the empirically given only at one point corresponding to the place of humanity in space and time. In order to relate the construct of global space of the universe to the life world one must understand how the global space is related to the spatiality of the earthly world and the corporeal spatiality of human beings. In other words there must be some legitimisation in the transition from the centrality of human beings in their attuned space of the life-world (or centrality of humanity on Earth as its home-place) to the periphery locations in a thematised and actually infi nite space. This transition is effectively connected with mental procedures which can be called ideation and abstraction. Their essence requires some verbal reification. The attuned space of the lived space associated with corporeity has a character of self-givenness “in flesh”, that is presence “in person” in the sense that space and objects in it are given in confrontation with functioning corporeity. Obviously this can be said about the space of the planet Earth and all objects in it. In a certain sense one can say a similar thing about the images in the celestial sphere which enter the reality of the life world as a certain horizon. In cosmology the extension in cosmic space looses the character of presence “in flesh” simply because the mathematical components of this extension have no direct relationship to corporeity. However, in similarity with that intellectual procedure which led us to the construct of the perfect cosmological fluid, one exercises here ideation, as a special case of abstraction, which disregards all particularities of spatiality present in the individual subjects or objects. This ideation does not bring simply something common in a given multitude of objects, rather on the basis of perception “in flesh” it intuits the universality of the essence. This ideation is crucial for introducing constructs with respect to which a new type of objectivity is constituted as a new type of intentionality in which the founding acts of corporeal intuition are not included in # 968 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology this objectivity. This new intentionality contains those determinations with respect to the universe that are not found in the objects initiating this intuition. But if the construct of the global space of the universe is introduced along the lines of this new intentionality, its components, as essential universals and ideal objects, are indifferent not only to number of empirical cases which could represent them but to the possibility of their empirical realisation and hence verification at all. One can say that the global space of the universe appears as immediately self-given in the overall intuition of the universe as communion in the life-world, but this self-givenness is not directly related to the aspect of corporeity and has rather a categorical nature. However at this stage of constitution this global space is not yet mathematised and hence one cannot say that it is purely non-sensible. For example, it receives a pictorial representation in Fig. 1 which is not nonsensible in spite of the fact that it already contains the elements of the mathematical (geometrical) ideation. But what is important, and this was the achievement of the phenomenological analysis of mathematical knowledge, is that in the foundation of such a constitution lies the intuition of mathematical continuum15. This intuition correlates with the sense of unity of experience that pertains to every subjectivity: the unity and continuity of the field of consciousness cascades towards the unity of reality which includes the concreteness of corporeity (the belief in consistency of nature). Corporeity as existencein-situation entails the sense of belonging and this is intuited as a continuum whose presentation is achieved by using mathematical ideas. In its function the sense of continuum corresponds to the ancient Greek idea of underlying substance as the unity of being and belonging to it. Now it is not difficult to realise that the pictorial presentation of the universe in Fig. 1 is based on the assumption that the underlying mathematical continuum (corresponding to the existential unity of experience) is geometrised (as space) in the class of pseudo-Euclidian metrics under the condition of uniformity of space. Once again this construct contains both sensible elements (its image as such) as well as categorical elements. In this sense by asserting the idea of the global space and its representation through the Fig. 1 we avoid either the commitment to realism or to idealism. The fact that this kind of representation is a construction, but not a purely mathematical concept, originates in that it is obtained through the accumulation of facts in the field of astronomy and astrophysics, so that it is a historical intellectual achievement and, unlike pure mathematical ideations, does not possess a trans-temporal nature. The construct is not part of the physical reality of the universe, but, at the same time, being an element of a cosmological narrative it is a part of the reality of cosmology as a cultural phenomenon. In this sense the positing of constructs in cosmological theories represents the work of a different type of intentionality which, being related to the natural attitude through an attempt of an inferential causation from the empirical, yet points towards a fundamentally different intentionality relating to the questioning on the facticity of the unity of experience in the conditions of corporeity; but this, as we mentioned before, brings us to the intentionality of existential faith in its particular realisation as faith in the unity of experience (and hence as consistency of nature). Hence one understands that all basic notions of the standard cosmological model, including the cosmological principle, constructs of global metrics and perfect fluid, the dynamics of the scale factor and the prediction of the Big Bang are all constructs related to the realm of the immediately given only indirectly in the sense described in previous paragraphs. It becomes evident that the existential belief in the unity of reality corresponding to the unity of conscious experience permeates the # 969 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology whole standard cosmological model including all its constructs. The question now is what makes this standard model so convincing for scientific communities and a wider audience. Why, in spite of the fact that cosmology is characterised by uncertainty and untestability (Ellis 2007, pp. 1259, 1274), does it remain appealing to the scientific and common sense and its constructs are treated in realistic terms? Here we come to the question of logical and philosophical requirements on constructs and their epistemic function in the particular case of cosmology (Margenau 1977, p. 75). First of all, according to the very definition of a scientific enterprise it is assumed that it is to disclose some aspects of reality through an empirical contact with things, thus phenomenalising them and making them immanent to the enquiring subjectivity. In that case, when cosmology attempts to predicate the wholeness of the universe, it is obvious that immanent phenomalisation is not possible or a-priori incomplete because there is not and never will be direct empirical contact with that which is implied by the notion of the universe as a whole. This situation is well known in many parts of theoretical physics where the predicated realities and objects are represented by abstract mathematical forms and their physical existence can be verified only in a mediated way through special experimental equipment. Contemporary critical realists assign to these realities physical existence16. In the case of critical realism, one believes that if the constitution of phenomena takes place at the theoretical level, there must be rules of correspondence between what is theoretically introduced and what is observed empirically. In this sense the difference between objects (empirical versus theoretical) and the extent of their immanent phenomenality is not of an ontological kind: in both cases they have a similar ontic status. In a way, if some empirical phenomena (in a physical sense) are modelled mathematically, both their empirical evidence and mathematical representation exhaust what they are aimed at (intentionality conditions that which appears). The correspondence principle, as a constituent of the intentionality pertaining to the natural attitude, guarantees the link between visible and observable on the one hand, and that which is logical, mathematical and non-observable on the other. But, since the mathematical and non-observable enter as constituents of the correspondence rules, it is clear that these rules are not only enforced by data, but in many ways by the internal consistency of the facts and constructs based in these rules. The situation becomes crucially different if the correspondence principle does not work. This happens in cosmology where theory attempts to predicate (on the basis of extrapolation) something about the long distant past of the universe with no hope of verifying theoretical constructs related to this past by means of direct observations in this past. In this case, even if mathematics is applied for modelling some aspects of the universe, there is always a possibility that this mathematics is incomplete and historically contingent, that is, it will be eventually replaced by something new, so that the theoretical vision of reality (its construct) will change. Indeed, if one speculates about the past of the universe on the grounds of a simple physical causation, one can assert that the varied display of the cosmos (which reaches us through light and other channels of physical information) is the remote consequence of some originary event which took place in the past (and which cosmology attempts to predicate in theoretical terms) and which is beyond the conditions of observablility. The frozen image of the past of the universe is given to us through its display here and now, but the sense of this past can only be conceived in certain limits, because this very past is “present in absence.” Cosmology # 970 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology attempts to phenomenalise this past through its theories which are incomplete and constantly corrigible. In other words, any attempt to reduce our knowledge of the past of the universe to the limits of the constituting subjectivity of a cosmologist is a reasonable but never ending, inexhaustible enterprise. The universe in its historical past is predicated from within a short strip of human history. Then the question arises: what is the methodological justification for the science of the universe as a whole if this science is unfolded from a tiny piece of this whole? If we have no direct observational access to the past of the universe in its past, what is the sense of its theoretical modelling in terms of constructs with respect to which the correspondence principle (as related to a fixed temporality of objects) does not work? The answer comes from an intuition that theoretical cosmology (not observational astronomy and astrophysics), de facto, bases its methodology not on the correspondence principle, but in the coherence of epistemic justification. E. McMullin argues that cosmology, as well as other disciplines which attempt to reconstruct the past (such as geology, paleontology or biology) rely on retrodiction as that foundational principle which can bring into focus the past of the universe. The acceptance of this principle “is due to the cumulative success of the historical sciences, of geology, of paleontology, and of evolutionary biology. Success is not measured here as it might be in physics and chemistry but is as matter of coherence rather than of novel prediction. The coherence lies not just in the particular historical reconstruction of a long-past geological or biological episode but in the ways in which one reconstruction supports another, and the scope of the concepts and explanatory concepts on which the reconstruction is based gradually widens” (McMullin 1994, pp. 120). Here, however, we have to face an ontological question as to what extent the implied coherence of justification entails truth. For McMullin, who associates retrodiction with a realistic methodology this entailment is paramount because “when reconstructions of quite different sorts of evidence drawn from geology and evolutionary biology, say, begin to ‘jump together’, as it were, begin to blend fairly harmoniously into a single story, then our conviction grows that the story is not just coherent but is also close to truth” (Ibid.). Certainly there remains a question whether the experience of dealing with geology and biology is so easily transferable towards cosmology, in particular towards what is concerned with the origin of the universe as a whole, but not only of that part of it where we find ourselves (McMullin 1994, p. 136). The legitimacy of invoking coherence theories of justification in cosmology proceeds from the fact that cosmology starts its discourse with a set of propositions, which can be qualified as beliefs, rather than verified assertions. We have discussed above that physical cosmology is only possible under the assumption that there is a fundamental uniformity in the universe in space (as well as in time, in what concerns physical laws). As we have mentioned above, the “cosmological principle” cannot be empirically verified. Let us now analyse carefully how this basic belief enters all cosmological constructs and makes the whole theory coherent. In order to avoid repetition and simplify visual perception we introduce in Fig. 4 a simplified graphical representation of the epistemic structure of the construct of the universe in classical cosmology, produced in analogy with the analysis of constructs in physics by H. Margenau (Margenau 1977, pp. 84-88). At the right hand side of this graph one fi nds a representation of a sensible world, the world in which the human embodiment takes place and which determines in physical and social terms that aggregate of experience which, by borrowing phenomenological terminology, # 971 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology Constructing the universe Ho rizo n Pro b le m MBR Gestalt Ideal gas Galaxies scale factor a (t) Isotropy of matter Homogeneity of matter GTR FRWL metric Initial conditions for the visible universe Perfect cosmological fluid GTR Big Bang Cosmic density ρ(t) pressure p (t) Basic Belief: Cosmological Principle Isotropy of space Homogeneity of space Multiverse Clusters of galaxies The life-world or the aggregate of all experience and immediately given Casual structure of the universe Space of home place Flatn e s s Pro b le m Fig. 4 is called the life-world. To the left from the life world the reader fi nds a space of knowledge which is populated by major epistemic elements. The circles represent constructs. The shaded rectangle illustrates a basic belief in cosmology. All constructs are linked by single lines which illustrate formal connections between them. Some constructs are linked to the life world through double lines which represent epistemic connections. One sees that many cosmological constructs, in accordance with what we discussed before, do not have epistemic connections with the life world, that is immediate observations and measurements. However all constructs are connected creating a coherent volume of theoretical knowledge. Their coherence and the very possibility of this knowledge depends on the basic belief in uniformity of the universe which efficacious presence is depicted through a box in the centre of the diagram. This belief makes it possible to proceed beyond the contingencies of observations from a particular location in space to space as a whole, which itself represents a construct because, in spite of its obvious presence in the conditions of the life world, is not present in its entirety and is thus sensibly unavailable, being supplemented by the mental construction (Ströker 1965, pp. 176224). To give this intuition of space a physical content one has to postulate that one can shift our home place and potentially experience a similar structure of space everywhere. The most natural attribute of this shift is a simple spatial translation which presupposes the uniformity of the overall structure. This presupposition forms a basic belief, that is the cosmological principle, which allows one to apprehend the totality of space physically. This belief is exercised in the natural attitude thus positioning all shifted homeplaces as physically real (Kerszberg, 1987). A similar belief asserts that the distribution of the material content of the universe which is observed astronomically from our home-place is not only isotropic for us but for all possible shifted home-places. This entails the overall uniformity of matter across the visible and # 972 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology invisible universe. The link between space and matter is established through the General Relativity Theory’s assertion of the relationality of space and matter. Correspondingly both constructs, the global isotropic and uniform metric space, as well as the perfect cosmological fluid consisting of clusters of galaxies, are based in the certainty of belief. The fundamental role of the cosmological principle is that being implemented it allows one to use the formal connection between space-time structure of the universe and its material content across the global structure of the universe. The choice of the physically motivated equation of state (for example the equation for dust in present era cosmology) in the cosmological perfect fluid allows one to develop a formal connection between the constructs of the energy density of the cosmological fluid and the universal scale factor a(t), which in turn introduces new constructs. These formal connections follow from the Einstein equations and lead to the conclusion that since the scale factor grows in terms of the metric time the universe expands. It is this last connection which leads to the introduction of the notion of the hot (radiationdominated) universe if the expansion above is reversed. Through a limiting procedure when the cosmic time tends to zero another construct of the beginning of the visible universe (the Big Bang) is introduced. This construct as such represents a limiting reference point with respect to all other possible constructs. For while the construct of the Big Bang is the highest possible term of cosmological theory to which ultimate aspirations are addressed; physically it is supposed to be treated as that initial point in the state of the universe which is responsible for all other physical effects. On the one hand the Big Bang becomes the goal of the explanatory process (Nesteruk 2012), on the other hand, physically it corresponds to the original foundation from which everything unfolds. One must remember here that in order to draw a conclusion as to the Big Bang being the all-encompassing “beginning” of the universe as a whole one needs to have a basic belief that the universe is uniform. In this sense all constructs presented at the very left hand side of Fig. 4 are imbued with this belief and hence represent the formal constructions in rubrics of belief. If we generalize the latter observation one can state that the depiction of the universe as a whole through the diagrams in Figs. 1-2 (which contain in encapsulated form all formal connections among the cosmological constructs from Fig. 4) represents a generalizing construct which is deeply dependent upon the basic belief in the uniformity of the universe. The link between this generalised construct and the life world can be illustrated with the help of another diagram Fig. 5. This diagram shows that the epistemic connection between the construct of the universe as a whole and the life-world exists only through the point describing the observer and correspondingly along the past line cone (that is the visible universe) whereas all other parts of the allegedly existing spatial structure of the universe are in formal connection with the construct of the visible universe. These formal connections are possible only through the basic belief that the structure of the universe outside the visible realm can be potentially comprehended by some hypothetical observers similar to that one of the visible universe. However, this potentiality as an eidetic variation of home places does not actualize its physicality because the similar necessary conditions for the observers to exist outside the visible universe do not guarantee their actual existence, that is the fulfilment of the sufficient conditions. In other words, the hypothesis of the similarity of the necessary conditions for embodiment in other places of the universe # 973 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology The construct of the universe as a whole t0 t0 t0 ^ ^ x ^ *•D LSS G H ? t0 t0 All parts of the universe outside of the past light cone are represented only through logical connections The life-world or the aggregate of all experience and immediately given O >v? E lm a •< F ?< hh td t0 • γ ^B * • * γ A^ C* td Epistemic connection Fig. 5 (related to similar physico-biological conditions) dos not entail automatically the fulfilment of the sufficient conditions for such an embodiment, that is for the actual existence of observers, thus remaining no more than an eidetic intuition, or a belief. One must however admit that the resulting picture of the universe (recapitulated differently in Figs. 1-5) is in a high degree epistemically coherent because its constructs align in an aesthetically attractive theory through multiple connections which can be easily seen from the Fig. 4. Apart from the construct of the Many Worlds (Multiverse) which is usually invoked for explaining away the problem of contingent facticity of the initial conditions in the visible universe, all other constructs are connected with each other and have some epistemic references related to the life world. The construct of the multiverse, which, by using terminology of Margenau, can be called peninsular (Margenau 1977, p. 86), is linked to the whole construct of the visible universe through mental causation, that is on the level of intentionality and not physical causality. In this sense its status is crucially different from all other constructs which in one way or another have some epistemic connections. The construct of the multiverse in this sense requires another sort of belief in the possibility of shifting of home places but this time not in terms of space and time but in terms of different types of worlds (universes) or types of being. Here one can detect a similar idea of “democracy” among the worlds and an attempt to remove the hidden teleology of the initial conditions of the visible universe (if they are related to the fact of the human observer’s existence) in favour of a generalized principle of indifference (mediocrity) which removes all particular specificity of our universe. Thus the construct of the multiverse is peninsular, lacking multiple connections with other constructs and can hardly acquire any sense of truth even on the level of epistemic coherence. The major problem with this construct is that it does not stand in any realistic sense of causality with other constructs in the visible universe. Even if the visible universe is thought as one out of many members of the multiverse it is completely unclear as to how to describe in terms of real physical processes the phenomenal actualization # 974 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology of this particular universe, that is the phenomenal facticity of our universe. Since any imagined mechanism would, by default, transcend this universe, its verification is impossible leaving the whole conjecture to the field of beliefs. In this sense the construct of the multiverse does not fall in the rubric of epistemically justified belief at all. It lacks the coherence in agreement among members of the cosmological community and in this sense it remains hypothetical and problematic17. Unlike peninsular constructs such as multiverse, which by themselves cannot have any direct relation to the life-world, the construct of the visible universe possesses a heuristic quality of predicting some new properties of the universe which are subject to empirical testing. On the one hand we have an epistemic coherence among different cosmological constructs which follow from their mutually dependent nature under the assumption of cosmic uniformity. On the other hand there is a certain percolation of this epistemic coherence towards coherence of truth by predicting new epistemic links with the life-world. An interesting historical example of this is the prediction of the cosmic microwave background radiation (MBR) as a remaining matter ingredient from the early hot stage in the universe’s evolution which was detected in 1965 ( in Fig. 4 the construct of the MBR has an epistemic connection with the life-world). According to the theory, the MBR represents a newly predicted construct which turned out to have (through technology) epistemic connection with the world of experience (this is reflected at the Fig. 5 through the double line linking it to the life world). However, even in this case one must be cautious in asserting the correspondence between the theory which predicts the Big Bang and the observable MBR, because the latter is interpreted (through constructs) as the remote consequence of that which is asserted as physically existent in the past. We are unable to verify all details of the cosmological scenario by making direct experiments which reproduce in any feasible physical sense that long gone past18. In this sense the predication of the past takes place on the basis of coherence of constructsbeliefs, coherence which is supported by the communal convention in established cosmology. One can argue that the very sense of the past is established from the present, so that one cannot affirm this past as physically existent on the grounds of correspondence with the present (in spite of an obvious temptation to use analogy with other historical sciences, such as geology or paleontology). The correspondence between the observed phenomena and their preexistent past takes place on the level of intentionality, but not that of physical causality when the past is assumed to exist in a sense different from what the universe displays being de facto the image of the past. In this sense the discovery of the MBR becomes a signifier of that which allegedly took place in the past of the universe but as such does not exhaust the whole content of what is signified. The discovery of MBR does not change the status of cosmological theory of the past whose truth is asserted through epistemic coherence, it just strengthens this coherence by referring one of its signifiers to the reality of the life-world. The important requirement for constructs is their extensibility: indeed any working theory cannot be static and involves growth of new elements. But this extensibility as a fact of scientific process can or cannot depend on the formal connections among constructs. In some cases it arises on a so to speak meta-empirical level when theories bring forward some puzzles and paradoxes which do not contradict observations but disturb the consciousness of physicists who are not satisfied by their sheer presence and want to get rid of them (see Fig. 4). A famous example of such an extensibility is the # 975 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology extension of the hot Big Bang cosmology towards the so called inflationary cosmology as a reaction towards three cosmological problems; we deal with inflationary cosmology below. Coherence of Epistemic Justification in Cosmology Now we would like to articulate with more precision what is meant by epistemic coherence in general and why it seems plausible to conjecture that cosmology follows this route in justification of its theories. If one proceeds in cosmological study of the early universe beyond the observable limit towards the universe before the decoupling of matter from radiation, one has to hypothesize of entities and corresponding physical mechanisms which are not directly observable and sometimes not related to any known forms of matter19. These hypotheses, being abstractions from experience, in many ways function as intentional objects which by their function in theory can have no direct relation to that which is observed (they can also be described as metaphysical assumptions). There is an element of irreducible belief present in their invocation which reflects the fact that cosmology is driven not only by strong logical connections following from established physical causality but from the intentionality of cosmologists who are driven by intuitions about the unity of the universe encoded in its past. Since the initial conditions of the universe cannot be tested, not only because they are separated from us by an unbridgeable gulf of temporal immensity, but also because one cannot transcend this universe in order to “have a look” at its beginning from “the outside”, any predication of this beginning must entail a certain epistemic justification which cannot by definition be based in correspondence with the empirical reality. Since this predication does take place, it implies belief in the realities of what is predicated. The presence of such beliefs makes sense of the success of modern cosmology, its popularity and ability to preach about the universe, as if cosmology’s truth would be the truth of really existing things. Indeed it is because the principle of correspondence cannot be employed directly in the cosmology of the early universe, that it implicitly bases assurance in its hypotheses and models in the coherence and mathematical rigor of its theories20. In other words, the justification of cosmological theories comes not from their direct reference to the observable facts, but through coherence of explanation which is achieved by applying a set of mutually consistent and connected beliefs which aim ultimately to codify in terms of mathematics the fundamentally contingent display of the large-scale universe. The coherence theory of justification holds that a belief is justified to the extent to which the belief-set of which it is a member is coherent (Dancy, 1989, p. 116). “According to the coherence theory, to say that a statement is true or false is to say that it coheres or fails to cohere with a system of other statements; that it is a member of a system whose elements are related to each other by ties of logical implication” (White, 1967, p. 130). In different words, what is at issue in a coherence theory is a matter of a proposition’s relation to other propositions and not its coherence with reality or with the facts of matter. This is similar to Margenau’s requirement for constructs to possess logical fertility and to obey logical laws: “It asserts little more than that they have relational meaning. But in no sense does the present requirement make it necessary for the proposition involving constructs to be materially true, to have an existential counterpart” (Margenau 1977, p. 82), that is that they cohere with the facts of matter. Coherence theories of justification operate with propositions-beliefs, or constructs-beliefs. As we have already seen all major cosmological constructs contain the presence of a basic belief in the uniformity of the universe. In inflationary cosmology the belief # 976 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology that there exists a material field Φ (inflaton) which drives the evolution of the universe during the very early period is invoked in order to construct a theoretical model of the exponentially growing period of expansion which in turn solves some problems of the radiation-dominated cosmology, making thus the cosmological model even more coherent. However, the major problem here is that epistemic coherence does not guarantee that knowledge progresses towards truth. Justification can grow, but there is no criteria that it delivers truth: cosmological models can become more sophisticated and expanded, but there will still be a problem whether their advance guarantees any convergence towards that alleged reality which they aim to describe. In technical philosophical terms this situation sounds as if there is no conduction from the coherence of epistemic justification to coherence of truth. It is in this sense that a coherentist epistemology can be characterised as knowledge without a foundation of certainty. Since the coherence of epistemic justification in cosmology has to abandon the principle of correspondence with empirical reality and a foundation of certainty, it has to appeal to different criteria in asserting the truth of these theories. Cosmology, in what relates to radical mathematisation, in similarity with the coherence approach, maintains that truth is accessible in the extralogical realm where all criteria of reasonability as its foundation do not work. For example, by insisting that there are many disjoint universes which comprise a totality, “cosmology of the multiverse” enters a certain contradiction with the main stance of existential philosophy: it predicates the universes where no condition of embodiment is possible. In spite of the existential futility of such predications, which can have sense as no more than an eidetic variation of the possible in order to affirm the actual, cosmology finds a kind of “extralogical” justification for the existence of such universes. This extra-logicality follows exactly from the fact that the discursive entailment is replaced by beliefs. But for beliefs to sustain the challenge of scepticism one needs a communal, that is conventional argument21. This implies that epistemic justification in theoretical cosmology where the correspondence principle cannot be applied relies on the acceptance of certain ideas about the universe by a community (Rescher, 1989, pp. 331-33). The community of cosmologists then establishes the sense of truth of that which is inferred from a theory. The coherent system of beliefs in cosmology determines as justified all sorts of statements about the remote past of the universe, including the statement that there was the universe before there were intelligent agents who articulate it. It is typical for the coherence theorist not to be constrained to only that which one will someday be able to verify. The validity of cosmology’s propositions about the past of the universe is thus not under obligation to be tested in any direct observations because the very reality of this past is established on the grounds of coherence of a certain set of beliefs about this past. If cosmology relies on the coherence of its own statements it is enclosed in itself and cannot be assessed from an outside system of thought. Since there is no direct link between coherence of justification and coherence of truth, which naturally requires breaking out of the system of coherent suppositions, cosmology can afford to create as many theories allegedly explaining the origin of the universe as it wants, without even a slight idea whether these theories correspond to truth. In fact, the question of truth is inappropriate in this context because everybody, philosophically honest, understands in advance that the fullness of truth of what concerns with the foundations of the universe cannot be grasped through some fragmented theories. All references to correspondence with the available # 977 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology empirical material do not reach their aim, because the process of adjusting theories of the early universe in order to fit observable data is in a state of permanent advance, so that all theories, seen through the prism of the philosophically understood “certitudes négatives” (Marion 2010) with respect to any knowledge of the universe as a whole, seem to be metaphors and abberations of the incessant human desire to know the universe. They also manifest a fundamental human incapacity to achieve this goal on the grounds of discursive thinking. In this case the whole pattern of coherent epistemic inference in cosmology functions in the rubrics of belief in the possibility of knowledge of the universe, attempting to express communion with the universe, by reducing it to the object-like phenomenality. This phenomenality is limited and hence does not exhaust the sense of that image of the universe which has been signified by it. Thus cosmological knowledge acquires the features of an apophatic enterprise retaining the ever-going possibility for further explication of the universe22. Now it is not difficult to conjecture along the lines of phenomenological reasoning that the communal nature of knowledge established on the grounds of epistemic coherence leads to the view that physical reality (and the universe) is a mental accomplishment23 (“hypostasis of mental creations”24). Here a distinction is implied between nature as it appears in primary perceptual experience and nature-for-physicists, as an ideal limit of the allegedly convergent sequences of “images of nature” which are constructed in the course of history. Any particular articulation of what is called nature can be assigned a character of an historical event. The articulation of the past is thus an event within the life-world of a particular community, loaded with a sense of the community’s lived past and of decisions to be made in the future. As P. Heelan points out, “it is not the case that every historical event is also an event of a scientific kind…, but when the local community is one of expert witnesses, then the scientific data produced by that community are also historical events in relation to that community” (Heelan 1992, p. 66). In his classical paper on phenomenology and physics H. Margenau argued along the same lines that “physical reality” is best defined as the totality of all valid constructs and rules of correspondence. In this approach the universe is defined not as a static, but as a dynamic formation: “…the universe grows as valid constructs are being discovered. Physical entities do not exist in a stagnant and immutable sense but are constantly coming into being” (Margenau 1944, p. 278). The reality changes with the flux of experience (Margenau 1977, p. 295). However, for Margenau the belief of many scientists in the convergence of the system of the entire set of physical explanations which would deliver them an ideal of their aspirations, that is a unique and ultimate set of constructs for which would reserve the name ‘nature’ or ‘reality’, is problematic because it is not capable of scientific proof (Margenau 1977, p. 76). Since this convergence assumes a sort of historical process, it implies the postulate of history which is not physics (Margenau 1952, p. 343). Historicity, according to Margenau, involves knowing which “arises through a union of a knower and his object of knowledge”25. Thus the very ideal of “reality” independent of the process of knowledge, seems to be dependent on the factors linked to human existence which develops the sense of history and defines its goals. In this case the abovementioned convergence of “images of reality” can have its source rather in a philosophical argument asserting the existence of a certain telos of the human spirit which drives this convergence to its fulfilment, but this argument exceeds the scope of scientific justification and is grounded in beliefs about humanity as transcending the certainty of nature itself (that is a certain commitment to # 978 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology seeing humanity as made in the image of God). The situation in modern cosmology, where the ever increasing set of theoretical constructs reveals the components of the matter content of the universe which escapes any physical description (dark matter and dark energy, for example) points exactly to the danger of idealisation of the scientific description of the universe as ultimate and accomplished in an a-historical sense: the more details we know the less we understand the whole. In this sense the ideal of convergence of constructs in cosmology remains no more than wishful thinking. The point of view on the historical contingency of scientific research and thus fundamental conditionality of its results and views of reality, which we exemplified above, raises the conviction that the statements of cosmology (with respect to realities inaccessible to any empirical verification) established on the grounds of coherence and logical fertility of its constructs cannot have truth-values independently of our verification and, because it is our verification, it can never be conclusive. In spite of an explicit belief of the physical cosmologists in the possible convergence of the sense of these statements to a kind of truth which lies beyond our reach, at every particular stage of research the truth of what these statements deliver turns out to be contingent and incomplete, open to further exhaustion through research. To say that the verification of this or that statement in cosmology is never conclusive26 is to say that although our assertion of this statement may well be warranted in the circumstances, our warrant for it is always defeasible: new elements of theory or insertion of new indirect data could always make the assertion in question unjustifiable at all. In the case of the lack of empirical verification the cosmological statement has no truth-condition independent of the capacity of the scientific community to recognise it as true. Thus the claim of cosmology for objectivity and neutrality does not hold. One can speak about the weak objectivity which includes the transcendental conditions of establishing truth (Bitbol et al., 2009, pp. 1-10), (Nesteruk 2012, pp. 375-78). There are two philosophical qualifications which can be made with respect to this last conclusion. For philosophers working in the natural attitude such a position would raise some suspicion of being anti-realistic. If one denies the verification-transcendent truth (even in a weak form as an ideal of a convergent set of selfcorrecting explanations based upon the ultimate rules of correspondence) one effectively adopts an anti-realistic view that truth is not independent of our capacity to find out about it, or, in other words, to have beliefs about it in a particular context. The meaning of this “context” can be very different according to the field of research, starting from a simple sensual perception in an experimental science and finishing by a more sophisticated scheme, let us say in theology. Anti-realism emerges naturally in that particular modification of a coherence theory which does not think of the set of truths as a determinate totality; it is the case which we discuss here: what we can recognise as true in cosmology is indeterminate and open-ended. Scientific truth in this approach is not that hypothetic unique which transcends the conditions of knowledge, but is determined by the fundamental plurality of that which we are able to discover and recognise in that kind of truth. If, however, one adopts a phenomenological stance in which any knowledge is possible only within the noetico-noematic correlation, the suspicion of anti-realism falls away, simply because the certainty of knowledge is immanent to the constituting consciousness, so that, by definition, knowledge of the universe cannot escape the conditions of its origin in a particular realisation of consciousness (be it # 979 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology personal or collectively historical). The issue of the verification-transcendent in this case becomes a question on the possibility of retaining transcendence, in knowledge which is immanent. The stance of the coherence theories of explanation and truth, in particular in their anti-realistic versions, points towards the possibility of such a transcendence simply because it claims that the process of knowledge is intrinsically incomplete and open-ended, leaving the immanent discursive consciousness with an image of reality and some statements of its truth without any exhaustion of that subject matter which it aims at. In this sense the knowledge of the universe as a specific contingently historical process, based in many ways on the conventional agreements of the community of scientists, never exhausts the sense of the universe, or, the excess of intuition of the universe through communion over its knowledge through discursive reason. Indeed one can attempt to express the experience of admiration of the forces of the universe through very complicated mathematical theories (a kind of incantation), but all of them will remain no more than symbolic and metaphoric images of that anticipated unity and infinity of the universe which is present in the incarnate human subjectivity through belonging to it, through a partial consubstantiality with it. For example, since there is no empirical access to the alleged happening of the Big Bang, all that we express about it by using cosmological theories can be characterised as metaphors and esoteric symbolism based in the mathematical formalism. The beauty of this symbolism, its coherence, give us some assurance to believe in the possibility of the Big Bang as a principle of explanation and justification. However the “truth” of the Big Bang in an ontological sense remains unclear (uncertain) and, what is more important, fundamentally inaccessible. In other words, all cosmological theories give us some symbolic representation of that towards which they aspire (the universe as a whole or its encapsulated image in the Big Bang), but it is that which will never be known and reached in a sense of certain truth. The apophaticism in cosmological research is thus present as the limitation of thought: it wanders around the idea of the Big Bang, but it will never reach it as ultimate origin of the universe27. In this case all competing theories are epistemologically and axiologically equal, but no one can pretend to claim the fullness of truth and the knowability of the Big Bang as that intended ideal which is implied in a hidden teleology of cosmological explanation. Thus all cosmological knowledge is apophatic in the sense of its limited validity determined by the boundaries of the physical, because of the open-endedness of the intended horizon and a fundamental inexhaustibility of truth about the universe by means of discursive thinking. However, in order to realise this fact, one should shift cosmologist’s consciousness towards a phenomenological attitude, which is capable of bracketing all theoretical statements about reality and to conceive them as varieties of expression of the human intuition about the entirety and identity of the universe. But this attitude is simply not available to cosmologists themselves. They will never agree with the verdict of philosophy that all eidetic imagination in cosmology, incarnate in complicated formulae, is only a wandering around truth, but not truth itself. At the same time it is exactly the limited nature of our knowledge of the universe, its apophatic character, which makes it possible to render the belief in the transcendent other of all that we see in the universe, not as an ideal of convergent rules of correspondence with something which is out there waiting for our grasp, but, on the contrary, as that unobjectifiable givenness whose gaze upon us constitutes our subjectivity through the never-ending enquiry about the universe. The last question we need to briefly discuss in the context of coherence of justification is the # 980 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology issue of mathematisation. Namely, the question is: if cosmology predicates reality in mathematical terms following the rules of logic, does it leave any chance to claim that cosmology is still based on the coherence of epistemic justification with an inevitably following open-endness of its justification. Mathematical truths are not beliefs but logical rules invariant to all situations and, as some claim, existing independently of the “human baggage.” However there is still a slot for a proponent of coherentism to claim that the usage of this or that particular mathematics in this or that particular physical theory is a matter of a human choice and thus of belief in the efficacy of mathematics. The choice of particular mathematical models in cosmology is dictated by basic beliefs. For example, the cosmological principle as philosophical statement entails the choice of particular geometries to describe the universe. The “initial methodological condition” for using these geometries is not in mathematics itself but beyond, in the belief of uniformity of space. As soon as a mathematical model is chosen all further computations follow the “iron” logic of the algorithm, so that their realised “apodicticity” is still initiated by basic beliefs. In another example, when the scalar field in inflationary cosmologies (inflaton) is chosen as that hypothetical ingredient which is coupled to geometry and drives its evolution, the game of construction of a suitable potential and equations for this field is predetermined by this very choice. But this choice is not an empirically driven or correspondence based rule; it is a conjecture in a certainty of belief which turns out to be very fertile in solving paradoxes of the standard cosmological model. To generalise, one can say that the use of a particular mathematical model and logic is determined by the human choice. If some aspects of the physical universe are mathematised and expressed in simple logic, the intuitive content of the notions in question is reduced to zero. However it is the very choice of what logic and mathematics to employ that is driven by intuition whose excess, by definition, makes the advance of the whole knowledge possible. This implies that even a coherent mathematical description of some global aspects of the universe does not entail the exhaustion of the “phenomenon of the universe” through mathematics (mathematical signifiers do not exhaust the content of the universe as physical or existential outcomes of the physical laws). Mathematical simplicity and logical coherence is related only to those aspects of the universe which allow in principle their simple logical representation, that is the phenomenality of objects. Some proponents of extreme mathematisation of the universe28 believe that if mathematical structure exists, it reflects the existence of a corresponding physical reality. Even if this were to be true, the problem is that the existence of mathematical structure as articulated by human consciousness does not account for its own contingent facticity: it cannot transcend its own givenness. The self-explanatory justification of mathematics is not even possible if one gets rid of the human baggage present in mathematical articulations and thus postulates mathematics as non-contingent apodicticity29. However this suggestion is tantamount to the claim that mathematics is related to impersonal, anonymous, disembodied consciousness, whose very facticity remains an utter mystery. Classical phenomenology could not pose the question of consciousness’ facticity, for any transcendence of the field of consciousness was ultimately prohibited by the phenomenological reduction. In a new phenomenological development, mostly related to its merger with theology and other aspect of the human sciences the question about the facticity of discursive thinking is being posed as the question about the possibility to retain the intuition of the # 981 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology initial whole behind the dissecting discursive mode of thinking. It is the question of retaining transcendence as that donating intuition which is not subject to immanent constitution and which is always behind the facticity of thinking. It is because of this intuition that the presence of the universe is never fully disclosed through logic and mathematics. The very contingent facticity of mathematics is seen thus as a part of the fundamental incomprehensible facticity of the universe. The universe manifests itself here: it exists, and it is given to us in its particular mode of phenomenalisation through mathematics linked to the conditions of our embodiment. Thus we have seen that coherence of epistemic justification in cosmology works at the level of intuition by ordaining all mathematical models which are employed by cosmologists for achieving their computational synthesis of the universe. In this sense the principle of epistemic justification becomes, in a way, a maxim of reason in a Kantian sense, rather than an analytical prescription (c.f. (Nesteruk 2012). Case study: Coherence of Epistemic Justification in Inflationary Cosmology Inflationary cosmology represents a special phenomenon in the field of cosmology because of its being efficient in advancing a theoretical cohesion of the standard hot BigBang cosmology and, at the same time, as a clear theoretical case when there is a lack of direct correspondence between mathematical constructs and that physical reality which is known today. It is because of this ambivalence that the attitude to the inflationary model of the universe is ambiguous among cosmologists and theoretical physicists, not saying at all about philosophers. However, all those researchers who are involved in calculations and data processing are eager to develop this theory through more and more detailed adjustments without any commitment to a realistic analysis. They often exercise a positivistic approach implying that theory serves observations and one does not need to enquire into the realistic nature of those entities and equations with which it operates30. Certainly, such an implicit positivism has some sociological connotations related to the fabric of scientific research and not to any serious position with respect to the quest for truth. Inflationary cosmology proposes quite exotic theories of the very early stages of the evolution of the universe which can never be justified on the grounds of correspondence simply because it refers to the era which not only cannot be observed directly, but whose experimental imitation in the earthly laboratory is still a matter of hopes and aspirations31. Then it seems trivial to base any criticism of the inflationary cosmology on the grounds of its empirical inaccessibility. Any such criticism would confess implicitly a certain ontological commitment in cosmology which, as we argued before, is problematic. This is the reason why our analysis of the inflationary model does have an objective to reveal its precarious status. It is the persistence of inflationary cosmology in spite its allegedly hypothetical and precarious status is that what interests us, because if theory persists in the community of cosmologists it implicitly contains deep existential motives, which we intend to reveal. While avoiding any ontological commitment we are still concerned with the sense of realism embedded in cosmology because of different reasons. The inflationary scenario is preached by cosmologists, lovers of popular science and science-fiction apologists, as if it relates to truth which appeals to some existential motives. This is an interesting case of how the unclear and precarious commitment to realism cascades down towards social acceptance of scientific beliefs as if they reflect truth of fact. Here we again observe an interplay between # 982 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology different modalities in grasping the sense of the universe. Historically, inflationary cosmology appeared as a result of responding to puzzles arising not on the level of facts, which are subject to physical causality, but on the level of metaempirical facts, that is conscious reflections upon the entirety of all facts about the universe, that is on the level of intentionality. Since the intentionality employed by physicists is always imbued with ontological commitment, it is hoped that its correlates (that is noematic references) will have to acquire physical sense, so that intentionality will result in physical causality. The phenomenon of inflationary cosmology confirms our argument, which we have formulated before, that no clear-cut demarcation between the motivations employed in both the natural and human sciences is possible in cosmology. To become more formal in order to explicate a phenomenological sense of the ideas about the inflationary universe, without any positive or negative attachment to whatever ontological commitment present in them, we consider its theories as part of the cosmological narrative which, as such, represents an element of culture, a particular historical event associated with scientific advance in general. Our desire is simple: we would like to demonstrate that inflationary cosmology exhibits such a type of generic proposal motivated by philosophical, non-observable problems (see, for example, (Ellis 2007, p. 1210), (Earman, Mosterin 1999)). which bases it truth on coherence of epistemic justification and thus is crucially dependent on historical and sociological factors related to the community of cosmologists. In this sense we intentionally avoid any enquiry in whether the inflationary theory is true or false, or whether it is good or bad. Our main task is to understand what this theory wants to assert in the context of humanity’s quest for the sense of the universe. To achieve this goal we need to give a brief account of history present behind the appearance of inflationary cosmology, in particular in conjunction with our analysis of constructs, basic beliefs and the elements of epistemic justification in “pre-inflationary” hot Big-Bang cosmology. Since literature of inflation is vast, so that all existing books on cosmology repeat one and the same story, we will omit its detailed history (see, for example, (Blau, Guth 1987), (Guth, 1997), (Linde, 1990), (Turok, 1997)) and quote a very limited selection of sources chosen exclusively from the point of view of clarity and briefness, assuming that we avoid the loss of generality by omitting many others. Historically, the emergence of inflationary cosmology is usually accounted as a response to the three problems in the standard hot Big Bang cosmology32. These problems have, so to speak, a meta-empirical character. They did not appear as a result of formal disagreements on the level of theory and observations but rather represent the influence of the intentional motives to account for the contingent facticity of the observable display of the universe. The three problems (or puzzles) which led to the advance of cosmology towards inflation are known as “the flatness puzzle”, “the monopole problem” and “the horizon problem”. These problems originate from different aspects in vision of the universe and thus have a different weight in the inflationary argument which attempts to resolve them. We give a very brief account of the flatness problem and analyse more carefully the horizon problem, thus leaving the monopole problem for footnotes. The flatness problem appears from an observation that the spatial curvature of the universe which appears to be very small at present must be extremely small and hence fine tuned in the early universe. This fine-tuning of a cosmological parameter does not represent a paradox as such, for there is no reason why the curvature should not have been very small, however, as S. # 983 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology Weinberg affirms, “it is a sort of thing physicists would like to explain if [they] can.” (Weinberg 2008, p. 203). What effectively is meant here is that the fine tuning of the curvature parameter at the beginning of the universe makes an impression of a very specific (but still contingent) initial condition for the universe. This means that the postulated homogeneity of the universe affirmed here and now, has to be transferred to the initial conditions of the universe, so that the cosmological principle, de facto, states the fine tuning of the initial conditions (it is because of this that, in Fig. 4, we link the flatness problem to the initial conditions as well as to basic belief in uniformity of the universe). It is this contingency which bothers physicists: they do not want to see any “teleology” in these conditions (related, for example to the fact of our existence) and attempt to find generic initial conditions. The implicit conviction which drives cosmologists is to have a theory which would allow these special conditions, as we observe them here and now, to be a result of the natural process and not of setting them up from “outside” of the universe33. Inflationary cosmology by introducing an exponential stage in expansion of the universe removes this problem in a sense that if the radiation-dominated Big Bang was preceded by a sufficient period of such an expansion (inflation), the spatial curvature, regardless its initial value, would necessarily have started with the negligible curvature at the beginning of the radiation dominated era which followed the inflationary period (Weinberg 2008, p. 203). The argument in favour of existence of the exponential period in expansion of the universe originates in the intentional desire of cosmologists to explain away the contingent initial conditions of the universe. This is not, strictly speaking a demand of physics, but an aesthetic or philosophical input in motivation of inflationary cosmology. In different words, one can assert that it is a prejudice against a possible teleological setting of this universe that leads to a belief that there must be a mechanism which removes any teleological connotations and leaves theory with a principle of indifference of the initial conditions which seem to be more philosophically attractive. If the flatness problem arises as a meta-empirical fact, an attempt to resolve this problem represents a counter-reaction to this fact as a strong faith-like commitment to the fundamental generality of the cosmological initial conditions which remove any suspicion in a teleological selectiveness of our universe. Effectively we have here a situation of competing beliefs, reminiscent of the perennial dilemma on whether the universe has a certain telos or not (McMullin 1993). However the inflationary solution of the flatness problem is not a unique one (Weinberg 2008, p. 208), so that the appeal to inflation on the grounds of flatness alone would not demonstrate any necessary entailment. Here there are more problems to come. The monopole problem is of a different kind for it relates to the interdisciplinary nature of cosmology, in particular its close ties with the physics of elementary particles and quantum field theory. So that this problem is less important for our analysis and we skip its detailed account34. The horizon problem is the most serious puzzle in cosmology (Weinberg 2008, p. 208) for it relates not only to theoretical predictions but also to observations. The problem arises when the construct of he causal structure of the universe in the hot Big Bang cosmology is correlated with the measurements of some parameters of the microwave background radiation (see Fig 4). To make it clear one needs to discuss in more detail what is effectively observed in the universe from the planet Earth, appealing to Fig 2. It is seen that the human observer has some physical limits in observing the universe in its past which constitutes its natural epistemological horizon. On the one hand this limit has a spatial character: the universe is observed along the past light # 984 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology cone and the maximal spatial distance of objects whose radiation could be detected is determined by the linear size denoted in Fig. 2 as lmax35. On the other hand there is a limit in time: the early universe was opaque to radiation and became transparent after approximately 300,000 years since the beginning. From Fig. 2 one understands that our ability to penetrate deep in its past is limited by the age of decoupling of radiation from matter, so that no direct access to early times (even less to the beginning of the universe) exists. However, if one imagines that this access would be possible (that is the universe somehow would be transparent since the very beginning) we would come to a strange conclusion: whatever we observe in the sky is linked to the event of the beginning. The surface of the past light cone curves in such a way that we always, when look at different directions in the sky we effectively look at one and the same point of the Big Bang, so that whatever we observed would be causally connected simply because it came from one and the same point). The presence of the non-transparent stage in the universe’s evolution makes things complicated and this ultimately leads to the horizon problem. Indeed looking carefully at Fig. 2 one realises that what we can effectively observe comes from the surface of the last scattering (that is time when radiation decoupled from matter). Since this surface is not a point and has a spatial scale corresponding to the scale factor which a thousand time less than it is at present, one can say that by measuring the parameters of the microwave background radiation, which is a leftover from the era of decoupling, we receive signals from spatially separated domains, which, in spite of their ultimate origin in one and the same pointlike Big Bang, never been in causal connection with each other36. This observation can be made more quantitative: in fact, according to the theory the horizon at the time of the last scattering, in angular measure, now subtends an angle of about 1.6○, so that all now observable effects which are separated in the sky by the angle bigger than this one correspond to phenomena which have never been in causal contact before. And here arises a paradox or a problem, because observations claim a high degree of isotropy of the background radiation as if it was in a state of equilibrium, that is a causal contact, before decoupling. In other words, the problem is that according to the radiation-dominated or dust cosmology no physical influence could have smoothed out the initial inhomogeneities and brought points corresponding to the angle bigger than few degrees to the same temperature (Weinberg 2008, p. 205). As we mentioned before the horizon problem is the most serious problem which demands an interpretation, however, it does not contradict any experiment. It can be related, as it was with the flatness problem, to the specificity of the initial conditions, but this creates the same unease of its contingency and unexplainability by means of physics, as it is with the flatness problem (Ellis 2007, p. 1205). The inflationary hypothesis provides the interpretation of the horizon problem and its solution by claiming that because of the exponentially growing expansion the part of the universe we can observe would have occupied a tiny space so that all forms of substance were in a casual contact before inflation started so that the observed isotropy of the microwave background radiation corresponds in the long run to the uniformity of matter achieved before inflation. The success of the inflationary explanation of the horizon problem is strengthened by the fact that the order of growth of the scale factor (radius) of the universe during the exponential inflation that solves the horizon problem, automatically solves not only the flatness problem, but also the monopole problem (Weinberg 2008, p. 208). This makes the hypothesis of the exponential expansion # 985 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology epistemically coherent in the sense that it provides some joint explanation for three meta-empirical problems of the standard cosmology. However, since cosmologists treat the inflationary model as realistic not only on the level of epistemic coherence, but the insert its constructs into the fabric of the proper physics, the question arises as to what are those grounds which make it possible to assign to inflationary cosmology a realistic status. It is here that inflationary cosmology creates a diversity of opinions in the community of physicists and raises a certain scepticism of its naively-realistic (or critically-realistic) pretensions from philosophers. Constructs-beliefs in inflationary cosmology and their epistemic status It is known that, in inflationary cosmology, there is a distinction between “old inflation” introduced by A. Guth, and “new inflation” of A. Linde, A. Albrecht and P. Steinhardt which leads to the idea of “eternal inflation” (Weinberg 2008, p. 216). These historical differences do not play a pivotal role for the purposes of our analysis. However, the “eternal or chaotic” inflation which is related to the idea of the multiverse is not considered by us. The main idea of inflationary cosmology is that in the very early universe (prior to the radiation-dominated era) there was an exponentially growing expansion of the universe. From Einstein’s equations, which describe the evolution of the scale factor a(t), it is seen that in order to have an exponential growth of a(t) the energy density of matter which drives expansion must be approximately constant and satisfy an idiosyncratic equation of state corresponding to the so called vacuum with the negative pressure responsible for the acceleration of expansion. Since this matter differs considerably from all known forms of matter (fields and particles) the initial idea, as it appeared historically in Guth’s work, was that inflation is driven through dynamics of some spatially uniform but evolving in time scalar field φ(t) (which became known as inflaton) which symbolizes the generic undifferentiated state of matter and which makes the potential V(φ) large enough to dominate expansion. Being nearly constant the potential becomes responsible for the relative velocity of expansion (Hubble parameter) to decrease very slowly so that the universe to experience exponential expansion. The introduction of the scalar field φ is the most speculative ingredient of all inflationary models. For it is the physically unclear nature of this field which casts doubts about realistic nature of inflationary cosmology leading to its criticism37. The main question is: what is the epistemological mechanism employed which allows cosmologists to assert the realistic nature of the inflaton field φ (in spite of its precarious physical status) and the whole inflationary scenario. The answer comes from the fact that the theory of inflation turns out to be very flexible in being able to adjust its parameters in order to conform to any novelties in observations. By solving cosmological puzzles and providing some predictions with respect to the fluctuations in the background radiation inflationary cosmology satisfies the criterion of epistemic coherence. However, the whole construct of inflationary cosmology can only satisfy the criterion of consistency and mathematical representability with not commitment to realism with respect to the entities invoked in it. Thus one can speak of the epistemic coherence of justification for inflationary model. However if one dose not want to remain positivistically oriented in its methodology, the question remains on the transition from the coherence of mathematical description (as justification) to the coherence of truth which is behind this description, that is to whether the constructs entail truth of the physical # 986 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology reality (in view of an obvious ineffectiveness of the principle of correspondence in this case). On the level of formal (mathematical) connections the most important construct in inflationary cosmology is the potential V(φ) whose parameters can be adjusted in order to achieve a required exponential expansion. This potential enters a formal connection with the geometrical parameters of the universe through Einstein equations. Matter which is described by the field φ (and its potential V(φ) correspondingly) is supposed to be somehow converted into radiation which dominates the consequent phase in the universe’s expansion and which is the directly observable physical agency. Thus the construct of the hypothetical field φ is inserted into equations related to that physics which is subject to verification. However this construct, apart from a purely mental substitution into physical equations, does not have any epistemic connections with those physical entities it supposed to describe. In view of followers of the coherence theory of justification this does not represent a problem, for the reality of the inflaton field is the constructed, constituted, reality working on the level of convention among cosmologists. The philosophically sceptical position would be to claim that cosmology proposes an illegitimate transition from the intelligible entities associated with the field φ towards those entities that are related to the empirically approved realm. In other words, one suspects that the causation which is implied here is not properly physical but intelligible (in agreement with the adherents of coherence), that is, it is dictated not by the physically evident necessities, but intentional volitions related to the desire to assign to the inflationary theory a realistic character. A position of a coherence of epistemic justification would probably be to claim that the construct-belief of the field φ does not have to connote with anything in empirical reality because its “realistic” status follows simply from the fact that this construct coheres with other constructs-beliefs through formal connections (for example equations for the field φ which follow from Quantum Field Theory) as well through helping to solve cosmological puzzles. As it is recognised by cosmologists, the major experimental success of inflationary cosmology is the prediction of some properties of the fluctuations in the microwave background radiation and large scale structure of the universe. However all these predictions as such have a precarious ontological status for they also represent eidetic transitions from what is fundamentally unknown (but possessing generic intelligible features expressed mathematically) to that which is empirically known in its variety and differentiation. In other words, the situation can be described through the following reasoning: there are three cosmological puzzles which all point towards the contingent facticity of that state of affairs in the universe which human physicists face. This contingent facticity manifests itself in an allegedly non-generic (specific) state of the universe: we live in the flat universe, with no monopoles and strange uniformity of the microwave background radiation observed in the sky. All this strangeness initiates in physicists a desire to explain it as a variation of, or derivation from, an underlying substance or the state of matter which does not have any features of differentiation apart from its sheer existence. In fact, by introducing the field φ one effectively introduces through the power of intellection a generic entity (similar, for example, to that ancient water, proclaimed by Thales of Miletus, to be the ultimate and underlying level of being) which allegedly is responsible for all varieties of matter in observable universe. Certainly the complexity of this new hypothesis, in comparison with the ancient Greek ideal of the unifying substance, is that it is supplemented by mathematical theory which, however, does not # 987 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology provide any evidence for this substance to be physical: mathematical entities, such as the field φ, being Platonic constructs, remain in the same realm of generic mentality as the construct of water in Thales. As one sees from the analysis above, the impetus of inflationary cosmology is thus related not only to the desire to explain away the contingent initial conditions in the universe but also to invoke an idea of an all-encompassing, unknown, but yet immanent entity, the field φ, as that undifferentiated and impersonal agency in the universe, which lies in the foundation of all varied appearances of the universe. Seen in this perspective the whole enterprise acquires, from a philosophical point of view, some clear features. One can conjecture that inflationary cosmology reproduces the same transcendental jump, which has already been detected by us in other models of the initial state of the universe (Nesteruk 2003, chs. 5,6). The major issue now is the question of the epistemic efficacy of the field φ, namely its participation in the mental activities which attempt to find its correlates in physically causal processes. This problem is similar to the explication of the transition from the water of Thales to any particular empirically given material formation. Such an explication, if it pretends to be honest, entails a serious difficulty; for the very desire to construct such a transition would invoke a transcendental bridging of two epistemologically and ontologically distinct regions of being (and this certainly will lead to the break beyond the limits of coherence of epistemic justification). Thus the very transition from water to that which is observed has a hypothetical character, based in intentionality which itself is grounded in a belief that there exists some underlying “causal” mechanism governing this type of transition. The field φ in inflationary cosmology is implanted into the process of causation through the Einstein equations: the postulated properties of the potential V(φ) drive the metric scale factor so that the causal structure of space and time (which is not observable anyway) in inflationary universe is based on properties of the V(φ) (one recalls that this causation is based on the General Relativity assumption that any type of matter contributes to the gravitational force and thus affects geometry of space). In this sense it is difficult to evaluate the realistic nature of φ through a direct insight in the resulting geometry. This is the reason why the major (epistemological) test for the physical status of φ comes forward when cosmology conjectures of the origination of all forms of observable matter as a result of the decay of φ, that is the transformation of the energy associated with this field into classical radiation and matter. This transition can be schematically presented in the following way: V(φ) Æ ρ(t), where ρ(t) stands for the energy density of radiation and matter which are potentially observable. As we have mentioned above, this transition which supposes to relate two entities, V(φ) and ρ(t), has a strange feature: the two terms of the stated relationship are of a different epistemological kind, namely one is physically non-observable and hypothetical and the second is physically measurable in principle38. Here we face a crucial question: does the field φ indeed participate in “causal” processes on the level of the physics, and not only on the level of intentionality? If it does, in this case it has a status of more than a simple mathematical entity (which, according to philosophers of mathematics, and in contradistinction to physics, are causally passive (see, for example, (Resnik 1997, pp. 102, 106)). However it is exactly this, which is difficult to comprehend (even if one goes into the details of this transition) bearing in mind that the # 988 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology physical status of the field φ is uncertain39. From the point of view of a coherent theorist it is not important whether the construct of φ corresponds to physical reality. However, when this φ is inserted into the equation for transformation of energy, one definitely commits oneself to a sort of realism. Here inflationary cosmology leads to a generic philosophical problem related to the dual ontological structure of being, that is the ontological difference between intelligible and empirical. The detection of this structure (which has been done not only in inflationary cosmology, but also in other scenarios of the early universe40) makes it possible to grasp a certain idealistic character with which the ideas based on the coherence of epistemic justification are imbued. However this cannot be done from a theologically neutral position because the distinction between intelligible and sensible acquires an ontological (not only an epistemological) character in the context of the doctrine of creation, whereas the mediation between them receives its justification in a theological teaching of humanity as microcosm and mediator resembling the difference in its own hypostatic composition through the distinction between body and soul41. One may remind the reader that the notion of the ontological difference in creation is related to the Christian understanding of creatio ex nihilo. When the Nicene Creed affirms the belief God, “Maker of heaven and earth, and all things visible and invisible”, it affirms that God created the world out of nothing in such a way that there was an initial distinction between two realms: the realm of intelligible forms (invisible) and the realm of sensible reality (visible). The intelligible realm is simply understood as the “spiritual”, “intellectual” level of created being often labeled as a noetic level of creation, or kosmos noetos. On this level God formed the angels, who have no material body. But this level contains also intellectual images of sensible reality, that is, ideas. This makes the noetic realm reminiscent of the world of Platonic ideas (which are created in a Christian context). Ideas as intellectual images of sensible reality are inevitable ingredients of scientific theories, so that scientific ideas seem to have an immediate relation to the noetic realm which complements the realm of the material universe. The existence of the intelligible realm can be asserted trough the fact that it contains the community of living minds following from humanity’s ability to think, rationalize, memorize and symbolize the sensible creation in intelligible forms. However, the world of intelligible forms has an ontology different in comparison to the ontology of the sensible realm. If this fact is disregarded scientific theory becomes predisposed to making a naive assumption that their mathematical constructs have the same ontology as the objects which they suppose to describe. Theology is much more certain in the two-fold structure of creation, proclaimed in the Creed, because it is this structural difference in the unity of creation, which explicates the mystery of creation from the side of the created. The dichotomy in creation in general has its particular manifestation in the constitution of human beings, their composite hypostasis, traditionally described in terms of body and soul (or its analytical part – intellect). Theology asserts the human condition in the garments of skin as embodied (corporeal) existence in two levels of reality, so that it is natural to expect that humanity can be a mediator between these levels and hence to grasp their inherent unity in their createdness out of the same otherwordly foundation. Correspondingly any theory of the universe which attempts to formulate the concept of contingent facticity of the observable display of the universe must detect the difference between intelligible and sensible, which carries in itself what the Greeks called the logos (the underlying and forming principle and sense) of creation. The # 989 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology Greek Church Fathers used the word difference as a cosmological and theological term in order to articulate the creatio ex nihilo from within the world. This term comes as the translation of the Greek διαφορα′ (diaphora) (this term has theological contradistinction to another Greek word διαιρεσις (diairesis) which means division) (see, for example, (Thunberg, 1995, pp. 51-56)). It was Dionysius the Areopagite who used first the term diaphora beyond the Christological context, applying it to the differences of all things in creation42. Maximus the Confessor followed him and used the term diaphora, as a characteristic of created being, its constitutive and distinctive feature which will never disappear. It plays a constructive role in creation, because it provides a common principle of all created things: all things are differentiated in creation and at the same time the principle of their unity is that they are differentiated; in particular it provides a common principle for the unity of intelligible and sensible creation through its constitutive meaning in the creatio ex nihilo. From this perspective the issue of the creatio ex nihilo can never be separated from the issue of differentiation in creation between intelligible and sensible. The diaphora in God's creation is an established order, the principle of variety and unity in creation. The immediate implication of the ontological category diaphora in creation, as applied to a scientific quest for the justification of the contingent facticity of the observable universe, is that any physical or cosmological model trying to imitate the mechanism of this facticity, that is the causal principle of the world in scientific terms, should deal with the fact that it is not enough to produce a reasonable scenario of how the empirical visible (sensible) universe came into being from some hypothetical underlying substance similar to the inflaton field φ. Such a scenario can attest not to the demonstration of the causal principle of the observable display, but to the natural detection of the presence of the “parallel” level of the created, that is the world of intelligible forms or the noetic realm. Scientific reasoning appeals instinctively to this realm as if it is given and is not subject to its own genesis. In other words, the contingent facticity of the noetic realm is not questioned by science because it cannot question the facticity of consciousness which has access to this realm43. Scientific reasoning based on physical causality therefore can responsibly be applied only to a “half” of the created (that is, the empirical realm), assuming that the meaning of this “half” is provided from the noetic realm, which is not itself subject to investigation on the basis of physical causality. The noetic realm is involved into the formation of scientific knowledge, so that it is this realm which is the guarantor of its expression and preservation, but the origin of this realm is not subject to science in spite of the fact that science can employ its constituents for interpreting the empirical universe. Mathematics can be used, but the justification of its facticity that is, the possibility of its use, is not accountable by science to the same extent as the facticity of consciousness is not accountable. In this sense science deals with being, but it does not produce the mechanisms of generation of being. As Heidegger was saying: “science is not thinking yet!” It is because of this that the maximum science can claim in the analysis of the contingent facticity (as specificity) of the world, is that it found the mechanism of differentiation in creation between empirical (sensible) and intelligible (noetic). Now we are in a position to give a certain interpretation of inflationary cosmology. If inflationary cosmology insists on the physical nature of the transition V(φ) Æ ρ, then the neutrality to ontological commitment is broken and both the realms to which V(φ) and ρ belong, must be assigned a proper ontological status. Naturally the construct of the field φ # 990 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology (and potential V(φ)) can be naturally associated with the realm of intelligible forms, intelligible universe (IU). The observable (visible) universe (VU) is associated with the density ρ of matter and radiation. Correspondingly the transition through physical causation in the formula V(φ) Æ ρ can be interpreted as the mechanism of differentiation between two created realms IU and VU. The ontological difference between two realms represents the constitutive element of creation ex nihilo in a theological sense. To make it more articulate, one can elucidate the situation by subjecting it to the transcendental analysis in the spirit of Kant. The pivotal idea of cosmology is to explain the observable cosmos. The idea of the universe as a whole is invoked in cosmology in order to operate mathematically with equations applied to the universe beyond the horizon of its visibility for us. Yet it is assumed that the universe, being a uniform continuum of matter and space-time at large is subject to a scientific grasp. The specific features of this universe are supposed to be explained in terms of simple principles of unity, which aim to provide the explanation for the variety of things in the universe, which seems to be completely contingent. Cosmology hopes to replace the contingency of observable universe by some “necessary law” which itself will need no further explanation. In inflationary cosmology the contingency expressed through three puzzles is aimed to be removed through a scenario in which the observed specificity would be the result of the dynamics of the universe regardless whatever initial conditions it might have. The difficulty with this attempt is that the postulated state of matter does not belong to the series of causations related to what is visible, that is, the postulated state transcends the visible universe by breaking the series of causations in the visible universe through appealing to such a “state of matter” which does not have any empirical references, but which yet allegedly initiates the visible universe. This primordial “state of matter” was qualified before as belonging to the intelligible universe. The invocation of the intelligible “object” in order to explain the empirical universe becomes subjected to the Kantian critique of the argument for the existence of absolutely necessary being. Since V(φ) can not be found as an element of the empirical series in visible universe, its invocation as an explanatory element has sense only as a construct. This means that V(φ) which is to explain the structure of the visible universe, in fact, departs from the field of empirical realities and the causal series in the visible universe by acquiring the properties of a pure construct. This is the logic of the epistemic transition from the observed cosmological puzzles to the postulate of the intelligible V(φ) and all that theoretically follows from it. It is quite natural for one to ascend from the variety of data and puzzles to a unified principle, that is the field φ, which is to explain this data. However, the status of this filed remains precarious since it remains no more than a construct, which, as such, does not depart from the series of the sensible world (life-world). The situation changes, however, when the transition from the visible universe to the intelligible is reversed, that is, when the state of matter pertaining to inflation is now treated as a level of reality more fundamental than the visible universe itself, for it gives rise to the visible universe. According to the logic of inflationary cosmology, the transition V(φ) Æ ρ describes the actualization of the visible universe out of the invisible, assuming that V(φ) and ρ have a similar ontological status. This ontologizing can be criticised on the same grounds as it has been done for Hawking’s model of the quantum universe (Nesteruk 2003, ch. 5), so that the transition V(φ) Æ ρ is interpreted as a causation in a conceptual space, invoked by the thinking intellect. This implies that the mechanism # 991 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology which actualizes the visible universe out of the invisible is itself a construct with the intelligible ontology. We observe here a kind of intellectual inversion from causation originating in the physical causal series (cosmological puzzles Æ V(φ) ), to causation originating in the purely intelligible series (V(φ) Æ ρ), the completeness of which is based upon existence of an absolutely necessary cause (that is, the state of matter described by the inflaton φ). This jump in reflection is based on an inability to build the empirical content of the concept of the unconditioned condition (V(φ)) in the series of empirical causes. According to Kant, however, from the structure of the visible universe one can not conclude via the empirical analysis to the existence of such a necessary cause which would not be contingent itself. And that is why one can state that there is no an absolutely necessary cause or being which would explain the visible universe. This means that the inflationary universe has no direct ontological references in the empirical realm in spite of it fertility in predicting the right spectrum of fluctuations in the microwave radiation. It exists as an intelligible object, which functions in thought only as the purpose for the epistemic justification of the detected (through the three puzzles) contingent state of affairs. The clash between the realistic treatment of φ (V(φ)), and the opposite claim that it is no more than an intelligible object, leads one to an antinomial puzzle, which points to the only justifiable formula for dealing with the situation; namely to treat the transition V(φ) Æ ρ, as an example of antinomial reasoning, which is similar to the Kantian reasoning on an absolutely necessary, being expressed in his fourth antinomy44. The antinomy about the origination of the visible universe out of the “state of matter” pertaining to the inflationary phase of expansion of the universe can now be formulated as follows: Thesis: There belongs to the world the field φ which is ultimately responsible for the observable protean display in the visible universe, and whose existence is absolutely necessary for the visible universe VU to be as it is. Antithesis: There nowhere exists the field φ in the (physical) world, as the cause of the visible universe (there is no physical connection between intelligible and sensible universes): they belong to the different ontological realms. The appearance of such an antinomy in the discourse of origin of the visible universe is quite remarkable because, as we remember, the initial motivation of inflationary model was to overcome the difficulties associated with the contingent nature of the initial conditions in the universe asserted in the hot Big-Bang cosmology (before the idea of inflation emerged). The critique of any attempts to deal with the initial conditions of the universe can be developed through the famous Kantian antinomy on the beginning of the universe in time45. What happened, as a result of inflationary cosmology’s attempt to remove the problem of the contingent specificity of the initial conditions in the universe, that is, de facto, to remove the antinomy on the origin of the universe in time, is very interesting: one detects a certain metamorphosis of antinomies. The trend of theoretical research attempting to overcome the antinomy of temporal origin led, with a certain inevitability to the formulation of the antinomy of the origin of the universe not in terms special initial conditions related to temporality of the universe, but in terms of an absolutely necessary being or cause, responsible for the contingent display of the universe. This shift in explication of the problem of origin of the universe happened not on purely philosophical grounds, but under the pressure of developments in cosmological theory. In other words, the very progress of knowledge contributed to philosophy, namely to a concrete scheme of that how to explicate the intrinsic # 992 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology interconnectedness of the Kantian antinomies. This shift, as we have argued elsewhere, reflects some general patterns of scientific attempts to find the generic features in the foundation of the world undertaken by human subjects. Kant could use the antinomy formulated by us for a negative conclusion about the empirical evidence for the existence of the field φ (absolutely necessary being) as a cause of the factual display of the visible universe. His argument would be that the inflaton filed belongs to the intelligible realm and does not have an independent ontological status apart from thinking, which brought the ideas of φ into being. This conclusion indicates that the antinomies, can be considered as difficulties of reason arising in relating the ontology of the sensible world to the ontology of the intelligible world and vice versa; these difficulties rather point towards the limits of the human powers of knowledge. However, one can go further and claim that the new explication of the fourth cosmological antinomy of Kant, in fact, refines how human cognitive faculties are constituted. Namely, this antinomy in its logical performance by reason, manifests the process of mediation between the sensible and intelligible worlds, performed by a human subject in virtue of the fact that this subject is a complex of the physical-biological and intellectual-spiritual, so that the mediation between the sensible and the intelligible worlds happens within this human subject. Thus the structural similarity in the constitution of humanity and the universe (the idea of microcosm and mediator) is manifested once again: it can be formulated as that there is a common underlying principle (logos) which lies in their foundation and the content of this principle is that there is the ontological difference (diaphora) between the sensible and intelligible in both the universe and humanity. An interesting feature of inflationary cosmology, is that it confirms the unity of the human reason with respect to the two realms in the created being. This unity is revealed through the metamorphosis of the Kantian antinomies, the transformation through which the problem of the underlying foundations of the contingent facticity of the world is explicated in a new way. This fact demonstrates that cosmology implicitly contains knowledge of human hypostatic composites, of their transcendental consciousness with the antinomial difficulties arising as soon as the understanding transcends the boundaries of experience and endeavors to speculate on the foundations of its own facticity. Taking this into account, one can only reassert that cosmology must be seen not only as a natural science, but also as having the dimension of the human science, which narrates not only about the external world, but also about humanity and its place in the universe (Nesteruk 2011). The presence of antinomies in the cosmological discourse, points to the fundamental difference in the contingent creation, that is, the diaphora between the intelligible and sensible realms. It makes possible to conjecture whether this tendency of a split in theory between empirical realities and their conceptual images always leads a scientist to the detection of the ultimate frontier in attempting to synthesize the variety of physical experience in a single principle of unity, namely, to the unbridgeable ontological diaphora in the created domain. The mediation between intelligible and sensible, which is performed by philosophizing cosmologists, and which is theologically justifiable, reflects the unification of the divisions in creation (that, is the division between intelligible and sensible realms) which takes place not ontologically, but on the level of cognition and morality (Thunberg 1995, ch.6). The antinomial structure of the proposition about the causation between the intelligible inflationary universe and the visible leads us finally to the conclusion that inflationary cosmology deals # 993 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology with differentiation in the contingent creation, that is, with the basic diaphora in creation, rather than with the explanation of the observable display in terms of physical causation. However, since the presence of the difference between the intelligible and sensible reflects a general tendency and specific feature of all scientific attempts, which try to provide the genesis of the attributes of the empirical universe in a single unified theory, it becomes evident that these scientific models are not theologically irrelevant in what concerns their particular schemes which allow one to detect the 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 presence of the diaphora as a constitutive element of creatio ex nihilo. Acknowledgments I would like to express my feelings of gratitude to George Horton for reading the manuscript and making helpful suggestions. This publication was made possible through the support of a grant from the John Templeton Foundation. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the John Templeton Foundation. That which was inaugurated by E. A. Milne (after Einstein’s suggestion) as “cosmological principle”, that is “all places in the universe are alike” has many motivations. One of them which is more close to the spirit of physics was to extend the observable isotropy of the universe at the scales of clusters of galaxies to every possible location. Here we deal with a refi ned version of the hypothesis of a formal interchange of home-places having a counterpart in physical reality of related to a particular geometrical aspect of what as a phenomenon is given to human consciousness on Earth. Thus the uniformity of matter distribution as well as space itself can be understood as the postulate of an isotropic view of the universe from every possible location. The concept of matter of the universe in relativistic cosmology is similar to the concept of ideal gas in which real physical particles are treated as point-like objects, material points. Any set of material point can be taken than as prototype, which can be filled in with different meaning. For the ideal gas one can take a prototype of chaotic motion of material points and substitute molecules for these points. In cosmology, by substituting material points by clusters of galaxies one can obtain the notion of “matter of the Universe” (Misner, 1973, pp. 711-713). The red-shift in astronomical objects is varied with their distance from our galaxy, which has been established by E. Hubble as far back a in 1929. The velocity of recession of a galaxy is proportional to its distance with the coefficient known as the “Hubble constant” H0 which is treated as a fundamental cosmological parameter characterizing the rate of expansion of the universe as a whole. Here, for the sake of our objectives, we disregard possible objections to this interpretation of red shifts in galaxies’ spectra which doubt the idea of the expanding universe. See, for example, (Rhook 1994). See a representation of this statement in the graph of “The Cosmic Spheres of Time” in (Primack 2006, p. 135). See also (Abrams 2011, p. 74). The seeing of the universe as the frozen past connotes with the notion of the “block universe” according to which all points of space-time have an equal ontological status, so that no fundamental meaning can be ascribed to the distinction between “past”, “present” and “future”. (See more details, for example, in the paper (Isham 1996). The given description of the universe corresponds to its disclosure by human beings in the course of their history. Because of the fi nitude of this history, which itself can be treated as an event, humankind event (this notion was introduced in (Nesteruk 2003, pp. 194-214), the disclosure of the universe as a particular action of the human spirit can be treated as an event within the humankind event. The notion of an event entails the presence of fundamental contingency. It is because of this contingency that cosmology attempts at all costs to get rid of this notion by grounding the counterintuitive content of this event in something apodictic and undeniable, inferred through a kind of an extra-logical argument (for example some abstract mathematical theory which allegedly governs the physics of the universe regardless a simple fact that this very theory is a product of embodied subjectivity, which forms the essence of the humankind-event) which itself transcends the givenness of an event. In this aspiration cosmology exercises a leap of faith, making it similar to theology which predicates humanity’s existence and the presence of the world in this particular condition as an event of their communion with God, who is transcendent indeed. Assuming that the reversal of initial velocities is possible (Davies 1974, pp. 22-27). This point was made clear, with reference to R. Tolman, in the paper (Penrose 1979). This point was emphatically defended by Penrose in many of his writings. See, for example, (Penrose 1979), (Penrose 1989, pp. 440-47), (Penrose 2005, pp. 726-732; 765-769). Later J. A. Wheeler articulated this point in order to assert the intrinsic mutability of physics, including its conceptual ingredients, such as space and time. See, for example (Wheeler 1973, 1994). See more details on cosmological diagrams used by us in (Harrison 1986, pp. 215, 375-387). One cannot re-run the universe with the same or altered initial conditions to see what would happen if they were different. See (Ellis, 2007) (Thesis A1, p. 1216). This is a different way of stating a Christian theological assertion that it is cosmic history that is treated in theology as part of human history and not vice versa. (See, for example, (Clément 1976, p. 80)). It is here that cosmology effectively explicates its hidden theological commitment linked to the Divine image in humanity which articulates the universe from within its history. # 994 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 This assertion can be considered as a certain variation of the idea of a block-universe, where all points related to the past light cone (related to our vantage location in the cosmos) are considered as having an equal ontological status. This point reasserts that which was said before that theologically, it is cosmic history which unfolds from within human history and not vice versa, because the primacy of existence (understood as communion) belongs to hypostatic human beings, and not inorganic rocks in the cosmos, in spite of the fact that the conditions of embodiment originate in the stardust. On the phenomenological treatment of the intuition of continuum see, for example, papers (Longo 1999, 2002). See, for example, (Allen 2006). According to N. Smith’s terminology, “one who gives a realist construal of all scientific sentences will be called a global realist” (Smith 1996, p. 29). A claim for a radical mathematical realism identifying mathematical constructs with physical realities can be found in (Tegmark 2008). For a strong critique of the concept of multiverse see, for example, (Ellis 2011). As it was expressed by Ellis in one of his Theses on philosophy of cosmology: “The universe itself cannot be subjected to physical experimentation. We cannot re-run the universe with the same or altered conditions to see what would happen if they were different, so we cannot carry out scientific experiments on the universe itself.” (Ellis 2007, p. 1216). One means here the inflaton field in inflationary cosmology, dark matter, dark energy etc. See more on this in (Ellis 2007, pp. 1208-1211). See on the coherence theories of justification, for example, (Audi 1998, pp. 187-204). See also a book of (Bowker 2005, pp. 118-48), in which the author persuasively argues on the importance of coherence considerations in science and religion as a different form of justification in comparison with the correspondence principle. In this sense the coherence of justification in cosmology works similarly to theology where the catholicity (“sobornost”) of the Church acts as the guarantor of collective wisdom which opposes to any sort of ethical individualism in religion. See more details in (Nesteruk 2008, pp. 211-219). See (Nesteruk 2012). The intrinsic apophatic meaning of cosmology is similar to that of theology. In theology apophaticism implies the wholeness and consistency of religious beliefs in their limitations by what is called dogmas (the meaning of what is called dogmas originates in the Greek word horos (boundary, fence) which was used in theology in the context of the Church’s defi nitions with a purpose to set out the boundaries of Christian faith and protect it against heresies). These dogmas, as Church defi nitions, are those boundaries of faith which cannot be demonstrated from outside. Apophaticism intends to proclaim the freedom of expression of faith within its boundaries if the coherence of this expression with respect to dogmas is observed. Coherence in this case means faithfulness and absence of desire to doubt dogmas. In this case the experience of faith can expand unlimitedly within the boundaries of faith, being coherent with the content of dogmas. Apophaticism reveals itself as a principle of coherence in theology, which stops reason from attempts to treat dogmas as defi nitions of the essence of God thus guaranteeing freedom of expressing experience of God through music (liturgy), poetry, painting etc. if the limits of this expression are observed. However, apophaticism in theology leads to coherence of truth. Here one reveals the real meaning of apophaticism not as a logical proclamation of truth about God, but as participation in this truth through prayer and liturgy. The reality of what the Christian Church teaches in its dogmas cannot survive outside doxological proclamations (Zizioulas 1997, p. 117). Thus the apophatic coherence in theology implies, so to speak, liturgical coherence as ever-presence of tradition in space and time, that is in history. Coherentism in theology acquires a historical dimension. It is clear why a theological apophaticism makes it necessary to rely on coherence of interpretation in religious matters: God is not an object, he is present in absence, we know that he is with us but we do not know “what he is”. No theory of correspondence is possible here. However, we affi rm God on the basis of our faith in him, that faith which implies the coherence of dogmas, tradition and liturgy. Dogmas, defi nition and theological opinions can point towards God, can change our attitude to his presence in absence, but they never qualify God as essence and substance to which one can refer in the mundane sense of empirical evidence. One should mention here that prayer and liturgy, as genuine means of transcendence, create in theology that breakthrough from the seclusion of its dogmatic system, making thus demonstrable that any theology has no direct sense as a carrier of truth if it does not imply faith and living communion with God. And it is this last element of genuine transcendence which makes a theological apophaticism crucially different, in comparison with the sense of the apophatic in cosmology. See, for example, (Walker 1988, p. 19). As the coherence theorist would say, the nature of objective reality is determined by the coherent set of beliefs about it. Independently of this M. Munitz, discussing whether the universe as whole can be discovered, suggests that it would be better “to say that the concept of the universe as a whole is a creative, constructive achievement, and invention, not a discovery” (Munitz 1990, p. 141). The fact that the universe as a whole is a construction of our thought can be inferred from a counterintuitive sense of what can be called its “existence”. The term existence cannot be applied to the universe in a sense pertaining to ordinary objects available as their unity at hand through their pieces and moments. The existence of cosmic objects, such as clusters of galaxies, for example is problematic because each galaxy in a cluster is seen by us at different time in its history (due to the fi nitude of the speed of light delivering us signals from it): thus the cluster we observe is a mental construction. C.f. (Primack 2006, p. 171). This mental construction, being referred to the embodied subjectivity thus reveals all signs of its historical contingency. In this sense the whole construct of the “universe as a whole”, being an ideal accomplishment still bears in itself some features of contingent formation. This expression is used in (Gurwitsch 1974, p. 44), where the term “hypostasis” is meant not in a theological sense. Elements of nature as “mental creation” also appeared in the terminology of A. Einstein (Einstein 1973, p. 291). (Margenau 1952 , p. 209).The fact that the ideal of science to search for the ultimate “reality” is historical by its constitution, that is the concept of “objective nature” can only be a mental accomplishment, makes doubtful recent attempts to advocate for the radical mathematisation of nature in which the “fi nal theory” would be free of human baggage (see, for example, (Tegmark 2008)). # 995 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 C.f. Ellis’s Thesis of Uncertainty: “Ultimate uncertainty is a key aspect of cosmology. Scientific exploration can tell us much about the universe but not about its ultimate nature, or even much about some of its major geometrical and physical characteristics. Some of this uncertainty may be resolved, but much will remain. Cosmological theory should acknowledge this uncertainty” (Ellis 2007, p. 1274). One may remind the reared that the apophatic approach to i knowledge can be formulated as an attitude which refuses to exhaust the content of knowledge in its formulation, that is, refuses to exhaust the reality of things signified in the logic of signifiers. It correspondingly refuses to verify knowledge merely by controlling the correct representational logic of the signifiers (Yannaras 2004, p. 84). A popular trend in philosophy of mathematics which effectively advocates such a view is so called structural realism. It is enough to give a couple of references: (Lyre 2009); a popularised version of structural realism can be found in (Shapiro 2000, pp. 257-289). Here one implies results related to Godel’s incompleteness theorems. One can point towards S. Hawking, who builds his cosmology on the grounds of positivistic, (according to his own defi nition) methodology, that is, in an approach which never makes enquiries on the ontological meaning of those “realities” which are present in cosmological theories. He describes his understanding of the meaning of cosmological theories in the following words: “Theory is just a model of the universe, or a restricted part of it, and a set of rules that relate quantities in the model to observations we make. It exists only in our minds and has no other reality (whatever that might mean).” (Hawking 1988, p. 9, 139) (Emphasis added). One means the search for the so called Higgs-boson undertaken in the Hadron Collider at CERN. Some authors list some other problems which can motivate inflation. All these problems are related to the issue of the initial conditions in the universe. Before the advance of the inflationary model in the 1980s it was believed that the problem of the initial conditions of the universe needed a quantum description. However, since quantum gravity was yet to become developed in the 1980s, it seemed to be very speculative and far from any possible experimental verification. The discovery that one can use classical gravity (which is implied in inflationary cosmology) to address the problem of the initial conditions made the whole theory less speculative (but still speculative) and in this sense “more realistic” (Peacock 1999, pp. 323-324). As was asserted by T. Torrance, “by its nature, science is concerned with discovering and formulating the…laws of nature governing the processes of the universe, but it is incapable of establishing the initial conditions out of which the universe took its absolute rise and which ought surely to enter as rational equations into a full understanding of its singularity and intelligibility” (Torrance 2001, p. 103). The fact that the universe is an utterly specific and unique event is hardly to be accepted by physicists and reaction to such a state of affairs causes a “horror of the unique event” (Ibid.) See also in this respect (Torrance 1996, pp. 166-167). Briefly, the so called grand unified theories of elementary particles and fields relevant to the early universe predict a mechanism (spontaneous breakdown of symmetry) through which the presence of field configurations with a non-zero magnetic charge is inevitable in the early universe (which should result in one monopole per nucleon at present) and their obvious absence in the present-day universe represents a certain problem. The inflationary scenario provides a possible solution of this problem, but once again it does not entail with the necessity the invocation of this scenario, because some other mechanism can lie in the resolution of the monopole problem. Like the flatness problem, the monopole problem does not follow from any contradiction in observations of the universe. It rather demonstrates a lack of coherence at the interdisciplinary level when different block of physical theory demand a sort of reconciliation. The demand for coherence among two theories leads to their mutual advance, but with no ground-based ontological commitment. The motivation to solve the monopole problem has a different character in comparison with what happens in the flatness problem. Here one invokes a philosophical belief in the unity of physics at the level of micro- and macro-world, the unity which originates in the unity of consciousness and its desire of the overall encompassing insight of the universe. In similarity with the flatness problem there is the hidden belief that the generic scenario of the grand-unified theory (GUT) predicting the abundance of monopoles as realized in the past of the universe must not be ruled out by the fact of the present day specialness of the universe which effectively excludes the macroscopic presence of monopoles in the same abundance as nucleons. In order the physical causality between the past and present to be uninterrupted (that is the GUT prediction on monopoles be consistent with their effective absence at present) cosmology appeals to the idea of inflation. The inflation idea appears as a product of the human intentionality of the unity of the physical description of the universe to be transferred towards the causality of physical forces and processes. Once again there is no necessity in the entailment from the monopole problem towards inflationary cosmology. The problem can be solved through a different explanation. However the fact that the hypothesis of the exponential expansion of the universe provides the argument for resolving two puzzles in cosmology and particle physics makes this hypothesis attractive and coherent. See more details in (Weinberg 2008, pp. 206-208). One can show that in the matter-dominated universe lmax = 4ct0/9, where c is the speed of light, t0 is time today, and it corresponds to the time of emission of a signal te=8t0/27 (Rothman, Ellis 1993, p. 886). The limit of causation outlined in these calculations does not reflect a realistic situation which is linked to the fact that many physical interactions do not propagate with the speed of light so that the true domain which influences us is much less that it is indicated by the particle horizon. In most of sources on the horizon problem a diagram is employed by using the so called conformal time in which case the initial singularity is depicted as a straight line and past line cones correspond to those ones in flat space. See, for example, (Ellis, Stoeger 1988, pp. 208, 210), (Rothman, Ellis 1993, pp. 890-891). Penrose, while commenting on inflationary cosmology points that the introduction of a new field φ into “menagerie of known (and conjectured) physical particle/fields” was dictated solely by the desire to have an exponential expansion, so that no other physical motivation of relating this field to other known physical was established (Penrose 2005, p. 751). # 996 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Weinberg on his side, while commenting on the hypothetical predictions of eternal inflation about existence of many disjoint universes, asserts that the validity of this idea “will probably have to come from progress in fundamental physics, which may verify the existence of a suitable inflaton field, rather than from astronomical observation” (Weinberg 2008, p. 217). See also (Ellis 2007, p. 1210). We do not enquire into a realistic nature of this field in spite of ongoing attempts to detect the so called Higgs-boson (which, as believed, corresponds to this field), at the Hadron collider in the European Centre of Nuclear Research. Mathematical details and theoretical assumptions for this transition to take place can be found in (Weinberg 2008, pp. 208-216). One can agree with Resnik that “combining mathematical principles with empirical hypotheses can commit one to objects whose status is neither clearly mathematical nor clearly physical” (Resnik 1997, p. 107). See our analysis of Hawking and Penrose’s models for the origin of the universe in (Nesteruk 2003, chs. 5, 6). As the most striking patristic reference, one can point to St. Maximus the Confessor who developed an allegorical interpretation of the universe as man, and conversely of man as microcosm and mediator between the elements of the universe, and between the universe and God. He articulates the similarity between the composition of the human being and the composition of the universe from a point of view of the hypostatic unity of the different parts in them. A passage from Maximus’ Mystagogy 7 elucidates the meaning of this similarity: “Intelligible things display the meaning of the soul as the soul does that of intelligible things, and [...] sensible things display the place of body as the body does that of sensible things. And [...] intelligible things are the soul of sensible things, and sensible things are the body of intelligible things; [...] as the soul is in the body so is the intelligible in the world of sense, that the sensible is sustained by the intelligible as the body is sustained by the soul; [...] both make up one world as body and soul make up one man.” (Berthold 1985, p. 196) (emphasis added). Dionysius the Areopagite, The Divine Names, 5,8; The Celestial Hierarchies, 4,3,1. Some attempts to incorporate the formation of intelligence into the global genesis of physical reality, based on the transcendent applications of quantum principle were made in papers of J. Wheeler, which have not been seriously regarded by scientific community. The importance of this attempt is rooted in an explicit appeal to such factors of modern scientific discourse, which transcend the boundaries of “normal”, established physics. For the analysis of Wheeler’s ideas see my paper in which the reader can fi nd all relevant bibliography (Nesteruk 2013). Kant I., Critique of Pure Reason, A452-453/B480-481. Thesis: The world has a beginning in time and is also limited as regards space; Antithesis: The world has no beginning and no limits in space; it is infi nite as regards both time and space. (Kant , Critique of Pure Reason, A 426-427/ B454-455. ET: (Smith 1933 p. 396)). References 1. Abrams, N. E., Primack, J., The New Universe and the Human Future. How a Shared Cosmology Could Transform the World, Yale University Press. 2. Allen, P., Ernan McMullin and Critical Realism in the Science-Theology Dialogue, Ashgate, 2006. 3. Audi, R., Epistemology, London and New York, Routledge, 1998. 4. Berthold, G. C., (Tr.) The Church’s Mystagogy, in Maximus Confessor. Selected Writings, New York: Paulist Press, 1985, pp. 181-225. 5. Bitbol, M., Kerszberg, P., Petitot, J., (Eds.) Constituting Objectivity. Transcendental Perspectives on Modern Physics. Springer, 2009. 6. Blau, S. K., A. H. Guth, “Inflationary Cosmology”. In 300 Years of Gravitation. (Eds.) S. W. Hawking, W. Israel, Cambridge University Press, 1987, pp. 524-603. 7. Bowker The Sacred Neuron, London, I. B. Tauris, 2005. 8. Cazenave, M., “Synchronicité, physique et biologie”, In H. Reeves, M. Cazenave, P. Solié, H. F. Etter, K. Pribram, K., M. L. von Franz, La synchronicité, l’âme et la science, Albin Michel, 1995, pp. 21-68. 9. Clément, O., Le Christ Terre des Vivants. Essai Théologiques Spiritualite Orientale, n. 17, Abbaye de Bellfontaine, 1976. 10. Dancy, J., Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology, Oxford, Basil Blackwell, 1989. 11. Davies, P. C. W., The Physics of Time Asymmetry. Surrey University Press, London, 1974. 12. Dionysius the Areopagite, The Divine Names, 5,8; The Celestial Hierarchies, 4,3,1. # 997 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology 13. Einstein, A., “Physics and Reality”, in Ideas and Opinions, London, Souvenir Press, 1973. 14. Earman, J., Mosterin, J. “A Critical Look at Inflationary Cosmology”. Philosophy of Science, vol. 66, n 1, 1999, pp. 1-49. 15. Ellis, G. F. R., Stoeger, W., “Horizons in inflationary universes”, Classical and Quantum Gravity, vol. 5, 1988, pp. 207-220. 16. Ellis, G. F. R., “Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology”, in J. Butterfield, J. Earman (Eds.) Handbook of the Philosophy of Science, Philosophy of Physics. Part B. Amsterdam et al: Elsevier, 2007, pp. 1183-1283. 17. Ellis, G. F. R., “Does the Multiverse Really Exist?”, Scientific American, August 2011, pp. 38-43. 18. Gurwitsch, A., Phenomenology and the Theory of Science, Evanston, Northwestern University Press, 1974. 19. Guth, A., The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a new Theory of Cosmic Origins. Addison Wesley, 1997. 20. Harrison, E. R., Cosmology: The Science of the Universe, Cambridge University Press, 1986. 21. Hawking, S., A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. London, Bantam, 1988. 22. Heelan, P., “An Anti-Epistemological or Ontological Interpretation of the Quantum Theory and Theories Like It”. In In B.E. Babich, D. B. Bergoffen, S. V. Glynn (eds.) Continental and Postmodern Perspectives in the Philosophy of Science. Aldershot, Avebury, 1992, pp. 55-68. 23. Isham, C. J., Polkinghorne, J. C., “The Debate over the Block Universe.” In Quantum Cosmology and the Laws of Nature, (Eds.) R. J. Russell, N. Murphy, and C. J. Isham. Berkeley, Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences, 1996, pp. 139-147. 24. Kant, I., Critique of Pure Reason, N. K. Smith (Tr.) London: Macmillan,1933. 25. Kerszberg, P., “The Phenomenological Analysis of the Earth’s Motion”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, v. 48, No. 2, 1987, pp. 177-208. 26. Linde, A. D., Particle Physics and Inflationary Cosmology, Harwood Academic, 1990. 27. Longo, G., “The Mathematical Continuum: from Intuition to Logic”, in J. Petito, F. J. Varela, B. Pachoud, J.-M. Roy (Eds.), Naturalising Phenomenology. Issues in Contemporary Phenomenology and Cognitive Science, Stanford, California, Stanford University Press, 1999, pp. 401-25. 28. Longo, G., “The Constructed Objectivity of Mathematics and The Cognitive Subject”, in M. Mugur-Schachter, A. van der Merwe (Eds.) Quantum Mechanics, Mathematics, Cognition and Action. Proposals for a Formalized Epistemology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002, pp. 433-462. 29. Lyre, H., “Structural Realism and Abductive-Transcendental Arguments”, in M. Bitbol, P. Kerszberg, J. Petitot (Eds.), Constituting Objectivity. Transcendental Perspectives on Modern Physics. Springer, 2009, pp. 491-501. 30. Marcel, G., Being and Having, London, Collins, 1965. 31. Margenau, H., “Phenomenology and Physics”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, vol. 5, n. 2, 1944, pp. 269-280 . 32. Margenau, H., “Physical versus Historical Reality”, Philosophy of Science, vol. 19, n. 3, 1952, pp. 193-213. 33. Margenau, H., “Physics and Ontology”, Philosophy of Science, vol. 19, n. 4, 1952, pp. 342-345. # 998 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology 34. Margenau, H., The Nature of Physical Reality: A Philosophy of Modern Physics. Woodbridge, Conn., Ox Bow Press, 1977. 35. Marion, J.-L., Certitudes négatives, Paris, Bernard Grasset, 2010. 36. McMullin, E., “Indifference Principle and Anthropic Principle in Cosmology”, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, v. 24, n. 3, 1993, pp. 359-389. 37. McMullin, E., “Long Ago and Far Away: Cosmology and Extrapolation”. In R. Fuller (Ed.), Bang: The Evolving Cosmos, Saint Peter, Minnesota: Gaustavus Adolphus College, 1994, pp. 105-145. 38. Misner, C., Thorn, K., Wheeler, J. A., Gravitation, New York, W. H. Freeman and Company, 1973. 39. Munitz, M., The Question of Reality, Princeton University Press, 1990. 40. Nesteruk, A. V., Light from the East: Theology, Science and Eastern Orthodox Tradition, Minneapolis, Fortress Press, 2003. 41. Nesteruk, A. V., The Universe as Communion, London, T&T Clark, 2008. 42. Nesteruk A. V., “Cosmology at the Crossroads of Natural and Human Sciences: is Demarcation Possible?” Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences. Part. 1, vol. 4, n. 4, 2011, pp. 560-576. 43. Nesteruk, A. V., “Towards Constituting the Identity of the Universe: Apophaticism and Transcendental Delimiters in Cosmology” Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences, vol. 5, n. 3, 2012 , pp. 358-394. 44. Nesteruk A. V., “Cosmology and Teleology: Purposiveness in the Study of the Universe through the Reading of Kant’s Third Critique, Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences, vol. 5, n. 9, 2012 , pp. 1304-1335. 45. Nesteruk, A., “A ‘Participatory Universe’ of J. A. Wheeler as an Intentional Correlate of Embodied Subjects and an Example of Purposiveness in Physics”, Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences, vol. 6, n. 3, 2013 (to appear). 46. Peacock, J., Cosmological Physics, Cambridge University Press, 1999, pp. 323-324. 47. Penrose, R., “Singularities and Time-Asymmetry.” In General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey, ed. S. W. Hawking and W. Israel, Cambridge University Press, 1979, pp. 581–638. 48. Penrose, R., The Emperor’s New Mind. Oxford University Press, 1989. 49. Penrose, R., The Road to Reality. London, Vintage Books 2005. 50. Primack, J., Abrams, N. E., The View from the Centre of the Universe. Discovering our Extraordinary Place in the Cosmos. London, Fourth Estate, 2006. 51. Rescher, N., The Coherence Theory of Truth, New York, University Press of America, 1989. 52. Resnik, M., Mathematics as a Science of Patterns, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1997. 53. Rhook, G., Zangari, M., “Should We Believe in the Big Bang? A Critique of the Integrity of Modern Cosmology”, Proceeding of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, vol. 194, 1994, pp. 228-237. 54. Rothman, A., Ellis, G. F. R., “Lost Horizons”, American Journal of Physics 61, 1993, pp. 883-93. 55. Shapiro, S., Thinking about Mathematics. The Philosophy of Mathematics, Oxford University Press, 2000. 56. Smith, N., The Rationality of Science, London, Routledge, 1996, 57. Ströker, E., Investigarions in Philosophy of Space, Ohio University Press, 1965. # 999 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology 58. Tegmark, M., “The Mathematical Universe”, Foundations of Physics, vol. 38, n. 2, 2008, pp. 59101. 59. Torrance, T., The Grammar of Theology: Consonance between Theology and Science, Edinburgh, T&T Clark, 2001. 60. Torrance, T., “Ultimate and Penultimate Beliefs in Science”, In ed. J.M. van der Meer, Facets of Faith & Science, vol. 1 Historiography and Modes of Interaction, Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1996, pp. 151-176. 61. Thunberg, L., Microcosm and Mediator: The Theological Anthropology of Maximus the Confessor, Chicago: Open Court, 1995. 62. Turok, N., (Ed.), Critical Dialogues in Cosmology, World Scientific, 1997. 63. Walker, R., Coherence Theory of Truth, Realism, anti-realism, idealism. London, Routledge, 1988. 64. Weinberg, S., Cosmology, Oxford University Press, 2008. 65. Weyl, H., Mind and Nature: Selected Writings on Philosophy, Mathematics and Physics, Princeton University Press, 2009. 66. Wheeler, J. A., “From Relativity to Mutability.” In Physicist’s Conception of Nature, Ed. J. Mehra, Dordrecht: Reidel, 1973, pp. 202–247. 67. Wheeler, J. A., At Home in the Universe. New York: American Institute of Physics, 1994. 68. White, A. R., “Coherence Theory of Truth”. In P. Edwards (Ed.), The Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, NewYork: Macmillan, 1967, vol. 2, pp. 130-133. 69. Yannaras, C., Postmodern Metaphysics, Brookline, Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 2004. 70. Zizioulas, J., Being as Communion, Crestwood, St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1997. Вселенная как конструкт: эпистемологические верования и когерентность обоснования в современной космологии А.В. Нестерук Университет Портсмута Лайон Гэйт Бюлдинг, ПОРТСМУТ, РО1 3НF, Великобритания В этой статье мы продолжаем исследование эпистемологического статуса некоторых положений космологии, в частности понятия вселенной как целого. Показано, что последнее всецело зависит от постулируемой однородности вселенной и представляет собой конструкт, отчасти имеющий связи с эмпирической реальностью. Однако развивается аргумент о том, что эффективно действующей методологией современной математической космологии, моделирующей ранние стадии эволюции вселенной, является не традиционный принцип соответствия между теоретическими конструктами и эмпирическими реальностями, а известный из теории познания принцип эпистемологической когерентности, который # 1000 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexei V. Nesteruk. The Universe as a Construct: Epistemic Beliefs and Coherence of Justification in Modern Cosmology не требует апелляции к эмпирическому опыту и строится на предпосылках правоты и истины, устанавливаемыми сообществом космологов-исследователей. Как частный случай рассматрена инфляционная модель ранней вселенной и показана, что критерий эпистемологической когерентности приводит к трансцендентальной проблематике в стиле Канта. Ключевые слова: верования, вселенная, космология, конструкты, когерентность, принцип соответствия, экстраполяция, эпистемология. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2013 6) 1002-1006 ~~~ УДК 06.053.56 The Toolkit a Translator Should Carry to Produce an Acceptable Piece of Translation Sahar Farrahi Avval* Iran Received 15.01.2012, received in revised form 18.06.2012, accepted 30.04.2013 Why translation? Do we need translation at all in our life? In this article, we are setting out to shed light on the issue of translation as an important means of communication in our life, to consider the characteristics of an acceptable translation and we attempt to propose some tools a translator should have at hand to produce an acceptable piece of translation according to the readers’ needs and to prevent his/ her translation from leakage! In addition, we emphasize on this issue that there is no good or bad translation, instead, we emphasize on the acceptability or unacceptability of translation; materials are translated based on some reasons according to the readers’ needs or translators’ point of view and other factors that is why a certain text can have different translated versions not good or bad ones. Keywords: translation, acceptable translation, tools, readers’ needs, translators’ point of view. 1. Introduction: why translation? With a quick look at periodicals, journals, newspapers and conferences, one may ask oneself why all of these propagandas or articles on translation studies? Is translation that important? In a response to those people asking such questions we should claim that translation is more important that what they may think. The world is changing very fast every day. New technologies step in silently and quickly. You open your eyes and see yourself surrounded by lots of them and sooner or later you will be obliged to use them. If you do not adapt yourself with them at the right time, you will be definitely buried under them. The best way to overcome such a problem is to update oneself with the * new trends. You should have a key at the palm of your hand. And translation is the key but is it art, craft or science? It makes no difference. Translation has become and operates as a tool for communication; without it, new technologies cannot be introduced and applicable for people with different languages in other countries meanwhile people of different cultures need to be familiar with other cultures for a better communication to reach their communicative goals To understand others makes you feel you have your own connection with them; it means that you are not alone in this changing day to day world. This is with translation that you can be in contact with others; translation, like a bridge, connect you with the world and takes away © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1002 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sahar Farrahi Avval. The Toolkit a Translator Should Carry to Produce an Acceptable Piece of Translation the distance between you and people of other countries. That is why we say that translation is important in our life; it has always been. 2. Good, bad, acceptable or unacceptable translation? We do not treat translation as good or bad because there is no good or bad translation at all. Translation is a matter of taste; it means that based on different targets, translation of a text can be different. Translation can be acceptable to a high or low degree. We should look at translation as a continuum which at one end of it there is acceptable translation and at the other there is unacceptable translation. The translator moves and carries his/ her translation with him/ her towards one of these two ends. Bearing in mind that coming closer to one end equals to getting farther from the other. Translated materials are as vital as water but if this water is not directed properly in the pipes and tabs, it will make some problems. The translated materials, also, should be directed properly to communicate with their receivers. Now the time is ripe to say what are the characteristics of an acceptable translation. 3. Characteristics of an acceptable translation When one opens the tap, he expects to see clean and colorless water which smells nothing flowing out fluently. Acceptable translation should also be natural and fluent and it should not smell anything. But what do we mean by naturalness and fluency in translation and what do we mean when we say the translation should smell nothing? A natural translation is read easily and the reader does not feel that he/ she is reading a piece of translation. It should look and sound as a text written in the target language. It should not sound as a translation. Some scholars in the field believe that a natural translation should be reader oriented and it should be written based on target text norms. The translated text should communicate with the target text readers as it does with the source text readers. As the first step, if the translator likes to present an acceptable piece of translation, he/ she should know the kind of text he is going to translate. He should know if he/ she is interested in translating literary, scientific, psychological, political and… texts. As the second step, he/ she should decide on the type of translation. Is he/ she going to translate communicatively, semantically, literally or… After taking those steps, it is the time for the translator to get ready and carry his/ her toolkit if any leakage is going to happen. The translator should have enough knowledge and mastery of different strategies or tools needed for translating the texts. 4. Tools needed for an acceptable translation When your water tap or other water supplies leak, you, surly, call a plumber or you may get ready to do it yourself. But what do you need to do so? Washer, sealing tape, valve, wrench, screwdriver or something else? You may wonder what the use of the above mentioned tools is in translation. At first glance, they are not comparable but with a closer look at them, you will find some similarities between the toolkit a plumber carries to do his job and the tools a translator should have in his hand to do the job of translation. When the translator is not able to transfer the message from the source text into the target text, this shows that somewhere in his/ her translation leaks! This leakage is the result of some deficiency occurred in the process of translation which should be fixed as soon as possible. Before presenting a translated book, story, article or any other translated materials, the # 1003 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sahar Farrahi Avval. The Toolkit a Translator Should Carry to Produce an Acceptable Piece of Translation translator should prepare some tools to do the job, because, rarely, after the presentation of translation, apologies are accepted while water leakage can be fixed sooner or later and many times! After deciding on the type of the text to be translated and determining the kind of translation, you, as a translator prepare yourself for translation, here, we aim to introduce briefly some tools that you should posses to produce an acceptable piece of translation or to prevent your future translation from leakage. We make you sure that you do not have to carry a heavy toolkit containing screwdrivers, valves, sealing tapes or any other water supplies; you can have these tools in your head or at the palm of your hand; they are lighter than what you think but gives your translation so much weight! 4.1. Receivers’ characteristics For whom are you translating the text? How old are your receivers? Are they male or female? kids or adults? Are the readers of high level of education or under graduate ones? These are the questions which their answers should be in front of the eyes of the translator before carrying out the translation or the translated material cannot be applicable for the right receivers. These characteristics are the most important ones affecting the translation target and makes the translator act differently when they change. There have been so many books which have been translated differently based on their readers’ age, gender or level of education. 4.2. Specialized translation One point which should be highlighted in the field of translation is that if a translator wants to be a successful one in his career, he/ she should be specialized in one or a few fields of study. It means that he/ she should not translate whatever that is referred to him/her. In how many fields of studies people can acquire mastery? Likewise, in how many fields of study a translator have enough knowledge? Here, having sufficient knowledge in one subject is as important as having competency in translating it. How can a translator translate texts in a certain field that he/ she has no knowledge of? If he/ she does so, his/ her translation, surly, will be of low quality which cannot communicate with its readers. 4.3. Suitable bilingual and monolingual dictionaries Sometimes and updated bilingual/ monolingual dictionary is so valuable for translation that you cannot imagine. Based on the type of the text you are supposed to translate i. e. literary, psychological, computer science, scientific etc. you should prepare the specialized dictionaries. Another important factor which is of great importance in making use of bilingual dictionaries is that looking up for an equivalence is not enough but checking the equivalent with a monolingual dictionary is needed also. For example, in translating a text from Persian into English, after finding one or more equivalences in English for a word or phrase in Persian, the translator is required to check the English equivalences with an English to English dictionary to see if the equivalence matches in most small characteristics or linguistic elements with the meaning hidden in the Persian context. 4.4. Translation strategies Strategies are plans that people use to achieve goals. A translation strategy is a potentially conscious procedure for the solution of a problem which an individual is faced with when translating a text segment from one language into another (Lorscher, 1991). In other words, translation strategies are procedures which the participants employ in order to solve the translation problems they realize (Lorscher, 1991). Accordingly, # 1004 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sahar Farrahi Avval. The Toolkit a Translator Should Carry to Produce an Acceptable Piece of Translation translation strategies have their starting-point in the realization of a problem by a participant, and their termination in a (possibly preliminary) solution to the problem or in the participant’s realization of the insolubility of the problem at the given point in time (Lorscher, 1991). 4.5. Communication strategies Speakers of foreign languages encounter unfamiliar words and phrases in their speech production which inhibit their language production and comprehension. The same situation can happen for translators and interpreters because translation and interpretation is producing a spoken or written material in another language for communication with other people. But what the above mentioned groups do in such a situation? Some scholars have proposed communication strategies the employment of which can save the communication process from disconnection. Different taxonomies have been proposed by scholars in the field of language teaching and learning. A good translator is advised to have knowledge in using these strategies whenever needed in his/ her translation process. So whenever deficiency in grammar and vocabulary happens which leads to deficiency in translation production, the use of communication strategies is of great help for the translator. These strategies act like sealing tape as it does in plumbing. should be actualized and get shape in target text grammar. 4.7. Reviewing Rarely first drafts of translation are worth presenting to readers. A skillful translator works on the first drafts before presenting the translated material to the market. Some details and deficiency could be revealed while rehearsing the first draft. Some revisions and modifications could be needed after reading the first draft, so the translators should not be hasty to deliver their translation soon. Final drafts cannot be flawless because there is no perfect translation at all. 4.8. Consultation with specialists After preparation of the final draft, the translators are advised to show their translation to two different specialists for consultant and consideration. First, they should show the translation to a specialist who is specialized in target text grammar rules and writing system. He can read the text to see if revisions are needed to make the translation sound as a text in the target language. Second, the translator should consult with a person who is specialized in the field of study form which the source text is taken. The specialist can help the translator to get the message across properly. After carrying out these two last jobs, we assure you that your translation is ready to be published. 4.6. Grammar rules and writing skills Grammar and writing skills are like frames that holds the translated material and shapes it and they are frames in which the translation should fit, so the translator should have competency in understanding both the source text and target text grammar rules and writing skills and should be aware of the differences between the writing system of the two languages. The translated material which is first in the head of the translator 5. Conclusion In this article we tried to highlight the inevitable and important role of translation in today world communication and attempted to outline some basic tools a translator needs to employ during translation process to produce an acceptable piece of translation that communicates with its readers. We also emphasized, in contrast to some wrong beliefs, that translation can be # 1005 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sahar Farrahi Avval. The Toolkit a Translator Should Carry to Produce an Acceptable Piece of Translation acceptable or unacceptable not good or bad. Finally, we can assure that the most acceptable pieces of translation are those whose translators are the writers of the original texts. References 1. Lorscher, W. (1991). Translation performance, Translation Process, and Translation Strategies: A Psycholinguistic Investigation. Tubingen, Germany: Gunter Narr Verlag. Инструменты, которые переводчик должен использовать для создания приемлемого перевода С.Ф. Аввал Иран Почему перевод? Нужен ли он нам вообще? Данная статья проливает свет на проблему перевода как важного средства общения в нашей жизни, выявляет составляющие приемлемого перевода и представляет некоторые методы, к которым необходимо прибегать для создания качественного перевода, соответствующего требованиям читателей, и предотвращения потери информации! Кроме того, мы подчёркиваем, что не бывает хороших или плохих переводов, мы акцентируем наше внимание на приемлемости или неприемлемости перевода. Тот или иной текст переводится с учетом требований читателей, точки зрения переводчика и других факторов. По этой причине у текста может быть несколько разных вариантов перевода, которые нельзя считать хорошими или плохими. Ключевые слова: перевод, приемлемый перевод, методы, требования читателей, точка зрения переводчика. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2013 6) 1007-1020 ~~~ УДК 328.122.2 (540) Working of Indian Parliamentary Democracy in the 21st Century: an Appraisal Ranjit Singh* Post-Graduate Department of Political Science and Public Administration Khalsa College Amritsar, Punjab, India Received 06.04.2013, received in revised form 21.05.2013, accepted 20.06.2013 Indian politics has undergone transformation during the last two decades or so. Several new trends have come to the fore. The end of one – party dominant system has ended and coalition governments have become the political reality of today’s Indian politics. The coalition governments in the initial years were considered to be the source of political stability but they have stabilized themselves with the passage of time. The phenomenon of coalition politics has also brought about significant changes in the working of the Indian federalism. It has led to the federalization of the regional political parties which have become central to the making or unmaking of the government at the union level. Regional political parties have broadened their horizon and have become national in outlook. Concentration of powers and misuse of emergency provisions of the Constitution is rarely spoken of. Besides this some extra constitutional institutions like national advisory council have assumed a place of prominence in the working of the coalition government. It has also led to changes in the power, position and authority of the Cabinet especially the Prime Minister. Some features of the parliamentary government have become the causality of the changes in Indian politics. This paper highlights the emerging trends in the politics after thirteenth Lok Sabha1 elections in 1999.Relevance of the present study lies in the fact that it highlights the changes in the Indian political system in the last decade of the present century. The methodology is documentary both primary and secondary sources. The objective of the paper is to discusses the impact of party system on the parliamentary and federal system Keywords: centre-state relations, democracy, parliamentary, coalition, federalism. Introduction The significance of politics is that with time and circumstance the nature of politics changes and this is applicable to Indian politics also. Before independence the nature of politics was different as it was dominated by imperialist forces and it underwent changes after independence. An analysis of the working of parliamentary government demonstrates new trends which have affected the nature of Indian politics. Indian * is a pluralistic society and gets influenced by religion, caste, language and minorities. India adopted parliamentary government for which a favorable environment was created by wellorganized party system in the form of Indian National Congress hereafter referred to as INC or Congress. Congress ruled the entire political horizon of India from 1950 to 1967 and thereafter the centre till 1989 with brief Janata period from 1977-1979.Political developments taking place in © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1007 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ranjit Singh. Working of Indian Parliamentary Democracy in the 21st Century: an Appraisal the working of Indian parliamentary and federal system of governance dismantled the monolithic structure of the party which is called the end of one party dominant system. End of the one party dominant system Political changes in India started with political transformation in 1967 were important from the point of view of one party dominant system. Congress remained in power in states and at the national level. Broadly speaking three different phases are seen in so far as evolution of party system in India is concerned. The first phase lasted till 1967 in which Congress remained at the centre stage both in terms of votes and seats. Second phase started with the fourth general elections to the Lok Sabha and elections to state legislative assemblies in 1967 which brought to an end the monopoly of Congress at the state level. It brought about polarization of the party system into two alliances with anti-Congress emotion being the cementing force for the opposition. In the third phase since the elections to ninth Lok Sabha in 1989 Congress’s existence as a coalition started eroding and the vacuum began to be filled up by regional political parties (Roy, 2005:192-194). Since 1989 no political party has been in a position to gain required majority to form governments on its own at the national level. Especially the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), Janata Dal (United) (JD-U), Samajwadi Party (SP), Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD), Trinamool (Congress TMC), National Congress Party (NCP), Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) and the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) came to occupy the space created by the end of one-party dominant system. The strength of regional political parties has increased in terms of votes and seats and national parties have witnessed decline in terms of percentage share of votes. The percentage of votes which national parties obtained was 67.11 in the 1999 parliamentary elections which further shrunk to 63.58 in the 2009 parliamentary elections. In comparison the share of regional parties increased from 12.73 percent to 31.23 percent in during the same period. In addition the percentage of elected members of parliament of national parties has decreased to 69.24 percent whereas the share of regional parties increased to 29.10 percent in 2009 parliamentary elections (Election Commission, 2009). The one party dominance began to dilute on account of failure on issues like poverty, employment, corruption, communalism etc. State intervention in the economic sphere by assigning pivotal role to the public sector was supposed to create conditions of development in underdeveloped regions of the country so as to establish a socialistic pattern of society. Some initiatives like enactment of land reform laws, reservation for the Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) in services and legislative bodies were meant to create level playing field for all strata of society and do away with the parochial loyalties based on caste, religion and region. In the electoral politics, removal of poverty, nationalization of banks and abolition of privy purses were used as a poll plank in the 1972 parliamentary elections. In the political domain the central intervention in the state subjects especially in law and order and deployment of paramilitary forces, creation of planning machinery further accentuated resentment among the power contenders in the states. The central government attempted to check the opposition by divide and rule politics. Invocation of internal emergency in the country dealt a severe blow to the constitutional, parliamentary and federal set up. The continuous rule of one party at the centre eroded the federal structure by dismantling the inner party democracy which in return led to the concentration of powers. The powerful # 1008 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ranjit Singh. Working of Indian Parliamentary Democracy in the 21st Century: an Appraisal high command possessed the ultimate power of decision making. Amal Ray argued that “…the powerful Nehru, Patel, Parsad trio constituted the most important inner ring and all major policy decisions used to emanate from it. As India’s federal structure was conceived and planned in a unitary political environment so it was directed towards a powerful centre” (Ray, 1970:5). The organizational structure of all the existing parties was highly centralized. K Santhanam stated that “…Indian Republic started with a contradiction while the Constitution established a federal system of government all the political parties existing at that time were unitary and centralized. This was particularly the case with the Congress” (Mohan, 1996). In such an atmosphere state leaders found it more convenient to abide by the dictates of the party bosses even if they pertained to the exclusive domain of the state. But in the seventies it became difficult for the Congress to tackle problems of local nature. The population in the states was concerned more with the local issues rather than the national. Therefore to safeguard the distinct cultural identities and rectify regional economic imbalances, regional parties took up the cudgels and emerged as an alternative channel to the Congress. Thus the emergence of regional parties which cater to the regional interests can be termed as an outcome of highly centralized polity. The first challenge to Congress monopoly was in 1967 when it lost political space in some of its stronghold states. Several regional political parties formed the government in the states. At the national level its dominance was briefly terminated from 1977-1979 when Janata Party captured the political space and restored political democracy. Thereafter, Congress again returned to power in 1980 and continued to be so till 1989. The politics of populism was resorted to, to win over the caste loyalties, and the poor for electoral mileage. During the phase the focus shifted from economic issues like alleviation of poverty to federalism, decentralization and state autonomy. The political system’s inability to cope with these issues led to terrorism in Punjab, Jammu &Kashmir and north – eastern states. The ninth Lok Sabha elections in 1989 finally ended the dominance of the Congress party. Since then political crisis accentuated coupled with economic reforms. Deepak Nayyar opined that “…electoral compulsions unleashed a competitive politics of populism. Political parties and political leaders across the board sought to woo the people with sops…the number of promises made multiplied but the number of promises kept dwindled” (Nayyar, 2001:381). Coalition governments are being formed with no party enjoying majority in the house. National Front government came into existence with the outside support of Bhartiya Janata Party and Leftist parties’ in1989. This government could not complete its full term, the withdrawal of support by BJP led to the fall of the government. All the elections since 1991 have produced hung Lok Sabha with no clear-cut mandate in favor of any party. Thenceforth the trend is toward multiparty coalition. Coalition Politics Coalition politics has become a political reality in India. There are three type of situations which give rise to the formation of coalition governments; firstly, the inability of a single political party to form the government. Secondly, when there is a deadlock between two political parties. Under such conditions one party makes compromise with the minor group such as neutral to form the government. Thirdly, a national crises or war gives rise to coalition. The first type of situation is found in India and in many Indian states like Kerala, West Bengal, UP, Rajasthan, Orrisa. Ramashray Roy remarked that “…when the Congress dominance came to an end, there began a period of alliance formation and acute political bargaining leading frequently to political # 1009 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ranjit Singh. Working of Indian Parliamentary Democracy in the 21st Century: an Appraisal instability as a quick turnovers in government” (Roy, 2011:30). The second and the third types of Coalitions are most commonly found in the history of England. Due to the ‘catch all’ coalition character of the Congress provided an ideal type broad based political party. It remained in power till 1967 at state and national level. The elections to state legislative assemblies ended its monopoly over the entire political landscape, as Congress was no longer an ideological and social coalition. Absence of intra-party democracy and authoritarian rule weakened the party organization considerably. Centralized decisionmaking and authoritarian state that came to be established in the seventies paved the way for the end of the Congress System temporarily from 1977-1979 and permanently from 1989 onwards. Multi-centrism consolidated its roots in the subsequent years in Indian politics. In such a volatile situation, coalition governments have come to stay. Generally these governments are marked by instability and uncertainty with few exceptions. Such governments remained busy in their own survival rather than laying stress on governance. Although coalition politics is a positive trend in a plural society like India where one party rule may result in lopsided development the political culture is not so developed so as to ensure the endurance of coalition governments. A coalition government takes place in two phases. Pre-poll alliance and post-poll alliance. In pre poll agreement there is adjustment between parties before elections. These types are most important because it is a pre-elections understanding that provides a common platform and attract the voters on the basis of joint manifesto. Post elections alliance is a union to share political power and run the administration. It is a compromise after the elections to keep one party out of power. The attributes of Coalition governments are. Firstly, they are unstable because coalition partners never think in terms of permanent friendship. In it conflicts don’t end but just brushed aside for the time being. It is left to every political party to withdraw the support at any time. They have their own internal contradictions that lead to the breaking of the various parties and even the governments. As one political commentator points out that “… nothing is more unpredictable in Indian politics than the nature of alliances between political groups and parties today” (Kantha, 1999:359). Secondly, due to lack of polarization, coalition is the marriage of convenience, as they are not based on fixed principles. There are widely heterogeneous elements. It is just for the sake of capturing the power that they are united. Indeed there are no sincere efforts to establish political stability. Thirdly, based on political defections shifting of loyalties from one party/alliance to other is a significant feature of coalitions and their failure. Fourthly, Coalition governments become a game of selfish, narrow-minded opportunist power hungry politicians who have to look after nothing but their personal interests. Pramod Kumar observed that “…coalition politics functioned more as coalition of interests between big business, land speculators, big farmers and government contractors…within the party system, coalition politics functioned more as a coalition of patronage for sharing spoils between the national and regional political parties” (Kumar, 2011:49). In a coalition government regional political parties have become stronger as the continuation of their vital support is essential for the survival of the government. This has provided regional political parties opportunities for broaden their horizons which has made Indian political system more federal. The centre government is no longer blamed for the lopsided development. Nevertheless in a coalition government certain parliamentary democracy principles like collective and political # 1010 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ranjit Singh. Working of Indian Parliamentary Democracy in the 21st Century: an Appraisal homogeneity become casualty of the fluid nature of the coalition arrangement. Setback to the Principle of Collective Responsibility and Political Homogeneity Along with coalition politics another trend which is visible in Indian politics since 1999 and is directly linked with it. Collective responsibility and political homogeneity are the two significant features of the parliamentary government which provide strength and stability to the government. These two principles are on the decline with the working of the coalition government. Strains on the principle of collective responsibility are inevitable in federal coalitions. Today’s governments includes parties which are ideological heterogeneous. Besides this every party has its own program and they fight elections on their own political program. For instance there is a gap between the program of DMK and INC but they are an alliance partner. Similarly BJP and Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD) are running coalition in Punjab devoid of homogenous ideology. In such a situation political homogeneity is not taken into account owing to political compulsions. To run administration Common Minimum Program (CMP) is chalked out, despite this every party has its own agenda. This leads to differences among coalition partners and premature fall of the governments. Cabinet speaks in many voices. Sense of direction and unity of purpose get lost in the working of the government. Cabinet which works on the principle of sink or swim together like a team in a one party government becomes a divided house in coalition governance. Therefore collective responsibility and political homogeneity have become a causality of coalition culture. In a one party government members of the cabinet work in unison as a team. Any minister who doesn’t abide by the decisions of the cabinet or has a poor performance as a minister can be asked to put in his paper and can be dropped in the reshuffled cabinet. But it is not possible in coalition government. Non-performance and inefficiency becomes the attributes of coalition government. In the UPA II Congress as a major alliance partner failed in prevailing upon the Agriculture Ministry to check the rising prices. Congress General Secretary Janardan Dwivedi expressing helplessness in a coalition dispensation commented, “…It is a coalition government and not a full fledged Congress government…Congress is the largest in coalition, but it is the first among equals” (The Times of India, 2009). In this context coalition has proved to be what Arend Lijphart calls consociational type (Lijphart, 1996:258-268). The experience of the coalition government shows that alliance parties put pressure for the allocation of important ministries viz AIADMK in National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government pressurised for finance, law and justice portfolios, Lok Janshakti insisted for Railway. Similarly in United Progressive Alliance (UPA) Railway, Rural Development and company affairs department were allotted to RJD, Communication, Coastal and Road Transport to DMK, Agriculture, Food Supplies and Civil Aviation to NCP according to their strength in the parliament. Practice of Outside Support With the formation of coalition government the practice of outside support started. The National Front government led by VP Singh had the outside support of BJP and Leftist parties. The subsequent governments of Chandra Shekhar in 1990 and Deve Gowda and IK Gujral in 1996 and 1997 were formed with the outside support of the Congress and other parties. NDA led by A. B. Vajpayee enjoyed the outside support of Telugu Desam party. UPA –I got such support from Leftist parties, which withdrew it on the issue of Indo-American Nuclear Deal. # 1011 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ranjit Singh. Working of Indian Parliamentary Democracy in the 21st Century: an Appraisal The negative side of this practice is that parties extending support to the governance are not part of the government. These parties enjoy power without responsibility. They resort to the politics of blackmailing in the event of their demands not being accepted by the government. They don’t share the responsibility for the failure of the government but take credit for the success of the government. This creates political instability and encourages the politics of opportunism. This is enjoying power without responsibility. Left front remained outside the government but managed to get its speaker of Lok Sabha elected in 2004. With this phenomenon the position of the Prime Minister (PM) has weakened considerably Erosion of the Powers of the PM In a parliamentary set up PM has a place of special significance. Formation of Council of Ministers, distribution of portfolios is the responsibility of the PM. But during the last years especially since 1989, the powers, prestige and position of the PM has undergone change in the wake of the increasing role of Steering Committee of the United Front, Coordination Committee of the NDA and the National Advisory Committee of the UPA. Despite these committees being extra-constitutional they wield enormous powers in decision making and PM becomes the chief executive officer merely endorsing the decisions. Constitutionally PM is the central figure in cabinet formation but practically PM is under tremendous pressure from coalition partners to select his cabinet ministers. The Congress- DMK deadlock on the issue of selections of ministers in May 2009 held up government formation for sometimes (Roy, 2011:104). PM is not free to select ministers of his or her choice with real powers in the hands of the alliance partners (Economic and Political Weekly, 2002). The coalition partners prepare the list of ministers. Moreover the pressure is on the PM regarding allocation of favorable portfolios to the parties giving support to the government failing which they threaten withdrawal of support to the government.PM is also bound to abide by the CMP and he has to coordinate with the chairman of Alliance. Nilopal Basu, the Marxist leader has rightly said that “Prime Ministers cannot ignore ideological opposition and they have to keep peoples’ aspirations in mind in the coalition governments” (Dainik Bhaskar, 2006:8). In addition to it PM has to bring along the parties providing outside support. The present UPA when it reassumed power in 2009 faced the initial setback. The immediate concern was allocation of ministerial ranks. Ramashray Roy opined “…certain differences were discernible in the drama that the DMK staged for getting ministerial posts for satisfying the aspirations of different members of Karunanidhi’s family” (Roy, 2009:39). Similarly TMC asked its railway minister to step down following the presentation of railway budget much to the disliking of Mamta Baneerji. However PM was reluctant to do so. But he had to abide by the wish of the alliance partner. This leads to weakening position of the PM. While addressing a Press Conference PM Dr Manmohan Singh clarified that, “Coalition government has certain compulsions. One has to make compromises against his wishes.” Changes in Federalism Changes in the nature of party system from one party dominant system to multiparty system and coalition politics becoming a political reality in the contemporary political discourse have altered the contours of Indian federalism. Coalition governance is rated to be wide representative of diversity prevailing in a federal system (Singh, 2007:15). Before discussing the impact of coalition on federalism and trends in the working of federalism it would be pertinent here to have a look at the different # 1012 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ranjit Singh. Working of Indian Parliamentary Democracy in the 21st Century: an Appraisal phases through which federalism has passed since independence; The first phase from 1950-1967 was marked by the dominance of Congress party at the centre as well as states. The magnetic leadership of Nehru further strengthened the central government which was already endowed with tremendous powers by the Constitution. The High Command phenomenon did not let any state level leaders to assert them. Factionalism within the Congress was encouraged as it was convenient for the party to prevent any Chief Minister from becoming powerful. The subordination of state governments to the centre was at peak when under the Kamraj Plan six Chief Ministers were forced to resign in the name of reorganization of the party (Awasthy,2009:136-137). In the first two decade of independence there was consensus based on accommodation owing to affinity between leader and masses and closeness to freedom movement. During this period Congress returned to power in 1952, 1957 and 1962 in almost all the states and enjoyed absolute majority in the Parliament. In some states where nonCongress parties had formed their governments, Article 356 of the Constitution was invoked to topple the duly elected government. Kerala was a case in point where communist government was dissolved on the pretext of breakdown of law and order machinery. Even in Congress ruled states, state level Congress leaders could not assert themselves as Chief Ministers and members of the state council of ministers were chosen by Nehru and party high command. Planning Commission, the most important institution of central domination was established in 1950 under the chairmanship of Prime Minister. National Development Council (NDC) came into being in 1952.Therefore in the first phase there was of central dominance wherein states surrendered some of their important rights. Food grain crises and three wars; one with China in 1962 and two with Pakistan in 1948 and 1965 further strengthened the positioned of the centre (Ibid). With Nehru’s demise the consensus and political system built thereon began to disintegrate. During the second phase from 1967-1977 elections in 1967 resulted in the breakdown of Congress monopoly of political power and process of coalition governments started at the state level. Leaving aside the principle of consensus Indira Gandhi opted for majoritarian principle in view of vehement opposition. Authoritarian tendencies within the government and party set in. Centralization of powers became a norm which proved to be “suicidal for prevalent party system and the federal structure” (Kothari, 1988:30). Erosion of party organization led immensely to the erosion of federal system and concentration of powers into the hands of high command. During this period centre-state relations were nonexistent in the face of a strong state under the stewardship of leader instead of party organization. After split in the Congress, it was reduced to minority in the Lok Sabha. It tried to regain political space by all means at its disposal including article 356. The highly centralized polity was challenged under the banner of J.P. movement to check authoritarian and corrupt practices. The open confrontation between the ruling and the opposition resulted in the imposition of internal emergency which was an open insult to federal principles which postulates harmonious relations between two sets of government at the national and state levels. In this phase centre state confrontation was in full swing wherein states asserted their rights by way of demand for state autonomy and repudiating the unitarian tendencies of Indian Constitution. Proclamation of internal emergency derailed the democratic set up and revoked all democratic measures granted under the Constitution in the name of internal threat to the unity and integrity of India. Forty second constitutional amendment increased the powers of the centre at the cost of # 1013 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ranjit Singh. Working of Indian Parliamentary Democracy in the 21st Century: an Appraisal the states. The authoritarian functioning style of the Congress’s top brass destroyed the democracy with in the party. The third phase which lasted from 19771989 witnessed the Congress losing power in the general elections after emergency. Janata Party formed the fi rst non Congress coalition government at the centre with the promise of restoring democratic ethos in the working of the government and strengthening the federal principles which were taken for granted by the previous ruling party. Contrarily, the Janata Party became a victim of the same tactics being followed by the Congress led government and dismissed Congress governments in some states by invoking Article 356 of the Indian Constitution. The states again resorted to the demand for more autonomy and demanded appointment of a committee to review the centre-state relations. The demand was turned down by the central government. Therefore, brief interlude of Janata Party rule couldn’t check the centripetal tendencies since it was grappling with personality clashes of leaders of parties forming Janata Party. In 1980 Congress returned to power and dismissed nine non congress state governments through Article 356. Subsequent political developments and demand for state autonomy by many states led to the appointment of Sarkaria Commission to look into the centre-state relationship in 1983 which submitted its report in 1987. It proposed interalia the setting up of the Inter-State Council (ISC) under Article 263 of the Constitution, make Finance Commission a permanent body. Contrary to previous Congress government Rajiv Gandhi preferred an accommodative orientation toward regional and ethnic movements in some states of the Indian union. Punjab accord signed with the SAD of Punjab in July 1985 pledged to resolve territorial and interstate disputes between Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. The accord also promised an all-India Gurudwara act by the Parliament as demanded by the Anandpur Sahib Resolution (Jefery, 1986:3467). In a similar move Assam, Tripura and Mizoram accords were signed to address to the disenchantment of the people and restore normalcy in these respective states. Therefore the nineties witnessed the new wave in favor of federalism owing to the multi-party system and resultant coalition governments. The fourth phase from 1989-2013 started with elections to the ninth Lok Sabha in 1989. The inability of the national political parties to form government on their own at the national level has allowed state political parties to determine the verdict of parliamentary elections as state level political players have become vital at the centre. It led to the termination of one- party dominance and formation of coalitions. In this phase Indian federalism experienced notable development in 1996.United Front (UF) came to power with the support of Congress and a conglomeration of fourteen parties mostly regional. The centre of power shifted from centre to states. The significant development was that for the first time the centre government acknowledged the need to review centre state relations.CMP, the basis of the functioning of the UF government, envisaged to advance the principles of political administrative and economic federalism. Keeping in mind the need for greater power to the states to meet their developmental needs the UF wanted to go beyond the recommendations of Sarkaria Commission. CMP pledged that the states must be given the chance to fix their developmental priorities and chalk out their plans within the ambit of national plans. It also urged in favor of suitable amendment in Article 356, shifting of centrally sponsored schemes to the control of the states and revitalize institutions like NDC and ISC to generate mutual trust in centre state relations.ISC was made active and there was regular interaction with the state # 1014 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ranjit Singh. Working of Indian Parliamentary Democracy in the 21st Century: an Appraisal governments. Thus a true spirit of cooperative federalism seemed to be in vogue. Participation of many regional political parties in the coalition indicates the significant changes in the federal set up in India. In this context observation of Rajni Kothari is pertinent. He opined that, “issue of federalism is gaining importance after a long period of ups and downs” (Kothari, 1988:56). So as to appease the regional political outfits as a tactic to garner their support, national political parties changed their stance in favor of more autonomy to the region. Congress in its elections manifesto in 2009 proclaimed that “…it is only the Indian National Congress that has demonstrated its commitment to strong centre, strong states, and to strong Panchayats2 and nagarpalikas3. India’s political system must have space for institutions at each of these three levels. Each has a vital and specific role to play” (Election Manifesto, 2009). Similarly the Bhartiya Janata Party in its elections manifesto declared to “… place centre state relations on an even keel through the process of consultations and the grudges of states will be addressed in a comprehensive manner… National Development Council will be revived… to ensure harmonious centre-state relations in the light of the recommendations of Sarkaria Commission” (Election Manifesto, 2009). The regional political parties shifted their stance from anti-centrism to cooperative federalism. The demands for separate states within the Indian union by carving out of the large sized states were conceded in case of Jharkhand, Uttaranchal and Chhattisgarh in 2000 by enacting legislation to this effect. The changed stand by one of the prominent regional political parties namely SAD deserve special mention. In 1973 SAD in its much touted Anandpur Sahib Resolution proclaimed that “…it would endeavor to have the Indian Constitution recast on real federal principles with equal representation at the Centre for all the states” (Singh, 1977:6). In the changed scenario the same SAD in 2000 asserted that “…our constitutional framework was for more federal structure, but owing to the rule of the Congress government at the centre and states, the powers of the states were slowly usurped and a unitary set-up was established” (The Tribune.2000). The shift in stand is attributed to the phenomenon of coalition politics following the end of one party dominance. It is evident that the agenda of SAD took a significant turn from being anti-centrism to that of cooperative federalism. Elections manifesto of SAD in 1998 declared that “…the Akali BJP government has opened a new chapter in centre-state relations, ushering in the age of co-operative federalism in the country. The era of confrontation has been effectively ended and replaced with a forward looking thrust on working together for the overall good of the state and nations” (Election Manifesto, 1998). This posture was strikingly different from the anticentre attitude towards harmonious relations with the centre. The resolution passed at the end of Hola Mohalla conference underscore this change in stand. The resolution stated that “… conference demands from the centre that for the sake of the prosperity of the country, the centrestate relations should be redefined in the light of Anandpur Sahib Resolution…true federal structure was the need of the hour” (The Hindu, 1997). The demand for state autonomy was raked up in a political atmosphere in the midst of overcentralized polity and one-party dominance. This has brought about significant shift in the functioning of Indian political system by providing greater space to the regional political parties by ensuring more political space in national politics and regional political parties changing their stance on centre-state relations. The change in party system towards multi party system has encouraged the transition of the Indian political system from, as Douglas Verney opines a “quasifederation” to “quasi-confederacy” (Verney, # 1015 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ranjit Singh. Working of Indian Parliamentary Democracy in the 21st Century: an Appraisal 203:171). Some trends in Indian federalism came to fore during this period. Cooperative Federalism Indian politics in the decades following independence was primarily based on consensus because of the trust between the elite and masses. After the demise of first PM of India Jawaharlal Nehru, the consensus disappeared and consensus was replaced by majoritarian principle. Concentration of power in the hands of party high command and union government during Indira Gandhi period reached its zenith. Suppression of voice of dissent contributed immensely to the dismantling of party’s federal structure of the party and India’s federal system. The autocratic style of working of the Indira Gandhi and subsequent imposition of internal emergency led to the frequent demand for state autonomy and restructuring of centre –state relations. The federalization process received a boost with the appointment of Sarkaria commission which submitted its report in 1987 (Sarkaria Commission, 1987-1988). This report made number of recommendations, prominent being the setting up of ISC. The Rajiv Gandhi government adopted an accommodative approach toward the demand for state autonomy. With coalition government gaining prominence federalism has entered the phase of cooperation. Power sharing between regional political parties and national parties in the parliamentary elections held in 1999, 2004 and 2009 displays flexibility and cooperation to accommodate regional concerns and redress the grievances of regional political parties. It is being increasingly felt that paramount centre can no longer work and hence the biases against the opposition ruled states have disappeared. There is an increasing understanding among states on the one hand and between states and centre on the other that cooperation is urgently needed for development. Therefore cooperative federalism has emerged in the first decade of twenty first century or so. Cooperative federalism has strengthened the nation which is evident from the consensus on democratic norms of governance. Over the period especially after the nineties the Indian federalism has moved toward greater federalization. Participation of many regional political parties in the coalition governments displays the significant shift from centralized governance towards shared and federal governance (Khan, 2003:182). Since coalition governments involves conglomeration of different ideologies, they ensure balanced development and strengthen the federal system. they have weakened the authoritarianism of a single party and have encouraged decentralization by ensuring consensus on issues confronting the common man. Coalition could make possible the enactment of Right to Information (RTI) Act 2005 and National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) 2005. The upper house of parliament has assumed significance in view of the transformation in the nature of the party system. In the face of it Upper house of Parliament has emerged as the federal second chamber as exhibits’ a different composition than that of Lok Sabha. Besides, coalitions have also harmonized the inter-party relations viz RJD and LJK are the partners in UPA government at the centre despite the fact that they are opponents at the regional level. Federalization of Regional Political Parties In the changed scenario regional political parties besides being in power in states have become a power to reckon with in national politics. Realizing the importance of regional political parties first BJP in 1999 and then Congress in 2004 and 2009 successfully formed alliances which paid rich dividend (Roy, 2011:38) to the national parties and regional parties in particular # 1016 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ranjit Singh. Working of Indian Parliamentary Democracy in the 21st Century: an Appraisal in the form of broadening their area of influence. They have become a central to the life and death of coalition at the centre. The emergence of regional political parties as important players in coalition formation has left significant impact on the working of coalition government. The role of regional political parties grew out of the demand for uniform development of all the regions. Growing importance of regional parties cannot be viewed as a challenge to the federal system but as a reaction against the highly centralized polity which strengthened lopsided development. However some regional parties like DMK played a role in national politics even prior to 1989. From 1969-1971 DMK with its twenty five MPs provided support to the minority government of Indira Gandhi following split in the Congress. But their role have increased manifold in view of the phenomenon of coalitions. The growing strength of regional parties in the Parliament demands that they should actively guide the nation. Party system since 1989 witnessed multipolarity with polarized pluralism and regional or federal segmentation (Singh, 2009:268). Regional parties have come to occupy significant space at the union level. Initially they were confined to their specific regions but the breakdown of Congress monopoly led to the formation of non Congress coalitions. Consequently they have broadened their horizon and widen their outlook. Regional parties like National Conference, SAD, DMK, Telgu Desam, RJD, Smajwadi Party etc have come to acquire more clouts and forced national parties to accommodate regional sentiments. Emergence of regional political parties as major stake holders in the making of coalition governments at the centre especially since 1989 indicates the shift from centralized governance towards federalized governance. Yogendra Yadav and Suhas Palshikar observed that, “National politics is not the political arena of political choices; political preferences and loyalties at the national level derive from primary loyalties in the state politics” (Yadav and Palshikar, 2009:57). The presence of regional political parties in coalition at the national level make it difficult for the government to scuttle the duly elected state government by taking recourse to Article 356. Misuse of Article 356 checked Changed government opposition relations have reduced the possibility of misuse of Article 356 which caused harm to the federal system. For the smooth functioning of parliamentary democracy opposition’s role is of utmost significance. But an analysis of composition of Lok Sabha being constituted after every elections since 1989 demonstrates that most of the political parties are ruling at the centre and opposition in the states. In a situation of ruling party at the state level and coalition partner at the centre there is less possibility of centralizing tendency. A political analyst opines that “…the dividing line between government and opposition therefore gets further complicated by the fact that the central opposition may be the state ruling party and vice versa. The complexities of the electoral federalism and the presence of large number of single state parties in federal coalitions make it virtually impossible to eliminate state concerns from parliament even if it were considered desirable to do so (Arora, 2003:369-404). Supreme Court of India in a landmark judgment in S.R. Bommai &others vs. Union of India &others 1994 (Supreme Court, 1994) reversed its previous decision regarding breakdown of law and order machinery in a state to be decided by the union cabinet. In this verdict Supreme Court ruled that satisfaction of the President that there is a constitutional failure in a state was subjective not purely absolute. The Court also held that to determine the majority test of the government was the floor of the house. For the first time in the history of independent India the power of Union government to invoke # 1017 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ranjit Singh. Working of Indian Parliamentary Democracy in the 21st Century: an Appraisal Article 356 was made subject to judicial review. This judgment has acted as a deterrent against encroachment to state autonomy at the hands of the centre. Nowadays central government cannot dismiss any state government arbitrarily under article 356.This trend has ushered in an era of cooperative federalism. In a coalition set up constitutional and democratic institutions are secure because the ruling dispensation can neither amend the constitution too much and nor it can thwart democracy by imposing Article 356. To conclude, India has entered a new phase as far as party system, coalition rule and federalism is concerned. Multi-party system with considerable clout of regional parties in government making and functioning has become a reality of Indian political system. Regional parties which represent the different regions of India make the government much more broad based leaving little room for complaint of uneven economic development. Coupled with it coalition culture has come to stay. Political parties have subscribed to the reality of coalition politics forcing them to form pre-poll and postpoll arrangement. Either pre-poll or post-poll, coalitions have brought about significant changes in the office of PM, principle of collective responsibility and political homogeneity. Initially coalitions were a source a stability but since 1999, they seem to be maturing despite ideological differences among the coalition partners. With regional parties becoming more prominent in the working of union government and coalition governance taking roots in India, the nature of federalism has also undergone sea changes. Cooperation instead of confrontation is visible in centre-state relations. Demand for state autonomy is not heard any more. What the states want is more fi nancial resources to carry out the tremendous developmental tasks and tap the opportunities thrown up by globalization and liberalization. Therefore the parties both national and regional must evolve consensus to provide governance in the transitional phase through which Indian parliamentary and federalism is passing. Representation of People’s Act 1950 and 1951 can be suitably amended to prevent the further fragmentation of parties by way of making strict regulations regarding recognition of political parties. This will reinforce the prevailing coalition culture in India. Federal institutions like ISC needs to be strengthened and states should be given more space in bodies like Planning Commission and Finance Commission. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Arora, Balveer, “The Indian Parliament and Democracy”, in Ajay K Mehra and Gert W.Kueck (ed.), The Indian Parliament:A Comparative Perspective, New Delhi: Konark, 2003, pp. 369-404. Awasthy, S, S., Indian Government and Politics, New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications, 2009, pp. 36–137. Bommai, B.R., & Others vs. Union of India & Others, All India Reporter, 1994, Supreme Court. Elections Commission of India, Statistical Reports on General Elections from 1984 to 2009, New Delhi. Editorial, “Coalition Government Norms”, Economic and Political Weekly, August 24, 2002. Editorial, Dainik Bhaskar, Jaipur, July13, 2006, p. 8. Jeffery, Robin, What’s happening to India? Punjab, Ethnic Conflicts, Mrs. Gandhi’s Death, and the Test for Federalism, New York: Holmes and Meir, 1986, pp. 34-67. # 1018 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ranjit Singh. Working of Indian Parliamentary Democracy in the 21st Century: an Appraisal 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Kantha, Pramod K., “The BJP and Indian Democracy: Elections, Bombs and Beyond, ”in Ramashray Roy and Paul Wallace (ed.), Indian Politics and the 1998 Elections; Regionalism, Hindutva and State Politics, New Delhi: Sage Publications, 1999, p. 359. Khan, M.G., “Coalition Government and Federal System in India”, The Indian Journal of Political Science, Vol.64, No.3-4, July –December 2003, p. 182. Kothari, Rajni, State against Democracy: In Search of Humane Governance, New Delhi: Ajanta, 1988, p. 30. Kumar, Pramod, “Coalition Politics: Withering of National-Regional Ideological Position?,” in Paul Wallace and Ramashray Roy (ed.), India’s 2009 Elections: Coalition Politics, Party Competition, and Congress Continuity, New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2011, p. 49. Lijphart, Arend “The Puzzle of Indian of Indian Democracy: A Consociational Interpretation, ” American Political Science Review, Vol. 90, 1996, pp. 258-268. Lok Sabha Elections 1998, Manifesto of Shiromani Akali Dal. Lok Sabha Elections 2009, Manifesto of the Indian National Congress. Lok Sabha Elections 2009, Manifesto of Bhartiya Janata Party. Mohan, Surendra, “Pivotal Role of Regional Parties”, The Hindustan Times, May 6, 1996. Nayyar, Deepak, “Economic Development and Political Democracy: Interaction of Economics and Politics in Independent India”, in Niraja Gopal Jayal (ed), Democracy in India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 381. Ray, Amal, Tension Areas in Indian Federal System, Calcutta: World Press, 1970, p. 5. Roy, Maneesha, “Federalism, Party System, and Structural Changes in India, ” in Paul Wallace and Ramashray Roy (ed.), India’s 2009 Elections: Coalition Politics, Party Competition and Congress Continuity, New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2011, p. 104. Roy, Ramashray, Democracy In India: Form and Substance, New Delhi: Shipra Publications, 2005, pp. 192-194. “Regional Base and National Dream: Alliance Formation, 2009 National Elections, in Paul Wallace and Ramashray Roy (ed.), India’s Elections: Coalition Politics, Party Competition and Congress Continuity, Sage Publications, 2011, p. 30. Sarkaria Commission on Centre-State Relations Report, Vol.I.Nasik:Government of India Press, 1987-1988. Singh, Bhawani, “Politics of Coalition_ An Exercise In Consensus Generation”, in Hoshiar Singh and et.al. (ed.) Coalition Governments and Good Governance, Jaipur:Aalekh Publishers, 2007, p. 15. Singh, Giani Ajmer, ‘The Draft of the New Policy Programme of the Shiromani Akali Dal, adopted by its Working Committee at Sri Anandpur Sahib on 16-17 October 1973 to be approved by its General House at its session on 28.8.1977, Secretary, Amritsar: Shiromani Akali Dal, p. 16. Singh, Mahindra Prasad, “Paradigm Shifts in Canadian and Indian Politics: The Changing Party System and the Federal Politics”, in A P Vijapur (ed.), Dimension of Federal Nation- Building, New Delhi: Manak Publications, 1999, p. 268. Staff Correspondent, “Redefine Centre-State Relations: SAD”, The Hindu, March 24, 1997. The Times of India, November 28, 2009. The Tribune, February 6, 2000. # 1019 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Ranjit Singh. Working of Indian Parliamentary Democracy in the 21st Century: an Appraisal 29. Verney, Douglas, “From Quasi-federation to Quasi-confederacy? The transformation of India’s Party System,” Publius, Vol. 33, No. 4, 2003, p. 171. 30. Yadav, Yogendra and Suhas Palshikar, “Principal State Level Contests and Derivative National Choices, ”Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XLIV, No. 6, February 2009, p. 57. Notes 1. 2. 3. Lok Sabha is the lower house of parliament. Panchayats are the elected bodies at the village level. Nagarpalikas are the municipal councils at urban levels. Работа индийской парламентской демократии в XXI веке: оценка Ранджит Сингх Отделение аспирантуры факультета политологии и государственного управления Колледж Халса, Амритсар Амритсар, Пенджаб, Индия Индийская политика претерпела серьезные изменения за последние несколько десятилетий. На передний план вышло несколько закономерностей. Время однопартийной системы прошло, и теперь основу современной политики Индии составляют коалиционные правительства. В первые годы работы коалиционных правительств они считались источником политической стабильности и с течением времени еще лучше укрепили свои позиции. Феномен коалиционной политики также повлек за собой ряд значительных изменений в работе индийского федерализма. Это привело к федерализации региональных политических партий, которые играют решающую роль при принятии решения о создании правительств на общегосударственном уровне. Местные политические партии расширяют сферу своего воздействия и начинают ориентироваться на национальный уровень. О концентрации власти и злоупотреблении некоторыми положениями Конституции обычно не говорят. Кроме того, некоторые внеконституциональные институты, как, например, национальный совещательный совет, заняли свое место в работе коалиционных правительств. Это также привело к некоторым изменениям в полномочиях, положении и власти Кабинета министров и особенно премьер-министра. Некоторые черты парламентского правительства также повлекли за собой изменения в политике Индии. Данная статья рассказывает о направлениях в политике, возникших после тринадцатых выборов Лок сабхи (народной палаты) в 1999 году. Актуальность исследования обусловлена тем, что оно освещает изменения, которые политическая система Индии претерпела за последние десять лет этого века. Методы исследования – анализ первичных и вторичных источников. Цель данной статьи – проанализировать влияние партийной системы на парламентскую и федеральную системы страны. Ключевые слова: взаимоотношения с властью, демократия, парламентаризм, коалиция, федерализм. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2013 6) 1021-1026 ~~~ УДК 342.722 Democratic Constitutional Ideal and Problems of Political Culture in Russia Anatoly G. Anikevich and Elena P. Cheban* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia Received 30.09.2012, received in revised form 10.04.2013, accepted 03.06.2013 This article analyzes the Russian constitutional ideal that should be «turned» into a complete ideology that could effectively influence the formation of a modern democratic culture of the population. Inconformity of the political legal activity of the state with the constitutional ideal is stated. Keywords: state, democracy, constitutional ideal, political science, political culture, law. Point of view In the formation of the political culture of the population in every country ideology is always important. In Russia the state ideology in other words, the official, imperative ideology is constitutionally prohibited. But it does not mean that the legal and political activities of the state don’t have the ideological basis – it is fi xed in the Constitution: Russia is a democratic law-bound state (The Constitution of the Russian Federation. 2011: Article 1). This is not an ideology in the scientific meaning of the term but it is a common regulatory standard, entrenched the constitutional ideal which can and should be «turned» into a logically and empirically grounded concept by the domestic science that takes historical, national, religious and cultural characteristics of Russia as well as social-psychological and mental characteristics of its population into account. It is not important how to call this concept. The most important thing is by means of this concept to form * the constitutional ideal in the full ideology competing with others. Example First of all, it is necessary to note that if the ideal is utopian and the ideology of the country has been forcing to the population almost unrealizable values for a long time, as a result there will be the inevitable collapse of the system. That’s how it was in the Soviet era: the classics of Marxism-Leninism built an example of a perfect society. The country developed a system of moral, political and other beliefs and practices, and on this basis a powerful mechanism of upbringing and education in the official ideology acted. But this orderly system originally contained its own negation, a negative paradigm, because ideal future was constantly in contradiction with the difficult, even hopeless present. And if the young generation of the 20th religiously believed in the norm of the ideal society and its quick «materialization», this faith disappeared with © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1021 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Anikevich and Elena P. Cheban. Democratic Constitutional Ideal and Problems of Political Culture in Russia time in subsequent generations. The lack of faith was growing expressed in a wide range of official and negative behavior from «kitchen» critics of the form of government and «persons» to the legal nihilism and moral degeneration. The creators of the theory and the authority of the country were in practice idealists (not realists, at least), because their theory and practice were based on the idea of a man as he should be, not what he is. Meanwhile, in the psychological basis of personality there is a normal human selfishness and the desire to be important in real life. Because of these basic factors, a person sees the world only through the prism of his own «I» and represents this world, this society in itself only through a daily reality of his own «I». A sincere mass belief in the ideal can take place only in a historically short period of time during extraordinary situations such as revolutions or wars. Under normal circumstances, socialization of the individual happens in his daily routine, sociality fi rstly reflects in everyday consciousness. Scientific mind can be formed only on the basis of the ordinary, but not vice versa – because of the human nature, because of his natural way of socialization. But there were attempts to do «the opposite». Everyday life and everyday consciousness «branded» as something inert, routine as «suburbanity» In fact, it was an attempt to alter the very nature of man, to create the inverted world. To the extent that this attempt failed, we got a mass conformity, «double» morality (and immorality), disbelief, not only in the authority but also in the homeland. The modern constitutional ideal is not utopian, moreover, it is largely implemented in most developed countries. «Man, his rights and freedoms are the supreme value» (The Constitution of the Russian Federation. 2011: Article 2). It is also the consolidation of the constitutional ideal on the basis of understanding by the legislator that a modern state is more legitimate if the population of the country is able to provide maximum security – legal, political, economic, etc. In this case, coercion as a method of ruling is minimized, as citizens, really protected by the state voluntarily acknowledge their dependence on the government. «The state rules over its citizens ... because the citizens realize that they are dependent on it, and the state rules as far as they are aware of this dependence. In the degree of their consciousness the measure and the border of state authority are based» (Korkunov, 2003:167). The legitimacy of the government and the law is the most important condition for the stability of any state and the process of legitimation is largely dependent on the ideological support. Ideology in its entirety is a form of self-reflection of society, class or group. In the ideology the interests of the social community get their more or less adequate interpretation or pseudotheoretical study and systematization. The main function of ideology is the protection of the interests of a community of people through the study of strategic lines of its behavior. This function is performed by forming beliefs which become a dynamic stereotype, a mental form determining the evaluation unit of thinking. Beliefs in the end are the basis for the motivation of human action. They determine the vector of actions and thoughts of individuals and groups in achieving the objectives of the real or perceived interests. In our opinion, even in presence of ideological pluralism and the prohibition of official ideology for the effective development of modern democratic culture Russia needs an ideology, fully adapted to all the features of the country. Based on a democratic constitutional ideal, the ideology should meet the personal, group and at the same time the public interest. Moreover, such an ideology, building a number of value not from above (from the state) but from # 1022 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Anikevich and Elena P. Cheban. Democratic Constitutional Ideal and Problems of Political Culture in Russia the bottom (from the person), can maximize the social base of the state, thereby legitimizing the authority and the law. It would seem that the ruling elite in the country should understand this and act accordingly – it’s in its interests. At least it would be logical to organize a political education corresponding to the ideal until there is a complete democratic ideology (fragments of classical ideologies are ineffective in Russia). But clearly not coping with governing the country, the authorities are trying to strengthen the regime by undemocratic methods such as laws and banal demagogy. «In recent years Russia was on the way of limiting the operations of the rules of the Constitution of the Russian Federation ... There is an active imitation of democracy». (Denisov, 2012: 33). The model of this kind of demagogy is the fact that the modern political culture of young people is one of the priorities of the entire system of upbringing and education. It is said by politicians and officials at all levels. But in fact there is the opposite tendency. An example is the teaching of political science at the universities. In the Soviet era, it was considered a pseudoscience and it was banned. It began to be taught in all high schools in the early 1990s of the twenties century and now, according to the latest State Standard teaching hours of political science are cut by a third, but the main thing is that political science is an elective discipline. It means that the university management decides whether to include or not the political science in the curriculum. Taking into account the fact that the majority of current university leaders themselves were students in the USSR and they did not study political science and they have now enough problems connected with training specialists, it is easy to foresee the sad fate of this discipline. It seems that the effort to «ruin» political science is not just a mistake or a demonstration of ignorance of some unnamed officials of Ministry of Education, but it is a very deliberate and purposeful activity as a part of the strategy of destruction of the entire system of education. Otherwise, it is simply impossible to interpret modern «innovations» in this field to view them from the standpoint of a systematic approach. Therefore, the analysis of the relationship of words and deeds is interesting. For example, all of the most famous politicians of the country are always talking about the need to strengthen and develop the civil society, to increase its role in the solution of all problems. But very few people know (including people with higher education) what civil society is, what elements, structure it has, and especially what role and importance in the formation of a democratic regime it plays. Consequently, current politicians are calling for building and developing «something that they do not know». Incidentally, only the political science thoroughly studies everything connected with the civil society, and therefore, it may contribute to the formation of modern political culture of students. The question is whether the authorities need it or not. Political leaders often speak of «managed democracy» in the country. What is it? Perhaps this is the real («managed») restriction of voting rights of citizens compared with the last decade of the last century. For example, the turnout of voters in elections at various levels is canceled because of low activity of citizens. But passivity is due to uselessness of political participation, so useless activity is followed by quite sensible passivity. Moreover, that is not understandable even for the most literate voters for example, why «electoral threshold» for the parties in the elections to the State Duma is raised from 5 to 7%, why political coalitions which are common in democratic countries are banned, why the new law on referendum has made its organization by citizens practically almost impossible, why the # 1023 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Anikevich and Elena P. Cheban. Democratic Constitutional Ideal and Problems of Political Culture in Russia vast majority of officials are members of the same party, etc. The Upper House of Parliament – the Federation Council – consists by half of the representatives of executive power. Therefore, there is an obvious violation of the concept of separation of powers. Recently a new law on the procedure for forming of the Federation Council has been passed, but it has not changed anything: still half of its members are the representatives of the executive branch, headed by the President. So it turns out, that the State Duma consists more than by half of members of the president’s party, what is provided by a «specific» electoral law, half of the Federation Council members belong to the executive branch and the rest mostly are the members of the same party. The government is totally dependent on the head of the state (this is according to the Constitution). The judges of higher courts – Constitutional Court, Supreme Court and Supreme Arbitration Court are appointed by the Federation Council on the recommendation of the President. That means the courts are «under the control of the President». The simplest example is the Constitutional Court in 1996 ruled that the governors should be elected by the people of the territorial subject of the Federation (decision for the Altai region), because it is only constitutional. In 2006 the same court ruled that the governors should not be elected by the people and it is constitutional. We are waiting for the decision of High Court in connection with the new law on elections of governors. Thus, all three branches of government are under the control of the President. This is complemented by the introduction of amendments to the Constitution and its interpretation of the authorities, which allows the state «to act practically uncontrolled in all spheres of social relations; norms and procedures limiting the power are rejected, it is directly contradiction to the principles of rule- of-law state. The power in this case has a direct opportunity to influence the legislator through the ruling party and other tools to transform not only the political system but also the rights of citizens towards their apparent reduction» ( Dobrynin, 2012: 5). Where is here the concept of separation of powers as the basis of modern democracy? Note that this concept as well as others such as sovereignty of people, legitimacy and consensus, federalism is the subject of political science. Russian federalism is also «managed». Heads of federal subjects were firstly elected, later since 2004 appointed and now they are elected again. But the law has established such a «filter» that only the member of the ruling party can become the governor of a territory, region or the president of a republic. Of course, there may be exceptions but some anti-exceptions are provided too. For example, the president can send the governor to resign due to «loss of confidence». Thus, on the one hand we can see the complete lack of respect of authority will of the people of the territorial subject of the Federation, on the other hand, again the same vertical of executive branch, «pocket» governors for the President. Therefore, there is a formal federalism, in other words a «manageabledemocratic federal centralism». It is necessary to note that political science studies problems of federalism as well as the party systems which is particularly interesting on the background of legislative rushing from one extreme to the other (talking about the number of registered political parties in the old and the latest laws). Absurdity of party «leapfrog» will be seen in the elections very soon. Unfortunately, there is the obvious conclusion that despite the change of ruling elites the same fatal regularity for Russia has been repeated again: authority does not trust people, so by all means it eliminates people from political participation. The authority does not want to understand that the political ignorance # 1024 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Anikevich and Elena P. Cheban. Democratic Constitutional Ideal and Problems of Political Culture in Russia and the corresponding political passivity of the population are inevitably transformed into «their something» – into the political and legal nihilism, lack of control and lack of responsibility at all levels, which has already become a reality. For example, everyone can see the uselessness and even the negative impact of many of the reforms initiated by the government in the last 10-12 years (municipal, housing, education, etc.). The country has an incredibly high level of corruption. But the minister of education and the minister of defense (the Ministry of Defence with supercorruption) are appointed by the head of the state. These ministers are included in the Government headed by its Chairman. The head of the state and the head of the government are the same two figures. Who should control officials and be responsible for their «deeds» in a «managed democracy»? Conclusion The people are mostly politically passive and silent, but they understand what the root of evil is that’s why there are more and more people who are willing to follow the example of corrupt officials against the law and morality. This is the elementary logic of life. The authorities continue to pass obviously useless laws. So, all officials give now their own schedule of revenues and expenditures and schedule of revenues and expenditures of their marital partners and minor children. Such a measure would probably have an effect on legitimate Germans and Finns, but our thief-official of great resource will only grin sarcastically. Meanwhile in Soviet times for the majority of acquisitive crime such an additional penalty as confiscation of property was applied. It was very effective as thief considers something stolen to be his own, so, he experiences confiscation psychologically more painful than imprisonment. This served as a punishment for some people and as exemplary for the other. In fact, now there is no such a measure. And why? In this regard people usually remember proverbs: «One hand washes the other» or «crows do not pick crow’s eyes». Again there is the simple logic that leads to the conclusion that if it is allowed to someone, it is allowed to the other. This is a moral line that people politically illiterate and excommunicated from effective participation in government and society easily overstep. Overall rating of the ruling elite is reduced, it means there is a process of delegitimization of law and authority (political science studies these questions). Elite tries not to notice it apparently believing that the low political culture of the population will help it longer maintain its status. Regardless of the name «managed model of democracy», «soft authoritarianism» or «monocentrism» modern public-political regime roughly contrary to the constitutional ideal can of course control the situation in the country, but it «generates stable relations only for a certain time and unfortunately leads to a «new stagnation» and it already happened in the history of Soviet Russia» (Korkunov, 2003: 48). In our opinion the «new stagnation» is the best variant, but more pessimistic scenario is possible too. It is fair to say that since 2012 there has been a positive trend to change the situation in lawmaking and governing, but it has only been a tendency so far. References 1. 2. 3. The Constitution of the Russian Federation. Moscow, 2011, in Russian. Denisov S.A. The end stage of counter-reforms in Russia. Constitutional and Municipal Law. 2012. № 5, in Russian. Dobrynin N.M. Constitutionalism and the rule-of-law state: the theory and practice of the relationship. Constitutional and municipal law. 2012, № 3, in Russian. # 1025 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anatoly G. Anikevich and Elena P. Cheban. Democratic Constitutional Ideal and Problems of Political Culture in Russia 4. 5. Kabyshev V.T. Constitutional paradigm of Russia in Millennium. Journal of Russian law. 2008. № 12, in Russian. Korkunov N.M. Lectures on the general theory of law. St. Petersburg. 2003, in Russian. Демократический конституционный идеал и проблемы формирования политической культуры в России А.Г. Аникевич, Е.П. Чебан Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Статья посвящена анализу российского конституционного идеала, который необходимо «развернуть» в полноценную идеологию, способную эффективно влиять на формирование современной демократической культуры населения. Аргументируется полное несоответствие политико-правовой деятельности государства конституционному идеалу. Ключевые слова: государство, демократия, конституционный идеал, политологи, политическая культура, закон. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2013 6) 1027-1032 ~~~ УДК 159 General Organization Theory Yuri N. Belokopytov* Siberian State University of Technology 82 Mira prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia Received 23.05.2013, received in revised form 16.06.2013, accepted 26.06.2013 The article is devoted to the origins of the new postneoclassical paradigm. The basis of the modern foundation of synergetics appearing was the scientific work of A.A. Bogdanov ‘Tectology’. For the first this study appeared in Russia and surpassed the Western scientific thoughts in the many decades. The following areas are reflected in the Russian study: the systematic approach, the cybernetic approach to synergetics as the science of self-organization of various systems. They appeared much later in other countries. A.A. Bogdanov introduced new concepts in the self-organizing such as non-linear system, the dynamic equilibrium attractor and revealed their role in the organization. Particular attention is paid to philosophy, dialectics in particular. Specific features of the similarities and differences of the two approaches in thinking are allocated. Keywords: a new paradigm, world view, ‘Tectology’ by A.A. Bogdanov as a source of new thinking, organization and discipline, methodology and system Western and Eastern thinking, non-linearity and dynamism, synergy and dialectic, the similarities and differences, self-organization and development. “Synergy” translated from the Greek means a joint or coordinated action. Synergy is expressed by “2 +2 = 5” (Goncharov, 1998: 122). In other words, the synergy leads to multiplication (amplification) of the final result. It is said, that it is “exploring the relationship between elements of the subsystem through the exchange of flows of energy, matter and information in the object and the environment” (Lebedev et al, 1998: 34). It should be borne in mind that if the subsystem is completely consistent in its behavior, it increases the level of self-organization even larger systems. V.S. Kapustin precisely noticed on this occasion: “Now, at the turn of the century, it can be said with confidence that we almost came to * the area of major paradigm change in the scientific world, and this time they mainly affect the science of wildlife and many of the Humanities” (Kapustin, 1997: 96-97). The scientist regrets that being originated in Russia the theory of selforganization comes back to us from Europe. We are essentially talking about science Tectology and its founder A.A. Bogdanov. It was this science which was the source of modern natural science of synergetics. The organization is the essence of both the living and the nonliving nature. Therefore A.A. Bogdanov restricted any activity to the organization. According to him humanity has no other activities than organizational one, there are no other problems, other points of view on © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1027 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuri N. Belokopytov. General Organization Theory life and the world, except for organizational. A.A. Bogdanov tries to create a so-called monistic conception of the Universe. He affirmed: ‘The Universe – is endlessly unfolding fabric of the various types and levels of organization (complete lack of organization does not happen – this concept does not make sense). All these forms of mutual struggle and mutual plexuses form a continuous and unbroken global organizational process‘ (Koritskiy et al, 1990: 17). In turn, the scientist believed, that the disorganizational activity is the particular case of the organizational activity. A.A. Bogdanov attached the importance to the new methods of science. He related all of the methods to organizational, and they, in his opinion, have a universal character both in inanimate nature, wildlife, and in the psychic world (Lytov, 1997: 150-152). Researcher B.V. Lytov conducted the philosophical analysis of tectology and believed that this science ‘allowed to apply the universal methods of organization to the phenomena of nature, society and human thought and gave the opportunity to study the general regularities inherent in the material and ideal world much deeper’ (Lytov, 1997: 148). And then he continues the argument about its meaning. ‘The emergence and development of tectology is the event of the universal human scale: for the first time (after the philosophy, mathematics and logic) the subject of the study were not things, properties, processes, as it is in traditional science, but attitudes, which are the organizational, invariant with respect to forms of motion, and forms of movement of the spirit. The tectology was immediately given the status of interdisciplinary science – the first science in the XX century’ (Lytov, 1997: 148149). In an anthology of the Soviet management thought the approach of A.A. Bogdanov ‘noticeably stood out among the other organizational and technological approaches offered in the 20s’. Assuming that all types of management (in nature, society, technology) have common features, A.A. Bogdanov tried to describe them in terms of a special science – organizational, and defined its subject matter, main categories and the principles of behaviour of any organizational processes. According to A.A. Bogdanov, ‘the subject of organizational science should be the general organizational principles and laws by which the organization processes take place in all areas of organic and inorganic world, in the work of natural forces and human conscious activity. They operate in the technique (organization of things), the economy (organization of people), the ideology (organization of ideas)’ (Koritskiy, 1990: 14). We agree with this assessment and believe that this is indeed the beginning of a new vision of the world. At the same time, the priority in the research was not one of philosophy and dialectics, as all attention was given to the tectology as the universal organizational science. In his main work A.A. Bogdanov singled out the first elements, so called prototypes of the tectology and pays much attention to their description: ‘The first attempt at a universal methodology belongs to Hegel. In his dialectic he tried to find a general method for the world, and saw it not as a method of organization, but more vague and abstract, as the method of “development.” With this vagueness and abstraction the objective success of the attempt was eliminated, but in addition, as a method taken from the special, the ideological sphere, the sphere of thought, dialectics in fact was not quite universal. Nevertheless, the systematization of experience made by Hegel with the help of dialectic, surpassed all its grandeur ever made in philosophy and had an enormous influence on the further progress of organizing thoughts. Universal evolutionary scheme of Herbert Spencer and especially the materialist dialectic were the following approximations to the current formulation of the problem. This last # 1028 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuri N. Belokopytov. General Organization Theory statement, firstly, is based on the elucidation of its organizational entities, and secondly, is in the fact that it is fully universal and embraces practical and theoretical methods, the conscious human and natural methods of nature. One another highlights and explains, it is also impossible the problem solution out of that kind of integral formulation of the question, for the part taken out of the whole can not be made whole, or be understood apart from the whole. Universal organizational science we call “Tectology”. The literal translation from the Greek means “the doctrine of construction”. “Construction” is the most comprehensive and the best synonym for the modern concept of “organization” (Bogdanov, 1989: 112). Although A.A. Bogdanov mistakenly believed that the developed “Tectology” should replace philosophy and become a common methodological basis among all the other sciences, but “Universal Organizational Science” has not been widespread. It was criticized both fairly and sometimes unfairly for abstraction, loose coupling with the urgent problems of economic management. However, it is now recognized that A.A. Bogdanov made many valuable ideas on organization theory, cybernetics, network management techniques, that requires clarification assess of the significance of his research (Koritskiy et al, 1990: 19). At the same time, the emergence of science tectology triggered a cascade of multiple birth (several dozen) of different systems and theories of science (Lytov, 1997: 148-149). It is necessary to note among them the general theory of systems and cybernetics, system technique and computer science, synergetics and the co-evolution theory. In addition, the ideas of tectology had a direct influence on the “organizational consciousness” for practitioners, especially management training with a modern style of thinking. The Industrial Revolution, which was accomplished in the West for more than two hundred years ago, has led to the discovery of new laws of nature, which could then be used for human progress. Western way of thinking is essentially analytical, and Eastern one is complex. Paradoxically, the Chinese scientists, despite their high level of civilization never know the basic laws of Newton. At the same time, they found thousands of differences in character, although the Western world uses only about thirty types. Theoretical science can benefit from analytical thinking, but management practices are mainly based on the art of synthesis. At one time Confucius said on this point: ‘Good leadership consists of a collection of all efforts’. The results of Western analytical technologies are now available to everyone. The Eastern culture is no need to use these technologies in practice. Japanese management, Japanese officials in particular have become famous because of their pragmatic synthesis (Hofstede, 1997: 170-173). It should be noted that in Tectology the original theory of self-organizing system is seen. V.S. Kapustin, trying to restore justice, made the great analytical scientific work concerning the origins of tektology as a science and proved that the idea of a Russian scientist A.A. Bogdanov is the fi rst in this area of expertise. He said that ‘in fact, it is the same “order out of chaos” about which Ilya Prigogine wrote. L. Bertalanffy reformulated this idea 30 years later, but without reference to Bogdanov, and 50 years later H. Haken expressed the idea of self-organization based on the corporate behavior of nonlinear dynamical processes in open systems, and also without references to the fi rst-mover’ (Kapustin, 1997: 100). Consequently, we are seeing in the development of organizational theory of A.A. Bogdanov the dialectics of historical and logical. At this stage, synergy emerges as a modern principle of development, which includes directions and specific aspects of science. By analogy with the dialectic # 1029 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuri N. Belokopytov. General Organization Theory (Lenin: 298), the history of the formation of synergistic patterns of thinking coincides with the formation of the methodological foundations of synergetics. G.G. Kirilenko, by reviewing some concepts of Anglo-American “philosophy of science”, and revealing the natural-philosophical way of thinking in the development of human knowledge, concludes that ‘the principle of unity of philosophy and special sciences involves more than the identity of their objects and methods, but just consider philosophy as a special branch of scientific knowledge, identifying its specific selection, involves a special domain of philosophical inquiry, its difference from a special study not only the level of generality of its provisions, but the choice aspect of the study, does not coincide with the subject of any specific discipline, even the very general nature. However, this approach conflicts with the natural-philosophical style of thinking and leads to its elimination, as the latter does not account for the complexity, multi-level cognitive process, based on the idea of the homogeneity of cognitive processes. So, with the disappearance of the practice of scientific knowledge is already outdated in their roles, communication method of philosophy and science, there appeared the new way of communication, based on understanding of philosophy and special studies as special branches of scientific knowledge, the specific levels of development of the world’ (Kirilenko, 1982: 112). In our point of view, this requires further philosophical understanding of some of the problems of synergetics. Such an understanding is particularly true of the seventh element of the dialectic (Lenin: 202), where the combined processes of analysis and synthesis, is their summation. In a study of the phenomenon of “synergy” can be traced not only differences but also the general trends in the interaction of Eastern and Western thought. This view is held by E.N. Knyazev, who noted that ‘thanks to recent results of synergy (or the theory of self-organization) there are beginning to install internal connections between the natural and human sciences, Eastern and Western worldview, a new science (the science of complexity, nonlinearity and chaos) and the old culture, science and art, science and philosophy. Synergetics is an integrative or synthetic value’ (Knyazev, 2000: 243). All of the above acts as the basis of the hypothetical assumption that synergy could make the basis for an interdisciplinary synthesis of knowledge. This view is reinforced in philosophical studies of Ervin Laszlo, who stated that ‘today we have many highly specialized and independent research conducted by the evolution of specific entities, such as stars, butterflies, culture or identity, but have very few (if you have any) a truly universal concepts of evolution as a fundamental process’ (Laszlo, 2000: 330). The scientist concludes further that theory ‘which attempts to unify our understanding of the transdisciplinary physical, biological and psychological phenomena that give rise to a fundamental change in our attitudes to ourselves and the world. The most fundamental premise of narrow disciplinary theories undergo subtle but significant changes. This process is described in detail in the literature on paradigms, the new paradigm is, in our view, the importance of making changes in certain assumptions about the deeper nature of the phenomena under study’ (Laszlo, 2000: 333). A specialist in politics A. Vengerov predicted the further dialectic interaction and synergy. ‘Apparently, the new paradigm in social science methodology, among other things, whether include the dialectic method as a special synergy, and then only for certain areas, or even replace it with a fundamentally new approaches to reality’ (Venger Synergetics.., 1993: 56). In # 1030 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuri N. Belokopytov. General Organization Theory our opinion, this was a very bold statement, but A. Vengerov is based on the fact that synergy is quite different than the dialectic materialism in its modification, and solves the problem of ontology and epistemology. In his opinion, if ‘for supporters of the materialistic modification all directions – dialectic, epistemology and logic are one and the same, but the universe “lives” on the same dialectical laws, for the synergistic worldview these postulates are not conclusive, and the dialectical unity of ontology and epistemology is not detected. In addition, it should be admitted that many of the origins of the crisis of ideology and practice of Marxist theory, including its political and legal segment, are in the depths of the dialectic, which was based on this theory. Apparently, the materialist dialectic, with its primacy over the required random and other postulates of new knowledge under the pressure of the end of XX century and the historical experience of the exhaust is mainly cognitive and prognostic potential, at least in the social sphere. We should not forget how cleverly, though in many ways, of course, artificial, it was adapted for the hostile and sometimes genocidal policy targets in our country, especially in the 20’s and 30’s. What did it cost, for example, only one study of political inference ‘about the aggravation of class struggle as the victory of socialism’, referring to the dialectical position ‘of the struggle of opposites as a source of development’! (Venger Synergetics.., 1993: 56) Further the scientist stopped on the differences between the underlying synergy and dialectic and brings it into a unified scheme (Venger Synergetics.., 1993: 57) . Based on comparative analysis the scientist concludes that ‘this scheme, like any other, is rather conventional. Many positions could be supplemented. The diversity of certain provisions of the dialectic and the synergy of the characteristics of dynamic processes (development) is discussable. And these characteristics can be challenged. Nevertheless, that scheme has some cognitive value because of its clarity and structure’ (Venger Synergetics.., 1993: 57). In this case, there is the other extreme of exaggerating the capabilities of the potential synergy of the dialectic. We believe that the dialectic and synergy are complementary, each has its own subject of study. After examining the various points of view on the subject of research, we are inclined to believe that synergies should be considered on two levels: fi rstly, as a method of philosophical inquiry, which serves the principle of subsidiarity to the dialectic, as currently there is a gradual and irreversible process of establishing synergy, but it can not be called an independent science, and secondly, as a dialectic methodology is directed from above, as well as the synergy integrative approach seeks specific disciplines below. They need to be considered holistically. References 1. 2. 3. 4. Goncharov V.V. The most important concepts and concepts in modern management. Moscow: MNIIP, 1998. P. 122. Lebedev O.T., Kankovskaya A.R. Principles of Management. St. Petersburg.: ID “Master and Margarita”, 1998. P. 34. Kapustin V. Management views AA Bogdanov in the light of Synergetics. The Origins of the Russian management. Moscow: Publishing House of the “Ray”, 1997. 172 p. Koritskiy E.B., Lavrikov Yu., Omar A.M. Soviet management thought the 20s: a short name directory Moscow: Economics, 1990. 233 p. # 1031 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuri N. Belokopytov. General Organization Theory 5. Lytov B.V. Application. The Origins of the Russian management. Moscow: Publishing House of the “Ray”, 1997. 172 p. 6. Bogdanov A.A. Tectology (General Organization Science). In the 2 books.: Book. 1. Moscow: Economics, 1989. P. 112. 7. Hofstede G.H. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. New York. McGRAW-HILL, 1997. P. 170-173. 8. Lenin V.I. Full. Works. Op. V. 29. 782 p. 9. Kirilenko G.G. Сrisis methodological foundations of bourgeois «philosophy of science» (naturalphilosophical way of thinking and its modern version). Moscow: Mosk. University Press, 1982. P. 112. 10. Knyazev E.N. Synergistic call culture. Synergetic paradigm. The variety of quests and approaches. Moscow: Progress Tradition, 2000. P. 243. 11. Laszlo E. Grounds transdisciplinary unified theory. Synergetic paradigm. The variety of quests and approaches. Moscow: Progress Tradition, 2000. 536 p. 12. Venger A. Synergetics and policy. Social Sciences and the present. 1993. № 4. P. 55-69. Всеобщая организационная теория Ю.Н. Белокопытов Сибирский государственный технологический университет Россия 660049, Красноярск, пр. Мира, 82 Статья посвящена истокам возникновения новой постнеклассической парадигмы. Основополагающим фактором в возникновении современной синергетики является научный труд А.А. Богданова “Тектология”. Это исследование впервые появилось именно в России и на многие десятки лет опередило западную научную мысль. Кроме того, в российском исследовании были заложены следующие направления: системный подход, кибернетический подход, синергетика как наука о самоорганизации самых различных систем. Эти направления исследования появились за рубежом гораздо позже. В самоорганизации А.А. Богданов вводит новые понятия, такие как нелинейная система, динамическое равновесие, аттрактор, и раскрывает их влияние на организованность. Особое внимание в статье уделено философии, в частности диалектике. Выделяются характерные особенности сходства и различия двух подходов в мышлении. Ключевые слова: новая парадигма, картина мира, тектология А.А. Богданова, источник нового мышления, организация и организованность, методология и система, западное и восточное мышление, Л. Берталанфи и Г. Хакен, нелинейность и динамичность, синергетика и диалектика, сходство и различия, самоорганизация и развитие. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2013 6) 1033-1037 ~~~ УДК 340.121 Orthodox Theology at Modern University: Main Approaches to University Curriculum Natalia P. Koptseva* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia Received 12.04.2013, received in revised form 31.05.2013, accepted 21.06.2013 Since the year 2001, many universities have been rolling out a new educational programme called Orthodox Theology as a major discipline. At the moment, the discipline is included into the curriculum of over 30 universities. The present article disputes on the main approaches towards forming up the Orthodox Theology syllabus for educating Bachelors of Orthodox Theology; lists the main subjects required for the Bachelor programme; formulates the principles for distributing subjects between 8 semesters of education. Keywords: theology, religious studies, cultural studies, Siberian Federal University, an educational program. The 033400.64 “Confession Theology” educational Bachelor’s programme is based on the Federal State Educational Standard for Higher Professional Education (FSES HPE) approved by the Decree of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation No. 183 dated February 9, 2011. The mentioned FSES HPE states that the Bachelor of Theology can be educated on the basis of the following confessions: Christian, Muslim, Judaic, Buddhist. The choice of the confession is determined by the traditions typical for this or that region of the Russian Federation, and various historical and cultural factors influencing the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. Multiple sociological surveys demonstrate that all the constituent entities of the Russian Federation except for Chechnya and Ingushetia are populated with people who tend to choose * Orthodox Christianity as their confession. Over 80 % of adult Russians call themselves Orthodox Christians. Of course, we speak both of the religious and cultural self-determination of Russian citizens. This choice is based on the deep historical and sociocultural memory of the people. The group who claims Orthodox Christianity to be their religion mostly consists, but is not limited to, Russian people. The Tartars, Chuvashes, Mordvins, Ossetians and other large ethic groups populating the modern Russian Federation choose to be Orthodox Christian; moreover, many people living beyond the borders of the country are also Orthodox. Altogether their number counts up to hundreds of million people. In this situation the Orthodox Christian world feels the need for highly educated people who would possess deep knowledge of the © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1033 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptseva. Orthodox Theology at Modern University: Main Approaches to University Curriculum Orthodox belief and understand it as a historical way; the people who would be able to solve the problems faced today by the Russian Orthodox Church from rational positions. November 28-29 in the city of Moscow His Holiness Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia Kirill held a council called “Theology at Universities: Interaction of the Church, State and Society” aimed at summarizing the experience of those religious and secular higher educational establishments which have been rolling out the 033400.62 Orthodox Theology course. The Council was opened with the speech of His Holiness Patriarch Kirill who emphasized the connection between opening theological orthodox education course at the universities of Russia and the critical religious need of millions of people. His Holiness remarked that orthodox theological education can be successfully carried out at universities where it can be based on the old traditions and rich educational and scientific experience of the establishments. His Holiness Patriarch also mentioned that the number of state-subsidized vacancies for theology students is not enough: in the year 2012 the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation provided only 180 vacancies for the huge country of many million population, which is a drop in the bucket, as the Patriarch says. Of great importance was the speech of Metropolitan Hilarion who pointed at the critical need for the dialogue between theology and modern sciences, both humanitarian and natural. Such meaningful dialogue becomes possible only in the process of rolling out the theological educational programme at modern universities. Many speakers told of the interesting experience acquired by various Russian universities which had opened departments of Theology and began educating Orthodox theologians. Scientific and methodological support for 033400.62 Orthodox Theology course is provided by two universities which have been working in a nice and efficient partnership: Lomonosov Moscow State University and St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University which celebrates its 20th anniversary this year. All participants of the Patriarch’s Council were presented with a great gift from the Rector of STOU: the full set of scientific and methodological aids (46 items) which is enough to begin carrying out high quality Orthodox Theology education. The fundament of the educational process is the educational plan of the Orthodox Theology course which includes an educational schedule, the plan itself, descriptions of practical tasks, distribution of subjects, credits, exams, internships, final examination for each of the 8 semesters. At the present time the Culture Studies Department of Institute for the Humanities of Federal State Autonomous Educational Establishment of Higher Professional Education “Siberian Federal University” is preparing for getting its license for Main Educational Programme (MEP) 033400.62 “Orthodox Theology”; educational plan based on the FSES HPE and the recommendations issued by the researchers and professors of St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University has been complete. It is essential to remark that the teachers and professors of the university took up the work on MEP “Orthodox Theology” with great inspiration. Despite their multiple research and teaching assignments, the teachers eagerly agreed to design this new educational programme. At the present moment Siberian Federal University is hosting the Orthodox Theological Society which serves as a site for discussing scientific, methodological, teaching problems connected with the implementation of the MEP “Orthodox Theology”. The syllabus for the Orthodox Theology course is designed for 8 semesters of 4 years of # 1034 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptseva. Orthodox Theology at Modern University: Main Approaches to University Curriculum study. Each semester is divided into weeks as follows: 1 semester: 17 weeks of studies, 3 weeks of exam session, 2 weeks of holidays; 2 semester: 17 weeks of studies, 4 weeks of exam session, 4 weeks of internship practice, 5 weeks of holidays; 3 semester: 17 weeks of studies, 3 weeks of exam session, 2 weeks of holidays; 4 semester: 17 weeks of studies, 4 weeks of exam session, 4 weeks of research practice, 5 weeks of holidays; 5 semester: 17 weeks of studies, 4 weeks of exam session, 2 weeks of holidays; 6 semester: 18 weeks of studies, 4 weeks of exam session, 2 weeks of research practice, 5 weeks of holidays; 7 semester: 17 weeks of studies, 1 weeks of state exams, 2 weeks of holidays; 8 semester: 17 weeks of studies, 4 weeks of exam session, 1,5 weeks for final qualification paper presentation, 7,5 weeks of holidays. This way all the structural elements suggested to be included into the FSES HPE on Orthodox Theology, including the number of weeks for theoretical studies, holidays (including the 2 essential weeks of winter holidays), internship practice and research practice, state exams, final qualification paper presentation, have been successfully actualized. FSES HPE of every educational programme (not only Orthodox Theology) includes standard blocks of subjects divided into the following groups: Group 1: general humanitarian, social and economic subjects; Group 2: general mathematics and natural science; Group 3: special subjects; Group 4: physical education. The present structure is standard for Orthodox Theology syllabus as well. Naturally, the content of each group is determined by the FSES HPE for Theology MEP, which is also connected with Orthodox Theology as a subject. Groups 1, 2 and 4 are standard for all kinds of higher professional education in the Russian Federation. However, the syllabus for Orthodox Theology manifests the specificity of the subject. We should remark that groups 1, 2 and 3 are subdivided into the following levels: level of basic subjects (essential for all students, determined at the federal level); the regional component closely connected with the essential subjects but determined by the university. The third level is elective courses chosen by students from at least two available options. Both the regional component of each block and the elective courses emphasize their connection with the general profile of the social and humanitarian, natural science and mathematics or the professional block. The syllabus designed by the Culture Studies Department of Siberian Federal University includes the following subjects. Block of general humanitarian, social and economic subjects Basic subjects: Philosophy (180 hours), Foreign Language (360 hours), History of Russia (180 hours), History of Religions (144 hours). Regional component: Pedagogy (180 hours), Sociology (252 hours). Elective courses: Canonic Law / Sociology of Religion (108 hours), Ethics and Axiology in Religion / Business Ethics (108 hours). Block of general mathematics and natural science subjects Basic subjects: Computer Science (72 hours), Concepts of Modern Natural Science (72 hours). Regional component: Logics and Argumentation Theory (72 hours). # 1035 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptseva. Orthodox Theology at Modern University: Main Approaches to University Curriculum Elective courses: Apologetics of Science / History of Science (72 hours); Information Culture in Academic Research / Information Technologies is Theology (72 hours). Block of special subjects (professional disciplines) It is also necessary to remark that the federal component of FSES HPE consists of several essential modules. Further we shall list the module titles and the subjects they include (for the federal component). The basic subjects of the federal component are distributed between the following modules: 1. General Orthodox Theology; 2. Systematized Orthodox Theology; 3. Sacred Orthodox Texts; 4. Orthodox History; 5. Practical Orthodox Theology; 6. Religious Philosophy; 7. Language of Sacred Orthodox Texts; 8. Religion, State and Society; 9. Basic Safety. Now let us consider what subjects the modules consist of. General Orthodox Theology: History of Theological Education (72 hours), History of Theology (72 hours), Introduction in Theology (72 hours), Basic Theology (72 hours). Systematized Orthodox Theology: Dogmatic Theology (360 hours), Comparative Theology (180 hours). Sacred Orthodox Texts: Introduction in the Old Testament (144 hours), Old Testament Exegesis (180 hours), Introduction in the New Testament (The Four Gospels) (108 hours), New Testament Exegesis (180 hours), Introduction in the New Testament (Book of the Apostles) (144 hours), New Testament (Book of the Apostles) Exegesis (325 hours). Orthodox History: History of World Orthodox Christianity in the Modern Age (72 hours), History of Russian Orthodox Church (396 hours), New History of Russian Orthodox Church (72 hours). Practical Orthodox Theology (72 hours). Religious Philosophy (180 hours). Language of Sacred Orthodox Texts: Church Slavonic Language (252 hours). Religion, State and Society: State and Confession Relationships (72 hours), New Religious Trends (72 hours). Basic Safety (72 hours). The regional component includes the following subjects: Methodology of Confessional Research (144 hours), Interdisciplinary Problems of Theology (144 hours), History of Old Christian Church (288 hours), Patrology of 1 – 4 Centuries (144 hours), Patrology of 5 – 8 Centuries (144 hours), Patrology of 9 – 15 Centuries (144 hours), Liturgics (144 hours), Liturgical Studies (288 hours), History of Ancient and Medieval Philosophy (72 hours), Sources of Ancient and Medieval Philosophy (72 hours), History of Modern and Contemporary Philosophy (72 hours), Sources of Modern and Contemporary Philosophy (72 hours), History of Russian Theology (180 hours). Elective courses include the following subjects: Legal Fundamentals of Perish Activities / Religious Legislation of the Russian Federation (180 hours), Homiletics / History of Russian Orthodox Mission (180 hours), Rhetorics / Religious Signs and Symbols (108 hours), Ancient Greek Language / Sanskrit (252 hours), Methodology of Teaching Theology / Methodology of Teaching the Basics of Orthodox Culture (252 hours), Pastoral Psychiatry / Theological Language Analysis (180 hours). Physical Education is essential for all main educational programmes and includes 400 hours of classes in the first six semesters. The students are also supposed to do internship and research practice, take state exams # 1036 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia P. Koptseva. Orthodox Theology at Modern University: Main Approaches to University Curriculum in Orthodox Theology and present their final qualification papers. The question on the topic of scientific research work for Theology students is special. As we see it, the research can be based on Church History, Bible Studies, Church Archaeology. The experience of the other higher education establishments proves that these trends have been successfully studied. However, the trends of Orthodox Technology which have been researched by St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University for over 20 years are also worth mentioning. They consider creating a database of New Martyrs and Confessors of Russia who died for their faith in the 20 century. We believe that in Siberia we could also carry out some sufficient research on the New Martyrs and Confessors of the 20 Century who were repressed and killed for their faith. Young researchers could begin their studies at the Krai Archive, learning comparative historical and genetic methods of research. Their work would enable Siberian Federal University to make a contribution into the acknowledgement of the New Martyrs and Confessors of the 20 century in Modern Russia. We suggest that the main educational programme 033400.62 Orthodox Theology should be widely discussed in the archdiocese of Krasnoyarsk Krai and the metropole. Teachers of Siberian Federal University need to see some advanced training, including remote training, at St. Tikhon’s Orthodox University. We hope that the clergymen of our archdiocese and metropole will work with our Theology students. At the present moment we possess all the conditions required for carrying out the main educational programme of higher professional education 033400.62 Orthodox Theology in the most efficient way. Теология православия в современном университете: основные подходы к образовательной программе Н.П. Копцева Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, Свободный, 79 Начиная с 2001 г. в российских университетах реализуется основная образовательная программа по направлению «Теология православия». В настоящее время более 30 российских университетов реализуют подготовку по этому направлению. В статье обсуждаются основные подходы к формированию учебного плана для подготовки бакалавра теологии православия, рассматриваются основные учебные дисциплины, которые необходимы для будущего бакалавра теологии православия, выделяются принципы распределения учебных дисциплин по 8 семестрам учебной подготовки. Ключевые слова: теология, религиозные исследования, культурные исследования, Сибирский федеральный университет, образовательная программа. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2013 6) 1038-1042 ~~~ УДК 340.12 Comparative Legal Policy and its Significanse for Legal Reform Alexander V. Malkoa and Alexey Yu. Salomatinb* a Institute of State and Law RAS 10 Znamianka, Moscow, 119019 Russia b Penza State University 40 Red Str., Penza, 440026 Russia Received 21.12.2012, received in revised form 20.02.2013, accepted 10.06.2013 The authors describe the Comparative Legal Policy as a new discipline devoted to consideration of foreign legal experience from the point of it s reception or non-reception. Public opinion about legal innovations is necessary to study and to take into account . Keywords: comparative legal policy, complex, interdisciplinary comparative anylysis, social and legal monitoring, legal reform. Comparative Legal Policy is a new direction in Legal Sciences which attempts to study foreign law and legal life from the point of view of their possible reception or non-reception in a concrete country at a precise moment1. Comparative Legal Policy has become important thanks to extreme complexities of the post-modernizing society with its erosion of state sovereignty, appearance of new actors such as transnational monopolies and international non-commercial organizations. More differentiated and flexible civil society is waiting that its opinion is to be taken into account more fully. Much strain upon law life under information revolution stimulates systematization of law2. Comparative Legal Policy is a continuation of Legal Policy which started to be studied by Saratov branch of the Institute of State and Law of Russian Academy of Sciences. The * Lectures and monographs has been published3. The concept of Legal Policy up to 2020 has been prepared4. Special magazine ۥLegal Policy and Legal Life´ stimulates further research work. But how to make Legal Policy more effective? Legal policy is to be based comparative approach. Comparative method was used by many ancient and medieval authors5 Comparative law as a discipline has been born in the early 19th century6 as a result of achievements of industrial production and communication revolutions (thanks to railways and telegraph), internationalization of politics and war in Europe and then in other countries7. For the purpose of economic cooperation it was necessary at that time to study foreign law and compare it to native law. Nowdays under postmodarnization and globalization the task is more practical and difficult- to study foreign legal experience from © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1038 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander V. Malko and Alexey Yu. Salomatin. Comparative Legal Policy and Its Significanse for Legal Reform the point of view of its adaption or non-adaption (or may be its postponement), possibilities of harmonization or unification of law. Decisionmaking in this sphere is to be very balanced and sophisticated becausw of high price of risks to social stability and state sovereignty8. The procedure of Comparative Legal Policy may include comparative legal analyses as a starting paint. For example, striving to improve using institute of jurors we are to study foreign experience. ۥThe idea of trial by jury prompts contrasting responses from lawyers, policymakers, politicians and members of the public. It is regarded by many as powerful democratic element in the process of delivering justice, a means by which ordinary people can pronounce on the merits of the case before them. It is viewed by others, however, as an irrational, costly and cumbersome institution which demands that ordinary people , with all their frailties of inattentiveness, ignorance and prejudice pronounce upon, sometimes extraordinarily complex and consenquential matters9. We have multiplicity of jury models in different countries. «When England began its expansion into empire, the jury was imported to the colonies of America, Africa and Asia admiration for the institution of the jury in the 19th century led to its adoption in various forms in France, parts of Germany, Russia, Spain and other European countries and parts of South and Central America….as we begin the 21st century the criminal jury appears alive and mostly well in Australia, Canada, England and Wales, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, Scotland, the United States and at least 46 other countries and dependancies around the globe»10. We confront with different quantity of jury members, different powers, modes of dicision, significance in legal and court life, etc. We know that the elements of concrete jury model depends upon not only legal culture of legal professionals but former and presents forms of state, division of powers in it, traditions of governance, etc. Political factors are also important including political culture of population, political ideology of the elite and political attitudes of the masses. For example, American highly individualistic legal culture of law superiority in the former pioneering society in based upon American grass-roots democracy and strong presidential republic of federal character. The classical, the most consistent mode of division of powers with checks and balances, is interconnected with mass political participation. And broadly applied American jury system with approximately 100,000 cases decided every year is the manifestation not only of mass political activity and democratic values of population but of peculiarities of American state. On the contrary, in Great Britain the blossom of jury system is in the past. English legal conservatism and slow evolutionalism is provided by constitutional monarchy and the spirit of aristocracy. Jury system was a good thing in medieval ages and under absolutism. It spred kingۥs justice in compact kingdom and withstanded to some extent kingۥs despotism. But it was not so urgent to aristocratic and bourgeois elite and cautious, reformist minded masses under industrialization. Thus the signipicanse of jury system varies not only from one country to another but from one period of time to another. Complex comparative analysis is implied that it necessary to be interdisciplinary. The starting point – comparative review of versions of foreign legal experience concerning this or that event or institution, must be supported by comparative state studying analysis and comparative political science analysis (see the Scheme №1). We even suggest that some kind of expertise from the point of view of globalization is desirable # 1039 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander V. Malko and Alexey Yu. Salomatin. Comparative Legal Policy and Its Significanse for Legal Reform if we sure that studied event or institution has taken root in contemporary society. In our case it seems that this or that jury system in a concrete country does not influence globalization process, but we may suppose that some objects of study in legal policy may be important from the global perspective. In any case the final result of our cfforts is a proposal for state organs to reform or not to reform law in accordance with this or that foreign experience. It’s highly important that our research would be based upon public opinion expertise. We are ready to offer for legal professionals and public opinion representatives some versions of legal reform according to the lines of former legal experience in this country and foreign legal experience. Testing versions by professional is to based upon interdisciplinary procedure of comparison which includes Comparative Law, Comparative State Studies and Comparative Political Science and which we name Comparativistica. Different specialists may be enlisted who study material from different sides. Public opinion representatives would participate in testing proposals mainly under focus group studies (with 7-12 members) or in-depth interviews as the most effective way of collecting data not only about attitudes, but motives also11. As this procedure may be repeatable we call it social and legal monitoring. Unfortunately legal science is not usually interested in perception of norms by population12.ۥand where is human being? Where is his or her consciousness, appraisals, behavior?ۥ13. According to Chief Justice of Constitutional Court of Russia V.Zorkin itۥs of high importance to fi nd a middle way between legal positivism and sociological jurisprudence because to be effective normative order is to be supported by masses14. And masses is to participate in comparative analysis. They may choose the best versions of foreign legal experience and make to it some practical addition. The final moment of Legal Policy is formulating proposal for government (or parliament). Of course not all proposals may be realized. ۥGovernment will always use research to serve political ends, and it will likewise do its best to ignore those findings which are politically inconvenient. We would prefer to emphasize independence rather than influence. The key for empirical researchers is to maintain their independence of government (and of any other # 1040 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander V. Malko and Alexey Yu. Salomatin. Comparative Legal Policy and Its Significanse for Legal Reform research customers) in order fully to do justice to the research evidenceۥ15 To do the work best is to disperse it widely among different experts and expert bodies, refusing from any intellectual and organizational monopoly16. Thatۥs why not only academy of Science in Moscow but legal departments of universities outside the capital may be responsible for legal policy research. For example, Center for Comparative Legal Policy at Penza State University is ready to participate in general or branch projects devoted to reformation of law. We 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 have accumulated experience in such fields as Comparative Constitutional Justice, Comparative Immigration Legal Policy, Comparative Models of Modernization of State and Law. The Center has started Master’s Programme in Law ‘Legal Policy in Russia and European Union Countries’ in 2010. Different studying books and collection of articles has been published17. We invite potential foreign and Russian partners to cooperation. We believe that comparative approach makes important addition to the intellectual pluralism applying foreign experience of different legal systems to improve legal life in Russia See: Sravnitel’naia Pravovaia Politika [Comparative Legal Policy]. Edited by Prof. A. Y. Salomatin. Moscow, 2012. Malko A. V. , Salomatin A. Y. O Nekotorykh Chertakh Modernizatsionnykh Protsessov v Sovremennykh Usloviiakh [On Some Features of Modernization Processes Under Modern Conditions] Gosudarstvo i Pravo, 3, 2004. Rossiyskaia Pravovaia Politika [Russian Legal Policy]. Edited by Matuzov N. I. and Malko A. V. , Moscow, 2003; Pravovaia Politika Rossii: Teoriia i Praktika [Legal Policy of Russia: Theory and Practice]: monograph. Edited by Matuzov N. I. and Malko A. V. Moscow, 2006; Pravovaia Politika v Rossiyskoy Federatsii: Regional’nyy Uroven [Legal Policy in the Russian Federation]: monograph. Edited by Malko A. V. Tambov, 2008; Malko A. V. Teoriia Pravovoy Politiki [Theory of Legal Policy], Moscow, 2012 etc. Pravovaia Politika: Slovar’ i Proekt Kontseptsii [Legal Policy: Dictionary and Concept Project]. Edited by Malko A.V., Saratov, 2010. See: Lafitskiy V. I. Sravnitel’noe Pravovedenie v Obrazakh Prava [Comparative Law among Law Branches], volume 1, Moscow, 2010, P. 12-68. Kresin A. V. Formirovanie Teoretiko-Metodologicheskikh Osnov Sravnitel’nogo Pravovedeniia v Rabotakh Paulia Ioganna Anzel’ma Fon Feyerbakha [Theoretical and Methodological Formation of Comparative Law Basis in Works by Paul Johann Anselm von Feuerbach] Komparativistika-2011: Sravnitel’noe Pravovedenie, Sravnitel’noe Gosudarstvovedenie, Sravnitel’naia Politologiia. Mezhdunarodnyy Uchebno-Metodicheskiy i Nauchnyy Ezhegodnik. Penza, Penza State University Press, 2012. Malko A. V. , Salomatin A. Y. Sravnitel’noe Pravovedenie [Comparative Law], teaching materials. Moscow, 2008. P. 79 See: Salomatin A. Y. Sravnitel’naia Pravoaia Politika Kak Instrument Reformirovaniia Pravovoy Sistemy [Comparative Legal Policy as a Tool of Reforming the Legal System]. Open lecture. Kiev-Lviv, 2012. World Jury Systems/Ed. by N. Vidmar. Oxford, 2003, P. V. Ibid. , P. 2, 3. See: Malko A. V. , Salomatin A. Y. Sotsial’no-Pravovoy Monitoring Kak Instrument Prodvizheniia Rossiyskoy Pravovoy Reformy [Social and Legal Monitoring as a Tool of Promoting Russian Legal Reform] “Chyornye Dyry” v Rossiyskom Zakonodatel’stve (6), 2007, P. 464. Grevtsov Y. I. Sotsiologiia Prava [Sociology of Law], Saint Petersburg, 2001, P. 33-34. Tikhomirov Y. A. Povedenie v Obshchestve i Pravo [Social Behaviour and Law] Zhurnal Rossiyskogo Prava (2), 2001, P. 5. Zor’kin V. Pravoprimenenie Kak Strategicheskaia Problema [Law Enforcement as a Strategic Problem] Pravo i Pravoprimenenie Rossii: Mezhdistsiplinarnye Issledovaniia. Edited by Volkov V. V. Moscow, 2011. P. 23, 24. Baldwin J. , Davis Y. Empirical Research in Law//The Oxford Handbook of Legal Studies/Ed. by P. Cane M. Fushnet. N. Y. , 2003, P. 897. Grishkovets A. A. K Voprosu o Reforme Gosudarstvennoy Sluzhby (Organizatsionno-Pravovye Aspekty) [On the Civil Service Reform (Organizational and Legal Aspects] Gosudarstvo i Pravo (2), 2012, P. 31. For example: Malko A. V. , Salomatin A. Y. Osnovy Pravovoy Politiki [Legal Policy Basics], Moscow, 2013 Komparativstika-2012: Sravnitel’noe Pravovedenie, Sravnitel’noe Gosudarstvovedenie, Sravnitel’naia Politologiia [Comparative Studies-2012: Comparative Law, Comparative Constitutional Law, Comparative Political Science]. Edited by Prof. Salomatin A. Y. Moscow, 2013. Salomatin A. Y. Verkhovnyy Sud SSHA: Sudebnaia Pravovaia Politika ot Dzh. Dzheia do Dzh. Robertsa [Supreme Court of the USA: Juridial Law from J. Jay to J. Roberts]. Moscow, 2013. Gosudarstvennoe, Politicheskoe i Pravovoe Prostranstvo Sovremennoy Evropy [Administrative, Political and Legal Space of Modern Europe]. Edited by Prof. Salomatin A. Y. Penza, 2013. Salomatin A. Y. , Mantserev K. A. Immigratsionnaia Pravovaia Politika (Sravnitel’nyy Analiz Modeley Razvitiia) [Legal Immigration Policy (Comparative Analysis of Development Models]. Moscow, 2013. # 1041 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexander V. Malko and Alexey Yu. Salomatin. Comparative Legal Policy and Its Significanse for Legal Reform Сравнительная правовая политика и ее значение для правовой реформы А.В. Малькоа, А.Ю. Саломатинб а Институт государства и права РАН Россия 119019, Москва, ул. Знаменка, 10 б Пензенский государственный университет Россия 440026, Пенза, ул. Красная, 40 Авторы описывают сравнительную правовую политику как новую дисциплину, посвященную рассмотрению зарубежного правового опыта с точки зрения его рецепции или отказа от таковой. Подчеркнуто, что необходимо изучать и принимать во внимание общественное мнение по поводу правовых новаций. Ключевые слова: сравнительная правовая политика, сложный междисциплинарный сравнительный анализ, сравнительно-правовой мониторинг, правовая реформа. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2013 6) 1043-1056 ~~~ УДК 796.325 Theoretical and Methodological Problems of Psychomotor Qualities Formation in Volleyball Konstantin K. Markova* and Oksana O. Nikolaevab a Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia b Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after V.P. Astafiev 89 A. Lebedeva str., Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia Received 28.03.2013, received in revised form 18.05.2013, accepted 07.06.2013 Research considers problems of player’s psychomotor qualities formation in modern volleyball, its theoretical and methodological substantiation on the basis of the analysis of sports kind specificity and the basic psychofiziological laws of sportsmen organism. The key part of a practical technique of perfection of sportsmen motor abilities certain formation in training process of time, spatial and force muscular distinctive sensitivity to players of various game roles. The technique of development and perfection of motor qualities of volleyball players is theoretically proved and developed for practical application, its substantive provisions are certain and stated, stages, working toolkit and a quality monitoring of development dynamics of players abilities to differentiate micro intervals of time, efforts and spaces, estimated criteria. Keywords: volleyball, psychomotor qualities, speed of reaction, distinctive sensitivity. Introduction The modern level of development of world sports demands from sportsmen of very high degree of development as separate base physical, technical, tactical and mental qualities, and abilities effectively to integrate them in severe constraints of sports competitions. Thus the sportsman depending on specificity of a sports kind frequently competes in conditions of a rigid limit of time, in situations of reciprocal actions not programmed in advance, at physical contact to the contender, very precisely and flexibly dosing out time, force and spatial parameters of the * movements which efficiency finally determines its result. On a degree of the specified characteristics variation of competitive activity and a significance value each of them separately in achievement of final sports result various kinds of sports can be divided on two groups, essentially differing by character of predefiniteness of sportsmen actions, a programming level all complex of mental and motor activity. To the fi rst group (Matveev, 2010; Platonov, 1988) it is possible to carry kinds in which sportsman competitive activity is carried out in enough rigid existential and dynamic conditions © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1043 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Konstantin K. Markov and Oksana O. Nikolaeva… Theoretical and Methodological Problems of Psychomotor… with a high programming level, both structures of separate movements, and their connections in complete motor acts (track and field athletics, gymnastics, navigation, shooting, rowing, weightlifting, skis, bicycle, etc.). A various sort tactical actions during wrestling, despite of the specific form in each of these sports kinds, as a rule, rather slightly change kinematic both dynamic parameters and structure of movements. In the second group of sports kinds sportsman movement represent, fi rst of all, reciprocal actions, as at direct contact to the contender (sports game, fencing, combat sports, etc.), and without it (volleyball, tennis, table tennis, badminton). Thus from separate, enough standard elements and the receptions studied, fi xed and generated in the certain stereotype on trainings, develop the complete motor act, existential and which dynamic structure is formed directly during wrestling in conditions of a rigid limit of time (sometimes – tenth shares of second) and high mental intensity. In them tactical variability is extremely high, and success of the sportsman or team performance in competitions is determined, how a variety and high quality of performance of separate techniques, and in the speed and reliability of their formation in the reciprocal motor act adequate to a situation (Markov, 2001). From the specified points of view, among sports kinds of the second group the volleyball takes a special place that is connected with two its basic features. The first – consists that the volleyball is a unique sports kind in which character of contact to a ball, quality and duration of contact with it of the player is regulated that is not present in one sports game. On this parameter the significant share of all game mistakes fixed by judges is necessary. The second feature following from first and allocating volleyball (together with tennis, table tennis and badminton) from the second group of situational sports kinds, consists in absence of any pause for acceptance of the next, tactical decision corresponding a situation and a choice of the most rational technical action. One of the major on a degree of influence on final sports result is the problem of sportsmen game mistakes which in volleyball is exclusive owing to very big percent, the so-called, «resulting» mistakes at once bringing points to the contender and leading defeat. As a result of last changes of rules by the international federation of volleyball any mistake in each set is a point to the contender. Especially high level of development is necessary for the successful decision of competitive tasks sensemotor qualities of the sportsman, being a fundamental principle of sports-technical skill. Special value thus development on their basis variable, reliable and automated skills and receptions, and also development of ability to forecasting possible situations, especially on sensemotor and perception levels gets. It is obvious also, that so high requirements to a level of psychomotor development of sportsmen are dictated also with necessity of meeting selection for children’s sports (Bril’, 1986). Parameters of psychomotor development should take also the important place in complex system of functional diagnostics, especially in those kinds of sports where alongside with a high level of functional preparation it is required thin «muscular sense», advanced «motor memory», high sensemotor functions efficiency. The big influence on a level of development of these qualities the supreme hierarchical levels of mentality of the person (motivation, social status, type of the supreme nervous activity, etc.) (Markov, 2001; Ozerov, 2002; Surkov, 1984). Specificity of psychomotor actions in volleyball The volleyball by virtue of some requirements of game rules, features of refereeing, influence of these criteria on result occupies absolutely # 1044 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Konstantin K. Markov and Oksana O. Nikolaeva… Theoretical and Methodological Problems of Psychomotor… unique, not estimated properly, a place among different sports specializations. First of all, unlike many other things sports (alongside with tennis, table tennis and badminton), it does not suppose the game pauses connected with long possession by a ball by one player or a team. On reciprocal actions the player has the tenth shares of second, unlike football, hockey, basketball and many other things games where the player owning a ball, on game rules can stop, look round, take a ball, etc. This feature, from the point of view of movement’s psychophysiology, makes rigid demands to ability of the player to predict character of development of game events. Ability to антиципации is integrating all the basic characteristics of touch systems, central nervous system (CNS) in perception and processing of the primary information, speed and quality of separate motor acts. The major reason of many game sportsmen mistakes here lays. The second feature of volleyball (volleyball – a “flying” ball) is that one of the basic kinds of mistakes – contact of a ball with a court (in all sports, except for badminton, field, court, table – working game surfaces). It demands from players of extremely high motivation and selflessness in game actions as well as possible characterizes a necessary internal spirit of players. Combination of these features form a situation, demanding obligatory performance from first steps of training to volleyball of main principle: «the ball flies – I run». The player can be mistaken, but has no right to stay idle, observing as the ball falls on a court. Attempts to build training by a principle: «look – think, and then operate», are doomed to failure. Not casually even at the highest level it is possible to see, how players see off a sight a falling ball, «calculating» a point of its falling, instead of an obligatory conditional motor reflex on a flying ball (Markov, 2001). From the point of view of psychophysiology such situation demands development at the natural gifted to given action sportsman absolutely special, high motivation psychomotor structure of game actions. Obviously, what exactly in these qualities unique world «stars» of volleyball especially strongly differ from simply good and, especially, ordinary players. And, at last, the third feature of volleyball which are absolutely not having analogues in any other sports kinds are extremely rigid requirements to character of the player contact with a ball (throws, captures, double contacts). Any of sports with a subject (football, hockey, handball, rugby, water polo, tennis, badminton, baseball, golf, etc.), any of track and field athletics kinds (throwing, pole vaults) does not limit character of the sportsman interaction with these subjects on time, by the form and structure of actions. In view of a known share of subjectivity, and also the productivity of mistakes mentioned earlier strengthening intensity, it is easy to present, what thin muscular differentiations on time, efforts, kinematic characteristics provide correct psychomotor acts (service, service reception, false hit in attack). Important as well that on a set of the technical actions separate, original and not integrated with each other (service, service reception, top set, defense, block, attack, etc.) At rigid requirements to character of contact to a ball and in conditions of time deficiency, volleyball – undoubtedly one of the most complicated sports kinds. It is enough these features to recognize complexity and the highest level of the requirements shown, both to natural endowments of the sportsman, and to its psychomotor luggage, harmonious development of separate major motor qualities (in some cases antagonistic: speed – endurance, force – flexibility, force – thin muscular sensations and so forth). The task at the given stage consists in that, being based on the basic works of sports # 1045 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Konstantin K. Markov and Oksana O. Nikolaeva… Theoretical and Methodological Problems of Psychomotor… psychophysiology and according to the common dialectics and logic of scientific knowledge, to choose a little bit enough simple, reliably tested physiological processes and the parameters underlying technical skill of the sportsman and defining his class. Considering high specific requirements of a sports kind to accuracy of technical and tactical actions, it is logical to assume, that they are provided with mechanisms of touch distinction, a spatial, time and dynamic differentiation of movements in spheres visual, proprioception and vestibular sensitivity. Efficiency of game actions will be determined by a level of mental processes of sensation and perception with development in sportsmen distinctness of visual, motor and other sensations, purchasing of skills thin to differentiate actions on time, space and efforts. Distinctive sensitivity these parameters of movements forms a physiological basis sensomotor cultures of the sportsman. The system organization of psychomotor functions Psychomotor processes represent objective perception the person of all forms of mental reflection, since simple sensations and finishing complex forms of intellectual activity. Psychomotorik of sports activity differs variety of separate motor acts and an originality of their existential organization, especially anticipation, as integrator of psychomotor actions. Thus psychophysiology analysis of the person movements (and at the sportsman mainly) should start with the purpose these movements which in aggregate with it form structure of motor action (Anokhin, 1968; Bernshtein, 1947). Initial concepts and definitions Sports motor activity, from the point of view of psychophysiology, consists, first of all, in specific in each of sports kinds of the spatial- time organization of psychomotor acts. One of the major substructures of such organization is diverse kinds sensemotor reactions: simple and complex sensemotor reactions, sensemotor coordination. In them it is possible to allocate 3 cores, the typical mental act: • The touch moment: process of detection and perception of stimulus, motor reaction on which is the purpose of actions; • The central moment: processes of processing apprehended with distinction, an estimation and a choice of those or other stimulus; • The motor moment: the processes, determining has begun movements. On complexity of the central moment simple and complex reactions differ. Simple sensemotor reaction is probably prompt reply in advance known simple single movement on suddenly appearing, but in advance known signal. Speed of simple reaction is estimated or on latent time of reaction from the moment of occurrence of a signal prior to the beginning of reciprocal action, or on common time of reaction. Complex sensemotor reaction depending on character of the central moment can be: • Reaction of a choice if necessary differentiation of the necessary motor answer from of some possible; • Reaction of distinction if on one of signals it is necessary to do the certain movement, and on others of any movement to make it is not necessary; • Reaction of switching at change of definiteness of semantic communication of stimulus and possible motor acts. It is necessary to add this traditional classification, in our opinion, still with reaction of a delay. The essence of this reaction consists that it should be not so much fast, how many duly, that is separated from stimulus precisely measured and differentiated interval of time. # 1046 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Konstantin K. Markov and Oksana O. Nikolaeva… Theoretical and Methodological Problems of Psychomotor… The originality of such reaction consists also that the contents of the central moment, except for a thin differentiation of a time interval, can be simple and complex enough, similar above considered sensemotor reactions. In volleyball such situations are very widespread and represent the greatest complexity. Hierarchy of psychomotor functioning levels In a basis of modern representations about the organization and management of psychomotor actions position about their multipurpose and hierarchical structure (Bernshtein, 1947) lays. The supreme level «Е» operates a semantic part of the motor act. It is connected with intellectual functions of the person and plays a role of a leading level. The level of subject action «Д» serves the decision of a semantic task of movement, drawing up of the connected circuits of movement, movement with a subject. It covers as the leader almost all semantic movements and as a background level provides «supreme automatism». The level «С» – one of the cores in a class of psychomotor movements with their differentiation, provides moving a body to space and time. It plays the important role in all kinds локомоций, ballistic movements, at an extensive background role in semantic movements. The level «В» provides a direct control of muscular synergies, struggle against jet forces, creation of dynamically steady movement. It plays a role of rather extensive background level. The level «A» narrowly operates the organization of a muscular tone and degree of a muscle or muscles group excitability. It is even less connected with a semantic program part of psychomotor action and concerns to a background level. From the presented scheme follows, that: • The organization, programming and management of any psychomotor act occurs on different floors CNS hierarchically; • Hierarchically presented levels constantly cooperate by a principle of a dynamic subordination. Such organization of management by psychomotor actions provides a variety of auxiliary touch corrections alongside with the realized leading semantic corrections. They automatically provide to the motor act stability of basic parts of a body, «muscular smoothness» on all parts of a kinematic circuit, profitability of power inputs at a level of optimum technics of movements, spatial and time accuracy, etc. In a number of situational sports kinds (including, fi rst of all, in volleyball) where the basic part of psychomotor actions in conditions of a rigid limit of time is carried out «automatically, unconsciously» such organization of management is unique. The higher class volleyball teams have more percent of such background operating corrections in sportsmen actions. Accordingly and the contents of training process should be directed on development as possible for a lot of automatically correct actions, switchings from one action to another, fi xing of absolutely exact starting positions, forecasting of actions of the opponent in standard situations. It is very important, that this «hierarchy» penetrated all long-term preparation of the player. Mechanisms of psychomotor actions management The central part of structure of sports activity (except for motives) the psychomotor action defined by its nearest regulator – acts as the purpose. Motivation activity is considered as the system organization in which psychomotor # 1047 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Konstantin K. Markov and Oksana O. Nikolaeva… Theoretical and Methodological Problems of Psychomotor… actions join as a subsystem. Characterizing neurophysiology mechanisms of a functional motor activity control system of the person, allocate (Anokhin, 1968) its mainframes: afferent synthesis, decision-making, formation of program actions, performances and receptions of result, a feedback. Afferent synthesis covers: the sense organs which are finding out starting signals, processing in CNS starting signals and formation of complete perception of conditions, motivation, long-term and operative memory on which the identification and identification of the starting information is based. The player, visually perceiving hit of the opponent on a ball, in advance prepares for reception, searches for the best way of reaction. Before decision-making he has time to compare starting afferentation to images of memory and conditions (distance up to a ball, a trajectory and speed of its flight, an arrangement of the players and the opponent) and operates according to a situation, bringing corrections at a deviation from standard action. Final result afferent synthesis is initial preparation of the proved decision. After decision-making the program, ways of execution and reception of the necessary result are formed, means and ways of the decision of motor action are selected. Programming of motor actions as dynamic process provides parameters of movements and the touch control over a course of their realization. The big role in the program formation is played with processes anticipate, that is abilities of a brain, «looking forward» to extrapolate the future (Surkov, 1982). Anticipatory planning in volleyball, reactions of players to a moving ball and of the opponent are constantly operating factor of formation of emergency and alternative programs of action. This prediction cannot be absolute and has likelihood character. The big role in such likelihood programming is played with the last experience of the player, rich «library» of the standard actions fulfi lled in training process and fi xed in a competitive practice. Distinctive sensitivity of movements Discernability in modern understanding (Kossov, 1973; Ozerov, 2002) is the certain distinctive characteristic of process of the distinction, dated to the certain degree of distinction in objects. It is important the perception factor, significally defining an originality, qualitative and quantitative laws of all sensor sportsman functions. Accuracy, intensity and a management efficiency movements depend and are essentially determined by a functioning level of such mental processes, as sensation and perception. For this purpose, on the one hand, is necessary development of distinctness of visual, motor and other sensations, and with another, purchase of skills to carry out the control over actions, thin to differentiate them on parameters of space, time and intensity of muscular efforts. The same base qualities underlie diverse forms sensor-perception anticipation game courses in external space, all reactions of the sportsman to a moving ball and players movement. There is also a close connection of the basic psychomotor parameters with stability to stress-factors, high diagnostic sensitivity of mental tolerance critical situations. And, at last, high forecast reliability of psychomotor tests for an estimation of motor endowments at children’s and youthful age, at selection makes a task in view especially actual. From this follows, that the highest results in sports are achieved by sportsmen, not only conceiving, but also is thin feeling, possessing high sensor-perception culture. In a basis of a high technical level, productivity and reliability of actions in volleyball distinctive sensitivity of movement parameters lays. The cores are three # 1048 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Konstantin K. Markov and Oksana O. Nikolaeva… Theoretical and Methodological Problems of Psychomotor… kinds of distinctive sensitivity: on time, spatial and on effort. Distinctive sensitivity time Performance of complex technical actions in volleyball in conditions of rigid deficiency of time demands much of the sportsman abilities quickly to perceive by means of analyzers primary stimulus, operatively to process this information and to make a decision quickly, in due time and precisely to carry out actually motor part of the motor act. One of the major characteristics of any sportsman motor action is time. Mastering by sportsmen of an optimum rhythm and rate of movements, skill to differentiate sensomotor reaction is impossible without aggravated “time sense”, abilities is thin to perceive intervals, to distribute the actions during strictly set time. The theoretical substantiation of a development technique of time distinctive sensitivity is based on enough well-known positions of human physiology. I.M. Sechenov (1952) specified on «movement regulation by sense», enabling to improve ability to differentiate microcells of time and to operate motor reaction. Activity of the person has oscillatory character with microintervals at 30-70 ms, and this step can serve as a measure of time. High-speed actions are closely connected with a complex of visual, acoustical, muscular sensations and skill them to estimate, perfection of a feedback, the information on real time of action. To a certain extent, speed idle time motor is genetically set, however at well thought over system of purposeful education it is possible to develop in the necessary direction such properties of nervous system as force, mobility and steadiness at representatives of various types of the supreme nervous activity. I.P. Pavlov (1949) marked, that genetically certain type of the supreme nervous activity does not program rigidly speed of reaction. Alteration of this stereotype is possible, however it demands various efforts from people of different typology. Speed of the latent period of simple motor reaction basically depends on speed of nervous impulses distribution from periphery of the analyzer to the center and on motor ways to a muscle. According to G.G.Gelmgolts (Gellershtein, 1958) it makes about 70 km/s. For complex reactions with a choice speed of reaction increases due to delays for ways of distribution of a nervous impulse: the more complex reaction, more stimulus and variants of the answer, the more these delays. Speed of simple motor reaction depends from: • Motivations of the player; • Intensity stimulus; • Interval of time between separate stimulus; • Abilities to a prediction of events; • Kind of a signal (visual, sound, etc.); • Current functional condition of the player. Ability to distinguish the minimal changes in movements on time variables defines a level of sports opportunities of the given sportsman. In works S.G. Gellershtein (1958), B.B. Kossov (1973), V.P. Ozerov (2002), E.N. Surkov (1984), etc. it is shown, what exactly distinctive sensitivity of time intervals, instead of actually speed of simple motor reaction, limits ability of the sportsman thin to operate speed of motor reactions. The sensor method provides the directed perfection of ability to distinguish microintervals of time and provides carry of accuracy of time differentiations on speed and timeliness of reactions. The practical technique of perfection of distinctive ability on time is under construction on S.G. Gellershtein hypothesis (1958) about existence of dependence of speed of simple motor reaction (its latent period) from time sense, ability to perceive and estimate time microintervals. The big influence renders this quality as well on timeliness of reaction which is based on exact measure off a # 1049 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Konstantin K. Markov and Oksana O. Nikolaeva… Theoretical and Methodological Problems of Psychomotor… pause time from occurrence of stimulus prior to the beginning of impellent actions Technique of perfection The primary goals at perfection of the sportsman distinctive sensitivity on time consist in, that: • To learn to react more precisely, instead of faster, to be able to detain an motor impulse for precisely set time; • To increase ability to operate in the speed of simple motor reaction. The concrete intervals of time included in training process proceeding from specificity of volleyball, get out in two ranges: the first – 3-8 sec, connected with actions of players on submission and reception of submission and the second – the order of the tenth and 100-th shares of second for actions in protection and on the insurance, at blocking and attacking impact. Hardware maintenance of perfection process of distinctive ability on time consists in use of the device-reaction meter (in research device MRK433 – Poland was applied) with wide enough set of functions, 4-5 light and sound stimulus and 3-4 alternatives of the answer with registration of series of answers till 25-30 time in a series (Markov, 2001). The technique of perfection consists of following stages. I stage – fact-finding, 2-3 days for reception of average data on motor reaction speed of a team players, acquaintance with the equipment and technics of measurements, psychological adaptation to process (motivation, exhaustion, attention). II stage – development of ability as much as possible quickly to react to a starting signal, constantly receiving the information on actual time of reaction and its latent period. At this stage the task is put to establish connection between the motor answer and time of reaction. As a result of trainings strong associations between an interval of time and character of motor sensation, connection of action with sensation of time after each reaction are established. III stage – to learn to estimate as much as possible precisely the motor reaction speed, the self-estimation of reaction time obligatory and realized by the player at which the examinee verbally and number characterizes duration of a microinterval. At once after this self-estimation the exact size of reaction and the made mistake is informed the player. Examinees are induced by it to comparison, checking of duration of microintervals in a number of attempts, correct the mistakes. At the first stage sportsmen are capable to make only a rough differentiation, very “fast” players – within the limits of 0,15 sec, very “slow” – 0,3 sec. At a following stage the requirement to accuracy of an estimation increase. To improve «conscientious of sensations», the organization of connection between the previous result, subjective sensation and the subsequent action, it is necessary to aspire to reduce break between result and its self-estimation. After the message of true result of attempt and the made self-estimation it is necessary to give the examinee time to calculate a difference of data and to estimate it. Practically possible and extremely achievable accuracy in our researches is estimated within the limits of 0,03-0,05 sec. At the given stage the examinee does not ask questions on character of their sensations. IV stage – to learn to operate speed of motor reaction, passing consistently some stages. A task of this stage is achievement of effect of the maximal and realized stability in reproduction of those or other microintervals. The time sensor standard is the parameter of stability, to ability to operate as “time sense”. At the first stage the examinee, reacting to external stimulus, on each subsequent signal reproduces intervals under orders of (as much as # 1050 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Konstantin K. Markov and Oksana O. Nikolaeva… Theoretical and Methodological Problems of Psychomotor… possible quickly, twice more slowly, with the set step, etc.) with rough enough distinction between two consecutive attempts. After attempt – a selfestimation, then the message of true result. At the second stage of a stage distinction between two consecutive attempts, set by the examinee from the outside, becomes more “thin” and qualitative (slightly faster, slightly more slowly), and this measure “slightly” can individually be defined and is within the limits of 0,03-0,05 sec. Further – again a self-estimation and the message of true result. At the third stage the choice of the task for demanded speed of motor reaction is made by the examinee, carrying out the self-task. At the fourth stage the primary goal becomes as much as possible exact management of speed of motor reaction. Before each attempt the head sets exact value (number) of speed of motor reaction. All other manipulations – are similar previous. Sensibleness of sensations, the organization of connection between the previous result, its subjective sensation and the subsequent actions underlies success of such training. The aspiration to reduce break between attempt and its selfestimation is reached only at a high degree of motivation of the player. It is represented rational use of the given method in preparation of the high class volleyball players. Spatial distinctive sensitivity Spatial sensitivity (Anan’ev, 1955; Dikunov, 1971; Il’in, 1976; Uruzaeva, 1969), alongside with other parameters, provides accuracy and expediency of motor actions of the sportsman, its high level of development is a necessary condition of mastering by the perfect sports technics. Spatial sensitivity special movements of the sportsman improves in process of growth special training and qualifications. Primary development of distinctive sensitivity separate variable movements is specific and connected with concrete sports specialization. It is rather informative at overtraining. Its significant deterioration are found out at an optimum level of sensitivity time and effort. Age dynamics (Ozerov, 2002) spatial sensitivity, speaks that the motor-presented children already in the age of 8-9 years differ a high level, intensive dynamics that allows to recommend testing of spatial sensitivity selection of the presented children. Accuracy zones of spatial distinction are defined, first of all, by specificity of functioning of the visual analyzer, vestibular receptors and kinesthetic muscular sensitivity. One of the most essential characteristics of the visual analyzer is the field of vision. «To see skill a field», advanced peripheral and central sight is especially necessary in volleyball for exact and fast perception of a spatial arrangement is possible a lot of players (partners and opponents) with simultaneous visual procaking behind flight of a ball and an estimation of kinematic characteristics of its movement: trajectories, speeds and accelerations. In various sports kinds under influence of special exercises of the characteristic of a field of vision (the volume and the form) are rather various (Gagaeva, 1969; Medvedev, 1967; Surkov, 1982; Farfel’, 1975) also are specific. In volleyball the sizes of a sensor field have special value for processing total amount of the information in conditions of a rigid limit of time, for decision-making and the motor act. Special value gets quality of the visual analyzer work for setters. Undoubtedly, that deficiency high quality setters, alongside with a number of other reasons, speaks an insufficient level of development of the visual analyzer, bad selection in sports schools and absence of special exercises for development of the visual analyzer. In practice of work with a volleyball team in conditions of summer training gathering some kinds of exercises were applied to development # 1051 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Konstantin K. Markov and Oksana O. Nikolaeva… Theoretical and Methodological Problems of Psychomotor… of peripheral sight in conditions of deficiency of time with simultaneous performance of various motor actions (Markov, 2001). One kind of exercises was carried out in laboratory conditions on reaction meter MRK – 433. The sportsman should react as much as possible quickly and precisely pressing buttons and pedals various sorts signals (color, a sound), supervising the central sight stimulus ahead on distance of 4-5 m. Simultaneously with it in pauses between signals (2-3 sec) trainer, being sideways from the player on distance of 2-3 m, showed cards with large enough figures from 0 up to 9 in any sequence. This operation the player supervised peripheral sight, naming aloud figure. Complexity of exercise changed introduction up to 5 various signals (3 colors and 2 sound different tones) and up to 4 executive actions (2 buttons for hands and 2 pedals for legs). Time of each reaction in a series up to 25 times was registered and analyzed. The arrangement of cards, gradually moving apart a field of vision outside at the left and on the right varied. The second kind of exercises (specially for setters) was carried out on a court. On its one side after operational development from depth of a court setter made set on attackt. On other side, behind a net the trainer periodically during flight of a ball from the defender to setter showed the same cards with figures and the giving in player before a pass should see figure and loudly it names. The condition of exercise varied change of zones of operational development, an initial setter position (zones 2, 3, 6) and various actions (with an output, in a jump, in squat, etc.), change of a position of the trainer with cards. In the third exercise similar previous, of the setter action became complicated that each figure on a card designated the certain kind of transfer (in zones 4, 3 and 2, highly, low, fast, etc.). Up to setter contact of a ball he should verbally, loudly designate the decision. The fourth exercise similarly previous, but setter carries out the real set designated by number of a card and according to perception by its player. Similar exercises can be applied for attacking and blocking. Significant role in maintenance of a high level of spatial sensitivity plays kinesthetic distinction. In sports activity muscular feeling, kinesthetic spatial distinction are a basis of mastering by technics of specialized actions, their operative regulation. It is included a compound part into the acts connected with visually-motor coordination of movements. At sportsmen of various sports specializations, age and qualification under influence of regular trainings simultaneously with perfection of coordination accuracy kinesthetic spatial distinction develops. In different sports kinds «muscular feeling» is specialized and localized, first of all, basically for the given kind motor functions, and accuracy zones of spatial distinction correlate with a condition training the sportsman (Gagaeva, 1969; Keller, 1977; Puni, 1959; Khudadov, 1970). Development of thin muscular sensations is based not only on perfection of the motor analyzer, but also closely cooperate with speech alarm system; conscious речемыслительный the control over learning and differentiation of various movements on amplitude promotes transformation of these psychomotor movements into skill with high ability of distinction and comprehension of changes of characteristics of movement. Testing kinesthetic distinctions is spent on special devices (kinematometer, kurvimetr, etc.) by a method of the minimal increment of a spatial interval of amplitude. At absence of the visual control, on a regular basis returning a hand in a starting position, the examinee reproduces the certain amplitude of movement with minimally felt increment. The quantity of steps in the set interval correctly reproduced by the sportsman determines a level of its distinctive ability in # 1052 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Konstantin K. Markov and Oksana O. Nikolaeva… Theoretical and Methodological Problems of Psychomotor… the given component of perception of movement (Kulagin, 1984; Marishchuk, 2005). In natural experiments studying of spatial distinction is made by result of broad jumps from a place at its step increase in each attempt from 70 % of the maximal result up to limiting with the task of the minimal increment (the greatest quantity} of steps). The previous jump should not repeat or decrease, the visual reference point was absent, the fact of a mistake, without concrete result was informed the sportsman only. In volleyball the given technique can be used at reproduction upwards from a contact platform. On time of flight (from up to a landing), registered the special electronic timer, to the sportsman informs dynamics of a jump without exact figure of result. Measurement is made in an interval from 50 % of limiting result up to a maximum. Thin differentiation of increments of height of a jump is estimated by quantity of steps in an interval and by quantity of erroneous attempts. In training experiment the given technique is modified to technique of development of distinctive sensitivity similarly described above on time, with similar breakdown and sequence of stages. Distinctive sensitivity effort Motor activity in any kind of sports is connected with performance of various speedpower exercises. One of them demand the maximal muscular and mental pressure, others – economy and reliability of muscular expenses for a long time, the third depend on accuracy and timeliness of dynamic efforts on time and a place. Skill correctly to distribute efforts in time and space – one of the basic conditions of display of high technical and tactical skill of the sportsman. The estimation specificity of contact quality of the volleyball player described above with a ball in all game elements allows to approve, that thin differentiation of muscular efforts on size, a place and time of their display in many respects defi nes a class of the player. It is possible to allocate following basic game actions in which their qualitative performance is to the greatest degree determined by a level of distinction of efforts: • Service reception: accuracy of operational development, thin differentiation of efforts of hands and foots; • Service: force and accuracy of spike on a ball; • The top set: thin distinction of brushes efforts on a ball; • Attack: alternation strong and false spike, the aimed spike of average force in empty places of the opponent court. Researches of force sensitivity of sportsmen allow to define following general laws (Markov, 2001): • Quality and accuracy of efforts differentiation improve during purposeful training, with growth of the sports form is much faster, than accuracy of perception of time and space; • Between absolute force and accuracy of muscular pressure direct dependence is absent, different on size muscular pressure are differentiated unequally; • Development specificity of force sensitivity volleyball players of different game roles is revealed; • The development level of force sensitivity appreciably depends on structure of selfchecking by the sportsman of technics elements. Testing of force sensitivity is possible by means of brushes dynamometer by method of the minimal increment of effort. It is offered to the player without the visual control gradually, it is step with the minimal increment of effort to compress a dynamometer in a range from 0 up to base effort. The quantity of such steps # 1053 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Konstantin K. Markov and Oksana O. Nikolaeva… Theoretical and Methodological Problems of Psychomotor… characterizes a subtlety of a force differentiation. In natural conditions testing of force sensitivity can be lead by a throwing of a ball (tennis, volleyball, stuffed) similar step image from 70 % of the maximal result with the minimal increment in each step up to a limiting throw. Both specified techniques modified similarly described above technique, can be applied in the training purposes to development of special force distinctive sensitivity in volleyball players. Conclusions 1. Effective perfection of distinctive sensitivity is realized by means of a sensor multistage technique in 4 stages. 2. For improvement of speed of reaction and ability to differentiate and operate by micro intervals of time – with use electronic reaction meter are determined: time of simple reaction for a light signal and the player opportunities to distinguish intervals of time and to reproduce them under orders of the trainer and it is any. 3. For perfection of ability to differentiate and reproduce the set sizes of efforts – with use electronic brushes dynamometer at a level of 70 % from individual maximal ability on the right hand the minimal increments of efforts distinguished and reproduced by players under orders of the trainer and are defined is any. 4. For perfection of the player distinctive sensitivity jump height and reproduction of the set parameters by it – with use of the contact platform having the electronic registrar of time intervals between upwards jump of the player at pushing out from a place and a landing, are defined at a level of 70 % from individual maximal jump height ability to distinguish and reproduce the minimal deviations from the task. 5. For perfection of distinctive sensitivity of spatial parameters and their ability to reproduce by the strongest hand the throw of a tennis ball is tested for range with definition of the player ability to distinguish and reproduce under orders at a level of 70 % from individual maximal range of a throw its minimal deviations. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Anan’ev B.G. Prostranstvennoe razlichenie [Spatial distinction]. Leningrad, LGU Publ., 1955. 186 p. Anokhin P.K. Biologiia i neirofiziologiia uslovnogo refleksa [Biology and neurophysiology of a conditioned reflex]. Moscow, Medicine, 1968. 205 p. Bernshtein Н.А. O postroenii dvizhenii [About construction of movements]. Moscow, Medgiz, 1947. 255 p. Biriukova Z.I. Vysshaia nervnaia deiatelnost sportsmena [Supreme nervous activity of sportsmen]. Moscow, FiS, 1961. 156 p. Bril’ M.S. Printsypy i metodicheskie osnovy aktivnogo otbora shkolnikov dlia sportivnogo sovershenstvovaniia [Principle and methodical bases of active selection of schoolboys for sports perfection]: autoref. diss … drs. ped. sciences, Moscow, 1986. 46 p. Gagaeva G.M. Psichologiia futbola [Psychology of football]. Moscow, FiS, 1969. 215 p. Gellershtein S.G. Chuvstvo vremeni i skorost dvigatelnoi reaktsii [Time sense and speed of motor reaction]. Moscow, Medgiz, 1958. 48 p. Dikunov A.M. Upravlenie prostranstvennymi parametrami dvigatelnykh deistvii metodami nagliadnoi informatsii [Management in spatial parameters of motor actions by methods evident information]: autoref. diss … drs. ped. sciences, Moscow, 1971. 42 p. # 1054 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Konstantin K. Markov and Oksana O. Nikolaeva… Theoretical and Methodological Problems of Psychomotor… 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Farfel’ V.S. Upravlenie dvizheniiami v sporte [Movements management in sports]. Moscow, FiS, 1975. 256 p. Il’in E.P. Struktura psikhomotornykh sposobnostei. Psikhomotorika [Structure of psychomotor abilities. Psychomotorik]. Leningrad, 1976. 128-133. Il’in E.P. Differentsialnaia psikhofiziologiia fizicheskogo vospitaniia i sporta [Differential psychophysiology of physical training and sports]. Leningrad, LGPI, 1979. 235 p. Keller V.S. Deiatelnost sportsmenov v variativnykh konfliktnykh situatsiiakh [Activity of sportsmen in variety disputed situations]. Kiev, Zdorove, 1977. 180 p. Khudadov N.A. Psikhologicheskaia podgotovka bokserov [Psychological preparation of the boxer]. Moscow, FiS, 1970. 164 p. Klimenko V.V. Psikhomotornye sposobnosti iunogo sportsmen [Psychomotor of the young sportsman ability]. Kiev, Zdorove, 1987. 168 p. Kossov B.B. Poznavatelnye protsessy u sportsmenov. Sensornaia osnova sportivnogo masterstva [Cognitive processes at sportsmen. A sensor basis of sports skill]. Moscow, 1973. 78 p. Kulagin B.V. Osnovy professionalnoi psikhodiagnostiki [Bases of professional psychodiagnostics]. Leningrad, Medicine, 1984. 216 p. Marishchuk V.L. Psikhodiagnostika v sporte [Psychodiagnostics in sports]. Moscow, Education, 2005. 349 p. Markov K.K. Pedagogicheskie i psikhologicheskie aspekty deiatelnosti trenera po voleibolu v trenirovochnom i sorevnovatelnom protsessach [Pedagogical and psychological aspects of activity of the trainer on volleyball in training and competitive processes]: diss … drs. ped. sciences. Moscow, 2001. 370 p. Matveev L.P. Obshchaia teoriia sporta i ee prikladnye aspekty [General the theory of sports and its applied aspects]. Moscow, Soviet sports, 2010. 340 p. Medvedev V.V. Psikhologicheskie osobennosti sostoianiia trenirovannosti. Eksperimentalnoe issledovanie na materiale voleibola [Psychological condition training feature. Experimental research on a material of volleyball]: autoref. diss … kand. ped. sciences. Moscow, 1967. 24 p. Ozerov V.P. Psikhomotornoe razvitie sportsmena [Psychomotor sportsmen development]. Kishinev, 1983. 140 p. Pavlov I.P. Polnoe sobranie trudov [Full assembly of works]. III. Moscow-Leningrad, 1949, P. 50-51. Platonov V.N., Sakhnovskiy K.P. Podgotovka iunogo sportsmena [Preparation of the young sportsman]. Кiev, 1988. 288 p. Puni A.TS. Ocherki psikhologii sporta [Sketch of sports psychology]. Moscow, FiS, 1959. 142 p. Sechenov I.M. Izbrannye proizvedeniia [The selected works]. Moscow, Pabl. AS, 1952. 453 p. Surkov E.N. Antitsipatsiia v sporte [Anticipation in sports]. Moscow, FiS, 1982. 144 p. Surkov E.N. Psikhomotorika sportsmena [Psychomotor of the sportsman]. Moscow, FiS, 1984. 125 p. Uruzaeva В.А. O zritelnom razlichenii osnovnykh form traektorii dvizheniia [About visual distinction of the basic forms of a trajectory of movement. Perception of space and time]. Leningrad, 1969. 124 p. # 1055 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Konstantin K. Markov and Oksana O. Nikolaeva… Theoretical and Methodological Problems of Psychomotor… Теоретические и методологические проблемы формирования психомоторных качеств в волейболе К.К. Маркова, О.О. Николаеваб Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041? Красноярск, пр. Свободный? 79 б Красноярский государственный педагогический университет им. В.П. Астафьева Россия 660049, Красноярск, ул. Ады Лебедевой, 89a а Рассмотрены проблемы формирования психомоторных качеств игроков в современном волейболе, теоретическое и методологическое обоснование которого представлено на основе анализа специфики вида спорта и основных психофизиологических закономерностей организма спортсменов. Ключевым звеном практической методики совершенствования двигательных способностей спортсменов определено формирование в тренировочном процессе временной, пространственной и силовой мышечной различительной чувствительности у игроков различных игровых амплуа. Теоретически обоснована и разработана для практического применения методика развития и совершенствования двигательных качеств волейболистов, определены и изложены ее основные положения, этапы, рабочий инструментарий и методы контроля динамики развития способностей игроков дифференцировать микроинтервалы времени, усилий и пространства, оценочные критерии. Ключевые слова: волейбол, психомоторные качества, скорость реакции, различительная чувствительность. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2013 6) 1057-1065 ~~~ УДК 93/94 Political Reforms in Russia and Improvement of Political System in Russia at Beginning XXI Century Alexey E. Prokopovich and Oleg Yu. Lyutykh* Krasnoyarsk state pedagogical university named after V.P. Astafyev 89 Ady Lebedevoy Str., Krasnoyarsk, 660060 Russia Received 05.03.2013, received in revised form 07.06.2013, accepted 22.06.2013 In article historical evolution of the Russian reforms, their sociopolitical maintenance are considered, underlined specificity of the Russian reforming, internal and external factors are defined influencing character of transformations. Keywords: reforms, social and political transformation, political course of reforming, Russia and West, model of overtaking development. Point: In the Russian historical political tradition in conducting reforms under the inertia and passivity of the broad masses, the subjective factor plays an important role. Under these conditions, the leading position belongs to the role of a public leader. The fact is particularly relevant to Russia with its centuries-old monarchist, fuehrer historical traditions. In the early twenty-fi rst century, such a leader by a lucky chance for Russia became V.V. Putin. Was appearance of Vladimir Putin as head of state a random occurrence? It was random to a large extent. And at the same time, it was natural. After ten years of destruction of the country in the 1990s, the emergence of a creative statesman, which was Vladimir Putin for Russia, was ripe. Here was a clear dialectic of the necessary and the accidental in a historical process. * The political component of the reform process is extremely urgent. The success of social and economic changes depends largely on the openness of the political system, maximum freedom of speech and other political freedoms, strict compliance with state laws and human rights. The more the political sphere is close to the democratic ideal, the more favorable are the conditions for successful economic and social transformation. Example: In the political sphere, same as in the economy, a substantial burden of unresolved issues accumulated during the 1990s. As a result of spontaneous, often not thoughtful and hasty decisions Russia appeared on the verge of collapse as a sovereign state formation. The most important strategic task of the new state leadership was to preserve the unity of the country. To achieve this, it was necessary to © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1057 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey E. Prokopovich and Oleg Yu. Lyutykh. Political Reforms in Russia and Improvement of Political System in Russia… build a strong public authority, to strengthen its structure from top to bottom. The priorities of the new leadership in the political sphere were to strengthen the vertical of state power through a series of fundamental political decisions: seven federal districts were formed to enhance direct contacts of the supreme power with the regions. Presidential plenipotentiaries appointed to the districts began to exercise functions of political intermediaries between the supreme executive power and local authorities in the regions. Boundaries of federal districts coincided with the boundaries of military districts, and prominent political and military figures were appointed to head each of them. Five of the seven presidential envoys had military ranks of generals (G. Poltavchenko, V. Cherkesov, P. Latyshev, K. Pulikovsky, and V. Kazantsev). Thus the President demonstrated the seriousness of his intentions to strengthen order in the country, to prevent the trends of collapse and chaos. Another important measure to strengthen the state was reorganization of the Federation Council, the upper chamber of the Federal Assembly. Previously, its members were representatives of regional political elite from the structures of the legislative and executive authorities. Emphasis was placed on their work in the field, in the regions, as the work in the Federation Council distracted regional leaders from everyday practical work with people in the community. In their place, rank and file representatives of local legislative and executive authorities were nominated (although, on presentation of executive and legislative structures of the regional government). Thus the President reduced possible influence of the regional leaders on the political processes in the center; put their work under tight control of the central executive power. A kind of compromise between central and regional structures became the creation of the the State Council, an advisory body with unclear political functions. It was assumed that the State Council in Russia should give recommendations on the development of new laws. As is known, the State Council was established for the first time in 1810 by Emperor Alexander I, when the State Council also had no real power functions. The State Council of 2000 was meeting not more than once in three months. In the period between the sessions, the presidium of seven governors was meeting, whose composition was constantly changing. Changes in the structures of the highest legislative power were designed, first, to increase the personal authority of President Vladimir Putin as a determined, principled, consistent politician who had the strategic initiative to reform higher state bodies, and secondly, to put regional leaders under control, many of which, in the situation of lack of proper control by the central government in the previous years, had lost the sense of responsibility not only to voters, but also to the Kremlin. Some of them were explicitly stated in their real place in the political system of the state authority. Measures to bring regional legislation into line with the Constitution and federal laws served for strengthening of the state in the country. It’s no secret that in the 1990s, many regions of Russia, especially the national republics defending the centrifugal tendencies adopted their own laws that were contradicting with the federal laws. This fact destabilized the political situation in regions, encouraged ethnic separatism, threatened the existence of a single state space and the territorial integrity of the country. Through the efforts of the center it became possible to reverse this negative trend and weaken the political position of a number of regional leaders seeking to use the lack of control by the center in their own short-term interests using the Yeltsin’s ill-conceived thesis # 1058 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey E. Prokopovich and Oleg Yu. Lyutykh. Political Reforms in Russia and Improvement of Political System in Russia… in early1990s – “take sovereignty as much as you can”. During Vladimir Putin’s presidency, in connection with the continuation of market reforms and the overall disappointing results of the socio-economic development in 2000, a model of managed democracy began to develop. Its content was determined by the authors of the scientific collected articles “Competitiveness and Modernization of the Economy” as “a formal observance of democratic norms under the actual tyranny of power.” (Competitiveness and economy modernization, 2004. – P.35) The power found its justification in the drive for strengthening the state’s role in the society, overcoming its weakness, improvement of public activism through state mechanisms. However, in the system of managed democracy the society loses the ability to control activities of the government. In practice, overcoming the weakness of the state turned out with restrictions on freedom of speech, increasing use of the so-called administrative resource in election campaigns, the abolition of gubernatorial election, the onset of the socio-economic rights of workers (monetization of benefits, increasing payment of utility bills, etc.). At the same time, the political powers of the presidency expanded steadily, strengthening the power vertical. In the official literature, this phenomenon was called “managed democracy.” The model of managed state (democracy) appeared in connection with the subject’s inability to organize management of the community under the conditions of deepening democratic principles and norms. Historically, Russia has not developed a model of social functioning of subsystems in democracy, which in the 1990s was reduced to formal, external features. The authoritarian tendencies of the new government narrowed the format of democracy even more leaving the latter in the form of individual elements, especially after the tragic events in Beslan in September 2004. We understand this situation not as absolute immunity of Russia to democracy, but as a lack of adequate social experience of functioning of a social system in the atmosphere of democracy, its real content but not of a substitute with formal features. The forms of democracy, of course, can be different in different political systems based on historical and other traditions, but the content of democracy in its foundations and principles is one-dimensional. In this regard, we agree with E.G. Yassin that “managed democracy ... means that in reality the state is subject to the bureaucracy ...”, which naturally limits the boundaries of democracy, negates the efforts to build a civil society. (Yasin, 2004. P.17). Democracy is not government of the people, if understand literally the content of this term. It just cannot be that people rule the state. “Democracy is a certain technology acquisition and implementation of a minority government with the help of majority, relying on majority, but not always in the interests and to the benefit of the majority”, writes A.D. Kerimov. (Kerimov, 2007, P.26). Democracy involves the creation of such an atmosphere in the community, under which even the most insignificant voice, opinion can not only be heard by the authorities but also taken into consideration. Democracy in its full expression serves as an essential attribute of a successful organic socio-economic transformation, as it provides openness, transparency, respect for human rights and freedoms, equality of all citizens before the law. Democracy unleashes creative energy of the people guided to the track of creation of new social relations. The Russian leadership of the early 2000s had a difficult choice: to strengthen the democratic tendencies of the 1990s, fill them up # 1059 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey E. Prokopovich and Oleg Yu. Lyutykh. Political Reforms in Russia and Improvement of Political System in Russia… with real, concrete substance and by solving this problem to bring the socio-economic reforms to the needs of society; or to continue the Russian tradition of the feudal order of power for the power itself through manipulation of the law, upholding the interests of bureaucracy. Putting forward the thesis of “managed democracy” to stake on authoritarianism, concentration of state power beyond the democratic space. The second trend became dominant. Thus, the Russian state government continued to follow the Byzantine tradition rooted back to the medieval Russia, which consisted in the implementation of the thesis that the power in all its forms and manifestations is above the law. A retreat from democratic principles of public management inevitably increased the level of lack of freedom in the society, closeness of the power to control of the citizens and criticism of the government. In the absence of alternative projects, concepts and opinions authoritarianism, political monopoly intensified, which significantly reduced the efficiency of conducted socio-economic transformation. The economic laws, under which the market develops and operates, were substituted with non-economic, administrative methods of management; there appeared signs of the administrative-command system incompatible with market reforms. The reforms themselves lost momentum, as they were based not on the objective reality but on the minds of government officials who provided and oversaw the reforms. Interesting data, which indicated a lack of socio-political and economic experience of functioning of the Russian society in democracy, were received during a survey by VCIOM. 26 % of Russians believed that democracy was a “universal value”, 42 % thought democracy was “harmful to the state”. 44 % of respondents valued stability in the society most of all, while 37 % – the law (Kostikov, 2006, P.8). The movement of the Russian power in the direction of managed democracy under such circumstances was fully justified from the perspective of majority of the society. At the initial stage of reforms the state reform could be considered a success. In this case, it was not about the effectiveness of government agencies. First of all, the strategic problem was solved of preventing the growth of centrifugal tendencies that led to the disintegration of a unified Russian state. Further, nomination and decision of a critical strategic political objective followed to achieve a higher degree of efficiency of government agencies at all levels within the framework of reforming the political system of society, development of public policy that can bring the country out of the social catastrophe, overcome the accumulated destructive tendencies in the society. However, the first steps to strengthen the state were limited to external forms not leading to radical changes in the state’s role in the society that, in turn could lead to significant positive changes in the economy addressing the main strategic objective of improving the standard of living of the population. There still was no clear strategy of the state development, an integrated program of bringing the country out of the economic and social crisis. This applied to a scientifically developed theory for the transition period, a state stabilization program – a political strategy based on the actual socio-economic conditions of Russia’s revival. The exception in this respect was the fundamental scientific study “Economics of transition period: Essays on economic policy in post-communist Russia. 1991-1997” (Moscow: Institute for Economy in Transition, 1998), performed under the supervision of E.T. Gaidar. The remaining reasonable, correct theses put forward by leaders of the state – the need to strengthen the family, the fight against child homelessness and neglect, the formation of # 1060 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey E. Prokopovich and Oleg Yu. Lyutykh. Political Reforms in Russia and Improvement of Political System in Russia… conditions for healthy living, the solution of pressing demographic problems, etc. – did not receive reinforcement from the organizational and financial point of view, sank down into talking by officials. It did not give any significant socio-economic effect in solution of problems put forward by the state leadership. One of the ways of strengthening the state taken by Vladimir Putin was the introduction to the state structures of representatives of the uniformed services – the Army, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Federal Security Service (Arinin, 2012, P. 7-33). The idea was that the security forces will be able to restore order in the field, to strengthen discipline, to stabilize the socio-economic conditions for giving new impetus to the reforms. This was done through democratic means, through elections using the administrative resource by the candidates including support from the President himself. In our opinion, it is impossible to assess this trend in political terms unambiguously. On the one hand, participation of representatives from law enforcement agencies in the structures of the state to some extent contributed to the strengthening of discipline, order, especially at the regional level. The siloviki were less involved into the games between local and central bureaucracies, less influenced by political parties and movements. On the other hand, representatives of law enforcement agencies did not have the appropriate managerial experience of regional management, which reduced the efficiency of their managing activities. The teams of engaged specialists were not always able to replace the first person. Some members of security departments promoted to the posts of regional managers could not resist the temptations of cooperation with business entities of a questionable character. In December 2003, elections to the State Duma of the fourth convocation were held in Russia. Convincing victory in elections won the pro-presidential “United Russia”, which received more than 37 % of the vote. In support of the “United Russia” a powerful administrative resource was called, which included, inter alia, the support of President Vladimir Putin. The second place was taken by the Communist Party with a considerable loss of its earlier positions in the Duma, receiving 12.7 % of the vote. The reasons for the loss of majority of the Communist Party electorate are multifaceted. Among them is the outflow of a part of votes to the patriotic block “Rodina” (Motherland), the information blockade in the media, errors in the pre-election program guidelines that had lost relevance and topical meaning. The third position in the Duma, unexpectedly for the most of professional political consultants, was taken by the Liberal Democratic Party – 11.6 %, which re-emerged from the political wilderness of the previous years. LDPR leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky was able to gather the protest electorate using well-defined slogans “We are for the poor, we are for the Russians” imbued with nationalistic spirit. Unexpected results were shown by the fourth political force that entered the State Duma – the block “Motherland”, which within a short time gained a convincing victory due to the use of campaign slogans in support of the Russian people, the ideas of statehood and patriotism. All of the political parties that entered the State Duma, with all existing political differences, were by content the parties, which to some extent defended the ideas of great power that became dominant for the Russian statehood. Sensational was the crushing defeat at the Duma elections of the right-wing parties: SPS and the “Yabloko”, who could not overcome the 5 percent barrier. With the defeat at the election the right-wing parties lost their influence on the policy line of the state. The main reason for the defeat of the right forces became the detachment # 1061 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey E. Prokopovich and Oleg Yu. Lyutykh. Political Reforms in Russia and Improvement of Political System in Russia… of their political programs from the realities of life, the immediate needs of citizens and the tiredness of the population of liberal reforms. As a result of the elections to the Duma a pro-presidential majority was formed in the parliament consisting of deputies, supporters and members of the “United Russia”, which made “united Russians” responsible for the legislative policy of the State Duma. At the same time, the loss of the State Duma opposition sentiments in relation to the executive government and its political decisions had negative consequences in terms of the need to adjust the state policy reforms. In such circumstances, the state lost the variety of shades of political and ideological spectrum of opinions from different sectors of the society. On March 14, 2004 the presidential election was convincingly won by the acting Russian President Vladimir Putin, who was elected to a second presidential term. He received 71,22 % of the vote. His political opponents, Nikolai Kharitonov of the Communist Party got – 13,74 %, Sergei Glazyev – 4,11 %, Irina Hakamada – 3,85 %, Oleg Malyshkin from the Liberal Democratic Party – 2,03 %, Sergei Mironov of the Party of Life – 0,76 %. The overall attendance was 64,3 %. People who voted against all were 3,46 % of all voters (Izvestia, 2004, 16 March). In the Voronezh Region, at the presidential election of March 14, 2004 Putin received 65,28 %, N. Kharitonov – 21,96 %, Glazyev – 3,37 %, Hakamada – 2,93 %, against all – 2,67 %, O. Malyshkin – 2,21 %, S. Mironov – 0,87 %. The election was attended by 62,5 % of Voronezh voters (Izvestia, 2004, 16 March) The convincing victory of Vladimir Putin in the election indicated that the majority of voters continued to feed hopes for an adjustment of the political line, the vector of socio-economic reforms that could improve life of the working people of the Russian society. In addition, its role was played by the absence of major political blunders of the state leadership in the period of 2000-2004. The global market situation was favorable too, which helped to replenish the state budget through exports of energy resources. Putin’s election platform in 2004, like it was earlier, contained no specific promises; it was sufficiently vague and not adjacent to any of the ideological and party trends. This circumstance was an advantage as compared to other presidential candidates, whose ideological positions were closely tied to the political line of the specific parties and movements. In this regard a substantial interest for this study is the issue of the nature of the Russian government at the beginning of the twenty-first century. In the disclosure of its political content a response is rooted to the question of seriousness of the state to implement or continue the transformations that were begun. This contains the moral aspect of the problem and the question of the political role of its leaders. It is traditionally believed that Putin and his entourage (although it is far from being uniform) express political interests of the center. A growing number of political parties, factions of the Duma gravitated to the political center. Political center provides the most stable position in the Russian society, the possibility of a political maneuver, finding compromises, overcoming conflicts, seeking for political allies, etc. At the same time, the phenomenon of a political center is very complicated, multidimensional, especially in the periods of transition. The ideological platform of the Russian state was depicted in a rather elaborate formula of “conservative-centrist liberalism”, which claimed to unite the largest possible number of people, supporters of the implementation of the reform course. This term appeared in a British newspaper “Financial Times” in the middle of January 2004 and belonged to the new head of # 1062 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey E. Prokopovich and Oleg Yu. Lyutykh. Political Reforms in Russia and Improvement of Political System in Russia… the Russian President Administration Dmitry Medvedev. Dmitry Medvedev summed up the first presidential term of Vladimir Putin. The main outcome was the achievement of political stability, which at the State Duma elections in December 2003 was legitimized by the Russian voters. This fact became very important to support the reform policy. The main direction of state policy of the Russian leader before the presidential elections in 2004 was identified by Dmitry Medvedev as creation of a competitive economy, new jobs, modernization of production facilities and reduction in poverty. These priorities formed the content of the conservative-centrist socialeconomic program of the state management (Izvestia, 2004, 21 January). During Vladimir Putin’s stay at the head of the state from March 2000 to March 2004, it became possible to stop gaining force of processes of the state degradation, destruction of law enforcement and other power agencies. The constitutional order was restored in the country; a new vertical of federal executive power was rebuilt. Trends appeared of constructive interaction between legislative and executive branches of government, the efficiency of legislative work of the Parliament improved. Common legal space of the country was restored. All these measures should be attributed to the absolute merits of the new Russian political elite. However, the state leadership failed to fully remove the burden of accumulated political problems, to achieve more effective political decisions. One of the main reasons for this situation consisted of mixing phenomena in the analysis of causal links and relationships, when instead of the necessity to establish the cause and resolve conflicts arising in practice, the state struggled with resulting factors that were often of the second but not fi rst order. Therefore, the structures of the state lacked an effective mechanism for resolving socio-economic contradictions in the implementation of the state reform policy. Thus, in response to the call of the President of Russia to fight against one of the glaring negative manifestations of public life – juvenile neglect and homelessness – Deputy Prime Minister Valentina Matvienko said that she personally would ride on the Moscow train stations and collect homeless children. But what to do next with these children? Deliver them to orphanages? This statement is a clear example of substitution of reasons with a result. Such examples are plentiful. In such approaches the problem, of course, could not be resolved. The matter is not in the number of open children’s homes and strengthening of Russian family but in the organization of effective family support from the state. In this respect very little was done. Resume: The terrible tragedy in Beslan in September 2004, which killed more than three hundred people – adults and children, became a watershed in the politics of Vladimir Putin, who took the course of strengthening the power vertical and gradual phasing out democratic processes in the country. In September 2004, gubernatorial elections were canceled. V.B. Pastukhov rightly believes that the changes in the political sphere since 2004 were associated not with the events in Beslan (they were just a cause) but with the “orange revolution” in Ukraine (Pastuhov, 2010, P.13). He calls a revision of democracy of the 1990s “counter-revolutionary coup d’etat”, which led to the fact that real competition disappeared from the political life and the political system itself became closed. As a reaction of the power to the “orange revolution” in Kiev, the doctrine of “sovereign democracy” emerged primarily intended for external use only. In the same vein, V.B. Pastukhov considered the establishment of pro-Kremlin youth groups such as “Ours”, etc. to control the moods of the Russian youth. # 1063 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey E. Prokopovich and Oleg Yu. Lyutykh. Political Reforms in Russia and Improvement of Political System in Russia… In line with the problems of Russian reforms of the 2000s a question of the nature of the Russian state and the Russian national idea is justified. For the first time in the modern Russian history, this question was put forward by the Russian President Boris Yeltsin right after the 1996 presidential election. This thesis came out of the mouth of Boris Yeltsin, who was far from the national nature of the Russian government, quite unexpectedly and since then has been continually put forward in political debates by many experts – politicians, scientists, public figures. However, no significant positive solution to the complex ideological issues was achieved in the debates: the leaders either ignored the issue as unnecessary or brushed it aside as being unimportant. The issue of the national idea has not been raised into practice, which is quite surprising for a country that is a home to more than 160 different national groups. However, the lack of a deep theoretical development of the problem, and all the more of a practical solution to the problem, creates difficulties for the efficient and effective national policy. Unresolved issues of the nationwide ideology create many difficulties and conflicts in the Russian society, hinder the reform political line. The analysis of discussions around the topic of the all-Russian ideology has led us to the conclusion that this ideology must be based on historical and cultural traditions of the Russian people as a historically cementing ethnic group, around which other nations have been uniting for centuries, and the Russian state itself, Russia’s moral and spiritual space were formed. The structure of the all-Russian ideology must include the appropriate spiritual and moral elements of the lifestyle and mentality of other peoples of Russia in the form of national ideas, traditions, customs, and ceremonies. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Competitiveness and economy modernization: the book in two volumes. [Konkurentosposobnost i modernizatsiya ekonomiki: knigi v dvuh tomah]: V .1 / the editor. E.G.Yasin. М: SU HSE, 2004. P. 35. Izvestia. 2004. 16 March. Izvestia. 2004. 21 January. Kerimov A.D. Modern the state: theory questions [Sovremennoe gosudarstvo: voprosyi teorii] / A.D.Kerimov. М: NORMA, 2007. P. 26. Kostikov V. Sperm of democracy [Semya demokratii] Arguments and the Facts. 2006. № 10. P. 8. Pastuhov V.B. Ukrainian revolution and Russian counterrevolution [Ukrainskaya revolyutsiya i russkaya kontrrevolyutsiya] POLIS. 2010. № 5. P. 13. Yasin E.G. New an epoch old alarms: Political economy [Novaya epoha staryie trevogi: Politicheskaya ekonomiya] М: New publishing house, 2004. P. 17. Arinin A.N. About Russian President’s tasks in country modernization [O prezidente Rossii zadach v modernizatsii stranyi] Modern history of Russia. 2012, № 1 P. 7-33 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexey E. Prokopovich and Oleg Yu. Lyutykh. Political Reforms in Russia and Improvement of Political System in Russia… Политические реформы в России и улучшение политической системы России в начале XXI века А.Е. Прокопович, О.Ю. Лютых Красноярский государственный педагогический университет им. В.П. Астафьева Россия 660060, Красноярск, ул. Ады Лебедевой, 89 В данной статье рассматривается историческая эволюция реформ в России, их социополитическое обеспечение, описывается специфика проведения реформ в России, выявляются внутренние и внешние факторы, влияющие на характер преобразований. Ключевые слова: реформы, социальные и политические преобразования, ход политических реформ, Россия и страны Запада, модель обгоняющего развития. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2013 6) 1066-1074 ~~~ УДК 343.621 Abortion as a Means of Family Planning in Russia in the First Quarter of the Twentieth Century Mikhail D. Severyanova* and Larisa U. Anisimovab a Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny pr., Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia b Russian State Social University (branch in Krasnoyarsk) 11, Mozhaiskogo st., Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia Received 30.07.2012, received in revised form 10.02.2013, accepted 31.05.2013 In November 18, 1920 Soviet Russia became the first state in the world ever to legalize abortion. The authors of this article summarize the experience of its legalization in the 1920–1936 years. Reveal the socio-economic, health and other reasons that motivate women to abortion, moreover, authors show the interrelation the number of children in the family and mortality, as a result uncovered concrete historical causality adopted in the USSR in 1936 a law banning abortion. Keywords: law, legal and clandestine abortion, family planning, fertility, mortality. Abortion – is a form of modern family planning in many countries of the world. For example, in France, abortion was legalized in 1975, in Belgium – 1980, in Poland – 1956, in the UK – in 1967, West Germany – in 1976, in Turkey – 1983, in the U.S. – in 1973. July, 3, 2002 the European Parliament adopted a decision to legalize abortion in the European Community. In the modern world, there are countries where abortion is severely restricted: Brazil (1991), Chile (1990), Colombia (1989), Mexico (1990), Philippines (2000), Hungary and Poland (2012) and et al. In Soviet Russia, abortion was legalized in hospitals and banned as a private practice in November, 18, 1920 (Drobizhev, 1987). The Soviet Republic was the first country in the * world where abortion was legalized for medical and social reasons. The purpose of the act was to bring abortion out of the underground state. This article reviews the history of abortion in Tsarist and Soviet Russia. The complexity of this study is that there are no adequate and reliable statistics on abortion and death in this period, so we can only repeat the general consensus of opinion held by both doctors and researchers and contemporaries that the deaths were an appallingly high percentage of the number of abortion. The chronological scope of the study covers two periods (the end of XIX century – 1920, 1921–1927). Each of these periods has its own peculiarities and characteristics. Before the 1917 revolution, the tsarist government, as in most © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: Severyanova@mail.ru # 1066 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mikhail D. Severyanov and Larisa U. Anisimova. Abortion as a Means of Family Planning in Russia in the First Quarter… countries, label abortion “a moral and physical evil”. In the Criminal Code 1885 (art.1461–1463) abortion was defined as a “deliberate act” of murder, for which severe punishment for those who did, and those who were subjected to this procedure: the cancellation of any medical license, and long jail finally, and in some cases even the death penalty. Spiritual foundations of marriage, family, relationships between spouses, parents and children were professed by Christianity. In the Christian religion childbearing was considered as the justification of carnal procreation and it was seen as the ultimate meaning of marriage. The Christian church had negative attitude to birth control. Family law for the peasants had religious and mystical character. All that was sanctified by providence had an exceptional value in the village, “Children are a blessing of God, they support and happiness of the family” – this was the prevailing view of the peasants on children. Children created not only the internal strength of family top and contained an instinctive desire to procreate, but the consciousness of the importance which has in every generation, continuity of work: work for children as their future successors. Most of the peasants considered the expulsion of the fetus as a grave sin, and many saw in it a debauch of young generation. Village public opinion was extremely strict with the girls, who had seen in this offense. Much more likely to get married was the girl who gave birth to a child than the one on which it became known that she produced a miscarriage (Russian folk medicine, 1903). Peasant families tended to have many children. Researchers differently explain the need for the children. Researchers have differences on the issue of economic efficiency of a large family. The author shares the view of A.G.Vishnevsky, A.N.Chelintseva and B.V.Okushko taking into account the evolving nature and demographic composition of the peasant family. In the early twentieth century peasant remained primarily biological rather than a social being. Peasants could not afford the fatal risk and luxury not to marry or marry late, to limit the number of children, extend the intervals between births, etc. Therefore, they in the vast majority were married as soon as female (and to a much lesser extent, men) body was allowed to have children (the average age of the first menstrual period of peasant women of Tambov province in the 70–80’s XIX century was 16.3 years. On individual hospital statistics and in the early twentieth century 46 % Tambov peasants were married in the first year after the start of menstruation and another 20–22 % from 1 to 2 years. No posts and the harvest time could become intermission of equal intensity about sexual activity and chart conception. Sexually active peasants were approximately equal in all seasons, with a clear, but a slight increase in the time of weddings, “meat-eating”, and even less noticeable weakening in the harvest season. Another conception occurred as it will save on the full-term and preterm fetal mother’s womb. Given the share of miscarriage in early pregnancy, as well as stillborn or died before baptism, one can calculate that the “average” peasant women “from the metric “ became pregnant in two and a half years, and prior to the expiration of the first year after birth. If a woman’s health in order to remain within the prescribed period, the nature of child-bearing, she gave birth to full-term children at intervals of 12–15 months, giving birth for 20– 25 years up to 20 children. Similarly, the largest share – 40–60 % – in the reporting maternity units occupied, “July-October” nulliparous women married to 9–12 months before the birth of first child, while in metrics undercount stretched the interval of two and a half times. Notorious prolonged breastfeeding has had a very questionable and unnecessary measure to prevent another pregnancy, but it provides an # 1067 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mikhail D. Severyanov and Larisa U. Anisimova. Abortion as a Means of Family Planning in Russia in the First Quarter… intense production of prolactin in the female body that are approaching menopause and 4–5 years shortened fertile period (Дьячков В.Л.). Although the State, the Church and the common law have been fighting the practice of getting rid of unwanted children, but abortion, both in town and country was widespread. In the city abortion performed by – primarily for medical reasons and was the main form of contraception. In a Moscow hospital in 1910, there were 1884, in 1911–1531, in 1913 – 2372 (Ярославский В.М., 186). According to Llewellyn-Jones on the eve of World War I, the hospitals of Moscow and Leningrad were being overwhelmed by waves of women who had undergone some form of illegal abortion (Wheatcraft S.G., 49). As noted at the Pirogov Congress of Russia’s leading medical association in 1910, the rate of illegal abortions was growing on in “epidemic proportions.” On the eve of World War I, according to the well-known doctor Vigdorchik N., residents of St. Petersburg began to consider a miscarriage as something ordinary and affordable. Addresses of doctors and midwives passed from hand-to – hand, who performed those operations on a specific taxi, not very high (Левина Н). Pre-revolutionary Russia, according M.Hindus, has always been violent temper students. The fi rst survey for the study of the sexual behavior of students in Russia conducted by V. Favr, was held in 1902. He interviewed in Kharkov about 2000 students of three universities. According to the survey, 73 % of students aged 17–20 years have had sexual experience. According to the survey, conducted by D.N.Zhbakov (1908), almost 90 % of Moscow students and teachers between the ages of 17 and 25 were virgins at the age of 21–25 years – 45.5 %. For those who never have been married in the church, the proportion who had sexual experience was 18 %. I.Gelman in 1914, reported that 11.9 % of students in Moscow had fi rst sexual intercourse before age 13 and 39, 2 % – 14 to 16 years (Гельман И., 1925). During the revolution of 1917 and the subsequent civil war, little was done to stop the practice of underground abortions. Besides hunger, deprivation, destruction encouraged more women to seek illegal abortions (Wendy Z. Goldman, 1993). There was an increase in the number of abortions and health care facilities. For example, in one of St. Petersburg’s clinics in 1919, there were 1274, 1920 – 1460, in 1921 – 2134. In Moscow, in one clinic in 1910 there were 1, 884, in 1913– 2372, and in 1922–6859 (Ярославский В.М., 186). Induced abortion was a widespread in rural areas. According to E.P. Dutton, the poor people, to whom he referred the population of prerevolutionary Russia, there was some complexity in financial support of large families. Frequent women’s births were forced to family on the one hand, spending more material resources to raise their children, on the other hand, the family lost for some time worker, her pregnancies cut down still further the family’s finances. Russian woman protected herself from a physical and her family from an economic breakdown in the only way she knew-by using abortion to prevent too frequent births (Dutton E.P., 1932). Women knew that they could die from abortion, lose health and strength again pregnant. Often, women perform an abortion on their own, or to help her inexperienced friend or midwife. Using household tools that are completely unsuitable for this purpose, and conditions are unlikely to have ever been hygienic. Those who make such operations generally do not have any idea about the female anatomy and physiology, and therefore, in many cases, the procedure results in death or permanent disability. Women have used a variety of mechanical devices: pulling stomach towels, ropes; lifting weights unbearable, jumping from a high ladder, # 1068 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mikhail D. Severyanov and Larisa U. Anisimova. Abortion as a Means of Family Planning in Russia in the First Quarter… loft; skipping over the barrel or a high fence. From internal means the most common was “drinking gunpowder, saltpetre, kerosene, phosphorus matches, ergot, mercuric chloride, cinnabar, arsenic, ...swallowing a” living “mercury...” women finely received milled glass with water and sand, which is formed at hone iron or steel tools” (Russian folk medicine, 1903). The use of these funds often entailed death. Before the revolution sexual behavior of rural and urban population has become the subject of wide public discussion. In the last quarter of the XIX century to the various methods of birth control began to resort more and more general population. The newspaper “The Doctor” for 1893 noted that “condoms” have become increasingly common, although condoms, as well as coitus interruptus, were extremely harmful to health (Вишневский А.Г., 40). Medical community especially actively advocated for the legalization of abortion. At the 3rd Congress of the Society of Russian Physicians in memory N.I. Pirogov in 1889, the authors of reports, recognizing that abortion – the evil, however, called for a softening of the Russian legislation on abortion, in particular, to ensure that reduce to minimum punishment of women subjected to surgery, and to recognize the legitimate medical abortion in the case of some diseases (Вишневский А.Г., 42). Especially intensified demands for the legalization of abortion in 1905 after the main motive for these standards was the growth of underground operations, often ended with an injury, or even death of patients. The greatest social urgency the legalization of abortion in 1913, acquired at the XII Congress of the Society of Russian Physicians N.I. Pirogov. The majority of participants were in favor of abolition of the ban on abortion (Белобородов И.И.), defining the resolution of the Congress, that the prosecution of the mother in a miscarriage should never occur and doctors, who produced at her request and insistence, should be exempt from criminal liability. As a fact, that in these years, a positive attitude to the legalization of abortion has identified and Lenin (Ulyanov) – the future chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR. Thus, the law to permit abortion in 1920 was predetermined in the pre-revolutionary period. The legalization of abortion in Soviet Russia has caused a wide resonance in the Russian Federation and abroad. Domestic and foreign scholars Marianne Githens, Dorothy Mc.Bride Stetson, Dorothy E.Mc Bride, N. Levina wrote that the legalization of abortion in Russia was a necessary health measure, carried primarily to healthcare. The government fi rst sought to deal with the causes of abortion (illness, large families, poor housing) (Marianne Githens and et al). Most Western scholars (E.P. Dutton, Arthur Newsholme and John Adams Kingsbury) in their studies have focused on the responsibility of physicians. They wrote that, according to Soviet law of 1920, which legalized abortion did so under the following conditions): 1. The operation known as abortion can only be performed by licensed surgeons. All midwives are strictly prohibited from performing abortions. 2. Save in very exceptional circumstances, abortion must be the result of a surgical operation and not the result of medicines or drugs. 3. After every abortion performed, the woman concerned must stay in bed in the hospital, or other place of operation, for three full days. 4. After every abortion or miscarriage, the woman concerned must not be allowed to go to work for two weeks after said operation or illness. # 1069 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mikhail D. Severyanov and Larisa U. Anisimova. Abortion as a Means of Family Planning in Russia in the First Quarter… 5. An abortion must not be performed for the first pregnancy unless childbirth would seriously endanger the woman's life. 6. Abortion must not be performed if the pregnancy has been continued for more than two and one-half months.* 7. Except as stated in paragraphs «5» and «6» no qualified doctor has the right to refuse abortion, although he is at liberty to discourage it in every way he thinks fit. 8. The State recommends that all abortions be performed in those State hospitals where there is a section definitely for that purpose. All women who carry social insurance or whose husbands are socially insured can receive abortion free of charge in a State hospital. All others must pay the usual medical fees. 9. Private doctors or any other individuals who perform an abortion which results in death of the woman can be tried for manslaughter. Women who perform abortions on themselves are not subject to punishment. 10. It is recommended that abortions be discouraged if the woman concerned has had less than three children; if she has adequate means for supporting another child; if her health would not be impaired by another pregnancy; if her living conditions make a good enough environment for children; and, if, in general, there is no social, physical, or economic reason for the abortion (Arthur Newsholme, 1933; E.P. Dutton, 1932). E.P. Dutton believed that that soviet methods employed in the struggle with abortion were based on several defi nite ideas held by the Soviet medical profession, and the State itself. Birth control which expressed in the main not only their methods of work but also the attitude they adopt towards the problem of women’s rights as a whole and such social problems. He identified the following methods of dealing with abortion: raising of the cultural and physical level of the population as a whole; development of an institutional system for the protection of women and children; insurance for mothers, vacations for working women before and after giving birth; defense of deserted women, alimony from husband and State, court trials of fathers who do not fulfi ll their social obligations; improving the living conditions of all people and the working conditions of all labouring women; general care for women who feed their babies from the breast; by acquainting the population with adequate means of birth control, through clinics and all other medical and social institutions. This last method of fighting abortion E.P.Dutton, as N.B. Lebina considered the most important, “since due to the high cultural and financial level of a group of persons is raised, there ceases to be so much need for abortion and consequently abortion ceases to flourish “ (E.P.Dutton, 1932; Н. Лебина, 1999). Until the mid 20-s of the XX century Soviet social policy was aimed to create the necessary medical support freedom of abortion. In 1926 it was completely banned abortion for the first time pregnant women, and also made the operation less than six months ago. Family code 1926 approved women’s right to induced abortion (Н.Левина). Stressed the temporary nature of the introduction of such a measure, “while the moral vestiges of the past and the present difficult economic conditions are forcing some women decided on the operation”. But the operation of abortion in the medical and legal documents the early 20’s of the twentieth century qualified as a “social evil”, “ social anomaly “ (N.Levina), “social crime “ (E.Dutton). # 1070 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mikhail D. Severyanov and Larisa U. Anisimova. Abortion as a Means of Family Planning in Russia in the First Quarter… Expulsion of the fetus recognized as a crime in strictly limited circumstances. Criminal liability for abortion in the Criminal Code of the RSFSR in 1922 was determined by art. 146, and in 1926 the RSFSR Criminal Code art. 140. For these items can be held criminally responsible for the commission of abortion: 1) those who did not have this proper medical training, that is, the person did not possess medical degree, and 2) those who had medical training, but performed abortions in unsanitary conditions. Under the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, such persons could be imprisoned or subjected to forced labor for up to one year, or should have to pay up to five hundred rubles. If these steps were carried out in conditions specified in the first paragraph, in the form of business or without the consent of the mother, or have inflicted death – imprisonment up to five years. The People’s Commissariat of Health and Social Welfare since July 1924 the mandatory registration to “cards on abortion” of all the commissions received permission to have an abortion. The same card was filled in the woman admitted to hospital in a state of unsafe abortion. The card had questions about the age, nationality, occupation, place of residence, marital status, type of housing, number of pregnancies and their outcomes; birth in the sequence number indicating the year, when there were labor, miscarriage and month of this pregnancy. The card should state the reasons that caused a desire to have an abortion, and the Commission’s decision to provide free abortions or refusal. The study of these cards was the beginning of a statistical study of the abortion issue, but a mandatory universal registration took several more years. In provincial cities such registration at the time, more or less established, often carried out in the districts and was set slightly in rural areas. Abortion rate depended on the number of children in the family and of the territorial factor. Women in urban areas choose abortion after the birth of their first child, a peasant woman after 3 or more children (see Table 1). The rapid growth of abortion was accompanied by falling birth rates. The decline of fertility rates was 2–2.5 % per year, leading to a 12 % reduction in fertility during 1925–1930 and a further 25 % decrease over the period 1930–1935 (Белобородов И.И.). The same trend Table 1. Family size of women receiving abortions, 1926 Number of children Moscow and Leningrad No % Provincies and District Towns No Other towns % No % Rural areas No % Total No % None 7, 967 21 4, 393 16 2, 004 13 2, 235 15 16, 599 17 1 12, 988 33 8, 925 32 4, 498 30 2, 686 18 29, 097 30 2 9, 019 23 6, 918 25 3, 857 26 3, 138 21 22, 932 24 3 4, 855 13 3, 604 13 2, 190 15 2, 658 18 13, 307 14 4 2, 221 6 1, 921 7 1, 234 8 1, 858 12 7, 234 7 5 and more Total 1, 758 4 1, 996 7 1, 273 8 2, 457 16 7, 484 8 38, 808 100 27, 757 100 15, 056 100 15, 032 100 96, 653 100 Source. Russia’s Women: Accommodation, Resistance, Transformation/Ed. by B.E.Clements, B.A. Engel and Ch.D.Worbec. University of California Press, 1991 p. 254. # 1071 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mikhail D. Severyanov and Larisa U. Anisimova. Abortion as a Means of Family Planning in Russia in the First Quarter… noted researches A.Gens, W. Goldman, etc. By 1934, the number of reported abortions in rural areas, although it was significantly less than in the cities, however, exceeded the number of births to 1.3. According to the People’s Commissariat of Health, in 1934, rural women were noted 243 thousand births and 324 thousand abortions (Урланис Б.Ц., 26). In the Soviet Union the birth rate fell steadily between 1927 and 1935 – from 45 births per thousand people in 1927 to 43, 7 in 1928; 39, 2 in 1930; 36, 9 in 1931; 34, 5 in 1932; 32, 4 in 1933; 30, 1 in 1934 and 30, 1 in 1935 (Clements B.E., 263). It was noted at the Kiev VIII All-Union Conference of Midwives and Gynecologists in 1928 that the number of abortions exceeded the number of births (Clements B.E., 263). Therefore, since 1930, in the press began antiabortion powerful campaign. Abortion had been paid, and the prices were constantly rising. In 1931 the cost was equal to 18–20 rubles, in 1933 – from 20 to 60, and in 1935 – from 25 to 300. Since 1935, the price depended on the level of supply of women. If the average income per family member was equal to 80–100 rubles, or for the operation took 75 rubles. This situation forced many women to seek illegal abortions or perform the operation herself, which led to the deterioration of women’s health, or death. Many women who asked for operation not the fi rst time (for the residents of Leningrad 30–35 year rate was 06.08 operations), did not think about its impact on the body (Н.Б.Лебина, 286). * As a result, in 1936 it was decided to ban abortions. As we see, in the 20-s of XX century in Soviet Russia strongly rejected anti-abortion through repression. The legalization of abortion is not eliminated illegal abortions, although there was some decline. Legal abortion was overwhelmingly an urban phenomenon. Women in the cities had greater access to medical care than peasant women, who often had to travel many miles to reach the nearest doctor or hospital. In the early 1920-s rural medical personnel did little to inform peasant women about their right to abortion, feared that the demand for abortion would” swamp the weak regional health care network” (Clements B.E., 249). А trip to the commission, followed by a trip to the hospital, was extremely difficult. Roads were impassable. Even if a household owned a horse, it could rarely spare the animal, and a woman might have to walk 30 or 40 miles to get to a hospital. The commissions required proof of pregnancy, marital status, family size, a workplace. The paperwork and her subsequent absence exposed the purpose of her journey to the entire village (Clements B.E., 261). One can agree with the fi ndings of researchers I.Kon and A.G. Vishnevsky, before the end of the 20 years of the twentieth century the USSR occupied the leading position in the world in the study of abortion, family planning, birth control. Circular from November, 12, 1926 soviet government banned abortion after 3 months of pregnancy, as late abortion posed a serious risk to the health and lives of women. (See V.P.Lebedeva. Maternity protection in the country of the Soviets. Leningrad, State Publishing House, 1934, pp. 130–131.) Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mikhail D. Severyanov and Larisa U. Anisimova. Abortion as a Means of Family Planning in Russia in the First Quarter… References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Beloborodov I.I. Abortion in Russia: history, consequences, alternative. [Aborty v Rossii: istoria, posledstvia, alternativy. Available at: htt://www.demographia.ru/articles_N/index. html?idR=23&idArt=904. (Accessed 3 April, 2013). Clements B.E, Engel B.A. and Worbec Ch.D. Russia’s Women: Accommodation, Resistance, Transformation. University of California Press, 1991, p. 254. Drobizhev V.Z. At the root of Soviet demography.[U istokov sovetskoi demografii]. Moscow, 1987, pp. 75–85. D’iachkov V.L. Natural and demographic cycles as a factor of Russian History, 19 – the first half of the 20th century. [Prirodno-demograficheskie tsikly kak factor Rossiiskoi istorii, 19-pervaja polovina 20 vekov]. Available at: http://www.tambovdem.ru/thesises.php?id=conference.cycles (Accessed 3 April, 2013). Dutton E.P. Protection of Women and Children in Soviet Russia, 1932. Available at: http://www. marxists.org/reference/archive/field-alice/protect/index.html (Accessed 20 February, 2013). Gelman I. Sexual life of modern youth. Experience of sociobiological survey. [Polovaia zhizn’ sovremenoi molodeshi. Opyt sotsialno-biologocheskogo obsledovania] Second Edition expanded. State Publishing House, Moscow-Leningrad, 1925, 150 p. Goldman Wendy Z. Women, the State and Revolution. Soviet Family Policy and Social Life, 1917–1936. Cambridge University Press, 1993, pp. 337–344. Githens Marianne, Dorothy Mc.Bride Stetson, Dorothy E.Mc Bride. Abortion Politics: Public Policy in Cross-Cultural Perspective. N.Y., 1996, pp. 98–99. Levina N. “Towards numerous statements of working women ...” [Navstrechu mnogochislenym zaiavleniam trudiaschchikhsia zhenschchin...]. Trudy “Soviet social policy 1920 – 1930: Ideology and Everyday Life». Available at: http://www.fedy-diary.ru/?p=3678 (Accessed 20 February, 2013). Lebina N.B. Daily life of the Soviet city: the norms and anomalies during 1920–1930.[Povsednevnaja zhizn’ sovetskogo goroda: normy I anomalii] S.Pb., 1999. p. 283. Newsholme Arthur and John Adams Kingsbury. Socialized Health in Soviet Russia. Double Day, Doran & Company, inc; Garden City, New York, 1933. Available at: http://www.marxists.org/ reference/archive/field-alice/protect/index.html (Accessed 20 February, 2013). Russian folk medicine everyday. [ Russkaia narodno-bytovaia meditsina]. According to the materials of ethnographic Bureau Prince V.N. Tenisheva. St. Petersburg, 1903, p. 328. Urlanis B. Births, and life expectations in the USSR. [Rozhdaemoct’ I prodolzhitelnost’ zhizni v SSSR]. Moscow, 1963, p. 26. 14. Vishnevskii A.G. Demographic modernization of Russia, 1900–2000. [Demograficheskaja modernizatsia Rossii, 1900–2000]. Moscow: New Publishing, 2006. p. 40. 15. Wheatcraft S.G. The Population Dynamic and Factors Affecting it in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and 1930s. University of Birmingham, 1976, p. 49. 16. Yaroslavskii V.M. About party ethics. Report to the plenary session of the Central Control Commission of the RCP II (b) October 5, 1924. [ O partetike. Doklad na II Plenume TSK RKP (b) 5 oktiabria 1924]. Documents and materials discussion 20 – s. Moscow, 1989. p. 186. # 1073 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Mikhail D. Severyanov and Larisa U. Anisimova. Abortion as a Means of Family Planning in Russia in the First Quarter… Аборт как средство планирования семьи в России первой четверти ХХ в. М.Д. Северьянова, Л.Ю. Анисимоваб а Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 б Российский государственный социальный университет (филиал в г. Красноярске) Россия 660041, Красноярск, ул. Можайского, 11 18 ноября 1920 г. в Советской России впервые в мировой практике был принят закон об абортах. Авторы статьи обобщают опыт его легализации в 1920–1936 гг., выявляют социально-экономические, медицинские и иные причины, побуждавшие женщин на искусственное прерывание беременности, показана взаимосвязь аборта с детностью в семье и смертностью, вскрыта конкретно-историческая обусловленность принятия в СССР в 1936 г. закона о запрете абортов. Ключевые слова: законодательство, легальный и подпольный аборт, планирование семьи, рождаемость, смертность. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2013 6) 1075-1084 ~~~ УДК 378.1 The Problems of Engineering Education and Graduates’ Development in the Workplace Michael V. Lukyanenkoa, Oleg A. Polezhaev and Natalya P. Churlyaevaa* a Siberian State Aerospace University (SibSAU) 31 Krasnoyarski rabochi, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 Russia b “Krasmashzavod” State Enterprise, 29 Krasnoyarski rabochi, Krasnoyarsk, 660037 Russia b Received 04.10.2012, received in revised form 30.04.2013, accepted 05.06.2013 The peculiarities of indigenous engineering education are briefly considered from the historical standpoint. Based on this, the current system of engineering training in higher education institutions is appraised as inadequate and the higher education prospects in the near future as unclear. Better prospects for preparing engineers have continuing professional training systems in industrial corporations. Besides targeted training in higher education, much attention within corporative continuing training is paid at the development of engineers in the workplace. This assumes certain prerequisites such as good organizational climate and big enough learning potential of the workplace. Keywords: Engineering education, Educational policy, Continuing vocational training, Situated Learning, Learning potential. Introduction ‘The technological achievements of the USSR [were] generally recognized as stemming from their system of education’ (Armytage, 1962), so until the USSR collapsed and some time after that ‘there [was] increasing interest in the Soviet education system and the changes influencing it following perestroika’ (Griffin and Bailey, 1994). Yet, those changes were not for good. Now this system can neither provide the kind of graduates required in industry; nor has it retained the good form it displayed in the past but has been fairly degraded over the last two decades. * Worse yet, created within the matrix of a planned economy, the engineering higher education (HE) system seems hardly reformable. In spite of the long-lasting rhetoric about its ‘radical reforming’ (e.g. Alekseyev, 1994), in fact, as the President of the Russian Association for Engineering Education admitted not long ago, ‘an obsolete system of engineering training… [that]…performs well in totalitarian regimes and was a good fit for the Soviet economy still remains’ (Pokholkov, 2010). The Bologna prescriptions including the two-level HE system, European Credit Transfer © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1075 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michael V. Lukyanenko, Oleg A. Polezhaev… The Problems of Engineering Education and Graduates’ Development… System, and the competency-based standards are now introduced in HE but this will hardly improve the engineering education quality. D. Medvedev has admitted two years ago: ‘division of our education into the masters and bachelors has not yet led to the rising of the engineering education quality, as it was hoped for’. Thus not many good engineers can be expected soon from HE. Meanwhile, our pedagogical experience allows making an argument in favor of continuing engineering education in innovative businesses rather than in HE alone. In order to better understand the current problems of engineering education and trying to find the solution to the problems, first we have to consider retrospectively how they evolved. 1. Preparing engineers for the planned economy The Soviet system of mass engineering training was designed for the planned economy, so ’HE produced specialists who were expected to progress into corresponding occupations’ (Robert et al, 2007). In this way HE institutions prepared specialists for reserved places of duty at industrial plants, fabrics and other organizations in accordance with the needs of those organizations. HE was supposed to produce engineers who must be ready to build in technological processes immediately after graduation. For this reason every HE institution was affiliated with one or more industrial organizations and in addition to academic lessons, each summer, after the second year of study, each student had to go through industrial practice in order to get more closely acquainted with industrial realities. The share of students’ practical training and work experience had to be not less than 30% of the total teaching time in a HE institution. Graduates were assigned to work where as a rule they underwent industrial practices and were sent there as young specialist with no right to leave their workplaces for three years. For those ‘initial three years of their working lives in occupations and places to which they were directed’ (Roberts, 2006), graduates went through a kind of apprenticeship learning under the trusteeship of older/more experienced industry experts. That was when young specialists were really professionalized. During those three years and more they not just worked but were learning in the workplaces long before informal learning became the subject of academic studies (e.g. Eraut, 2004). Absence of private ownership and good social climate encouraged older specialists to share for free their knowledge and skills with novices. Informal learning in the workplace plus action learning (e. g. Revans, 1982) provided a customized training and allowed even poorly educated graduates to develop skills at their workplaces step by step, thus facilitating their subsequent development as engineers. A high level of secondary education allowed making a good choice among entrants in HE. Thus not very sophisticated traditional educational methods in HE were efficient enough as long as were implemented on fairly advanced students within though authoritarian but well-organized HE institutions. Those traditional methods were quite a good fit to provide planned economy with needed graduates, especially if one bears in mind their further development in the workplace. The above-mentioned compensated for the many shortcomings of Soviet engineering HE. 2. Integrated training system: a Soviet version of the “cooperative program” In Soviet engineering education there was one system which included intensive learning in the workplace both before and after graduation, and so was distinguished by the # 1076 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michael V. Lukyanenko, Oleg A. Polezhaev… The Problems of Engineering Education and Graduates’ Development… utmost rapprochement of the educational process and industrial activity. This system until now is specified as integrated training system (ITS) originally known since 1906 in the USA as “cooperative programme” (Smollins, 1999). In the USSR, ITS was implemented at giant industrial plants (base plants) which could afford creating special HE institutions to prepare engineers for their own needs. The most significant feature that distinguished institutions with ITS was engineering-industrial practice in the working semester alternated with a semester of academic coursework. The length of the working semester considerably exceeded the duration of the industrial practice for students in regular HE institutions. It allowed students get better acquainted with basic industrial works and specialties, attain more skills, and prove in practice academic knowledge. Other advantages of institutions with ITS compared to regular engineering HE institutions were that a base plant could link its infrastructure and experts to students’ training; render its human and material resources for preparing engineers; make the equipment and machinery available for educational purposes, etc. Also, the time necessary for students to know of manufacture, get needed skills and operational experience within a labor collective significantly reduced. The most successful form of ITS was implemented in such institutions as the Krasnoyarsk Zavod-VTUZ created in 1960 at the Krasnoyarsk Mechanical-Engineering Works (Krasmashzavod) in order to provide one of the largest Soviet military plants with the engineering staff. ITS was developing steadily within ZavodVTUZ until the USSR disintegrated. 3. Degradation of ITS in the transition to what is called market economy After the USSR collapsed hard times came for all engineering HE institutions, especially for those with ITS which actually represented one big factory-shop designed to produce engineers for a base plant. Since then the positive development of ITS stopped and its degradation started. In the HE institution at the ‘Krasnoyarsk Mechanical-Engineering Works’ ITS was shrinking along with the changes of its names: ‘Zavod-VTUZ’ (1960-1989) → ‘Space machines institute’ (1989-1993) → ‘Siberian Aerospace Academy’ (1993-2001) → ‘Siberian State Aerospace University’ (2001- nowadays). Each renaming was proclaimed as though symbolizing a new achievement on the road of progress while in fact was only an imitation. In fact, the state of the rather developed and effectively functioning ITS was only ever worsening. Among obvious destructive trends were the gradually decreasing volume of the engineering-industrial practice and diminishing number of workplaces for students at the base plant. Devaluation of this special form of industrial practice that distinguished zavodVTUZ gradually made this institution in its main features resemble a regular engineering HE institution. Therefore, now one can hardly even tell about the existence of ITS in SibSAU at all. Having lost all the advantages of an institution with ITS, SibSAU obtained all the drawbacks of a regular current engineering institution. After the USSR collapsed and chaos started, there was a good side, too, since the control in HE failed and unique opportunities emerged to do pedagogical experiments with other than traditional methods (Kukushkin and Churlyaeva, 2011a). After applying various educational methods (technologies) to a wide diversity of students in hopes of improving education quality and analyzing students’ competence with our own technique (Lukyanenko and Churlyaeva, 2010) we drew the conclusion that currently none of these methods allows reaching the competence level required in industry. # 1077 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michael V. Lukyanenko, Oleg A. Polezhaev… The Problems of Engineering Education and Graduates’ Development… 4. Devaluation of the entire engineering education Built within the planned economy matrix and suited for its specific needs, engineering education inevitably had to spoil after the planned economy collapsed. Yet, its current poor state was not so much inevitable but depended on the educational policy within the general strategy. Having chosen the course toward a raw materials economy, Russia was doomed to a raw materials resource for other nations with no serious motivation for engineering education. When nearly all the industries (except for raw material extraction and export) stagnate or spoil the demand on engineers can only decrease. Consequently, the number of engineering graduates decreases whose share in the total number of HE graduates already drastically reduced from 42% in 1988 to 22% in 2008. Yet, the smaller percentage of engineering graduates did not mean their better quality. On the contrary, the engineering graduates’ quality decreases for a numbers of reasons; some of them are mentioned below. The fail of central planning did not mean a full-fledged market economy emerged, yet indigenous HE institutions allowed themselves to be guided by irrelevant-for-Russia examples from more prosperous countries with market economies. In particular, the much greater independence of universities there encouraged the decentralization of native HE institutions; many of these are still owned by the state though they now bear the label of “universities.” While in some countries which Moscow reformers took as examples to follow ‘government attempts to impose [in HE] centrally-defined forms of professionalism’ (Lucas and Nasta, 2010), Russian ‘Central government decided, in a sense, not to decide, meaning that they decentralised control of public education… and transferred responsibility for decision- making to…young people, local or regional governments…businesses and HE institutions’ (Roberts et al, 2007). In fact, responsibility for decision-making was transferred only to the heads of those HE institutions. Having obtained decision-making power, with actually no more command and control “from above” and no obligations with regard to students, teachers, and other employees “below”, these heads happened to hold all the financial and administrative power of their institutions in their hands. The results were discouraging. Not bothering at all ‘how the university’s third mission of community service could be integrated more effectively into its other two missions of teaching and research’ (Preece, 2010), they were not even worried about the university’s first and foremost mission -- the mission of teaching. They made use of their high posts not to start with the problems of re-equipping or improving curricula: ‘since 1991 the renewal of [technical] universities’ teaching and laboratory equipment practically stopped’ (Smolin, 2004). Instead, they ‘extended fee-charging and opened the doors of technical universities wider for economics…banking…law’ (Roberts, 2006), and other ‘new prestige subjects…[and]…engineers soon ceased to be the typical products of HE’ (Roberts et al, 2007). Ostensibly, this was done in order ‘to enlarge the budgets of universities’ (Meshkova, 1998) but actually because the HE heads themselves just wanted to get a certain percent of the profit from the new activity. Most teachers, however, got nothing, and many good ones had to leave because of low wages and other reasons. ‘Since 1991...more than 300 thousand most qualified scientists and educators left HE institutions, some of them left Russia’ (Smolin, 2004). New, often accidental, obedient but not really competent people took their places. In general, the contingent of technical specialty # 1078 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michael V. Lukyanenko, Oleg A. Polezhaev… The Problems of Engineering Education and Graduates’ Development… teachers essentially remains at the same level: it has not grown in size, only in years. Also, the learning ability of students decreased because of new rules for admission in HE, the removal of Soviet concessions for students, and, especially, because of the decreasing level of applicants due to the deterioration of secondary education. This became especially noticeable when the new generations, raised and schooled after the USSR collapsed, started to enter universities. In hope to improve the situation Moscow reformers try to introduce the Bologna prescriptions aimed at creating a European HE Area with compatible degrees but this will hardly improve education quality. In practice, these so-called reforms will only mean ‘final breaking down of Soviet engineering education created within the planned economy matrix and essentially incompatible either with authentic market or what is understood by market in Russia’ (Lukyanenko et al, 2012). 5. Continuing professional training versus purely university education Given the above, industrial employers can not count solely on the existing system of engineering training at universities, especially as regards preparing creative engineers (Kukushkin and Churlyaeva, 2012), and indigenous employers are not alone. Even in technologically most advanced countries university education is much criticized by employers. For example, in the 2006 U.S. Commission on Education report the phrase “business complains” was repeatedly mentioned as regards the poor preparation of engineering graduates (US Dept Report, 2006). When recently surveyed, about half of more than 1,000 employers in various US industries voiced the opinion that students should receive specific workplace training rather than a broadbased education. ‘Universities are… giving [students] and what they want, instead of what the employers want,’ they also said. According to the survey results, less than 10 % of employers thought HE did an “excellent” job of preparing students for work (US HE Accrediting Council Survey, 2011). Moreover, even if university education is considered to be good, there’s always a certain discrepancy between academic goal-setting in HE and engineering practice in industry. In spite of the many efforts in this area, it has gradually become clear that university education can not replace work-based learning. Thus more attention should be given to the continuing training of engineers with more focusing on their learning in the workplace (Dutta, 2009). As a result, globally the argument often is made in favor of development of engineers within the systems of continuing professional training, especially those systems that exist at enterprises involved in innovative activity. A good albeit rare indigenous example is Information Satellite Systems Joint-Stock Company ((ISS JSC; www.iss-reshetnev.com) where the continuing professional training system emerged within the planned economy framework contributes significantly in improving professional skills of all the personnel including engineers (Kukushkin and Churlyaeva, 2011b). Here within the concept of a united educational sphere students’ target training was introduced instead of the former federally-planned preparation and compulsory work allocation. The concept assumes effective functioning of the “School-HE-Company” chain where precollege training (in affiliated schools, colleges etc), pre-selection of promising students, training target students in HE, and job-specific training engineers in the workplace are interconnected and controlled by the Company. This chain is an effective substitute for the former centralized preparation and # 1079 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michael V. Lukyanenko, Oleg A. Polezhaev… The Problems of Engineering Education and Graduates’ Development… distribution of students. Like before, it assumes the existence of a network of secondary and HE institutions affiliated with the Company and like before secondary schools are the main route into HE. However, since ‘the old communist structures that had formerly guided young people through their school-to-work transitions are no longer operative’ (Roberts, 2006), now the linked institutions ensure a continuous inflow of labor through the target training. 6. More importance than before for the workplace training Unfortunately, such advanced corporations as ISS JSC are very few and not much from their experience goes well with many other industrial plants where it is hardly possible to talk about innovations. Also, not many businesses are able to organize their own “School-HE-Company” chain in order to get well-trained engineers. Nevertheless, our experience as well as a similar experience from technologically advanced countries may be useful when technological innovations must be implemented. Firstly, the experiences show that technological innovation quickly lead to inadequate HE results no matter whether the education is good or bad. Secondly, paradoxically, sometimes the intellectual horizons of well-trained graduates are more limited compared with the less-trained ones. This narrowing of students’ intellectual horizons in the process of acquiring of knowledge on specific subjects is identified as accidental incompetency (Radcliffe, 2011). It occurs when in the course of teaching technical subjects in HE the broader aspects of education are suppressed or even lost. Therefore, even if a graduate is poorly educated in HE, in case he/she possesses certain engineering talent, there is always a chance to use him/her in industry effectively enough, sometimes even more effectively than a bettereducated graduate. Consequently, more importance than before should be given to the workplace training within continuing training systems in ‘a growing belief that the distinction between formal and informal education is unhelpful because it implies the superiority of learning which takes place within educational institutions over, and distinct from, that which occurs in settings such as the workplace’ (Fuller and Unwin, 1998). Yet, one should bear in mind that ‘the workplace is not a panacea, but just one of the learning environments in which to become competent’ (Nijhof and Nieuwenhuis, 2008). Thus, all the other environments and pathways where competencies can grow, including targeted training in HE, with all their possible drawbacks, should be taken into account and the drawbacks minimized. In order informal training in the workplace to be effective, changes must occur not only in the workplace but in the concept of “workplace” itself. Particularly, apprenticeship in the workplace should be reconceptualised in order ‘to reconcile the previously polarized positions of learner-centered and transmission approaches to pedagogy’ (Fuller and Unwin, 1998). In this case the workplace can potentially become the place where engineering skills may be developed. Yet, certain prerequisites must be provided beforehand for such a development, and the first and foremost one is the provision of a favorable environment for a particular workplace. One such favorable learning environment was proposed earlier in Communities of Practice defined as ‘a set of relations among persons, activity and world, over time and in relation with other tangential and overlapping communities of practice’ (Lave and Wenger, 1991). Such an environment is a reminiscent of the planed economy epoch when good social climate of # 1080 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michael V. Lukyanenko, Oleg A. Polezhaev… The Problems of Engineering Education and Graduates’ Development… workplaces in industry and many other places, too, was provided largely by the absence of private ownership. In such an environment effective informal learning or situated learning in the workplace is possible, given that there is a big enough learning potential of the workplace. 7. Chances to fulfill situated learning in the workplace Shifting the focus in the workplace from a learner to a trainer, at the current stage of corporate development of indigenous engineering “apprenticeship” can be reconceptualised in favor of “mentoring”. Of course, mentoring now is very different from the one that took place in the Soviet times when favorable environments around young specialists emerged in a natural way. Firstly, now there is no more former federal distribution to work for graduates who employers had to take care of. Therefore, even if a graduate gets a job, usually there is no his/ her further development as a “young specialist”. For most businesses there is even no idea of “young specialist” at all, and employers require an immediate return from graduates as soon as they are recruited or after a very short period of adaptation. People in industry are also not eager to help graduates in the workplace. Surveys show more than 70% of employees are hostile to graduates since they see in them not future colleagues but potential rivals or contenders for their own posts. Only about 15% of surveyed agree to share their knowledge, skills and experience with novices, besides, not for free like before but for a ‘good’ reward. In the absence of systematic mentoring from more experienced professionals HE graduates usually have to adapt on their own to working conditions, not to mention their development as engineers. A significant deterioration of morale, social and organizational climate in most industries over the last two decades does not contribute to a favorable environment in the workplace. As for space industry enterprises, in the past creating and maintaining such an environment there was promoted, in addition to good wages, by such important moral and psychological factors as awareness of the importance of their mission, membership in the prestigious industry, pride to be involved in a great state business, etc. To what extent these factors are currently effective is still to be answered. Without improving morale in the workplace mentoring used for situated learning is impossible and this, in turn, is impossible without implementing the principle of social partnership. Focusing on social partnership involves not only the targeted but also the motivational orientation of learning, with the objectives and intentions of individuals inextricably linked with their work and the entire corporate life where the social and individual basics are tightly intertwined. An important role hereby is given to the administrative support of mentoring in the workplace. Another prerequisite for effective situated learning is a fairly large learning potential of the workplace (Nijhof and Nieuwenhuis, 2008). Where there is no mass production, not a conveyor but an individual is in the central position as regards production. This in itself contributes to creating a favorable learning environment in the workplace around the individual, of course, in case of the positive development of that production. Thus, for a singular, successful production the learning potential of the workplace at all levels -- from ordinary workers up to persons in charge -- is usually big. A good example is the production at JSC ISS, which for a number of reasons has developed not only as a Research and Production (NPO PM), but also as a learning # 1081 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michael V. Lukyanenko, Oleg A. Polezhaev… The Problems of Engineering Education and Graduates’ Development… organization with all its attributes (Pedler et al, 1992) where working and learning are interconnected processes. Besides the type of production, the learning potential of the workplace to a large extent depends on the level of production and its material state. In a stable social and economic development the learning potentials of workplaces within most enterprises tend to accumulate over time. In contrast, in the times of social transformations or upheavals such as the hard times of the 1990s, the learning potentials of many workplaces significantly reduce and sometimes even achieve virtually zero. Nevertheless, if the learning potential of the workplace was not lost completely in the process of destruction of production, there is always an opportunity to restore it again almost to its original state and make use of it in new conditions. Once big enough learning potential of the workplace is restored as well as good moral and organizational climate, it is possible to speak of creating favorable environment for mentoring and graduates’ effective development in the workplace. Conclusion The Soviet system of mass engineering training was built within the planned economy matrix and produced graduates well suited for a planned economy. After the planned economy collapsed, that system started to erode, and now it neither retains the good form it displayed in the past, nor produces graduates who go well with industry requirements. Worse yet, what we are now witnessing as its fast reformation in practice will mean nothing but its final breaking down. However, breaking down an old system does not mean creating a new one just like the collapse of the Soviet planned economy in 1991 did not mean appearing a fullfledged market economy in Russia. Thus, in the near future we can expect neither improvement in engineering education nor enough adequate graduates prepared solely in contemporary technical universities. In 1958, when the ‘weakness of [American] engineering education [was]...obvious, many large industrial companies...such as General Electric or Westingaus create their own engineering schools where engineering graduates from HE... are additionally trained in selected areas of engineering’ (Timoshenko, 1959). Now in Russia one, too, can only hope for relatively effective preparation of engineers within corporative systems of continuing professional training at such enterprises as Information Satellite Systems Joint Stock Company. Besides training engineers in the workplace, it includes pre-college and targeted training in affiliated schools, colleges and universities. Unfortunately, such advanced corporations as ISS JSC are very few, and most industrial plants can not organize a full “School-HECompany” chain to prepare engineers for their own needs. Yet, some of them can still organize training engineers in the workplace, given that a good morale and organizational climate and big enough learning potential of the workplace are restored. References 1. 2. Alekseyev, O. (1994). The New Legislation on Education and a National Policy for Improving the Quality of the Education of Engineers in Russia. European Journal of Engineering Education, 19, 313. Armytage, W.H.G. (1962). The origins of Russian scientific and technological training. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 14 (29), 79–91. # 1082 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michael V. Lukyanenko, Oleg A. Polezhaev… The Problems of Engineering Education and Graduates’ Development… 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Dutta, D. Lifelong Learning Imperative in Engineering. Workshop National Academy of Engineering, June 17-18, 2009, Arlington, VA. Griffin, A. and Bailey, B. (1994).Vocational education in Russia in the transition to a market economy. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 46 (2), 181–193. Eraut, M. (2004). Informal learning in the workplace. Studies in Continuing Education, 26 (2), 247-75. Fuller, A. and Unwin, L. (1998). Reconceptualising Apprenticeship: exploring the relationship between work and learning. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 50 (2), 153-173. Kukushkin, S. and Churlyaeva, N. (2011a). Experience in applying educational technologies to the integrated system of engineering students. World Journal on Educational Technology, 3(2), 75-89. Kukushkin, S. and Churlyaeva, N. (2011b). Development of a continuing professional training system at ISS JSC and some related problems. Journal of Siberian Federal University, 6 (4), 769–778. Kukushkin, S. and Churlyaeva, N. (2012). The problem of engineering creativity in Russia: A critical review. European Journal of Engineering Education, 37 (5), 500-507. Lave J. and Wenger E. Situated Learning: legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, 265 p. Lucas, N. and Nasta, T. (2010). State regulation and the professionalisation of further education teachers: a comparison with schools and HE. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 62, 441-454. Lukyanenko, M and Churlyaeva, N. (2010). Technique to estimate the competence level of the integrated training system graduates and the educational technologies to increase it. Journal of Siberian Federal University (Humanities &Social Sciences series), 3(3), 475-483. Lukyanenko, M, Polezhaev, O., Churlyaeva, N. (2012). Rossiiskoye injenernoe obrasovanie v epokhu peremen [Russian engineering education in the era of alteration]. Alma Mater, 1, 16-22 (in Russian). Meshkova, E. Education in restructuring Russia: history and tendencies. Paper presented at the International Sociological Association Congress, 26 July – 1 August 1998, Montreal. Nijhof W. and Nieuwenhuis L. The learning potential of the workplace. Taipei, Sense Publishers, 2008, 319 p. Pedler M., Burgoyne J., Boydell T. The Learning Company. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill, 1992, 344p. Pokholkov, Iu. (2010). Injenernaya mysl v Rossii – polyot prervan [Engineering thought in Russia: an interrupted flight], Akkreditatsia v Obrazovanii [Accreditation in Education], 4, 27-29, (in Russian). Preece, J. (2010). The Trouble with Higher Education: A critical examination of our universities. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 29 (6), 770-772. Radcliffe, D. (2011). Engineering Competence? An Interpretive Investigation of Engineering Students’ Professional Formation. Journal of Engineering Education, 100, 703-740. Revans R. W. The origin and growth of action learning. London: Chartwell-Bratt, 1982, 352 p. Roberts, K, Akhamadov, T., Kurbanov, F., Boltaev, S., Tholenc, J. (2007). Planned transitions from education into employment in a managed post-communist market economy. Journal of Education and Work, 20 (5), 437 – 451. # 1083 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Michael V. Lukyanenko, Oleg A. Polezhaev… The Problems of Engineering Education and Graduates’ Development… 22. Roberts, K. (2006). The career pathways of young adults in the former USSR. Journal of Education and Work, 19 (5), 415 – 432. 23. Smolin, G. Long-term orientation of Russian education», in Proc. Scientific Conference “Higher Education for the XXI century”, 22-24 April, Moscow: MosGU Publishers, 2004, (in Russian). 24. Smollins, J.-P. (1999). The Making of the History: Ninety Years of Northeastern Co-op, Northeastern University Magazine, 24 (5), 264-288. 25. Timoshenko S. Engineering Education in Russia. NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1959, 175 p. 26. US Department of Education Report. A Test of Leadership: Charting the Future of US Higher Education. Washington, DC, 2006. 27. US Higher Education Accrediting Council Survey (2011), Available at: http://www.acics.org/ events/content.aspx?id=4718 (accessed 27 September 2011). Проблемы вузовской подготовки и развитие инженеров на рабочем месте М.В. Лукьяненкоa, О.А. Полежаевб, Н.П. Чурляеваа a Сибирский государственный аэрокосмический университет Россия 660014, Красноярск, пр. Красноярский рабочий, 31 б Государственное предприятие «Красмашзавод» Россия 660037, Красноярск, пр. Красноярский рабочий, 29 Особенности отечественного инженерного образования кратко рассмотрены с точки зрения исторической ретроспективы. На этой основе современная подготовка специалистов в технических вузах оценивается критически в связи с отсутствием ясных перспектив на ближайшее будущее. Лучшие перспективы имеет подготовка инженеров в системах непрерывного профессионального образования на промышленных предприятиях. Помимо целевого обучения в вузах большое внимание в этих системах уделено развитию инженеров на рабочем месте. Это требует определенных предпосылок, включающих создание благоприятной среды для обучения и наличие там обучающего потенциала достаточной величины. Ключевые слова: подготовка инженеров, образовательная политика, профессиональное образование, ситуативное обучение, обучающий потенциал. непрерывное Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 7 (2013 6) 1085-1092 ~~~ УДК 811.112 Category of Memory: Principles of Linguistic Description Nukolai L. Shamne* and Larisa N. Rebrina* Volgograd State University, 100 Universitetskii Prospect, Volgograd, 400062 Russia Received 21.05.2013, received in revised form 06.06.2013, accepted 11.06.2013 The study offers the concept of linguistic description of category of memory. It takes into account the multidimensionality, structuredness, communicative nature of the given category, language vs. speech opposition, cognitive, volitional functions, systematic and continuum linguistic organization, consistency as the most important law of language development. The authors worked out the complex approach combining achievements of systematic and structured, cognitive and socio-pragmatic paradigms of linguistics. The research algorithm involves introducing temporal, spatial and social coordinate axis in the linguistic model of category of memory. The work provides the following methods: descriptive, methods of definition, componential, contextual, historic and semasiological, comparative, discourse analysis, method of quantitative estimation. The study describes genetic paradigm and nominative paradigms of memory operations in standard German, Swiss, Austrian national variants of German, low German dialect «Platt»; linguistic reflection of ontological, axiological and epistemological dimensions of the examined category; manifestation of functioning of autobiographical and collective memory subsystems. The investigation verifies the authors‘ hypothesis of integrated representation and discourse manifestation of the studied phenomenon. For designating the object‘s summary cognitive mapping in the result of its linguistic acquisition a new term «linguistic coedification» is introduced. The results of the study can be applied in linguistic modelling other notional categories, in university courses of general linguistics, lexicology, history and stylistics of the German language, lexicography. Keywords: category of memory, the German language, linguistic modelling, language varieties, nominative paradigm, representation, discourse manifestation. 1. Introduction Memory and language are the necessary elements of evolution, tightly interrelated systems performing accumulative function and providing operations with knowledge simultaneously being the basis for a man interacting with the surrounding world. Memory as a social construct having a communicative nature is mediated by the language and it causes the regularity of its * linguistic description. It represents a self-regulating system of processes focused on organization and accumulation of information and functioning as cognitive informative structure on the base of interacting of subject, object and environment, where subject can be single and multiple and object can be personal or social significant. Existing linguistic researches of memory were conducted in various directions: studying © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1085 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nukolai L. Shamne and Larisa N. Rebrina. Category of Memory: Principles of Linguistic Description semantics and morphology of single units of memory nomination (Iu.D. Apresian, L.G. Babenko, T.V. Bulygina, E. Butulussi, L.M. Vasil’ev, A. Vezhbitska, M.A. Dmitrovskaia, B.L. Iomdin, M.V. Milovanova, M.V. Nikitin, M.V. Pimenova, V.V. Turovskii, T. Nir, A.D. Shmelev, I. Shreder); describing the phenomenon of memory as a fragment of the Russian linguistic view of the world (N.G. Bragina, V.V. Turovskii, E.V. Uryson), realizing concept “memory” (M.A. Dmitrovskaia, A.A. Zalizniak, E.S. Kubriakova, M.V. Pimenova, M.G. Sabadashova, O.V. Shatalova, O.V. Shchilenko), semiotic stems and communicative nature of memory (N.G. Bragina, O.G. Revzina, A.V. Sokolov, E.G. Khomiakova, U.L. Figge); genre analysis of discourse practices (commemorative speech, family communication) (A. Keppler, A. Linke, G. Vel’tser). Memory as a multifeatured phenomenon requires systematic studying and can be considered as a category related to the categories of space, time, cognition including ontological, axiological and epistemological basic dimensions. 2. Theoretical Framework and Methods Under category of memory we see a complicated cognitive formation integrating and organizing various forms of memory phenomenon manifestation into some unity (types of memory processes and subsystems functioning at the levels of personality and society) and properties pointed out interdisciplinary. The studied notional category gets complex representation in the language and for naming that we introduce the term «linguistic coedification» (from Latin co- – «aggregative, joint, united» and aedidificatio – «structure», «formation», «construction» of something, of some building [ADAE]), we think that justified since the absence of terminological item rendering the content to be expressed. Linguistic coedification of the category of memory is summary cognitive mapping of the given extra linguistic object as the result of its linguistic acquisition. It integrates characteristic features of representation, nomination and discourse manifestation of the related phenomenon, is constituted by universal and variable (in the plan of synchrony) and also constant (from the point of view of diachrony) elements. Addressing coedification of the named category in the German language assumes realization of a new concept of linguistic description of memory taking into account functional aspect of memory, its multidimensionality and structural organization, separation of language and speech, system and continuum character of language, continuity as an important factor of its development and also working up a complex approach consolidating the experience of studying linguistic factors in the system-structured, cognitive and socio-pragmatic paradigms of the modern linguistics. We judge by comprehension of memory as a dynamic structure essential properties of which are more completely reflected by verbal constituents of the language lexical system naming basic operations of memory. Pragmatist character of the memory itself and the language as means of its manifestation causes introducing spatial, temporal, social organizing coordinate axis in its linguistic model that provides including in research material constituents of lexical-semantic system (LSS) of some temporally, spatially and socially determined varieties of the German language as meta-system of variants, diverse discourse practices manifesting the work of autobiographic (AM) and collective (CM) memory functioning at the levels of personality and society. The offered research algorithm includes: 1) complex semasiologically and onomasiologically oriented analysis of semantic, formal, functional characteristics for the items of primary and # 1086 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nukolai L. Shamne and Larisa N. Rebrina. Category of Memory: Principles of Linguistic Description secondary nomination of memory processes in the modern German language, description of the structure of inner organizing nominative paradigms and the degree of revealing basic memory operations for the purpose of pointing out mechanisms of nomination, regularities of presentation data for denotative situations, components of linguistic model of memory and their relevant characteristics; 2) studying genetic paradigm of denoting mnemic processes, nominative paradigms of Swiss, Austrian standard variants of the German language and low German dialect «Platt» and pointing out constant, universal and variative features of acquisition of the considered phenomenon in the continuum of the German language; 3) generalization of linguistic aspects of polar memory subsystems functioning, subsystems differentiating in subjects, objects, chronotopes and aim of addressing individual or over-individual past. The arrangements mentioned above are carried out by applying a descriptive method, methods of statistic, definition, component, contextual, historic and semasiological, comparative intralinguistic, discourse analysis, structural and semantic modeling, quantitative estimation, theories and methodologies of lexical semantics, theories of nomination, etymology, dialectology, variantology, pragmalinguistics, discourse linguistics. 3. Examples of Analysis The study of system factors of the German language results in determining linguistically mediated perceptions of memory, forms of its being in consciousness of native speakers, significant elements of corresponding situations and their characteristics, axiological attitude towards memory, its objects what correlates to ontological and axiological dimensions of cognominal category. Analysis of relevant discourse practices demonstrates how and for what purpose operating quanta of knowledge stored in memory is carried out, how language mediates reactualization, reconstruction and reinterpretation of various types of memory contention, their presentation and translation. The enumerated aspects are interconnected with epistemological dimension of the category of memory. We are going to illustrate the basic research stages. The first stage of the research is devoted to description of system factors of the German language continuum. It includes the analysis of genetic and some nominative paradigms. Among the first paradigms of units of the primary and secondary nomination of memory operations in the modern coedificated German language (280 lexical units (LU)) are constructed and described. Let us exemplify if. The verbal collocation in Erinnerungen schwelgen is a constituent of subgroup «recalling information in memory»; it has a structure of a simple phrase; it is subjectival, internally and externally intransitive; it belongs to functional and grammatical serie with the productive component «Erinnerung» (in Erinnerungen kramen / schwelgen / stöbern / wühlen / versinken); the verb is a grammatical head, the noun is a semantic prop word. Nominal component directs at location of memory operations. Collocation in Erinnerungen schwelgen is stylistically marked (elevated style); it realizes spatial subject code, conceptual integration of the phisical and mental; it depicts longtime, intensive, conscious operation of recalling positively estimated emotional experience. Named features are reflected in dictionary definitions: schwelgen – «(gehoben) etwas Angenehmes bewusst und intensiv genießen» [LGDF]; «(gehoben) sich einem Gefühl, einem Gedanken o. Ä. genussvoll überlassen; sich daran berauschen», «(gehoben) etwas, wovon man besonders angetan oder fasziniert ist, im Übermaß verwenden» [DUW]. # 1087 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nukolai L. Shamne and Larisa N. Rebrina. Category of Memory: Principles of Linguistic Description The analysis of the corresponding lexical subsystem of the modern German language let us conclude the following. Asymmetrical lexical and grammatical representation of memory operations objectifies linguistic presentation of ontological aspect of memory as vertically organized space and memory operations – as physical actions or multidimensional movement, transposition of fragment of the past in the given space. The situation of recalling information in memory is differentiated by a high degree of expressing. Linguistic model of memory as of a dynamic structure includes basic components «subject», «object», particularly «process». The given components are actualized and specified within non-denotative and denotative features (subjective estimation, subject character, object character, memory operations) reflected in semantics of LU. Nomination of the corresponding operations is mediated more often by spatial, anatomical, personifying and presentive thematic codes. Inner organization of the studied nominative paradigms objectifies ontological types of memory processes (maintenance, recalling, loss of information in memory). Hierarchic structure of paradigms reflects a progressive modification of base forms of mnemic experience by means of superstructure of additional characteristics within the features mentioned above. Axiological dimension of the studied phenomenon is characterized by ambivalence and is caused by quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the elements of the named situations. Presence of functional equivalence of verbal constituents at the lexical level of the modern German language reflects tight interactions of such elements of human psychosphere as memory, knowledge, speech and perception. Introducing a temporal organizing coordinate axis, i.e. turning to diachronic aspects of representation of memory operations, let show the continuity of methods of semantic mapping mental presentations of the considered phenomenon and underlying structures of awareness about it. At the heart of nomination of the most part of the constituents belonging to the genetic paradigm (39 LU) there is adaptation of denotation to action or motion, reframing the physical as the mental. For instance, the verb einfallen is a derivative prefixal formation from fallen (VIII в.) with the meaning «to break down, to fall down under action of gravity» [KLEW, 274; EWDP]. In the modern German language the given unit names the operation of involuntary recollection. Prefixoid ein- derives from ancient in and introduces the meaning of direction and while using with verbs – semantic meaning «to place, to import». Inner form of einfallen expresses features motivating nomination «sudden», «inner». Base notions «movement down», «inside» correspond to the idea of space and its scope. Feature «inner» is redefined as «own». Semantic map appears the following: physical situation (to move fast, sudden inside in physical space) ⇒ physical situation (to become inner) ⇒ mental situation (to become own, be understood, to be present, to advance in mental space) ⇒ mental situation (to recur). Memory operation is represented as independent directed motion of objects in space. The results of historic and semasiological analysis witness that coedification of category of memory in the German language includes such constant elements of linguistic acquisition of the considered phenomenon as preserving methods of semantic mapping of mental images of memory processes; asymmetrical, special and pragmatic representation of memory and basic operations of memory in lexical and semantic system similar to «outer» world; reflection of basic ontological types of memory processes in organizing structure of nominative paradigm. Comparative analysis of nominative paradigms of the Swiss (110 LU), the Austrian # 1088 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nukolai L. Shamne and Larisa N. Rebrina. Category of Memory: Principles of Linguistic Description (135 LU) standard variants of the German language and low German dialect «Platt» (175 LU), implementing introducing in the linguistic model of memory description of spatial and social coordinate axis, allows to point out the following universal features of coedification of memory category at the level of language system: ambivalence of axiological constituent and common components of the linguistic model of memory; spatial and pragmatic representation of memory; the lesser degree of expressing causation operations of memory and positive qualification of mental abilities; asymmetry of representing basic memory operations; mediation of characterizing coedification by temporal, quantitative and qualitative features of the elements belonging to the modelled situations; multilevel feature structure of the named denotative situations being fixed in the semantics of lexical units; hierarchic organization of the nominative paradigm of memory operations. For example, the verb of the Swiss standard variant of the German language usfallen / ausfallen means «aus dem Gedächtnis entschwinden» [SchwI, 755] and names operation of involuntary forgetting. The designated situation is identified with movement, thought as sudden, fast, uncontrolled. Memory is represented as space and objects of memory operation as active, independent. At the heart of nomination there are spatial and personifying thematic codes. The verb of low German dialect «Platt» inknüppeln meaning «mit Gewalt einprägen, ans Herz legen» [PDW, 119] describes an intensive operation of memorization or memorization causation when the behavior of the subject is persistent, categoric. LU inknüppeln is a derivative from noun Knüppel («ein kurzer, dicker Stock ≈ Prügel: jemanden mit einem Knüppel schlagen» [LGDF]). The named situation of information maintenance in memory is adapted to violent, unpleasant physical interference and estimated by the speaker as negative. Prefix in- contributes the meaning of direction. Linguistic representation of denotative situation also correlates to the idea of space. The second stage of the research is directed at studying functional aspect of coedification of memory category. It contains analysis of multifold discourse practices expressing the work of polar memory subsystems (person-centered, existential, for example, autobiographical stories, novels, diaries, autobiographies, biographic interviews, blogs, autobiographic utterances of the heroes of fiction belonging to different genres – AM; institutional, for example, mass media publishing – CM). Analysis of linguistic aspects of autobiographic memory functioning demonstrates that in autobiographic discourse practices we notice objectifying base functions of AM determined by purposes of subject’s addressing the individual past: the most often verbalized pragmatic (past event proficiency, problem solving in the present, planning for the future) and self-regulating (correction of psychic condition); the least presented communicative (making, endorsing, revival of social contacts) and existential (forming comprehensive presentation about oneself and history of one’s life) functions [for functions and level structure of AM see Nurkov 2008]. Peculiarities of manifestation of AM subsystem functioning in the German language are exhibited in the presence of function interrelation with parameters defi ning narrative organization – positivity index, thematic dominants, position of reminiscent and narrative subject. For example: Ich habe angenehme Erinnerungen daran. In unserem Haus hatte es nie eine derartige Wärme gegeben, nie so viel köstliches Essen. Die Damen umhegten mich, als wäre meine Mutter gestorben, und ich genoss die Aufmerksamkeit [Grisham, Regenmacher, 157]. In the given context self-regulating function of autobiographic function is presented. Recalling # 1089 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nukolai L. Shamne and Larisa N. Rebrina. Category of Memory: Principles of Linguistic Description of the content is carried out by the subject for the purpose of correcting his or her psychic condition that causes emotional involvement of the narrator, realization of subject-actor’s position, his or her positive experience as thematic dominant. Sore recollections about mother’s illness are compensated by addressing positive images of coziness and attentive careful aunties. The narration contains description of impressions and estimations of the one recalling as a participant of the event. Lexis with positive semantics prevails (angenehm, Wärme, köstlich, umhegen, Aufmerksamkeit genießen). In nowadays society changed needs of an individual lead to the increase of relevance of communicative function and realization of therapeutic function of autobiographic memory and also to shaping a new non-classic form of their manifestation – Internet-diary. It fixes modification of AM operation and implies displacement of discourse bounds of the private and the public, interactivity, combination of autocommunication and broad addressing. Therapeutic function of AM is aimed at overcoming traumatic experience, creating «positive prospective perspective». Analysis of examples corpus of autobiographic narrative demonstrates discourse manifestation of the following organizing forms of autobiographic material in AM: bright events (prevailing verbalization) – emotional, imaginative description using estimating lexis and LU pointing at unusual heroes’ experience; important events – presenting results, consequences, role of past fragment in life history, presence of LU denoting a special status and events interaction; ontological events – congruency estimation of the event and personality, their characteristics, using LU with feature semantics; watershed events – comparison of the two self-descriptions relatively to the crucial point, subjective estimation of changes, involvement of LU denoting two temporal plans and realizing the comparison. The prevailing tonalities of narration in studied autobiographic practices are reflecting, emotional and enthusiastic; other tonalities (critical, ironic, nostalgic, etc.) act as additional. In the studied material the level structure of the considered subsystem constituted by concrete episodesoccasions, recollections of fateful events, vital themes, holistic / integral views of one’s fate. Frequency of verbalizing bright events, concrete episodes, subject-actor’s position, emotional tonality of narration and character of thematic dominants while linguistic manifestation of functioning AM indicate prevailing realization of formula of reactualizing individual past in the German linguoculture – «single – bright – autocentric». Institutional functioning of collective memory in the German language socium is objectified in forming value attitude to the past. CM is organized around state and nation, has social chronotope [Sokolov, 2002]. Manifestation of CM is characterized by subject-object, manipulative character of addresser’s influence on mass listener, corresponding stratagem and tactic organization of production and translation of negative, positive or deactualized image of past fragments. Producer of the message uses argumentative (formal and logical and psychological argumentation) and compositional tactics (information test structure in accordance with the theory of advancement), aimed at modification of cognitive and axiological constituents of the communicative space of message receiver. The most productive as our material shows is a strategy of negative presentation of overindividual past for the purpose of shaping positive view of the present and legitimation of the authority. Positive and negative qualification of past events is characterized by a similar set of multidirectional tactics. Let us give an example. Heute sei vielen der verbrecherische Charakter der DDR-Macht nicht # 1090 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nukolai L. Shamne and Larisa N. Rebrina. Category of Memory: Principles of Linguistic Description bewusst. „Es wird verklärt und verharmlost, nicht nur im Osten, nicht nur von Tätern. Das Unrecht des SED-Staates hervorzuheben, heiße nicht, in der DDR gelebtes Leben zu entwerten“ … . Es ist gut, dass es im Rechtsstaat möglich bleibt, auch den Täter als Opfer zu begreifen [RZ, 10.11.2011]. In the given context there is a compositional tactics of recurring argumentation of negative presentation of the past. Addresser turns to one and the same theme revealing it with the help of images. It mediates appearance of the constituents of a definite semantic field and lexical items with negative semantics. Message producer initiates negative estimation of building the Berlin Wall separating the two German states. The recurrent theme («crime») is constructed with the help of lexical items verbrecherisch, Täter, Opfer, Unrecht, is relative to presented event of the past and encourages sharing of its negative estimation. Appealing to psychological argumentation is more relative than formal and logical arguments that corresponds to the nature of manipulative influence and decreases criticality of perception. Argumentation tactic of confirming the value of past fragment and compositional tactic of negative contrasting contextual framework are dominant while creating a positive view of past events. Deactualization of past image in German-language mass-media is carried out while verbalization mainly by the way of shifting emphasis from event on its commemoration mediating access to the past fragment taking into account needs of the present situation. 4. Conclusion Realization of a new integrative approach aimed at description of coedification of the studied notional category allows to conclude that multidimensional category of memory gets summary presentation in systematic and speech facts of the German language. Coedification of the category integrates constant, universal and variable elements of linguistic continuum as meta-system of temporal, spatial and social modifications. Forms of semantic mapping of mental projection of the named phenomenon are characterized by continuity. Inner organization of nominative paradigms points at asymmetrically represented ontological types of memory processes. Ontological aspect of coedification of memory category reflects spatial and pragmatic acquisition of the given phenomenon. Its axiological dimension is ambivalent, defined by quantitative and qualitative characteristics of elements of memory operations and concrete conditions of actual retrospection. Epistemological dimension of the category is indicative of interpretative, intentional, discourse character of memory as a construct. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ADAE – Academic dictionaries and encyclopedias, Available at: http://dic.academic.ru/ (accessed 25 February 2011). DUW – Duden. German universal dictionary, 3d edition [Duden. Deutsches Universalwörterbuch: 3. Aufl.]. Mannheim, Dudenverlag Publ., 2001. 1892 p. Grisham J. Rainmaker [Der Regenmacher]. München, Wilhelm Heyne Publ., 1995. 434 p. LGDF – Langenscheidt. Great Dictionary German as foreign language [Langenscheidt. Großwörterbuch Deutsch als Fremdsprache]. München, Langenscheidt Verlag Publ., 2008. 1307 p. Nurkova V.V. (2008) Analysis of phenomenology of Autobiographical Memory from culturehistorical perspective. Culture-historical psychology, (1), 17–26. # 1091 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Nukolai L. Shamne and Larisa N. Rebrina. Category of Memory: Principles of Linguistic Description 6. 7. 8. 9. PDW – Wrede F. Dialect Platt, district Burgdorf i. Han. Study of dialekt [Plattdeutsches Wörterbuch, Kreis Burgdorf i. Han. Ein Beitrag zur Mundart]. Schweiger &Pick Verlag Publ., Hannover. 1960. 1980 p. RZ – Rhine-newspaper [Rhein-Zeitung], Available at: http://www.rhein-zeitung.de (accessed 15 November 2011). SchwI – Swiss dialect dictionary [Das Schweizerische Idiotikon]. Zürich, Huber Publ., 1999. Available at: http://www.idiotikon.ch/Register (accessed 19 January 2011). Sokolov A.V. Obshchaia theoriia sotsial’noi kommunikatsii [General theory of social skills]. St. Petersburg, W.A. Mikhailov Publ., 2002. 461 p. Категория памяти: принципы лингвистического описания Н.Л. Шамне, Л.Н. Ребрина Волгоградский государственный университет, Россия 400062, Волгоград, пр. Унивесритетский, 100 Предложена научная концепция лингвистического описания категории памяти. Она учитывает многомерность, структурированность, коммуникативную природу данной категории, оппозицию языка и речи, когнитивную, волюнтативную функции, системную и континуумную организацию языка, преемственность как важнейший закон его развития. Разработан комплексный подход, сочетающий достижения системно-структурной, когнитивной и социопрагматической парадигм лингвистики. Исследовательский алгоритм предусматривает введение в лингвистическую модель категории памяти временной, пространственной и социальной осей координат. Использованы методы: описательный, дефиниционного, компонентного, контекстуального, историко-семасиологического, сопоставительного, дискурс-анализа, количественных подсчетов. Описаны генетическая парадигма и номинативные парадигмы операций памяти в литературном языке Германии, швейцарском, австрийском национальных вариантах немецкого языка, нижненемецком диалекте «платт»; языковое отражение онтологического, аксиологического и эпистемологического измерений изучаемой категории; манифестация функционирования подсистем автобиографической и коллективной памяти. Верифицируется авторская гипотеза о совокупном представлении понятийной категории памяти в немецком языке, интегрирующем константные, универсальные элементы, базовые измерения и закономерности системной репрезентации и дискурсивной манифестации изучаемого феномена. Для обозначения суммарной проекции объекта в результате его языкового освоения вводится новый термин «языковая коэдификация». Результаты работы могут быть использованы при лингвистическом моделировании иных понятийных категорий, в вузовских курсах общего языкознания, лексикологии, истории и стилистики немецкого языка, в лексикографии. Ключевые слова: категория памяти, немецкий язык, лингвистическое моделирование, разновидности языка, номинативная парадигма, репрезентация, дискурсивная манифестация.