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56.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №4 2008

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Journal of Siberian Federal University
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Humanities & Social Sciences
Редакционный совет
академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов
академик РАН К.С.Александров
академик РАН И.И.Гительзон
академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов
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Eugene A. Vaganov
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Editorial Board:
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Founding Editor:
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Natalia B. Aleksandrova
Characteristics of Creation of the Wood Pellets Market in
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Valentina N. Asochakova
The Russian Orthodox Church in the Khakass-Minusinsk
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Andrey V. Ulyanovsky
Imaginary (Mythical) Characters as Axiological Markers of
Social Mythology in the Mind of Young Social-Humanitarian
Intelligent People of Russia in the Second 10-year Half of the
Twenty-first Century Beginning
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Anton I. Sirokhin and Vladimir N. Shikhanov
Structure of Psychic Attitude of a Person to Careless Traffic
Violations and Potential Ways of Accident Prevention
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Ludmila B. Zubanova
Opinion Leaders Are New Information Élite
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Post-Modernism and Cultural Policy
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Natalia P. Koptseva
Theory and Practice of the Innovative Educational Program on the
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New Linguistic Technologies in Modern Political Discourse
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia B. Aleksandrova. Characteristics of Creation of the Wood Pellets Market in Russia
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2008 1) 443-454
УДК 339.13.017
Characteristics of Creation
of the Wood Pellets Market in Russia
Natalia B. Aleksandrova*
Krasnoyarsk department of the Institute of Economics
and Industrial Engineering SO RAN,
50 Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036, Russia 1
Received 27.11.2008, received in revised form 17.12.2008, accepted 24.12.2008
In the article the results of the conducted research of production and consumption of wood pellets in the
world are given. The analysis of the wood pellets market in Russia is carried out and characteristics
of its creation are recognized. The consumers groups of pellets are examined and variants of sale
strategies for Russian produces are suggested. Future trends of production and consumption of wood
pellets in Russia are determined, as well as possible measures of government support of the market.
Keywords: wood pellets, market, production, consumption, strategy, pellets plants, government
During the last 20 years the amount of
wood used for energy has been increased.
According to the JWEE Report (Steierer, 2007),
the volume of consumption of wood for energy
generation in Europe and North America
is greatly higher than reported by official
international statistics. Use of wood pellets as a
fuel in stoves and kilns in households, and also
for energy receiving in thermoelectric power
stations had a stunning success in developed
countries for the last decade. From the end of
1990s, when increased interest in pellets was
limited by several European markets (Sweden,
Denmark, Austria, Germany and Italy), sales
of heating equipment for pellets at these
countries have been raised, in average, from
30% to 50% yearly during the decade. The
key characteristic of the world pellets market
is becoming a globalization.
In 2006 rapid growth took place in the
European pellets market, and experts of the
UNECE European Economic Commission
connected it with the active government support
and the record oil price level for the last 25 years
(Forest Products…, 2007). In spite of slowing
down of the market’s growth rate in 2007, it is
expected that the sharp raising of activity in the
pellets market will occurred within the next three
Creation of the Russian wood pellets market
is being a subject of great interest of wood
enterprises, because pellets production allows to
utilize wood wastes and to get a profit out of them
(especially from export sales). At the same time
future trends of this industry is not understood
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia B. Aleksandrova. Characteristics of Creation of the Wood Pellets Market in Russia
clearly. On the one hand, the situation on the world
pellets market is favorable and good conditions
for Russian producers are created. From the other
hand, in 2007 year several prominent Russian
pellets plants were almost closed because of their
Thus, in the present research the analysis of
the existent state of the wood pellets market is
fulfilled and its future trends are determined, as
well as estimation of product organization in this
sector for Russian enterprises is conducted.
Description of wood pellets
Wood pellets are small cylindrical presswork
of wood with diameter of 4-10mm, length of 2050mm, altered from dried residues of timber
industry (sawdust, shavings, bark, knots etc.). Wood
pellets are being made without any chemical fixings
under high pressure. The moisture of raw materials
before pressing must be no more than 10-12%.
Pellet heating systems provide a low-net CO2
solution, because the quantity of CO2 emitted
during combustion is equal to the CO2 absorbed
by the tree during its growth.
The energy content of wood pellets is
approximately 4.8 MWh/ton.
The production of wood pellets is considered
as one of the most effective way of utilization of
small wood wastes and bark. Advantages of wood
pellets in comparison with technologies of direct
incineration of sawdust, wood chips and old wood
are the following:
wood pellets generate more energy, making the
performance index of boiler-rooms higher;
wood pellets are clean and CO2-neutral;
every 2.2 tones of used pellets prevents 1,000
liters of oil being burnt, saving approximately
2 tones of CO2;
large storage platforms for wood pellets are not
spontaneous combustion of wood pellets is
At present the Russian standard on wood
pellets does not exist. While exporting wood
pellets, Russian producers use standards of
European countries. The main things taken into
account by foreign consumers are: dimensions,
ash level and abrasion.
The most commonly used national standards
are: Austria - ONORM M 7135 Austrian
Association pellets (briquettes and pellets);
Germany - DIN 51731 (briquettes and pellets),
DIN plus; England - The British BioGen Code
of Practice for biofuel (pellets); USA - Standard
Regulations & Standards for Pellets in the US:
The PFI (pellets); Switzerland - SN 166000
(briquettes and pellets); Sweden - SS 187120
Production and consumption
of wood pellets in the world
In 2007 the world’s wood pellets production
came to 9 million tones. Its growth is continuing in
2008 owing to the price advantage of pellets which
is amounting more than 50% in comparison with
fuel oil. Up to 2010 the rising of the production
volume till 15 million tones is expected (Fig.1).
The centre of the world’s pellets production
is Europe with the production volume of wood
pellets forming 75% of the world market.
Sweden, Canada and USA are the biggest
producers of wood pellets in the world with the
total production volume of 3.5 million tones
in 2006. According to estimations of foreign
experts (Global Wood Pellets…, 2007), Sweden is
expected to remain the leader in the wood pellets
production within the next few years.
The second group of countries is formed
from countries with the production volumes from
200 thousand to 600 thousand tones in 2006. It
includes Austria, Germany, Russia, Lithuania,
Finland, Italy, Estonia, Poland and Denmark.
Other countries produce much less volumes
of wood pellets.
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Natalia B. Aleksandrova. Characteristics of Creation of the Wood Pellets Market in Russia
Thousand tones
Fig. 1 World’s wood pellets production volumes in 1980-2010s
There are considerable prerequisites for
the growth of wood pellets use in developed
countries, especially in Europe. The increase of
use of wood wastes in industrial production of
heat energy in Europe, Scandinavian countries
and North America at 15-20% yearly shows the
urgency of wood pellets.
As predicted (Forest Products…, 2007),
the consumption of wood pellets in countries of
European Union will exceed 5 million tones in
2010 (Fig. 2), whereas the production in these
countries will be at the level of 3.3 million tones.
The world leaders of the wood pellets
consumption are Sweden and the Netherlands.
The large perspective markets are mainly situated
in Denmark, Italy, Austria, Germany, Finland
and Belgium.
The structure of the European wood pellets
market consists of wholesale market, large
boiler-rooms and thermoelectric power stations,
municipal boiler-rooms and boiler-rooms of
industrial plants, and also private households. It
is in common practice to use wood pellets in big
district boiler-rooms which used coal before.
As the world wood pellets market has been
formed recently, its impetuous growth led to
several problems which are typical for inceptive
markets: quality problems, lack of knowledge
of technologies, appearance of swindlers and
insufficient clarity of the market. In contrast to
other renewable energy sources such as wind
or sun pellets business collides not only with
questions of equipment sales, but also with
creation of difficult logistic systems that provide
large geographical regions for fuel.
Strong growth surely could be expected
with the political support of European Union,
which plays the main role in expansion of
pellets business to new European markets. The
pretentious target of EU countries consisted in
receiving of 20% of renewable energy till the
end of 2020 is impossible without drawn politics
concerning development of renewable energy
heating. Besides, growing oil prices and the plan
of reduction of CO2 emission have positive impact
on the pellets market’s development.
Developed countries have serious political
drivers directed to the development of pellets
markets and they are differing depending on a
In Europe an anxiety about the climate
change and plans of realization of projects
on renewable energy are dominating factors
especially in the area of fuel incineration in the
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia B. Aleksandrova. Characteristics of Creation of the Wood Pellets Market in Russia
Million tones
Fig. 2. The consumption of wood pellets in countries of European Union in 2000-2010s
large-scale industry. For pellets use in small
heating systems the important factor is the price
advantage in comparison with black oil.
In North America the competitive
price is the prevalent factor of development of
wood pellets market as well as desire for the
diversification of fuels store.
For Asia the wide need in new energy
sources and the transference from very polluting
technologies to technologies reducing of CO2
emission could be the most important drivers for
increase of the wood pellets consumption.
The development of some pellets
markets mainly depends on potential export
capacity – they are Baltic countries (Estonia,
Latvia, Lithuania), Finland, Russia, Poland and
Canada. In all of these countries the low level of
sales at home markets is observed.
According to the Kyoto Protocol,
use of biomass as an energy gives a credit to
the consumer and not to the producer of fuel.
Therefore, Sweden, Italy, Denmark and other
industrial countries are very interested in pellets
Rising markets are appeared in Latin
America. Pellets production in this region is
lightly developed, but European need in pellets
could initiate investment into Latin America in
the near future.
Production of wood pellets in Russia
In Russia the development of the wood
pellets market takes place from the beginning of
the XXI century against a background of revival
of economic situation, improvement of common
weal and active expansion of pellets use around
the world.
Active development of wood pellets
production in Russia took place in 2005-2006, but
in 2007 the growth rate became slowly. In the first
quarter of 2008 there were no any fundamental
changes in the market. The consistency of the
market development in Russia is given below.
2001 – Building of the first pellets plant not
far from St. Petersburg: a small experimental
production, which does not work at present.
2002 – Start of another 2-3 pellets plants in
Leningrad oblast and Murom city. Rise of interest
to the new industry by timber merchants.
2003 – Presence of 6-7 working plants
in the Northwestern Federal okrug of Russia.
Registration of the Russian Bio-fuel Association,
the beginning of proactive interaction with some
foreign consumers of wood pellets and market
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Natalia B. Aleksandrova. Characteristics of Creation of the Wood Pellets Market in Russia
entry of European suppliers of equipment for
pellets production took place. The exports volume
of wood pellets from Russia was amounted 8
thousand tones.
2004 – Extension of working pellets plants
with the total amount of 15-25 thousand tones,
oriented to export in countries of Western Europe.
The production is focused in the Northwestern
2005 – Active creation of the wood pellets
market in different regions of Russia. At the end
of the year there are 28-30 working producers
of wood pellets; 3-4 trade companies being
engaged in buying up and realization of pellets
abroad; branch magazine; branch reference book;
a number of particularized conferences devoted
to technologies of production and firing of pellets
and to the market development.
2006 – Increase in the number of pellets
producers and actual production volumes: about
60 pellets plants and 122 thousand tones of
production. The growth of a number of domestic
producers of pellets equipment and its supply in
CIS countries is indicated. Several projects are
financed from the federal budget.
2007 – A number of pellets plants in
Leningrad oblast are on the verge of bankruptcy
because of lack of raw materials for pellets
production and competition for them from the
direction of woodworking enterprises and pulp
and paper mills, and also because of warm winter
of 2006-2007 in Europe. At the same time the
growth of production volume of pellets is still
remaining owing to opening of the new pellets
plants in different regions of Russia.
At present there are more than 100 producers
of wood pellets in Russia and the half of them is
situated in the Northwestern region.
Irrefutable advantages of allocation of the
pellets production in the Northwestern region
are: availability of plentiful forest resources
and proximity to the main European markets
and ports. In a number of districts and republics
of the Northwestern Federal okrug there are
functioning programs of transference of boilerrooms to biofuel and programs of application of
technologies of energy generating from wood to
Production volume of wood pellets was
increasing three times more every year from 2003
to 2006 and it is consisted 300 thousand tones in
2007 (Fig. 3).
At the same time real production volumes are
greatly lower than planned production capacities
of existing pellets plants. Down level of use of
production capacities is explained most of all by
such factors as: lack of raw materials, introduced
errors in projection and integration of production,
lack of experience of equipment’s exploiting and
also different problems of market entry.
In my opinion within the nearest 3-5 years
a process of amalgamation and absorption of
pellets enterprises will be observed that will allow
overcoming the difficulties with sale for produces.
Under inessential increase of a number of pellets
plants the gradual raising of the rate of production
will occurred and the most plants will achieve the
level of the planned production capacities.
Today in Russia there is a good basis for
further development of the wood pellets market.
Active creation of informational infrastructure of
the industry takes place, in particular:
several consulting centers are working, some of
which gets the encouragement from European
government and nongovernmental funds;
seminars and conferences on bioenergetics
have been hold yearly (for example, annual
conference “The wood pellet: Russia and the
in the context of timber exhibitions the sections
on biofuel have been appeared;
particularized magazines, branch reference
book on bioenergetics “Wood pellet” are
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia B. Aleksandrova. Characteristics of Creation of the Wood Pellets Market in Russia
Thousand tones
122 109,5
60 57
20 20
Production volume of wood pellets
Export volume of wood pellets from Russia
Fig. 3 The production and export volumes of wood pellets in Russia in 2003-2007s
several nonprofit organizations of wood pellets
market support are formed.
Besides, the work on creation of the Russian
standard on solid biofuel is carrying out; certain
efforts are making to lobby interests of the new
industry in legislature and executive power.
The conception of the Federal special program
“Power-effective economics” in 2007-2010 and in
prospect for 2015 year is elaborated. The document
“Energy strategy of Russia in a period until 2020
year” was worked out but it is not accepted yet. In
the State Duma the group on working out of the
law on Small-scale Energy and groups on working
out of laws for adaptation of mechanisms of the
Kyoto Protocol are established.
Consumers markets of wood pellets
for Russian producers
The consumers market of wood pellets in
Russia is on the stage of creation. Approximately
90% of pellets are exported.
1. Home market
The pawning of successful functioning of
pellets plants in Russia is the development of
the home consumers market. However at present
the Russian consumers market is developed
poorly. The main consumers of wood pellets are
own boiler-rooms of enterprises, private boilerrooms in cottage settlements (predominantly in
Leningrad oblast, S. Petersburg and Moscow) and
a small number of utilities in forest regions.
Future trends of the home market are
connected primarily with building of low-rise
houses, especially of cottage settlements. Together
with an increase of personal incomes of citizenry,
there is an increase in the number of people with
mean income buying country-houses. And owing
to efforts of pellets producers and producers of
pellets equipment there is a growth of awareness
of population about advantages of pellets use in
houses by fireplaces and boilers.
For private cottage wood pellets is the
cheapest kind of fuel in comparison with
firewood, mazut, coal, diesel engine and electric
power. At the same time putting of a boiler on
pellets could be cheaper than receiving of limits
and gas supply. Among the industrial plants and
public utilities an interest to use of wood pellets
is growing. The would-be users of wood pellets in
the home market are shown below.
1) Private sector near the metropolises or
near the cities with a high level of income. Pellets
boilers adjustable in private cottages are available
in price for citizenry with the income above the
average – their value is amounted in several
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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia B. Aleksandrova. Characteristics of Creation of the Wood Pellets Market in Russia
thousand euros. The tendency of income growth
of population is still remaining, especially in the
metropolises. Thus, in Leningrad oblast about
100 pellets boilers are setting yearly.
2) Detached buildings with a space up to
several thousand square meters. Use of pellets
boilers will be economically feasible if impossible
to supply the gas for heating or in case of high
value of connection to gas nets due to reduction
of service costs, even in comparison with more
cheaply coal. The pellets boiler has no need in
permanent maintenance; it works in automatic
mode of operation. It requires only a periodical
supply with pellets and cleaning from ashes that
could be fulfilled once in 2-3 weeks.
3) Cottage settlements with the central
heating. Under conditions when there is no access
to a gas-main or when such possibility exists,
costs for connection to a gas pipe and mounting
of a gas-main could achieve the amount higher
than value of central pellets boiler-room. Under
construction it allows reducing of investment
costs into a heating infrastructure and increasing
of business revenue performance because of sale
of heat energy to population of the settlement on
conditions that the boiler-room is contained in
the ownership of the investor. The same could
be referred also to tenement houses and high-rise
4) Substitution of boiler-rooms using the
most expensive traditional kinds of fuel: diesel
oil, fuel oil and even electrical energy by the
boiler-rooms using wood pellets. Many boilerrooms and heat power plants in Russia need
urgent reconstruction because of deterioration
and moral obsolescence of the equipment. At
each of such object it is necessary to carry out
the detailed analysis to define what kind of fuel
should be used on it in future.
5) Separated federal and regional programs
which allow financing, building, running and
developing of wood pellets equipment. Wood
pellets are already arousing practical interest
from the direction of local subdivisions and
district administrations in a number of regions in
Russia. Its use is particularly relevant in regions
with absence of a gas heating.
At the home Russian market the groups of
consumers are gradually forming on which pellets
producers could be oriented in medium-term and
long-term outlook. One of the most prospective
trends of pellets use within the next few years
is heating of the cottage settlements. The fact
is that use of oil-burning boilers lowers quality
of life in an ecologically clean place, so that
advertising of pellets producers could be directed
to the propaganda of ecological compatibility and
convenience of pellets use for private needs.
In profitable regions where building of
elite cottage settlements is realized (Moscow
and Leningrad oblast etc.), it is advisable for
producers to use the strategy of the intensive
marketing - fixing of the high price and spending
of large quantity of funds on the sale promotion.
High price ensures a considerable profit and
large energies on sale promotion allow quick
penetration into the market. Such strategy will be
advantageous if:
the buyers as a whole are not informed of the
those who know the goods are ready to pay a
high price;
it is necessary to oppose to the competition
and to form the preferable attitude to the goods
among the potential buyers.
For the sale promotion it is effective to deliver
the wood pellets as far as the place of destination
and to give a flexible discount system. Methods
of the goods promotion include: advertising
in cottage settlements directly; allocation of
advertisements in particularized newspapers and
magazines on bioenergetics and timber industry;
participation in exhibitions and conferences. It is
relevant to create possibilities for consumers to
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Natalia B. Aleksandrova. Characteristics of Creation of the Wood Pellets Market in Russia
receive all needed information in the Internet, by
telephone, fax and electronic mail.
In case of allocation of pellets plants near the
sources of raw materials but far from European
part of Russia, the production is directed to
export of the goods. At the same time taking into
account a gradual increase of pellets consumption
in Russia, with the aim of a growth of production
volumes, it is appropriate for producers to use
the strategy of the selective penetration or the
strategy of the passive waiting.
The strategy of the selective penetration
supposes fixing of the high price on the goods
and spending of low quantity of funds on the sale
marketing. It could be profitable when:
there is a small market capacity;
the goods are well-known to the most of
the buyers are ready to pay a high price for the
the competition is unimportant.
The strategy of the passive waiting means
fixing a low price on the goods and low costs on
sale promotion.
2. Foreign market
Until the home market is not being developed,
the overwhelming majority of pellets plants will
be as usual directed to European consumers. Thus,
over a period of 2003-2007 exports volumes from
Russia were increased almost in 30 times (Fig. 3).
The Northwestern federal okrug is the
leader among the regions-senders of wood pellets
– from its territory approximately 95% of wood
pellets are sending. From the territory of the
Central federal okrug 2% of wood pellets were
sent in 2006, from the Southern federal okrug –
1%. The share of S. Petersburg and Leningrad
oblast consists 88% of the whole exports volume
of wood pellets.
According to the research (Global Wood
Pellets…, 2007), Russia is one of the important
producers of wood pellets in the world after
Sweden, Canada, USA, Austria and Germany.
Half of the exports volume from Russia is
sending to Sweden and a tierce is exporting to
Belgium. Exports sales from Russia are also
supplying to the Netherlands, Italy – by 4%,
Denmark – 3%, Germany – 1% and a number of
other countries with a little share (Fig. 4).
In case of the competent forming of the
business, Russian producers could reckon on
steady sale of the wood pellets on the foreign
market. At present in comparison with European
producers, Russian pellets enterprises have the
following advantages:
relatively low price of raw materials for wood
cheap energy supply;
cheap labor force;
low costs on construction.
At the same time, the logistics including
conveyance of raw materials and delivery of the
finished commodity severely reduces the most
of advantages of the wood pellets production in
Russia. Quality of the Russian wood pellets is also
related to their disadvantages and yields to the
European analogues because of low technological
culture and low-grade wood stock.
When searching buyers of wood pellets on
the foreign market, it is expedient for Russian
producers to draw attention at the three following
1) A dealer or a middleman acting at
Russian market and presenting his own interests
or the official interests of the large or middle
2) A foreign wholesale house laying in
supplies for delivery of the wood pellets to buyers
from its own warehouse;
3) An ultimate consumer of the wood
For the beginner producers of the wood
pellets forming of a wholesale is the most
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Natalia B. Aleksandrova. Characteristics of Creation of the Wood Pellets Market in Russia
Table 1. Largest country - importers of the wood pellets from Russia in 2006
55 704
37 445
The Netherlands
4 706
4 405
3 057
1 247
Table 2. Variants of the foreign market entry for Russian producers of the wood pellets
Variants of the
market entry
Foreign wholesale
Ultimate consumer
Demand stability, there is no need
to look for the consumers.
Check audit for quality could
be fulfilled at the site, before
The contract price is increasing
and there are more guarantees of
payment for the shipped goods.
The highest price.
preferred variant. While independent entry into
the foreign market for the retail it is important
to observe all characteristics and segments of
the potential market. Instruments of the market
research are: exhibitions, statistic information
of the trade delegates, and official statistics of
competitors about their sales.
Russian exporters should realize that they
enter the new market filled with the same goods.
Therefore, it is recommended to fix the price at
20% lower than the current market average price.
To increase the price will be possible after finding
of the patrons if the producer proves his reliability
in quality and in times of deliveries.
On the stage of application of the goods to
the retail market the strategy of the full-scale
penetration is the most appropriated. It implies
a fixing of low price on the goods and active
measures on sale promotion with the aim of
The lowest price for producers because of
giving a large share to middlemen.
Guarantees are needed that the goods will be
paid after the shipment.
There is a risk that the goods will be rejected
at the consumer warehouse with the aim of
reduction of the actually paid price.
Small amounts to order, permanent changes in
specifications of orders, irregular terms of the
Late payment is possible because of the
economic state of the consumer.
mass coverage of the market. As considered, the
strategy of the full-scale penetration is the most
successful for quick market penetration and for
coverage of the maximum possible share. It is
used, if:
there is a large market capacity;
the buyers are badly informed about the
high price is unacceptable for the majority of
there is a strong competition;
an increase of scale of the production reduces
costs on the one article.
Characteristics of the pellets business
in Russia
Among the beginner producers of the wood
pellets there is a wide-spread opinion that a
purchase of the modern equipment of the well-
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known firm will ensure a success on the foreign
market. The main errors in forming of the pellets
production in Russia are:
careful exploratory design is not fulfilled;
typical process layout is used;
mistakes in business-planning are committed
(especially overpricing of pellets);
non-optimal places for building of pellets plants
are chosen.
The major criteria in decision-making about
forming of the pellets business is availability
of raw materials for production that includes: a
potential quality of raw materials, their price at
a producer’s warehouse, quality of raw materials
and competition for them.
In the absence of the own source of raw
materials, competition for raw materials between
pellets producers, pulp and paper mills and
producers of MDF and wood chipboards could
not be underestimated. The fact is that a quantity
of wood wastes available for pellets production
is not so large as usually declared, especially for
plants in the Northwestern federal okrug.
In contrast to European countries when all
raw materials are subjected to deep processing and
as a result prime cost of the produced pellets from
dried sawdust is rather low, in Russia only 20% of
raw materials are subjected to deep processing.
Thus, it is possible to provide with raw materials
all pellets plants with capacity of 8-10 tones/
hour under conditions that the plant will have a
total technological cycle – it is a creation of the
big mechanized exchange including barking of
hungry wood, its pounding, drying, pressing,
cooling, warehousing and delivery to consumers.
So, in the decision-making about forming of
the pellets business the following factors should
be taken into account, and each of them could
have a considerable impact upon the prime cost
of the wood pellets:
1) the place of location of the pellets plant
influencing on the logistics of raw materials;
logistics of finished wood pellets and costs for
energy supply;
2) availability and quality of raw
3) qualified labor resources;
4) social and economic situation in the
Absence of the logistical base is seriously
embarrassed the work of pellets plants. Costs for
transportation for many enterprises consist about
40% of profit. Therefore, it is advisable to organize
the pellets production on frontier territories, near
ports and other transport ways.
The research is showing that within the
nearest 2-3 years production of the wood pellets
for sale will be profitable for large woodworking
enterprises with the total technological cycle and a
large quantity of wood wastes. By our calculations,
business profitability consists 15-20%.
For small enterprises the best variant is a
combination of the saw-mill and the line of the
pellets production, because in this case the price
of wood wastes is included in the cost of finished
edge-surfaced lumbers that greatly reduces the
prime cost of the pellets production.
For companies purchasing raw materials on
the side, in my opinion, it is not advantageous to
begin the pellets production within the nearest
two years.
Future trends of the pellets market
development in Russia
As a result of the research it could be
pointed that within the nearest 3-5 years a rapid
development of production and consumption
of wood pellets is not expected. Besides, the
creation of the infrastructure and the increase
of production volume will be continuing.
Overwhelming majority of pellets enterprises
will as usual directed to European consumers.
Growth of pellets consumption on the
Russian market is connected first of all with
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upward adjustment on gas and coal. At present, the
barrier for increase of pellets price is the narrow
circle of consumers, and in this connection many
producers dispatch the goods with damages. At
the same time in middle- and long-term outlook,
separated consumers groups of the home market
will be formed.
Some prerequisites of the development of
the wood pellets market are already created in
1) Increase in the pellets production in
Russia is associated with the development of
woodworking industry that plays the important
role in the Russian economy. According to the
information of FAOSTAT (Forest Products…,
2007), the Russian share in the worldwide stock
of forest resources is 23% (82.1 billion cubic
meters). Stimulation of deep wood processing
on the government level today will promote
a growth of wood wastes and consequently a
growth of available raw materials for the pellets
2) There are growing prices on oil, coal
and gas. In spite of the fact that prices on coal
and gas are still lower than on pellets, they are
steadily increasing. During 2006-2007 years the
increase of prices on coal and gas amounted 27%
and 22% conformably, and within the nearest few
years this tendency will be continuing. In this
connection the popularity of wood pellets will
also increase.
3) Because of irregularity of distribution of
fossil fuel resources at the large Russian territory,
they are delivered for long distances to supply
regions having small stock of oil, gas and coal.
4) As the market of the equipment for
biofuel’s heating increases and the infrastructure
of the biofuel market develops, the economic
activities of boiler-rooms on fossil fuel and
renewable fuel are gradually equalizing.
Incineration of wood pellets in industrial scale for
heating of private houses in many cases is more
profitable than incineration of coal, mazut and
5) Subscription of the Kyoto Protocol by
Russia and gradual application of mechanisms of
trade of quotes on polluting gas emissions. These
measures could ensure an additional inflow of
financing into projects concerning transference of
boiler-rooms and heat-electric generating stations
on renewable energy resources within the nearest
few years.
6) Growth of demand on wood pellets is
expected with the increase of building volume
of low-rise houses in Russia. At present at the
house-building market there is a steady tendency
of growth of individual apartment houses
construction that corresponds with the worldwide
trends. In period of 1990-2007 the volume of
low-rise house-building has increased in 4 times,
and its share in the total volume of introduced
habitation increased from 10% to 43%.
At the same time there are rather serious
barriers in Russia for development of the wood
pellets market. They include the following:
1) Legislative barrier. Normative and
legal basis in the sector of bioenergetics is still
absent, and there are no drivers for transference
to alternative sources of energy, formulated on
the state level.
2) Scientific and technical barrier. The
Russian standards on wood pellets are absent,
there is a lack of scientific and technical and
technological developments and a lack of
knowledge about those innovation technologies
which exist in the present sphere; a lack of
specialists on bioenergetics.
3) Technological barrier. The fuel and
energy complex in Russia is based on the use
of organic fuel, and all industries are oriented
to exactly this kind of energy resources. Low
prices on traditional energy resources, first of
all, gas and coal, in many Russian regions do not
stimulate pellets consumption.
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4) Economic barrier. There are low paying
capacity of population and enterprises in Russia.
First projects of pellets plants were realized
inefficiently and existing pellets plants are
working irregularly.
5) Feed barrier. As a result of low level of
wood processing, an actual volume of wood wastes
that could be used for the pellets production is
much lower than potential. The potential amount
of sawdust is also increasing because of the export
of the large volume of round wood. Besides, today
the growing competition for wood wastes exists
between pellets plants, pulp and paper mills and
board producers.
6) Informational barrier. Poor selfdescriptiveness of population and managers of
enterprises about possibilities and advantages
given by using of wood pellets.
The immediate role for the development of
the wood pellets market in Russia plays clear
government policy relative to use of the alternative
energy sources.
The experience of the developed countries
demonstrates that the most important driver
for the development of bioenergetics is the
government support. As to Russia, the pellets
market is forming spontaneously, under the
initiative of private enterprises, and the main
reasons for it development are: need for utilization
of wood wastes, growing power inputs and prices
on the traditional kinds of fuel, and also exports
Interest of regional and municipal authorities
to the wood pellets market was occurred only
the last two years; therefore it is too early to talk
about the real means of its support. To the means
of the government support of the pellets business
could be applied the following:
tax benefits for producers or consumers of the
simplification of the bureaucratic procedures
while realization of projects on bioenergetics;
propaganda of energy-saving’s ideas
forming of training of technical and engineering
employees and managerial staff in the field of
grants on the fulfillment of research engineering
on bioenergetics etc.
Changing of the system of the budgeting of
government boiler-rooms has a high profile, and
it can initiate the realization of energy-saving and
ecological measures from the direction of local
The carried out analysis of the state and
the outlook of the development of the pellets
production and consumption in Russia make
its clear that the production of wood pellets
at present could be viewed only from the
standpoint of the effective utilization of
wood wastes and not from the transference
to alternative sources of energy. It is obvious
that a private entrepreneur could not rely on
the active government policy on bioenergetics
within the nearest few years. Therefore,
producers need to make a fundamental analysis
of the advisability of business creation taking
into account the specificity of the concrete
F. Steierer, JWEE Report “Wood Energy in Europe and North America: a new estimate of volumes
and flows” (UNECE/FAO, 2007).
Forest Products Annual Market Review, 2006-2007 (The UNECE/FAO Geneva Timber and
Forest Study Paper 22, February 2007).
Global Wood Pellets Markets and Industry: Policy Drivers, Market Status and Raw Material
Potential, ed. by M. Peksa-Blanchard (IEA Bioenergy Task 40, November 2007).
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Valentina N. Asochakova. The Russian Orthodox Church in the Khakass-Minusinsk Region under the Circumstances...
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2008 1) 455-461
УДК 94(57)
The Russian Orthodox Church in the Khakass-Minusinsk Region
under the Circumstances of its Settling (the 18 c. – the 1860s)
Valentina N. Asochakova*
Institute of History and Law N.F. Katanov State University of Khakassia,
11 K. Marks st., Abakan, 655017 Khakassia 1
Received 27.11.2008, received in revised form 17.12.2008, accepted 24.12.2008
In the article there is a problem of the ethno-demographical conditions in the Khakass-Minusinsk
region that influence the functioning of the Russian Orthodox Church. The use of the sources of the
church demographical registration - confession information and the clergy register – allowed to define
the demographical characteristics of the population, the ethnic correlation and the social structure
more exactly. The parishes were the contact zones of the interethnic, civilizational, intercultural
interaction of the people inhabited the Khakass-Minusinsk region.
Keywords: the Khakass people, population, parishes, old residents, ethnic contacts.
The institualization process of the Russian
Orthodox Church in the Khakass-Minusinsk
region was going on under the definite
demographic-geographical, social-economical,
political-ideological circumstances caused by the
Russian Colonization in the 18th - 19th cc.
The incorporation of Khakassia into the
Russian State was complete by the end of the
1720s. The subsequent settling of the region
led to the changing of the ethno-demographical
The Khakass-Minusinsk hollow is the
Northeast section of the Eurasian steppe stretch.
The natural physic-geographical circumstances
of the Minusinsk hollow and the isolation from
other Asian regions influenced the ethnical and
historical processes. The Khakass-Minusinsk
region is a rather small hollow on the Northern
hillside of the Sayano-Altaisk plateau surrounded
with mountain masses that isolate it from the
neighbour flat territories: in the first place, from
dry table-lands and semi-desert steppes of the
Central Asia. Its arrangement to the South along
the Yenisei from the mouth of the Mana to the
Sayan Mountains was the second conductive
factor. The existence of fertile soils on the leftside of the Yenisei, hot summers, wet climate,
forest rich in fur-bearers, economic minerals:
gold, iron, copper, lead, coal, asbestos, etc –
created favourable opportunities for a household
settling of the region. In the 1730s the Moscow
highway was going through the line AchinskKrasnoyarsk-Kansk-Nezhneudinsk.
The valley of the Middle Yenisei was
settled by Yenisei Kyrgyzes, ancestors of the
Khakass people of today. In Tsarist Russia
they were called Minusinsk, Abakan, Achinsk,
Chulym Tatars. Before the coming of Russians
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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they had comparatively independent political
system that can be characterized as the state one
with undeveloped form of social institutes. The
political organization “The Kyrgyz Lands” united
four principalities (uluses): Altysarsky, Isarsky,
Altyrsky, Tubinsky. The weakening of “The
Kyrgyz Lands”, as a result of “driving away” the
population to Dzungaria in 1703, precipitated the
incorporation of the Khakass-Minusinsk region
into Russia. The colonization was going on from
the side of three centers: Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk,
Kuznetsk - that subsequently caused the
administrative division of the territory among
three uyezds (districts), later – regions (ruled by
governor general), provinces.
During the 18th century the serious changes
in the development of the Khakass people
happened. The population increased more than
4,5 times. Even before the incorporation of
Khakassia into the Russian State, the Khakass
people had the process of disintegration of large
Khakass seoks (clans) into family groups. In the
18th c. the surnames of heads of families were
introduced for the registration of population that
brought to a greater division of family groups into
kin groups or “aimaks”. One hundred years later,
according to the reform of 1822, they were united
into kins which became the members of Steppe
Dumas and existed up to the end of the 19th c.
(Kyzlasov, 1998 : 100-104). In religious beliefs
the general mythical ancestor appeared. The
common autoname of Khakass seoks came into
use in the Khakass language – “tadars” which
had the political sense and denoted “a yasak
foreigner” (Butanaev, 1998 : 168-170). Thus, one
may make a conclusion about the consolidation
of the Khakass people, the beginning of the
national self-identification and the formation of
As a result of building stockaded towns and
signing the Kjakhtinsky Armistice in 1727, the
official assignation of the Khakass territory to
Russia happened. And after the fall of the Dzungar
khanate in 1740-50s the frontier Kuznetsk and
Krasnoyarsk lines were set up. The creation of
comparatively peaceful conditions contributed
to the migration of some Khakass kins to the
Khakass-Minusinsk region. Thus, the previous
isolation of its representatives was broken. In
the second half of the 18th c. the settlement of the
Khakass people comes to an end, the process of
ethnic consolidation that was broken because
of taking away the greater part of population
to Dzungaria in 1703, activates. One of the
characteristic features of the process of ethnic
consolidation was the fact that it was going on in
conditions of the incorporation of Khakassia into
Russia and the subsequent settling by Russians.
The process of settlement of the territory of the
Khakass-Minusinsk region by Russians slightly
differed from the common Siberian one in temps
and forms. The colonization of the region had “a
mixed” character. The governmental colonization
in the 1st quarter of the 18th c., conducted with
military-defense and fiscal aims, transformed into
the legal and unauthorized one with economical
purposes. The lands were settled by free settlers
in the conditions of a frontier position and the
attempts of the state to organize the mining of
non-ferrous and ferrous ores. The discovered
copper and iron ores activated the policy of
fixing the South. By that time the otioseness of
the attempts of a penetration to Tuva became
obvious (Bykonya, 1981). The settling the region
in the 1720-40s was connected with building and
work of the metallurgical plants: the Irbinsk iron
and the Lukazsk copper-smelting plants. The
governmental “obligation by turn” for service the
plants, charged to the tax-pay population, did not
come true. And in 1741 the government began the
forced settling of convicts. Thus, the government
villages, united the Irbinsk plant with mines,
Lukazsk plant and Abakan stockaded town,
appeared (Kartsov, 1970). In 1747 the plants were
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temporarily closed because of “the curbing ores”,
and the inhabitants were put in plough lands with
giving out bread as loans. The percentage of sent
people to work in plants made up 15 % of the
regular population or 8 % of taxpayers (Bykonya,
1981 : 75-91). Nevertheless, the establishment of
plants favoured an unauthorized settling in the
In the second quarter of the 18th c. people who
belonged to the service class lost their leading role
in the settling of the region. In time of peace the
natural population increase intensified, an intrauyezd migration of peasants and commons became
the main source of it. The number of Russians
between the censuses increased 4 times, and later
on up to the end of the 18th c. the population had
been formed mainly at the expense of migrations
from the nearby Siberian uyezds, the intensive
settling of old residents and the high natural
increase. The consolidation of the state in the
Eastern outlying districts created the conditions
for a trade-economical activity – the industrials
and merchants rushed to Siberia. The motion of
Russians into Khakassia went mainly along the
Yenisei, their settlements edged their way on the
right bank to the properties of the former Tuba
region, separating the right riverside Kyshtyms
from them. In that conditions the groups belong
to different tribes began their movement to the
left riverside of the Yenisei.
By the 1720s above Krasnoyarsk with the
Yenisei stream 13 villages appeared, 8 of them
were situated up to the Guard stockaded town, the
rest – on the way to Abakan stockaded town. For
the second quarter of the 18th c. about 20 villages
more appeared: between 1740-1746 – the village
Shushenskaya, (Bykonya, 1972) from Achinsk
side – Chernorechenskaya, Nazarova, the small
settlement Kopiova. The village Balakhtinskaya
became the rural settlement. Almost all appeared
villages (11 of 15) were in the Yenisei-Chulym
hollow on the Yenisei under the protection of the
Guard stockaded town. They were covered by
Abakan stockaded town in the South, near which
four villages appeared, and only one village Bir
(Kozlova) was to the South from the fortification
itself. In the Northern Prisayanye a constant
population was not formed yet.
At the same time the contact zones appeared
in the places of settlement by Russians. The
process of assimilation was going on more
intensively, especially among the settled and
newly-baptized. The via-zone settlement of
Russians was influenced by the presence of
great number of the Khakass people up to the
middle of the 18th c. In the 1st half of the 19th c.
the specific growth of the Russian population
in relation to the Yasak inhabitants had been
increasing (see Table). The still growing presence
of Russians, a slight natural increase connected
with the extensive type of the economics, the
mongrelation (crossbreeding) – all these factors
were the reason of the lessening of the rate of
growth of the Khakass population.
Table. The evolution of settlement tha Khakass-Minusinsk region in the 18th c. – 1861
Increase in %
Increase in %
3 565
4 175
6 112
16 376
21 182
1 915
19 084
23 003
39 516
54 187
4 041
6 090
13 261
35 460
44 185
63 118
90 366
% of Khakasses of the total
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The including different groups of the Khakas
ethnos begun since 1727 into the Russian Empire
and the formation of the local administrativeterritorial division influenced the appearance of
the contact zones. The alien regions and volosts
were attached to the Russian stockaded towns
performed the administrative-fiscal functions.
These regions were the formations not territorial
but tribal, in what a tolerant attitude of the
Russian administration to the local peculiarities
of direction became apparent. The traditional
requirement of the administration not to occupy
the Yasak lands assumed a special importance
for the Khakass-Minusinsk region, because the
frontier location demanded from the authorities a
special flexibility in following the Yasak policy.
In the second half of the 18th c. the change
of the colonization of the Khakass-Minusinsk
region happened. It was caused by the aspiration
of the government to adjust the frontier service,
to resume and activate the work of metallurgical
plants (the private Ezagash plant was built).
The free settling brought to the emergence of
settlements of different types: the remote guards
or outposts, villages, stanitsas, small settlements,
khakass uluses. So, five frontier outposts
(Tashtypsky, Abakansky, Shadatsky, Kebezhsky,
Karatuzsky) and stanitsas and villages connected
with them appeared. The village Minusinskaya
was settled by the migrants of Yeniseisky uyezd
(Vatin, 1913). The Russian villages appeared
on the left riverside of the Yenisei at Khakass
territories. In the 1780s two brothers Soldatov by
surname from Kaptyrev village settled on the river
Khaly and formed the village of the same name.
In 1780-90s a peasant I.Y.Baikalov founded Beya
village near the khakass jurts (Butanaev, 1990).
At the turn of the 18-19th c. the government
developed the great programme of settling
Transbaikalje. The great mass of migrants was
moved from Russian provinces, but so long as
the local administration was not ready to receive
them, thousands of migrants were left without
money and homeless. When it came to the capital,
the Senate ordered to put the migrants at different
places and to allocate funds to their establishment.
In 1803-1804 several hundreds of peasants, sent
from the Northern Caucasus to Siberia, were
settled in the Minusinsk commissariat where the
large village Kavkazskoye was formed.
In the beginning of the 19th c. the migrant
policy had been formed as a system. The
subsequent settling was assigned by the policy
of tsar’s government directed at the agricultural,
commercial and industrial development of the
lands. Thus, in 1829 six government settlements
were formed in the region where the exile serfs
were settled. Legal migrations of peasants of
the European part of Russia, migrations within
Siberia, penalty colonization – all these were
the sources of forming the population. Since
1830s, by the order of government, the special
settlements for exiles had been founded. Sobinka
was one of them. By the end of the 1st quarter of
the 19th c. the formation of the Russian population
in the Khakass-Minusinsk region was complete.
The discovery and development of goldfields
in the 1830s was the important factor of the
demographical growth. Here, it should be noted
that in whole the gold industry of the KhakassMinusinsk region in the 1830-1850s did not play a
special role in the development of neither its own
economics, nor in that of Yeniseiskaya province
(RSHA, F. 1265, Inv. 2. File 35. List 210-211;
SATO, F. 433. Inv. 1. File 74. List 30).
The intensification of the role of MoscowSiberian highway also influences the settlement
the region. In 1833 village Obetovannaya (the
Promised) was founded by the migrants of
Voronezh province. Later it was renamed as
village Iudino, because the Sabbatarians and
the Molokans lived there. P.D.Kiselev’s reform
of the state village in 1830-50s contributed to
the emergence of 36 new settlements, in which
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above 11 thousand peasants from Permskaya,
Vyatskaya, Orlovskaya, Orenburgskaya provinces
settled. The so-called “kiselev” settlements arose
in the taiga part of the eastern part of the region:
Grigorjevka, Knyshi, Kuzhebari, Shirishtyk,
Verhny Kebezh. Different fortunes brought the
Lett people to the banks of Yenisei – in 1857 the
first group from Valmiersky uyezd of Latvia (that
time – Liphljandskaya province) convicted for
different crimes against high society. They were
sent to 80 km to the southeast from Minusinsk to
fertile valleys of the rivers Suetuka and Kebezha.
The colony was growing gradually and in 1864 it
numbered 975 inhabitants.
Because of the active migration within
uyezds, the settling was mixed and heterogeneous
that brought to the consequences of two kinds:
on the one hand, the process of consolidation
and self-identification of the Khakass people was
bringing to a stop; on the other hand, the process
of cultural exchange was going on more intensive
and organic in the contact zones, the intra-ethnic
distinctions were becoming obliterated, the
processes of assimilation went faster on the other
cultural basis. During the last quarter of the 18th c.
the Khakass people lived together with Russians
– in Yakusheva, Iltekova, Chernokomskaya,
Byskarskaya, Beskishenskaya, Shushenskaya,
Kaptyreva, Sinyavina, Sydina, Bellytskaya,
Kurganchikova, Beyskaya, Antonova villages,
in Anakan stockaded town, in Balakhtinskoye,
Kuraginskoye settlements and others. By the
1850s the following villages were added to the
mixed settlements: Saragashskaya, Kachulka,
Kamenka, Teletskaya, Shunerskaya, Ochurskaya,
Beloyarskaya villages, Karatuzskaya and
Sharypovskoye, Kurbatovskoye settlements and
others (SATO, F. 170. Inv. 1. File 98, 83, 204;
SAKK, F. 674. Inv. 1. File 237, 240; Inv. 2. File
274. List 1-10 vers). The former isolation of
Khakass klans and seoks was broken. In 1854
466 the Sagai people lived among Russians in the
following settlements: Beyskoye, Shushenskoye,
Ochuri settlements, Kaptyreva, Shuneri, Tes,
Usina, Ust-Sida, Krapivina, Oznachennaya,
Batenei, Baikalova, Ust-Yerba, Suhaya Yerba,
Borodina, Tolcheye, Bicha, Kolskaya villages,
Sayan stockaded town and others – altogether
in 29 places. In these centers of population the
representatives of Kivinsky, Karachersky and
other uluses were noticed. In Beysky, Askizsky,
Novoselovsky, Abakansky comings the Beltyr,
Kachinsk, Koybali surnames were reckoned
simultaneously (MSMA, F. 17. Inv. 1. File 73. List
15-60, 61-69, 76-87, 11-131, 132-171).
Thus, the frontier location up to the 1760s,
a “mixed” character of settling the KhakassMunusinsk region brought to a cohabitation of
autochtonic and newly come population in the
contact zones. Here the cultural exchange was
going faster, a peculiar syncretism of Khakass
traditional beliefs and the orthodoxy was forming.
The townships organized the contact zones and
brought to an interethnic cooperation. The stages
of formation the lower structure of the Russian
Orthodox Church concur with the processes of
settlement the Khakass-Minusinsk region. In the
first quarter of the 18th c. the parishes were formed
in the Guard and Abakan stockaded towns – the
main home bases of settling the South of the
Yenisei region by Russians. In the second quarter
of the 18th c. three parishes appeared: the village
one – Novoselovsky, two factory ones – Irbinsky
and Lukazsky. By the end of the 18th c. the last two
were liquidated. During the second part of the 18th
c. twelve parishes arose: one of them - Ezagashsky
– under the plant (was shut down in 1799) and twoof the newly-baptized Khakass people (Askizsky
and Uzhursky parishes). In the first quarter of the
19th c. – 4 more parishes arose. In all the parishes
the newly-baptized Christians were reckoned
most of all in the Uzhursky (91 %), Askizsky
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(73,3 %), Baraitsky (55 %), Minusinsky (60 %),
Abakansky parishes. The Karaulno-Ostrozhsky
(1,8 %), Kuraginsky (0,4 %), Kurbatovsky (3,7 %)
parishes were populated chiefly by Russians with
small number of Yasak people (SAKK. F. 592.
Inv. 1. File 40; File 131 (1,2); File 26). The Russian
population grouped mainly on the right riverside
of the Yenisei, the native population – on the left
one and on the Abakan river.
By 1861 in 24 of 40 lower units of the
church-territorial organization the baptized
Khakass people lived. The presence of newlybaptized Christians was not noticed in the
Shelabolinsky, Motorsky, Verhnekuzhebarsky,
Sobinsky parishes, the so-called “kiselev”
and “government” settlements, for which the
absence of any other ethnic component in
culture and way of life was typical. The oldresidents, migrated in the 18th up to the middle
of the 19 th c., on the contrary, had the high
level of adaptation to the natural and ethnic
peculiarities of the region.
V.Y. Butanaev, The ethnic history of the Khakass people, The materials for the series “The Nations
of the Soviet Union”: Khakasses, Issue 1 (Moscow, 1990).
V.Y. Butanaev, The ethnic culture of the Khakass people (Abakan, 1998).
G.F. Bykonya, From the History of settling the Minusinsk hollow and the origin of Shushenskoye,
The essays about the social-economical and cultural life of Siberia, Part 2 (Novosibirsk, 1972).
S.L. Chudnovsky, The Yenisei province to the three-centenary of Siberia, The statistic-publicistic
sketches (Tomsk, 1885).
V.G. Kartsov, Khakassia during the period of decay of feudalism, The 18th – the first half of the
19th c. (Abakan, 1970).
V.T. Kyzlasov, The structure and character of settlement of Khakass seoks in the first half of the
19th c. (by the material of the Sagai and the Koibali Steppe Dumas), Russia and Khakassia: 290 years
of co-development, The collection of materials of the Relublic Research Conference (Abakan: the KSU
publishers, 1998).
P.S. Pallas, The travels around different provinces of the Russian State, Part 3, the 1st half, 17721773, Translated by V.Zuyev (St. Petersburg, 1788).
I. Pestov, The Notes about the Yenisei province of the Eastern Siberia 1831 (Moscow, 1833).
A.P.Stepanov, The Yenisei province. St. Petersburg, Part 1 (1835), 21-35, Reprint (Krasnoyarsk:
Gornitsa, 1998).
Statistical review of Siberia written to the order of His Highly Emperor Majesty under the Siberian
Committee by the active councillor of State Gagameister, Part 1 (St. Petersburg, 1854).
V.A. Vatin, The Minusinsk region in the 18th c., The sketch about the history of Siberia (Minusinsk,
The Minusinsk State Municipal Archives (MSMA). F. 17. Inv. 1. File 73. List 15-60, 61-69, 76-87,
11-131, 132-171.
The Russian State Historical Archives (RSHA). F. 1265. Inv. 2. File 35. List 210-211; The State
Archives of the Tomsk Oblast (SATO). F. 433. Inv. 1. File 74. List 30.
SAKK. F. 592. Inv. 1. File 40; File 131 (1,2); File 26.
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Valentina N. Asochakova. The Russian Orthodox Church in the Khakass-Minusinsk Region under the Circumstances...
SAKK. F. 592. Inv. 1. File 28. List 1-32; File 63. List 266; File 189. List 373-536; File 215. List 98;
File 136. List 126-144;
SAKK. F. 674. Inv. 1. File 9. List 1-25; File 14, 15; File 373. 76 lists; File 84. 43 lists; File 240. 72
lists; Inv. 2. File 274. List 1-10 verso; SATO. F. 170. Inv. 1. File 98, 83, 204. List 78.
SATO. F. 170. Inv. 1. File 98, 83, 204; The State Archives of the Krasnoyarsk krai (SAKK). F. 674.
Inv. 1. File 237, 240; Inv. 2. File 274. List 1-10 verso.
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Andrey V. Ulyanovsky. Imaginary (Mythical) Characters as Axiological Markers of Social Mythology…
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2008 1) 462-473
УДК 91.130 92
Imaginary (Mythical) Characters as Axiological Markers
of Social Mythology in the Mind of Young Social-Humanitarian
Intelligent People of Russia in the Second 10-year Half
of the Twenty-first Century Beginning
Andrey V. Ulyanovsky*
Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia,
48 Moika River Embankment, St. Petersburg, 191186 Russia 1
Received 27.11.2008, received in revised form 17.12.2008, accepted 24.12.2008
The “top of mind” content of the young socio-humanitarian intelligent people of Russia has been
received in a form of text descriptions of 3,000 printed characters in volume and unique visual
illustrations of more than 240 image units which are divided into four clusters approximately equal
between each other in the number of printed characters: images of adverts and brands, city folklore,
books, mass media production.
The problem of understanding in this area comes from the overwhelming dependence on the content
of distribution channels – factual carriers of information (text books, books, mass media production,
multimedia, commercial communications). Often, there is support based on experience and hypotheses
of experts or on generalized data on all layers of population.
The research this article is based on fills an incredibly important gap in the area of social mythology.
This gap is connected to understanding the entire synchronized net of images that appear to be the
content of Russian population’s conscious mind with regard to age, level of education, lifestyles, and
Keywords: imaginary (mythical) characters, social mythology, Russia, images of adverts and brands,
city folklore, mass media.
In 2006, the book called “The 101 Most
Inf luential People Who Never Lived” 2 by
Jeremy Salter, Allan Lazar, and Dan Karlan
came out. The book describes the imaginary
luminaries that in the authors’ opinion had
the most inf luence on life of Americans.
Marlboro Cowboy, Big Brother, King Arthur,
Santa Claus, Hamlet, and Frankenstein
Monster start out the list of these characters.
According to the statement of one of the
authors of the book Jeremy Salter to the
Reuters agency the objective of the research
presented in the book is “the result of our
imagination, characters that we bring out
from our minds to the real world”.
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Karlan Dan, Lazar Allan, Salter Jeremy. The 101 Most Influential People Who Never Lived: How Characters of Fiction,
Myth, Legends, Television, and Movies Have Shaped Our Society, Changed Our Behavior, and Set the Course of History.
- Harper Paperbacks, 2006. – 336 с. ISBN: 0061132217
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The principally important feature of this
American book is the artistic concept of selecting
the characters: “The idea of the book was just to
entertain the reader” –Lazar Allan says.
The idea to write such a production was born
three years ago when the authors came across
the book “The History’s 100 Most Influential
People”. According to Dan Karlan choosing 101
personalities from the final short-list of 500 names
literally led into real battles between the authors.
In their book each character is accompanied by a
short essay about its either bad or good influence1.
This article and the book of Americans
mentioned above seem to be on the same topic –
modern mythology and it makes it different from
many encyclopedias and text books that describe
images of classical mythology and world history.
But the methodology of identifying the images
in the research this article is based on is rather
different from the American one.
First of all, selection of a hundred of
American imaginary heroes was based entirely
on the goal of reader entertainment.
Whereas the selection for the given research
was based on multiple long brainstorms in groups
of 10-20 young people in the first stage and
volunteer choice of the objects for describing by
the same people in the second stage.
As a result of such double procedure, the
final list of characters is not just a fantasy about
their meaning and influence in Russian society in
the view of three authors but a result of the series
of group interviews with quite a few dozens of
participants. Therefore, the list of 240 characters
is much more objective and is much closer to the
experimentally developed list by the methodology
of development.
Secondly, 240 imaginary figures of the
given research were remembered and described
by the defined audience of young people who
study the socio-humanitarian fields of education
of the age of 19 to 27 with the predominance of
female participants.
Thirdly, there wasn’t a primer requirement
to describe only human characters in the given
research – the imaginary (mythical) creatures of
all kinds could be in the “list of 240” – there were
people, plants, animals, robots, spirits, magicians,
and various fairy-tail figures.
And finally, the given research and the
American book have only 16 characters in
common. The imaginary (mythical) characters
from the given research in the following check
list is spelt in English and its analog (if it is not
significantly different or if they have the same
brand) – in parentheses. The number given in
brackets is the number of the figure according to
the count of the book of the American authors2.
Lewis Carroll’s Alice (34), Barbie Doll
(43), Camel on the packet of Camel cigarettes
(the character of the traveler Joe Camel from the
commercial of Camel cigarettes, 78), Voice of the
on-board computer (HAL 9000 computer itself
from the movie by Stanley Kubrick “The Space
Odysseus of 2001”, 66), James Bond (51), Don
Quixote (17), Dracula (33), Uncle Sam (61), Lilith
(99), Luke Skywalker (85), Mickey Mouse (18),
Peter Pan (70), Santa Claus (4), Superman (64),
Crazy Frog (Kermit the Frog, 67), Tarzan (49).
It strongly proves that the citizens of
Russia first of all live in the Universe of Russian
language. Moreover, the process of globalization
just slightly touched the emotionally imaginative
sphere of Russian people’s mind.
At the moment it doesn’t make any sense
in Russia (except for just plain curiosity and
interest) to “try on” the images of the imaginary
heroes that are discussed in a foreign language, in
foreign cultures. These images in a high degree
are foreign to the population of Russia.
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Americans have their imaginary luminaries listed in order of going down the ratings.
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Fig. 1. «Uncle Ben». The city wall stencil designed in stenciling style. St. Petersburg historical city center, 2007
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However, it should be noted that the
existing coincidence of 16 characters still proves
that there is a common cultural baggage in the
modern lingual universe of Russian and English
(American) language.
In general, the research that this article
is based on makes up an incredibly important
gap in the area of social mythology. This gap
is connected with understanding of the entire
synchronized net of images that represents the
content of Russian people’s conscious mind.
The problem of understanding in this area
comes from the overwhelming dependence on
the content of distribution channels – factual
carriers of information (text books, books, mass
media production, multimedia, commercial
communications). Often, there is support based
on experience and hypotheses of experts or on
generalized data on all layers of population that
have as much meaning as notorious “the average
residents’ body temperature in a hospital”.
This research is focused on real facts of
social reality – the content of the top layers of
mind of the young socio-humanitarian intelligent
people who study in universities in St. Petersburg
but represent many different regions of Russia.
The research is devoted to the spontaneous
remembering of the imaginary characters – the
level known in the Western classification as “top
of mind”.
At these circumstances, receiving the
content of mind and displaced areas of the mind
of Russians, i.e. receiving the information with
the deep and systematic methods was not an
objective of this research work as it had already
been covered enough1.
One of the leading sociological research
organizations of St. Petersburg oriented on
research in business sphere WorkLine Research
(ComCon) recognized the method and the results
Синкевич З.В., Крокинская О.К., Поссель Ю.А.
Социальное бессознательное.- СПб.: Питер, 2005.
of the given research. In the review published
in the newspaper The Business Petersburg2
the WorkLine Research director for strategic
planning Mikhail Podushko notes that the method
of the research has its roots in the ethnographical
methods of included observation. Moreover, M.
Podushko notes that it is important not only to
receive the list of imaginary (mythical) characters
just as it is but also to receive the subjective
descriptions of each character. The descriptions
give the additional grounds for quality analysis
and correct interpretation. In the given research
this work has been done as well but the volume
of the received field descriptions is quite large
(30 author’s sheets - 40,000 typographical units
each) and comes out as a separate book.
Research participants presented full text with
descriptions of imaginary (mythical) characters
at the competition of the manuscripts within the
innovation project of modification humanitarian
education in Russia. The project is carried out
by the Herzen State Pedagogical University of
Russia as a winner in tender conducted by the
Ministry of Education. The project for publishing
a book of 30 author’s sheets () under edition of
Ulyanovskiy A.V. “The 240 Imaginary Characters
of Mass-Media Era: Russia, 21st Century” was
approved in the competition and the manuscript
was recommended for publishing in 2008 as an
innovation project.
The book is to be published as educational
methodical advice of the Ministry that
recommends the book for studying in the
specialized courses as a part of the whole system
of higher education in Russia.
Expert grading of the material by the
journalists’ specialized editors offices from the
perspective of the actuality of the research is an
indirect proof of its high actuality and essentiality.
Overview of the research results attracted the
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Тихонова А. Герасим и Муму выжили//Деловой
Петербург. – 21 мая 2007 года. – С.32.
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Fig. 2. «Vovochka ideological». A unique case: the
character of V.I. Lenin (Ulyanov) split in the mind
of the audience into two independent mythological
images – little Volodya Ulyanov and the “Grandpa
Fig. 3. «Cheburashka». Nice and naïve cult character
of the soviet animation for the littlest spectators of
1970-1980’s nowadays is perceived as an image that
is in correlation with marijuana. Today, this character
of the urban folklore, allergy of helplessness and with
quite limited intelligence. After the Winter Olympiad
in Sochi where this image was taken by Russian
officials as a talisman the perception of this figure will
most likely change
Fig. 4 «Paper tiger». The creature of political rhetoric
of Mao-Dze-Dun, a metaphor of the United States,
turns out a very lively image
Fig. 5. «Germans». Together with the Finnish and
French people they are most understood and favorite
nations to the young Russian socio-humanitarian
intelligent people (the research took place in St.
Petersburg – bordering with Finland city)
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interest of Russian central sectored magazines
– in the field of innovative models of business
development management1 and advertising
communications2, and the corresponding
overviews of the project were published.
Materials and methods
There were 52 text authors and 13 illustrators
who participated in “The 240 imaginary
(mythical) characters…” project. Generally,
participants were from 19 to 27 years old. The
absolute requirement was that they had to either
have a degree in a humanitarian-social field
(psychology, mass-media design, marketing,
advertising, public relations) or to be college
students in the corresponding departments.
The project reflects a synchronized cut-off of
the social reality of the young socio-humanitarian
intelligent people of Russia in 2007.
The procedure of selecting the authors
involved a strict and as impersonal as possible
selection of artistic talented young people who
suited the criteria for the project fulfillment out
of more than 7000 ambitious candidates.
Such “selection hierarchy” requires a
stretched for more than a year procedure of
shrinking the number of candidates.
In the first stage, only 1400 people out of
those 7000 who want to study in the faculty of
Human Philosophy at Herzen State University
with the competition of 5 students per a spot get
accepted (since there are young people of different
age participate in the project this process was
accounted annually for four years).
Then, taking into account the results
of the first year of studies there is an annual
selection of the best students by the specialized
intelligence rates and artistic potential to study
Ульяновский А.В. Вымыслы нашей реальности //
Менеджмент Роста. – № 2(4), 2007. – С.78-81.
Ульяновский А.В. Анна Каренина и Муму: последние
классические герои русского брендинга // Рекламные
Идеи. - №4, 2007. – С.84-89.
in the Department of Public Relations and
Advertising (educational programs with the
highest competition at the faculty). It shrinks the
number of potential authors from 1400 people to
about 350.
Considering the work results in fulfilling
the tasks on creativity and taking into account
personal motivation the necessary number of
participants - 52 text authors and 13 illustrators
were chosen out of 350 candidates.
First Stage
All participants were divided into groups
of 10-20 people and every group worked on
composing a list of creatures “that needed to be
mentioned in the given list”. Such discussions
were held at least four times – so the participants
had the opportunity to make all the changes,
corrections and additions that they felt were
Second Stage
In the second stage, all the data was put in
a table that came out as long as “about one and
a half long meter” and every participant had
an opportunity to tick the characters that they
personally wanted to describe. In order to reach
the best balance and to be fair to everyone the
distribution was done in circles: at first, everybody
marked two characters, then in the next circle two
more characters and they kept taking characters
like this until all participants decided they had
finished their “recruiting”. So the procedure
of texts assignment was efficient even though
complicated in organization.
Methodological and theory-experimental
bases are identified by philosophy-anthropological
and interpretation-experimental approaches.
In doing so, methodological intention of the
philosophical anthropology as a systemized
knowledge on human being synthesizing
methodological approaches and conclusions
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in philosophy, psychology, cultural studies,
sociology, and history, as well as science, is taken
as the basis of the present research work.
analysis of the ethical and aesthetical issues of
social mythology are defined by a concept of
mythocentrism of mass communication that
is understood as reaching social practicability
when fulfilling the communication audiences’
ground needs, a concept of socio-cultural
activities understood as social efficient activities
of creating, mastering, saving, spreading and
further developing of cultural values.
The following statements make the
grounds for the research: two basic principals of
philosophical anthropology:
1. The principal of anthropological
reduction – justification of the way of human
existence in the situation of the latest disintegration
of the united structure of existence, reduction of
human existence to the sphere of culture, and
2. The principal of practical-active
objectivity in adequate cultural forms which
require active interaction of natural science with
humanitarian studies to benefit the research.
Sample description of a character
in the research
An enthusiastic participant of the research,
young specialist in public relations Roza Vasilyeva
(St. Petersburg) described the image of imaginary
(mythical) character Uncle Ben:
Uncle Ben is a senior African-American, with
grey head and a bow-tie. By 1943 when Uncle
launched his famous rice in the American market,
he had already been quite well-known in the close
community of rice farmers.
The name of Uncle Ben is often associated with
another very famous uncle in America – Uncle Sam.
According to the hierarchy of needs developed
by psychologist Abraham Maslow, both these
characters have occupied the basic and most
important needs of a human being: needs for
food and security. Therefore, the duet of Ben and
Sam has carved their names in the history of the
USA forever as people who take all worries about
everyday needs away and who give people an
opportunity to think about the eternal, spiritual,
A well-known Russian rock musician Mongol
Shudan has written a song about Uncle Ben:
I had a dream last night about Uncle Ben’s
I would not wish to my worst enemy to have
such a dream
I’d rather have seen a Mercedes
That shines as a samurai’s sward
Everything inside of me turned upside down
Children home lover job
Somebody on a jar is looking right at me from
Such a present for the folks
I’m tired of this
Haven’t seen since I was born
A black odd man
Who is cheerfully grinning
I have got an idea
I’ll strangle this time
Either an aunt or an uncle
Is feeding us little by little
Participants of the projects had an opportunity
to describe five to six imaginary (mythical)
characters or create up to 20 illustrations.
«Medved», Transformers (before the movie
of the same name came out in Russia!), great
heroes of Lucas’ “Star Warriours” – Luke
Skywalker, Dart Wader, Jota, Chewbacca, 3-PO,
and R2-D2 – all were remembered and easily
drawn but none (!!!) of the participants took
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the responsibility to describe these characters
till summer of 2007 when several new authors
chose them just because of the strong motivation
to participate in the project. It is hard to believe
but the young generation of people aged 18-25
is not involved in the twisted adventures of Luke
The same situation as with Luke Skywalker
but even more obvious in its tendency happened
regarding some other characters – they were
literally described within a week before the
manuscript was taken to printers in February of
2008. The characters are Alf, an American, an
Englishman, Crazy Squirrel, Ivan Vasilyevich,
Hub-O’-My-Thumb, Peter I, Poruchik Rzhevskiy,
Wanton Parrot (Kesha), and Chukchi man.
If we look at these characters from
the position of social mythology dynamics
completely represented by the theory of
branding, then we fi nd out the following: images
of characters, which are easy to remember, are
known; they were easily drawn by the artists,
but the writers did not want to describe them.
Therefore, regardless high acknowledgment
and awareness about them these characters are
characterized by low involvement in their images
by the audiences (it is easier to draw an image
than to write about it). The term “respect” is not
implied to these images, which seem very wellknown, that means that the images are gradually
going out from the memory extent. It is obvious
that Peter I drifts from being extremely biased
in the soviet machine to an image that is only
interesting to history specialists (history of
St. Petersburg here is ready to move back to
more than half of the century away – the early
fortresses Nienshantz and Landscrona). Ivan
Vasilyevich is more of a character of one of
the most popular in Russian history comedies
“Ivan Vasilyevich Changes the Occupation” by
Gayday than a tragic historical figure of the fi rst
Russian imperator.
In cross-cultural dimension, it is interesting
that lively and emotional reaction was caused
by the mythological characters of a German,
Russian, French, and Finnish man. Images of
an American, Englishman and a Chukchi man
are already/yet emotionally distant to the young
socio-humanitarian intelligent participants of
the project, even though these characters were
included in the list of images that are “in the
The picture is quite the opposite with
the images of The Flu, The Stomach (an
anthropomorphic image of a chocolate bar Nuts),
Ilya Muromets (the research took place before
the full-length cartoon “Ilya Muromets” by K.
Bronzit came out), Mummy Troll and his friends,
Crazy Wolf (toothpaste “Blendax”). They are
known and understood, but their suitability in
the world of the modern youth is not great. These
images were left unillustrated…
It needs to be acknowledged that the images
of the three heroes of Russian epic (as the basic
epic of the Russians) are suitable for the youth as
only the cartoon characters.
Discussion of results
1. Young people described many fabulous
characters but almost did not take any classic
characters. The exception is Anna Karenina.
Yes, Anna Karenina – “Last heroine” of
Russian classical literature for Russian sociohumanitarian youth (mostly among girls)1.
2. The research results show that the
characters of Russian classical literature are not
worthy, are not accepted and have little influence
on modern Russian city youth aged 19-27 years
old. That means that in the deep layers of mind
the characters of Chekhov, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky,
Pushkin (they are studied at school) exist,
but young people do not associate themselves
with these characters, the characters are not
interesting to the youth and they do not come to
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their mind “on their own”. To our opinion, such
situation is a clear sign that such school subject as
Russian literature in its modern condition is not
methodically correct.
3. 83 out of 240 imaginary (mythical)
characters that were described in total were
human figures. More specific detail on people
as imaginary (mythical) characters are given
below in the following order: sex, age of the
character/number of times described (out of
the total number that equals 83).
- men / 49 (83);
- boys / 14 (83);
- women / 16 (83);
- girls / 4 (83)
3.1. It is immediately striking that in the
minds of today's youth the number of people as
imaginary figures of art, culture and business is
small and is 30% of the total number of animalistic
images. Maybe this reflects the fact that physical
reality itself becomes a less important element of
People rushed to the exotic images in their
most different manifestations.
3.2. Men predominate. This fact is proved by
the orientation of the Russian female culture at
the men's images in its massive manifestations.
Characteristically, the number of «not yet men» boys (14) is approximately equal to the number of
women characters (16).
3.3. Characters of girls are not relevant to
young women - with spontaneous recall of only four
images. This can be an indicator of reorientation
of women from traditional roles within the family
to scenarios typical for modernized society.
In doing so, it may be considered a Russian
feature of significant traditionalism in area of
infantilism among young women with higher
socio-humanitarian education.
4. It’s interesting to compare the number of
people, animals and robots that are present in the
minds of young Russians in the following order:
Characters (Number)
- People (83);
- Animals (70);
- Robots (19),
Including those that are robots, the
- Electro-mechanical robots (8);
- Magical robots (imaginative power source
and the principle of action) (4);
- Biorobots (4);
- Non-material Programmes (3).
Non-material programs as robots maintain
the myth of uncontrolled telecommunications
4. 1. A widespread point of view that
characters created by human being, holders
of artificial intelligence predominate in the
worldview of the youth has not been confirmed
yet, at least among Russian young women (images
of robots occupy less than 8% of the total list of
imaginary figures). Electro-mechanical robots
are still the leaders.
4. 2. Animals also occupy almost one third
of the world of imaginary (mythical) characters
(29%), only slightly giving way to the characters
of human nature (33%). And this is despite the
fact that the world of Russian residents of a city
with a population of over one million inhabitants
out of all real animals accounts two to four most
common types of pets, some fish (in the aquarium
and on the market), birds and several types of
insects. Plus, there are a few more animals and
“creatures of the sea” in the form of food and
clothing material.
5. The animals that were chosen as the
prototypes of some imaginary (mythical)
characters are as following:
The most popular creatures among young
women in our research are representatives of
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Mosco, V. The mythology of telecommunications deregulation // J. of communication. - N.Y., 1990. - Vol. 40,
N 1. - P. 36-49. - Bibliogr.: p. 48-49.
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family of cats and birds. In total, eleven figures
of cats and six birds were mentioned. A more
detailed analysis of cats divides them into
domestic and wild. Domestic cats make six out of
a total number of cats.
Thus, cats and birds are the most relevant
images of animals to the authors.
Such animals as a dog, a cow/bull, a hare/
rabbit, and viruses/microbes were mentioned
four times each. The significant images of
viruses and microbes most likely come up in
connection to the growing number of advertising
campaigns for cleaners and disinfectants and
dairy products production companies. Microbes
and viruses have become images of current
reality of the surrounding urban environment. It
is quite possible that their share in total number
of imaginary characters will continue growing
further. A human being is more and more
interested in microcosm, and the popularity of
ideas of nanotechnology (nano-sizes of molecules
are much smaller than germs and can be compared
to viruses) makes these microscopically small
living creatures closer and clearer to people. The
microscope is no longer perceived as a window
“in a different world”. In the twenty-first century
microscope is simply a “door to another room”.
A bear, a pig, a camel and a beaver were
mentioned three times each and make a group of
“winners” of our popularity championship. This
group is stable: a pig was supported in Russian
culture the characters of Hryun Morzhov, Piglet
and the three pigs (which have been reckoned as a
pig in a general count). A beaver is presented as a
kind animal, with great originality of appearance,
expressive sound of the name and the construction
skills of behavior. A beaver is something like a
nice wizard. In fact, his skill manifested without
the participation of complex abstractions of human
consciousness. In this regard, drawing together of
images of Beaver and Forrest Gump by formal
features is appropriate. Gump also had limited
mental activity, but achieved outstanding results
regardless the lack of rational thinking – thanks
to his kindness, sincerity and authenticity.
The image of a camel is close to Russian
culture, not only because camels live on Russian
territory, and because of their historical use in
the military purposes that date back to Peter I,
their unique appearance and the fact that there
are camel in every zoo but also thanks to Camel
cigarettes and the advertising images of Picnic
chocolate bars.
The case with a bear is strange. This symbol
of Russia, the ancient totem beast of Russians,
seems to be loosing the representativeness in
the “operational” part of the mind of Russian
females. Neither Vinnie the Pooh nor Medved
can do anything about it. A dangerous substance
of this predator still has its effect.
Animals that are mentioned fewer times are
already close to random election fluctuations.
That means that random factors and single cases
of appreciation could have strong influence on
their presentence or absence.
A squirrel, a hedgehog, a wolf, and a turtle
were each mentioned twice.
Identified and described once were:
A sponge, a dinosaur, a snake (Russian
dragon), a whale, a crocodile, a frog, a mouse, an
insect (a fly), a monkey, come to life plant fruit
(little pepper), a donkey, a fish, an elephant, an
ostrich, and a giant worm (in fact - an underground
6. We can find out what place in the minds
of the study group take images inspired by
cinema (including animation), advertising, fiction
literature, and actual modern life folklore. The
final results are given below in the following
The source of appearance of the imaginary
(mythical) character for a young man/
representativeness in the overall list, the number
of characters
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- Movies, animation / 61
- Fiction literature (printed) / 72
- Advertising and brands (television and
promotions) / 66
- Modern folklore “word-of-mouth” / 42.
6.1 The picture seems fairly balanced - all
channels bring commensurate contribution to the
formation of mass consciousness, but fiction still
somewhat predominates.
It turns out that creating images of trademarks,
brands, and advertising should be done very
carefully due to the natural ironic personality of
Russian people and the ability to literally wrest
meaning of an image “inside out”. Centuries of
totalitarian pressure developed an extremely
important for life in such circumstances feature.
A resident of Russia has high, literally childish
trust to the rumors and versions of interlocutors.
However, he feels falsehood of social coercion
of any kind from miles away, to the extent of his
full force he counteracts and would not be lazy
to share such scandalous discoveries about such
errors of this or that brand image with eight to
twelve1 of his friends (and those in turn with
An important conclusion is that art, folklore,
and business areas of knowledge are very mixed
from now on: art and fold images come into
symbiosis with brands, and the brands in turn
become true artistic and folklore realities.
Hypotheses claimed by A. Mol find proof –
there is a so-called “Mosaic picture of the world”2
appeared in the minds of modern consumers. This
means that people get information on a distinct
variety of subject not from one source and not
strictly in a systematic order (such a structure of
knowledge characterized graduates of classical
Дымшиц М. Манипулирование покупателем.
М., 2004.- С.28.
Моль А. Социодинамика культуры. – М., 1973.
universities). The worldview of a modern
consumer is like mosaic sets of information
fragments drawn from broadcast media, various
professional courses and seminars, and also as
a result of horizontal exchange of opinions. At
the same time, these fragments are not stored
in minds on the basis of classifications by fields
of knowledge, but the sets based on similar
emotions, external features and similar situations
of consumption – in the places where these pieces
of information were received.
4. In order to create successful projects in
business nowadays it is vital to be able to integrate
them with artistic experience and urban folklore
(modern mythology3). With regard to imaginary
beings, this concept means the principal abolition
of the conceptual boundaries between art,
classical mythological and modern mythological
images on one hand, and brands, trademarks
promotions, advertising communications - on the
Issues for further research
In this regard there are two questions
considered interesting:
1) How does the correspondence between
four mentioned channels producing the imaginary
images in different age groups? and
2) Due to what source’s contribution has an
advertising channel occupied its present quarter
share in comparison to the Soviet period in
history when advertisement did not exist at all?
And if the fi rst question requires
additional research, the exact answer to the
second question does not seem to ever be
found out. One can only assume that since the
Soviet period was characterized by intensive
informal culture of “word of mouth”, a sort
of mechanism of “letting the steam out” in a
confrontation to totalitarian pressure, in an era
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Ульяновский АВ. Мифодизайн: коммерческие и
социальные мифы. – СПб.: Питер, 2005.
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Andrey V. Ulyanovsky. Imaginary (Mythical) Characters as Axiological Markers of Social Mythology…
of greater intensity and transparency of media
as a meaning creator1, modern folklore2 gave up
almost half its influence in favor of advertising
and brand images.
The study of anthropomorphic and
zoomorphic objectivities of social mythology
in the field of consciousness of young sociohumanitarian intelligent people of Russia by the
methodology of included monitoring and focus
opens up a possibility of further, deeper text
processing. Including:
Narrative analysis - proper allocation of
narrative (narrates the events) parts of texts
from non-narrative (reasoning, descriptions,
assessment) in order to analyze independent from
the situation and constitutive for self-identification
of tellers (authors of the texts) component based
on a mechanism of projection of their personal
Набокова, Л.С. Мифологическое сознание общества:
СМИ как творец смыслов //Вестн. Краснояр. гос. унта. Гуманит. науки. - Красноярск, 2005. - N 3. - C.
Riviere, C. Mythes modernes au coer de l’idelogie. // Cahiers intern. de sociologie. N. S. - P., 1991. - A. 38, vol.
90. - P. 5-24. - Bibliogr.: p. 24.
stories and a story told voluntarily and with
Identification and analysis demonstrated
archetypes of collective unconscious.
Identification of how applicable the
American sociological approach of analysis of
mythmaking in consumer society3 for Russia and
the use of the results of this study as empirical
basis on the issue of transformation of social myth
in consumer society4.
Contextually semantic analysis means
developing a portrait of collective emotional attitude
towards actual reality, synchronized by thematic
areas (cinema, fiction, brands, urban folklore).
Content analysis means identifying of
semantics relevant to young socio-humanitarian
intelligent people, through their visual
interpretation in drawings as well5.
# 473 #
Fischer, C. Considering the “magical” world of consumption // Berkeley j. of sociology. – 2005. - Vol. 49.
- P. 137-157.
Ritzer, G. The “magical” world of consumption: Transforming nothing into something // Berkeley j. of sociology. – 2005. - Vol. 49. - P. 117-136.
Studies in mundane reality// Qualitative sociology. N.Y., 1989. - Vol. 12, N 4. - P. 333-431.
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Anton I. Sirokhin and Vladimir N. Shikhanov. Structure of Psychic Attitude of a Person to Careless Traffic Violations…
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2008 1) 474-480
УДК 343.2.7
Structure of Psychic Attitude of a Person
to Careless Traffic Violations and Potential Ways
of Accident Prevention
Anton I. Sirokhin and Vladimir N. Shikhanov*
East Siberian Institute of Home Affairs of Russia
110 Lermontova st., Irkutsk, 664074, Russia 1
Received 27.11.2008, received in revised form 17.12.2008, accepted 24.12.2008
The present article analyses the structure of psychic attitude of a person towards traffic violation that
was committed carelessly. The authors conclude that a participant of traffic in fact does not anticipate
the outcomes of his or her own conscious infringing activity that threatens the community. On the
basis of recent achievements in Philosophy of Consciousness and Psychophysiology of Upper Nervous
Activity the authors make hypothesis on potential ways to prevent careless traffic violations due to
realization of violation consequences in the mind of traffic participants.
Keywords: traffic safety, careless guilt, prevention of careless crimes.
Specialist literature dedicated to classification
and prevention of traffic violations features a
number of standpoints regarding whether or not a
person driving a vehicle realizes a threat from his
or her behavior when violating the traffic rules
as well as whether or not he or she anticipates
socially dangerous outcomes of such behavior
and to what extent.
Solution of the problem in many ways
predetermines the nature of the following
investigations including the suggestions to
prevent careless crimes in general and traffic
violations in particular.
The objective of the present article is to cite our
own view on the issue and provide suggestions on
potential ways to prevent careless traffic violations
on the basis of existing theoretical background.
From the theoretical standpoint that we
have, in case of careless violation intellectual
aspect is characterized as actually negative,
whereas volitional aspect as absolutely negative.
In other words the driver who acts carelessly does
not realize social threat of own behavior, though
often realizes traffic violation itself (awareness of
administrative offence). An important aspect here
is that the driver in this situation does not actually
anticipate the parameters of possible outcomes,
in particular their social threat. It is exactly the
fact that enables a person to treat own behavior
as permissible.
In this case anticipation differs from the
form of prevision included into the psychic
structure of person’s conscious behavior. In case
of careless behavior a person does not anticipate
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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abstract consequences, but only the probability
of unfavorable outcome, with the parameters
of outcome being unidentified in the mind.
Therefore this is mediated anticipation, which is
expressed in inverted form: through anticipation
of favorable outcome with awareness of factors
that stand on the way to such outcome. This
makes a person take actions to avoid the factors
aspiring to achieve anticipated favorable result.
That’s the reason why this behavioral model can
be described as taking risk to certain degrees –
depending on the parameters of anticipated factors
that stand on the way to favorable outcome.
Described theoretical approach to the issue
under consideration is based on understanding of
human consciousness provided in the works by
A.N. Arlytchyov, V.V. Luneev and a number of
other researchers. In questions of treatment of the
purpose, purposefulness, and also expediency
we leant against M.G.Makarov and S.E.Vitsin’s
works which positions are actual till now both in
cybernetics, and in social management.
So, V.V. Luneev defined subjective aspect
of an action (psychic processes with regard to
committing a crime – motivation in general sense)
as subjective core of the crime. Here the structure
of psychic process consists of the following
consecutive components: realization of the need,
formation of a particular cause, substantiation of
a cause in the target, selection of ways to reach the
target, anticipation and forecast of consequences
upon reaching the target, making decision to
pursue the chosen behavior model, control and
adjustment of committed actions on the basis
of particular cause and a number of other points
(Luneev, 2000: 62).
From this point of view careless crimes
differ from the intended ones, because
target vectors of actions and non-anticipated
consequences significantly disagree, that is lie
in different planes. On the other hand, intended
crime presupposes that motivation, target and
consequences correlate with each other and form
a single vector featuring intended activity of a
person to achieve a particular result to satisfy the
relevant realized needs (Criminal law of Russia,
2006: 220-222).
The structure of subjective aspect of a
crime is a particular example of human mind
functioning as information activity (Arlytchyov,
2005: 28). The following shall consider certain
provisions of the theory.
Activity of a person is purposeful and is
manifested in modification of certain material or
intangible objects.
describe human behavior with two determinants:
target and cause. The first one was defined by
Aristotle as the underlying reason, and Hegel
saw it as an image of the result or desired state of
the object, a unity of the subjective and objective
(in the achieved goal). A cause in the system is a
driving reason.
Thus, human activity is viewed as a chain
of consecutive moments of target formation,
reaching the target (operational stage) and
evaluation of results (Vitsyn, 1977: 5). That’s the
way the principle of appropriateness is expressed,
when the reverse impact on the reason has a
signaling character and shows negative feedback.
Here the evidence of difference between required
ultimate state and actually reached one obtained
from the feedback turns into the reason that
forces correction of the activity so that the results
or the parameters of managed process meet the
desired state as fully as possible (Makarov, 1962:
140-141). Information on the process of object
modification obtained from the feedback might
result in selection of a new target; the phenomenon
is termed as target variation.
In other words, the above chain of purposeful
human activity forms a cycle where each turn
testifies to full-time control of consciousness
over operational components as well as makes up
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Anton I. Sirokhin and Vladimir N. Shikhanov. Structure of Psychic Attitude of a Person to Careless Traffic Violations…
a certain stage of object modification on the way
to bringing it to the desired state.
The key component of the theory is the
question about the origin and nature of the target,
since its parameters influence the character of
person’s activity and the overall result. Having
determined the target and ways to achieve it, a
person maintains own activity in a particular
mode by means of volition.
Leading role in target selection is played by
the information programs – genetic (inherited)
and acquired (developed over person’s life).
Ultimately animals have purposeful behavior,
and a human being has purposeful activity. In
the first case the target is connected directly
with vital needs, defined by genetic code and
considered unconscious, in the second case it may
be mediated (for example, in tools manufacturing)
and considered to be conscious.
A person determines the target in the form
of ideal information model - image of ultimate
results of object modifications. Finally, human
activity can be characterized as bilateral process
(that generally correlates with cycle described
above): process of making ideal information
model and subsequent process of material object
modification based on the model, which is an
implementation of ideal model in reality.
The fact that a person creates a target and
implements it proves that, unlike with animals,
there are no predetermined tasks, which points at
conscious behavior of a human.
Thus, the function of consciousness is to
formulate a target, which consists in selection
of the object to be modified and definition
of its desired ultimate state: creation of ideal
information model of the desired object state.
This is followed by knowledgeable
anticipation of practical activity (informationanticipating function ) – object modification
in “ideal” theoretical form in the system
of images. At this stage the consciousness
simulates successful object modification –
on the information level. The stage contains
prevision of outcomes.
Then ideal information model becomes
substantiated in the course of operational
(practical) activity. The later is implemented
under the full-time control of consciousness and
adjusted on the basis of information updates
(through feed-back) on correlation of the object
with the parameters of ideal model as well as
on the possibility to carry on the modifications
(supervising function). Practical activity and
inclusion of consciousness control are linked to a
cycle chain that was described above.
The nature of informational modifications
that take place prior to practical activity as well
appropriateness of ideal model and ideal process
for implementation depends on the information
quality of the object, that is on the awareness
and capacity to perform thinking. Therefore the
same target shall be reached by different people
in different ways both in terms of approach and in
terms of implementation proper.
Therefore selection of ways to achieve the
goal in our case depends on the level of knowledge
and skills of a driver, as well as on his or her
intellectual and volitional qualities, physical and
psychic state. In many ways it predetermines the
nature of decisions made by a driver and his or
her behavioral traits as a traffic participant.
Now let us get back to the issues of guilt
content in traffic violations, and in particular, to
the issue of realization of possible outcomes of
driver’s own infringing behavior.
The above statements on the structure
of consciousness and its functions make it
possible to conclude that a driver of a vehicle
when consciously violating traffic rules very
often does not anticipate the negative outcomes
of own behavior – a driver anticipates the
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reverse: favorable outcome connected to the real
motivation of this behavior.
This outcome can be understood as successful
arrival home, timely arrival to work, recreational
sites, successful detour of the obstacles or
overriding other vehicle, etc., which is a target, an
ideal information model of reality modification.
Selected way to reach the target through traffic
violations before the respective maneuver or other
actions has already been implemented in the mind of
a person and became an informational anticipation
of his or her practical activity. Even being aware of
the risk of own behavior, a driver therefore is sure of
successful outcome – it exists already in the mind,
and the person anticipates its parameters (that are
abstract, existing prior to the activity).
This type of psychic activity of traffic
participants is encouraged by widely spread
smooth violations of traffic rules: experienced
almost by everyone who drives a vehicle as well
as by many pedestrians.
When correlating the number of officially
registered administrative offences with respect
to traffic rules and operation of vehicles with
recorded accidents as well as number of traffic
crimes proves that harmful and even more so
severe outcomes of infringing activity are treated
by human mind as accidental, since they are
seldom repeated. Statistics say that one traffic
accident with any injuries or fatalities accounts
for 250-300 traffic violations with no negative
consequences (Luneev, 2005: 336-337). It should
be mentioned that since 2004 on average every
sixth traffic accident is considered a crime and
presupposes penal consequences for the guilty
(By results of comparison of data from the form
“1-БДД” and the statistical reporting from the
form “1-Г”). By results of our researches in
Irkutsk area throughout last 6 years this parity is
equaled 1:177 (without the account of latency).
The above theoretical statement was partly
proved in the poll of vehicle drivers who had not
experienced traffic accidents with injuries or
fatalities. Screening group involved the drivers
sentenced for traffic crimes who were asked by
other researchers (Kononov, 1991: 47, 48).
All respondents from the first group (who we
directly worked with) characterized themselves
as obedient citizens who do not harm the
community. But they admitted their experience
of traffic violations. The question whether or not
the respondents think of possible outcomes and
danger of such behavior was answered negatively
by 77.8 %, 14 % could not give an exact reply,
remaining 8.2 % explained that that they are
trying to behave safely as much as possible and
avoid negative consequences, therefore they
obviously think to some extent.
Now let us see the results of poll conducted
among sentenced drivers by the researchers: most
of them (87 %) recognized social threat of their
behavior to some extent and anticipated possible
harmful outcomes (Kononov, 1991: 47, 48).
The above shows that qualitative transfer
in awareness and anticipation only takes place
after the traffic accident: the nature of actual
outcomes that originally seem accidental for the
guilty are so much different from the nature of
causes and targets that were pursued that a person
reassesses own actions. In the person’s mind own
behavior has low appreciation, his or her image of
social attitude changes (impact of social estimate
Thus, the respondents from the screening
group couldn’t exactly say what was on their
mind in the moment of traffic violation (prior to
the accident or automobile-pedestrian accident),
since these facts were subjected to analysis and
modifications in the same mind, interpreted
through individual and social estimate scale as
well as through repentance.
Having obtained the results regarding the
contents of intellectual and volitional aspects
of psychic activity of people who committed
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Anton I. Sirokhin and Vladimir N. Shikhanov. Structure of Psychic Attitude of a Person to Careless Traffic Violations…
traffic crimes, we put forward the hypothesis on
potential ways to make the traffic participants
realize the outcomes of traffic offences.
We are convinced that they have significant
preventive potential. The essence of the way is
to include the parameters of possible unfavorable
outcomes of infringing behavior on the road to
the phenomenal area of mind (realization). If
we say that volitional aspects of psychic activity
of traffic participants towards these outcomes
are negative and determined by the absence of
their realization, then knowledge of parameters
of undesirable outcomes and anticipation of
high probability of their occurrence should start
the mechanism of target variation or encourage
selection of other ways to reach the original
In both cases it is the rejection of riskassociated behavioral model, conscious violation
of traffic rules. Otherwise if a person is aware of
parameters of dangerous outcomes and anticipates
the probability of their occurrence (being aware
of cause-effect relations) – volitional attempts to
maintain own behavior within risky frameworks
of offence to reach the goal characterize willful
To our mind, it is the crucial point: many
researches show that most drivers have no
intention to harm themselves or other traffic
participants, and even more so to assume the
role of a criminal consciously and willfully, thus
acquiring respective negative social stereotype.
Quite obviously, the state or community are
not capable of influencing the mind of our drivers
when they are about to violate the traffic rules
or commence respective conscious actions (lack
of actions) at the current level of technical and
scientific development.
Thus, divers’ mind should be influenced
before they are in the situation to violate the rules.
Drivers’ mind should have an image that there
are direct relations between traffic violations
and highly negative consequences that are not
desirable for the driver.
Obviously, the ways of influence can
be borrowed from the sciences about social
consequences: PR-techniques (PR – Wordcombination abbreviation “Public relations”).
Besides we assume that lecturing or neurolinguistic programming shall not be effective, the
impact should be brought through visual images,
which is based on the achievements of interaction
theories and semiotics with the support of multimedia.
Priority role of visual images is based on
the fact that vision coupled with hearing are the
key channels for the driver to perceive reality:
this is the way the person gets almost all useful
information necessary to drive a vehicle. The same
channels should also be used to communicate
information in order to make people recognize
negative outcomes of traffic accidents.
Oblique proves of our hypothesis were
obtained in the poll: out of driving respondents
4 people reported having seen human deaths in
traffic accidents. In one case the driver and the
passenger were thrown from the vehicle to the road
through the windshield due to head-on collision
and both were killed by another vehicle. This one
and two more traffic accidents happened due to
overrunning, and one more as a result of driving
at prohibiting signal of traffic lights. Besides, the
respondents who witnessed the accident due to
speed violations said that they have never overrun
thereafter. The fourth respondent reported full
compliance with prohibiting or warning signals
of traffic lights.
We may conclude that negative outcomes of
infringing behavior were recognized in the mind
of respondents and associated with particular
traffic violations that became immediate reasons
for fatalities (there are links between images and
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particular behavioral acts with relevant emotions
and senses that encourage volitional efforts to
reject the violations).
Thus, the priority should be given to bright
and imagery propaganda, with no excessive
letters, explanations and other signs. It should
be highlighted that this social publicity is widely
spread abroad. Video films recorded in England
and Australia aimed at realization of outcomes
of traffic violations and creation of determining
relations between them in drivers’ mind were
found on the Internet1.
Currently, Russian publicity is not careful
enough about traffic safety. The issue is almost
absent from the advertising media, whereas visual
propaganda does not meet the requirements of the
above hypothesis.
Suffice it to say that Russian media do not
advertize automobiles from the safety point of
view, but as a symbol of power, speed and prestige.
For example, ads feature the speedometers
readings that do not correlate with Russian roads
and established speed limits – where could an
owner of a new vehicle speed up to the values of
200-250 kilometers per hour being obedient and
safe or reach 100-150 kilometers per hour in a
few seconds?
And on the contrary, the respondents couldn’t
cite any ad that would promote a vehicle in terms
of reliability, minimum injuries to passengers in
crash-tests and would be associated with safety.
No less important is another aspect. Since
preventive potential of our hypothesis is based
on the dilemma: “Reject the violation, if you
do not want these outcomes, otherwise you act
intentionally”, because the outcomes should not
be related to the safety of driver himself, but to
the safety of other people.
The statement also has cultural background:
our community has long-lasting stereotype of
risking one’s own life, neglecting own safety. They
are obviously a part of archetype. A folk proverb
is also known: “You can die, but save your friend”;
people who often defy danger and risk, those
who do not fear death are considered to be brave,
valiant, courageous (stunt men, climbers, riders,
warriors, etc.). Some of the actions are awarded:
Order of Courage, Bravery Medal, star “Hero of
Russia”, etc. Epic literature is also a good example:
legends say about fearlessness and bravery.
Therefore propaganda focusing own safety
shall miss the target from the social standpoint.
Propaganda will be more effective if based on
jeopardizing and causing harm to other people:
starting with close relatives who travel in the
vehicle as passengers and ending with strangers
who would cross the street or drive the oncoming
vehicle, etc.
Currently, Russian propaganda is designed
according to the first principle. As an example,
we can cite a widely spread poster showing a
woman and a girl with a phrase: “Dad, we’re
waiting for you at home”. Let’s notice, that in this
case the poster a priori asserts, that the family of
the driver is in safety.
However, you will never see Russian posters
or videos that would state that if you drive to a
red traffic light or commit double overtaking –
you are a murderer, let alone demonstration of the
graves of people you would kill, if still willing to
pursue with your intentions.
Therefore, we got evidence of lacking
parameters of negative outcomes of traffic
violations in minds of people who drive the
vehicles when being careless about their own
behavior (taking risk), as well as of significant
preventive potential of measures aimed at making
traffic participants realize possible outcomes.
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Anton I. Sirokhin and Vladimir N. Shikhanov. Structure of Psychic Attitude of a Person to Careless Traffic Violations…
A. Agafonov, The kognitive psychomechanic of consciousness or as the consciousness
meaninglyless makes the decision on comprehension, The 2nd edition, corrected and added (Samara:
Bakhrah-M, 2007).
A.N. Arlytchyov, Consciousness: it is information-activity the approach, (Мoscow: KomKniga,
Criminal law of Russia, The general part: the Textbook, Under the editorship of V.N.Kudryavtsev,
V.V. Luneev, A.V.Naumov; 2nd edition, processed and added (Moscow: Urist, 2006).
A.L. Kononov, Value of the subjective party for punishment definition for careless crimes,
Problems of criminally-legal struggle against careless criminality (Tyumen, 1991).
V.V. Luneev, Subjective to lay charge (Мoscow: Spark, 2000).
V.V. Luneev, XX-th century criminality: world, regional and Russian tendencies, the 2nd edition,
processed and added (Moscow: Wolters Kluwer, 2005).
M.G. Makarov, The purpose, Some questions of dialectic materialism (Leningrad: The publishing
of the Leningrad state university, 1962).
S.E. Vitsyn, Definition and substantiation of the purposes in social management (Мoscow,
Data of motor licensing and inspection department about road and transport breakdown
susceptibility (The form “1-БДД”).
Data of statistical reporting about the registered crimes (The form “1-Г” Code 453).
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Ludmila B. Zubanova. Opinion Leaders Are New Information Élite
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2008 1) 481-485
УДК 316.776
Opinion Leaders Are New Information Élite
Ludmila B. Zubanova*
Chelyabinsk State Academy of Culture and Arts,
36-a Ordjonikidze st., Chelyabinsk, 454135 Russia 1
Received 27.11.2008, received in revised form 17.12.2008, accepted 24.12.2008
The article concerns the concept of new information élite defined as opinion leaders in American
sociologist P.Lazarsfeld’s terminology. The problem of personified influence of leaders upon the public
consciousness of the audience is analyzed.
Keywords: popularity, a perception of leadership, information elite, a new public media-hero, opinion
leaders, a theory of mass communication.
Point of view
Metamorphoses of the perception of
leadership in trends of the historical development
are alternating actualization of “special
feature” sign – power, authority, knowledge,
experience, – making topical images of a hero,
a ruler, a prophet, an expert, an aristocrat. The
postindustrial epoch has essentially sanctified the
notions “information” and “information capital”
as significant and practically usable valuables of
contemporary culture, has taken a new public
media-hero to the proscenium of the social
The popularity is getting an urgent resource
of the postindustrial culture, a kind of symbolic
capital, that ensures a bearer of a well-known
name considerable dividends, and becomes one
of the leading points of welfare list of information
civilization, “the stratification indication of
social inequality” (L.Greenin), that divides the
society into distinctive “interior” and “exterior”
social levels. Modern mass media working for
public coverage of the most famous persons gives
an opportunity to one, who creates significant
information occasions, to get one’s own
“portion” of fame. They form some “intrusion
of leadership” when a spoken person turns out
to be automatically reproduced in public mind
as one to deserve attention. At the same time
the recognizability of a personality not always
indicates quality characteristics of the popularity
of a person in the society that is a combination of
the degree of fame (knowledge) and estimating
characteristics – public interest and attitude to this
personality and perception of him as a leader.
The power of the word recorded by mass
media has been exceeding all other forms of
distribution of information according to the
width of coverage as well as to the length of
influence for a long time. At the same time the
fairness of transmitting flows, everyday presence
of individual consciousness in the common
sphere (public opinion) form integration basis for
unity, determining the content and structure of
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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identity to a considerable degree and forming the
generalized character of “we”. Even the greater
influence, to our mind, can be caused by the
value personification of mass media sphere
– it’s a certain form of personification of value
through significant persons. The production of
values as a creation of new senses and values,
as an experience of the world-view reflection,
a diagnostics of the state of spiritual bases, is
possible during investigation of the agents of
spiritual and intellectual production or of those
who bear a set definition of “a person of dominant
An example
The concept of the immediate one-stage
information influence upon the consumer, that
is a dominant one in the mass media researches,
was contested by an American sociologist
Paul Lazarsfeld who registered the increase of
information effect due to the people named in
his terminology “opinion leaders”. The onestage model of communication (mass media –
receivers) has transformed into the two-stage one
(mass media – opinion leaders – receivers): the
transference of information becomes important
at the first stage, and there is the transference of
influence at the second stage.
Yu.М.Lotman says about twice increase
of information volume due to the specific sense
revival, when values transmitted by leaders
perform the function of catalyst contributing
to the growth of information volume within a
recipient’s mind (the creation of sense at the
expense of revival). It is no mere chance that
during an election campaign a lot of attention is
paid to the fact that a candidate’s image should
be associated with urgent social problems and
urgent social problems (to be more precise,
declared solutions to them) should be embodied
into a concrete person. Such a method provides
a certain mutual extension of importance – the
image of a candidate adds some significance to
the problem and the urgency of an arisen problem
grows together with the authority of the leader.
So the value personification of media space
enhances the effect of influence upon the consumer
through the filter of “value personification”, an
operating mechanism of projection (when the
charismatic authority of the character transfers
the additional influence upon the information
he transmits). A personified value (as a value
proclaimed by a significant person) leads to the
appearance of the feeling of “high distinctness”
(M.McLuhan), transfers the message from the
category of abstraction into the sphere of the
utmost concretization.
Under the conditions of enormous
information flow received from the outer world
the human consciousness has to resort to the “life
buoy” of selective perception, to the selective
extraction of the materials befallen it in order to
avoid a state of surcharge. The personification of
transmitted values, senses and meanings helps
the recipient to experience great involvement into
current events, to identify his own world with
the image created by mass media. The image
of reality becomes personified and close to the
consumer with the help of the participation of
those who assume function to clear it up – opinion
leaders: significant persons, whose personality
influence let the apprehending audience trust the
transmitted information (or at least consider it).
Due to the participation of opinion leaders
the communication is put into effect according
to the logic of transformation of “unfamiliar
into familiar” (S.Moscovici) making use of the
mechanisms of anchoring and objectification.
The essence of the first process, according to
S.Moscovici consists in a kind of “grounding”,
“anchoring” of unknown ideas, convergence them
to the usual categories and images, transferring
into the context of everyday experience; the
mechanism of objectification provides the
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conversion of abstract knowledge into the sphere
of concretization. In this connection we should
remember the mechanism of construction
of conception introduced by P.Berger and
T.Luckmann – habitualisation – “making
habitual”, transforming into daily routine (the
mechanism which content is consonant with
Weber’s ritualization).
The observable in the theories of mass
communication “the halo effect” (or “the
nimbus effect”) applying to an authoritative
and popular person – is generally created owing
to the frequency of presence of a public person
in mass media. According to P.Bourdieu’s
thought in the modern society the notion “to
be” is being transformed into “to be taken
notice by journalists” that promotes forming
of the community of “media intellectuals” who
control key factors of symbolic authority over
the consciousness of apprehending audience. The
people of fame become a new ruling information
élite, or, as it was defined by R.Mills – “class
of the professional celebrities”, determining the
barometer of public opinion, normalizing social
conceptions and models of desirable social order,
controlling “the authority of denomination and
classification” in it (P. Bourdieu).
The modern heroes of mass media,
determined in P.Lazarsfeld’s terminology as
opinion leaders, turn out to be “holders of
linguistic capital” (P. Bourdieu), transmitting the
major valuable guidelines of social development
from the public tribune (in a renewed status –
mass media), shaping personality assessment of
reality in the category of public, turning out to
be a connecting link between the world of mass
information and an individual consciousness of a
consumer that is in need of understanding.
Thereby the value space of the social
medium may be investigated by means of study
of the value space of modern mass media (media
space), that is in turn organized by opinion
leaders personifying and embodying values,
making them closer to the mass acceptance and
recognition by majority through the personality
influence of a leader.
The image of the future turns out to be
closely connected with value perspectives of the
reality, lets to predict a priority zone of spiritual
consolidation of social medium which can be fixed
through the analysis of the sphere of spiritual
production of opinion leaders – in compliance
with a sectoral criterion, a linkage with the
professional sphere of activity of publication
heroes. As a matter of fact we can speak about
the zone of distribution of symbolic capital,
realized as a human ability to produce opinions,
an availability of a special kind of competence
which manifests itself in the right to interpret
what is going on.
For a long time “the truth monopolization”
belonged to the leading (in such an issue)
stratum – intelligentsia which was responsible
for finding “the way to the temple”. But if the
classical intelligentsia was apprehended not
seldom with some certain rupture with the
social psychology, meant as an exponent of the
different (and, frequently, alien) consciousness,
opinion leaders act in immediate unity with the
world of public opinion, or, at least, eliminate
forms of open and declared “separation” from
daily routine. Changed conditions of life
exceedingly changed also the traditional notion
of intelligentsia and moreover changed the
intelligentsia itself (having differentiated its
content and modified its functions), displayed
new subjects of social transformations on the
scene of social development, qualifying them
to have right of symbolic right and status of “a
person of dominant influence”. Such changes
are demonstrably proved in O.A.Karmadonov’s
research based on the material of content-analysis
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of Russian press of the end of the XXth century
(“Komsomolskaya Pravda” of 1991, 1993, 1995,
1997 and 1999). On the basis of the settings of
frequency of mentioning, amount of attention,
general valuation context of publications, the
most popular (in O.A.Karmadonov’s terminology
– prestigious) socio-economical groups were
distinguished. The results of the analysis let
O.A.Karmadonov mark out four most prestigious
groups of the end of the XXth century: the
politicians, the businessmen, the military, the
Relying on the content-analysis of the text of
the interviews with public persons, published in
the newspapers “Argumenty I fakty”, “Izvestiya”,
“MK-Ural” of the period from 2000 till 2007 (on
the whole 700 publications) we tried to generalize
a total portrait of the modern opinion leader in
our own research.
The results of the content-analysis let us
expose two most popular images of opinion
leaders: “a politician” and “an artist” (as well as the
popularity of two public spheres – politics / state
governing and art culture / art). Thus we can speak
about the prevalence of two poles, “codified” in the
named images: emotional- sensual (an artist) and
rational-pragmatical (a politician), personifying
cult of spirit and cult of mind (evidently, such an
identity is fixed soon in traditionally- stereotype
interpretation of images, that however doesn’t
disturb us to find “romantic message” in political
sphere, nor deprive the sphere of art creativity of
rational-pragmatical source).
Enhancing of this or that image identifies
also the ways of achievement of set goals of
transformation of the reality which are identified
with the scripts of value-spiritual romanticism
and sensible technocratism, based already not
so much on “holy belief” into moral-ethical
revival and spiritual improvement as based on
the methods of effective management, planning,
organization and control.
The problem of definition of social subjects
of changing the social structure and conditions
of vital activity, the exposure of dynamics
of transforming activity are one of the main
conditions of prediction of spiritual perspectives
in modern Russia. T.I.Zaslavskaya, analyzing
the mechanisms of social transformations,
introduces the notion of “transformational social
activity” which is interpreted in the narrow sense
as social actions carrying innovation character
that is deviating from the institutional traditions.
The actions, consciously directed or indirectly
defining the scripts of social development, are the
zone of responsibility of actors of transformational
process, forming the so-called innovationalreformative potential of society, filled with
settings and activities of leaders and élites who
work out the rules of social game.
Submitted by us conflicts of contradicting
tends, manifesting themselves in the coexistence (and as a matter of fact, in competitive
confrontation) of utopianism and pragmatism,
romanticism and technocratism, values of
primordial Russian and west-oriented ways,
designate two major “problem zones” in spiritualsymbolical space of modern Russian reality,
demonstrating the absence of needed “the golden
1. ideological deficiency – a presence in
the sphere of means, without precise formulation
of goals (question “how?” precedes the basic
inquiring – “why?”, “what for?”) – a situation
which is characteristic to the script of value
2. technological vacuum – a detachment
of targeting from practical realization of
goals, deficiency of means, contradiction of
spiritual project and its empirical embodiment
– demonstrated to a considerable extent in the
scripts of spiritual romanticism.
Domineering of this or that script in the
society determines a corresponding type of
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leadership as well as advancing to the forefront
of public attention leaders are able to form
perspectives of subsequent social development.
To our mind, it is a state of ideological
deficiency that turns out to be the most appreciable
nowadays on the level of mass consciousness,
gives rise to the state of depersonalization and
probably FACElessness of time (absence of
fundamental personalities, recognizable face of
a prophet, an ideologist), symbolizes in a way
drawing a line under the previous epoch of “great
people” and “great shocks”.
P. Berger, T. Luckmann, Social construction of reality, Treatise of knowledge sociology [Text]
(Moscow: Academia-Center, Medium, 1995), 321.
O.A. Karmadonov, Prestige and affectedness as vital strategies of socio-economical group
(analysis of mass media) [Text], Socis., №1 (2001), 66-72.
T.I. Zaslavskaya, About social mechanism of post-communist transformations in Russia [Text],
Socis., № 8 (2002).
T.I. Zaslavskaya, Socio-cultural aspect of transformation of Russian society [Text], Socis., № 8
O.V. Kryshtanovskaya, Modern concepts of political élite and Russian practice [Text], Mir Rossii,
№ 4 (2004), 3-39.
P. Lazarsfeld, R. Merton, Mass communication, mass tastes and organized social action [Text],
M.M. Nazarov, Mass communication and society, Introduction to the theory and researches (Moscow:
Avanti plyus, 2003), 243-256.
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Sergei B. Sinetskiy. Post-Modernism and Cultural Policy
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2008 1) 486-491
УДК 700.411.2
Post-Modernism and Cultural Policy
Sergei B. Sinetskiy*
Chelyabinsk Institute of Economics and Law
named after M.V. Ladoshin,
63 Energetikov st., Chelyabinsk, 454135 Russia 1
Received 27.11.2008, received in revised form 17.12.2008, accepted 24.12.2008
The article is devoted to the study of peculiarities of the implementation of cultural policy in the
situation of uncertainty that is caused by the transformations of public consciousness under the
influence of new information technologies. The author considers the range of problems connected
with the opposition modernism – post-modernism in the context of transforming human activity and
arguments of traditionalistic and futuristic culturological trends.
Keywords: Modern cultural policy, an information technology, post-modernism, an informationalcommunicative revolution.
First of all it’s important to understand what
the object of consideration is, that is hidden behind
the invariant “post”-modernism. According
to our opinion it’s significant to distinguish in
1. The science-philosophical trend,
representatives of which, studying and interpreting
the modern reality, determine created theoretical
constructions with the term “postmodern”.
2. The reality itself as cogitative, activity
and behavior processes performed by people
(individuals as well as groups), the real objective
reality in its self-sufficiency and authenticity.
The science – the product of human
activity – under the limited capabilities of a
human being to reflect and apprehend the outer
world adequately can’t claim to have exhaustive
and verity of its results. With respect to postmodernism the scientific discussions about its
genetic characteristics haven’t been ceased since
the moment of canonization of this phenomenon
(60 – 70s of the ХХ century). However the analysis
of various scientific ideas and conclusions not
equal as to their methodological bases allow to
envisage the phenomenon in its reflection in the
public intellect, to sight its though mosaic but at
the same time the most voluminous portrait.
The reality in turn is always a little bit meagrer
than a scientific theory. However the reality is
always localized in space and time. “Affixment
to the settings”, empirical apprehending of
concrete manifestation of the common allow to
act successfully “here and now”.
Thereby it’s possible to speak about the
synthesis of the theoretical and the empirical,
the abstract and the concrete as a condition of
adequate understanding of what is going on.
Such a differentiation is accepted in policy
where the subject of the action occupies the
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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“above” position. When it’s required to provide
control not only the situation itself in real-time,
but also its sign and symbolic reflection by various
interpretating systems (mass media, scientific
and expert communities, “artists” and so on).
In our case it’s a position of a cultural politician
presupposed the presence “beyond the screen”,
and therefore, partly pretending to the role of the
producer and the director of that what is accepted
to call socio-cultural projects.
We understand the modern cultural policy
as a purposeful, prospectively (long-termly)
oriented activity that provides the development of
the society (its part) in the network of groundedly
selected and artificially implemented cultural
norms, promotion of values. Subtended in this
definition claim doesn’t allow to ignore the postmodern trend of reorganization of the society. At
the same time it’s important to distinguish only
those out of the great diversity of scientific points
of view that characterize the post-modernism
maximum functionally especially for the sphere
of cultural policy.
Point of view
We proceed from the possibility of
consideration of the post-modernism in different
functional dimensions. Let’s represent this
functionality according to the principle “from the
simple to the complicated”:
1. The post-modernism as a sign. Actually,
in the first place, it is a sign (one of signs) indicating
some (frequently they are difficult to formalize)
change taking place in the society, a new cultural
situation, a process of renewing of vital paradigms
and so on. In such a sense (that is reflected in the
name of the sign, as the prefix “post” generally
means nothing) we deal with the purely cultural
phenomenon of “naming”. Naming (attribution,
normalization) is one of the cultural mechanisms
of regulation of the reality since, firstly, it testifies
to the effect of rational reflection of “the new” or
“the unknown” and, secondly, of the beginning of
the process of its mastering by the consciousness.
In such a sense “the post-modernism” is merely “a
sign of the uncertainty”, temporally used till the
moment when the essence, which is marked by it,
is defined. Exactly the same thing happened, for
example, to the sign “the post-industrial” which
was substituted by the sign “informational”
[society] after the approach of the certainty.
2. “The post-modernism” as a theory.
Empirically fixed facts of newness are gradually
systematized according to different criteria,
colligated, placed into different contexts,
integrated to the logic of causative-consecutive
connections. On the assumption of this there
appears a harmonious, systematic picture of the
reality – a theory which more or less precisely
reflects the regularities of the appearance,
existence and vanishing of new phenomena in the
culture and society.
3. “The post-modernism” as an ideology.
As opposed to a scientific theory, an ideology
tends not to an objective reflection of the reality
but to an active transformation of the reality on
the basis of own imperatives. Important is not
that fact how these imperatives appear: they may
be a product of “pure creation” or may be based
on the objectively existing patterns of thought
and action. It is important that these imperatives
are positioned as choiceless. For apologists an
ideology is not so much an object for analysis
as a subject of transformations, it doesn’t need
a critical assessment but it does need bearers
(adherents). If a scientific theory is an instrument
of world perception then an ideology is a way of
thinking, a fundamental basis of new practices.
The post-modernism today is becoming exactly a
new ideology, a new socio-cultural project (Dugin
A. “Geopolitics of the post-modern”, 2007).
Evidently neither a theory nor an ideology of
the post-modernism is comprehensive (as well as a
sign itself has analogues). They are situated in the
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competitive field of social conceptions. However
the revolution in the informational technologies
in combination with globalization provide the
post-modern project with obvious advantages.
The general range of problems connecting
with the post-modernism consist in unobviousness
of its cultural status. Moreover, in some pretension
to out-super-culture. There is some vagueness in
the fact whether the post-modernism destroys just
non-topical (obsolescent) content of culture or
transforms the mechanism of cultural succession
– a tradition, for example. A peculiarity of the
situation is that the impulse of the post-modern
vector is set by the information-technological
revolution which was a manifestation of
philosophical law of transition from quantity to
quality. Thousands of units of knowledge produced
by educational systems of different countries,
thousands of discordant ideas, thousands of
separate experiences, gradually accumulating,
have amassed gigantic energetic potential of
creativity. And this potential due to the power
of obvious social order has been realized in the
sphere of communicative technologies (in broad
sense – communications). It could be realized in
any other sphere, for example, in the professional
art, restoration of nature (in broad sense –
ecology), individual vital practices. However in
the point of bifurcation the line of development
has turned there where it has turned.
The paradox is that the informationalcommunicative revolution is a process though
“artificial” i.e. originating from the cultural
sphere but at the same time uncontrollable due
to the fact that traditional (modernistic) élites
lack corresponding will and organization. The
cultural consequences of this (and actually
another) revolution depend upon:
- firstly, self-reproducing qualities of
culture. However exactly these qualities are
weakened today by dynamics (in broad sense –
informational-technological revolution);
- secondly, cultural politicians taking
upon themselves to a certain extent functions
of adjusters of socio-cultural processes in the
conditions of cultural uncertainty.
Thereby the post-modernism emerges
in the situation of weakening of mechanisms
of reproducing of cultural authenticity. Such
weakening in its turn is a consequence of
changes of the character of existence itself,
key characteristics of which in the first half
of the XXI century became informationality,
dynamics, virtuality. Such a situation, by the
way, was observed in Russia near the events
of 1917, when the cultural mechanisms,
supporting social stability, were also
unbalanced. The order was restored at the
incredibly high price by new élites and on
the new ideological basis. Nowadays the
matter is not only Russia but also the whole
cultural space of the modernism, subject
to the expansion of the post-modernism.
Thereby the topic of combination “artificial”
and “natural” in the creation of a new sociocultural system becomes principal. Having in
mind, that the truth is always somewhere in
the middle, we, though, have to put a question
about such a combination under the weakness
of traditional cultures and disadaptability of
national élites. Under such a combination there
arises the uncertainty of expenses which can
be experienced by the majority of humanity:
- under the change of cultural paradigms (in
so called transitional period);
- after the inculcation of the new postmodernistic paradigm.
In such a sense, cultural politicians
objectively pretend to the role of new élites, and
the modern cultural policy begins (or, at least, is
thought) to fulfil a twofold role:
- firstly, a traditional one, connecting with
the rational interference in the natural processes
of cultural evolution;
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Sergei B. Sinetskiy. Post-Modernism and Cultural Policy
- secondly, a new one, connecting with
the enculturation of the post-modernism (as a
When the post-modernism is said about like
a new epoch it’s usually pointed to the following
genetic criteria of this phenomenon:
- the pluralism, the determination towards
the interminable diversity of ideas, opinions,
forms of self-actualization… (Toffler);
- the decentering, the absence of the
single or “major” centre (information, governing,
fashion), “the mosaicity of the society”
- the polystylisticity of social practices,
overcoming the universality, typicalness,
stereotyping (M.Tournier);
- the rejection of tradition as an instrument
of reproduction (T.Matyash);
- the derivation from the scientific and
technological advance, from new information
technologies (V.Jemelin).
Here we can also add, for example,
such notions as “fragmentation” (of the
society), “filmlooping” (of the consciousness),
“demassification” (of the production) which are
often used to characterize the post-modernism…
characteristics with the traditional characteristics
of classical modernism it is possible to form the
following typology of oppositions (Table).
It is natural that given characteristics at
different degree of intensity can be observed
in both types of society. We have cited them
having rendered them some absolute for
more obviousness. Such a typology allows to
determine the cultural policy on the assumption
of peculiarities of the situation existing in the
region – the object of influence.
Every element is estimated according to the
intensity of manifestation of the characteristics
peculiar to modernistic and post-modernistic
mentality. The approach to one of the poles lets
a cultural politician choose maximum effective
means of influence upon the situation particularly
in the concrete region. Beforehand, however,
it is necessary to conduct a detailed study of
the situation on the assumption of the objective
peculiarities of the region - the object of cultural
policy. These are the features that cannot be
Characteristics of modernism
Characterised elements
Analyticity, structuring,
Peculiarities of human
Intransigence, dominance,
assumption of violence
Integrity, entirety,
Traditionalism, domineering of
basic culture, monostylisticity
Empiricism, complementarity,
Predictability, projectivity,
Team spirit, functionality,
Peculiarities of ideological
guidelines of a personality
Peculiarities of social
Peculiarities of culture
Peculiarities of communication
Peculiarities of perception of the
Peculiarities of activity
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Characteristics of postmodernism
Tolerance, pluralisticity, denial of
Mosaicity, fragmentariness,
Overcoming of tradition,
polyculture, polystylisticity
Virtuality, extravagance, dynamics
Uncertainty, mysteriousness,
Individualism, symbolicity,
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the degree of urbanization of the region.
It is known that the mentality of inhabitants
of megalopolises, of small towns and village
settlements is essentially different. The larger
and the more densely populated the territory is,
the more probable the post-modernistic trends
will prevail here;
- the labour characteristics, the economic
structure. People included into the large industrial
production, small commodity (exclusive) factory
or agricultural production also have unequal
- the history of the region (it is possible
as an administrative-territorial institution), the
degree of settled way of life or migration dynamics
of the population. The regions with the sustained
history, not rapid speed of migration, established
culture are usually not alike very much with anew
created ones (“new cities”) which are inhabited
by migrants from different places who are not
limited by the traditional norms of communal
life. The post-modernism settles easier exactly in
new regions;
- information technologies prevailing in
the region. The representatives of the regions
with the developed information technologies as
a rule possess more explicit post-modernistic
consciousness than those who live in the
conditions of the pre-informational (industrial)
- age structure of the population. It is
evident that the regions with numerous young
generation are intrinsically ready for more radical
changes and intricate ways of self-actualization
(that is a characteristic of post-modernism)
than the regions where the senior generation
(more conservative, traditionalistically aiming)
In the real practice it is necessary to consider
also multitude of peculiarities of a region on the
whole as well as separate target groups which
should be influenced upon in the first place.
Undoubtedly the world is changing under
the influence of scientific and technological
advance including intensive development of
information technologies. Not just the content
of these or those cultures but also the valuenormative construction of culture itself are put
to the severe test. Some methodological premises
of adherents of the post-modernism have already
got the postulates that prejudice fundamental
statements of various sciences. It concerns
both the factual denial of a tradition as a basic
mechanism of socio-cultural succession and
doubt of the human ability to build one’s future
rationally. As V.Emelin writes in his article “Postmodernism: problems and perspectives”: “The
attempts to subordinate socio-political reality to
the single rules of play never end successfully as
the practice shows. The reality, be it society or
nature, resists any imposed limits on it, it always
throws off fetters of directions alien to it, and
not fitting Procrustean bed, no matter, it resume
its normal course some time or other”. (Jemelin
1999). However it’s exactly a reformatory struggle
with the reality (initially it’s a purely physical
one – with the nature, then it’s a substitution of
sign-symbolic similarity for certain fragments of
the reality, after that it’s a transference of basic
activity to the assumed, artificially created space
and creation of the so-called “virtual reality”)
that is a genetic property of a human being. In
this sense the post-modernism itself is not more
than a result of another “victory” of a human over
his own previous achievement – the modernism
(that itself came up to take the place of the premodern).
Whereas the cultural policy was and still
remains, on the one hand, an instrument of
reformation of the reality (“the intrusion of
the new”), on the other hand, an instrument of
preserving of the traditional (“resuming its
normal course”). In any case, manageability
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is better than chaos and predictability is better
than uncertainty. The sensible combination or
the imbalance of new and old, past and future,
tradition and innovation appear in the present.
And that means that the process of harmonization
of life itself (of building parity) is still under
control of people that undoubtedly gives us a
chance and opens new perspectives.
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Natalia P. Koptseva. Theory and Practice of the Innovative Educational Program on the Aesthetic Discipline Cycle…
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2008 1) 492-499
УДК 371
Theory and Practice of the Innovative Educational Program
on the Aesthetic Discipline Cycle at the Siberian Federal University
Natalia P. Koptzeva*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 27.11.2008, received in revised form 17.12.2008, accepted 24.12.2008
The educational model of the Department of Art Theory and Culture Studies at the Siberian Federal
University is considered in the article. It allows to create optimal conditions of ruling the ideal formation
process. That model of aesthetic education is intended for solution of the problem of development
of synthetic thinking and personal development as a whole and as the most necessary condition of
perfection of the contemporary society and, as a consequence, it is also solution of the problem of
formation of socially perspective ideals. That is promoted by the thoroughly elaborated complex of
educational programs at art criticism, culture studies, and cultural and social activity; the specificity
of those programs is mutually complementary synthesis of theoretical and practical disciplines. There
has been developed vast innovative experimental activity within that complex, which allows to obtain
optimal results in the situation at modern education.
Keywords: work of art, masterpiece, ideal formation, synthetic thinking, aesthetic discipline cycle,
innovative aesthetic education.
The base of the conception of general
aesthetic education at the Siberian Federal
University is a theory of culture as a process of
ideal formation with a certain system of ideals,
as a result. The subjects of ideal formation are big
social communities, social groups, and individuals.
It is obvious that the process of ideal formation
can and must be ruled in the modern information
society, giving certain content to the system of
standards, models, and ideals as a concrete form of
various social and individual actions.
The system of ideals is formed on the base
of sensible-and-rational interrelation of a certain
kinds of objects, which are the models of social
and individual actions. Some special mechanisms
of ideal formation have already been set up and
are being created inside culture – those are
masterpieces of fine arts (works of art). A work
of art initiates a special form of sensible-andrational relationship: quite concrete changes
in the sensible and rational kinds of human
thinking or even in that one of a social group are
initiated as a result of perception of the content
of one or another work of art. A work of art is
purposely created in such a way the perception
of it could make those changes. Consequently,
art as it is represents itself as environment of
development. Masterpieces of art are the most
effective power, which changes the forms of
sensible and rational thinking.
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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Human thinking has synthetic nature:
besides verbal thinking, visual, audile, and other
forms of nonverbal thinking have no less, but
greater importance. If the education at natural
sciences and traditional humanities turns to verbal
thinking, and it forms and develops just verbal
thinking, then an organized aesthetic education
forms culture of visual and audile thinking,
which otherwise grows up spontaneously, often
in a negative and destructive way for culture.
Aesthetic education presupposes formation
of a certain system of ideals by forming culture
of visual and audile thinking based on rationaland-sensible apprehension of models of artistic
culture (masterpieces of the World Art).
The conception of aesthetic education
supposes that it is possible to create innovative
educational programs for the students of
universities and other institutes of higher
education, institutions of specialized secondary
education, and those ones of secondary education,
on the base of theory of culture as ideal formation
and theory of visual and audile thinking.
Realization of these programs is to provide the
most total and purposeful formation of socially
perspective ideals (patriotism, tolerant mind,
social activity, independence, and many other
ideals), for all this, the ideals are not laid down
and suggested as finished results, but revealed in
the processes of active work, the forms of which
are determined by visual and audile thinking
(equally by verbal and conceptual thinking).
The problem of the Siberian Federal
University, being solved by the system of
aesthetic education, is training of personnel
able to orientate themselves on their own in the
contemporary information area of ideal formative
system of culture and to operate with different
social objects on purposeful formation of socially
perspective ideals.
The conception of aesthetic education at
the Siberian Federal University is worked out
and inculcated by the Department of Art Theory
and Culture Studies. V. I. Zhukovskyi, doctor of
Philosophy, professor, and head of Art Theory
chair, is a scientific supervisor of the project.
His theory of visual thinking has been taken as
the base of the scientific researches, educational
and methodological, and practice activities of the
The activity of the department develops in
two trends: 1) realization of the program of general
aesthetic education for all trends and specializations
at the university; 2) training bachelors and holders
of a master’s degree of “Art Theory”, “Social and
Cultural Activity”, and “Culture Studies”, who are
able to work purposefully and professionally at all
the spheres of social reality and who are connected
with the processes of social and individual ideal
The educational programs worked out at the
faculty are formed on the systematic principle:
theoretical training in that or another discipline
of the aesthetic cycle is accompanied by a large
number of practical projects, being realized at the
institute of higher education.
The projects of the Siberian Federal
University connected with giving musical
concerts including performances of the symphony
orchestra in the university space are well-known.
Today the student subscription for Krasnoyarsk
Philharmonic Society is valid: the university
entirely pays for the students’ going to the concerts
of the Philharmonic Society, and on every Friday
the concert-hall of Krasnoyarsk Philharmonic
Society is overcrowded with the students and staff
of the Siberian Federal University. Vera Petrovna
Lozinskaya, docent of the Culture Studies chair,
is a curator of that activity, who in addition runs
the chamber Musical Salon.
There has been created a student choir of the
Siberian Federal University on the base of The
Department of Art Theory and Culture Studies,
which takes prize-winning places at prestigious
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regional festivals. The Department of Art Theory
and Culture Studies has vast links with many
cultural institutions of Krasnoyarsk city, Office
of Culture at Administration of Krasnoyarsk
region, Regional Department of Union of artists
in Russia, and provides for cooperation with the
institutions within the whole university.
The educational activity on realization
of the program of aesthetic education also has
systematic nature. The programs for studies are
formed on the principle of gradual extension
of aesthetic content, progressive formation of
culture of visual and audile thinking for all
specializations of all SFU faculties:
1st and 2nd terms – “Language and History
of Music”
3rd and 4th terms – “Language and History of
Fine Arts and Architecture of Western
Europe and Russia”
5th and 6th terms – “Language and History of
the World Literature”
7th term – “Religion in the system of
8th term – “Culture Studies”
That is an ideal system which is to be
realized on the grounds of the decision of the
University Academic Council, for the basis of that
system has a number of scientific methodological
and methodical principles, which purposefully
allow to form the culture of synthetic thinking
favourable for the most effective and nonviolent
assimilation of the socially perspective
ideals. In practice, the conception of aesthetic
education in its educational constant is realized
either completely or partially depending on a
concrete faculty. Besides, a number of faculties
makes applications for the courses, which
richly in content respond to the conception of
aesthetic education and, moreover, enlarge their
information possibilities, adapting them for the
needs of the basic educational program.
The concrete situation of 2006-2007
academic year is reflected in the Table given
Studies of these disciplines are completely
supplied with training and methodical study
guides, classes are held in the lecture-rooms,
equipped with the modern technical means of
education (audio- and video devices, multimedia
projector, document-cameras, color TV sets,
etc.). INTERNET-Centre, SFU scientific library
and methodical room of the Department of Art
Theory and Culture Studies give the widest
information possibilities.
The lectures at “Language and History of the
World Literature” course read by O.A. Karlova,
“Religion in the System of Culture” read by head
of the Culture Studies chair N. P. Koptzeva, and
“Language and History of Fine Arts of Western
Europe and Russia” course of A.V. Klykova,
a lecture of the chair of Art Theory are a great
success among the students of different faculties.
Anastasiya Victorovna Klykova has worked out
an electronic variant of her course, which includes
more than 200 color pictures and is available
for all the university students in the Internet.
Three studios at the Department of Art Theory
and Culture Studies are active: woodcarving,
ceramics and pottery, the permanent exhibition of
production of arts and crafts made by the students
of Art Theory students is open.
Today it is absolutely obvious that the
barest necessity of the present-day reality in
Russia is prognosticating and dirigible social
ideal formation. The Siberian Federal University
has stored enormous scientific and practical
experience both at formation of socially
perspective ideals (by the means of the system
of general aesthetic education) and at training
of personnel with vocational knowledge and
skills, which help to form the socially perspective
ideals of the very different categories of Russian
population today.
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Natalia P. Koptseva. Theory and Practice of the Innovative Educational Program on the Aesthetic Discipline Cycle…
Table. The Cycle of Aesthetic Disciplines at the Siberian Federal University
1. Mathematics
2. Physical Training
3. Chemistry
4. Economics
5. Physics
6. Law
7. Biology
8. Foreign Languages
9. Psychology and Pedagogy
10. History
1. Mathematics
2. Economics
3. Physics
1. History
Number of academic hours
in a year
1. Mathematics
2. Physical Training
3. Physics
4. Law
5. Biology
6. Foreign Languages
7. Psychology and Pedagogy
8. Social Activity
1. Chemistry
2. Psychology and Pedagogy
1. Foreign Languages
Language and History of Music
Religion in the System of
History of the World Religions
Culture Studies
Language and History of the
World Literature
History of the Oriental
Philosophy of Religion
1. Foreign Languages
1. Psychology and Pedagogy
1. History
History and Theory of
History of Foreign Philosophy
1. Psychology and Pedagogy
1. Psychology and Pedagogy
1. Law
2. Psychology and Pedagogy
3. Foreign Languages
Language and History
of Fine Arts
Training of personnel with professional
competence at organization of socially
optimum ideal formation is the most important
thing. That is the aim the basic educational
program of “Art Theory” specialization
carried out at the Siberian Federal University.
It is obvious that such important social
competence as purposeful ideal formation
demands a great number of innovative
educational technologies.
In order to rise the standards of students’
knowledge, the educational process at the
Department of Art Theory and Culture Studies
is organized taking into account two sessions and
two intermediate attestations in an academic year
approved at the university. That allows to control
the quality of assimilation of the program’s
materials by the students systematically in
every two months. Efficiency of the estimation
of knowledge is kept up by the four-mark scale
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of estimation of students’ knowledge during the
attestation and exams, which has been put in force
at the university. Passing tests and other kinds of
independent research works by the students are
also accompanied with marks.
The faculty’s chairs have worked out and
realized about 30 professional courses. Seminargames at theory of fine arts can be considered as
the new forms of training. Lecture-and-seminar
providing for the students’ daily preparation
for studies on suggested themes, questions and
problems is also a new educational form worked
out at the faculty. Since 2003 the Department
of Art Theory and Culture Studies has resumed
the experimental activity of the creative studios
under the guidance of professor V.I. Zhukovskyi.
“Actual problems of analysis of artistic text” is
the main subject of the studio. The students do
about 10 creative written research works; the
fourth-year students work out problems of their
course-works within the space of the studios, and
the best of the research works were recommended
as a report for the All-Russian Scientific and
Practical Conferences and for publication in the
bulletins of materials of the conference.
Scientific and methodical, researching
and creative activity of the chairs’ lecturers,
carrying out educational process on “Art Theory”
specialization, first of all, are connected with
scientific elaboration of the modern methods and
technologies of education for the specialization.
In this connection, the educational process at the
Department of Art Theory and Culture Studies
includes a number of scientific experiments.
The results of the experiments are being
discussed and brought in everyday educational
process. The most important experiment at
students’ training is appliance of the method
of education connected with the systematic
approach at studying of Art theory as the main
specialization. The researches of the last years
have been kept off the detailed consideration of
the problem of philosophical bases of art, limited
with only two approaches:
1) the problem of philosophical bases of art
has been solved “from above”, it just has been
worked out a theoretical scheme of aesthetic
and philosophical categories, and attitude to the
works of art (pieces of the World artistic culture)
has been expressed in “giving examples” from
the sphere of “History of art”;
2) it has been carried out a particular art
critical analysis of creative process of one or
another master and one or another work of art,
not having touched the profound philosophical
and ontological meaning of a work of art and the
universal sense of the whole master’s creative life.
Although the tendency to synthesize the both
mentioned approaches had unobvious existence,
the problem’s general researching field reveals the
gap between theory of artistic creative process
including the philosophical basis of that theory
and concrete researches of works of art. There has
been stored vast volume of particular scientific
researches, which demand generalization,
synthesis on the base of a philosophical and
aesthetic conception, within which the unique
content of a piece wouldn’t disappear.
That research problem is not a narrow
provincial one, but it reflects the tendencies of the
world researches at sphere of philosophy of art,
moreover, it is suggested an original educational
conception, which has analogues neither in the
science of our country nor in that one of the
consists of the methods and forms of education
and discoveries of the philosophical bases of
general theory of art made by the students,
videlicet the faculty’s experts train students to
carry out the synthetic approach for analysis of
works of art and pursue their aim in two ways:
1) the platform and base of the universal
theory of art is a philosophical conception,
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within which a unique philosophical language is
created and connected with the contents of terms
“temptation-trial” (“iskus”), “artificiality” and
“finesse” as the universal modes of a work of art
(each epoch and artistic style);
2) analysis of a concrete work of art as a
representation of an epoch in history of culture
and master’s artistic style. That allows to get
over unilateral art critical analysis of a piece of
the World culture, when, on the one hand, unique
philosophical sense of a work of art disappears,
and, on the other hand, schematism of categorical
analysis of a philosophical and aesthetic theory is
also disappears, and it very often is not connected
with the real existence of a work of art and creative
process of a concrete master.
A principally new method, which has no
analogues at philosophy of art in our country and
that one of the world, is consideration of the same
problem at different spheres of culture – philosophy,
art criticism, music criticism, etc. and discovering:
1) the profound sense of the artistic world
constructed in a work of the world artistic culture
(“artificiality”); 2) skill, which makes a work of art
appear (“finesse”), and 3) a way of existence of a
work of art, when an author’s work of art involves
“spectators”, “listeners”, etc. in its field, and it is
also content of that inclusion and its ontological
perspectives (“temptation-trial”/“iskus”).
The other experiment at education of
the faculty’s students is a unique educational
scheme connected with the fact that the
theoretical cycle of studies is supplemented with
a number of disciplines at practical studios –
woodcarving, ceramics and pottery. According
to the substantiated point of view of the faculty’s
experts, it promotes the profound assimilation of
the bases of artistic activity and it doesn’t make
the students of the faculty withdraw in scholastic
bounds of bare theory, which very often creates
rather abstract ideas of the essence of art as the
most necessary form of the human existence. The
educational and practical studios at woodcarving,
pottery and ceramics are supplied with the special
equipment, the classes are held individually, and
the stored experience allows to draw optimistic
conclusions on the positive influence of that kind
of education on the general and special training
of a professional at the sphere of theory of art.
And, at last, the experimental field is a sphere
of comparative art critics, where the students are
engaged in scientific researches. Studying of every
epoch of the world artistic culture is carried out
through synchronous studying not only theory and
history of fine arts of a period, but also history
and theory of literature, philosophy, religion,
aesthetics, and mythology of a local culture.
In such a way, there have been formed courses
connected with the culture of Ancient Egypt,
Ancient and Medieval India, Greece and Rome,
Mediaeval Europe, Renaissance, Modern history
and Contemporary history (XVII – XX centuries).
The faculty’s students get whole notion of a studied
epoch. The conception of training was presented
at the All-Russian conference of lectures of
religion discipline, held in Moscow on the 1st-4th of
December, 1999, also at The Second All-Russian
Philosophy Congress “The Future of Russia in
philosophical dimension” in Ekaterinburg City
on June, 1999, and at International Conference in
Ekaterinburg City (the Department of Art Theory
and Culture Studies of the Ural State University)
in 2002, and it deserved approvals of the experts,
participants of the conferences and Congress.
The results of the experiment were presented
at The First, The Second, and The Third Regional
Scientific and Practical Conferences at Culture,
held in Krasnoyarsk City in 2000, 2001, and 2002,
at The All-Russian Scientific and Methodical
Conferences “Artistic Culture: theory, history,
critics, methods of education, creative practice”
held in 2003 – 2007. The positive experience
of the Department of Art Theory and Culture
Studies is recommended for appliance at high
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schools and specialized secondary educational
institutes of Krasnoyarsk region.
Thus, a great number of contemporary
methods of education and forms of organization
of educational process are used at the Department
of Art Theory and Culture Studies. Especially,
there could be distinguished the following:
1. A new method of students’ training of the
special disciplines is the method of selection of
pieces of art in their philosophical and art critical
analysis: the selected masterpieces of different
kinds of art for detailed analysis make the stem
of one or another historical and art critics course.
Thus, philosophical and art critical analysis of
works of art is the main and primary thing in the
content of special courses.
2. Educational seminars-games at theory
of art.
3. The form of lecture-and-seminar
presupposing everyday students’ preparations for
the studies on suggested themes, questions and
4. The form of creative studios under the
guidance of V. I. Zhukovskyi. “Actual problems
of artistic text’s analysis” is the main problem
of the studio. The students prepare about 10
creative written works, the fourth-year students
work out problems of their course-works within
the space of studios, and the best of the research
works were recommended as a report for the AllRussian Scientific and Practical Conferences and
also for publication in the bulletins of materials of
the conference.
The independent students’ work of the
Department of Art Theory and Culture Studies
includes preparation for the current lessons
(lectures, practical, seminar and laboratorial
works), studying the material intended for
independent assimilation, doing home tasks,
course-works, training research-works (TRW)
and scientific research-works (SRW).
An independent research-work demands
students’ preparations for such forms of current
control of knowledge as colloquium, testing,
control written work, work with bibliographical
sources, references and abstract journals, Internet
search for articles, monographs and statistics
and other information on the research problems
including writing essays at different studies.
Besides, it is also solving problems with many
variants with computer analysis on the optimal
solution, participation in working out of new
laboratorial works, information and software,
using methods of “small groups” and “round
table” work, obtaining practical skills at analysis
of service market of social and cultural sphere,
solutions of problematic aims and situations.
An independent student work of the
Department of Art Theory and Culture Studies
includes control tests written by the students (CT)
under the guidance of lecturers, independent
preparation for study groups and writing research
works at different studies.
Thus, the complex of programs and methods
of training worked out at the Department of
Art Theory and Culture Studies of the Siberian
Federal University allows the faculty and
University as a whole to take its important place
at the sphere of leading innovative educational
A.M. Altaytzev, Russian university education in the conditions of the economic innovative
Development, University education in the conditions of economic innovative education: transformation
of aims and contents, Analytical observation, № 14 (2007), 12.
A.V. Fedorov, Aesthetic analysis of media texts at student auditory, Innovative technologies of
education, № 2 (2007), 40-52.
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Natalia P. Koptseva. Theory and Practice of the Innovative Educational Program on the Aesthetic Discipline Cycle…
N.P. Gvozdeva, T.V. Shelupahina, Aesthetic experience at the structure of humanitarian
knowledge: new possibilities of education of the XXIst century. http://
N.P. Koptzeva, Integration of humanitarian education at Siberian Federal University, University
Education Today, № 4 (2007), 6-8.
V.P. Prokoptzova, Training scientific personnel of high qualification in order to promote economic
innovative development, Innovations at artistic education as reflection of the process of arts’ integration
(Minsk: State University Edition “BelISA”, 2006), 146.
Yu.M. Shor, Aesthetics today: conditions and perspectives, Scientific Conference Materials,
20 -21st of October, (SPb.: Saint Petersburg Philosophical Society, 1999), 95-96.
N. Ustyugova, Aesthetics in the interparadigmatic space, Scientific Conference Materials of 10th of
October, “Symposium” Series, Issue 16 (Spb.: Saint Petersburg Philosophical Society, 2001), 68-72.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2008 1) 500-507
УДК 301
New Linguistic Technologies in Modern Political Discourse
Anna Yu. Suslova*
Irkutsk State Linguistic University,
Lenin st., Irkutsk, 664025 Russia 1
Received 27.11.2008, received in revised form 17.12.2008, accepted 24.12.2008
In modern political discourse a lot of American politicians with the help of their speechwriters and
political image makers use various linguistic technologies to reach their political goals through the
process of persuasion or bargaining. Producing various texts of speeches, they include into them not
only deep knowledge of the natural and social worlds (values, beliefs, assumptions) but also their
knowledge of language whose power of influence is evident and very strong. Such technologies as the
simplicity of speech (direct appeal to ordinary people), effective image-making strategies by visual and
verbal language means, the creation of effective visual products of persuasion (political advertisements
and cartoons) allow them to introduce socially important and culturally oriented concepts for the
purpose of keeping their power and reinforcing their influence on public opinion..
Keywords: Linguistic technologies, textualized world, verbal battle.
Political discourse might be considered as
the site of political struggle inasmuch as power
is exercised and enacted in discourse. Power can
be won, held and lost not only in physical and
brutal actions of civil wars or military coups,
but also in the battles of words, tones, and even
styles (Chilton, 2004; Chudinov, 2006). Broadly
speaking, modern politicians, despite their
national identity, have some definite linguistic
mechanisms of power-holders (which we call
linguistic technologies). With the help of these
linguistic technologies the power-holders reach
their political goals through the process of
persuasion or bargaining. By other words, under
the term linguistic technology, we understand
operating procedures, skills, techniques which are
used to realize some social and political factors.
A successful politician is always alert to nuance
and the finest shades of verbal meaning. In their
speeches, they very often try to “textualize” the
world in their own particular way (Fairclough,
1989: 85). Words and other linguistic expressions
enter into many sorts of relationship in their
speeches under self-control of a speaker or a
professional guidance of a supporter making
political discourse emotional, powerful, and very
New linguistic technologies appeared in
political discourse as a result of technological
advance developments such as radio, TV, and
Internet. By all these means a new era of political
control appeared, which gave new opportunities
for the extension, efficiency and growth of
policing power. On the one hand, the use of
linguistic technologies helps politicians to have
a wider-targeted audience, on the other hand, a
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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politician should be very smart with every word
of his/her speech as it might be crucial, and
even costs him/her his/her politician’s career.
Everybody remembers the “verbal battle”
between Nicolas Sarkozy and Segolene Royal
(French election campaign). Sarkozy used better
linguistic technologies; as a result, he got more
votes and won the elections. After seeing the
debates on TV between those two politicians, we
can hardly disagree with the information given in
Wikapedia1 in the article about Segolene Royal
“Royal has been widely criticized for being
stronger on rhetoric than policies and being
part of a trend in French politics to focus on the
personality and lifestyles of politicians rather
than their ideas”.
So, masterfully used, linguistic technologies
exert a profound effect on the character of
Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first American
president who started to use the mass media to
talk with his nation in “fireside chats.” Roosevelt’s
evening radio addresses helped American citizens
stay informed and involved with all matters of the
state. “The pirate philosophy of the Fascists and
the Nazis cannot stand adversity. The military
superiority of the United Nations -- on sea and
land, and in the air - has been applied in the right
place and at the right time”2. “In addition to the
monuments of the older times, we also see in
Rome the great symbol of Christianity, which has
reached into almost every part of the world. There
are other shrines and other churches in many
places, but the churches and shrines of Rome are
visible symbols of the faith and determination
of the early saints and martyrs that Christianity
should live and become universal. And tonight
(now) it will be a source of deep satisfaction that
the freedom of the Pope and the (of) Vatican
Fireside Chat 25 (July 28, 1943).
City is assured by the armies of the United
Nations”3. F. D. Roosevelt was a very experienced
politician. Producing various texts, he included
into them not only his knowledge of the natural
and social worlds (values, beliefs, assumptions)
but also his deep knowledge of language whose
power of influence was evident for him. In the
above quotations Roosevelt referred to the
most important values of Americans: freedom
from any aggression and conquer, symbols of
democracy. Rome in contrast to British monarchy
has always been for Americans a symbol of
justice, democracy, and freedom. His religious
beliefs are sincere and trustworthy, which, on the
whole, made his speech reliable and influential.
He knew how to calm down and inspire American
people in critical moments. His talks on radio
were accepted by people like a” kitchen talk”
with relatives or friends. That was his individual
strategy to generate new policies (direct appeal to
ordinary people).
Decades later, Ronald Reagan4,5 took
Roosevelt’s use of mass media to a new level,
making the presidency seem even more accessible.
His speeches were very emotional and pathetic.
“The American experiment in democracy rests on
this insight. Its discovery was the great triumph
of our Founding Fathers, voiced by William Penn
when he said: “If we will not be governed by God,
we must be governed by tyrants.” Explaining the
inalienable rights of men, Jefferson said, “The
God who gave us life, gave us liberty at the same
time.” And it was George Washington who said
that “of all the dispositions and habits which lead
to political prosperity, religion and morality are
indispensable supports.” Reagan’s experience
as an actor on the screen and on television gave
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him an enormous advantage as politics moved
fully into its television era. His mastery of the
television medium earned for him the title, “the
great communicator” (Wiggins).
Referring to the speeches of the most famous
orators among American presidents such as John
Kennedy, Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton and some
others, we can conclude that they professionally
mastered the skills of rhetorical tones and
styles. They often followed either Ciceronian
tradition, which is sober, lapidary, and, at its best,
characterized by an Olympian grace: “It’s time
we asked ourselves if we still know the freedoms
intended for us by the Founding Fathers….”1 or
Shakespeare and the King James Bible tradition
which is characterized by its power upon the
strength of its language and imagery.
Thus, linguistic technologies, which are
based on systematic tendencies (reference to
national values, repetition of the same ideas
by means of various linguistic mechanisms,
positioning the reader/listener, even engaging
the co-participants of discourse into discussion)
help politicians to exercise their political power.
In the linguistic sense, the semantics of speeches
is politically crucial and socially important.
Today, American politicians, as well as
many Russian ones, are purposely changing these
traditions in oratory by making their speeches
less standard (folksy), embracing informality,
and drawing nearer to more authentic and more
“natural” humanity. One of the speechwriters
wrote about President George H. W. Bush, who
was often in direct contact with his speechwriters.
President George H. W. Bush used to say very
often «Too much rhetoric!”, “too highfalutin’,
too flowery. He liked very plain language”
Russian president Vladimir Putin, on the
other hand, has even been criticized for using “too
R. Reagan, (Speech. October 27,1964)
plain language” in his speeches, expressions like
“wiping them out in the shit house” embarrassed
not only some liberal politicians in Russia, but
a lot of foreign journalists as well. Prof Robert
Russell, the head of the Russian department at
Sheffield University, said: “Like Khrushchev,
Putin has an earthy turn of phrase. It means
people see him as one of their own. He’s always
controlled and usually rather unemotional but
there’s something else Russians respond to,
something more visceral. I think he does these
things deliberately for that reason” (Straus, 2003).
Despite some kind of informality in his speeches,
V. Putin can hardly speak the way Zhirinovsky
(a political leader of one of the Liberal parties in
Russia) does in public. Putin V.V. is always aware
of the fact that he speaks on behalf of the country
he represents, and he never goes beyond his social
These examples show that though a lot of
politicians use the same technology (deliberate
simplicity of speech); every politician has his
own individual style and discourse restrictions,
which is the problem of social rhetoric, political
culture and even the level of education. As a
result of our critical discourse analysis, we came
to the conclusion that linguistic technologies in
political discourse might be of universal, national
or even personal character.
Inaugural addresses of different presidents,
for example, might be a perfect illustration to this
statement. In spite of a very traditional format of
the inaugural address (universal approach), every
president tries to create something special to be
memorable (personal approach). Even in Russia
everybody remembers that those words “And so,
my fellow Americans: ask not what your country
can do for you—ask what you can do for your
country. My fellow citizens of the world: ask not
what America will do for you, but what together
we can do for the freedom of man” belong to
J.F.Kennedy. Unforgettable words of Bill Clinton
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have been quoted by many people “We must do
what America does best: offer more opportunity
to all and demand responsibility from all”1.
American presidents in comparison with Russian
ones have more experience and a great number
of traditional language skills to persuade their
nation that they have made a good choice of a
president. The traditions of inaugural address in
Russia are becoming very specific and national
like (national approach). This is the first, but not
the only one technology used in modern political
Further on, we would like to focus our
attention on one more technology which is
frequently used in many political campaigns:
political image making. As we mentioned above,
the change in formal rhetoric was caused by the
regular and very intensive use of TV and later
Internet, which has changed the mechanism
of a politician’s image making. At first, those
technologies help to accomplish image control
by those who support this or that politician.
Let’s take John F. Kennedy’s case. Though J.F.
Kennedy was a questionable character, his family
using the fact of assassination (violent death) as a
main tool, created the image of a magical kingdom
called Camelot, ruled by a prince whose wisdom
and bravery saved the kingdom from tyranny
and invasion of enemies. Only one conceptual
metaphor Camelot, which was used properly in
the discourse, introduced a very complicated and
challenging concept (from the linguistics’ point
of view) and unprecedented myth of American
history (from the social point of view).
“Kennedy,” the liberal journalist Lawrence
Wright has observed, “had spent thirteen years
in the House and Senate without passing a single
important piece of legislation. And yet before
his election to the presidency, people were
comparing him with Franklin Roosevelt, with
the young Churchill, with various movie stars,
with Lindbergh” (Maoz). The concept Kennedy
and Camelot still works with a lot of Americans
who consider Kennedy to be one of the greatest
Presidents of the U.S.
G. Bush Jr. has also used very successfully
both verbal and nonverbal technologies on TV
to popularize his image as an American patriot
and “a good common guy” (the method of
positive self-presentation). He deliberately spoke
in Spanish on TV with Hispanic Americans
(majority of minorities in the US), which caused
very positive reaction on the part of his targeted
audience, he uses Texas accent, contracted forms
like “I’m” or “It’s, ignores the pronunciation
of /g/ in “thinking-thinkin, talking-talkin” to
demonstrate his commonality. Who will doubt
that G. Bush Jr. is not a fighter for freedom and
justice, defender of sovereignty and unity; he is
making his speech on the background of 305 feet
of America’s symbol of freedom, the Statue of
Liberty? It is the ultimate patriotic backdrop for
Mr. Bush, who speaks from Ellis Island.
It is a well known fact today that «Americans
are leading busy lives, and sometimes they don’t
have the opportunity to read a story or listen to an
entire broadcast. But if they can have an instant
understanding of what the president is talking
about by seeing 60 seconds of television, you
accomplish your goals as communicators. So we
take it seriously” (Bumiller, 2003).
Inspiring image and laconic phrases of
presidents on TV make wonders. The BushCheney campaign official slogan was, “Yes,
America Can!” Early Bush commercial used
the tag line, “President Bush. Steady leadership
in times of change.” (Presidential Campaign
Slogans ). In both slogans, there is a promise
for the better future of all Americans. No doubt,
America is strong, but it will be much stronger
with a new president. The modal verb “can”
shows 100 percent assurance that with that
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“smart” president, America will overcome all the
difficulties. The slogan “President Bush. Steady
leadership in times of change” is created on
the effect of contrastive meaning of two words:
constant movement, on the one hand, and stability
because of a strong leadership, on the other.
The image of Russian president V. Putin
has been created either by his supporters or by
his opponents. Most common Russians respect
and even love their president. As a result, people
write poems and create odes for him. There are a
lot of anecdotes about Putin, which demonstrates
his absolute popularity as anecdotes in Russia
are created only about those people who deserve
attention and are worth speaking about. His image
is like “He is one of us, but at the same time he
is much better than we are; therefore, he is our
leader, our president.” The concept of a strong
political leader dominates in Russia. According
to the survey, the sociologists pointed out that
more than 60% of Russian people associate
their social and psychological stability with the
name of Putin, his personality. Sociologists,
after making various surveys, agreed that Putin
represents an ideal political leader “a tough,
energetic, proactive, competent politician and a
decent man”. “ He doesn’t have any alternative in
Russia as a president of the country. He managed
to create the image of a good, civil servant,
who works for his country and Russian people”
(Varfolomeev, 2003). The discourse technologies
which are used by Putin’ supporters and himself
are strong arguments about Russians’ wants,
general ideological principles, charismatic
leadership projection, positive self-presentation.
Quite the opposite image has been created
(with the help of words and phrases) by some
Mass Media institutions in the West. We
analyzed some articles from Daily Telegraph
and some other sources, in which the image of
Putin is presented very negatively. He is called
“a Russified Pinochet or Franco”, “a fully fledged
Russian führer”; his policy is associated with “a
fascist regime”, “a full-scale dictatorship”, “that
Putin takes the same view and that, like Hitler”,
“what made Hitler such a threat to the rest of the
world was his desire to extend Germany’s power
beyond her own borders. Here, too, Putin fits the
bill” (Ferguson).
Another image of Putin is a symbol of KGB
power: “a 51-year-old former KGB colonel”
(T. Parfitt and D.Wasstell, 2004), “Putin’s regime”,
”the Russian mafia of the FSB”, “the shadows of
the Kremlin” (Wansell, 2006). The supporting
words that make this image even stronger are
“a clique of former secret services agents”, “the
diminutive judo black-belt”.
We can’t accuse those authors that they
lie, but they don’t tell the whole truth being the
“prophets” of the official ideology of London, they
don’t give alternatives for thinking. So, as far as
we can see the implicit assumption is becoming
a necessary part of political discourse, which is
strong and very authoritative when it is addressed
to the indeterminable audience. It’s one-way
discourse, from the producer to the audience.
The information given about political leaders is
remembered due to their ready made images in
accordance with the definite ideological concept.
Both images of Putin, made from different
ideological perception (Russian and British) with
the help of linguistic technologies, have the same
referent, the same individual, president V.V. Putin,
but they relate to different conceptualizations.
That proves how different human minds imagine
the world and communicate their imaginings. By
these examples, we are just showing the alternative
referential formulations made by wording and
phrasing due to different concepts and values.
Visions are becoming sometimes more
important than the discourse itself to increase the
power and reliability. The speed of life dictates
new means of communication, stronger and
more illustrative persuasions. One of those is
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political cartoons. We consider political cartoons
as one of the linguistic technologies as well. The
combination of the slogan, photos or pictures
make the cartoon very effective. And in spite of
the fact that most of them are very subjective as
they express opinions, which can easily mislead
the addressees, they are used purposely as one of
the powerful tools for persuasion.
A political cartoon is a linguistic technology
that makes a point about a political issue or
event. Political cartoons are created by abstract
visual language and messages to narrate social
and political concerns. One can find them on
the editorial pages of any daily newspaper,
newsmagazines, and on political Web sites.
Political cartoons can be very funny, especially
if the issue that they are commenting on is quite
understandable. Their main purpose, though, is
not to amuse, but to persuade a person. A good
political cartoon makes think about current
events, but it also tries to sway a person’s opinion
toward the cartoonist’s point of view, which might
be professionally used by political opponents.
Very often a person doesn’t even realize how
powerful a political cartoon is. Metaphor and
symbols, irony, epithets have been repeatedly
used by many different cartoonists.
A very simple example is taken from a special
cartoons’ web site mocking G. Bush. Jr. The one
under analysis can be regarded as a piece of church
sermon. It says: War is peace; freedom is slavery;
ignorance is strength; Bush is President. As we
may see, this cartoon is based on antithesis (sharp
contrast to set one thing against the other) and
analogy. The author has chosen these combinations
of words not accidentally: they reflect the distorted
American values and unstable situation in the
world caused by Bush’s thoughtless actions (from
the point of view of a cartoon maker). You may
accept it or not, but it has a very strong influence
on the public opinion.
Another cartoon in the form of a road sign
is purely a classical one. At first sight, it is a
usual direction sign — Connecticut Welcomes
You. Birthplace of George W. Bush — but it is
accompanied with an additional phrase which makes
this cartoon very humorous: We apologize. The
question is what this apology is about. The implied
negative connotations made the whole message
very ironic. But your background knowledge about
the individual who is under criticism will make this
cartoon more or less informative and persuasive.
Linguistic technology of a political cartoon may be
considered as a universal one as the metaphorical
concept in most of them is understood by any
addressee in spite of his national identity. The use
of stylistic devices is the main language mechanism
which makes this technology very effective. At
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the same time cartoons may have a great number
of national characteristics ( the use of the national
symbols and icons).
For example, if we take some cartoons about
Putin, given in the foreign sources of Mess Media,
very often we will find the name of Putin written
somewhere on the cartoon. Not every foreigner
can recognize Putin easily on the cartoon; for the
Russian audience it is not necessary. The length
of the text depends on the information implied in
the cartoon and the recognition of the personage.
On this cartoon about Putin, we can see his name
written on the pocket place and the text ““Hey
we’re only selling nuclear fuel to Iran… We
don’t tell them how to use it” . The content of the
message is given explicitly; every one recognizes
the meaning of the words without any additional
cultural background knowledge.
As far as we found out, most political cartoons
may be of two types: criticism is directly pointed
to the personal characteristics (stupid, aggressive,
cunning, etc) or to the political events in which
the main character of the cartoon is involved. As
for the presidents of the United States, both types
of cartoons are popular. We have found a lot of
examples about American president G. Bush.
Jr. Some of them are very insulting from our
Russian point of view, and they can hardly appear
in the Russian sources of Mass Media. Russians,
unlike Americans, have different understanding
of the president’s role in the society. A president
in Russia is more associated with absolute power
( the power of a monarch, president-tsar) . One of
the Russian linguists Chudinov calls it “monarch
conceptual metaphor” (Chudinov, 2006: 213).
Americans perceive their president as a person
chosen by them to be a top manager for a definite
period of time who may be easily criticized as any
other American in the country. So Americans are
getting used to seeing cartoons which criticize
their president on the front pages of the magazines
and newspapers, like New Yorker, for example.
Political cartoons are becoming more popular in
American political culture than in Russian one,
and the main reason of that is different national
mentality on the president and presidency on
the whole. In British or American Mass Media,
Putin V.V. is mostly being criticized for his latest
actions but not his personal drawbacks.
Thus, one of the main claims made in this
article is that modern political rhetoric is becoming
simpler and more accessible for ordinary people.
To achieve this “close political contact” with the
mass audience, politicians and their supporters
use defi nite linguistic technologies with the help
of radio, TV, and Internet. Among them are the
simplicity of speech (direct appeal to ordinary
people), effective image-making strategy by
visual and verbal language means, the creation
of effective visual products of persuasion
(political advertisements and cartoons}. In spite
of the universal character, all these technologies
are culturally oriented and have some personal
peculiarities as well. Those technologies
are used in the process of the public opinion
manipulation which is practically equal to the
creation of political discourse. More research
needs to be conducted in a variety of ways to
measure the effectiveness of these and some
other technologies which we managed to fi nd
out in the process of critical discourse analysis
taking into consideration cognitive approach as
well (Fauconnier, 1998).
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P. Chilton, Analyzing Political Discourse (Routledge, London and New York, 2004).
N. Fairclough, Language and Power (Longman, London and New York, 1989).
P. Chudinov, Political Linguistics (Moscow: Science, 2006).
G. Fauconnier, Mental Spaces: Aspects of Meaning Construction in Natural Language (Cambridge,
University Press, 1998).
E. Bumiller, Keepers of Bush Image Lift Stagecraft to New Heights (2003) http://www.nytimes.
N. Ferguson, Look back at Weimar-and start to worry about Russia. Last Updated:12:01pm GMT
J. Maoz, Media Myth of Camelot. Jewish Press,
T. Parfitt and D.Wasstell, Putin Juggernaut Sweeps Away All in Its Path (2004), http://www.
B.H. Patterson, Judson Welliver and His Successors American, http:// www.
Presidential Campaign Slogans,
J. Straus, Putin’s language is becoming the talk of the vulgar (2003)
M. Trester, Do you speak presidential?
G. Wansell, News Review:Red Alert (2006)
V. Varfolomeev, Interview with Bunin I and A. Piotkovsky, Echo of Moscow (May 7, 2003) http://
D.J. Wiggins, Ronald Reagan. U.S. Actor/Politician,
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Vera V. Anikina. The Korean linguist Ju Si-kyeong’ s (주시경)
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2008 1) 508-514
УДК 495.7
The Korean linguist Ju Si-kyeong’ s (주시경) Grammar
Vera V. Anikina*
Irkutsk State Linguistic University,
8 Lenina st., Irkutsk, 664000 Russia 1
Received 27.11.2008, received in revised form 17.12.2008, accepted 24.12.2008
This article deals with investigation the data of Korean linguists – Ju Si-kyeong, Choi Kyu-Soo, Lee
Ju Si-kyeong`s grammar was the first Korean grammar which introduced the language from the unique
point of view. It was the start point for studying the unique fetchers of the Korean language by Korean
linguists. The modern Korean linguists interpret the Ju Si-kyeong`s grammar from different point of
view, we analyzed Choi Kyu-Soo, Lee Kwang-jung`s interpretations of Ju Si-kyeong`s grammar. Choi
Kyu-Soo introduced the connection of word and particle from three ways such as independent, semidependent and dependent. Such way of interpretation helps to understand difficult points of Ju Sikyeong`s grammar, such as why Ju Si-kyeong words “산에, 들에” considered as adverbs. Choi KyuSoo`s analyze show to us that Ju Si-kyeong studied the Korean language from syntax. Ju Si-kyeong
began from dividing the sentence into parts and than analyzing each part as a word.
Keywords: theory, independent form, semi-dependent form and dependent form.
The beginning of the 1900s century saw a
boost of grammatical studies in Korea. During
that period of time not only European linguists
were engaged in active research and description
of languages they claimed “exotic”, but native
speakers of such languages came to grips with
uniqueness of their mother tongue.
Humboldt emphasized uniqueness of each
living language in his famous “on differences
in the human language structures…” in the
beginning of XIX century. Focusing on specificity
of any living language, Humboldt supported
inductive comparative general grammar based on
concrete facts which open the way to sweeping
generalizations. It led to denying the worth
of deductive general grammar, in particular
grammar of Port-Royal. Humboldt’s manuscripts
established the guidelines in development of
linguistics for the whole era.
The Korean linguist Ju Si-kyeong (주시경)
came to know about the mainstream ideology
of the European linguists from the books of the
English scholar W. B. Scranton, who worked
for the university in Korea where Ju Si-kyeong
(주시경) was a student at the time. A thorough
study of European and Chinese linguists’
publications had helped Ju Si-kyeong (주시경) to
make his own discovery of unique features in the
The Korean linguist Kim Yun Kyoung (
김윤경) divided history of development of
theoretical Korean grammar into three periods.
He described them in his book “The Modern
history of native linguistics» in 1963. The first
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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period is called analytical, the second is called
synthetic-analytical and the third period is
called synthetical. The Korean linguist Ju Sikyeong (주시경) has been named the architect of
analytical approach. Within the frame work of this
approach the minimal independent form is made
up by 실사 - the maintenance (meaning, sense)
and 허사 - empty word (grammatical meaning,
function, form). 실사 and 허사are united in the
word as independent elements. 실사 is called “
줄기” – base, and 허사 is called “토” – particle.
On the one hand, the analytical approach
is juxtaposed to the synthetic one where
connection of 줄기 and 토is viewed as one
word. On the other hand, it is juxtaposed to the
synthetic-analytical pattern, where 줄기 and 토
are compound elements. Followers of the Ju Sikyeong’s (주시경) theory Kim Du Bon (김두본)
in 1916, and Kim Yun Kyoung (김윤경) in 1932
distinguished between clear 줄기 and 토 as
independent words which was a breakaway from
the founding father of the theory. For example, in
the words “산이, 산을, 산의, 산에, 간다, 가는,
가게, 가니…” the base of the word is “산” and the
particles are “이, 을 , 의, 에”, the base of the word
is “가” and the particles are “ㄴ다, 는, 게, 니”.
All these elements are independent words. As Ju
Si-kyeong (주시경), he did not define such clear
boundaries, he marked out only some elements.
For example, in such words as “산이, 산을” the
base “산” and particle “이, 을” are considered
to be independent parts of the wholesome word.
However, structure of the word “산에” examined
in two ways: 1) as made up by different elements
of one word (base and particle), and at the same
time, as a wholesome word “산에” [최규수(Choi
Kyu-Soo), 18].
Ju Si-kyeong (주시경) studied the
classification of parts of speech, the forms of
inflection and word-formation in close connection
with semantic and syntax. He defined the
following entities as parts of speech: “the noun
“임” is a name of various things and kinds of
activity”, “predicative adjective (엇) is a name of
various attributes”, “verb (움) is a name of various
activity”, “particle (겻) is a name which designates
grammatical categories of a predicate and a
position of nouns in the sentence”, “conjunction
(잇) is a name which designates specifying
connection between words”, “adjective (언) is
a name of an indication of the thing”, “adverb (
억) is a name of an indication of the activity”,
“interjection (놀) is a word which designates a
person’s feeling and emotion”, “ ending (끗) is a
name which designates final forms. [이 광 정 (Lee
Kwang-jung), 256] The theory was presented in
Ju Si-kyeong’s (주시경) book “Native grammar”
in 1910.
Ju Si-kyeong (주시경) divided all nouns into
the main nouns and the pronouns. Consequently,
the main noun class falls into the common
nouns and the proper nouns. The pronouns were
classified in numerals, negatives and indefinites.
Predicative adjectives were subdivided into
qualitative adjectives for a subject, adjectives
of manner for subjects, qualitative adjectives
for a person, adjectives of manner for a person,
temporal adjectives, numeral and indicating
Verbs were assigned transitive and in
transitive forms, active and passive voice.
All particles were divided into two classes.
Those were defined as auxiliary (denote a place
of a word in the sentence) and limiting particles.
Words used for connecting other words in a
sentence or for connecting sentences were named
Adjectives as a category were marked out by
Ju Si-kyeong (주시경). This category was claimed
an invariable part of speech. To adjectives were
attributed all words that performed descriptive
function and were normally paced before nouns.
Adverbs were defi ned s that a part of speech
designates an attribute of action or an attribute
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Table 1
줄기 и 토
2. Semi-dependent form
А+В & Y
3. Dependent form
1. Independent form
* А, В, Y – parts of speech [최규수(Choi Kyu-Soo), 20]
of other attribute. All adjectives which were
formed by attachment of the ending 게to their
bases were referred to adverbs. [이광정(Lee
Kwang-jung), 262]
Considering in more detail the classification
of particles, it is possible to allocate three forms
the division of words followed: the first form is a
combination of 줄기 and 토 as independent parts
of one word, the second form is a combination
of 줄기 and 토 as semi-dependent parts of one
word, and the third form is a combination of 줄기
and 토 as dependent parts of one word.
Particles of nominal parts
of speech
According to Ju Si-kyeong’s (주시경)
theory, there are several classes of particles. They
are자리토 (임자리토 – particles of nominative
case, 부림자리토 – particles of accusative
case, 부름자리토 – particles of vocative case,
상황자리토 – particles of adverbial modifier
of place and time, 매김자리토 – possessive
particles), 도움토 - auxiliary particles, 이음토 connectives, 특수토 – special particles.
Particles of nominative case, particles of
accusative case, particles of a vocative case,
auxiliary particles & connectives represent
the first form. All of these particles accept
connectives that were called “겻” (만이) by Ju Sikyeong (주시경), connectives were called “잇”.
For example, in the words «사람, 풀을, 하늘이여,
까마귀는, 나비와» - «사람, 풀, 하늘, 까마귀,
나비» are defined as «임» - noun, but «이, 을,
이여, 는» are «겻», «와» is «잇».
From the semantic point of view particles
of adverbial modifier of place and time are
representative of the second form. Ju Si-kyeong
(주시경) argued that줄기 and 토 fall into the
words «꽃으로, 집으로, 내에, 학교로, 학교에,
하나에, 내보다», for example in the word «
꽃으로» - «꽃» is «임» - a noun, but «으로» is «
겻» - a particle.
But from the syntactical point of view (
짬듬간) in the sentence «그 말이 들로 뛰어
가더라 - That horse ran to the mountain», we
observe a different structure: in the word «들로» «들» is a noun (임기), which includes the particle
(겻기) «로», in this case «로» is a part of word
which changes the form and is transformed into
an adverb: consequently «들로» is a wholesome
word - adverb. It means that this word can be
viewed as representative of the third form.
Possessive particle “의” represents the third
The results of the above analysis can be
summarized in Table 2.
Particles of predicative parts
of speech
Predicative particles are particles which are
joined to a basis of a predicate and are subdivided
into the following kinds: 마침법토 - final,
이음법토 – connectives, 감목법토 – inflexion
particles (이름법토 – substantivizing, 매김법토
– change to the mood of adjective, 어찌법토 –
change to the mood of participle).
The particles are representative of the first
form in such words as «크다, 가오», where «크»
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Table 2
1 . Independent form
2. Semi-dependent form
3. Dependent form
word + particle
Part of speech
임 + 겻1
임 + 겻1
임 +겻 1
임 +겻 1
임 +잇
임 + 겻2 & 억
Semantics, syntax
Syntax, semantics
* 겻1 –particle(만이), 겻 2 – particle of descriptive form or particles of an adverbial modifier of place and time (금이나 자리(
상황)) [최규수(Choi Kyu-Soo), 23].
is «엇» - the base of the adjective and «가» is «
움» the base of the verb, but «다» and «오» are «
끗» the final form. Inflexion particles represent to
the third form but not so in the words with those
bases that join.
Ju Si-kyeong (주시경) analyzed the next
examples from the semantic point of view within
his theory of parts of speech:
붉은 꽃이 피오. – Red flowers bloom.
적은 아기가 젖을 먹고 있소. – The baby is
drinking milk.
지금은 이른 아침이오. – It is an early
morning now.
In the framework of semantic analysis the
words «붉은, 적은, 이른, 있는» are viewed as
one word (adjective). However, from the syntactic
point of view particle “는” is connected to the
word “푸른” forming adjective in the example
«저 소가 푸른 풀을 잘 먹소. – That caw eats
green grass very well».
In the theory of inflection the words «
가는, 간, 갈» are analyzed in the following way:
particles “는, ㄴ, ㄹ” are joined to the base of the
verb “가” forming adjective. According to this
explanation within the theory of parts of speech,
the words «붉은, 적은, 이른, 있는» have explicit
bases of the verb «움» and adjective «엇», and
particles «은, ㄴ», but the particles are not viewed
as full fledged words - unlike the bases of verb
and adjective.
Nominal parts of speech are not analyzed
from the semantic point of view, b we can analyze
the next sentence within syntactic framework.
달빛이 희기가 눈 같으오 – White moon
shining looks like snow.
If we assume the phrase “달빛이 희기” as a
base of the word, the particle “기” becomes the part of
word’s base. From the viewpoint of changing word,
Ju Si-kyeong (주시경) econsiders the substantive
endings “ㅁ, 기, 지 etc.,” as endings which are a part
of the word’s base. Ju Si-kyeong (주시경) did not
single out particles and derivation endings.
Connectives are classified under three forms.
However, in this case the first and the second
forms are united. Examining the classification
of connectives within the framework of semantic
analysis, Ju Si-kyeong (주시경) considers the
next examples:
1) 적은 아기가 젖을 먹고 자오. – A little
babe drinks milk and sleep.
2) 솔은 푸르고 눈은 희도다. – A green
pine-tree and white snow.
3) 쇠는 무겁고 돌은 단단하다. – heavy
metal and firm stone.
4) 나는 거문고를 타고 너는 노래를 하자.
– I will play and you will sing.
5) 한 사람이 노래하면서 가요. The man
goes and sings.
6) 어린 아기가 웃으면서 어머니를 보오.
– A little baby smiles and looks at his mother.
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7) 그 아이가 젖을 먹다가 자오. – That
baby drinks milk and sleeps.
8) 붓에 먹을 찍어 쓰오. – Dipping the pen
into ink I am writing.
9) 그 배를 집어 먹어라. – Take that pear
and eat.
10) 까마귀는 씻어도 검다. – Even if you
wash a crow, it is black anyway.
11) 봄이 되면 꽃이 피오. If the spring
comes the flowers will bloom.
12) 꽃이 피는데 나비는 오누나. The flowers
are blooming, butterflies are flying.
13) 비가 자주 오니 풀이 잘 크오. – If the
rain often comes the grass grows very well.
14) 하나에 둘을 더하면 셋이오. – One plus
two equals three.
15) 뜰을 정하게 쓸어라. – Hold a yard in
16) 그 사람이 마음을 착하게 먹소. – That
man’s heart is kind.
17) 소리가 빠르게 가오. – The sound moves
18) 번개가 매우 빠르게 가오. – Lightning
moves very quickly. [최규수(Choi Kyu-Soo),
Analyzing the examples from 1) to 14) Ju Sikyeong (주시경) distinguished between the base
of the word and the particles, but in the examples
from 15) to 18) the particle “게” is considered
within the structure of the word’s base.
From the semantic point of view connectives
“게” are reffered to the third form. But a syntactic
analysis of the sentence “저 붉은 봄꽃이 곱게
피오 – That spring flowers are blooming beautiful”
– presents the word “곱게” as made of two parts:
the particle “게” and the base of adjective “곱”.
From the theory’s of inflection point of view, the
particle “게” is joined to the bases of verbs “가,
일하, 먹” and adjectives “희, 검” form one word.
The examples 9) and 10) include the
words that have the connectives “어” which are
representative of the second form. As far as of
inflexion is concerned connectives “어” are joined
to the bases of verbs “돌, 적” forming one word.
Connectives in examples 9) and 10) represent the
second form. But with an exception of examples
15) and 18) the particles of all other examples are
referred to the first form. From the view point of
inflexion, these particles represent the first form
but from the syntactic point of view we can find
different facts. These facts can be made clear as a
result of analysis of such sentences as:
1) 저 사람은 노래하면서 가오. – The man
goes and singes.
2) 비가 자주 오니 풀이 잘 자라오. - If the
rain often comes the grass grows very well.
3) 바람이 불매 배가 가오. – The wind is
blowing and it is raining.
4) 이 소는 누르고 저 말은 검다. – This
cow is yellow, but the horse is white.
5) 한 사람이 낚시를 들고 내에 와서
고기를 잡으오. - The person has taken a fishing
tackle, has come to a stream and has fished. [
최규수(Choi Kyu-Soo), 27].
In example 1) the subject of action is one,
but in the example 2) there are two subjects of
action. In example 1) the word “노래하면서” can
be analyzed into the base of the verb “노래하”
and the particle “면서”; in this case the base and
particle are independent words. In example 2) the
word “오니” can be analyzed into the base of verb
“오” and particle “니 forming an adverb, in other
words they are semi-dependent. Such explanation
leads to a conclusion that the particle “면서”
always represents the first form and “오니” – the
second form.
In example 3) there are two subjects, that is
why the word “불매” can be related to different
parts of speech. On the one hand, the particle “
매” is joined to the base of the verb “불”, on the
other hand, the word “불매” is one word. Ju Sikyeong (주시경) argued that the particle “매”
which contains the meaning of reason is joined to
the base of the verb “불” and this particle changes
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Table 3
1 . Independent form
2. Semi-dependent form
3. Dependent form
Base + Particle
Part of speech
움 +잇 & 억
움 +잇 &
억 (움 + 잇)
억(← 엇 + «게»)
언(← 엇 + «은»)
임(← 엇 + «기»)
Syntax, inflection
Syntax, inflection
Syntax, inflection
the form of the word. Accordingly, we can suggest
that the particle “매” is reffered to the first and the
second forms.
In examples 4) and 5) we can see variations
in referring connectives “고” to one or another
forms. It depends on context of usage in the
sentence. In sentence 4) the word “누르고”
consists of the adjective’s base “누르” and the
particle “고’, which in connection with each
other, refer to the first form. However, in example
5) the word “들고” has the same function as the
word “불매’, that is why the word “들고” can
be viewed as representative of the first and the
second forms.
Summing up the principles of Ju Si-kyeong’s
(주시경) classification, it is remarlable that the
ending particles of a predicate belong to the
first form, the particles which change the form
of the word belong to the third form, reference
of connectives to one or another form could be
changed depending on their syntactic context.
These facts can be presented in the Table 3.
Ju Si-kyeong’s (주시경) grammar there
was no special focus on the particle “이다”. It
was defined as a final particle. However, so far
in modern grammar there have been disputes on
its function and attribution to this or that part of
speech [최규수(Choi Kyu-Soo), 29].
Given the key points of Ju Si-kyeong’s
(주시경) description & classification of
the particles, it is necessary to note that
classification and references to this or that form
of words, in most cases relied on syntactic and
semantic characteristics. It can be explained
by particulars of the structure of the Korean
language, its variety of fi nal forms. Ju Sikyeong’s (주시경) achievement is that he was
the fi rst scholar who had discerned the role of
particles and had tried to classify words whose
structure included particles. It was challenging
enough to make it in Korea, because the Chinese
language grammar domination throughout the
beginning of XX century impeded theoretical
ideas for classification of particles which are
absent from the Chinese language. Ju Si-kyeong
(주시경) mange to combine the knowledge of
theoretical grammar of the Chinese and the
European languages, and generate a theory,
put forward the classification of the words,
having explained principles of attribution of
words to parts of speech depending on particles
Thus, it is possible to tell with confidence
that the autosemantic parts of speech were based
on semantic characteristics while the synsemantic
ones fell on syntactic characteristics.
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이광정 (Lee Kwang-jung), 국어문법연구 I 품사/이광정 (서울., 2003), 495.
주시경(Ju Si-kyeong) , 국어문법/주시경 (서울., 1910), 역대, 1-4.
최규수(Choi Kyu-Soo), 주시경 문법론과 그 뒤의 연구들/최규수 (서울., 2005), 395.
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Evgenia Yu. Kunitsyna. Tenor in Shakespeare Drama Translation
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2008 1) 515-522
УДК 410
Tenor in Shakespeare Drama Translation
Evgenia Yu. Kunitsyna*
Irkutsk State Linguistic University,
8, Lenin St., Irkutsk 664000 Russia 1
Received 27.11.2008, received in revised form 17.12.2008, accepted 24.12.2008
The translation problem tackled in this article relates to handling literary discourse, namely
Shakespeare’s drama. The article addresses the problem of identity to be attained in translation when
rendering interpersonal relationships of the communicants commonly referred to as tenor of discourse.
In the context of the proposed analysis tenor is viewed as what can be called a “monarchical point” (the
term is borrowed from P.A. Florensky (Florensky, 2000)) of the space of drama translation discourse,
where ‘monarchical’ stands for ‘particularly valuable’. The analysis is based on Hamlet, Prince of
Denmark and its XIX-XXI centuries’ Russian translations.
Keywords: discourse, tenor, institutional(ization), personal(ization), formal, informal, identity,
Drama translation as an aesthetic and cultural
phenomenon despite its long history appears to have
been given limited scholarly attention (Anderman,
2000). One of the reasons for this situation may
be the very nature of drama which is meant not
only for the page but first and foremost for the
stage. Therefore, the concept of phenomenological
identity associated with adequacy and pertaining
to literary (poetic) translation and attained through
the translator’s intention “to conform to the
effect” (Voskoboinik, 2004)2 in drama translation
may be specified as involving ‘acceptability’
and ‘performability’ (Anderman, ibid.: 71). The
linguistic requirements of performability to be
satisfied in translation entail adjustments on
different levels (the rendering of dialect, slang,
terms of abuse or endearment, hypocoristics and
etc.). The level we are going to focus on is in fact a
macrolevel, that of the tenor of discourse.
Tenor is one of the three integral features of
the context of situation or otherwise discourse
along with Field and Mode. According to M.
Halliday, tenor refers to “who is taking part, to
the nature of the participants, their statuses and
roles” (Halliday, 1991: 12). Being characterized
by the degree of formality and hierarchiness
(Karasik, 2002: 27) of interpersonal relationships
which, in turn, are determined by age, sex,
education, etc. as well as by socio-cultural
conventions, tenor needs the translator’s special
attention and care. M. Baker emphasizes that
getting the tenor of discourse right in translation
can be quite difficult. “It depends on whether one
sees a certain level of formality as ‘right’ from
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
It should be noted that identity manifests itself on the translator’s cognitive horizon as the antinomy – phenomenological
vs. positivistic. To attain positivistic identity, the translator follows the intention “to conform to the structure”. Identity as
the unity of the two parts of the antinomy is hardly ever attainable (Voskoboinik, 2004: 168).
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the perspective of the source culture or the target
culture” (Baker, 1997: 16). The translator has to
choose between retaining the original tenor so
as to give the flavour of the source culture and
changing the tenor to suit the expectations of
the target reader / spectator (see also (Hatim and
Mason 1999)).
A far-from-trivial picture with all richness
and variety of “colours’ and “hues” is represented
by the communicative interaction of the
personages in Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Three case
studies of interpersonal relationships in Polonius’s
family will be demonstrated here with reference
to the XIX-XXI centuries’ Russian translations. I
shall refer to the translations by M. Vronchenko
(M.V.), N. Polevoy (N.P.), A. Kroneberg (A.K.), K.
Romanov (K.R.), N. Rossov (N.R.), M. Lozinsky
(M.L.), A. Radlova (A.R.), B. Pasternak (B.P.), V.
Poplavsky (V.P.) and A. Chernov (A.Ch.)1.
Let us consider the first example.
Scene one – Laertes is taking his leave of
Ophelia (I, 3). He asks Ophelia not to “sleep”
but let him hear from her. Then a long soliloquy
ensues in which Laertes puts his sister on the
guard in her relationships with Prince Hamlet and
reminds her of honour and virtue. Both brother
and sister address each other using pronouns you
and your that in Shakespeare’s time were deemed
It is important to note that most of these translations
were stage-oriented, some of them to enjoy success and
others to suffer failure, in terms of the above-mentioned
performability. N. Polevoy’s translation enjoyed tremendous success with the spectatorship and was found hard
to replace despite numerous attempts. And his was a
free translation. Similar acclaim was later received by
B. Pasternak’s translation that drove out from the stage
those by M. Lozinsky and A. Radlova. It is also noteworthy that N. Rossov was an actor who performed the part
of Hamlet and it was his personal experience that made
him set about translating the tragedy himself. There is
another theatre man – Vitaly Poplavsky, a stage director, philologist and translator. A. Chernov’s translation
stands out as the new Shakespeare translation to have
been recently performed. Andrey Chernov is a philologist, scholar and translator. Their translations were published in 2001 (V. Poplavsky) and 2003 (A. Chernov).
A. Chernov’s translation was performed at the Moscow
Stanislavsky’s Theatre in October 2002.
formal (and polite) as opposed to informal thou
/ thee / thy. This distinction is analogous to the
opposition ты – вы / Вы in Russian, tu vs. vous
in French and Du vs. Sie in German2 but not to
be found in English any longer. Thus, the usage
of you / your in Laertes-Ophelia’s dialogue
unambiguously points to a formal, institutional3
character of the brother-and-sister relationships
prescribed by social conventions of that time.
Scene two – Ophelia enters, “fantastically
dressed with straws and flowers” and singing
songs. Laertes whose heart almost broke with
pain and sorrow pronounces a short monologue
where, this time, he addresses his sister using the
informal thy:
By heaven, thy madness shall be paid by
Till our scale turn the beam. O rose of May!
Dear maid, kind sister, sweet Ophelia! (IV, 5)
Although Ophelia does not understand her
brother, does not hear him and Laertes is in fact
speaking to himself, his words are anyway meant
for Ophelia.
What do we have in translation? Notably, out
of the ten translations only one translator – Anna
Radlova – resorted to foreignization and relayed
Shakespeare’s tenor using different pronouns in
these two scenes. The tenor of discourse of the
translation has come to be identical with that of the
original, and – without “infringing the rights” of the
Russian receptor. The rest of the translators opted
for the domesticating strategy and in both of the
scenes used ты / твое by which they immediately
suited the expectations of the Russian readerand spectatorship concerning brother-and-sister
relationships, at that having completely graded
difference in the degree of closeness / distance of
the personages in the two scenes.
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In 1960, Brown and Gilman published a study of the
pronouns of address in European languages with special
attention paid to this distinction (Anderman, 2001: 74).
The terms institutional and personal come from
V.I. Karasik’s typology of discourse (Karasik, 2000).
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Two points can be made about Radlova’s
attempt to preserve in Russian the original tenor
shift. First, the translator has “highlighted” the
Other, their values and peculiarities of speech
behaviour determined by the social status of
the speakers. The social status of woman in the
Shakespeare time was entirely institutionalized
and perceived as a position, that of mother, wife,
daughter, sister, etc. (Rakityanskaya, 2007).
The first of the scenes is a graphic illustration
of institutionalization extrapolated on familial
discourse. Second, Radlova has retained the
contrast between the two scenes of LaertesOphelia communication before the tragedy (death
of Polonius) and after. Radlova did her best not
to deprive the Russian reader of the opportunity
together with Laertes to live through the bitterness
and anguish caused by what he saw and experience
Laertes’ giving up the institutional register for
the sake of personal and intimate1 one. Cf.:
Клянусь, я отплачу твое безумье,
И перевесит месть. О роза мая,
Сестра Офелия, девочка моя!
(A. Radlova)
Undoubtedly, different translators perceive
events created by artistic means differently.
Perception is internalized and can manifest itself
only as an experience in the so called internal
time of the ego of the translator (Voskoboinik,
2004: 36). What is especially remarkable about
the above example is that the nine translators
who have unanimously “overlooked” the shift of
the tenor from formal to informal, the shift from
institutional to personal communication are men,
and only the translatress has taken good notice
of and relayed this shift in her translation. Is it a
mere coincidence or the gender factor coming into
play? Anyway, the gender factor in Shakespeare
translation calls for special attention and detailed
consideration to be given in some other paper. In
Of significant interest are the dynamic effects of tenor
changes in Hamlet-Gertrude dialogues.
effect, A. Radlova managed to ensure identity as
the above-mentioned unity of the antinomy which
was instrumental in approximating the Russian
reader’s experience to that of his / her English
Let us turn to another example. We have to
go back to the very first scene – Laertes’ leavetaking. In response to Laertes’ instructions and
admonitions, Ophelia, promising to “keep the
effect” of her brother’s “good lesson”, also permits
herself to warn him not to “…as some ungracious
pastors do, show” her “the steep and thorny way
to heaven, / Whilst like a puff’d and reckless
libertine, / Himself the primrose path of dalliance
treads, / And recks not his own read” (I, 3). And
Laertes says: O fear me not. The translations
read as follows: Не бойся! (М.V.), Нет! (N.P.),
О нет (А.К.), О, за меня не бойся (К.R.), Не
бойся за меня (N.R.), О, не бойся (М.L.), О нет,
не бойтесь (А.R.), За меня не бойся (B.P.), За
меня не беспокойся (V.P.), О, не пугай меня! …
На этот раз ты несговорчива на удивленье
(А.Ch.). As one can see, A. Chernov’s translation
proves to be totally different from the other nine.
Before we proceed, I should like to remind
the reader that A. Chernov’s and V. Poplavsky’s
translations appeared quite recently, in the 2000s.
Both translations are modern (postmodern in fact)
interpretations of the tragedy. The translation by
A. Chernov who sought to change the existing
Hamlet paradigm (Chernov, 2003) really presents
a new Hamlet. A far more novel Hamlet is that
by V. Poplavsky. But both, V. Poplavsky and A.
Chernov as well as their predecessors pursued a
common objective – to understand Shakespeare’s
text and stay faithful to it in translation. All
Shakespeare translators had it their solemn duty
to carefully study the original as well as literature
on the author and his work and everything that
could throw more light on Shakespeare’s text. A.
Chernov is no exception. And if any responsible
translator is always a close reader, this time it
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is Chernov who seems to have “outread” (i.e.
surpassed in close reading) his colleagues.
Let us now consider the translations. In
seven of them, Laertes comforts Ophelia and asks
her not to be afraid. N. Polevoy and A. Kroneberg
have omitted the verb and retained only not
(нет), which can be interpreted as a promise “no,
I’ll not be like that” entailing logically “don’t
be afraid”. A. Chernov has it О, не пугай меня
(don’t frighten me). The verb fear has among its
meanings to inspire with fear, to frighten. Cf.
also: It fears me = I’m afraid (obs.) (OED) (see
also Webster, BERD). But the translator does not
seem to be satisfied with the mere rendering of the
meaning of the verb and of the phrase. He feels it
appropriate to add words which are not there in
Shakespeare – На этот раз ты несговорчива
на удивленье – but which come to enhance the
illocution of the preceding speech act.
Apparently, the fact that so many generations
of the translators till nowadays (V. Poplavsky)
interpreted the phrase in question as “не бойся
/ не бойтесь за меня” can be accounted for
by the so-called habitualness factor (faktor
privychnosti) (Rogov, 1973). It was habitual
to see Laertes perceiving Ophelia’s words as
a token of her love and care about him and his
soul. Chernov presents a different picture. His
Laertes is astonished by the words with which
his usually humble and obedient sister parried his
lengthy lesson. In Chernov’s translation, Ophelia
thus appears to keep a high profile and defiantly
break the norms of those very obedience and
humbleness prescribed to woman by the society
and that embraced all spheres of woman’s life
including her communicative behaviour. In
the contemporary linguistics this phenomenon
is referred to as gender asymmetry implying
communicative discrimination of women, men’s
control of women’s utterances and men’s verbal
aggression towards women (Rakityanskaya,
2007: 7).
The fear me not example is of interest
and value also owing to the fact that it overtly
demonstrates fluctuations of the original
illocutionary meaning in translations. In nine
translations the directive speech act Не бойся
за меня has a strong commissive effect which,
proceeding from the overall discourse analysis,
makes it possible to classify it as an indirect
commissive (I promise / I assure you that I’m not
going to be like this / that it won’t happen to me).
Chernov’s speech act is definitely (and solely) a
directive. The Shakespearean “hue” or otherwise
“touch” of expressive illocution propositionally
marked by the affective O is to be found only
in four of the translations. At that, in Chernov’s
translation, in its wider context, the force of the
expressive may be determined as disapproval
(censure) whereas it is more like protest1 in
others. What about Shakespeare himself? It looks
like both varieties of the expressive force of the
given speech act can be found in Shakespeare.
As M.M. Bakhtin said, different interpretations
complement and enrich each other and, in
the final analysis, complement and enrich the
work itself (Bakhtin, 1986). With this in mind,
I can only underline that different translationsinterpretations help obtain a “multidimensional
image” of Shakespeare with his pervasive, allencompassing play of semantic and pragmatic
There is one example of rendering the tenor
of discourse I should like to present. This time we
shall consider familial relationships of Ophelia
and Polonius and once again I should like to draw
the reader’s attention to the social status of woman
in the Shakespeare time identified with her gender
role (or roles) and institutional constraints placed
on her communicative behaviour.
Scared to death and overwhelmed with
anxiety after her meeting with Hamlet who
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D. Vanderveken’s classification of speech acts is being
used (Vanderveken, 1990).
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saw the Ghost, Ophelia enters her father’s room
(вбегает in A. Chernov’s translation – comes
running or rushes in – we shall get back to this
direction a little bit later).
Polonius: How now, Ophelia! what’s the
Ophelia: Alas, my lord, I have been so
affrighted! (II, 1).
The translations have Ophelia say: Ах, мой
родитель, я так испугалась! (М.V.), Ах! боже
мой! Я вся дрожу от страха (N.P.), Ах, как я
испугалась, о мой боже! (А.К.), Отец мой, ах
отец! Я так перепугалась! (К.R.), Ах, отец
мой, я так перепугалась! (N.R.), О господин
мой, как я испугалась! (М.L.), Милорд, милорд,
как испугалась я! (А.R.), Боже правый! Я вся
дрожу от страха! (B.P.), Милорд, клянусь, –
какой-то тихий ужас! (V.P.), Отец, отец, я
так напугана!.. (А.Ch.). As a result, the original
appellative my lord is rendered by родитель (1),
отец (3), господин (1), милорд (2) and is omitted
with the interjection боже мой / боже правый
added in three cases.
We have an interesting picture here as well.
Three translators retain the original father-anddaughter institutional communication, using the
corresponding господин and милорд. I should
like to note that in this scene Ophelia uses my lord
addressing her father four times. And, again, only
A. Radlova maintains the emphatic institutionality
of the discourse by a triple repetition of милорд.
Four translators come up with a personalized
discourse, replacing the highly formal my lord by
informal if reverential отец / родитель eo ipso
shortening the distance between the personages.
Let us now get back to the stage direction
preceding the Ophelia-Polonius dialogue which
appears to be here what, following E. Pound, I
would call ‘a luminous detail’(see (Gentzler,
1993)) – Enter Ophelia.
Ophelia does enter (входит) in nine
translations including those where the translators
transformed the institutional discourse into
the personal one. The personalization of
the discourse, apparently determined by the
translators’ experience of Ophelia’s state of
mind as utter anxiety and horror clashes with
the above direction, describing the heroine’s
actions (and thus directing the prospective
actress) which as well as her speech behaviour
are subject to the conventions of the institution.
A. Chernov, unlike other translators, opted for
contextual concretization and by using вбегает
balanced the usage of the verb denoting a swift
action commonly performed in the state of
agitation and excitement, on the one hand, and
the personalized form of address – отец which is
pronounced twice, on the other hand. So, one can
assume illocutionary dependence (see (Baranov,
Kreidlin, 1992)) of the speech act on the stage
direction introducing it.
I should like to draw the reader’s special
attention to the translation by V. Poplavsky
which is distinguished by theatre critics for its
greater performability (Zhuravlev, 2001). His
Ophelia входит (enters) and says: “Милорд,
клянусь, – какой-то тихий ужас”. This
translation seems to be highly reflective of the
Zeitgeist of postmodernism. The translator
has the institutional character of the discourse
marked by the formal address милорд clash with
the personal tonality of the unfolding discourse.
The register opted for by the translator (какойто тихий ужас along with the concomitant
клянусь), in my view, carnivalizes the event:
Ophelia who in Shakespeare suffered a painful
shock at the distressful sight of the man she
loved, in translation appears to be almost an
extreme-show fan who a couple of minutes
ago happened to witness her friend’s or, rather,
boyfriend’s extremely strange behaviour.
As far as the stage direction is concerned, I
could probably add that taking into account
the dialectic interdependence of the part and
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the whole, one can project the following circle
of its stage interpretation: Входит Офелия,
удобно устраивается в кресле, or something
of the kind.
I shall allow myself to note that Poplavsky’s
Polonius does not mind slang either. For example,
after seeing Laertes off and learning that he has
talked with Ophelia about Hamlet, Polonius is
eager to know the truth, so he says: Как далеко
зашло у вас? Колись (I, 3). The juvenilizing
(or criminalizing?) of the discourse of the
father of the family seems to take place in the
translation bringing about implicatures which
are very unlikely to be found in the original.
Shakespeare’s discourse dating back to the late
Renaissance episteme (Foucault’s term (Foucault,
1994)) handled in translation this or similar way
gives rise to the problem of compatibility of signs
of the two communicating cultures. So, in the
present day context the above version looks quite
performable but the question is how identical it is
to the original.
Other questions arise, too: Is the
contemporary Russian Shakespeare better on
the page or on the stage? Do A. Chernov’s or V.
Poplavsky’s translations have a chance to drive
out from the stage B. Pasternak’s translation
whom they both actually rival? More generally,
can there be a ratio of performability and identity
(phenomenological identity) established? What
should this ratio be like to stage a translation, not
a remake? Does performability of the translation
heavily rest on the domesticating strategy? Does
not a heavily domesticated and modernized text
sound an ostentation anyway? Does it make it
more, or less performable? Etc. As one can see,
drama translation poses many questions (let alone
Shakespeare who has more riddles and mysteries
and play in store for us than we can imagine).
In conclusion, it is important to stress that the
tenor of discourse is a “monarchical point” of the
discoursal space of the drama work. Its particular
value is associated with the energy it “charges” the
work with. Shifts of the tenor and type of discourse
in the source text are discoursal phenomena which
have to be handled in translation by ensuring that
characteristics of use and user and peculiarities
of interaction are reflected. According to our
analysis, the changing of the original tenor, the
transformation of the institutional discourse into
personal (or vice versa) in translation may be
accompanied by the corresponding shift of the
illocutionary semantics of the translated text – all
manifesting the experience, the living-through in
the internal time of the ego of the translator. The
analysis has brought to the fore the problem of the
compatibility of signs of culture – the source and
target cultures belonging to different epistemes.
G.Anderman, “Drama Translation”, in Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, ed. by
M. Baker (Shanghai, 2001), 71-74.
M. Baker, In Other Words: A coursebook on translation (London and New York: Routledge, 1997).
M.M. Bakhtin, The Aesthetics of Verbal Art (M.: Iskusstvo, 1986), in Russian.
A.N. Baranov, G.E. Kreidlin, Illocutionary Necessitation in Dialogue Structure, Voprosy
Yazykoznaniya, 2 (1992), 84-99, in Russian.
BERD – Big English-Russian Dictionary. In 2 vol. / Yu.D. Apresyan, I.R. Galperin et al. (M.:
Russkii Yazyk, 1987).
A. Cher nov, “Preface to the Second Edition”, in Шекспир У. Трагеди я Гамлета,
принца Датского. Пер. А. Чернова (М.: Изог рафус – Париж: Синтаксис,
2003), in Russian.
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P.A. Florensky, By the Watersheds of Thought. Collected Works. In 4 vol. (М.: Mysl, 2000). Vol.
3, in Russian.
M. Foucault, The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences (SPb.: A-cad, 1994),
in Russian.
E. Gentzler, Contemporary Translation Theories (London and New York: Routledge, 1993).
M.A.K. Halliday and R. Hasan, Language, context and text: aspects of language in a socialsemiotic perspective (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991).
B. Hatim and I. Mason, The Translator as Communicator (London and New York: Routledge,
V.I. Karasik, “Types of Discourse”, in Linguistic Personality: Institutional and Personal
Discourse: Collected papers, ed. by V.I. Karasik and G.G. Slyshkin (Volgograd: Peremena, 2000),
5-20, in Russian.
V.I. Karasik, Language of Social Status (М.: Gnosis, 2002), in Russian.
OED – The Oxford English Dictionary. In 13 vol. – Oxford, 1933.
E.V. Rakityanskaya, A Linguistic Reconstruction of the Female Communicative Personality of the
XVI-XVII centuries (based on W. Shakespeare’s Works): Thesis abstract (Irkutsk, 2007), in Russian.
V. Rogov, “Sidenotes for the Russian Shakespeare”, in Masterstvo Perevoda (М.: Sovetskii
pisatel), 9 (1973), 231-250, in Russian.
D. Vanderveken, Meaning and Speech Acts. Vol. 1. Principles of language use (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press), 1990.
G.D. Voskoboinik, Identity and Cognitive Dissonance in Translation Theory and Practice:
monograph. Vestnik MGLU. Linguistics, 499 (2004), in Russian.
Webster’s – Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary (Springfield, Mass.: G. & C. Merriam Company,
N. Zhuravlev, “Of Hamlet our dear brother”, The Publisher’s Preface,
List of sources of examples
W. Shakespeare, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark in The Complete Works of William Shakespeare
(New York: Avenel Books, sine anno), 1071-1112.
Гамлет. Трагедия в пяти действиях. Сочинение В. Шекспира. Пер. с англ. М.В. [Вронченко] –
СПб.: Тип. Медицинского департамента Министерства внутренних дел, 1828.
Гамлет, принц Датский. Трагедия в 5 действиях. Пер. с англ. Н.А. Полевого. – СПб.:
Издание А.С. Суворина, 1887.
Гамлет (принц Датский). Трагедия в пяти актах Вильяма Шекспира. Пер. с англ. Н. Россова.
– СПб.: Тип. А.В. Суворина, 1907.
Гамлет. Пер. М. Лозинского // В. Шекспир. Трагедии. – М.: Детская литература, 1981. –
Гамлет. Пер. А. Кронеберга // У. Шекспир. Собр. соч. в 8 т. – М.: Интербрук, 1997. Т. 8. –
С. 163-322.
Гамлет. Пер. Б. Пастернака // У. Шекспир. Собр. соч. в 8 т. – М.: Интербрук, 1997. Т. 8. –
С. 4-162.
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Гамлет. Пер. А. Радловой // У. Шекспир. Собр. соч. в 8 т. – М.: Интербрук, 1997. Т. 8. –
С. 485-650.
Трагедия о Гамлете, принце Датском. Пер. К.Р. // У. Шекспир. Собр. соч. в 8 т. – М.: Интербрук,
1997. Т. 8. – С. 323-484.
Трагическая история Гамлета, Датского принца. Пер. В. Поплавского [Электронный
ресурс] –
Шекспир У. Трагедия Гамлета, принца Датского. Пер. А. Чернова. М.: Изографус – Париж:
Синтаксис, 2003.
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Peter А. Konstantinov. Internet Community Socialization Processes
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2008 1) 523-530
УДК 301
Internet Community Socialization Processes
Peter А. Konstantinov*
Siberian State Technological University
82 Mira, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia 1
Received 27.11.2008, received in revised form 17.12.2008, accepted 24.12.2008
In the given article we research the processes of socialization of the Internet Communities’ members.
Here, we consider the phenomena of the individual’s informational culture, informational culture of
community, informational behavior, and general electronic literacy. We differentiate general electronic
literacy into software electronic literacy, scientific electronic literacy and multi-literacy.
Keywords: socialization, informational culture, informational behavior, electronic literacy.
Socialization of the individual presupposes
a process of social interaction, expanding in
time. In the process of socialization, individuals
internalize cultural values and norms. In case
of absence of norms or their contradictoriness,
socialization turns out to be weak, and there
are formed personal characteristics or group
psychology of a deviating character, pathologic
peculiarities can be also revealed. The process
of socialization combines in itself as a free
choice of forms of informational interaction,
so enforcement, and also network society’s
sanctioning of these or those communicative
practices. Thereat, enforcement is already
revealed in the process of mastering of the native
language, which organizes the individuals’
The first knowledge of the person about the
social Internet-reality is got in the process of
basic socialization. It is almost impossible to set
the lowest age threshold of the basic cyber-space
socialization, in comparison with the basic off*
line socialization, which starts from the very birth
moment of a child, for whom the surrounding
world is a social reality from the very beginning.
The last thesis can be explained quite simply:
the basic socialization process starts from the
moment of getting the information about the
Internet cyber-space phenomenon existence, and
this very moment of primary informing depends
upon various social-economical, political and
other factors.
In its turn, the basic socialization process
can be divided into two stages: 1) archetypical and
2) instrumental-cognitive. In the process of the
archetypical stage of the basic socialization, cyberspace subjective reality is formed in the mind of
the individual on the basis of cultural artifacts:
while getting acquainted with publications,
advertisements, films, books, novels and so on and
so forth. Thereat, the process of socialization goes
on exclusively on the basis of perception of social
myths, connected to the cyber-space functioning;
and peers, parents, teachers of the corresponding
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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classroom disciplines act as socialization agents.
It is important to notice, that the archetypical stage
of socialization process is originally inherent
in cyber-space. Yet, before the global computer
networks have appeared, mythological image
of the virtual environment has been created in
the literary works of writers-fantasts and been
forecast in scientific publications. Thus, in their
conscious, future computer users have performed
social constructing of the objective reality of a
new human-machinery world, which advent has
been only awaited.
We may suppose that digestion of knowledge
and skills of the mentioned socialization agents
is the main educative mechanism of technical
knowledge and also of cultural patterns transfer.
But, the decisive role of social myths formation
at the archetypical stage of socialization belongs
to mass media, which realizes the function of
public construction of the cyber-space social
mythology in practice. This way, the press
actually exerts a strong influence on the process
of basic socialization, and in the course of this
process, construction of the virtual reality world
takes place on the personal level. Thereat, social
myths compensate the individuals the lack of
basic knowledge about society functioning in the
cyber-space, and also contribute to shaping of the
socialization process continuation motives.
Thus, at the given stage, the process of
socialization is concluded in constructing of
the future virtual identity, and also in cognitive
integration of the person with the roles of these
or those subjects, acting in the cyber-space.
Precisely on this very stage, the user is got first
acquainted with social norms, functioning in
the cyber-space, and also digests basic elements
of the network ethics. His behavior forms the
system of inter-connected roles and expectations
of the contact with the virtual environment.
Thereat, there is created a pluralistic reality,
which has a well-defined fragmentary character;
and, in the result of his cognitive experience, the
person accepts the cyber-space behavior models
of axiological orientation, which are well-spread
within the public conscience.
The archetypical stage of socialization is
over after the user has been connected to the
telecommunication networks, and further the
instrumental-cognitive stage begins. We are to
take into consideration that on this new stage the
individual has to be socialized simultaneously
in two dimensions. First of all, it is a social
community of the cyber-space. Secondly, it is
a concrete Internet-community, wherein the
individual participates. In the process of the
instrumental-cognitive stage of socialization,
the user meets alternative patterns of thinking
and behavior, and also a reconstructive form
of social memory of virtual network societies.
Thereat, the individual studies concrete role
orientations, studies to perform social navigation
in the cyber-space and to interact with others,
cognates normative models of social interactions,
he experiences the impact of social control
mechanism on himself.
Speaking about socialization in the context
of social structure and the Internet on the
whole, first of all, by this we mean individual’s
connected to the «electronic» literacy, skills
of social navigation in the cyber-space and so
on. The new-comers will not be able to use the
possibilities, which are opening before them at
full extend, without minimum of knowledge,
allowing dealing with the virtual environment,
with technical and program artifacts, without
knowledge of human communication elements,
without studying orientations, having functional
meaning for perception of the system of mutual
role expectations, existing in the cyber-space.
Thereat, any processes of information searching
and social navigation in the cyber-space can be
considered as processes of socialization as well.
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We are to take into account the fact, that
communicative experience, obtained off-line,
has a strong impact on the quality of computermediated actions. Correspondingly, we may speak
about the fact that along with the processes of
Internet socialization there are also the processes
of digesting of new values, skills, and roles instead
of previous, out-dated ones in the connection
with transition into another communicative
environment. For example, because of their
specifics, the interactions, performed in the
cyber-space, demand observance of safe conduct
rules, which differ from the rules, accepted in the
real society.
Secondly, speaking about socialization
within the frames of the cyber-space social system,
we are to speak about personal’s digesting of the
main structure of roles and values, dominating
in this or that cyber-space national community,
where the process of socialization takes place.
On this stage, a structured world of existing
social Internet interactions starts forming in the
conscious of the individual.
Social cyber-space reality is always such, as
it is interpreted by the users. Moreover, solidarity
of the network society with reference to the social
reality, being «common» for everybody, is based
on the fact that in the process of socialization users
begin to accept the existing social cyber-space
norms, as far as they perceive that egoistic behavior
model is criticized by the network society.
Meeting of individual’s informational
demands goes on in the process of interaction with
other individuals, entering Internet-communities.
Within the frames of these communities,
socialization is focused on individual’s acceptation
of general axiological models, and due to this fact
the integrity of mutually focused general values
is formed in the conscious of the individual. Thus,
the essential part of such socialization process
consists in the successive introduction of new
standards of axiological orientation.
Processes of socialization of the virtual
network communities’ participants take place in
the frames of in-group attitudes and intergroup
interactions development. So, we may single
out the following: 1) forms of ritual interaction:
presentations, forms of address, greetings, goodbyes and so on; 2) usage of peculiar pseudonyms –
«nicknames»; 3) special symbolic systems, being
used only in the given social group – national
language, jargon, slang, etc.
Only if socialization is performed directly in
the process of off-line interactions, we may speak
about the experience, by which the action and
socialization are merged together. Such a feeling
of immersiveness can be crucially important
not only for the socialization process itself, but
from the point of view of forming of individual’s
collective identity feeling.
Independently from motivation of the
individuals, having entered the virtual group, and
in order the community, which has gathered the
necessary number of participants, could function
efficiently, the users should experience the feeling
of collective identity. «Maintained with computer
help, the context of communication obligatory
stipulates the act of imagination, which has
to provoke the image of integrity with other
individuals, who are most often faceless or even
anonymous» (Foster, 1997: 25). Due to collective
identity, virtual network community becomes the
subject of social interaction.
Entering the community for his own
goals achievement, first of all, in the process of
communicative interactions the individual is
reoriented from the system of values to maintenance
of community solidarity and only then to satisfaction
of his own private interests. After, in the course of
socialization, the user has become initiated in the
meaning content of the social world, existing in this
or that community, he becomes an equal participant
of the process of further collective understanding of
the virtual reality.
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Solidarity of the Internet-community is
defined by the degree of its attractiveness from
the point of view of the user, participating in it.
Individuals think, feel and behave in accordance
with the social characteristics of the communities,
which they belong to at a certain moment of time. In
the course of communicative practices, performed
on a regular basis, community participants build
up a collective «we», i.e. collective identity. Yet, at
the end of XIX century, E. Durkheim has revealed
an integrating quality of the group conscious:
«The group thinks, feels quite differently, than its
members would do it separately. Then, if we base
on these latter ones, so we shall not understand
anything of that, what is going on inside the group.
» (Durkheim, 1995: 91)
Within the frames of the social structure,
collective identity can be formed by the following
three stages. At the first stage, in the course of
socialization of a new participant, we may observe
the processes of mutual influence of individual
identity and collective identity of the group. On
the second level, the participant takes part in the
collective identity formation with regard to the
social time of community existence. On the third
level, entering the communicative interactions
with participants of other communities, he, first
of all, represent his collective identity, and, only
secondly, demonstrates his individual identity.
Being a complex phenomenon, which
includes cognitive and evaluative aspects,
collective identity cannot be limited only by
empathic factors. That is why, speaking about
collective identity, we are sooner to make an
accent on the commitment to common social
values and solidarity in the questions of common
interests upholding. Group identity is most
vividly revealed in virtual network communities
in cases of status-quo violation possibility,
including as external threats, so in-group social
conflicts. Thereat, only strong bonds between
the community’s participants contribute to
appearance of the feeling of group affiliation,
what allow rising above personal interests
in conflict situations. Creation of negative
communicative behavior mindsets towards the
participants of other network communities most
often contributes to intensification of the group
identity feeling.
It would be a mistake to mix up conformity
and collective identity with unification of the
Internet-community participants’ opinions. The
researches, made off-line, (which results, to our
opinion, can be applied to on-line interactions as
well) show that the more the opinions differ, the
more some individuals wish to communicate with
other individuals. There at, ‘to differ more” does
not mean “to differ crucially”, as far as crucial
difference in opinions and intolerance to other
points of view bring to social conflicts.
Does the formation process of collective
identity of virtual network communities’
participants contain the elements of subjectivity?
The answer to this question will be certainly
positive, because, as it has been asserted by J.М.
Jasper: «Collective identity is not simply a pattern
of the cognitive boarder, it is more than this – it is
emotions of other participants of the group, based
on the care of their membership maintenance»
(Jasper, 1998: 18).
Common grounds and the collective identity
phenomenon help to appear a certain confidence
among the participants of virtual network
communities. Correspondingly, united by the
feeling of group affiliation, the users act more
efficiently. Thus, one of the main problems is the
maintenance problem of participants’ fidelity to
the community. Speaking about fidelity, let us
use the definition of this group social interaction
component, which has been introduced by
Т. Parsons: «Fidelity is an institutionalized
predecessor of solidarity, which prepares one’s
motivation to conformity with the interests or
expectations of others and sets the limits to
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any function, having been institutionalized or
accepted in the result of an agreement. On the
other hand, the focus on the collective turns this
inclination into an institutionalized function,
which forms the role expectation. It does not
matter, whether the doer feels something similar
or not, but he has to act in a certain way, otherwise
he takes the risk to be subjected to sanctions of
negative character» (Parsons, 2002: 181). As all
other components of group identity, fidelity is an
important social instrument only in case the users
clearly understand the limits of social structure,
community goals, forms and methods of solving
of the problems, set before the group.
Socialization of users goes on with a
greater success, if there are technological
navigation, given by the group participants in
order to help the new-comer. Acting from the
principals of mutual help, experienced users can
contribute to the process of socialization of newcomers. Thus, speaking about a chaotic character
of network resources, Umberto Eco, a famous
Italian philosopher, underlined the importance
of mutual help in virtual network societies:
«one studies to orientate oneself in these jungles
through trial and error or constantly seeking
for advice of more power users. But the most
efficient way is to be in such a place, where you
are surrounded by people with various levels of
knowledge, various experience of Net lodgment.
This situation can be compared to the experience
of the first-year student: at the dean’s office,
nobody will tell him that to attend the lections of
the following professor is simply to waste one’s
time, but his fellow-students of the second year
will certainly share with him about it in the local
canteen» (Marshall and Eco, 1997: 97).
Becoming a participant of the virtual
community, the new-comer not only satisfies
his own informational demands to this or that
extend, but also studies the social group structure,
becomes acquainted with group interests,
local coalitions and corresponding interaction
strategies. Well-socialized person, integrated
into the Internet-community, must accept social
status of other participants. Thereat, any new
participant becomes an object of observation,
control and appliance of ethical application of
norms, ruling in the given society.
Correspondingly, the system of sanctions
(rewards and penalties, existing in Internetcommunities) plays an important role in the
processes of individual’s socialization. And
the studying of the mechanisms, which help
to maintain the processes of virtual society
functioning, we shall call orientation. Proceeding
from the empirical data obtained, the more
actively the users take part in the community
activity, the more efficiently they perform their
orientation. In the given case, the commonality of
tasks, solved by the individual and the rest of the
community participants, contributes to revelation
of «the resonance» of cognitive practices.
As far as users perform from time to time
transitions from one community to another, so,
we may assert that they are constantly in the
process of socialization in cyber-space. Thereat,
we are speaking not only of digesting of norms
and values of the given Internet-community.
The user has to correct his behavior under the
influence of evolutionary changes, happening in
the community, where he has already socialized
In the process of socialization, objective
indicators of individual’s study of communicative
interaction norms are the level of informational
culture. By the term of individual’s informational
culture, we mean the culture of information
creation, maintenance, processing, transition,
seeking and use of information. While, by the
term of community informational culture we
shall mean steady forms of behavior in the
informational space, the forms being accepted
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by the majority of members of the given virtual
We cannot overestimate the role of
informational culture in organization of the
communicative interaction process, as far as
only informational culture provides the coupling
of notional human mindsets, allows interpreting
acquired information, influencing by its senses
on the senses of others, organizing the cyberspace communicative process. Cultural models
of individuals’ behavior are always normative, as
far as they are based on the behavior standards,
approved by the network society.
In its turn, the personal social world is «an
informational culture» to the extent to which it is
correlated to the values, which are shared by the
individual. Thus, informational culture of users
should be considered as a precondition of sociocultural integration and also of disintegration of
the cyber-space social system, taken as a whole.
Informational culture characteristics are latent
and reflect the activity of a person as a cognizing
subject, who is constantly interpreting senses,
being hidden in symbolic interactions.
Thereat, the process of senses interpretation
presents by itself a social process. Interpretation
depends as on the language, by which means
communication is performed, so on the user’s
culture, historical context, social structure,
and also on political factors. Moreover, users’
cognitive abilities take their origin in the previous
social interactions, and it means we are to consider
this factor as well.
We are also to mind the fact that some kinds
of socialization can form asocial behavior models
of users. Thereat, individual socio-cultural
orientations may influence the character of macrosocial changes, going on in the network society,
and unwelcomed changes are among them. We
may particularly speak about non-admission of
commercial activity in cyber-space, violation of
intellectual property rights, intolerant perception
of socio-cultural distinctions, and also of antiauthoritarian feelings in relation to the problem
of network interactions State regulation. Formed
utopia ideals can give the grounds for participation
in the communities of hackers, crackers, cyberterrorists, and also contribute to the growth of
tension in the cyber-space social system.
In connection with all the mentioned, the
significance of informational culture and culture
study is growing. Individual’s informational
culture is a qualitative characteristic of a certain
kind of activity, concluded in the process of
knowledge accumulation and its practical
application. Informational culture is particularly
revealed in the culture of personal home pages
design, electronic messages writing, technological
techniques of information seeking and spreading,
and the manner of interpersonal communication
processes realization.
The most important indicators of personal
informational culture are user’s relation
towards obtained information integrity, user’s
diagnosing of himself as an information creator
and consumer, and user’s understanding of a
communicative situation and its rules of behavior,
and also the notion of «electronic literacy». An
advanced understanding of informational culture
includes in itself the following skills of social
actions: solution of misunderstandings, logical
structuring of arguments and a critical look at the
sites’ notional content. As far as informational
culture externalizes itself only in social practices,
one can get the notion of it by means of analysis
of individual’s informational behavior forms,
generated in the process of socialization.
By individual’s informational behavior we
shall understand the way of actions, the synergism,
processing and digestion of the available data,
for creating of new knowledge and its transfer to
the Internet-community. Informational behavior
is revealed: in individual’s regular addressing
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to informational resources; in the quality of
digested information and knowledge; in thematic
variety of information, being in individual’s
demand in native and foreign languages and
so on. Informational behavior is not only an
indicator of individual’s informational culture,
but it also reflects the availability and convenience
of aggregate information resources of the
society. Thus, we may assert that the character
of informational behavior and the degree of
individual’s social activity are reciprocal.
Going on in the process of socialization,
from studying of «electronic literacy» bases.
«Electronic literacy» presupposes presence of
skills, necessary for seeking, processing and
storing of information by means of electronic
devices. Thereat, we are speaking about
hypertext skills, participation in charts, forums,
conferences, usage of search engines, spam
resistance, computer viruses detection skills and
so on.
L.J Gurak, a famous American researcher
of computer technologies, considers, that the
sense of «electronic literacy» is concluded in the
individual’s perception of his own place within
the world of new communication technologies,
new communities and cultural practices (Gurak,
2001: 28). Proceeding from the mentioned, we
may come to a conclusion that sense changing
of the term «literacy», going under the influence
of telecommunication technologies, is not the
first thing happening in the history of humanity.
It is quite enough to compare the sense of this
definition before and after the invention of book
Significance of literacy in the processes of
becoming of various social formations cannot
be overestimated. Firstly, as in the period of
capitalism becoming - literacy was an essential
condition of person’s success in the occurring
social- economic conversions, so on the stage
of post-industrial society becoming - electronic
literacy is an inevitable condition of participation
in the social transformations. Secondly, on
different stages of the human society development,
literacy requires to combine the information
itself and its carrier (book, computer and etc.).
And only through this combination and taking
into account the degree of obtained information
understanding, a possibility of new knowledge
birth appears.
Thus, in conceptual relation we are to
consider the fact that: there is not just one, but
there are many types of literacy; the meaning
and the level of literacy changes in dependence
on concrete social contexts; literacy is considered
as a continuum, but not as a dichotomy
«literate – illiterate»; literacy, by itself, does not
automatically give any profit; becoming literate
is not only the result of education and cultural
environment, but also of individual’s abilities.
Literacy is revealed in the skill to implement
communicative processes with due account to the
social norms, accepted in the community, in the
skills to single out useful data among information
noise, to search, to obtain and to digest knowledge,
and also to use the possibilities of international
collaboration for new knowledge creation. By
themselves, global telecommunication public
domain networks do not allow realizing the
mentioned above scheme of self-education, in
spite of the fact that there are huge volumes of
information presented. Neither search servers,
nor portals, nor systematic catalogues are able
to handle the problem, as far as all of them are
not meant for formation of the integral picture of
this or that subject field. Consequently, one needs
basic skills of «electronic literacy» in order to
work efficiently with the information, presented
in the Internet.
We shall differentiate general electronic
literacy, software electronic literacy, scientific
qualification and multi-literacy. General
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electronic literacy of the user is defined by the
skill to work with various types of information –
text, audio, video, graphics and so on. Moreover,
the user must possess the skills of searching of
necessary information and interpretation of the
results, obtained in the course of the search.
Software electronic literacy presupposes the
skills of program products installation and use.
Higher levels of software literacy presuppose the
skills of computer programs writing and computer
systems administration.
Scientific electronic literacy is defined by
the skill of transformation of information, having
been collected in cyber-space, into knowledge
and decision making on the basis of the obtained
knowledge. Moreover, the user must consider the
processes, going on in the social system of cyberspace, and formulate his position in relation to
these or those communicative practices.
Multi-literacy combines in itself two notions.
The first one includes the skill of text, graphics,
audio, and video files integration into a multimedia
form. The second one presupposes the knowledge
of foreign languages, cyber-space traditions and
behavior rules, accepted in national communities.
Thereat, the knowledge of English language is
an obligatory condition of participation in the
international economical, scientific and many
other types of activities. Though, the knowledge
of the only English contributes to successful
perception of information, nevertheless it is not
enough, as far as it does not always guarantee
that the necessary information will be gathered
on the sites of non-English-speaking countries.
To the opinion of some researchers, there
is one more type of literacy, which is called
«critical literacy». This term has a row of
interpretations, but the most popular of them
is: it is a skill of writing and reading, critically
considering the text. The mentioned above
quality is supposed to be the most important for
global telecommunication networks, as far as a
significant part of information is located without
any kind of editing or recension on the part of
qualified experts. So, having already begun
reading the text, the user has to estimate it and
to decide whether it is worth continuing to obtain
information from this source or he should search
for some new documents on the necessary theme.
Thus, using the term «literacy», we are to take
into account its historical, political and sociocultural contexts of social interactions.
E. Durkheim, Method of Sociology (Moscow: Canon, 1995).
L. Marshall and Umberto Eco, Under the Net (interview), Art of Cinema, № 9 (1997).
Т. Parsons, Anent Social Systems, Editors: V.F. Chesnokova and S.A. Belanovskij (Moscow:
Akademicheskij Proekt, 2002).
D. Foster, Community and Identity in the Electronic Village, Porter D. (eds.), Internet Culture
(N.Y.: Kentledge, 1997).
L.J. Gurak, Cyber-literacy: Navigating the Internet with Awareness (New Haven; L.: Yale
University Press, 2001).
J.M. Jasper, Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography, and Creativity in Social Movements
(Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Рress, 1998).
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Natalia S. Tsvetova. Orthodoxy Eshatological and National Understanding
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2008 1) 531-538
УДК 291.23
Orthodoxy Eshatological and National Understanding
Natalia S. Tsvetova*
St. Petersburg State University,
7-9 Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg, 199034 Russia 1
Received 27.11.2008, received in revised form 17.12.2008, accepted 24.12.2008
Main objective of the author of article – a refutation of the opinion which have developed in the
modern humanities about unproductiveness of an eschatological theme in Russian culture. The
insufficient level of scrutiny national - and the literary-eschatological discourses which formation has
begun during the most ancient epoch with occurrence polydoksy became the basis for similar views.
And adaptation eschatological topic in Russian traditional prose of second half of twentieth century
became culmination event.
Keywords: eschatology, death, thanatology, Apocalypse, retrospective review, folklore, traditional
The modern theory in the study of
humanitarian Russian literary eshatologii already
lasted far from seeking formal typological
matches eschatological discourse (reministsentsy
and quotations from the Bible or the Apocalypse,
open, direct reflection of light at the end or the
end of human life). In doing so, eschatological
discourse in the study of Russian literature to
date quite clearly two main Trends: eschatological
assignment subject to the death, ask eschatological
confusion and tanatologicheskoy issues;
substitution literary studies eshatologii literary
apokaliptikoy same.
The fi rst trend has the deepest historical
retrospectives. At its roots - obscheslavyanskie
pagan image of death, undeniable reconstruction
which for obvious reasons, today more than
difficult. Yet most of today’s researchers
ranneslavyanskoy, pre-Christian, complex,
“tanatologii” believe that the system that
has grown up calendar of myths about death
and resurrection of Nature, was archaic form
“polidoksii”, which includes a very modest cult
of the dead, faith in the supernatural, mystical
possibilities of various objects of nature,
including demons, proposes the implementation
of the idea of immortality on earth, and the
idea of death as a dream. Byzantine historian
Prokopy Kesariysky (U1 century) left the
following characteristics of the tribal beliefs and
anti Slavs: “The destinies they do not know and
does not recognize that it is against the people
has any effect, and when he was on the verge
of death, covered or illness, or the war got in
a dangerous situation, they give a promise, if
save, immediately bring god sacrifice for one’s
soul. Izbegnuv death, they bring in sacrifice
that promised, thinking that the salvation they
bought at the cost of the victim “.
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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It should agree with those researchers who
believe that “polidoksiya” pagans get rid of
awareness dramatic death, but at the same time
impeded understanding of the true values of
human existence. Is remarkable and, as we see
it, very accurately commented on the situation
AA Tahoe-Year, believes that paganism inherent
understanding of human life as a kind of “theater
stage”, which is not known from which come
and go wherever people. This mysterious arrival
and departure, not less regulated mysterious
forces, which, with a strong desire and, in certain
circumstances, could conclude a contract, could
not have understood as something that has absolute
value. That is why the Pagan era of mankind and
painlessly perceived need sacrifices in funeral rites
and ritual killing nevolnits, no one came to protest
in the head nalozhnichestva or polygamy.
Developing under pressure evolution of
social relations polidoksiya allowed to survive the
crisis pagan Slavs perceptions of the world and
man and became the basis prototeizma - faithrelated kosmogonicheskim myth, our ancestors
were forced to abandon the pagans-submission
of the act of death as a dream and to think about
the existence of the inner side phenomenon. AN
Sobolev once wrote that in an era prototeizma
people felt the need to define the mysterious
force, “which causes death; explain myself this
same force infant consciousness of our ancestors
could not otherwise than submit its material, in
any visible way.
Seeing the speed with which death appeared
there, here, claiming a new victim, vosprinimaya
it as a personification of the inevitable rock <…>
seeing, finally, as the death alters human corpse in
his istlenii, ancestors represented death sometimes
in the form of birds (Tri black crow or pigeon N.TS.), more often strashilischem connecting
a semblance of human and animal, then dry,
angularity human skeleton “, the woman,” with
its face ( “kurnosaya”) and aggressive nature,
capable “ to chuck out wit Courtyard “,” arrogant
“, not loving” belly “and indifferent to together
(Death savannah not please).
Renowned researcher and presented to
combine three critical and fundamentally
different “predeshatologicheskih” phase in the
process of forming the image of death in people’s
minds: polidoksii, prototeizma and polytheism.
On the first we have said. The second stage,
on conviction, for example, V. Lichutina, Old
culture began to cherish moral values, born in
the search for weapons against the fear of death,
it is an appropriate later Christian concepts of
“spirit”, “soul”, “good”, “evil” , “Free”. This
idea was confirmed in research over a century
ago - in Ancyra AA Corinth: “Faithful Son of
Mother Earth, Russian people still in the infant
days of their autonomous existence by continuing
to communicate with the resurgence of eternal
nature, updated in its apparent death, came to
knowing that, and human existence, is the best
color beauties beautiful universe, not can and can
not be infinite “. There are tangible evidence of
this ancient discovery - a fantastic way Kascheya
Bessmertnogo, thematically organized group
Phraseological, meaning the nucleus of which
can be regarded as the saying “Man is born to
die, dying - to life” (Dying today - scared, but
nothing ever; live over, and prepare to die; death
not from outsiders; What is born, and it does not
die; Ironically vert, and in mogilku lie; Kaby
people do not merli - land would not demolish;
Igla serves as ears, and people until the soul; nor
how many likovat, and death does not pass; Verti
not vertical, and have died; Once the mother gave
birth to, once and die; Most useful was a man, so
after the death of hours, not lived; Death without
repentance - canine death; youthful Not live, not
old age die; Terrestrial life - not the entire end,
death - heart space; Zlomu - death, but good
- the resurrection, etc. . ). From literary one of
several recent and most visible demonstrations
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prototeizma is the story B. Zaitseva “Avdotyadeath”, which combined the fear of death (“Living
afraid of death” and “How to live nor tiresome,
but tiresome to die”) and the idea of death as
comfort and long-awaited award, after the land,
brennogo existence.
In the third stage in the old mythological
system born of the God of death - Flintse, which
depicted differently. “Sometimes it represented
the cornerstone, with the left shoulder he hung a
mantle and in the right hand he held the longest six,
at the end of which is a torch. On the left shoulder
he sat lion, which the two front legs impinges on
the head, one in the same rear shoulder and the
other in the arm pillar. Slavs thought that the lion
coerces them to death. Another way to portray it
was the same, only with the difference that does
not represent the pillar, as a living body “. This
image can be seen as another, more recent time
occurrence proof essential, generic sliyannosti
two philosophical systems, are still perceived as
strictly a mass consciousness antagonistichnye,
and the benefits of monotheism, enabling
humans to overcome the feeling of powerlessness
in front of their own fate and actually rocks
Christian eschatological, Orthodox concept. But
it is not preserved in people’s minds, perhaps
partly because literature in any way exploited
folklore, mythological, prechristian time origin
anthropomorphic image of death - obnoxious old,
who insisted displace APOCRYPHAL stories
about an angel and the fight for the soul of a
human trait or to visit dying invisible to living
people of Archangel Michael.
Death of O daughter of darkness not, I will name
And, rabolepnoyu dream
Grobovy daruya cool it,
Not to take up arms against its oblique.
About daughter supreme Ether!
On the bright beauty!
In the hands of your olive trees of peace,
A gubyaschaya not spit,
This poetic image of death, created by E.
Baratynskim, apparently inspired by the people’s
devotion, in which death “serves mostly as an old
woman with big teeth, angularity hands and feet,
in white savannah, with zastupom, rake, saw and
oblique behind him. Peel it otpilivaet dying man
hands and feet, as it trims the oblique head. For
other ideas, with the tip of her kapaet spit poison.
When one of poisonous drops fell on man, he
dies. Death is often portrayed as a human skeleton
with the failure of the nose, dressed in a white
blanket, with the skew in the hands “. “So far the
death of old portrayed with big teeth, angularity
hands and feet, with oblique and zastupom”.
The impact of this folkloric image to the literary
tradition persisted until the twentieth century. For
example, depicted death in Gorky literary fairy
tale “The girl and death”:
And at veshnem sun greya bones,
Mort said podmaniv snake:
– Well, go, goals, yes - quickly!
Nacht - yours, and at dawn - to kill!
And at stone villages - expects
A snake her braid screwdriver lizhet…
Death looks, and quietly flames of anger
Extinguishes in its skull empty…
Pagan-related death is evident not only in
preserving its mythological, anthropomorphic
image, but in some fragments of a modern
funeral rite, for example, in the burial along with
his favorite dead trifles, in detail pominalnoj
trizny in mental-ban Restrictions on the use of
“behalf of death “, In pursuit of his evfemizatsii.
True, art texts, eschatological topics that
represent polufolklornym, symbolic manner of
death, already in the nineteenth century literary
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meystrima fall out .. Essential continuation of
ancient traditions can be considered its revival
has transformed into a postmodern discourse
(in post prose, literature and mass media space),
substitute eshatologiyu tanatologiey. For example,
in NE Lihinoy “Eshatologichesky discourse of
modern literature” forming a modern literary
eshatologiyu recognized “funeral kuznechika”
M. Kononov, “Vedminy tears” N. Sadur,
“skyrocketed in the coffin” and “Living cemetery”
Yu Mamleeva, “Birthday dead” G. Golovin , “The
head of Gogol” and “Being Boshom” A. Queen,
“Kladbischenskie stories” Boris Akunin, “Funny
funeral” L. Ulitskoy etc.
Supporters of this research trends often come
from typical of the classical philosophy of the death
as “unconditional end makrosuschestvovaniya
organic”, the traditional presentation does not
in fact refocused in the twentieth century with
the idea of vitality to the idea of limbs of human
existence. A. Demichev - one of the founders of
Russia, St. Petersburg tanatologii, argues that
such an approach inevitable, but the senseless
death is perceived as being at the end of linear
“biographical trajectory” event, which can try
to move, that is death can be fought, what our
forefathers Pagans also were confident only
ways that struggle are now more diverse and
realistic. More often followed by Gilles Deleuze,
Michel Foucault and Marie Bish with pleasure
discussing the possibility of the coexistence of
life and death, a preference for violent deaths
in relation to the natural. The result of these a
philosophical study - “death to penetrate into the
territory of life, gradually becoming the subject
of extensive and far-reaching philosophicalanthropological, symbolic, semiologicheskih and
other interpretations”. It is this result with more
or less successfully used modern literature, for
which ambivalence, interpenetration, diffuse life
and death looks like a one-sided: life - Dying death.
And we can not say that what happened
to literary and literary publicist-crowding out
eshatologii tanatologiey was not sufficient
grounds. Modernization and fragmentation in the
Russian Orthodox eshatologii literary discourse
began in poslepushkinskuyu era. The last full
prophetic eschatological picture, in which the
reproduction is used systemically relevant topics,
in Pushkin, Dostoevsky saw “Egyptian night”:
“picture of society, which has long been shaken
its foundation. Already lost any faith, hope seems
a futile deception; idea tuskneet and disappears:
the divine fire left her; society to go astray in the
cold and despair before a presentiment abyss and
is ready to hit it. Life zadyhaetsya without a goal.
In the future, there is nothing; must demand from
all of this, it is necessary to give life one pressing.
All goes into the body, all thrown into bodily
to give o and to add missing supreme spiritual
experience, annoying his nerves, his body all that
can only bring a sensitivity “.
Pushkin captured the beginning of the
disintegration of cultural traditions based on the
Orthodox eshatologii, crushing which took in
an era of complex systems poslepushkinskuyu
funds literary translation. One of the first literary
heroes of that era was Lermontov’s Pechorin,
rationalist, to feel great dignity of a bygone ancient
faith, faith outgoing fathers, lost charm lives on
toskovavshy unattainable for him seamlessness
and inexhaustible vital energy ancestors - “human
wisdom”, “I think that lights Celestial participate
in our negligible disputes over the piece of land
or for any fictitious right! .. <…> What effect will
attach them confidence that the whole sky with
their countless residents looked on them with the
participation, although it, but unchanged! .. And
we, their descendants pitiful, wander along the
ground without belief and pride, delight and without
fear, except fear of unwittingly, compressive heart
at the thought of the inevitable end, we are not
able to more victims nor for the great benefit of
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mankind, nor even for our own Fortunately…
“. Lermontov, the main feature of which one of
the critics-Andrews contemporaries felt “close
relationship with the sky”, knew the true price
of these doubts, and concluded because anhrefna
mental image of his contemporaries, surviving
neglect and loss of life “last refuge negodyaya” - a
sense of the homeland.
In the second half
of the nineteenth century ravnomasshtabnoy
eschatological meaningful figure was Tolstoy, it
seems, already permanently and irrevocably from
Pushkin who teotsentrichnogo monism, the loss of
understanding of death as a phenomenon certainly
ontological and four-called answer to the question
of imminent life and limb here next senselessness
of existence: ignorance (or unwillingness to think
about death), suicide (as a “withdrawal of force
and energy”), humility ( “know that die, but
tyanesh strap”) and Epicureanism ( “drink, guljaj
- odnova live”). It provided an opportunity Tolstoy
pessimistic interpretation of ideas vsesiliya death
Bulgakovu and reinterpretation of the same ideas
Some contemporaries Tolstoy tried to resist.
So Mark Aldanov in the book “The mystery of
Tolstoy” with bewilderment and asked with
disappointment reproached “grand old”: “<…>
why Tolstoy gathered for his long artistic life
of this great artistic material on the theme of
death? <…> If conceivable to create a philosophy
of death, it was to create Tolstoy. But he did
not use generalizations to ethical wealth of its
treasures. Tolstoy did not mention any word
about the break bomb Kuragine nor her husband
stabbed Pozdnyshevoy nor baryne that izela
chahotka in “Three deaths”. Someone, such as
Fet Shopengauera came under the influence of
rational explanation for the phenomenon of death.
But Tolstoy himself in the final of “Death of Ivan
Ilyich” is returning to traditional to modern
Orthodoxy and psychology awareness of death as
the moment of birth of individuals.
Another trend, the opposition against the
partially upgraded polidoksiyu, formed as a result
of truncation antidogmaticheskogo Christian
eschatological idea to follow with its apocalyptic
metaforizatsiey. Beginning her to be found,
primarily in art world Dostoyevsky, whose heroes
(Svidrigaylov, Stavrogin, Kirilov, Smerdyakov)
when life became a “terrible carriers of nonexistence of metaphysics, personally created and
became the real life of hell”. No less compelling
study “Deathly, prostratsii soul” as grounds for
already “universal anxiety” was proposed in the
lyrics FI Tyutchev:
Not flesh and spirit to defile these days,
And people desperately seek…
He rushes to light from the night shadows
And, newly light, ropschet and riots.
Bezveriem Pali and issushen,
Unbearable days he makes…
And he is aware of its perdition,
Bright manifestation of this trend in literature
- work L. Katsisa «eshatologiya Russian and
Russian literature». This sample literary studies,
based, according to the author, on «new - openly
apocalyptic», Judeo-Christianity «[59,14-15],
growing up, again according to the definition
of copyright, at the turn of the century» The
stories about Antihriste «Vladimir Solovyov .
As an object of study L. Katsis elect, in the first
place, «Hammam Gryaduschego», «Apocalypse
in Russian poetry» A. White, «Apocalypse in
Russian literature» A. Kruchenykh, «Apocalypse
of our time» VV Rozanova, «apocalyptic thinking
Russian avant-garde in general and in particular
K. Malevich» [59138].
Reason for the outbreak, the existence and
development of this direction is also more than
enough. The first and most important of them
mysterious, mystical, metaphorical nature of the
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Apocalypse - books, the final New Testament,
only the prophetic books of the New Testament,
created in the first century (in 60 - or 90 f - s)
at the secluded rocky Greek island of Patmos in
the Aegean an apostle John, or as taken by an
absolute majority, beloved disciple of Jesus, who
later received the name of John the Theologian,
the book is actually called «Otkroveniem Jesus
Christ, which God gave him to show its slaves,
which should be soon». «Revelation of John
latest book is the Bible, which she completes a
<…>. It is of a kind book only, in general, no
matter what others do not like. This place it as its
general nature, shows some special significance
and its identity, although it does not preclude its
frequent comparisons with other on the content of
biblical books. In any case this is already a place
outside of Revelation in the Bible it usvoyaetsya
zavershitelny nature of a last word in the Bible,
which is in accordance with the first «, - S.
Bulgakov wrote.
«Revelation» John the Theologian etched
in works of art of many eras and nations, an
enormous amount of time to reprint, including
in APOCRYPHAL versions (the most famous of
them «questions of John the Theologian», Greek
text of which dates back to the fifth century, and
the oldest Slavic (Bulgarian ) - To the thirteenth),
perceived and interpreted sometimes totally in
different ways. But only in the Orthodox Church
it is perceived as an eschatological essay. The first
proper interpretation of Slavic Apocalypse can
be considered Stefan Yavorivskogo and Dmitry
Rostovsky, who in vast tracts at the beginning
of the thirteenth century came into the fight
with the view to distribute then, as they thought,
«men-commoners» «on the offensive last time».
Father A. Men in lectures devoted Apokalipsisu,
recalled the Russian schismatics-Old Believers
living spirit, word and ideas «Apocalypse», on
Chernyshevskom, one of the heroes who called
this book product crazy about narodovoltse
Morozove, read the dreadful prophecy as the
astrological prediction John Chrysostom (1907),
the publicist and historian L. Tihomirove, essay
returned to the fold of John the Theologian
patristic tradition. Fold number
could continue almost indefinitely, for example,
unjustly forgotten tradition behalf of Elder
Filofeya, in an era of apocalyptic idea whose
light reached the heights and be associated with
the mission of Russian people as the guardian
of orthodoxy at the end of the world. No less
significant, but to understand the Orthodox
eshatologii as a holistic concept was Feofana
Zatvornika theological work.
A. Men Protopresbyter allocated in
understanding and interpreting the Apocalypse
two directions. The first of them - realistic, which is
perceived supporters of the language and characters
literally turned the Apocalypse in tangible
phenomenon, «with the real thunder, catastrophes
and visible celestial real invasion forces in peace
and combat the dark forces of war Armageddon».
The second, which he represented himself, can
be described as idealistic, rebated to the word
«apocalypse» the importance that it was in Greeklanguage ancient Christians - or «terrible disease»,
or «catastrophe», but «revelation», «outcrop,
disclosure, the discovery «. One of the modern
philosophers writes: «The Book of John, only to a
limited extent - Book end. Actually the end of the
world, she devotes some chapters (a chapter 20-22).
It is, first and foremost - The book Disclosures those
meanings, to appear to be of world history during the
existence of Christianity on earth «. If one accepts
this interpretation, it must be acknowledged that the
«end of the world - this is permanent reality. She is
constantly being reborn. When the Roman Empire
collapsed, it was the end of the world, and this word
of God. When disasters occur all the historical, it
was the end, predict Apokalipsisom. Any turning
apocalyptic era. And it always happens. The Court
continues forever.
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This book is not just a set of grim dystopia
or something terrible pictures that can only
sow panic and despair in the hearts of people.
Apocalypse is full of hope. This is undoubtedly
the greatest book of hope, because, as black
historical perspective, which gives the prophet
there, the sound surprisingly victorious tubes,
pipes brighter world that comes to replacing
the darkness «. In fact, in the last words of the
holy father offered reasons for the popularity
of special eschatological works of John the
Theologian among Orthodox Christians:
pronounced tendency to evangelical optimism, it
is absolutely certain moral pathos, clearly marked
eschatological perspective.
It is clear that the first track being actively
used modern literature and modern literature,
and the second is based on the Orthodox
interpretation of eschatological Apocalypse,
which should take into account the ideas Psaltyri
Umma, Ekkliziasta, Messages from the Apostle
Peter, works by the Holy Fathers Basil the Great,
Gregory the Theologian, John Damascene,
Anastasia Sinai, John Lestvichnika , Gregory
Nisskogo, on its version, which is eshatologii
expression in folk and became a reflection of
traditional prose second half of the twentieth
century. Of course, eshatologizm Russian
literature originally supplied by Orthodox
tradition, a brilliant essay stories which gave SS
Averintsev in the dictionary entry of the famous
five “Philosophical Encyclopedia” edited by F. W.
In this article, SS Averintsev recognized
the existence of eschatological ideas in many
religious philosophical systems, because they are
all called upon to offer “a positive decision and the
Holy personal fate as something absolute”. But,
the scientist claimed, only in Christian dogma
eshatologiya able to take a central position, turned
into a full-fledged concept - in a totally coherent,
logical conclusion “about the ultimate destiny
of the teachings of peace and rights”. And this
happened only because in the absence of detail
visible in the many-eschatological parable and
the symbols of the New Testament accumulate
antique motifs, Egyptian and doctrines of
Zoroastrian, Jewish, it was overcome sectarianism
and national political limitations.
Eschatological view on the death of the
possibility of moving from death to life through the
resurrection-ozhivanie-time transtsendirovaniya.
Following SN Troubetzkoy - author of
“eschatological” article in the Encyclopaedia
Brockhaus and Efrona, and his followers PA
Florensky and SI Fudelem, SS Averintsev argues
that Christian tradition has always distinguish
between “individual eshatologiyu, ie teaching
about life zagrobnoy single human soul, and the
worldwide eshatologiyu, ie teachings about the
purpose of space exploration and history, the
exhaustion of their meaning, on their end and
that this end will follow “. In Orthodoxy Umma
accomplishments often been displaced into the
inner world of Rights ( “kingdom of God within
us”) and only through the doctrine of the second
coming of Christ retain their importance to the
outside world. Orthodox eschatological concept,
argues in the minds of Slav ispodvol, from about
1 H-century, according to a number of researchers
(Eremina VI, Leshchenko VY, etc.), the nucleus of
its original in full compliance with the new picture
of the Christian world has identified himself
(private)-eschatological component, represents an
opportunity to realize gust of man “to spirituality
meaning of life”. And it happened partly because
the culture of pre-Christian Slavs “<…> idea of”
the end of the world “specially never traced”,
the Slavs were quite indifferent to the myth of
obscheindoevropeyskomu last battle, because
their minds absorbed the reflexes, associated
with increased after painful the dissolution of a
patriarchal society responsibility for their destiny
and with an awareness of the value of their own
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lives. DS Likhachev repeatedly pointed out that
the most ancient Russian literature writer deserves
no attention to the end of the world, and the image
of death as the most significant moment in human
life. So in the story about love - in the history of
life of Peter and Fevronia harakterologicheskogo
presented as a last gesture predsmertny heroine
- “amazing peace of mind Fevronia, with whom
she decided to die with her beloved man “.
In the nineteenth century literary minds
this eschatological line, perhaps, brighter than all
manifested in the works of Dostoyevsky, who in
the novel “Besy” the death of thirteen people who
died at various stages of life and from different
causes, becoming a truly apocalyptic and the
only action in the novel “ The Idiot “” revolt
against the death penalty (the centre of the entire
novel - N.TS.) grows in rebelliousness against the
apocalyptic predictions end of the world “. The
only era that has been valid, serious and profound
doubt this compilation - hiliazma era, which
clearly marked shift of interest from individual
eshatologii for the world, but in Russia the most
striking manifestations of her art were associated
with the start of the Soviet era, because had the
very specific nature.
The fact that the primacy of private
eshatologii on a general persists in the modern
Orthodox theology clearly demonstrate the
fi nal lines “Commentary” I am the father
of Alexander to the “Revelation” John the
Theologian, in which he returns eshatologii
small victory, which she won in Russian culture
even in the thirteenth century And ukoryaet
with frenzied and convinces awaiting The
End Of The World: “To summarize the main
thesis of Christian eshatologii, one person
said that we should live as if tomorrow will
come Strashny Court, and work as if we have
ahead of eternity, that is not delayed his rescue
case (“Bodrstvuyte and pray” - teaches us the
gospel), but will not rush. We should not impose
their Lord wishes, but with joy and patience to
perform His will “.
Absolute correlate this comment theologian
with folk performances confirmed observations
on language semantics, which still persists Old
Trinity, evolutionary interpretation of death:
death as the movement of the soul in a different
world (prestavlenie-transfer); death as an
achievement a man of his sense of purpose (death)
; Death as a transition into a state of eternal sleep
(uspenie-son). But the most convincing proof
of the primacy of personal eshatologii over
apocalyptic, offers Russian literature, intuitively
resolving the problem of consistency and
significance of the development of two branches
of eshatologii eshatologii personally in favor of a
more diverse, compared with the religious topic.
If SS Averintsev argued that the eschatological
theology topic was largely Motivic realization,
modern scholars of Russian literature come from
the recognition of the existence politopicheskih
artistic worlds, fundamentally important for
us is the existence of Russian literature in the
second half of the twentieth century works, in
which the People’s eschatological topics performs
tekstoobrazuyuschuyu role.
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Natalia V. Kovtun. European “Nigdeya” and Russian “TUtopia”
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2008 1) 539-555
УДК 100
European “Nigdeya” and Russian “TUtopia”
(On the issue of interaction)
Natalia V. Kovtun*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 27.11.2008, received in revised form 17.12.2008, accepted 24.12.2008
The article considers the formation particularities of Russian and European Utopian discourses (the
different variant of the term “Utopia” are given in the title of the article to emphasize the peculiarities
of phenomena in Russia and the West). Specific character of the Russian literary Utopia is proved
and two main lines of its development are traced: the intellectual and the religious-mystical. The
work provides the comparative description of classical art patterns of Utopia and contemporary
“permanent Utopias”, “quasi- Utopias”.
Keywords: literary Utopia, Utopian discourse, permanent Utopia, European Utopia, intellectual
Utopia, religious-mystical Utopia, the present, myth.
In the Russian and Western studies of
literature, the peculiarity of the Russian culture
is often considered through its connection with
Utopian dreams and projects. Perhaps there is
no better term than “Utopia” to describe modern
literature. Avant-gardists’ Utopias anticipate
the global communist Utopia formed in the
art creative work through the socialist realism
theory, which, in the 1950-1960-s, was replaced
by the retrospective Utopia of “peasant writes”
(hicks) in its variety of the author’s versions and
technocratic Utopias of “molodyozhnaya proza”
(a youth prose). In this paradigm the place of
post-modernism as a set of techniques used for
opposing Utopian intentions, is determined by
the role of anti-Utopia.
We consider the notion “Utopia” as a peculiar
measuring instrument. Originally it is of estimation
kind (with respect to the project contents). At
the same time, it is impartial (in respect of
the quality of its implementation). The whole
spiritual formations and directions of thought in
the history of ideas (for example, Freemasonry,
Slavophilism and narodnik movement in Russia)
can also be understood and explained as Utopian,
that is through Utopia which allows to speak
about the certain methodological importance
of Utopia as a spiritual phenomenon”. For the
past few years, there have appeared a number of
considerable works in history, philosophy, the
ideology of the Russian Utopia. The authors of
many of the works see the most important reasons
of “Russian Utopism” in getting interested in
the ideas of Nietzsche, Schopenhauer as well
as Western Enlightenment and Renaissance.
However, according to Mikhail Bakhtin, the genre
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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(metagenre) is not just an aesthetic category, but
the range of value world perception, the main way
of reality comprehension. Therefore, it is in the
nation history where you should look for reasons
explaining the mobilization of the creative Utopia
The mentality of the last century artist was
formed at the time of proclaimed his thesis “the
God has died”. The “twilight of Gods” that came
after that, led to two consequences: the creation
of a new world of art universe, where an artistdemiurge occupies a vacant place of the God. This
became the fate of the Russian Avant-garde of the
1910-1920-s. But those who were not prepared
for such a radical spiritual restructuring, tried to
keep in their own works a Christian pattern of
the world and man. The tragedy of “new peasant
poets”, such as Nikolai Klyuyev, Sergei Klichkov,
Sergei Yesenin, who remained alone between
two artistically and spiritually related unions of
the Russian Avant-garde and socialist realism,
is the tragedy of being faithful to transcendental
principles at the age of rebellious materiality.
The destroyed Christian harmony of the
universe set before a man of the epoch a task of
creating a different picture of the world. It is in
the crisis historical periods that the interest in
Utopia gets intensified. The Utopia in question
allows an artist who disappointed in reality, to
freely manage the fates of the world and the man.
Such turning point periods in the Russian culture
of XX century were marked by World War I, the
October revolution and the later events of 1950 –
1960-s connected with the disclosure of Stalinist
The basic idea of Avant-garde aesthetics was
expressed by P. Picasso in his famous sentence:
“I depict the world not as I see it but as I think
it to be”. The representatives of socialist realism
who developed the main ideas of Avant-garde
about the creation work – handicraft, the new life
construction, as well as the levelling the borders
between the art and the non-art. They led these
ideas to the logical completion by building a
mystical town in reality turning the life of the
whole of the state into some teurge action, artistic
act, eclectically combining sectarian, Avantgarde and pseudo-Christian elements.
The Russian culture of the XX-th century
was the culture of the stage of collapse. It was
the time when there was an obvious threat to the
preservation of ethnosocial integrity. It was the
time of the Soviet (progressist) Utopia which was
aimed at destroying the really existing culture,
that is the national culture. In the literature
of the second half of the XX-th century, there
was marked an insistent interest in the crisis
events of the past. By means of interpreting
these events, the attempts were made to find the
ways of overcoming the tragedy of the present
(the tales by V. Rasputin, V. Belov, V. Lichutin,
marked by the Utopian intentions). It is in critical
moments that there are born the ideas of troubles,
the culture degeneration, a wish to rewrite the
national history, to change the image of the
nation according to a new pattern. The beginning
of the 20-th century was characterized by the
futurological and Utopian sense of time. And
it is marked by the apocalyptic mood as well
as by ignoring history as it is, its abolition and
desemantization. Post-modernism is a fiasco,
of belief in Utopia. But it doesn’t guarantee the
overcoming of the Utopian discourse. The modern
artists try to get free from the charming power of
“Nigdeya” (moore in a letter to a friend writes
about the island “Nigdeya” (“I’m nowhere”).
They also try to transfer the problem to another
plane, that of a pure game, profanation. But this
is the way they emphasize their close connection
with the preceding Utopian tradition.
The sceptical and ironical position of postmodernism not in the least less than avant-garde,
emphasizes the demiurgeous claims of art to
create a new world of art, which forces out and
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substitutes reality. The boundary between avantgarde and post-modernism turns out to be blurred
leaving the imprint of secondariness on the
aesthetic claims of the latter. A game of Utopia
as playing a game connected with the “evicted”
self-reflexion of the authors and the simulation of
creative energy, makes for transferring attention
onto the marginal literary phenomena. This is
where the very notion of the world reorganization
– novelty – loses its previous criteria. Instead of
the here-and-now “paradise’, it seems that “the
future was yesterday”. The global schemes of
avant-garde and socialist realism are replaced by
the petty intrigues of private, individual Utopias
each of which is ready to play a game of truth.
Like the socialist realism, being the
ideological stage of avant-garde, used the models
of the classical heritage in its artistic schemes,
post-modernism elicits accidental, flagmentary,
aesthetic values from the bottom of the past and
combines them fantastically into a new eclectic
unity to make a different sense arise from the
accidental combination of the fragments of the
previous Utopias. Such a game which is beyond
the conventional for the Russian literature moral
context became possible only at the post-apocalyptic
time when there came not only “the death of the
God”,but also “the death of the Satan” which was
paid regard to by the modernists of the beginning
of XX-th century. The significance of the present
crisis, of the period of time when the communist
Utopia was destroyed and a new universal myth
of the post-modernist society is hardly possible
on the previous scale, appears to be valuable by
its possibility of codifying the global Utopias of
the past, for “while a myth is being created, it isn’t
realized as such”. Its analysis means at the same
time its completion and pragmatism. As regards
the revision of the past Utopian projects of the
world reorganization, it gives an opportunity of
making the process of filling the present ideological
vacuum predictable and realizable.
It will be only natural, if necessary, to preface
the analysis of the Russian literary Utopia with
a brief survey of those features which make the
modern Utopian projects different from the classical
models. In this case it is impossible to differentiate
between the peculiarities as quite a number of them
are still being revealed. However, some conclusions
have already been made. In the modern culture,
there prevails the interest in the negative Utopia,
anti-Utopia, allotopia or cacotopia. Eugene Shatsky
confirms, that “historians studying Utopias, usually
conclude their descriptions with the negative Utopias
of the first half of the XX-th century considering
it to be almost an axiom that the time of positive
Utopias has come to an end”. The critics of the new
century write about “the anti-Utopism as a specific
feature of artistic thinking of the second half of the
XX-th century”.
The interest of the contemporary literature
studies in anti-Utopia from the historical and
genetic viewpoints is one-sided. The Utopian
literature is often considered as a context in
which anti-Utopia is formed and anti-Utopian
motifs and image are developed. Being aware of
the conditional character of the “Utopia – antiUtopia” opposition, we, however, distinguish a
number of features, such as the Utopianism of the
author’s artistic consciousness, the peculiarity
of a chronotrop, the Utopian nature, the motive
structure). These allow to analyse the Russian
Utopia as a relatively independent and original
artistic phenomenon.
The alert attitude to Utopian texts is the
reaction to the possibility of implementing the
world-reorganizing projects in real life: “The
20th century compromised the phenomenon
of Utopia like, probably, no other century. The
fatal, according to Nickolai Berdyayev, ability
of Utopian projects “to come true” was noticed
already in the first half of the century”.
R. Galtseva notes the dual nature of Utopia.
From her point of view, the Utopia is “both
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practicable and impracticable”. It is impracticable
from its “Inside” because of its claims for the
perfect harmony of interests, for setting up the
society, where everybody is happy. At the same
time it is practicable from its “outside”, the
organizational part – in terms of phalansteries,
labour-armies, the life regulation”. At present,
Utopias more often than earlier, migrate from the
area of the art work to the fields of sociological,
political, economic researches taking the form
of theses and conceptions. The 20th century
changed the habitual picture of the latest scientific
and technological achievements. Being effected
in a direct or indirect way by various theories,
the Utopia reflected this influence in the system
of its own values, structure and language. The
most daring Utopian images (like eugenical,
experimental and sexual) seek to be based on
the achievements of empirical sciences. In the
tradition of the Russian Utopia, this process can
be clearly seen in the works by Nickolai Fyodorov
(“The Philosophy of the Common Matter”)
considering the project of the resurrection of
ancestors not as an Utopia, but as a working
hypothesis demanding its immediate realization.
Explaining the picture of the future,
Alexander Bogdanov, Alexander Chayanov,
the early Andrei Platonov proceed from their
own scientific preferences and discoveries
(including the idea of nenewal and psychological
compatibility of generations, as is the case in the
novel “The Red Star” by Alexander Bogdanov
(1907). This thought can be found in the science
proposed by him and called tectology. Alexander
Chayanov’s economic researches concerning the
problems of co-operative economy were laid as
a foundation into the novel “My Brother Alexsei
travels to the country of the Peasants’ Utopia”
(1920). The classical Utopia had the attraction
rather for the economic sciences, whereas the
Utopia of the new period of time (more commonly
called uhtopia) was formed under the influence of
the philosophy of history. As regards the modern
“evpsyche”, it is connected with the development
of psychology, the ideas of Freudianism and Jung
The classical European Utopia goes back to
two traditions. One of them is that of Plato who
is presented by a number of Masonic myths as a
divine missionary of the Great Order (in Thomas
Taylor’s version), and Xenophon. Plato became the
first chronicler of the legendary Atlantis and the
author of the work about the ideal state. Initially,
the description of Atlantis was not so much a
historical but rather an allegoric and a speculative
composition. In his work “The state”, Plato sets
hopes on the strictness of the law understood as the
law of the universe rather than a legal regulation.
He also sets hopes on observing the hierarchy and
a firm regulation. The latter allowed the scientists
to speak about the author being alien to moral
problems, his indifference to moral grounds
for the suggested ideal. However, if we take the
initiate’s viewpoint who makes a perfect story
for the non-initiate, we we’ll see that the story
is naturally formalized. It gives conclusions,
but doesn’t have any explanations: “Plato wrote
for the subtle public capable of understanding
the hints”. Up to the end of the XIX-th century,
the authors of the Utopia create their works as
intended for a certain circle of intellectuals who
could understand the complex symbolism of
religious and esoteric and psychological ways of
expressing their Utopian ideas.
As for Xenophon, he, on the contrary, set hopes
mostly on the wisdom of the earthly generosity
and Enlightenment. Xenophon’s “Kiropedia” isn’t
alien to sketchiness. But in this work, the head of
the “blissful” country, called Kir, is realized first
of all as a moral example for the subjects. The
novel about Kir was laid as a foundation for the
Utopian tradition of the enlightened monarchism.
Later, during the process of their development
and alteration, these ideas were considered as
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the sources of the major directions of modern
Utopia, such as globalism (or progressism) with
its cult of scientific and technical tranformations,
as well as the dictatorship of the initiates and
intellectuals and the Utopia of “the human selfrealization” (the term of Eugene Shatsky). This
is where the changes in the sphere of human
consciousness beyond the reorganization of the
existing structures were the most valuable. These
existentially oriented Utopias, which abandoned
the tough regulation, restriction, reticence,
authoritarianism, the interest in a social system
in general – the mood of the people of the end of
the XX-th century.
Up to the fi rst decade of the XX-th century,
the classical Utopia described islands, cities
and countries as being abundant, sunny having
luxuriant vegetation where you don’t have to
work but can have a rest and enjoy yourself
for all the time. The modern “Nigdeya” (“I’m
nowhere”) ignores this factor in principle. The
interest in the inner world of a man becomes
fundamental. The imagination and dream are
recognized as the truth, and the world which is
beyond the Utopia, is realized as a mirage. The
non-initiate present is the result of delusion “a
game of mind”. The better world really exists
in reality. It is only necessary to become free
from the tyranny of habitual ideas, prohibitions
and dogmas. There are suggested quite different
ways beginning with the participation in
sectarian mysteries (the doctrines by Plato and
Xenophon are fantastically mixed up) and drug
intoxication to the merging with nature and
instincts liberation (including feminization and
sexual revolution). All these theories are based
on the conviction, that irrespective of sociology
and politics, it is possible to create a new man
having quite different consciousness and will.
This Utopia of “the inner truth” is often called
by literary critics as “the Utopia of Dionysus”
with respect to Nietzsche’s authority.
The classical Utopia was looking for the
rules, the model and harmony. That is why it
was associated with the Apollo beginning. It
proceeded from the truth, self-righteousness
and self-sufficiency of an idea, which is the
guarantee of moral righteousness. The lack of
coincidence of the idea and morality caused the
disclosure of the Utopia which was conveyed
in the Russian culture by the works of Mikhail
Saltykov-Shchedrin (“The History of a Town”,
1870), Fyodor Dostoevsky (“The Notes from
the Underground”, 1864), and Andrei Platonov
(“Chevengur”, 1929).
The Utopia of the past is didactic and edifying,
as well as strict and conceptual. Originated as a
story about a far-away and marvelous country, it
could not avoid having a descriptive character.
Another obligatory feature of the classical
Utopia may be considered its aspiration to being
“all-embracing”, when the author tries to tell
everything about “the bissful land” beginning
with the economy, society structure to the catering
management and the Utopians’ fashion. The
modern “Nigdeya” (“I’m nowhere”) goes away
from the global explanations, detailed elaboration
and surplus. It tends to experimentation, denying
any principles and declaring the triumph of
freedom and spontaneity. It longs for the holiday
of life. A. Yavlovskaya calls it “permament
Utopia”, because the imagination is always
prepared to reproduce the image of the best in
all its possible versions and in all its nicety. The
Utopia of human self-realization promises the
absolute liberation from the God and the Devil,
from the Leader the Benefactor as well as from
the objective reality and traditional values. It also
promises a new fraternity between people. The
only condition to achieve “this happiness” is the
ability of a person to get rid of the burden of any
The scope of the classical Utopia is usually
rather broad. It is mainly directed to the distant
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past. Later it is directed to the far future. But it
is indifferent to the present. The great Utopians
of the past, such as Thomas Moore, Francois
Rabelais in the Cloister of Thélème, never went
beyond the bounds between the Utopia (i.e. the
text) and the world (i.e. “the extra textual reality”),
between the desirable and real. The style of their
works is dreamy, ironic and unrealizable. The
Utopia of the XX-th century is connected with
the present. It analyses today’s problems but as if
from the point of view of tomorrow. The attention
is refocused from the far on the near, from the
general on the particular, from the world on a
man. Having found the human measurement,
the Utopia lost the pathos of impeccability, its
right for the last word. The world imperfection
started to be perceived as a direct reflection of the
imperfection of the Utopia itself and the guarantee
of its further development. The Utopia of the
XX-th century parted from the secludedness, the
strictness of the form. But it acquired flexibility,
dynamism and tension.
In accordance with the change of the
general Utopian orientation (from macrocosm
to microcosm), there is changed the symbolism
of the Utopia, its structure and its character. In
the classical Utopia everything was under the
control of a wise man or a prophet, who knew
the truth. Now he can easily be replaced by “a
small man”, “the God’s fool”, a loser, who is a
part of the developing civilization (the works
by G.Greene, Kobo Abe, V. Lichutin, Valentin
Rasputin, Vladimir Makanin, L. Petrushevskaya).
This anti-hero is more worried about himself
than about the problems of the universe. Hence
a relative “modesty” of the plans and intentions
of the modern Utopia, which seeks to declare its
self-will, but not to achieve the perfection or put
an end to the whole of history.
B. de Jouvenel’s “Practical Utopia”, Dennis
Gabor’s “The Utopia of a matured society”, S.
Сhase’s “Moderate Utopia”, Zbigniew Brzezinski’s
“Survival Utopias” as well as the works by Daniel
Bell and Alvin Toffler are aimed at the modest
improvement of the existence and the survival.
They lost their previous revolutionary ardour
which was in the extreme degree typical for the
socialist realism, and changed the ardour to a
metaphysical and evolutionary mood. Frequently,
the ideal of modern Utopia doesn’t have a
transcendent dimension, which it used to have (the
Utopia turns into the idyll). The idea of the Utopia
began to tarnish. The Utopian deabsolutism is not
only the result of the positivistic public mood,
but some kind of protection from the possibility
of the projects’ realization. The parting from the
ideal makes the Utopia of the end of the XX-th
century weak, incomplete, fragmentary and
defective. It is not accidental that such projects are
called “semi-Utopias” (according to F. Polack), or
“preliminary Utopias” (V. Ferkiss).
In connection with the losing of previous
strict structure, the blurredness of the borders,
modern Utopias cannot practically be classified.
V. Chalikova notes, that today the scientists found
themselves “before the fact of the degeneration
of these historically formed Utopian genres into
the Utopian style which is difficult to define
correctly, but it is well-known to everyone who
is familiar with the Utopian literature, - into
some mixture of philosophy of history, social
critique, futurology and religious philosophy”.
As distinct from a historian, an Utopian does not
seek the origins of the phenomenon in the past.
The Utopian points out those elements in the
present which should get developed in the future
from the point of view of his project. Such a world
model already exists according to the mystical,
irrational laws, obeying the Utopian logic of the
creator. The Utopian discourse borrows that part
from the social critique which is directed not to
the concrete vices of a concrete society, not to a
system as a whole, but to all the existence as being
unreal. The similarity of Utopism to religious
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philosophy, eschatology is evident in this context.
“The Utopia is always connected with the certain
beliefs in the truthfulness and practicability of
ideals. And every belief based on ideals can be
interpreted as religious. It means that to a certain
extent every Utopia is religious”.
The boundary making a religious
consciousness different from the Utopian one
concerns, first of all, the optimistic pathos of the
projects of the world reorganization. The Utopian
strives to organise a “paradise” on the earth
while the orthodox person, believing in the soul
salvation takes care of the Kingdom of Heaven.
He is alien to the Utopian idea of independent
individual self-perfection, the idea of the triumph
of natural kindness beyond the test of evil. In
the Russian tradition F.M. Dostoevsky (“The
Dream of a Strange Man”, 1877) pointed out the
incompatibility of a weak, mortal human nature
with the prospective of “a paradise on earth”.
However, the connection of the Utopian projects
with the mystical prophecies and maxima of the
Middle Ages was preserved up to the end of the
twentieth century. The Russian authors’ hopes for
the sacral mission of Russia as the Third Rome
were reflected in the peculiar, rebellious and
revolutionary pathos of their Utopias (from the
avant-gardists, A. Bogdanov to socialist realismorthodox persons and (“peasants authors”). Magic
was preferred to the will of progress and history
in Russia.
The literary Utopia is the most successive,
“the only absolute Utopia, the Utopia in the proper
sense of the word”, “only the artistic reading of the
Utopia lets us understand its sense”. The original
evolution and the functions of the artistic Utopia
are connected with the development of the literary
process. The form of the Utopia mostly comes up
to a novel. The American researchers G. Negley
and D. Patrick, the compilers of the anthology “In
the Search of the Utopia”, pointed out three basic
features making the artistic Utopia different
from the other literary or speculative forms. The
Utopia is fictitious, it describes a certain state or
a community. Its subject is a political structure of
this fictional state or community.
Philologists are inclined to explain some
peculiarities of the structure of the artistic
Utopia by its proximity to science fiction. L.
Sargent came to the conclusion that “after 1950
the Utopian fiction almost completely became
a part of science fiction”. Not denying the
interpenetration of the Utopia and the science
fiction, we must emphasize that the displacement
of the artistic accent from the idea to the plot is
typical of the science fiction, when the author
most of all values the entertaining character
of the describable events. The science fiction
is not always concentrated on the construction
of the possible image of the future or the past.
Social problems are not obligatory here. The
fiction in the Utopia serves to reveal the inner
meanings and plays the role of additional
information confi rming the author’s idea.
That is why the science fiction in the Utopia is
relatively unartful. The modern “NoWhereness”
(“Nigdeya”) owes the invention of the value of
the single, flexibility, capability for reflexion,
interest of the plot, an active character to the
science fiction influence. The new features of
the modern Utopia are a reflection of the general
tendency to the fictionize Utopian “scheme”
subordinating the depiction to a certain artistic
logic, artistic measure.
The history of the Russian literary Utopia
is traditionally dated from the XVIII-th century.
At that time, the well-known works of European
Utopists were translated into Russian. The cultural
groups of Russia were familiar with the works of
Plato, Xenophon, Moore, Mersye. Utopian works
came to the capitals among the broad stream of
masonic editions. The works by V.F. Odoevsky
“The Year 4338”, the work by F.V. Bulgarin
“Probable tales”, the work by A.D. Ulybyshev
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“The Dream” are considered to be imitations of
the Utopia Mersye.
Speaking about the Russian literary
Utopia origins, specialists note two moments:
the indisputable incontestable influence of the
West-European (mainly French) tradition and
the reforms of Peter I. It is also important to
point out the rapid spreading of Freemasonry
in Russia in the second half of the XXVIII-th
century. The mystical ideas of the world and
human transformation after the image of the
divine temple, its new cutting from a raw lump
of matter are very important in Freemasonry.
These ideas also turned out to be topical for
the artistic Utopia. Freemasonry became one of
the ideal projection versions (the Utopia of selfperfection as the Utopia of ideal government).
In the Russia of those times keen interest in
the French Enlightenment was combined with
the inclinations to abstract religiousness and
mysticism. It is explained by the influence of
the national Utopia (the messianic idea of the
Third Rome). At that time, the ideology of the
Enlightenment was only an intermediary link.
The first Utopists (A. Sumarokov, M. Kheraskov,
M. Shcherbatov, V. Levshin) were the members
of the order themselves. Their literary works
didn’t have only the artistic meaning. Thinking
about the alternative spiritual way of the nation
development, they realized it through and by
means of mysticism. The mystical constituent
was the most important in the Russian artistic
Utopia from М.M. Shcherbatov to A. Bogdanov
and socialist realism representatives.
Peter I’s innovations depriving the Russian
history of the sacral, shade changed it from the
object of divine prophetic gift to the object of
human manipulations. During the process of
Peter’s reforms, the Russians “lost their initial
identity” which demanded creating new Utopian
conceptions of history. Peter became to be
realized as a superman, demiurge or antichrist
(in Old Believer’s teaching) after changing the
course of time (changing the New Year day),
changing radically the image of the whole nation.
Reality lost its substantive features. It could be
modelled after one’s own pattern. Starting with
Peter I the Utopian projection became one of the
most important functions of the authorities.
In the second half of the XVIII-th century
Russian wanderers came to the Utopia scope.
However, the gap between the artistic literature
and life is often levelled in this case. There began
a frantic search for invisible towns, legendary
lands to which roads were laid in historically
concrete places. The beginning of the Age of
Enlightenment, marked by the harmonization
of passionaric ethnos energy, gives rise to
Utopian hopes among the Russian intellectuals
for the forthcoming realization of “golden age”
of universal justice, education, and prosperity.
The Utopia seemed to be practicable, logically
completing the whole history of “the Third
Rome”. At that time not a concrete person – a tsar,
monarch but the whole of the nation together put
into practice the alchemical way of a happy state
selected by the God. But by the end of the century
it became clear, that all the conscious attempts to
realize the Utopia into the history were doomed
to failure. Decembrists’ Utopia finished the Age
of Enlightenment, in its tragic prospects, the
kingdom of “Liberty, equality, fraternity” went to
the scaffold. The price of the Utopia was named
but the belief in its boundless opportunities was
not lost at all. The unconscious realization of
the Utopia took plase as a theatrical experiment,
conducted by the monarch’s will.
In terms of its contents, the Utopia isn’t
realized in reality. But as far as the human logic
is able to restore the Utopia by parts, it appeared
to be possible to stage, play and see the Utopia.
We only had to imagine that “God Almighty” is
together with us and the Absolute is cognizable.
Illusion starts to synthesize reality, the Utopia
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leaves the dream-land and comes down to the solid
earth. Catherine as a worthy director of Peter’s
scenario of the Russian history, aims to embrace
all the areas of life by the Order. The Utopian
Law is called to provide the maximum space for
realizing mythological ideas. To become aware
of this dictatorial essence of Utopism proved
to be practically impossible under the absolute
monarchy conditions.
On the one hand, the constructions of
intellectual dreamers (from the Masons,
Petrashevcy, Jeorge Sand followers, to Westerners
and Slavophils). On the other hand, the mystical
Old Belief’s projects were peculiar alternative
to the state Utopia playing a significant role in
the Russian Utopian discourse. The intellectual
elite inherited the mystical and historical Peter’s
experience both in the positive (F. Bulgarin,
V. Odoevsky) and negative contexts (M.
Shcherbatov, A. Ulybyshev) making their own
original scenarios of the state rearrangement.
But the people search for their native, original
Saint Russia outside the area of the profaned
empire. Wanderers rush for the mystical town of
Kitej, Belovodye. They searh for the mysterious
“Ignat’s town” where “the ancient piety” is
preserved and there are not any signs of the state
antichrist power. In this particular line, the ideally
connected with the Old Russian “wandering”,
“dreams”, “visions”, making it possible to revise
the classical structure of metagenre in favour
of the national tradition. And on the contrary,
the rationalistic image of a “blissful country”
characteristic for the West-European mystical and
Utopian canons, the Russian culture is frequently
just the background emphasizing certain social
The scientifically checked civilization image
is presented by the sociological schemes. The
people’s religious ideal is only outlined, blurred
but the aspiration for its realization is great. In
1916 N. Berdyayev pointed out the typical for
Russian sects “thirst for changing literature into
life, and culture into being”. Utopian sectarian
beliefs, their wish for changes differ essentially
from the literary metagenre by their extreme
maximalism, the direct corporal expression,
the demand for the immediate change from the
idea in to action, by the extreme character of
the practices caused by all this. “The negation
of private property develops in parallel with the
family destruction and the power concentration in
the hands of a spiritual leader”. It is not accidental
that after the Revolution of 1917 the Bolsheviks
repeatedly tried to extrapolate the ideological
experience of mystical sects to the own projects
of the world rearrangement.
The legend about Belovodye where people
live according to the divine truth, was born
in Old Believers’ consent of “runners”. Their
main doctrine was the demand for “leaving”,
“running away” from the world after the reforms
of Nickon who found himself under the power of
“Antichrist seal”. The name Belovodye reminds
us of the apocryphal’s water, which is as “white
as milk”. In the Old Slavonic language, “white”
is the synonym for the notions of purity and
freedom. The road to the secret country was
indicated in “The Traveller” which is a peculiar
route. As distinct from the ideal itself, the road
looked extremely realistic. The description of the
road was not connected with a literary style but
it was respected as the original. It was made by
“the spectators” who had been looking for “the
paradise on the earth” for dozens of years. The
exactness of the “document” indicating the wellknown towns and villages was disputed in one
detail: after the list of the geographical centres, for
instance, there was a reference to Peter Kirillov...
The absence of a guide made it impossible to
reach the Absolute. However even in this case the
belief in Belovodye remained firm. The place was
not found not because there was no such a place,
but because they had been looking for it not very
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well. It created special relations between the text
(“The Traveller”) and “the reality beyond the
text” where everything comes true. The reality
itself is provided with “Utopian features”.
According to the legend, the ideal land is
situated in places difficult of access, behind
high mountains, on an island. The land is fertile
and very well suitable for the human life. İts
inhabitants are never taken ill. They are not
worried about their age and misfortunes. It is the
kingdom of the true faith, inhabited exceptionally
by the saints. There is not any power except the
spiritual and religious tutorship. The Belovodye
inhalitants do not know wars, crimes, and
quarrels. Inherently, the world of “the paradise
on the earth” is out of time. Invariability is the
form of life in Belovodye. The ideal is considered
as the Universe centre, this is the absolute top, the
navel of the Earth.
Belovodye is a version of social and
geographical people Utopia, whereas the legend
about the town Kitej is “ukroniya”. Its origins go
back to the verbal legend of the horde yoke time.
The legend became the common property of
the human consciousness closer to the XVIII-th
century. Originally, it was about a concrete place
near Novgorod and about a concrete event – the
building of Small and Big Kitej at the order of
Prince Vladimir. Later the historical foundation
was lost. The town Kitej, wonderfully saved from
Baty’s hordes, hidden under the Lake Svetloyar
waters, became a “concealed place”, a metaphor
for “the paradise on earth” from where the road
to the paradise of heaven begins.
In terms of quantity, the Russian literary
Utopia is inferior to the West-European. Even
within the limits of the centre of the empire, a
Russian native reader is more acquainted with
European patterns of metagenre than with the
literary Utopias of his compatriots. This is
explained by the specific character of the national
Utopism, alien to the image of “the regime and
state”, considered by A. Foygt as the most typical
of the West Utopia.
Taking into account the serious influence
which the national intellectual traditions had
upon the formation of the Russian Utopian
discourse, the change of the focus from the
“Utopian state” to the“Utopian individuality”
should be pointed out. The Russian public
thought was always directed to the theme of a
person, his fate, destination. “It is just a man
who was in the centre of intellectual searching,
while anthropology was one of the most
important principles of the Russian Utopia”.
The representatives of the Russian Utopian
tradition cared more not for the structure, the
“beautification” of a fair state, but rather for the
opportunities and methods of “the clearing from
the evil” before fi nding “the paradise on the
earth”. The thirst for the effective transformation
of life, its healing invariably controlled a
Russian person. Perhaps that is why Marx (a
successor of West-European Utopists – Plato,
More, Campanella and others) impressed Russia
so much. Marx promised not only to explain
the world but to change it. The Bolsheviks, who
were Marx’s successors, combined the WestEuropean “rational” Utopism with the Russian
thirst for the universal world transformation.
It is tight for the Russian Utopia in the limits
of a concrete text. It is swiftly “falling through”
beyond the known limits, sweeping away the
usual assessment criteria. The Russian Utopia did
not always take shape of an independent work.
“It was rather often dissolved in literary works
of other genres – social novels, science fiction
stories”. The Russian Utopia was a quasi-Utopia
(an Utopian fragment “Oblomov’s Dream” in
the novel by I.Goncharov, Raskolnikov’s dreams
and an image of “the golden age” in Versilov’s
confession in “The Teenager” by F. Dostoevsky,
“the forth Vera Pavlovna’s dream” in the novel by
N.Chernyshevsky, the blessing island Matyora in
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the story “Farewell to Matyora” by V.Rasputin,
an Utopian image of a fishing commune in “Czar
Fish” by V. Astafiyev and legendary Belovodye in
the novel “Wanderers” by V. Lichutin).
The attitude to the Utopia, the assessment of its
perspective was treated in different ways in Russia
and Europe: “The West cherished and cultivated the
Utopia culture without mixing it with the reality
culture”. The Utopia defended the present not
allowing to level the border between a dream and
reality. At the same time, it restrained pragmatism,
the dictatorship of cold calculation. In fact, it allowed
to see in the Utopia an ally of progress.
The situation in the Russian culture is
quite the opposite. Here the Utopia is more
often considered as a means of fighting against
progress (the West). It is realized as an attempt to
stop it (“The aim in life will be the rescue from
culture” as N. Fyodorov thought) – to get out of
the time sphere into the apocalyptical kingdom
of untimeliness. It is equally typical both of the
vanguard-revolutionary formations of the first
half of the XX-th century, overcoming progress
by its own technical resources and of patriarchal
projects of the end of the century (“village
prose”) trying to turn the time back. The Utopism
is admitted as one of the essential characteristics
of the Russian national idea.
The Russian Utopia is alien to the traditional
exotics of the European “Nowhereness”, telling
about the unusual country, constructed according
to the author’s own credo. The exceptions, when
an author speaks directly about his homeland,
transformed by his imagination, are not great in
number. On the contrary, in the Russian tradition,
“we meet with an invented country rather rarely.
More often than not, it is still Russia but changed,
bettered, which got rid of the drawbacks that the
author saw in it”. Such a concentration of the
Utopists on the homeland depiction, shows a special
connection of Russian writers with the “Russian
myth”. The writer is possessed by the question
about the cause of misfortunes accompanying the
historical way of Saint Russia. He tries to tie up
the “ends” and “origins” of history, to understand
its concealed meaning. It is not accidental that
the main Utopia question is “What to do?” or just
“Where to go?” (for folk Utopias). Preserving
the most attractive features of their imagination,
(social, economical, political), the writers change
life at their homes putting forward new and new
projects considering Russia the Third Rome. It
turns out, that there is nowhere to go: the Satan
came to Russia from the West, while infidels are
in the East... There is one way – to go, deep into
the inland trying to catch up with the country,
which moved off in to the underwater miraculous
Svetloyar spaces, into Belovodye lying beyond
the last boundary... A. Etkind’s remark about
the specific character of the Russian Utopia of
the XX-th century as “Heretopia” (because the
action takes place in Russia) keeps topicality for
the national Utopian discourse on the whole.
The division into metropolitan and
provincial is typical of the Russian Utopia. The
national idea much more rarely “encroached on
the rural territory”. The Utopias are directed to
capitals that “is the evidence of instability of the
Russian urban self-feeling”. The antinomy of big
cities and outskirts is perceived the as evidence
of a cruel political structure (progress). It is more
evident in Peterburg which was a peculiar caprice
of monarchical power. “The Chimerical spirit
of the city, born in a titanic dream of sovereign
power, emanates the radiation of vision”. Prince
М.M. Shcherbatov directs his theory of Russia
renewal to Peterburg. The character of the
Utopia “Dream” by A. Ulybyshev strolls about
the “avenues” in the Peterburg of the future;
the phantasmagoric ghost town controls the
characters’ souls of the works by F. Dostoevsky,
А. Bely, V. Rasputin, marked by the Utopian
discourse. The architectural look of the capitals
is of a thoroughfare type as understood in the
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Russian literary tradition. This look is always
changed, turned, turning to the Utopia.
The Russian plans of the world reorganization
are connected with to “their own”, that is usual
and kind. They are created not for “others” but
for “native” people. Only theoretical ways of
changing life and strict life regulation are very
seldom. In the classical Russian Utopias (from
M.M. Shcherbatov to N.G. Chernyshevsky) we
can see partial changes of social order. The future
arises from the present and so it is especially
“recognizable”. It is also important and beautiful.
In avant-garde Utopias, the image of the future
is already opposed to reality. And it is connected
with “the other” time, space and human being.
Any compassion to “the living present” is
excluded. The present world should be humbled
and overcome (the predictable pathos of the
socialist realism culture) so that one can easily
rush to the Eternity. But even the avant-garde plans
of radical rebuilding of the Universe give Russia
a selected role to be the world revolution centre.
Against the will of the creators, they preserve
the connection with the ancient archetypes of the
national culture.
The general uncertainty and the blurring
of traditional characteristics in Russian Utopias
make us believe that even the most classic
Utopias (like “Travel to the Land of Ophyr”. by
M.M. Shcherbatov; “The Year 4338 “by V. F.
Odoevsky) “are created as short Utopian stories”.
The blurring of genre criteria, the open finale and
dramatic effect become typical for the European
Utopias only at present. But all these characteristic
for our “hereutopia” were in herited from the past.
Up to the XX-th century Russia did not know any
social and political Utopias with the obligatory
specification of a new government structure.
Revolutionary and avant-garde thoughts were
not the exception. They were mainly aimed
at the negation of the “old things” rather than
the creation of the “new ones” which would be
miraculously very clear and well-organized. In
the literature of socialist realism the Absolute is
described apophaticly: mystical creations of the
magic land Dair (the revolutionary poem by А.G.
Malyshkin), Blue cities (by А. Tolstoi), Ocean (the
novel by L. M. Leonov “Road to the Ocean”).
In general, the Russian Utopias have little
orderliness. Their creators mostly believe in the
moral transformation of the society, but not in
the social and economic and industrial power. In
the Russian literature, money and scientific and
technological achievements have a strong negative
sense. They lead to the general degeneration. And
the Utopian horizon does not correlate with the
economic one. As a result of neglecting Utopian
dreams deprive the Russian Utopia of the “allembracing” sense. It means that there is no full
characteristic of a new society in any Russian
Utopias. Almost in every project we can notice
some indifference, the author’s carelessness
when describing the political situation of an
invented country. According to Т. Chernyshev,
the only exception is the work by Prince M. M.
The observance of morality in the classical
European “nowhereness” was provided by the
stability of the law. Legal norms and moral values
had obligatory outer grounds. In the Russian
Utopia the accents are diametrically opposite:
the moral improvement of a personality is the
guarantee of the country’s prosperity. But the
government decrees are formal and they are not
obligatory. They are always connected with the
violence overa person even in a just government
structure. Therefore the Russian “heaven” is not a
kingdom of democracy where the law establishes
freedom but an area where everyone is free to
do what he or she likes. Moral criteria in the
Russian Utopia are principal. This fact explains
why so many researchers have a strange sense
that “although the Russian literature has few
real Utopian works, it seems that the Utopia runs
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through it”. The Russian “panutopism” is the
result of spreading and approval of the Utopian
values (S. Grachiotti says that among them there
is the “Utopian conscience”, moral maximalism
which was developed in the “Utopian nature”)
which are situated out of the boundaries of Utopia
as a literature story. The belief in moral selfperfection of a person that can restore “paradise on
earth” is the essence of the moral progress which
is more accepted in Russia. While the European
Utopias are preoccupied with the improvement of
government that kept step with the development
of civilization, the Russian projects concentrating
on the personal improvement, try to stop the
A new image of Utopia is created by the
works of A. Bogdanov. His novel “Red Star” is
the change of the Utopian tradition which became
indifferent to the moral aspects of the future. (So,
the author follows К.S. Merezhkovsky, the elder
brother of the famous writer D.S. Merezhkovsky’s
In the Utopia “Paradise on Earth or a Dream
in a Winter Night” of 1903, К.S. Merezhkovsky
shows the eugenics success which helps to get
rid of “useless races”. The new appearing race
of the inhabitants of the Earth, does not have
any problems, has to live in idleness without
any accepted standards. The ideas of Bogdanov
have some reflection of the Utopian and religious
thought in its materialistic image at the boundary
of the XXI – XX centuries. The mason symbols
have very a significant meaning in the text
(the images of pentagram, the Third eye, the
phalanstère, motifs of prophecy, initiations, “the
In the world of the literary Utopia the author
of “the Red star” is one of the nearest godfathers
of N. Fyodorov. For both of them the Utopia is
real work which should be realized immediately.
A. Bogdanov combines the knowledge and
actions. The dream of the proletariat’s all-space
kingdom lays over the ideal of N. Fedorov’s
space immortality. A. Bogdanov contrasts the
teaching of Enlightenment with the idea of social
equality which is realized in mystical ways. His
Utopia perfectly satisfies the requirements of
West-European features of metagenre. It is “allembracing”, rational and strictly regulated. The
word becomes the means of reality transformation.
And it also begins to have a magic sense.
The change of the Utopian orientation, and
progress fetishism hide the person in novels
making his presence not obligatory. A traditional
Utopian hero-traveller (Lenni) is a modern
God’s fool and a mediator between the selected
society (Martians-communists) and “the germ
humankind”, (the inhabitants of the Earth).
The fiasco of the hero, his inability to live in
the rationalized communist world will result
in the further discredit of intelligentsia in the
Bolshevist culture. A. Bogdanov was the first to
deprive the intelligentsia of registration in the
phalanstères. He gives Khiram’s hammer (the
masonic symbol of higher morality) to the hands
of an uneducateed worker anticipating Lenin’s
and Trotsky’s Utopian thoughts. This worker will
use Khiram’s hammer in the way he understand it
and soon he will turn into “a prophet with an axe
predicted by Dostoevsky”. The escapist Utopia
changes into heroic (of Prometheus type). And
the armed prophet is prepared for everything.
He sweeps away all taboos before him. He is
intolerant to any Utopias except his own one. He
is intolerant to everybody, who is not with him,
because he is the owner of the last and only truth.
A. Lunacharsky’s and A. Bogdanov’s ideas about
the proletarian culture were realized already in
the first years after the revolution.
This metamorphosis that happened, was
connected with the situation of the XVII–XIX-th
centuries. It was the time when the high ideals of
the Age of Enlightenment (humanism, tolerance
and education) were replaced by the directly
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opposite ones (dictatorship, intellectualism, and
nationalism). The theomachic thoughts of the
French enlighteners gave some periphery results
including the Utopian plans of changing the
Russian sectarian world: “the culture that comes
from out side, “is translated” with the help of
the cultural codes of this tradition in this way it
joins the national culture history”. A. Bogdanov
adapts the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and
mystical Freemasonry to the needs of workers
including them in the paradigm of the revolution
N. Fyodorov’s, A. Bogdanov’s, К.
Merezhkovsky’s, V. Khlebnikov’s Utopias sum
up the moral and Utopian tradition of the Russian
Enlightenment of the XVIII-XIX-th centuries.
The Utopian archetypes which had been created
in the Russian intellectual Utopia in since the time
of М.М. Shcherbatov, changed in the novel by
A. Bogdanov. He suggests a perfect communist
world instead of the demands for some social
improvement. An artist and a dictator is at the
helm of the Utopia, he is not a philosopher and
a poet who is surrounded by the educated elite,
but the creator of a new world. The model of a
new society includes the elements of the ancient
cultural codes of heathenism, Gnosticism,
mystical ideas. The Russian nation is Messiah
showing a new communist truth to the world. This
is a nation of “theomachists”. And with the help
of this nation, the Utopia becomes a reality. The
national culture and history are desemanticized.
The New Russia does not have any analogues in
the past and present. It is the country from the
future world that appears today. The socialist
Russia is a post-apocalyptical phenomenon. It
is immanently characterized by the death cult,
and the suffering cult. The Utopia is marked
with the eschatological symbols. Following
its predestination, Russia becomes the world’s
cultural centre, an ideal country. And Europe,
America, the East resign themselves to Russia.
The Utopian literature development of
1920-s is described as a unity of national, religious
and intellectual tendencies of the metagenre
formation. Today and tomorrow are close enough
to bring down the Utopian horizon. By this time
the two main tendencies of metagenre formation
there is published: the “post socialist” Utopia of
I. Kremnev (the pen-name of A. Chayanov) “The
Travel of My Brother Alexey to the Country
of Peasants Utopia” and the antiUtopia by Y.
Zamyatin called “We” (1921). This antiUtopia of
Y. Zamyatin sums up the gnostical and Utopian
searching of the beginning of the century.
The short story by Chayanov combines
the features of Masonic and educational Utopia
with the tale plot of folk Utopian legends about
searching for the mystical town of Kitezh,
Belovodye. The image of the progressive and
urban Utopia is not the same as the image of the
other Utopia, the country of “garden”. We can
see the image of the ideal peasant future with the
motifs of paradise, abundance, delight, freedom,
androgyny and isolationism. The epicurean
spirit runs through the Utopia which is marked
by the image of Telem cloister by Rable. Its ideal
citizenship is a titanic creator, “Prometheus
theomachist”, who performs Rableisian expoits
and ‘creates new forms of the being’. The moral
and religious context of the demiurgeous actions
is secondary and not obligatory. The secret of
the world harmony which was accessible in the
masonic Utopia only for some people, is open
now for every peasant-writer.
The works by A. Bogdanov and А. Chayanov
create the examples of a new positive Utopia
which were inherited by the Russian literature
up to the end of the XX-th century. The dialogue
between a city and a village was very significant
in the formation of the Utopian prose tendencies
in the second half of the XX-th century, which
was parallel to the intellectual Chayanov’s Utopia.
The “new peasant” poets develop this dialogue.
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The folk Utopianism was one of the sourses of
the dialogue. And we can see it later in the global
Utopia of “peasant writers” (from early stories by
А. Solzhenitsyn to “Lada” by V. Belov and the
Utopian novels by V. Rasputin, V. Lichutin). The
interest stability in the religious Utopianism with
its maximalism, rebellious pathos, and prophetic
intonations is one of the charasteric features of
the present national culture.
The intellectual situation in the XX-th and
XXI-st centuries proves that the dreams about
Russia’s revival as a peasant country are not to
come true. The idea of the ‘bright future’ with
the Russian progress (avant-garde and socialist
realism Utopias) and traditionalists (new peasant
writers, “folk prose” ) trying to return it, is not
possible any more. Russia has been deprived of
the protection of the Utopia and faces the real
history. In this painful situation, the literature of
post-modernism described it somewhere.
In the XX-th century, a man of multitude as
a representative of the culture periphery becomes
the central image of the world picture in art. The
human personality was destroyed in the Utopian
ruins. It was crushed by the chaos and now the
“waste man” has to fulfil this mythological
mythologizes not only the world picture but also
the personality of the character. But the pathos of
the author’s myths is decided not in a traditional
way. They don’t perform their main harmonizing
function. The spontaneous individual Utopias are
caught in a net of badly developing infinity which
never meant something. Each Utopia is ready to
be the truth, but not to prove it.
Even after a brief survey of the modern
literature, we can make the conclusion about
permanent significance of the Utopian metagenre.
At present the Utopia is changing its form
(the actualization of “spatial myths”, the text
“openness”, dynamism, indistinct metagenre
features) and its essence ( putting emphasis on
exoteric principles which have an influence upon
reality, including the conflict and suffering in
the near future). But there is always the Utopia
in the human consciousness, and this fact differs
from the accepted conception about the end of the
century as the time of anti-Utopias.
When we analyse the development of the
Russian Utopian traditions (in its intellectual and
folk variants) we can notice the succession of the
development of the Utopian archetypes, patterns,
themes. The “Memory” of a metagenre preserved
the figurative stuff of masonic rites and the
gnostical mythology which was very important at
the beginning of the XX-th century. It was the time
of avant-garde thoughts. The main principle of the
modern Russian Utopia, besides exoterism and
messianism, (the connection with the “Russian
idea”) is radical and literal claims to change the
history, the world and the people. The boundary
between the text and the reality is blurred. The
intellectual plans of the existence reorganization
which were made by the classics of the Utopian
genre, turn into the direct guide for action, that is
under the interpretation of the avant-garde with its
idea of life building art. The change of the Utopian
viewpoint (from theory to practice), required a
new system of values where the former morality,
compassion and unity would not be very important
(the avant-garde and revolutionary plans, the
Utopia of socialist realism).
The modern Russian Utopia follows the
classical examples of metagenre taking its features
like ‘ours’, the national orientation and cautious
relations to occidental cultures. But there is no
unity inside the progressive and traditionalistic
tendencies of the Russian Utopianism (theomachic
Utopias of Bogdanov, Lunacharsky, Maxim Gorky
are evidently opposed to the official political
Utopia of power popularized by Lenin. Then the
Masonic and educational Utopia of Trotsky was
declared as a hostile Utopia at the time of Stalin’s
myth of forming ‘a happy society’).
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In the culture of the beginning of the XXth century an intensive information exchange
takes place between different variants of
Utopias (sectarians- revolutionaries, masons
– revolutionaries, the representatives of avantgarde - revolutionaries). By the end of the 1930-s,
the political Utopia was proclaimed as the only
reality. It include the masonic emblems and rites,
the extreme experience of the sectarian Utopian
realization and the ideas of ancient Gnostics
which were borrowed from the art projects of
the Silver Age. All the forms of the Utopianism
now either serve the Utopian state or resist it and
preserve the obvious or concealed dependence on
it. The exceptions are partly the sectarian Utopias.
They are based on the principles of “akhronnost”,
“going away” from reality, “non-participation”
in the sacrament of the Utopian empire. This
practice of isolationism allowed “peasant”
writers to appeal to the Old Belief authority as
the expression of ‘purity’ and righteousness of
the old Russia, whose commandments should be
revived now in the profane reality.
The discredit of the totalitarian Utopia and
of the complementary literature begins with
the gradual ‘destruction’ of the canon. Some
components of the human existence leave the
sphere of the Utopian influence. During the time
of the ‘thaw’, the private life is excluded from
the Utopia boundaries. On the one hand, the
failure of the anthropological experiment that
became apparent, made the official demands
for the literature production tougher (art version
replaces the absence of “new” reality). And on the
other hand, it profanes them. The Utopia changes
into the anti-Utopia. The canonical novels of the
end of the 1950-1970 s already have the features
of involuntary self-parody (The works by V.
Kozhevnikov, G. Nikolayeva, V. Kochetov).
But even the ‘thaw’ literature was not free
from the Utopianism. The creative work of the
‘young’ writers was anti-Utopian to the orthodox
socialist realism. But it had loyalty to the Utopian
art works of the 1920-1930 s (the art of life
construction, belief in the mystical power of
progress, the saving machine potential, the manteurg, the “bright future”). The canon “reduction”
has the consequence of appearing “semiUtopias”. It is a text that includes the features
of socialist realism aesthetics and new values
of individualistic consciousness, the freedom of
the individual. The Utopia and anti-Utopia have
a complicated, and discrepant contradictory
“dialogue”, in “The Russian Forest” by L. Leonov,
in “Farewell, Gulsary” by Ch. Aitmatov, the early
works by А. Solzhenitsyn, V. Grossman.
The peculiarity of the modern metagenre
development becomes a combination of the
Utopian cycles. Some parts of them were united
by a common “program” of the achievement
of the mystical ideal (communism, Kitezh,
Belovodye). The metagenre movement from an
Utopian story to its cyclization has a tendency
to increase the imaginative space where the allround understanding of the Utopia and Utopian
conceptions is possible. We should also notice the
opposite tendency in the prose of 1990-s. Rasputin
writes short stories which can help to show the
present world that does not have its harmonizing
(Utopian) basis.
The process of overcoming the Utopian
discourse in the post-modernist literature is not so
much one-sided. The dethroned Utopia of socialist
realism which compromised the very principle
of the Utopian world understanding, lead to the
displacement of the art criteria. But up to the
1990-s the energy of reorganization had almost
disappeared. The way out of the post-modernist
crisis situation as postutopism is paradoxically
connected with the a new future ideal like a
new Utopia or the revival of the famous Utopian
practices (socialist realism, sectarianism).
The analysis of the Russian literary Utopia
makes it possible to state that the wish to get
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free from the previous heritage (Avant-garde
and socialist realism Utopias), to get rid of it and
reach the paradise immediately, changed into the
nostalgia for culture and national tradition (the
patriarchal Utopia of “derevenshchiks” (“peasant”
writers), the interest in regional Utopianism).
However, the returning from the Eternity reveals
“the poverty” of the present (the “playing”
metaUtopias of post-modernism), where there is
no place for the ideal and arises a new tendency
to get to the “different” future. This situation of
negation, the Utopia profanation and the clear
Utopia melancholy is one of the constants of
modern culture, which shows the impossibility to
imagine Russia and the whole world beyond the
Utopian context.
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Yulia Ye. Ponomaryova. The Materials of Mass Media as the Dynamic Symbolic Model of Social Dynamics
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2008 1) 556-560
УДК 301
The Materials of Mass Media
as the Dynamic Symbolic Model of Social Dynamics
Yulia Ye. Ponomaryova*
Gubernator’s Administration of Krasnoyarsk region,
110 Mira, Krasnoyarsk, 660021 Russia 1
Received 27.11.2008, received in revised form 17.12.2008, accepted 24.12.2008
The possibilities and limitations in social changes’ research made with monitoring and contentanalysis of Mass Media messages are analyzed in the article. The information field is considered as the
dynamic symbolic model of social reality through the functions of Mass Media Institute. The materials
of the social dynamics research in 2001 – 2005 are presented..
Keywords: social changes, social dynamics, dynamic symbolic model, Mass Media, content-analysis.
The development of society, its reasons,
tendencies, problems and perspectives are the
problem of classical philosophy, sociology and
anthropology. The search of the expedient and
economical method of research, description and
classification of the social dynamics remains
one of the topical tendencies. Social changes
and processes are traditionally fixed with the
statistical data. This laborious process demands
a great number of specialists, work with archives
and it takes much time. The alternative of
the quantitative sociological methods are the
qualitative methods such as symbolic modeling.
We shall consider the representation of social
changes in the information field as a symbolic
model. In this case the messages of Mass Media
are considered as the material for the creating the
dynamic symbolic model which draws attention to
casually chosen moments of social development.
The dynamic symbolic model is the reflection
of social reality and its changes in the information
space and it responds to the following demands:
correspondence between the representation and
the method of organization of the social world;
correspondence between the apparatus used
in the process of modeling and the conceptual
apparatus of a modulated theory; correspondence
between a theory and the social world.
In the broad sense, a model is usually
understood as an analogue, “substitution” of an
original (the fragment of reality), which under
certain conditions reproduces some qualities
of an original the researcher interested in. The
reflection of social reality responds to all these
demands in messages of Mass Media. We’ll pay
our attention to some questions of the sociology
of Mass Communication for the basing of this
Consideration of Mass Media as a social
institute comes from the postulate of their
participation and reflection of social processes
and changes. The information about current
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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events is apprehended by the society and
individuals through Mass Media. Mass Media
is the instrument of social changes in any trends
and it is defined by the aims and needs of every
concrete social historical situation.
The functions of the Mass Media social
institute are disputed in a great number of
scientific works. We will not stop on the detailed
questions of Mass Media sociology but we’ll
point to the function which is expedient for the
research of the social changes representation.
One of the most wide-spread classifications
of the Mass Media functions is the Laswell’s
macrosociological classification. He distinguishes
following functions: informing as providing
with orientation in surroundings; correlation
of reaction of different parts of society and
incentives of surroundings; social inheritance
from one generation to another (Fedotova, 2004).
Korkonosenko S. finds the purpose of Mass
Media in “regulative and reorganizing influence
on the social practice in accordance with actual
social interests and aims of social progress”
(Korkonosenko, 2002). We are interested in the
function of informing and/or orientation in the
surroundings. This obvious function of Mass
Media often remains in the shadow of the research
of public opinions and aspects of interaction of
authorities and Mass Media.
In sociology Mass Media is understood
as a phenomenon depended on society, and its
main function is to influence on an audience
with the given information. In fact, on the one
hand, Mass Media form the public opinion and,
on the other hand, they reflect that opinion; they
are represented as the instrument of collecting
and transmission of information. Mass Media
play its inalienable part in the transmission of
social values and in the regulation of behavior,
creation, reproduction and transmission of the
archetypes and myths of the contemporary
culture. Mass Media make status to one or
another action, person or event. And nevertheless
Lasarsfield and Merton emphasized that “Mass
Media themselves don’t influence on the society
so much as it is often supposed” (Meril, 1997).
The classics’ opinion is supported by the
contemporary researchers. D. Merrill: “Perhaps,
Mass Media have power to focus our attention
on certain things but that power doesn’t make
us act… probably, the Mass Media influence on
the society is the indication of what is needed to
be thought about but not the instruction what to
think…” (Meril, 1997).
We shall be guided by the S. V. Borisnev’s
definition “Mass Media are social institutes
which provide collecting, treatment and spreading
information in a mass scale” (Borisnev, 2003).
The information passes some subjective and
objective stages of treatment in the process of
collecting and transmission and nevertheless the
media model of reality has its right to exist as, on
the one hand, it reflects the life of society and, on
the other hand, it forms that social life.
Dynamic symbolic model corresponds to
the all demands for creating the model suggested
by Y. M. Plotinskyi after C. Temple.
“The models are to include three types of
correspondence: between the way of organization
of the social world and the way of its description;
between the apparatus used in the modeling
process and the conceptual apparatus of a
modeled theory; between a theory and the social
world” (Plotinskyi, 1998).
We shall consider the correspondence of
the media reflection and social reality. As an
example we shall take the representations of the
state reformation process and the social changes
connected with it.
First of all, it’s a way of organization of the
social world. There are following elements (the
most important ones) in the structure of the state
reformation process: federal authority → regional
authority → municipal, district and settlement
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authorities → social categories of the citizens
who take part in a reformed sphere.
The information field gives us quite detailed
descriptions of all these elements.
On the second place, it’s an apparatus.
The theory of changes, and collecting, and
transmission of information in the media field
are based on social facts. A theory is a common,
schematic and conceptual point of view on what
is going on – it’s macro, and some less important
eventful aspects of social reality finds its reflection
in the information field – it’s micro.
On the third place, it’s correspondence
between the theory of changes and social reality.
Revealing the function of the authorities in
all levels, Mass Media often turn to the moments
of realization one or another reform. An audience
takes interest in the reforming process of some
certain sphere as it has its influence on the
everyday life of the majority, the interest of an
audience influences upon ratings of one or another
side of Mass Media, and, as a result, displaying
of the state reformation process is useful for the
both sides.
Thus we are about to consider the information
field as the space of the dynamic symbolic model
which draws our attention to casually chosen
moments of the state reformation process.
Using the method of content-analysis and
the classification of social changes on the seven
levels of society (natural, demographic changes,
changes in the industrial sphere, administrative
system, social organization, social structure,
changes in the spiritual sphere of the society),
we have researched the reflection of the social
dynamics in the information space according
to the seven reforms: housing and communal
complex, local government, education, health,
pensionary, privilege system (coin reform),
passport reform.
The period of the research – 2001 – 2005
The selection involved the messages of
such Mass Media as “Afontovo”, Channel 7,
TVK, KGTRK, “Enisey Region”, “Prima”,
“Krasnoyarsk’s Worker”, “Today’s Paper”,
“Moscow Member of the Komsomol”,
“News World”, “Eye-Witness”, “City News”,
“Krasnoyarsk Paper”, “News”, “Arguments
and Facts”, “Evening Krasnoyarsk”, “Kansk
Gazette”, “Soviet By-Angara”, “Screen-Inform”,
“By-Chulymsk Bulletin”, “Soviet By-Chulymye”,
“Dzerzhinec”, “Enisey’s Truth”, “Daybreak of
Enisey”, “Power of Labour”, “Tubinsk News”,
“Lenin’s Spark”, “Angarsk’s Worker”, “TransPolar Truth”, “Today’s Papers” from Achinsk,
Kansk, Zheleznogorsk, Zelenogorsk cities.
The information field, devoted to the
reformation process and according social changes,
is presented mainly with the analytical materials
of TV news and press.
The dynamics of the social development in
the process of state reformation given in Mass
Media is presented in the Table 1.
The dynamics of social development in the
process of state reformation is presented in Mass
Media as follows:
Mass Media connect the housing and
communal reform with the changes in the
administrative system and social structure. The
changes in the industry sphere take only third
place in Mass Media.
The local government reform, first of all, is
presented with the changes in the administrative
system and industrial sphere. The changes in
the spiritual sphere and social structure are on
the third and fourth places. In that case in Mass
Media there is a prevalence of the reflections of
those changes to which the work of the subject of
authority is directed.
According to the Mass Media contentanalysis information, the education reform
is connected mainly with the changes in the
administrative system and takes the second
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Table 1
In the
In the Industrial
In the Social
In the Social
In the Spiritual
Levels of Social Changes
Housing and
Local Government
Pensionary System
Privilege System
Passport Reform
Name of Reform
place, and the changes in the spiritual sphere are
far behind.
The health reform is mainly presented with
the changes in the administrative system, the
changes in the demographic sphere are on the
second place.
Mass Media connect the reform of the
pensionary system with the changes in the
administrative system and demographic sphere.
The reform of the privilege system (coin
reform) is conditioned by the changes in the
administrative system, industrial sphere and
social structure.
The passport reform depends on the
changes in the administrative system and social
The main level of the social dynamics
connected with the reforms is the changes of
the administrative system in different fields.
Firstly, this can be explained by displaying of the
reformation in the authorities’ function, secondly,
by the orientation of many reforms. Unfortunately,
the substantial part of the reforms, which is not
connected with the administrative changes, is
faintly reflected in the information field. For
example, the education reform is presented as the
changes in the administrative system in 63% of
the materials and only in 13% – as the changes in
the spiritual sphere.
The information space considered as the
dynamic symbolic model of social reality reflects
a large spectrum of the state reforms. Monitoring
and analysis of social development with the help
of the content-analysis of Mass Media messages
allow to get common idea about the social
dynamics and to evaluate the efficiency of the
influence of the reforms on the reformed sphere.
Symbolic modeling of social changes
with the help of Mass Media materials has its
considerable limitation. Mass Media objectively
cannot embrace the whole spectrum of social
changes and give information in the limits of
its information politics. On the other hand,
comprehension, interpretation and interiorization
of events and phenomena are carried out by an
individual with the help of Mass Media. Guided
by one of the functions of the Mass Media
social institute – informing – and appealing to
the concept of symbolic model, we come to a
conclusion that it’s possible to use the materials
of Mass Media for analysis of the social changes’
representations. In other words, such research has
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its right to exist as Mass Media in the functions
of informing and correction of behavior create
the dynamic symbolic model of social reality.
This model responds to all main demands of
modeling of social processes and changes and,
consequently, represents these changes.
S.V. Borisnev, Sociology of communications (Moscow, 2003), 63, 186, (in Russian).
S.G. Korkonosenko, Bases of journalistic theory (Saint Petersburg, 2002), 155, (in Russian).
D. Meril, Conversations about Mass Media (Moscow, 1997), 138, (in Russian).
Y.M. Plotinskyi, Theoretical and empirical models of social processes, (Moscow, 1998), 87, (in
L.N. Fedotova, Mass Media Sociology (Saint Petersburg: Peter Edition, 2004), 10, (in Russian).
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Viktor E. Pachalian. The Practical Psychologist as Educational Result
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2008 1) 561-571
УДК 378.1
The Practical Psychologist as Educational Result
Viktor E. Pachalian*
Moscow Institute of Open Education
7а Prechistensky lane, Moscow, 119034 Russia 1
Received 27.11.2008, received in revised form 17.12.2008, accepted 24.12.2008
Presentation the magazines version performance at XV All-Russia scientifically-practical conference
“Pedagogics of development is presented: educational results, their measurements and an estimation”
(Krasnoyarsk, on April, 21-23st. 2008). The basic problems of preparation of practical psychologists
as a whole and in particular – conformity existing in the maximum vocational training Russia of
conditions of preparation of practical psychologists to requirements of the customer to the expert
and requirements of the market of professional services are considered. This article described the
experience of the differentiated approach to a professional selection and a professional training of
practical psychologists in MIOO.
Keywords: educational result, the maximum vocational training, the practical psychologist, conditions
of training.
Before starting the basic maintenance,
I’ll make small preface where I’ll try to have
mentioned the name of this clause.
Psychologist» only exists within the limits of
system of supplementary higher professional
education. It means, that people who wants
to acquire this profession already have higher
professional education on other specialities
and, in the majority, wish to receive one more –
«additional» to the basic education (in our case,
more often – pedagogical). This fact leaves an
essential imprint at all educational process and
its results.
2. It is difficult to challenge the fact that
some psychological specialities existing on
today in system of the basic higher professional
education concern to that we connect with
concept «practical psychology». In particular,
initially reflected as practical:
• A speciality 050706 – Pedagogics and psychology,
qualification – «teacher-psychologist»;
• A speciality 030302 – Clinical psychology,
qualification – «the clinical psychologist» and
some more specialities.
However, if to generalize that last years
was spoken at different conferences and was
published in leading professional magazines it is
possible to tell, that our plan was not absolutely
succeed. People who interested in details I
send to following publications (Kovaleva; New
challenges for education system).
I notice, that the first signals about problems
in realizations of planned things has been
Corresponding author E-mail address:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
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submitted by E.A. Klimov (then he was the dean
of faculty of psychology of the Moscow State
University) in 1992, and in 2006 V.A. Ivannikov
(the professor of faculty of psychology of the
Moscow State University, one of participants of
the project of creation of psychological service
information) has written practically about the
same problems. We shall pay attention, that V.A.
Ivannikov warns us of the following things:
« … attempts to create an original program
on preparation of psychologists-experts cannot
be welcomed now. Results of such preparation
(partially it already takes place somewhere) will
lead to the same situation which has developed
at the Soviet higher departmental school: it was
trained a lot of handicraftsmen who can neither
create, nor to master new things though they are
people owning concrete technologies and many
knowing in narrow area. Imitation is a deadlock
way to development of psychology – both
scientific and practical». (Pp. 49-50)
The analysis made within the limits of
Innovative educational program MGPPU
(Rubtsov V.V., Zabrodin J.M., Margolis A.A.,
2007), has shown, that the basic problem points
• the traditional academic character of the
grounding not compatible to the practicefocused principle of training, a low level of
student’s own work, congestion audience
loading, discrepancy of educational process to
parameters of the Bologna agreement;
• absence of some the specializations focused
on those new areas of professional work of
the psychologist in which such inquiry has
developed (legal and juvenile psychology,
clinical psychology of early age, perinatal
psychology, etc.);
• essential decrease in a level of the fundamental
preparation, connected with absence of
investments into creation of modern scientific
and hardware base that leads to «washing
away» of natural-science components from
system of psychological formation;
• decrease in a role of modern information and
mathematical methods in the psychology,
leading increase in break between a level of
accumulation, processing and interpretation of
data, their low reliability;
• a low saturation of educational process by
results of modern (including foreign researches)
by virtue of weak language preparation of
students, absence of access for the international
databases on psychology;
• absence of flexible system of the admission to
professional work on the basis of independent
postdegree education, supervisee.
What and how does provide educational
First we shall take advantage of the citation
from the report of the World bank of world
development for 2007:
Improvements in system of preschool education of
Turkey have led to higher examination estimations
of pupils, increase in number of graduates of high
schools, decrease in a level of youth criminality.
Feedback from an average and higher education
in a private sector, especially in the countries
which have practically reached a level of a general
elementary education has raised.
Whether it is possible to consider as
educational result «high examination estimations
of pupils», «increase in number of graduates
of high schools», «decrease in a level of youth
criminality», etc.?
Is «erudition» the result as the internal
resource of the person allowing it to establish
adequate attitude with the world and other people
and to correspond requirements, shown the
status by a society to available at the person at
the moment?
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In particular, about it writes I.A. Zimnjaja:
«It’s the person himself who has trained in certain
educational system. It is his own experience
as set of the generated intellectual, personal,
behavioural qualities, knowledge and skills which
allows it to operate adequately in any situation»
(Zimnjaja I.A. Pedagogical psychology. – Rostovon-Don: the Phoenix, 1997).
In a context of a discussed theme it is possible
to tell, that educational result in preparation of
practical psychologists is the person, who ready
to render professional psychological services to
adequately requirements shown by the customer.
acknowledgement of it, we shall address to
the normative-legal party of a question. If to
start with the text of «The Law on Education» it
turns out that the basic criterion of achievement
of result of education is «achievement and
acknowledgement by the pupil of the certain
educational qualification»:
«Education in that Law is understood as purposeful
process of education and training in interests of
the person, a society, the state, accompanied
by ascertaining of achievement by the citizen
(trained) the educational levels established by
the state (educational qualifications)».
formations is understood as achievement and
acknowledgement of the certain educational
qualification by it which makes sure the
corresponding document».
There is still a concept of the purpose, as
desirable result. In «the Law» these purposes are
marked as follows:
«Clause 14. The general requirements to the
content of education.
1. The content of education is one of the
factors of economic and social progress of a
society and should be focused on:
• Guarantee of self-determination of the person,
creation of conditions for its self-realization;
• Development of a society;
• Strengthening and perfection of a lawful state.
2. The content of education should provide:
• Level of the general and professional culture of
a society which is adequate to the world level;
• Formation picture of the world according to
a modern level of knowledge and a level of
educational program (step of training);
• Integration of the person into national and
world culture;
• Formation of the person and the citizen
integrated in modern it a society and aimed at
perfection of this society;
• Reproduction and development of personnel
potential of a society.
3. Professional education of any level should
guarantee that student can obtain the profession
and corresponding qualification.
4. The content of education should promote
mutual understanding and cooperation between
people, people irrespective of a racial, national,
ethnic, religious and social accessory, to consider
a variety of world outlook approaches, to promote
realization of the right of opinions trained on a
free choice and belief».
As we see, here it is specified much different
purposes on which education should be focused.
The analysis of a literature available on today
and the professional periodical press allows to
speak that, as well as in many other things cases,
there is no uniform approach to definition of the
content of the given concept. Some of experts
consider that these results include:
• «Subject» (knowledge, skills and habits; the
experience of creative activity, etc.);
• «Metasubject» (activity ways, mastered on the
basis of one or several subjects, applied both
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within the limits of educational activity, and in
real vital situations);
• And «personal» (system values orientations,
interests, motivation tolerance) components
(Kovaleva G.S.).
Others include here:
• A state of health;
• The academic successes;
• Satisfaction of subjects of educational process;
• Individual progress in development of universal
• An age (psychological) maturity (Batshev V.V.).
The third speak that is the integrated
characteristic including:
• Subject and over subject knowledge and skill
of the competent-focused character (i.e. the
actions focused on the ways);
• Key competence;
• The social experience got during receiving of
There are some more approaches to definition
of educational results, but I think, that resulted it
is enough to judge the general picture.
So, at a level of legal regulations complexity
of objective and expedient definition of educational
results as a whole is already incorporated.
Especially it is complex, when it is a question of
vocational training and such uneasy trade as «the
practical psychologist».
In a context of the allocated theme pertinently
at once to tell that the state as the customer of
results of education on this speciality, has
defined only criteria of a level and the content of
development of educational programs which are
presented in educational standards.
In particular, on a speciality 031000
Pedagogics and psychology (qualification the
teacher-psychologist) they look as follows:
«1.3. The qualifying characteristic of the
The graduate who has received qualification
of the teacher-psychologist, should carry out
the professional work directed on psychological
maintenance of educational process, personal
and social development of the pupils; to promote
socialization, formation of the general culture of
the person, the realized choice and the subsequent
development of professional educational
programs; to promote harmonization of social
sphere of educational establishment, to carry out
measures on formation of psychological culture
of trained, pedagogical workers and parents; to
use various receptions, methods and means of
training; to observe the rights and freedom of
the pupils stipulated by the Law of the Russian
Federation “On Education”, the Convention
on the rights of the child, regularly to raise the
professional qualification, to participate in activity
of methodical associations and in other forms of
methodical work, to carry out communication
with parents (persons, their replacing) to carry
out a rule and norms of a labour safety, the safety
precautions and fire-prevention protection to
provide protection of a life and health of pupils in
educational process.
1.3.3. Kinds of professional work
The graduate who has received qualification
of the teacher-psychologist, is prepared for
performance of the basic kinds of professional
work of the teacher-psychologist, the decision
typical professional problems in educational
7.1. Requirements to professional readiness
of the expert
The graduate should know:
- The constitution of the Russian Federation;
laws of the Russian Federation, including the
Law of the Russian Federation “On Education”,
decisions of the Government of the Russian
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Federation and organs of education system; the
Convention on the rights of the child;
- Bases of the general and special theoretical
disciplines in the volume necessary for the decision
of typical problems of professional work;
- The basic directions and prospects of
development of education and a pedagogical
science; school programs and textbooks; means
of teaching and their didactic opportunities;
- Requirements to equipment and the
equipment of educational cabinets and subsidiary
premises; sanitary rules and norms, safety
precautions regulations and fire-prevention
- A state language of the Russian Federation
– Russian; freely to know language on which
teaching is conducted.
The graduate should be able to solve typical
problems of professional work, its corresponding
qualifications, specified in 1.2. the present State
educational standard.
Typical aims of professional activity.
Typical problems by kinds of professional
activity of the teacher-psychologist are:
1) in the field of developing activity:
- Diagnostics of a level of mental development
of children;
- Development of developing programs of
psychological support of children in educational
- Development of correctives-developing
programs for children with difficulties in
Psychological support of creatively presented
- Carrying out of developing employment for
different categories of children in view of specific
- Psychological support of teachers in
educational process;
2) in the field of teaching and educational
- Psychology-pedagogical maintenance of
educational process;
- The organization the subject-subject of
interaction of participants of educational process;
- Use of the modern scientifically proved and
most adequate receptions, methods and means
of teaching and education in view of specific
- Education of pupils as formation at them
spiritual, moral values and patriotic belief on the
basis of an individual approach;
3) in the field of socially-pedagogical activity:
- Designing and carrying out of work on
social preventive maintenance during teaching
and education;
- The organization of interaction of parents of
pupils and teachers as participants of educational
- Carrying out professional orientation
- Rendering assistance in the decision of
problems of socialization of pupils;
- Individual consultation of participants of
educational process;
4) in the field of scientifically-methodical
- Performance of scientifically-methodical
work, participation in work of scientificallymethodical associations;
- The analysis of own activity with the
purpose of its perfection and increase of the
5) in the field of cultural-educational
- Formation of the general culture of pupils;
- The organization of cultural space of
educational establishment;
6) in the field of organizational-administrative
- The rational organization of educational
process with the purpose of strengthening and
preservation of health of schoolboys;
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- Management of pedagogical collective
with a view of maintenance of realization of
educational programs;
- The organization of the control over results
of training and education;
- Conducting the school documentation».
Other party of a question – quality of results
of formation. I have not found any document in
which criteria of quality of all possible results
of professional education would be given. In
documents of last years speech mainly goes
about conditions of achievement of quality of
education (in most cases – about norms and
money). Therefore we can judge quality (if to lean
only on normative documents) only by results of
development of educational programs.
Here are the following turns out: if the
person has mastered these programs and has stood
the qualifying tests directed on check of a level
of development of educational programs it can
render professional psychological services to the
customer. And the graduate, and I (as carrying out
professional education) can show to the customer
the document certifying result of education and
quality of development of educational programs
(the differentiated estimation). But, as shows an
expert, the customer can receive functional, real,
actually practical suitability of result of education
only after certain time when the expert will start
to work and there will be concrete results of its
In system of official bodies this moment is
found out only during the process of attestation.
If we shall lean on present legislative base
it turns out, that, organizing and financing this
system, especially at a level higher professional
education, using money of tax bearers, the state
directly does not adjust the attitude between a
labour market and preparation of experts. It does
not give concrete «state order» for those or other
specialities, directly does not adjust system of
requirements to the quality of education (and
not just to quality of mastering of educational
The state simply creates conditions for
existence and developments of the system.
Presence in the market of higher education so
many establishments of the higher professional
education is not a policy of the state, and the
answer to inquiry of the market.
It is possible to tell, that the situation looks
«Wish to be the practical psychologist –
always there will be people who for the certain
compensation will provide to you conditions for
reception of the corresponding diploma. Whether
they will give you a trade demanded on a labour
market and preparation of such level that you
were capable to a competition does not stipulate
Therefore also it turns out, that who wants to
become a practical psychologist, who is the most
interested in the results of education. He is the
consumer of education and its result. It means,
that in any sense he is the customer of these
services? He also makes demands to educational
Complexity in definition of the customer
of educational result is defined by that the result
cannot carry direct purpose.
For example, listeners of system of the higher
professional education are not so much motivated
with direct expectations of the result (to work as
the practical psychologist), listeners much more
motivated with its mediated (additional) quality:
the additional diploma, an additional speciality,
readiness to apply professional psychological
knowledge does, in particular, the teacher in
small settlement, more competitive in conditions
of struggle for a workplace.
So, now customers of the higher professional
education are a labour market and the student (or
its parents). They make demands to educational
result and estimate it.
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Experience of world practice enables to
estimate the developed situation. Here are some
Alison Wolf, the professor of the London
University, in the book “Does Education Matter?”
(Alison Wolf. Does Education Matter? Myths
about Education and Economic Growth) writes
that if thoughtlessly to be engaged in increase
of erudition communication of erudition with
economic growth can be weakened. Other danger,
emphasizes this author, consists that excessive
concern in economic growth narrows and deforms
representation of a society that is erudition
actually. In the Great Britain quantitative growth
of experts (their reception and release) has led to
deterioration of university formation. It is one of
losses. Besides attraction of weight of teachers in
the higher school badly affects high school, the
best teachers whence start to leave. But worst of
all, probably, that leading universities start to feel
shortage of resources. As a result they cannot any
more as well as earlier, to prepare for the most
brilliant students to whom the leading parts on
forward flank of a science and techniques are
Magazine «Expert» from 9/3/2007
Discrepancy of to what learn, to that sociallypractical situations demand, can be characterized
as global crisis of sphere of higher education:
the education system prepares for people for
«leaving» economy.
This crisis is developed on a background of
several universal tendencies. First, mass character
of formation grows, and it gives the basis to speak
about transition to general higher education in
economically developed countries. Number of
students in our country the highest in the world:
in 2005 on everyone of 10 thousand inhabitants
of Russia was 495 students, in the USA – 445,
in Germany – 240, in the Great Britain – 276, in
Japan – 233. Thus the education system works on
the pattern accepted decades ago: the maintenance
of training courses is made with the simplified
copies of frequently out-of-date economic, social,
natural-science or technical concepts. And as to
the Russian students all of them connect training
in high school with real competitiveness on a
labour market less. Presence of higher education
for many people is a sign of social normal.
Let’s return once again to a question on
quality of educational result.
It is important to note also, that the discussed
problem has two indissolubly interconnected
basic components: professionally substantial and
professionally ethical. Indissolubility of these
parties is well visible in those situations when
the information, published high school before the
next set of students about opportunities of a place
of preparation, to put it mildly, does not reflect a
real state of affairs. Not skilled and naive person
hardly can find out it at once, before receipt. It’s
not terrible: advertising always embellishes. Other
thing is terrible: discrepancy not only is not found
out, and is perceived and estimated as conformity
as the professional standard on the basis of which
not only own activity is under construction, but
also other experts are estimated.
As a result we have the following:
1) if discrepancy will not be revealed, we
will receive «not absolutely professionals» or
«nonprofessionals», whose actions essentially
influence on image (and, accordingly, the
public status) of profession and a corresponding
estimation of educational results;
2) if discrepancy all the same will be
revealed during training owing to this or that
activity of those who finds out it (more often it
is students or their parents, members of family),
in public consciousness occurs «escalating»
negative estimations of system of the higher
professional education on that speciality». In
such situations, as a rule, further search guilty.
In this place it would be possible to present in
advance the long list and to build it in the certain
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hierarchical sequence, but we shall be limited to
that is ascertained are there will be everyone who
participated in it and was silent.
Naturally, we cannot bypass a question
that bases of this or that quality of professional
education are pawned (by default) in system of
the general education. There various systems
of an estimation of development of educational
programs and establishments of criteria of
readiness of the person to an output during an
independent life and continuations of education
on the average or the top echelon are developed.
At forum in The Institute of Pedagogics
and psychology of development (Krasnoyarsk) I
have met discussion of that is designated as «the
certain deficiencies at students of different rates».
One of participants of discussion writes:
« … the part of deficiencies lasts from lacks
of the general education. … when I wonder:
«Why they should be able yet? «… I answer
to myself: «they should bear It from school».
Well, for example, as to read, write, speak, act,
listen and hear, to analyze, give reason, work
in group, etc».
Wide experience on preparation of practical
psychologists of formation there suffices allows
me to speak that is much more than «deficiencies»,
than you expect. Especially it surprises at work
with the people already having higher education
and come to receive additional. Here difficulty
what «to supplement «there is nothing or it is
impossible, since there it is a lot of «failures».
Having wide experience of participation
in qualifying tests at faculties of psychology of
different high schools of our country suffices,
I can tell, that in most cases the qualitative
educational result in preparation of the practical
psychologist is expressed basically in such
characteristic as «wide and deep professional
erudition». On occasion here it is possible to
add and «free possession of traditional means of
rendering of psychological services».
But here for the customer always there is «a
latent defect». This is a person of the one who will
render these services. In this case (when we speak
about preparation of practical psychologists) it
is the same important substantial component,
as well as all set forth above. It cannot «be put
outside the brackets», «to tear off from the
whole». But about it we can read through only in
works of skilled experts and outstanding experts
in the given area. The person in this speciality is
both a condition and the result of the professional
focused on practice psychological education.
Therefore in the most developed (from
the point of view of the saved up experience
of preparation of «practical psychologists»)
countries usually use the certain criteria
during selection of students on this speciality.
This criteria provide probability of qualitative
educational result are used. For example, such as
«a psychological maturity». Last is guaranteed by
entering «age requirement».
In particular, to competition suppose only
the people who have reached age of 25 years.
Simultaneously such requirements are entered
into procedure of selection to the person which
are connected with its intellectual resources, by
emotional stability and opportunities of selfcontrol. Competition which is spent by means
of application of active methods of practical
psychology, allows to choose at whom these
characteristics are expressed enough. The
humanistic orientation of all procedures is
provided with preventive measures at a primary
meeting before procedure actually selection and
granting of opportunities for those who has not
was tested, to borrow in development of qualities
necessary for the future speciality, in specially
organized groups «personal growth».
I think, that educational result at training
people focused on practice to psychological
specialities, directly depends on presence of
following opportunities:
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1) the differentiated approach to professional
selection and focused on practice the potential
experts, constructed not only on criteria of
erudition, but also personal opportunities of
everyone trained;
2) creations of special conditions of the
teaching which qualitatively differs from
conditions of traditional academic teaching not so
much by educational program, but by personnel
resources and base for high-grade practical
On the basis of high school in which I work,
we while can provide in a small degree only
that, as to the first item. In particular, everyone
wishing to be trained on a speciality «practical
psychology», receives primary consultation in
which it gets acquainted with those criteria on
which we shall select applicants for teaching.
Since this moment criteria of «a psychological
maturity» start to work. It is important to note,
that our high school is in structure of department
of education of Moscow and the basic customer
of educational result here is known in advance.
But it does not mean, that we accept documents
only from those who comes to us from bodies and
establishments of education of Moscow. Simply
for those who does not work in an education
system of Moscow do not receive from it budgetary
financing of teaching and should either pay
independently the education fee (the customer is
the student), or search for the customer who will
pay the education fee.
If the entrant is ready to go next step after
primary consultation, he comes on interview.
The applicant receives the tasks, conditionally
divided into three blocks – motives, intellectual
resources and representations about the future
profession. Firstly everyone tries to cope with
tasks independently, then he comes to the expert
who gets acquainted with the received results
and puts some questions, allowing to clear up
logic and result of process of performance of
tasks. Thus the expert marks an originality of
behavioral reactions of the applicant and an
emotional background accompanying them in the
special report. The result of this test is expressed
in the report by means of an integrated quantity
Here it is important to note, that 2 year
training is initially possible, first of all, for at
whom enough intellectual resources since it is
very intensive rate (3 times a week after work for 6
hours). Therefore the important element of shown
tasks, intellectual problems which decision allows
to judge a level of development at the applicant of
the basic cogitative operations and properties are.
At once I shall tell, that if during this procedure
the applicant showed a unbalance, inflexibility,
inability to cope with own conditions results of
the decision of intellectual problems become not a
determinative at decision-making on its transfer.
It is natural, that educational result by
preparation of practical psychologists, it is
pawned in the maintenance and educational
programs. In particular, initially programs of all
base special subjects are developed on the basis
of representations and specificity of the purposes,
problems and methods of practical psychology.
The course «Introduction into profession» sets
the tone, where the content and orientation of all
subsequent subjects is formed actually.
The biggest obstacle in a way of achievement
of optimum educational result is an absence of
special conditions of the training qualitatively
differing conditions of traditional academic
training not so much by educational program, how
many personnel resources and base for carrying
out of high-grade practical employment.
For example: at our faculty (unique in
Moscow, giving additional higher education on
a speciality «practical psychology») only one
educational audience in which we train not only
students, but also since 2007 are compelled to
spend improvement of professional skill. Thus the
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given premise does not meet the requirements,
shown for educational audiences in general and
is not adapted absolutely not for carrying out OF
PRACTICAL employment.
Our students are compelled to pass practice
in a place of work since we do not have specialized
educational center on the basis of which each
student could develop under direction of a skilled
expert necessary for a trade personal qualities,
skills and skill.
So, who and how defines actual consumer
qualities of educational result by preparation of
practical psychologists?
1. The state through laws on formation
which, first of all, provide legal conditions of
reception of formation and the requirement to
its maintenance, expressed in State education
2. Establishments of education and its experts
who realize requirements to programs, to their
maintenance and procedures of an establishment
the qualifications expressed in laws and State
education standards.
3. The future expert (or the persons taking for
it the responsibility), choosing a place of training
and defining the purpose of such preparation
(the student; its parents; all those who directs on
training, etc.).
4. The customer on behalf of those structures
which include such posts in the list of staff and
open corresponding vacancies.
As a whole, on my impressions and
reasonings, the situation corresponds to the wellknown statement of ours classics: «people in
trouble are left to themselves».
Arguing further, I understand, that if
this result will not suit a market (customer)
developing in Russia, the market will have a
necessity of creation of the special structures
providing the necessary educational result.
It can be both intrafi rm training and training
abroad, etc.
Complexity and ambiguity of the decision
of the given question is also that if the Russian
market could form itself today the order for
the practical psychologist there would be no
problems. We would go on a way of strict
performance of this order. Under my data till
now management of the Russian establishments
and the enterprises poorly represents specificity
of practical psychology and professional work
of its experts and as consequence, in most cases
cannot formulate it the requirements adequate
to their real professional opportunities. It is well
visible to that occurs to practical psychology in
an education system.
In the conclusion I can tell, that I still keep
the certain optimism in occasion of educational
results in preparation of practical psychologists:
and I and my colleagues are ready to be
responsible for that result which we can show to
the customer. Another matter, that for the present
not all customers are ready to such results.
Difficulties with professional realization enough
competent graduates are sometimes connected
with it: from them expect and demand not that
they can do qualitatively, and that is necessary at
present to the customer.
Therefore at the moment our major
professional problem is overcoming break
between the requirements shown to professional
work of the psychologist in various spheres
of social practice, and the system which has
developed in Russia of psychological education.
For this purpose, in our opinion, by efforts and
customers and executors the complete system
of the criteria precisely designating integrated
characteristics of educational results should be
developed and accepted. It should be reflected
not only in requirements to educational programs
and necessary conditions of their realization, but
also in requirements to personal to characteristics
of the people, gathering to realize the potential in
practical psychology.
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This text is magazine version of performance at XV All-Russia scientifically-practical conference
“Pedagogics of development: educational results, their measurements and an estimation” (Krasnoyarsk,
on April, 21-23rd. 2008)
V.V. Batshev, Key directions and the intermediate term purposes of an education system and a
problem for 2007-2008,
A. Volkov, D. Livanov, A. Fursenko, Higher education: the summons 2008-2016, the Expert. 2007
from 9/3/2007
V.A. Ivannikov, Problems of preparation of psychologists, Questions of psychology, 1 (2006).
V.N. Karandashev, Psychology. Introduction into profession (Sense, 2000; 2003)
E.A. Klimov, Hypothesis of «метелок» and development of the profession of psychologist, the
Bulletin Moscow University, Sulfurs. 14, psychology, 3 (1992), 3-12.
S. Kovaleva, Condition of the Russian education, Materials to performance at the All-Russia
scientifically-practical conference of «the Problem of perfection of the content of the general secondary
New challenges for education system (from the report of the World bank on world development
for 2007),
V.E. Pakhalian, Supplement higher professional education in a context of the concept of
transitions (on an example of preparation and retraining of practical psychologists), Pedagogics of
development: instituionals transitions in sphere of education (Krasnoyarsk, 2008), 58-67.
Wolf A. Does education matter?: myths about education and economic growth (London: Penguin
Books, 2002).
J. Zabrodin, V.E. Pakhalian, The main problem of practical psychology in modern Russia,
Materials of IV All-Russia congress of the Russian psychological society, On September, 19-21th, Vol.
2 (Rostov-on-Don, 2007), 18-19.
I.A. Zimnjaja, Pedagogical psychology (Rostov-on-Don, 1997).
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Объем работы должен быть не менее 30 000 печатных знаков, однако не превышать одного
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Правила представления статей для публикации
Файл должен быть представлен в формате «.doc» или «.rtf».
Рисунки представляются в формате «.tif». Разрешение для черно-белых рисунков не менее
200 dpi, цветных – не менее 300 dpi. Цветовой режим CMYK.
Библиографические ссылки оформляются следующим образом: (Бибихин, 1992) или
(Baumrind, 1978) (без инициалов автора). При ссылке на несколько работ одного автора их следует перечислять в хронологическом порядке, используя при необходимости буквенные индексы для обозначения разных работ, опубликованных в один и тот же год: (Baumrind, 1978,
1979а). При одновременной ссылке на несколько работ разных авторов их следует перечислять
в хронологическом порядке, отделяя друг от друга точкой с запятой: (Бибихин, 1992; Clark and
Barber, 1994). При ссылке на совместную работу более двух авторов следует использовать сокращения и др. или et al. после фамилии первого автора - (Clark et al., 1994; Бреслав и др., 1997).
При прямом цитировании текста необходимо в ссылке указывать номер страницы. Список цитированной литературы прилагается на отдельной странице после основного текста. Работы
печатаются в алфавитном порядке по фамилиям авторов (или названиям изданий, например,
справочников, энциклопедий и т.д.), работы одного автора - в хронологическом порядке. В русскоязычных статьях сначала перечисляются работы на основе кириллицы, затем - на основе
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Ссылки на неопубликованные работы, малодоступные или устаревшие издания не допускаются.
Образцы оформления списка литературы (References)
1. Описание статей в журнале
D. Baumrind, «Parental Disciplinary Patterns and Social Competence in Children», Youth and
Society, 9 (1978), 239-276.
J. Clark and B. Barber, «Adolescents in Post Divorce and Always-Married Families: Self-esteem
and Perceptions of Fathers’ Interest», Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56 (3) (1994), 608-614.
2. Описание книг
D. Baumrind, «Parenting Styles and Adolescent Development», in Encyclopedia of Adolescence,
ed. by R.M. Lerner, A. C. Petersen, and J. Brooks-Gunn (New York: Garland, 1991), 746-758.
J.H. Block, Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR): A Set of Q Items for the Description of
Parental Socialization Attitudes and Values (Berkeley: University of California, Institute of Human
Development, 1981).
G. Breslav, Emotional Processes (Riga: Latvian University Press, 1984), in Russian.
Условием публикации статьи является заключение договора с автором (авторами) о
передаче прав издателю журнала на использование произведения после принятия решения о
публикации рукописи. До выхода печатной версии авторам рассылаются электронные копии в
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отправить по электронной почте либо по факсу (3912)448625.
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