close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

59.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Техника и технологии №3 2008

код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Журнал Сибирского федерального университета
2008
Journal of Siberian Federal University
1 (3)
Техника и технологии
Engineering & Technologies
???????????? ?????
???????? ??? ?.?.???????
???????? ??? ?.?.???????????
???????? ??? ?.?.?????????
???????? ??? ?.?.???????
??.-?. ???, ?-? ???.-???.????
?.?.???????????
??.-?. ???, ?-? ???.-???. ????
?.?.???????
??.-?. ???, ?-? ????. ????
?.?.??????
??.-?. ???, ?-? ???.-???. ????
?.?.????????
??.-?. ???, ?-? ???.-???. ????
?.?. ???????
Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Kirill S. Alexandrov
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Veniamin S. Sokolov
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
CONTENTS / СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Михаил М. Лабушев
n C!??????% "%??%??%? ?,??? ?,??!=?%", ??%!?=?,???*,.
, %!?=?,???*,. .,?,???*,. ?%??,???,L
? 221 ?
Наталья Н. Попова
j%!/ "/"?2!,"=?, 3?=?2*= j=?C= (b%?2%??/L q= ?)
, ,. ?,??!=???,
? 234 ?
Виталий С. Биронт, Генрих Г. Крушенко
b?, ?,? 2?!?,???*%L , 2?!?%?,*?,???*%L %K!=K%2*,
?= ?2!3*23!3 , ?"%L?2"= ?=!2???,2?%-?2=!????L ?2=?,
? 247 ?
Vladimir I. Kirko, Sergey S. Dobrosmislov,
Alexander O. Gusev, Dmitry A. Simakov
and Egor I. Stepanov
Foam Metals High-Temperature Electrical Characteristics?
Investigation
? 256 ?
Виктор В. Леонов
b?, ?,?
.??*2!,???*%?%
C%2???,=?=
?=
"?=,??3?
!=?2"%!,?%?2? *%?C%???2%" ?"3.-=??%?% ?C?="= Bi2O3-CdO
? 263 ?
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor for Engineering &
Technologies:
Vitaly S. Biront
???????? ?.?. ??????? ????????? ?.?. ??????
???????????? ??????? E.?. ?????????
????????? ? ?????? 17.09.2008 ?. ?????? 19?27. ???. ???. ?. 6,7.
??.-???. ?. 6,6. ?????? ???. ?????? ????????. ????? 1000 ???. ????? 1/198.
?????????? ? ??? ???. 660041 ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79.
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Editorial board for Engineering &
Technologies:
Yury D. Alashkevich
Viktor G. Anopchenko
Sergey M. Geraschenko
Gennadiy I. Gritsko
Lev V. Endjievsky
Sergey V. Kaverzin
Valery V. Kravtsov
Vladimir A. Kulagin
Sergey A. Mikhaylenko
Vladimir V. Moskvichev
Anatoli M. Sazonov
Vasiliy I. Panteleev
Sergey P. Pan?ko
Peter V. Polyakov
Viktor N. Timofeev
Galina A. Chiganova
Oleg Ostrovski
Harald Oye
????????????? ? ??????????? ???
?? ? ??77-28-722 ?? 29.06.2007 ?.
Pyotr N. Kuznetsov, Anatoly S. Maloletnev
and Svetlana M. Kolesnikova
Production of Carbon Briquetted Fuel from the Coals of KanskAchinsk Basin by Means of Hot Pressing
? 271 ?
Evgeny V. Kuzmin
Accelerated Phase-lock-loop Frequency Control Methods
of User?s Equipment in Perspective Radio Navigation Systems
? 276 ?
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2008 1) 221-233
~~~
??? 549.01:54-12:519.237
? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ??????????????
? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????
?????? ?. ???????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
660041 ??????, ??????????, ??. ?????????,79 1
Received 05.08.2008, received in revised form 10.09.2008, accepted 17.09.2008
????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????
???????????? ?????? ????????? ?? 2, 3 ? 4 ?? 95 ? ????? ?????????????? 4465, 138415 ? 3183545.
?????????? ???????? ? ???, ??? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ???, ??? ??????????????
???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ???????
???? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????????????
2, 3 ? 4 ??????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ?? 95. ? ??????? ??????????? ?????? 94 ????????
????????????? ??????? ????????? ?.?. ??????????. ?????????, ??? ???????? ?????
??????????? ? ???????????? ????????.
????????????, ??? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????
????????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ??????
????????, ??????????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????????
?????????????????? ????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ?? 95 ??????
??????? ????: «??????? ????? ????????», «??????? ????? ???????? ? ?????», «???????
????? ????????, ?????, ?, ????????» ? ???????????????? ??????????? ? ?? ??????? ?? ?????
?? 95 ??????? ???? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????.
?????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?
??????? ??????????? ????? ??????????? ??? ?????????????????? ??????? ????????????
?? 95 ????????. ? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??
???????? ????????? ??????????????????. ??????????????, ??? ???????? ? ??????????
??????????, ??????????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???? ?? ??????, ????? ?? ???????????
? ?????????? ?????????.
?????? ????? ??????????? ? ???? ????????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ????????? ???????
? 95 ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ? 4465 ?????????? ????????? ? 24 ????????,
? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? 138415 ???????????. ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????
?????????????? ??????????, ? ????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????????. ??????? ??
????????? ??????? ??????, ????????, ????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?
?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????.
???????? ?????: ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ????????????
?????????? ??????????, ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????????????, ?????????????
???????.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: mlabushev@yandex.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 221 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ???????. ? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????
????????
??????? ? ??? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ????? ?????????. ????? ??????????? ???? ? 1995 ?. ?????????
?? ????? ????????? ? ????????? ????????? (Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature
and Classification) ????????????? ???????????????? ?????????? (International Mineralogical
Association). ? 23 ?????? 2008 ?. IMA ???????? 4365 ?????????.
??????? ???????????? ????????, ??? ????????, ???????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????
????? ? ?? ????? ? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ???. ???????? ????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????, ????? ??????? ??????????? ??????
????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????. ??? ?????? ????????? ????????, ? ? ??? ?????????
????????????? ?????????????. ?? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????? [1]. ????????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????? ?, ?????????????, ????? ?? ???????????????, ?
????????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????????.
? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????. ???????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ???????? (? ???? ?????????) ? ????????? ???????? ????? [2]. ??????????????, ??? ??????? ???? ???????????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ???????????
?????? ????? ?????????? ??????????.
?? ?????? ?. ?. ????????, ? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?
??????? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? 4 ?? ~10 ????? [3]. ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ? ????????? ????, ?????? ????????????? ???????, ??? ?????? ?? ?????
???????? 5000, ??? ??? ? ????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ????? ???????????, ???????????
????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????. ?? ????????? ?. ?????????, ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ??????, ?? ????? ??? ????????. ? ????????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ????????????, ??? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????????????? ????????.
? ???? ????????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????, ??? ????? ??????????
????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????????????
?????? ????????? ?? 2, 3 ? 4 ?? 95. ??? ????? ?????????????? ????? 4465, 138415, 3183545, ?
????? ??, ??? ??? ?????? 95. ????????????? ? ???????? ????? 95 ??????? ? ???, ??? ? ???????
???????? ?????? 94 ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?.?. ??????????, ?????????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ???????? ? 95-?? ???????? ? ????????.
???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ???????, ??????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????.
????? ????????, ??? ??? ????? ???????? ?????, ???????????? ??????????????????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?????????.
?????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????
??????, ??????????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ? ???????, ???? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ??? «???????????» ??????? ?????? ??????????? [4]. ???????????? ???????????? ????
# 222 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ???????. ? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????
?????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ??????????????????
??????? ???? ?????????? ?????????.
?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? I ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????? [5].
??????? ??? ??????? I ??????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????
?????????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????, ?? ???????????????? H(a), H(b) ? H(a,b) ???????????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ????????? ?????????????????? K(a), K(b) ? K(a,b) ??????????????:
n
- ¦ k(a i )lgk(a i ),
K(a)
i 1
m
- ¦ k(b j )lgk(b j ),
K(b)
j 1
n
K(a, b)
m
¦ ¦ k(a i , b j )lgk(a i , b j )
i 1 j 1
I= K(a) + K(b) ? K(a,b),
??? k(ai) ? k(bj) - ??? ???????????? ??????????????????, ?????? ????????? ???? ?????????
i-?????? (j-???????) ? ????? ???? ????????? ??????? ??????????, k(aibj) ? ??? ???????????
?????????????????? ij- ???????? ??????? ? ????? ???? ????????? ???????. ? ????????
??? ??????? I ?????????? ????????? ????? ???? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ??????
??????????.
? ?????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????????????? ????????????? ???????????,
? ?????????? ????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????. ??? ?????????? I ?????
??????????? ???. ???????, ??? ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????????????, ?? ?? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ???????????? ????? ???????????.
??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????, ??? ??? ????????
?????????????? ????????? K(a) ? K(b), ??????????? ??? ???? ?????. ??? ??????????? ?????????????????? ???? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??????
I, ? ??? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ???????????
????????? I. ? ????????? ?????? ???? ?? ????????? ??????? ????? ????? ????????? ??????
? ?????????? ?????????. ??? ????????? ?????????? I ??? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????, ??????
0,04782 (?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????????????).
??? ?????????? I ? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ????? 0,11012, ???????, ???
???????? ????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ??? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???
?????? ??????????? ????????????. ???????????????? ????????? ???? ????????? ???????
?? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????? I, ??? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ???????????? ??????????????????.
? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????
????????? I ? ??????????? ????????? ??????????:
? ??????????? ????????? ????? ? ????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ?????????????
????? ????? ????? ???????? ??????;
# 223 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ???????. ? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????
? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????;
? ? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????????;
? ??????? ???????? I ?????? ???? ???????.
?? ???. 1 ???????? ?????? ??????????? I ??? ??????? ????? ???????? (?) ? ??? ???????
???? ???????? ? ????? (?, ?, ?). ? ????????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ? ????? ?????????? ?? 12 ??? ? ??????????? ???? I, ??????????? ?? ????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????.
1,008
1,008
1,008
1,008
1,008
1,008
4,003
8,064
1,008
4,003
1,008
1,008
4,003
?
1,008
4,003
1,008
1,0081
1,008
23,037
4,003
20,042
4,003
?
1,008
1,008
1,008
1,008
4,003
1,008
4,003
1,008
17,048
4,003
4,003
1,008
4,003
4,003
?
?
???.1. ??????? ??? ??????? I: ?) ?????????????? ??????????????????; ?)-?) ?????????????????? ??????? ???? ???????? ? ?????
??? ??????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ???? ?????????
??????? ????, ??? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????????, ????????, ?????????? ?? 2 ? 6, ?? 7
? 1 ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?? ??????????????? ?
???????. ????? ?????, ? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????
?? 4 ? 4, ?? 5 ? 3 ??????? ????. ????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????
??????? ?????????? 46, ?? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????
?????? ??????????.
????????????? ???????? I ? ???????? ??????? ????: «??????? ????? ????????», «??????? ????? ???????? ? ?????», «??????? ????? ????????, ?????, ?, ??????» ? ????????????????
??????????? ? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ?? 108 ??????? ???? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ??????
??????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????????????? ???????? ? ????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? I ??????????? ?????. ???
??????? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ??????? ???? ??????? n, ??? n ?????
????? ??????? ???? ???????.
?????????? ????????????
? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????
? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? 108 ???????. ??? ?????? ????????????? ????????????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????????? ???????
I ??????? ????? 40000 ????????, ??? ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????,
????? ????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? I?? ??? ????????????????
???????.
# 224 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ???????. ? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????
?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ????????????
? ??? ??? «???????????» ?? ???????? ???? 8.531-2002, ?? ?????????? ?????? ????????
? ????. 1.
??????? 1. ??????????????? ??????????? ??????? (???) ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??? «???????????»
?
?/?
? ???
???????? ???? ??????, ???????? ???? ???????,
%
%
???????? ???? ????,
%
1
8754-2006
0,10
0,50
99,4
2
8755-2006
0,50
2,00
97,5
3
8756-2006
2,00
5,00
93,0
4
8757-2006
5,00
10,0
85,0
5
8758-2006
10,0
80.0
10,0
6
8759-2006
30,0
30,0
40,0
7
8760-2006
50,0
50,0
0,00
8
8761-2006
80,0
20,0
0,00
9
8762-2006
90,0
5,00
5,00
10
8763-2006
99,0
0,10
0,90
?? ?????? ?? ?????????? 25-50 ??????? ??????? ??? ???? ???????????? ?????????????
???????????, ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?? ??? ????????? ??????????????????????
??????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???????. ????? ????????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????????, ???????????? ????????????? ???????????. ????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ????? (??????). ? ??????????
??????????? ?? 100 ?? 200 ???????? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ???????.
??? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???? ? ?????????? ??????????
????????? ? ??????? ??? ????????? ????? ????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ????????, ? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????????????. ????? ??????? ???????????? ???? ???? ?????????????.
??????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?? 20-?? ?? ????? ??? 100-?? ??????? [4] ? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????. ????????,
?????????? ???????? ????? ???????????? ???? ????????????? I?? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? 108-?? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ???? ? ????? ??????????? ???????
?????? ??????????? ??? «???????????» ????? ?????????? ???????? (???. 2).
??? ???????? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????
???????? ????????? ???????. ? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ????? ?????
??????????? ?? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ???
??????? ????? ???????? (????? ?? ???????? ???? ??????????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????). ?????????? ???????? I?? ???????? ??? ?????????????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????? 71-?? ???????, ?????????? ?????????
????????? ???????, ? ????? ??? ?????????????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????? 98?? ???????, ?????????? ??????????.
# 225 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ???????. ? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????
1,02
1,016
????????????? ???????? I??
1,012
1,008
1,004
1
0,996
0,992
0,988
0,984
0,98
0,976
0,972
0,968
0,964
0,96
? 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 97 101105
????????????? ?????????? ????
1,004
1
0,996
0,992
0,988
0,984
0,98
0,976
0,972
0,968
0,964
?
0,96
1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57 61 65 69 73 77 81 85 89 93 97
???. 2. ???????????? ???? ????????????? ?? ????????? ????????: ?) I?? ?? 1 ?? 108 ??????? ???? ?????????? ?????????; ?) ?????????? ???? ? ??????????? ??????? 5 ?????? ???????????. ?????? ?????
????????
???????? ?? ???????????? ?? ???????? ??-?? ????? ????? ???????, ?????????????? ??????
0,8269 ? 0,9589
# 226 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ???????. ? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????
??????? 2. ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????
I?? ?????? ??????? ????
?????????????
?????????? ???? ? ?????
??????????? ???????
????????????? ???????? I?? ??? ?????????? ????? ??????? ????
?????????? ?????????
??????? 108 ? 95
108 ????
95 ????
71 ?????
????
0,971
0,970
0,973
0,976
0,971
0,975
0,975
0,978
0,981
0,976
0,978
0,976
0,979
0,982
0,977
0,979
0,978
0,981
0,984
0,980
0,984
0,981
0,984
0,985
0,982
0,987
0,985
0,988
0,986
0,987
0,988
0,986
0,989
0,991
0,988
0,989
0,988
0,992
0,992
0,990
0,991
0,990
0,993
0,995
0,992
??????????. ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? I?? ??? 108 ? 95 ??????? ????, ????????
??????? ? ??????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????.
???? ??????? ???? ????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ? ??????????, ?? ?????????
??????, ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ???, ??????? ???????, ?? ?????? ???????, ??????? ? ???????, ???????
????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????. ? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????
??????? ?? ??????? ?? 71, 95 ? 108-?? ???????. ?? ???? ???? ???? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????.
???????????? ?????????? ???? ??????????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ?????????
???????? I??, ??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????? ??????????, ?
??????? ???????????, ????????????. ???????? ????????? ????? I?? ????????? ?? ??????????
? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? 0,970 ?? 0,995 ?????????? (????. 2), ? ??
???? ???????????? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????.
???????????? ??? I?? ?????????? ?????? ?? 1 ?? 71-? ??????? ????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????. ?????? ? ???, ?? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ???????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ??????,
?????? ?? ????????????, ????????, ???????? ???????. ????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???? ?????, ??????? ?????????? I?? ?? ??????????? ????????? ???? ????????? ???????????
? ????????????? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ???????.
??? ??????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????? ????? I?? ?????????? ??????
?? 2 ?? ???????? 20 - 30 ??????? ???? ?????????? ????????? [4], ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???? ????????.
????????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????????
? ?????? ?????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?. ???????? ? 1928 ?., ????? ????????????? ? ???, ??? ????????????? ??????????, ????????? ???????,
# 227 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ???????. ? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????
?? ?????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ???????????????? ?? ????? ?????????
??????????? ????????, ? ??????????, ??? ??????????, ?????????? ????????? ???????????
??????, ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ???????? ??????. ????????
????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ???????????, ?????? ?????
?????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????????????????????? ?????? ????????? ??????.
??????????? ????????? ??????, ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?
??????????? ???????? ??? «???????????», ????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ? ??????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????????. ???????? ???????? ????? ????????,
?. ???? ???? ??????? «???????? ???????? ?????????». ???? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ????? ? ?????????, ? ?????? ? ???????????? ???? ????? ? ???? ?????? [6].
? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ????? ?????, ? ? ??????? 1*10 -15 ???????
?????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???? ????????.
????????, ??????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????????? I?? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????, ??????? ? ??????????????
????????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????.
????????? ? ????????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???? ????????, ????? ? ?????
(????. 3). ??? ?????? ? ????????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???? ????, ??????? ? ?????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????- ? ??????????????
?????????. ??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ??????? ???? (?????? ????????????????? ????????? ???????? ?????), ??? ??? I ???????? ? ????????????? ??????? ????
????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????????????????.
??????? 3. ?????????????????? ??????? ???? ????????? ? ?????????
??????????
????????
???????
?????
?????????????
??????? ?????*
??????????
????????/
????????
???????
?????
?????????????
??????? ????? **
H
1,00794
1
Cu
63,546
1
He
4,002602
3,97
CuAu
260,51255
4,10
Li
6,941
6,89
Cu 2AgAu
431,92675
6,80
??????????. ??????? ????? ???????????: *?? ??????? ????? ????????, **?? ??????? ????? ????.
??????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ? ???????,
????? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?? ???????????
????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ??
??????? ? ???????? ????????????? ??????? ?.?. ??????????, ? ????? ??????????????????
??????? ???? ????????? ? ?????? ????? [5], ?????? ?????, ??? ?????????? ?????????????????? I?? ???????????????? ??????? I ??????? ?????????? ????????. ??????????????, ??? ???
???? I?? ??? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????
? ??????????????????? ????, ???? ? ??????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?????????, ????????????? ? ???????.
# 228 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ???????. ? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????
???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ??????????? ??????? ????? ????? ??????????????????, ? ??????
?????????????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ????. ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ? ???????? ? ???, ??? I?? ???????????????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? I??
?????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??????????????????.
???????? ?.?. ??????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ????????
??????????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????
? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????. ? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????
? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????. ?? ? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ?????????.
?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ? ????? ?.?. ?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????????????????? ???????
????. ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????? ? ???? ?????????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???? ????? ???????. ????????, ????????, ??????????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????, ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?
??????????? ??????????; ?? ?? ?????? ???? ?????????? ? ??? ?????????? ??????????.
???? ?? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? - ?????????????
???????, ????????? ?? ????????? ??????? ? 95 ??????????? ??????????, 4465 ?????????? ?
24 ????????, ? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? 138415 ??????????. ? ???????? ??????? ?????? ?????
???????? 95 ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?? ????????, ??????? ??? ????? ????????
???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ? ??? ???????????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????.
?????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????, ????????? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????. ??????? ??
????????? ??????? ??????, ????????, ????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????. ????????? ?????? ????? ???????????? ???, ??? ??
???????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ?.?. ??????????.
????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????????? I?? ??????
????? ? ???? ??????????? ??? ????, ???? ??? ??????? ?????, ??? ???, ????????, ? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?? 11-12 ?????????? ?????????, ? ????? ????? ????????? ???????????
?????? ????? ????????? ?? 2 ?? 95 ??????? ????. ???????????? ?????????????, ? ?????????,
??????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????????? ??????????? ? ???? ?????.
?????????????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????????? ????????????? I?? 95 ???????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ??? 47 ???, ???????????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ??????????????????. ?? ?? ?????????? ??? ???????
????????, ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? 1457 ???????. ????? ?????, ???????? ???????????? ?????, ????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??????????????. ?????
??????? ??????????? ????? ????????? ?? 2, 3 ? 4 ??? ??????? ???? ?? 89 ?? 118 ????????# 229 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ???????. ? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????
?? ??? ?????? ??? 107 ??????? ????, ??? ???? ??????????????? ????? ????????? ??????????
5671, 198485 ? 5160610.
???????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ????????????, ??? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ?????????
????? 116. ??? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????
???????, ?? ???????? ????? ????? ?? ????????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????????
????????.
??? 116 ??????? ???? ????? ????????? ?? 2, 3 ? 4 ?????????????? ?????????? 6670, 253460
? 7160245, ?? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??? 116 ? ????? ????????? ?? 2 ? 3.
????????, ???????? ????????? ???? ???? ????????????? ?????? ?? ?????? 95, 107 ? 116 ??????? ???? ? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????
?????????? ?????????.
???????? ????????? ?????????????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????. ??????????? I?? ???????????????? ??????? I ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????????????????, ? ????????????
I?? ?????? ???? ????????? ??? ??????? ???? ????????, ?????, ????? ? ????????, ??? ???????
?????? 0,3447. ? ?????????????????? ???? ??????? ???? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????, ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ??????????. ?? ???? ?????? ????????? ?????????????????? ????? ???????
????????? 1,000013 ??? ??????? ? 95 ?????????? I??, ??? ??????? ?? 107 ?????????? ??? ?????????? 1,0000091, ? ??? ??????? ?? 116 ?????????? ?? ???????? ????? 1,0000071.
??? ??????????? ????, ??? ???????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????, ? ??? 95
?????? ?????? ?? ???????? I?? ???????? ???????? ?????, ??????? ????????????? ???????? ?
???????????? ????????. ????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ????????????? ??? ????????????
????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????. ????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ????? 88 ??????
? 95, ? ?? I?? ????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????. ????????? ???????, ????? ? ???????? ????????????? 92, ??? ???? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????????. ??????????????, ??? ????????
????????? ???????????, ??? ?? ??? ? ???????? ?????, ??????????????? ???????? I?? ? ????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????. ? ?????? ??????, ????????, ????????? ? ???????? ???????,
?????????? ????, ?? ????????????? 98.
???????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ???????, ????????, ???????? 93 ???????? ?????, ? ??????? ??????? ??? ????????, ? 94 ???????? ????????, ??? ?????. ???????????
????????? ???????? ???????, ???, ???????? ? ???????. ???????? 88 ?????????, ?????????? ??????, ??????, ??????? ? ????????, 88 ????????? ???????? ??????, ????, ???????? ? ???????.
????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ??????, ? ?????????? ???
??? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ??????????????. ???????, ???
???????? ????? ????????? ???? ? ????????????? ?????????. ? ?????? ??????, ????????, ????????? ???????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ??? ????? ?????, ??? ????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????????. ?? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????
??????????? ??? ?????? ???? ???????.
????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? 95, ? ???????? ??????? ? ????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????. ???????? ?? ???, ??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??? ??# 230 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ???????. ? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????
1,02
1,016
1,012
1,008
????????????? ???????? I??
1,004
1
0,996
0,992
0,988
0,984
0,98
0,976
0,972
0,968
0,964
106
103
97
100
94
91
88
85
82
79
76
73
70
67
64
61
58
55
52
49
46
43
40
37
34
31
28
25
22
19
16
13
7
10
4
1
0,96
???. 3. ????????????? (?? ????????? ????????) I?? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ???????
?? 108-?? ????????. ?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??-?? ????? ????????, ?????? 0,8269
?????? ???? ??????????? ? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??
??? ??????? ??????? ????????????.
?????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ????? ????????? ?? ??????? ? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ????-???? ?????????-?????. ??? ???????? ?? ????????? ????? I?? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ???????. ? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?.?. ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????
?????? ? ???? ????????????? ????????? - ????????, ???????? ? ??????? ? ??????????????????
??????????. ????????? ?? ???? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? (?????????) ????????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ????????.
????????????? ????? ???????????? ? ????????, ?? ??????????????? ? ????????????
???? ??????????????????? I?? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???? (???. 3).
? ?????? ?????????????????? ??????????? I??, ??? ?????????? ??????? ???? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????? ???????????, ??? ??? ????????????? ????? ??? 80 ??????? ??????.
??????????
?? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????????????? ????? ???? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????. ??? ??? 28 ????????? ?? ?????????? IMA ? 23 ?????? 2008 ?. ????? 4365 ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????, ?? ???????? ??????????? 128 ?????????.
???????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????, ?? ????????? ?????? ??? ????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????. ? ????? ? ???? ??????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ? ????????????? ???????
# 231 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ???????. ? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????
?.?. ??????????, ??? ? ? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???????. ?????? ??????
????, ????????? ???????, ??????????? ? ?????????? ????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????? ? ??????. ?? ??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?
???? ??????? ????????? ?????.
???????????, ??? ????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ? ??????? ?????????, ?? ???????????????? ???????????????? ?? ???? ???. ???????, ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ????? 24 ?
3 ??? 56,554 ?. ??????????? ?????????????????? 3 ??? 56,554 ? ? 24 ? ?????????? 0,0027, ?
??????????? ?????????????????? ????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? 24 ???????? ????? 0,0013. ???????? ?? ????????? ???????? ???? ?????????????, ???????? ?? ??????? ?????
??????????? ????????.
????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????????????????.
???????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????????? ????????????? I, ?????????? ??? ?????????, ?????? ????? ? ???, ? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ????, ????????????????
????? ?? ?? ???????, ??? ? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?, ???????????? ? ????????? ????????.
???????????? ????????????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ????? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????????? ??????, ? ??????
???????, ????? ? ??????. ? ?????, ???????????, ??????????? ? ???????? ? ????????? ?????
?? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?
?????????? ??????? ?????????, ?????? ?????, ??? ? ?????????? ??????????.
?????? ??????????
1.
??????, ?.?. ???????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????? / ?.?. ?????? //
????????? ????????????? ??????. - 2003. - ?4. - ?. 43-56.
2.
???????, ?.?. ????? ?????????????????? ????????. ??????? ?? ????????? ?????????
???????? ? ??????????????? ??????? / ?.?. ??????? // ???????????? ????? ? ?????????????.
- 2005. - ?1. - ?.138-147.
???????, ?.?. ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ??????????????
???????????? ????????? / ?.?. ??????? / ????? ???? ? ????????? ? ???????????. 2002:
??. ?????. ??????. - ?????????: ????????. - 2002. - ?. 12?13.
??????, ?.?. ????????????? ? ?????????????????? ?????????? ????, ??????? ? ??????
? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??? «???????????» / ?.?. ??????, ?.?.
????????, ?.?. ??????? //??????????? ???????. ? 2006. - ?4. - ?. 52?64.
???????, ?.?. ?????????? ? ?????????????????? ??????? ? ??????? / ?.?. ???????. ?
??????????: ??????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????, 2004. ? 136 ?.
Burbidge, E. Synthesis of the Elements in Stars/ E. Burbidge, G. Burbidge, W. Fowler, F. Hoyle //
Revs. Mod. Physics ? 29. - 1957.- P. 547?650.
3.
4.
5.
6.
# 232 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ???????. ? ????????? ????????? ????? ?????????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ???????????
About Limit Numbers of Minerals, Inorganic
and Organic Chemical Compounds
Mikhail M. Labushev
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
Limit numbers of minerals, inorganic and organic chemical compounds are determined by combination
of 2, 3 and 4 in a set of 95 and are respectively equal to 4465, 138415 and 3183545. It is suggested
that this relation is determined by the fact that distribution averages of universal set of minerals and
chemical compounds? atomic masses informational proportionality coefficients are equal to similar
proportionality indices of 2, 3 and 4 out of 95 atomic masses. The first 94 elements of the periodic table
are found naturally. It is expected that americium can also be met in natural conditions.
It is assumed that distribution averages of universal set of informational proportionality coefficients of
chemical elements of each mineral, organic and inorganic chemical compound atomic masses can be
converted using proportionality constant to a similar index of one of 95 atomic mass systems: «atomic
mass of hydrogenium», «atomic mass of hydrogenium and helium», «atomic mass of hydrogenium,
helium, ?, americium» with sequential increase in their composition from one up to 95 atomic masses
in increasing order of chemical member?s number.
The proportionality indices of minerals and chemical compounds? atomic masses in increasing order
can be represented as a succession of packets, each of 95 values. In adjacent packets the relations
of rank indices differ in proportionality constant value. It is supposed that minerals and chemical
compounds characterized by the packet indices have similar physical and chemical properties.
The packets can be shown as a periodic table consisting of a short period of 95 chemical elements
and 4465 minerals indices side by side with 24 periods, each containing138415 indices. The first
long period characterizes inorganic compounds, the rest of them characterize organic compounds.
Vertically adjacent table packets are also likely to characterize chemical compounds with similar
chemical and physical properties.
Key words: limit numbers of minerals, inorganic and organic chemical compounds, informational
proportionality coefficients, periodic system.
# 233 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2008 1) 234-246
~~~
??? 553(?2-547)
???? ???????????? ??????? ????? (????????? ????)
? ?? ???????????
??????? ?. ??????*
??? «????????????????????»,
660020 ??????, ??????????, ??. ????????, 3 ? 1
Received 05.08.2008, received in revised form 10.09.2008, accepted 17.09.2008
??????? ? ???????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ? ??? ????????? ? ??????????
?????????-???????????? ????????????? ??????, ?????????????? ? ??????-???????? ?????
?????????? ?????. ?????????? ???? ???????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????
??????? ???????????????, ??????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????????
?????? ????????????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????. ?????? ??????????????????,
?????????? ?????? ????, ??????????? ?????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????. ?????????
???????????????? ?????????????? ???????????, ?? ????????? ???? ??????? ???????
?????????? ???? ????????????. ? ????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ???????? ??????????
????????, ????????????? ????????. ???????? ????? ??????, ?????????????? ?????????????
?????????????? ???? ???????????? ???????.
???????? ?????: ???? ????????????, ????????? ????, ???????, ????????, ??????.
????????
? ????????? ????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ???????? [2, 3, 5,
6, 7], ??? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ?????????????. ???????? ???????? ??????????,
????????? ? ?????? ????????????, ???????? ?????, ??? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ? ???????? ???, ?????, ????????? ??????????, ????????. ?? ??? ???????? ? ?????????
??????, ?? ??????? ???????, ? ??????????, ?? ????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????????
???? ????????????, ??? ???????????? ????? ???????????? ????? ????????????? ??????????????????? ??? ?????????????, ???????, ?? ????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????,
??????????? ????? ???????? ???????.
???? ???????????? ?????????? ?????, ?? ????????? ? ??????? ????????, ???????????
? ????????????? ???????. ?? ????????? ? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????
(?.?. ?????????, 1963 , ?.?. ????????, 1966 ) ? ?????? ???????????? ????? ? ? ????? ? ????????
??????????, ????????, ??????. ????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?.?. ?????? (1967 ). ?
??? ???? ???????? ???????????????? ???????, ???????? ? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ???
???????????? ??????? ??????. ? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ?.?. ????????
(1972 ), ?.?. ??????? (1988 ), ?.?. ????? (2000 , 2004 ), ?.?. ?????? (2002 ).
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: kgs@vzletka.net
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 234 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????. ???? ???????????? ??????? ????? (????????? ????) ? ?? ???????????
????????????? ????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????????? ???????. ??????????
???? ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ????? (?????????, ???????? ? ?????????)
?????????? ??????? ????????????. ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????
????????????. ???????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ? ?? ??????? ??????? (??????? ?????????, ????????????? ??????, ??????????
??. ???????????? ? ??.), ??? ????????? ??????????? (1-8 ?) ????????????? ????????. ???????? ????? ??? ??????????? ? ???????????? ???????? (??????????, ??????????????????),
????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????????? ??????? ???????????????????? ????????. ???????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?? 0,5 ?? 50 ?. ? ???????? ??? ????????????
?????? ????????? ? ????????? (?????????????? ?????????????????? ????????????? ? ????????? ????????????????? ?????, ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????). ????
???????? ????????? ??? ???????????? (??????? ? ????????????) ?????????? ????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ???????.
???? ???????????? ???-????????????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ? ???-???????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????, ??? ???? ?????????? ????????????????? ???????? ??????????? ????? ???????? ???? (??????????, ?????????? ? ???????????? ???????). ??? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????, ??????? ?? ???????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????. ????????? ???-????????????
???? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ? ???????? ?. ??????, ? ??????????
????? ? ????? ?????, ?? ????????? ????????, ?? ????????????? ??????.
????? ???????, ???????-???????????????? ????????? ???? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????-??????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????????? ??????, ??? ???????? ?????
20 % ??????? ? ???????? ????????????. ???????????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ?????. ????????? ??? ??????, ? ????????, ?? ???????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????.
?? ??? ???????? ???????-????????? ????????? ?????????-??????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????, ??????????, ?????? ? ??. ???????? ???? ???????????? ????????? 10-150 ?
??????????? ? ?????????????? ????? ??????????? ? ????????????, ???????-?????????? ???????? ? ? ????? ????????????? ?????????.
??????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ? ????? ? ????????????? ????? ?????????? ????????, ??? ???????????? ????????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?????? (????????????????, ??????????, ??????? ????? ? ??.) [7]. ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????????????
????????? ? ????? ????????? ??????????, ?????????-????????? ???. ? ????????????????
???????? ??? ?????????? ? ???? ? ??????-????? ????? ? ????????? ??????? ??????, ?????????, ?????? ?????????, ????? ? ????? ???????? ???????????? ??????. ?? ??????? ???????
?????? ? ?????? ???? ??????? 84 ????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ?????? ????????????.
? ?????????? ?????????? ??????, ??????????? ? 1988 ?. ?.?. ????????, ??????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?2 ?????????? 13 ?.
?????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????
??? ????? ????????????, ????? ?? ??????? ??????????????? [2, 8], ????? ???????? «????????????? ????, ????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????# 235 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????. ???? ???????????? ??????? ????? (????????? ????) ? ?? ???????????
??? ?????? ?????, ????????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ?????????????, ?????????????,
??????????????????, ????????? ? ?????? ????????». ??? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ? ????????? ?? ???????? (????? 5-6 ??) ????????????? ??????????
??????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ????????????.
????????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ????, ??????? ???????
?. ?????, ???????? ? 15 ?? ? ???-?????? ?? ?????????-???????????? ??????? ?????? (???. 1).
??????? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????, ??????? ????? ?????????-?????????????
????????????? ? ??????? ?? ????????????, ????????? ?? ??????? ??????, ??????????????
????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ????????. ??????? ??????
???????????, ?????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ????? ????? ???????? (1015є) ????????, ????????????? ? ?.?. 500-800 ?.
? ????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? (??????????, ???????????? ??????????, ??????? ??????????? ?????) ?????????????? ? ?????????????, ????????????-????????? (?????????????,
????????, ??????) ?????????? ???????. ? ????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????
????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????? ???????, ???????????, ?????, ?????????????? ?????????? ?????.
??????????? ???????????, ?????????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????????, ?????????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ??????????? ???? ? ????????
????? ??????? ? ????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ???? ? ???????? ??. ?????, ???????? ?
???. 1. ???????? ????? ?????? ????????????
# 236 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????. ???? ???????????? ??????? ????? (????????? ????) ? ?? ???????????
???. ???????. ????????? (??????-?????????, ?????-??????) ????????????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ???????, ? ????? ????? ???????, ??????
?????? ?????????? ????. ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?
?????????????? ? ????????????? (?? ??????-?????????? ???????) ????????? ????? ? ???????????? ????????-?????????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????.
? ????????????? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???? ???????,
??????? ?? ?????? ?. ????? ??????? ? ????????? ???. ???????? ? ????? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?. ????????.
? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????? (?? 88 ?) ??????
??????????? ????????????? ????????. ??????? ???????? ????????? ?.?. ????????? ? 19641966 ??., ?.?. ??????? ? 1967 ?. ? ???? ? 2006 ?. ?? ????? ????????? ???????.
? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????:
1) ?????????? ???? ???????????? ???-????????????? ????????;
2) ??????????-???????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????;
3) ??????, ?????? ? ????????? ???????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????);
4) ???????, ??????? ? ???????? ???????-????????????????? ????????;
5) ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????;
6) ??????, ???????????? ??????? ??????????????;
7) ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????-???????? ??????????????;
8) ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ????????;
9) ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????.
?????????? ???? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????
????????????????. ??????? ??? ?? ???? ???????????? ??????? ???????, ?? ??????????? ???????????. ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????
?????? ? ????????. ?? ???????, ??????????? ???????, ???? ???????????? ??????????? ?
???? ????????, ???????????? ???????? (40-50 ?) ????????????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????, ?????????? ??????? ? ????????? ???????. ????
???????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? (????????-????????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?????) ?? ????????????????? ????.
? ????????? ???. ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ???? ??
???????? ?11 (???. 2). ? ????????? 70-100 ? (?????) ?????? ??????????-????? ??????????????
?????? ? ???????? ????? ?????????? ???????????????, ??????? ?????????????. ? ??????
???? ?????? ? ???????? ????????. ???? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????
??????????-???????????? ??????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????. ???????????? ???
???????-?????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????, ?????? ??????????????, ? ?????????
??????????, ?????????? ???????????? ??????, ???????? (?? 20-50 %). ????????????? ??? ?
??????? 52,0 ? ????????????-????????????? ??????????? ??????-????????????????? ????????, ? ??????? 14,0 ? ? ???? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????????????,
???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ????????.
?? ??????????? ??????????????????? ??????? ???????? ???? (????. 1) ????????? ???????????? ???????-????????? ??????????, ??? ???????? ????? ?????????? 24,4-64,4 %, ? ????????? ? 35,6-75,6 %.
# 237 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????. ???? ???????????? ??????? ????? (????????? ????) ? ?? ???????????
???. 2. ?????? ???????????? ????????? ? ????????11 ??????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ???????
(???). ???????????? Q-1500?, ???????? ?.?. ???????? (?????????): 1 ? ????????-????????????
????; 2 ? ????????; 3 ? ?????; 4 ? ??????, ??????; 5 ? ?????; 6 ? ??????-??????????? ?????????;
7 ? ?????????????; 8 ? ??????????? ?????? (????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????????
??????)
# 238 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????. ???? ???????????? ??????? ????? (????????? ????) ? ?? ???????????
??????? 1. ?????????? ??????????????????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???????? ?11
??
?/?
????????
???????
?????????
???????
>1,0
1,0-0,5
0,5-0,25
0,25-0,1
0,1-0,01
< 0,01
?????????????????? ??????, ?
????????
?????
???, ?
???????
??????,
?
1
6,0
50
22,4
27,6
0
0
5,2
4,98
12,2
0
2
11,0
50
32,2
17,8
0
4,8
2,6
2,9
7,5
0
3
15,0
50
13,8
36,2
0
7,96
2,9
1,47
1,47
0
4
21,0
50
22,8
27,2
0
8,86
7,67
3,65
2,62
0
5
27,0
50
20,1
29,9
0
5
8,6
3,5
3
0
6
34,0
50
22,1
27,9
0
4,55
5,1
6,15
6,3
0
7
43,0
50
16,6
33,4
0
2
5,6
5,1
3,9
0
8
50,0
50
15,1
34,9
0
1,9
4
4,3
4,9
0
9
57,0
50
13,3
36,7
0
0,6
5,8
4,5
2,4
0
10
62,0
50
12,2
37,8
0
0,6
5
4,1
2,5
0
?????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????????????????????? ??????? (??? Na2O ? ???).
?????? ??????? ????????????? ?? ????? ???????????? ???????????, ?.?. ??????????? ? 100 %
(????. 2). ?????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????? (?? 75,35 %) ? ??????? (?? 3,28 %) ??????????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? (?????????, ??????????).
? ???????????? ??????? ??????? ?????????? ???? ?????????????. ???????? ?? ???? ????????
?????????????? ?????????? ???????, ?????, ?????? (?? ??????????? ????? ?????), ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????. ??? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ? ???? ????????????. ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????
? ????????? ? ??????. ?????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????????????.
?? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ???. ?????????????? ? ???????? ? ?????????????
?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ? 0,11 %, ???????? ? 0,5 %, ????????? ????????? ? 0,025 %.
???????????? ?????? ????????????? ???? ??????? ? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????? ??????? (0,01-0,5 %), ???????? (0,005-0,03 %), ??????? (0,2-1,0 %), ???????? (0,12,0%), ?????? (0,05-0,02 %), ????????? (0,005-0,01 %), ????? (0,05-0,1 %), ????? (0,01 %), ?????
(0,01-0,1 %), ???? (0,02-0,03 %).
?? ?????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? (???. 2, 3) ????????? ???? ???????????? (???????? ?? 9, 11) ???????? ???????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??
?????????? ????????? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?????, ??????? ???? (??????, ???????),
???????????? ??????????, ????????, ???????, ??????, ??????? (???????? ?.?. ????????). ?
??????? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ?????, ???????? ???????????????????? ????????, ???????, ??????, ? ????????? ?????? ????????? ????, ??????, ??????, ??????, ???????,
????????, ? ???? ?????? ? ?????????? 2-3 ?????? ? ??????. ??????? ?????? ????? ? ???????????, ????????, ? ???? ???????? (0,15?0,1 ??), ?????????? ?????????, ?????????? ?????????
(0,05?0,05 ??) ??????? ?????, ? ???????? ?????? ???????????. ?? ????????? ???????? ??????# 239 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????. ???? ???????????? ??????? ????? (????????? ????) ? ?? ???????????
??????? 2. ?????????? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????
??????????
??????????, ???.%
????? 1
????? 2
????? 3
SiO2
53,42
11,04
71,87
TiO2
1,07
0,7
0,52
ZrO2
0,02
0
0
Al2O3
36,7
8,48
20,42
Fe2O3
7,73
75,35
6,37
Cr2O3
0
0,13
0
MgO
0
0
0
MnO
0,04
0
0,03
NiO
0
0
0
CuO
0
0
0
ZnO
0
0
0
CaO
0,21
0,54
0,68
SrO
0
0
0,03
BaO
0
0
0
K 2O
0,44
0,47
0,09
P2O5
0
0
0
As2O3
0,38
3,28
0
???? ?????????, ???. ????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????????
? ????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????.
??????????? ?????? ????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ????????????? ???????? ???????
????????????????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ???? ?? ??? ???. ??????? ????????????? ? ?? ??????????? ????????-????? ?????????, ? ????? ????? ????????? ???????????
?? ??? ???????????: (1) ? ????????? ?????????? (??????? ??????????? ???); (2) ? ????????? ?
??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? (????????? ????????? ?? ?????????); (3) ? ???????????? ???
??????????? 500 є? (????????? ??????? ?? ?????????). ? ?????????? ???? ???????? 9 ????????????? (???. 4). ????????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ????????, ???????????? ?????, ? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????-???????, ?????, ???????
????, ??????, ??????????(?) ????????? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ????. ????????? ??????????? ??? ??????????, ??? ???????? ?????? ?????????????.
?? ????????????????? ???????? ??????, ?? ?????? ?.?. ???????? (1966), ? ??????
???? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ????????? ??
???????? ?????. ? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?????, ????
?? ??????? ??????????? ????? ????? ????????, ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ????????
????????????????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ??????. ????? ?????????? ?????? ???????????????????? ????? ?????????, ????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????, ?????????? ??????? (???????? ?.?. ?????????).
??? ????????? ???????? ???? ???????????? ?? ???????? ? 11 ?? ??????? 70,0?88,0 ?
???? ???????? ???????????????? ?????, ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ?????
# 240 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????. ???? ???????????? ??????? ????? (????????? ????) ? ?? ???????????
???. 3. ?????????? ??????????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????
# 241 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????. ???? ???????????? ??????? ????? (????????? ????) ? ?? ???????????
???. 4. ?????????????? ???? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????: 1-3 - ?????? ????? ?????????:
1 ? ????????? ??????????; 2 ? ????????? ? HCl; 3 ? ???????????? 500 °?
# 242 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????. ???? ???????????? ??????? ????? (????????? ????) ? ?? ???????????
???????????? ??????: Leiotriletes sp., Disaccites, Walchia sp., Alisporites. ????, ?? ???????
52,0 ?, ?????????? ????????? ????? ? ??????: Pinus s/g Diploxylon, P. s/g Haploxylon, Pinaceae,
Sciadopitys sp., Abies sp., Myrica sp., Carya sp., ?????? ????? Pinaceae (??????????? ?.?. ??????????). ???????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ? ??????, ?????????? ??????????? ???????-????????? ????? ?????????? ??????, ??????? ?????????? ???? ????????????
(???. 70,0?88 ?) ???????????????? ????????? ??? ???-????????????.
????? ????, ?? ?????? ?.?. ????????? [1], ? ?????????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????????????????? ??????????? ????-???????? ?????????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????, ??? ?? ???????????? ????????? ????????.
??????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????
? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????? ????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?????
????????? ???????????, ???????????, ????????????????? ???????? ? ????? ????????????
???????????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ?????????. ??????????? ???????? ????????????
??????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????, ?????????? ???????? ? ?????? ?????????????. ???, ??? ????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? 10-20 % Al2O3 ? ??????????????? ???????, ??? ??????????? ??????????? ? 3-5 % ?n ? ??????????? ??????? ? ?.?. [4]. ????????? ???? ????????
?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ?, ??? ?????????, ??????????? ??????????
?????? ?????????????.
? ??????? ???? ? ????? ???????????? ??????? ????? ???? ?????????? ????? ? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????, ????????????? ????????, ? 2006 ?. ? ?????????? ?????
????????-???????? ?????? ??? «????????????????????» ? ??????.
?????????? ?????????? ???????? ???? ?????????? ? ????? ???. ???????????? ? ? ????????? ?. ????? ? 1953 ?. ??????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????? ????????? ?? 53 % ????????? ? ?? 10 % ??????????. ? ????? ? ????? ????????? ? 70-? ????? ? ??????? ??? ????? ?
?????? ???? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???? (?.?. ???????, 1966).
? ?????????? ???? ????? ???? ???????????, ??? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????
??????????? ????????.
???????? ???? ???????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??
????? ???????? ?? 7,5 %, (? ??????? 0,1-4 %). ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????-???????????? ???? ????????????, ???????? ??
????????? ???????, ?????, ?????????? ? ???????????. ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ? ??????? ???????? (%): SiO2 ? 38,36-70,30; Al2O3 ? 8,13-28,23; Fe2O3 ? 9,38-17,56; TiO2 ? 0,262,7; ??? ?? 7,40-15,27.
? ?????????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????. ????
? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ? ????????????? ??????? ? 0,18-1,03 %,
? ???????????? ??????? ? 0,09-1,88 %, ?? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ? 0,56-2,06 %. ? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????? (%):
SiO2 ? 22,76-77,54; Al2O3 ? 10,15-33,21; Fe2O3 ? 3,51-38,32; TiO2 ? 0,308-1,78; ??? 4,82-15,015.
??????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????????: ?????, ???????, ????????? ? ???????. ??????????? ????????, ??????????, ????????? ????????????, ?????????? ?????????,
# 243 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????. ???? ???????????? ??????? ????? (????????? ????) ? ?? ???????????
????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ?????????????????????? ????????. ?? ??????
????????? ???????????? ????????, ?????????, ?????, ??????????, ???????, ????????, ?????????, ????????, ???????? ? ??????.
? ????????? ?. ????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??????????. ????????????? ????? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ???????? ???????????, ?????????? ? ???????????
????????????? (?? 8 ??), ??????????, ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????. ?????????? ???????? ? ???????????, ??????? ????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?????????-??????????????? ???????,? 1-2 %, ? ?????? ? ??????? ???? %.
? ????????? ?. ???????? ? ?? ???????????? ?. ????? ? ??????? ???. ??????????? ? ???????
? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?? 5,55 % ?? 19,22 %, ????? ? ???????? ?? 0,49%, ? ?????????? ??????????? ???????,
??????, ?????.
????????????? ?????? ? ????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ????????? ????????????????? ? ???????-???????????? ????? ???????? ?????????????. ?? ??????? ???????? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ????????? ?????? (???????, ????? ???).
??????????? ??? ? ???? ????????????-??????????-??????????? ?????, ?????????? ??????
???????? ????????????? ?????????. ? ????-??????????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?? 10-13 % ? ???????????? ?????? 0,11-14,45 ?/?. ?
????????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?? 16,7 ? ? ???????????? ?????? 0,032-1,32 ?/?. ????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????, ?????????????
????? ????????????-????????? ?????, ?????????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ? ???????????
????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????? ???????. ????????????? ???????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ????? (??????? ? ?????? ????? ?????????? ??????)
? ????????? ?? ????????????????? ???????, ?????????? (??????? 0,65 ?) ??????-??????????????? ???????? ???? ?????????????? ????? 130 ?. ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ????????? 7,7 ?/?, ? ???????? ????? ? ?? 11,8 ?/? (??????? 8,67 ?/?). ????? ???????????? ????????????????? ??????? ? ???????????????????????? ???????????? (?.?. ??????????, 2000) ??
??????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????, ???????, ????, ?????? ? ??????. ????? ????, ?
30-? ????? XIX ???? ?????????????? ??????? ?. ????? ? ?? ???????? (???. ????????, ???????,
?????????????). ??????? ???????? ???????? ???????????????, ?????????? ? ???????????
???????????? ??????????.
??????????? ??????????????, ???????????????? ????????? ???? ????????????, ???????????? ?? ????????? ?????????, ???????????? ? ?????????? ???????, ??????????????
??????? ??????, ????????? ?????????????? (??????, ????, ??????, ????????, ???????? ? ??.),
??????????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????-???????????? ????, ??????????
????????????, ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????? ???? ???????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ????????-???????????? ??????? ? ?????, ??????-????????-??????????
?????, ??????-?????????? ??????????, ???????????? ??????????.
?? ????? ??????, ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ???????????? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????????? 0,032?1,32 ?/?, ? ?.?. ????????? 3,5 ? ? ??????????? ?????? ????? 1 ?/?, ??
?????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? 0,1-0,3 ?/?. ?????? ?????????????? ???????? ??
????????????? ? ????? ??????????????? ????? ??????????? ??????? (0,054-0,58 ?/?), ? ???????# 244 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????. ???? ???????????? ??????? ????? (????????? ????) ? ?? ???????????
?????? ???? ?? ?????-????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????? ????????? 14,45 ?/?. ?????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ?3 ?? ??????? ??????????????? ??? ???????????? ? ????????????? ??????????????? 24 ??2 ????????? 20 ?.
??????????
????? ???????, ?????????? ???? ???????????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ????? ???????
????????? ??????????????? ? ??????? ?? ????????? ?????????, ?????????-????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????. ??? ????? ????????????, ?????????-??????????????????
?????? ? ???????????????? ???-???????????? ???????. ? ??????? ? ????????????? ????????
??????????????? ?? ?????????? ????????, ? ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???-???????????? ?????. ?????????????? ???? ????????????
??????????? ??? ? ????? ???????? ? ???????????, ??????? ?????? ???????? ???? ????????????, ??? ? ???????? ?? ??? ? ????????????. ??????? ????????????? ? ???????, ?????????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????, ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ?? ??????? ? ? ????????
? ?????????????.
????????????? ??????????? ???? ??????????????? ? ???????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???? ???????????? ? ????????? ?? ????????? ??????????
? ????????????? ??????. ??????? ????? ????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ??????????, ? ??? ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????, ???????
?????????? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ????? ? ???????????
?????????? ? ???? ???????????? ???? ? ?????????? ?????????? ?????. ?? ?????? ?.?. ????????, ???? ???????? ???????? ? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ??
??????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ?????? ???. ???????????, ?? ??????? ? ????????? ?????
??????????? ???? ?????? ?????????, ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????.
? ?????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????, ??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ????????????. ????? ????, ???? ???????????? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ?????????
??? ?????????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????????????????????? ??????.
?????? ??????????
1.
2.
3.
4.
????????, ?.?. ????????? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????
??????? / ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ??????? // ???????? ???????? ????????????? ???????. ? ?.:
?????, 1972. - ?. 153-160.
???????, ?.?. ???????????? ???? ???????????? ??? ?????? / ?.?. ???????,
?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????? ? ???????????: ???, 2006. - 337 ?.
?????????, ?.?. ? ???????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ? ?? ??????????????
/ ?.?. ????????? // ???. ????. XIII ????????. ????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ? ???
????????????. ? ?????: ???, 2005. - ?. 123-124.
????????, ?.?. ?????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ? ?? ???????? ? ???????
????? / ?.?. ???????? // ???? ???????????? ? ??????????? ???????????????. ? ?.: ?????,
1977. - ?. 22-32.
# 245 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????. ???? ???????????? ??????? ????? (????????? ????) ? ?? ???????????
5.
6.
7.
8.
??????, ?.?. ???? ???????????? ????????? ??? ?????-????? ? ????????? ? ????
???????? ?????????? / ?.?. ?????? // ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????
???? ? ?????????? ???????: ??. ?????. ??????. ? ??????????: ????????????????????,
1996. - ?. 129-132.
??????, ?.?. ???? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? (????????? ????) ? ??
?????????????? / ?.?. ?????? // ???????? ? ??????????-???????? ??????? ???????????
?????? ? ??????????? ??????????: ??. ?????. ??????. ? ??????????: ????????????????????,
2007. - ?. 196-201.
??????????, ?.?. ???????????? ???? ???????????? ?????????-???????????? ???????
?????? (????????? ????) / ?.?. ?????????? // ???????? ???????????? ??? ????????????
??????: ???. ????. ??????? ????????????? ?????????. ? ??????????: ????????, 1998. ?. 46-49.
?????, ?.?. ???? ???????????? ? ????? / ?.?. ????? // ???? ????????????. ???. 15. ?
?.: ?????, 1976. - ?. 186-193.
Residual Soils of the Kasp Area (The Eastern Sayany)
and their Minerageny
Natalya N. Popova
Public Corporation «Krasnoyarskgeols?emka»,
3 D Berezina st., Krasnoyarsk, 660020 Russia
Investigating residual soils of the Kasp area is important as it is near to the well-known Olkhovsko?hibizheksky gold ore are, which is located in the north-western part of the Eastern Sayany. Residual
soils in the investigated territory are widely-spread, they are dispersed on various Paleozoic breeds and
are covered with neogene-pleistocene deposits of complex composition. Granulometric and chemical
composition of claus, mineral structure of sandy and pelitic fractions are investigated. Palynologic
characteristic of formations is given, which helps to define the age of residual soils more precisely. In
residual soils of the Kasp area bauxites? show and mineralization of manganese take place. The new
data are received which confirm the availability of gold deposits in residual soils of this area.
Key words: residual soil, the Eastern Sayany, bauxites, manganese, gold.
# 246 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2008 1) 247-255
~~~
??? 669. 017
??????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ?????????
?? ????????? ? ???????? ???????????-????????? ?????
??????? ?. ???????, ?????? ?. ?????????*
?
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
660041 ??????, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79
?
???????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?? ???,
660036 ??????, ??????????, ????????????? 1
Received 05.08.2008, received in revised form 10.09.2008, accepted 17.09.2008
? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????-????????? ?????
(???) 03?11?10?2?-?? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? (??) ? ????????????????
????????? (???) ? ????????????? ??????? ?-? ???????????. ??????????????? ?? ? ???
???????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?
????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????. ????????????? ??????????????? ???????????
????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ???????? ????? ????????? ????????
???????, ??????????? ???????? ???????????-????????? ?????.
???????? ?????: ???????????-????????? ?????, ??????????? ?????????, ????????????????
?????????, ??????? ??????, ????????.
????????
???????????-????????? ????? (???) ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????, ?????????????????? ???????, ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ??????? ?????????, ?????????
?????????????? ????????? ??????????, ??????? ????????? ? ??????????????? ????? ??????????.
?? ????????? ????? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??? [1-4] ??? ? ???????? ???????????? ???????? (??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????), ??? ? ???????????????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????.
??????? ?????????? ? ????????? ????????????, ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????, ??????? ???????????-??????? ??????????-????????? ????? [5]. ????????? ??? ? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????
(???) ? ??????????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????????. ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????????????? ?????? ? ??????? ??????????????? ?? ?? ??????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ?? ??????????.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: genry@icm.krasn.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 247 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????, ?????? ?. ????????. ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????
? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????? ??????????????? ?? ? ??? ?? ????????? ???????? ???????, ???????????? ???????, ???????? ?
????????? ? ???????? ??? ??????????? ???????????????????? ????? 03?11?10?2?-??.
???????? ????????????
???????? ??????? ???????, ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????? ???????????
? ?????????? ? ?????, ??????? ??????????????? ?????? [6]. ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????????? ????-2.0 ?? Fe-K? ?????????, ???????????? ??????? ??
????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ????? (111)?- ? (110)?-??? ??? ??????? ? ?????????
?-? ??????????? ? ??????????????????? ????????? ????-1500 ? ????? ????????? ??????? ?
???????? ??? ?????? ????????????.
????????????????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????? (???) ? ???????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? «???????» ? ???????
???????????????? ?????? ? ????????? ????????. ????????????? ????????? ????? ???????? 70?70?10 ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ? ????? ????????? ??????? ??.
????????????? ?????? ????????? ? ???????? ??? ??????????? (???) ????????? ?????????? ??????? ? ?????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????, ?????????? ?
?????? [7].
???????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?? ? ???
??????????? ?? ???????? 70?10?10 ??, ?????????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ???????? 10 ??,
?????????? ??? 950 ? 1000 °?, 1 ?.
?????????? ?????????????
?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????????
??????? ?-? ??????????? ? ????????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ???????
? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???. 1.
??? ??????? ????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ??? 1000 °?, 1 ?, ?? ?????? ????????
10 ?? ?? ????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ?-?-??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????.
???, ? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? 535 ?? ~625 °? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? 45 %. ?????????????? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ??????? ? ?????????? ?-?-??????????? ???????? ? ?? ???????????? ????????? ?-?-??????????? ? ????????
??????????. ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ???????. ?????? ? ???? ?????? ???????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????. ?
?????????? ????? ??????? ?? 750 °? ? ????????? 1 ? ? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????
?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? 45 ?? 3 %. ????? ???????, ???????????, ???
? ???????? ??????? ????? 03?11?10?2?-?? ? ????????????? ??????? 535?800 °? ??????????
?????? ??????????? ?-? ??????????? ? ????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ?? 0,36 %.
????????????? ????????, ? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?-? ???????????, ??????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ?????????, ????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????????????
# 248 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????, ?????? ?. ????????. ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????
???. 1. ????????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? 03?11?10?2?-??: 1 - ???????? ???????, 2? ????????,
3 - ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ??????????
???. 2. ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??? 03?11?10?2?-?? ??? ???:
1 ? ??? ? 750 °?; 2 ? ??? ? 650 °?. ????????? ??? ??? ???: 3 ? ? 750 °?, 1 ?; 4 ? ? 650 °?, 1 ?
# 249 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????, ?????? ?. ????????. ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????
???????: ?????? ? ?????????????????? ??????? ?? ~625 °? ?-?-???????????, ??? ?????????
????????, ??????????????? ????????? ?????????, ??????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ?-???????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????; ?????? ? ??????????????????? ??????? ~625?
800 °?, ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????????, ???????
???????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??????????.
???????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ??????????????? ????????? ? ?????????????????? ???????. ??????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ???????, ? ??? 800 °? ?? ????????????? ?????????.
???????????? ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????
??????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ????????? (???), ??????????? ? ?????????????? ????? ?????????. ????????????? ??? ?????
????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????, ????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????.
????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????????????? ??????? ?-?-???????????
?? ??????: ?????? ?? ???????? ???????????, ???????? 1 ? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??
???????. ????? ????? ??????????? ????????? ????? ??? (?? ?????? ?? ??????). ??????????
?????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ? ???????? ??
?????????? 650 °?, 1? ? 750 °?, 1? ????????? ?? ???. 2.
? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ? ???????????? ??????? ? ?????? 750 °? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ?? 4 ?? 21 % ??? ?????? ?????, ? ?????
??????? ????? ? ????? ????????? ????????? ?? ???????????. ???????? ??????????? ???????
?? 650 °? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ??
20 ?? 55 %. ????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ?????????
???????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? (??. ???. 2).
??????????-???????????????? ??????, ??????????? ?? ???????? ????????, ???????,
??? ??? ??? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????? 650 °? ????? ??????? ?????
????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ?- ? ?-?????? ? ????????????
??????????? ????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ???????? ?????. ??????????? ??? ???????????
???????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???. ??? ??? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????? 750 °?, ?? ?????????
? 650 °?, ????????????? ??????? «???????» ???????? ?- ? ?-??? ? ??? ???? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????.
????? ???????, ?????????? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ? ???????? ?? ? ??? ? ????????????? ???????? ?-?-??????????? ???? ??????????? ?????????
?????????? ???????? ??????? ? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ??? ?????????.
?? ???. 3 ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?? ????? ?
??????? ??????????????? ?? ? ??? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????
??????? 550?800 °?, ? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ? 1000 °?, 1 ?.
?????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ????? ????????, ??? ??????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????, ???????? ??????? ?????
# 250 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????, ?????? ?. ????????. ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????
???. 3. ????????? ???????? ???????? 70Ч10Ч10 ?? ??? 03?11?10?2?-?? ??? ? ??????????? ??
??????????? ?? ? ??? ? ??????? 550?800 °?: 1 ? ??? ??; 2 ? ??? ??????????? ???. ?????????
???????? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ? 1000 °?, 1 ?: 3 ? ?????????????? ??; 4 ? ??????????????
????????? ??????????? ???
?? ????????? ? ???????????. ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ???
????????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????? 800 °? (? 0,8 %). ? ?? ?? ????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????.
?????????? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????? (600 ? 750 °?) ??????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????????? ????? ???, ?????? ???? ???????????
??????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????. ?????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????
????????? ????????????, ??????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????????? ?????????????????. ????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??? ?? ????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????, ?????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ???? ?? ????????? ? ??????????????????.
???????????? ??????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????, ????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????????? ?????????. ?????? ????????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? 1000 °?, 1 ? ? ???????? ??? ??????????? 538 °?, 3,5 ?, ?? 26 ????????
?? ?????? ???????? 10 ?? ????? 03?11?10?2?-??, ?????????????? ?????????? ??? 950 °?, 1
? ? ?? ??? ??????????? 650 °?, 1 ?, ???????? ? ????. 1.
??? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ? ????????, ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? 650 °? ? ???????? 1 ?, ????? ?? ??????? ??????, ??? ?????????? ??? 950 °?,
1 ?. ?????? ????????? ????? ? ??????? (???????), ??????????? ???????? ????????? ??????,
????????????? ??????? ????????????????? ???????????, ???????, ??? ????? ?? ? ??? ? ?????????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ?-?-??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????. ? ?????????? ??????????? ?? 800 °?, 1 ? ??????????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????? (???????) ????????.
????????? ???????? ?? ????? ? ??????? (???????) ???????? ????? ??????? ??? 1000 °?, 1
?, ?????????????? ?? ? ??? ? ????????????? ??????? 600?800 °?, 1 ? ????????? ? ????. 2.
# 251 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????, ?????? ?. ????????. ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????
??????? 1. ????????? ????? ???????? 70Ч10Ч10 ?? ????? ??????? ? 1000 °?, 1 ? ? ???????? ??? 538 °?,
3,5 ?, ? ??????????? ?? ???? ??????????????? ??????????? ?????????
????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ?????????
????? ??????????????
???????
??????????????
?????????
???????????
??????????
?????????????
???????? (0,95)
??????????????? ??????? ? 950 °?, 1 ?
??????? ??? 1000°?, 1 ?
- 0,177
0,0008
0,0287
0,0110
???????? 538 °?, 3,5 ?
- 0,078
0,00014
0,0119
0,0045
??????? ??? 1000°?, 1 ?+
???????? 538 °?, 3,5 ?
- 0,257
0,0010
0,0315
0,0121
??????????????? ?????????????? ? 650 °?, 1 ?
??????? ??? 1000°?, 1 ?.
0,042
0,00037
0,0194
0,0074
???????? 538 °?, 3,5 ?
- 0,077
0,00017
0,0130
0,0500
??????? ??? 1000°?, 1 ?+
???????? 538 °?, 3,5 ?
- 0,035
0,00035
0,0188
0,0072
??????? 2. ????????? ???????? ???????? 70?10?10 ?? ????? 03?11?10?2?-?? ??? ??????? ? 1000 °?, 1 ?
? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????????? ?? ? ???
???????????
???????????????
?? ? ???, °?
????????? ???????? ????????
????? ??, %
???????
?????
(???????)
????????? ???????? ????????
????? ?????? ????? ???, %
???????
?????
(???????)
600
-0,080
0,224
0,250
0,429
650
-0,040
0,259
0,320
0,463
750
-0,150
0,145
-0,080
0,334
800
-0,200
0,100
-0,180
0,140
???. 4. ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????, ?? ??? 03?11?10?2?-??: 1 ? ??? ??? ? 750 °?,
1 ?; 2 ? ??? ??? ? 650 °?, 1 ?. ????????? ??????? ?????????, ?0,2: 3 ? ??? ??? ? 750 °?, 1 ?; 4 - ??? ??? ?
650 °?, 1 ?. ????????? ?????????????? ?????????, ?: 5 ? ? 750 °?, 1 ?; 6 ? ? 650 °?, 1 ?
# 252 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????, ?????? ?. ????????. ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????
??????? 3. ????????? ????????? ? ??? ????? ??? 03?11?10?2?-?? ? ??????????? ?? ???????????
????????
??????????? ???????? °?,
? ???????
3?5 ?
320
350
360
370
380?385
390?395
400?435
450?480
500
520
535
540
550
560
580
?? 0,5 ?? 1,5
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
43
50
72
54
26
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
????? ?? ??????????, ?
?????????? ????????????? ????????
?? 1,5 ?? 2,5
?? 2,5 ?? 10 ?? 10 ?? 24
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
50
16
16
40
35
15
7
27
21
2
23
5
0,0
40
6
0,0
26
35
13
14
38
28
0,0
20
20
0,0
0,0
12
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
24 ? ?????
100
100
100
50
28
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
0,0
20
60
88
100
100
?????????? ????????? ???????? ???????? ????? 03?11?10?2?-?? ???? ???????????
?????????????? ?? ????????? ? ???????? ??????? ????? ????????? ??????? ???????????????
?? ? ??? ? ????????????? ??????? ?-?-??????????? ? ??????? ???????? ?? ?0,200 ?? 0,320 %
?? ????? ? ?? 0,100 ?? 0,463 % ?? ??????????? ???????.
?????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? (???. 4) ? ???????? ??????? (???. 2) ??? ??? ???????, ??? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ??? ? ???????????? ?? 50 % ????????? ???????? ?
?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????
03?11?10?2?-??.
???????, ????????? ?? ? ??? ? ?????????????? ?????????? 650 ? 750 °?, 1 ?, ???????? ??????? ?????????? ? ???. ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?? 50 % ????????? ????? ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ?? ???????
?????? ? ????????? ? ???????????? [5] ????????????, ?????????? ? ?????????-??????????
???????????-???????? ???????.
?????????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ??????? (???. 6) ? ????????? ? ???
(????. 3) ? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ????? 03?11?10?2?-?? ??????????, ??? ???????? ?? ???????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ??????? 400?500 °?, 1 ?, ???????? ???????? ????????? ? ???. ????????????? ??????????? ???????? 540 °?, ?????????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? 1300-1350 ???, ? ??? ????? ??????? ???????????? (560?650 °?)
????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ? ???.
???????????? ??????? ?? ????????? ? ??? ????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????????. ??????? ? ??????????? ????? 5 % ??????????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ?? ? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ??? ???????? ????? 24 ?,
??? ????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ? ???.
# 253 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????, ?????? ?. ????????. ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????
???. 5. ????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? 03?11?10?2?-?? ????? ???????? 3 ?? ? ??????????? ??
??????????? ???????? ? ??????? 3,5 ?
??????
1. ?? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????????????? ????? (???) 03?11?10?2?-?? ? ??????????? ?? ??????? ??????????? (??) ?
???????????????? ????????? (???) ? ????????????? ??????? ?-?-??????????? ???????????
????????? ???????????? ?????????, ????????????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????, ??? ? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????????? 650 ? 800 °?.
2. ????????, ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ?? ? ??? ????????? ???????? ?????????
???????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????? ? ?????????????
?????????? ??? ???????????.
3. ????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????
???????????????? ???????? ??? ????? ????????? ?? ???????? ??????? ? ???????????
????????.
?????? ??????????
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
??????, ?.?. ????????????? ???????????????????? ????? / ?.?. ??????, ?.?.
??????????. - ?.: ???????????, 1970.- 224 ?.
??????, ?.?. ????????? ? ???????? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????????? /
?.?. ?????? // ?????.- 1970.- ? 7.- ?. 12-13.
??????, ?.?. ?????????, ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????????
???????????????????? ?????? / ?.?. ?????? // ?????.- 1985.- ? 5.- ?. 23-33.
??????, ?.?. ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ????? / ?.?. ??????.- ?.:
???????????, 1974.- 208 ?.
?????????, ?.?. ??????????? ???????????-??????? ??????????-????????? ????? (?????)
/ ?.?. ????????? // ?????.- 1997.- ? 10.- ?. 20-28.
# 254 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
??????? ?. ??????, ?????? ?. ????????. ??????? ??????????? ? ???????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????
6.
7.
?????????, ?.?. ???????????? ???????????: ??????? ? ?????????????? / ?.?. ?????????
// ?????.- 1999.- ? 8.- ?.- 4-22.
??????????, ?.?. ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????
????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ?????????????? / ?.?. ??????????, ?.?.
????????????, ?.?. ??????? ? ??. // ?????? ????????.- 1978.- ?. 14.- ???. 2.- ?. 131-137.
Effect of Heat and Thermo-Cyclic Treatment on Structure
and Properties of Martensitic-Ageing Steel
Vitaly S. Bironta and Genry G. Krushenkob
a
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
b
Institute of Computational Modeling, SB RAS,
Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
The phase composition change of martensitic-ageing steel 03X11H10M2T-B?, depending on the mode of
heat and thermo-cyclic treatment when the temperature is in the area of ?-?-turning is described in the
article. Preliminary thermal and thermo-cyclic treatment allows improving the dimension precision of
follow-quenching products at subsequent hardening and increasing resistance to energized corrosion
attack. Using the preheat treatment one can adjust the operating properties by changing the phase
composition and temperature of ageing of martensitic-ageing steel.
Key words: martensitic-ageing steel, heat treatment, thermo-cyclic treatment, phase composition,
properties.
# 255 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2008 1) 256-262
~~~
??? 669.967 3
Foam Metals High-Temperature Electrical
Characteristics? Investigation
Vladimir I. Kirkoa, Sergey S. Dobrosmislova,
Alexander O. Gusevb, Dmitry A. Simakovb*
and Egor I. Stepanova
a
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
b
Krasnoyarsk Engineering-Technological Centre of «RUS-Engineering»,
37, b.1 Pogranichnikov st., Krasnoyarsk, 660111 Russia 1
Received 05.08.2008, received in revised form 10.09.2008, accepted 17.09.2008
In the work presented we have carried out experimental investigations of high- temperature electrophysical properties of foam metals. We have obtained data of foam nickel and foam copper resistivity
and temperature coefficients of resistance (TCR) versus their plane deformation degree within the
temperature range from 100 to 950 є?.
Key words: foam metals, high-temperature electro-physical properties.
Introduction
Foam metals possess a number of elastic and electric properties [1] that allow one using them as a conducting
medium, being exposed to different elastic influences. For example, they can be used as a conducting variator
of a material thermal expansion coefficient in electric steel ? foam metal ? cermet joints [2, 3].
The main aim of present paper was to investigate the dependence of electrical features of the
materials based on foam nickel and foam copper on their temperature and plane deformation degree.
Experimental
Electrical characteristics have been measured with the help of 4-probe method, as in paper [4]. The
foam metal specimens have been covered with a high- temperature coating to avoid high-temperature
oxidation. Plane deformation has been accomplished by means of a hydraulic press. In Fig. 1, there is
presented the image of the initial foam nickel structure, having been obtained with the help of a raster
electron microscope (REM).
Such structure can be described by a model suggested in [4], where the foam structure is considered
as a set of polyhedron cells, presented in Fig. 2.
According to the model given, there have been obtained the following dependences to calculate a
relative density and electrical conductivity.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: simakov@etc.rusal.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 256 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir I. Kirko, Sergey S. Dobrosmislov? Foam Metals High-Temperature Electrical Characteristics? Investigation
Fig. 1. The image of the initial foam nickel structure
(?)
(b)
Fig. 2. Polyhedron cell of the foam metal with an open porosity (a). The polyhedron cell edge (b)
Fig. 3. Dependences of relative electro-conductivity on relative density of foam copper (curve 3) and foam nickel
(curve 1) are compared to experimental data of foam aluminium (curve 2) and to the theoretical model [4]
# 257 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir I. Kirko, Sergey S. Dobrosmislov? Foam Metals High-Temperature Electrical Characteristics? Investigation
§ t2 +t2
?
= 0,2296 u ЁЁ 1 2 2
?0
© l
3
·
t
ё + 0,625§Ё 1 ·ё ;
ё
©l №
№
(1)
3
?
§t ·
= 0,4082 u ЁЁ 1 ёё ;
?0
©l №
Є
0,4082 t12 + t 22 є
?
u«
=
»,
?0
§ t12 · ¬ l 2 ј
lnЁЁ 2 ёё
© t2 №
(2)
(3)
where t1, t2 and l are the characteristic sizes of the tetragonal cell edges, and ?, ?0 are the foam and foam
material densities, respectively, ?, ?0 are the foam and foam material conductivities. The formula given
(2) is used at t1 = t2.
In Fig. 3 there are presented dependences of relative electro-conductivity on relative density of
foam nickel and foam copper having been obtained in present paper in comparison to the theoretical
model, as well as to the experimental data of foam aluminium from [4].
As it can be seen in Fig. 3, the dependences are practically linear and, if there is no plane deformation
(???0 = 0,045), the data of foam nickel and copper coincide well with that of foam aluminium from [4].
Further discrepancy at higher relative densities can be explained by the fact that in present paper higher
values of foam metal densities have been reached by plane deformation of the specimens which leads
to distortions of the foam metal cells.
In Fig. 4 there are shown dependences of the foam metal resistivity on the metal plane deformation
degree at ? = 20 °?.
Foam metal resistivity decreases with the deformation degree increasing, and the curve can be
presented by the linear relationship of the following type:
§?
·
?
?
= 00 ?ЁЁ 00 1ёё;
(4)
?0
?0
© ?0
№
?
?= ,
(5)
?0
where ? is the deformation degree, ?00, ?0 are the resistivities of the corresponding foam metal in its
initial state (at ? = 0) and metal, respectively.
In Fig. 5, there are shown relative resistivity dependences on the temperature at different
deformation degrees.
As it can be seen in the figure, the foam metals resistivity changes its values within the range from
20 % to 25 % with temperature increasing. However, at high degrees of plane deformation, it remains
practically unchanged.
In Fig. 6, there are presented temperature dependences of the foam nickel resistivity at different
degrees of its plane deformation (a), with different pore sizes (b) and, in the last case, at approximately
equal density.
As follows from the figure, all foam nickel temperature dependences have a bend at a temperature
near the pure nickel Curie point (360 °?). The foam nickel Curie point is slightly overrated (by 40 єC)
and can be caused by an increased level of impurities, dissolved in its crystal structure and formed
during the technological process of its preparation. It can also be the result of some other reasons,
preventing the motion of domain walls.
# 258 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir I. Kirko, Sergey S. Dobrosmislov? Foam Metals High-Temperature Electrical Characteristics? Investigation
(?)
(b)
Fig. 4. Dependences of the foam copper (a) and foam nickel (b) resistivities on the metals plane deformation
degree at ? = 20 °?
(?)
(b)
Fig. 5. The foam nickel (?) and the foam copper (b) relative resistivity dependences on the temperature at different
deformation degrees. Here ? and ?0 are the resistivities of the foam and of a solid material, respectively, versus
temperature
# 259 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir I. Kirko, Sergey S. Dobrosmislov? Foam Metals High-Temperature Electrical Characteristics? Investigation
(?)
(b)
Fig. 6. Temperature dependences of foam nickel (a) and copper (b) resistivities at different plane deformation
degrees
(?)
(b)
Fig. 7. Temperature dependences of foam nickel TCR at ? = 0 (?) and ? = 0,8 (b)
# 260 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir I. Kirko, Sergey S. Dobrosmislov? Foam Metals High-Temperature Electrical Characteristics? Investigation
(?)
(b)
Fig. 8. Foam nickel TCR dependences on its plane deformation degree ? within the temperature ranges from 100
to 400 є? (curve 1) and from 400 to 500 є? (curve 2) (a), foam copper TCR vs. temperature (b)
Increase of the degree of the foam metal plane deformation leads to decrease of their resistivity
which is due to pores? closing. In this case, the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) goes down
too, as it follows from Fig. 6.
Temperature dependences of foam nickel TCR are given in Fig. 7 at different degrees of plane
deformation.
As it follows from the figure, the TCR undergoes a sudden change at the Curie point caused by a
second-order phase transition. It decreases linearly within the temperature range from 450 to 950 °?.
Within the temperature range from 100 to 400 єC, the foam nickel TCR is slightly (practically,
linearly) decreasing with the growth of the plane deformation degree (Fig. 8a). The absolute TCR value
is within that for technical nickel (2.7?·103 deg-1) [5]. At temperatures higher than 500 єC, foam nickel
TCR does not depend on its deformation degree. Foam copper?s TCR is going down linearly with
temperature, but is decreasing with the deformation degree growth (Fig. 8b).
Conclusions
In present paper, we have carried out the investigations of high-temperature electrical properties
of foam nickel and copper versus temperature and plane deformation degree. The work has shown that
the foam metal resistivities and TCRs decrease with the increase of the deformation degree. Thereat, in
the former the dependence is linear. At high deformation degrees (? > 0,5), the ratio of the foam metal
resistivity to the metal one at the same temperature is practically independent of the temperature. Foam
nickel TCR within the temperature range from 100 to 400 є? corresponds to that of technical nickel. It
decreases linearly with the increase of the deformation degree.
Acknowledgments
The authors express their gratitude to the ?RUSAL Engineering Co Ltd? for their assistance in
the preparation of the paper.
# 261 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Vladimir I. Kirko, Sergey S. Dobrosmislov? Foam Metals High-Temperature Electrical Characteristics? Investigation
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Goodall, R. The electrical conductivity of microcellular metals / R. Goodall, L. Weber,
A. Mortensen. - J. Appl. Phys. 2006, N 100.
Latvaitis, J. D. Nickel foam pin connector for inert anodes / J. D. Latvaitis, R. M. Dunlap,
K. Butcher // Patent USA No: 7, 316, 577 B2, Jan. 8. 2008.
LeRoy, E. D. Inert anode electrical connection / E. D. LeRoy, R. Astoflo Lee Troup // Patent USA
No: 7, 169, 270 B2. Jan. 30. 2007.
Dharmasema, K. P. Electrical conductivity of open-cell metal foams / K.P. Dharmasema,
H.H.G. Wadley // J. Mater. Res. 2002. Vol. 17, N 3. P. 625.
Key, D. Physicist-Experimentalist?s Handbook / D. Key, T. Lebi.- Moscow, 1949.
# 262 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2008 1) 263-270
~~~
??? 541.1; 621.319.45; 539.53
??????? ?????????????? ??????????
?? ???????? ????????????? ???????????
??????????? ?????? Bi2O3-CdO
?????? ?. ??????*
????????? ??????????? ???????????,
660041 ??????, ??????????, ??. ?????????, 79 1
Received 05.08.2008, received in revised form 10.09.2008, accepted 17.09.2008
????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ??????? Bi2O3-CdO. ?????????,
??? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????
873 ? ? ??????????? ?? ????? ? ???????? ??????????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????.
???????? ?????: ?????????, ????????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ????????,
????????????? ????, ????????, ????????, ???????? , ??????????????, ?????????????.
? ?????????????? ???? ?????????? ????- ? ??????????? ??????, ??? ??????????. ???
????????, ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ? ??? ???????? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????????.
???? ?????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ? ????????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????. ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? Bi2O3-CdO.
????????? ????????? ??????? Bi2O3-CdO [1] ?????????????? ???? ? ???????????? ????????? 1070 ? ? ???????? 17 ????. % CdO. ?????????? ???? ?? ?????? Bi2O3, ? ??????? ??? 980 ?
??????? ??????????? ??????????? ? Bi2O3?? Bi2O3. ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????
????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????. ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? Bi2O3
????? 1 ????.% CdO.
???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? [2] ? ????? ??????????????????? [3,4]. ???????? ??????? [2-4] ?????? ????? ??????? ??
??????????? 973 ? ???????? ??????????????? ?-????, ? ????? ?????? ? n-????. ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ? ??????????.
1. ???????? ????????????
1.1. ????????????? ??????????
??? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? Bi2O3-CdO ???? ????? ???????? ?????
???. ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ????? ? ??????? 50 ??. ?????????? ???????????
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: leonovvv@inbox.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 263 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ??????. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????????
?? ??????? ? ???? ??? ??????????? 1010 ? ? ????????? ??????. ????? ???????? ? ??????? 4
????? ??????? ???????????????, ???????? ?????? ? ?????. ????? ??? ????????? ????????????
????????? ????? ??? ??????????? 873 ? ? ??????? 3 ?????. ?? ?????????? ??????? ????????
???????. ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??????. ?????????? ???? ??????? ? ????????????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? 5 ??????. ?????????
??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??? ?? ????????.
1.2. ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ???????????
????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? 0 - 4 ??. ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????. ???????? ????????? ??
?????????? ????????? ????????? 1,5 ??. ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????. ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ????. ? ??????
????????????? ?????? ?????????????.
??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????. ??????????? ??????? ????? ????????
??????? ???????? ? ?????? ? ? ?????????????? ????, ???????? ?? ??????????? ???????????. ?
??? ????? ??????, ? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????????. ??????? ??????????? ?
??????? ????????????? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ?? ????. ????? ??
?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ? ????? ????????? ??????? ?
??????? 5 ?????. ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ? ?.?. ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???? - ???? ????????.
??????????? ??? ?????? ??????? 873 ?, ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????????.
1.3. ???????? ????????????????? ??????? ???????
???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??? ?????????????. ????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????
?????????????????? ? ????? ?????????????. ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????
????????? ?? ??????????????. ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???-3.
? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????? ???
??????? ????? ???????????????? ??????? 136?. ????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?
???????? ?????? ????????? ? ????? ? ??? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???????. ??? ??? ????????????? ?????
Bi2O3-CdO ????? ??????????????? ?????????, ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????
??? ???????? ?? ???????? 40 ?. ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????. ?????????????
?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? 6,5 % ??? ????????????? ??????????? 0,95.
2. ?????????? ????????????
2.1. ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? Bi2O3-CdO
????? ?????? ??? ???????????
????????? ???????? ????????, ??? ????????????? ????? Bi2O3-CdO ???????? ??????????????? n-????. ???????? ???? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????????.
?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ????. 1. ?? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???????, ??? ? ???? ? ???????? ??????????, ??????????? ?? ???????.
# 264 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ??????. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????????
? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????. ??? ??????? ?????? ????? 45 ????? ?????? ????? ??????? (-3 ? 0 ??) ??? ????????
(+3??). ???????? ????????????? ??? ???? ????? ????????. ? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????????
??????????????, ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ????? ???? ? 1,03 ???? ??
????????? ? ??????????????? ? ????? ????????. ??????? ????? ???????, ??? ????? 45 ?????
?????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????????.
??? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ????? 45 ??? ??????, ? ??? ?????? ? ?????????????
??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????. ? ????????? ??????? ? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???? ??????, ??? ?? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????.
?? ?????? ????. 1 ????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???????
??????. ????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????. ???????
????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? tg ? ? ? ?????
?????? tg ? ? ????????? ?????????? (??), ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????. ??????????? ?? 4
???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ????????? ? ????. 2. ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ????????.
??????? 1. ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? (*107,?/?2) ?? ???????? ?????????????? ??????
Bi2O3-CdO ? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? U ? ??????? ?????? ?
?
???????
?, ???
U, ??
0
30
60
180
24,4
26,9
35,3
35,1
26,4
32,3
33,5
37,1
25,3
36,2
28,7
39,4
4
27,5
26,3
29,3
30,6
5
22,5
28,7
31,2
31,8
1
2
3
6
-3
24,5
34,2
33,4
32,2
26,5
30,7
34,2
30,3
8
27,0
34,8
33,7
32,4
9
21,9
26,0
25,5
21,9
7
10
11
12
0
+3
23,6
25,7
27,5
22,5
24,1
28,2
30,2
22,7
25,0
29,8
24,2
24,2
??????? 2. ??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????????
?????? Bi2O3-CdO ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ? ?? ?????????. ?????????? ?? 4 ????????
????????? ???????, ??
??????? ???? ??????? ??????, 105, ?/(?2*???)
-3
0
+3
tg? (??????)
27,3
24.7
12,6
tg? (?????)
2,1
0,03
-5,1
# 265 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ??????. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????????
????????, ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ????? ????????????? ????. ? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??
??????, ?? ? ?? ????? ? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????????.
??? ?????, ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????????? -3??,
? ?????????? - ??? +3??. ??????? ???? ??????????? ??-? ???? ???????? ????????? ??????????????. ???????? ??? ??? ??????????? +3?? ????? tg ?(+3) = 5,1*10 -5 ?/(?2*???), ??? ? 5,1/2,1 =
2,5 ???? ?????? ?? ??????, ??? tg ?(-3). ????? ????, tg ?(+3) ? tg ?(-3) ?????????? ?? ?????, ???
tg ?(?), tg ?(-3), tg ?(+3) - ???????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ??
??????? ????? ?????? ??? ????????, ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????, ??????????????, ?? ??????? ??????.
3. ?????????? ???????????
??????????? ?????????????? ??????? Bi2O3-CdO ? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????? Bi2O3 ? ???????? CdO.
? ?????????? ??????? 1 - 17 ????. % CdO ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?????????
?? = (29,2+0,28?)*107, ?/?2,
(1)
??? ? - ?????????? CdO (????.%). ???????? ????????? (1) ???????????? ??????? ????????????
????????? ?.?. ??? ?????????? ???????
H?=H?1V1+H?2V2,
(2)
??? H? - ?????????????? ??????, H?1 ? V1 - ?????????????? ? ????????????? ????? ???? Bi2O3
, H?2 ? V2 - ?????????????? ? ????????????? ????? ???? CdO. ?? ????????? (1) ?????????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ???? ?? 15 %, ?.?. ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? Bi2O3-CdO ????????? ?????????????? ???? ?? ?????? Bi2O3.
????? ????, ????????? (????. %) V1/V2 ? 83/17 = 5 ??? V1>>V2. ??????? ????????? (2) ?????
????????? ???????? ??
??=H?1V1+H?2V2 ? H?1
(3)
??????? ????? ????? ????????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????? ? ???? Bi2O3.
? ????? ? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??????
<1 ????. %. ?????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??????.
??????? ?? ?????? ??? 0,14 ????.% CdO ??? ??????????? ?????? 873 ?, ?.?. ??? ? ???? ????????????? CdO ? ??????? Bi2O3. ? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????
'+ P
69,2 * 10 7 , ? /( ? 2 ????.%).
'C
?????, ???? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ??tgJ
?????????, ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????. ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??
??????? ?????:
'+P(3)
2,8 *10 7 ? * ? 2
tgJ
69,2 * 10 7 ? * ? 2 * ????% 1
? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ?
'C1
'C 2
'+P(3)
tgJ
5,8 * 10 7 ? * ? 2
69,2 *10 7 ? * ? 2 * ????% 1
# 266 #
0,04 ????.%,
0,083 ????.%,
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ??????. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????????
??? ???(-3) ? ???(+3) - ????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? - ?????, ?.?. ??? ?????????? -3?? ? +3?? ?? ???????.
?????????????, ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? -3?? ???????????? ????????????? CdO ????????????? ?? 0,04 ????. % ??? ? 1,3 ????, ? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? +3?? ??????????? ??
0,083 ????. % ??? ? 2,5 ????.
?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????. ?????? ??? ????????? ? ??? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ????????????, ? ???????? ? = 4,5. ???????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????????
? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????.
?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????. ? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? [5].
?=
? ? ?U
,
d
(4)
??? ?? - ??????????????? ????????????? ???????, ? - ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????????
???????????, U - ?????????? ?? ????????????, d - ??????? ???????????. ???? ???????, ??? ??????
?????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? h ???????? ? ?? ???????, ??????? ?? ????????, ?????, ???? ?/h,
??????? ?????????? (??? ???????????) ???????????? ????????? ?n ? ???????. ???????? ??????
??? ? = 4,5, U = 3 ??, d = 2*10-3 ?, h = 2*10-3 ?. ? 1 ?????? ?????????? 0,625*1019 ??????????.
'n
G
h
8,85 *10 12 (?) * 4,5 * 3 *10 3 ( ?) * 0,625 *1019
2 * 10 3 * 2 *10 3 * 10 6 (?? 3 )
H R HU
dh
6,2 * 1010 ?? 3 .
(5)
????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? [2-4],
?????????? ?? ???????????? ? ?????? CdO ? Bi2O3 ?? ???????
n = ?(e?)-1,
(6)
??? ? - ??????????????????, e - ????? ?????????, ? - ??????????? ????????? ??????.
???????????? ?????????? ? ?????? CdO ?????????
10 9 ?? 1 * ?? 1
1,6 *10 19 ?? * 5 *10 3 ?? 2 ( ??) 1
? ???????????? ????? ? ?????? Bi2O3
n
p
10 8 ?? 1 * ?? 1
1,6 *10 19 ?? *10 2 ?? 2 ( ??) 1
1,25 * 10 6 ?? 3 ,
6,2 *10 8 ?? 3
??? ????????? ???????????.
??? ?????, ???????????? ????????? ?????? ? CdO ? 6,2*1010/1,25*106 = 5*104 ???? ?????? ? ?
Bi2O3 ? 6,2*1010/6,2*108 = 102 ???? ??????, ??? ???????????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ????? ???????
?? ???????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? 3 ??. ?????????????, ??????? ???????????? ?????????
?????? ? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? Bi2O3-CdO.
??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? CdO ? Bi2O3 ?????????????, ? ????????.
?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???? ????????. ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ? ????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ? ?? ?????????.
???????????? [3, 4, 6] ??????????, ??? n-??? ???????????? ? CdO ?????????? ???????? ?????# 267 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ??????. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????????
??? ? ????????????? ?????? ??????, ? ?-??? ? Bi2O3 - ?????????? ???????. ??????????? CdO
? ???? Bi2O3 ????? ???? ??? ?? ?????????????, ??? ? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? [6-8]. ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????????. ??? ???????????
???????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????, ???????????? ???????? [9].
0=e-+h+, Kj=np
(7)
0=(VBi ) , Kv= [VBi ]
(8)
(VBi0)(1) = (VBi-)(1)+h+, Kv=p[VBi-](1)
(9)
(CdCd0)(2)= (Cdi0)(1), KCdi(2)= [Cdi0](2)
(10)
(CdCd ) = (CdBi ) , KCdBi = [CdBi ]
(11)
0 (1)
0 (2)
0 (1)
0 (1)
0 (1)
(1)
(Cdi0)(1)= (Cdi+)(1)+e-, KCdi1=n[Cdi+](1)/ [Cdi0](1)
(CdBi ) = (CdBi ) +h , K
0 (1)
- (1)
+
=p[CdBi ] / [CdBi ]
1
CdBi
- (1)
0 (1)
(12)
(13)
??? ?- - ????????? ????????, h+- ?????, n ? p - ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????, VBi ? VCd ???????? ??????? ? ??????, Cdi- ????????????? ???? ??????, CdBi - ???? ?????? ? ???? ?????????? ???????, K - ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? (?)1 ? ??????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????? ? ????? ????,
[](1) ? [](2) ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????? Bi2O3 ? CdO, ??????????????, ?????? 0
- ?????????? ??????????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? [0], [+] ? [-] ????????? ?? ????? ??????? 0 - ???????, + - ?????????????, - ? ?????????????, ???????????? ?????
??????? ? ??????????? ????? [CdCdo](2) = 1 ? [BiBio](1)= 1.
??????? ???????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????
? ????????????? ???????:
n+[CdBi-](1)+ [VBi-](1)=p+ [Cdi+](1) .
(14)
????? ??????????? (10) ? (12) ? (11) ? (13) ??????? ??????????????
[Cdi+](1)=KCdi(1)KCdi(2)/n = pKCdi(1)KCdi(2)/Kj
(15)
??? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ?
[CdBi-](1)=KCd(1)/p = nKCdBi(1)/Kj
(16)
??? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ?????????.
?? ????????? (15) ????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????
+ 1
[Cdi ] ?? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????. ?? ????????? (16) ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? [CdBi-]1 ? Bi2O3 ?? ????????????? ?????????,
??? ??? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????????. ????????????? ?????? ??????, ? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????, ??????????????? ????? ???????????? ????????:
[Cd](1)= [Cdi+](1)+ [CdBi-](1).
(17)
?? ????. 1 ?????, ??? ? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????,
?.?. ??? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????, ?????????????? ?????????????. ???? ???? ? ??# 268 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ??????. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????????
?????????? ? ?????????? (16) ????????? ?? ??, ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????
????????? [CdBi-]1. ?????????? ?????????????? ??? +3??, ?.?. ??? ?????????? ????????????
??????????, ????? ? ???????????? ? ?????????? (16) ????????? ?? ?????????? [CdBi-]1. ?????????????, ????????????? Cd ? Bi2O3 ?????????? ? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????? (CdBi-)1, ? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? [Cdi+]1 ????.
??????
??????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????????? 0,75??? ??? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? 83 ????. % Bi2O3 (??????? ????) ? 17 ????. %CdO.
1. ??????????, ??? ? ???????? ??????:
- ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?, ???????? ?????????? ????????, ???????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????????;
- ? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ????????;
- ? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ? ????? ????? ????????.
2. ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? (??????? ????) ? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ??????. ? ?????? ?????
?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? Bi 2O3 -CdO ????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????, ??????????????, ??????????? ???????????
? 2,5 ? ??????????? ? 1,3 ???? ????????????? ??????? (Cd Bi -)1 ? ??????? ???? Bi 2O3
?????????????? ??????.
3. ????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???
????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? - ????? ??????.
?????? ??????????
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
???????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? / ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????????? ? ??.- ?.: ?????, 1969. ? 824 ?.
????????, ?.?. ??????-?????????? ???????? ??????? / ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?.
??????? ? ??. - ?.: ???????????, 1978. ? 472 ?.
????? ,?.?. ?????????????????? ? ???????? Bi2O3 ? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????? / ?.?.
????? , ?.?. ??????. -???, 1963. - ?.5. - ?9. - ?. 2420-2427.
Lamb E.F., Tompkins F.C. Semi-conductivity and thermoelectric of cadmium oxide. Trans.
Faraday Soc., v.58, J., p.1424-1438.
?????, ?.?. ????????????? ???????????? / ?.?. ?????. - ?.: ???????, 1969. -591 ?.
???????, ?. ?????????? ?? ????????????, ???????? ? ?????????????????? ? ???????
??????? ???????? / ?. ??????? .- ?.: ???, 1975. -397 ?.
?????????, ?.?. ??????? ???????? ? ????????????????? ???????? / ?.?. ?????????, ?.?.
????????.- ?.: ?????????, 1980. - 280 ?.
?????????, ?.?. ???????????? ??????? / ?.?. ????????? . -?.: ?????, 1978. - 360 ?.
??????, ?. ????? ????????????? ?????????? / ?. ?????? . - ?.: ???, 1969. - 654 ?.
# 269 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ??????. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????????
The Influence of the Electric Potential on the Reciprocal Solubility
of the Two-Phase Alloy Bi2O3-CdO Components
Victor V. Leonov
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
The experiments were carried out on the two-phase alloys of the eutectic system Bi2O3-CdO. It turned
out that the solubility of cadmium oxide increased or decreased at the annealing temperature of 873 K
depending on the sign and value of the potential, which is fed to the sample during the annealing.
Key words: eutectic, electrical condenser, dielectric properties, electric field, electrode, plates,
diffusion, microhardness, solubility.
# 270 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2008 1) 271-275
~~~
??? 553.24(?2-547)
Production of Carbon Briquetted Fuel from the Coals
of Kansk-Achinsk Basin by Means of Hot Pressing
Pyotr N. Kuznetsova*, Anatoly S. Maloletnevb
and Svetlana M. Kolesnikovaa
a
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, SB RAS,
42 Karl Marx st., Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia
b
Institute of Fossil Fuels,
29 Lenin pr., Moscow, 119071 Russia 1
Received 05.08.2008, received in revised form 10.09.2008, accepted 17.09.2008
The paper presents the results of the research on thermobriquetting of dense brown and gaseous
coals from Kansk-Achinsk basin, brown and gaseous coal mixtures with no binding agent as well as a
mixture of brown coal with hydrolyzed lignin as a binding agent.
The heating values of the products were shown to increase 1,3-1,5 times in comparison with the raw
coals ?nd the volatile yields causing black smoke decrease by 11-13 %. Most efficient, strong moistureproof briquettes with the heating value of 25,50 ?J/kg were produced of the mixture of the B3 brown
and gaseous coals. The addition of lignin to the brown coal allowed lowering the pressing temperature
from 380-400 ?C to 200-250 ?C, thus improving the reliability of the press operation.
Key words: coal, lignin, coal briquettes, binding agent, thermobriquetting.
Introduction
Use of mining combines, rotor excavators and scraper conveyors as well as transporting and
loading machines and mechanisms in mines and strip mines can lead to large amount of coal
crank. It can cause some problems in storage and transportation of this fuel, worsens its ecological
characteristics. The largest amount of crank is produced of brown coals with low strength. The
additional crank is produced during its storage because of its disposition to weathering and
spontaneous inflammation. The fuel with the large content of fi ne fractions can be utilized
successfully by the thermal power stations with the powdered fuel combustion system but is not
good enough for household use.
One of the efficient ways to improve utilization of brown coals is manufacturing of high quality
briquettes and rolled briquettes [1-4]. The raw material base for production of high quality fuel,
briquettes in particular, is located in Kansk-Achinsk brown coal basin (KAB) with the coals of low
mining cost and more ecologically friendly in comparison with other coals thanks to lower sulphur and
nitrogen contents as well as the content of mineral substances, including toxic ones [5, 6]. The basin
also has reserves of dense high-energy gaseous coals.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: kpn@icct.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 271 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Pyotr N. Kuznetsov, Anatoly S. Maloletnev and Svetlana M. Kolesnikova. Production of Carbon Briquetted Fuel from?
KAB coals are mostly of B2 dense brown coals type, not good for briquetting without binding
agent. The technology based on the application of petroleum bitumen as a binding agent for brown
coal briquetteting was developed by the Moscow Institute of Solid Fuel Upgrading. The briquette
factory in Kansk-Achinsk basin manufactures brown coal briquettes using this technology. The main
disadvantages of the technology are high cost of bitumen (30 % of the raw coal cost) and much black
smoke and high toxic volatile yield during briquette combustion.
The Institute of Fossil Fuels carried out a research on KAB brown coals briquetting with no
binding agents. The technology of hot pressing which has been developed is based on the ability of
brown coal to soften at a high temperature due to generation of some plastic matter [7 - 9]. The crushed
raw coal is dried by a gaseous heat-carrying agent in a turbulence drying chamber and after short
thermal aging is passed to the presses where, under the pressure and temperature of 380-400 ??,
the coal is compressed into briquettes without the addition of any binding agent. Bonding of coal in
briquettes depends on the pressure of the press, temperature and coal properties. The technology has
been applied to the coals of B2 type at Berezov, Borodino, Aban, Itat and Urjupinsk deposits of KAB.
The produced thermobriquettes have much higher heating values in comparison with the raw coals
(25,50 ?J/kg vs. 15-16 ?J/kg), are stronger and more moisture-proof in storage, exhaust less black
under combustion (volatile yield causing black smoke is 8-12 % less), emit less gum substances.
This paper presents the results of experimental research on thermobriquetting of more dense B3
type brown coal and of low-caking gaseous coal from KAB and their mixtures as well as of brown coal
with the additives of hydrolyzed lignin as a binding agent.
Experimental
The brown coal from Latyntsev deposit and gaseous coal from Sayan-Partizansky deposit of
KAB and hydrolyzed lignin from Krasnoyarsk Biochemical plant were used as the raw materials.
Their ultimate and proximate analysis data are given in Table 1.
The tests on thermobriquetting were carried out on laboratory and pilot facilities. For laboratory
tests, the raw crushed coal with the particle sizes of less than 1 mm was loaded into the press matrix
preheated to the necessary temperature with the rate of 1,5° C/min, subjected to heat ageing, and then
hot coal was pressurized by hydraulic press. In pilot tests, the crushed coal was loaded into the bin
and with the help of worm feeder passed to the turbulence chamber, a gaseous heating agent from the
furnace being fed simultaneously. After being heated to the necessary temperature the coal was passed
to the cyclone separation to remove dust, after that it was transported to the heat ageing for 0,5-4 min,
and then to the stamping press. According to the maintenance experience the optimal pressure of 75
MPa was chosen, and treatment temperature was varied from 200 to 400 ??.
Results and discussion
The results of the tests on thermobriquetting of brown and gaseous coals depending on the treatment
temperature are presented in Tables 2 and 3. The substantial increase in mechanical strength from 1,0
t? 4,5 MPa, the decrease in volatile yield from 46,1 to 36,6 %, as well as moisture absorption from 5,6
?? 3,8 % and increase in heating value from 22,90 t? 23,22 ?J/kg were observed under the increase of
temperature from 300 t? 400 ??. In comparison with the raw coal the volatile yields causing black smoke
decreased by 11-13 %, heating values increased from 16,51 t? 23,22-23,37 ?J/kg, i. ?. almost 1.5 times.
# 272 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Pyotr N. Kuznetsov, Anatoly S. Maloletnev and Svetlana M. Kolesnikova. Production of Carbon Briquetted Fuel from?
??ble 1. Proximate and ultimate analysis data for raw material
Coal
Ash
Ad, wt %
wt % on daf coal
Volatile yield
Vdaf, %
C
H
S
N
O
Heating value,
MJ/kg
Brown coal
16,0
47,4
73,5
5,2
1,1
0,4
20,3
16,51
Gaseous coal
14,1
43,5
78,5
5,9
1,5
1,4
12,7
19,69
Hydrolyzed lignin
2,4
63,4
63,1
6,5
1,3
0,7
28,4
-
??ble 2. Thermobriquetting of brown coal from Latyntsev deposit
Temperature, ??
Volatile yield
Vdaf, wt %
Mechanical
compression
strength, MPa
Heating value,
MJ/kg
Moister
absorption,
wt %
300
46,1
1,0
22,90
5,6
350
42,0
1,4
22,59
4,5
380
36,6
4,5
23,22
4,3
400
34,1
4,6
23,37
3,8
??ble 3. Thermobriquetting of gaseous coal from Sayan-Partizansky deposit
Temperature, ??
Volatile yield
V daf, %
Mechanical
strength, MPa
Heating value,
MJ/kg
Moister
absorption, wt %
300
350
40,1
3,7
25,87
2,3
39,5
4,3
26,13
3,3
380
380*
36,5
5,2
26,25
3,2
36,1
11,1
25,50
3,5
*Brown and gaseous coals? mixture with the ratio of 1:1
In case of gaseous coal, the temperature increase leads to the increase in briquette?s strength from
3,7 t? 5,2 ?P? and to the decrease in volatile yield from 40,1 t? 36,5 % (T?ble 3). Moisture absorption
is 2,3-3,2 %, heating value ranges from 25,87 t? 26,25 ?J/kg. Consequently, in comparison with the
raw coal, heating value of briquettes increased 1,3 times, and volatile yield decreased by 13,0 %.
The composition of brown and gaseous coal thermobriquettes produced is as follows, wt. %: Cdaf
75,4 and 81,5; ?daf 4,7 and 4,6; Sd 1,0 and 1,6; N daf 0,5 and 1,5 %, respectively.
It should be noted that the gaseous coal from Sayan-Partizansky deposit is of low-coking type
with the thickness of plastic layer about 9 mm. The generation of substantial volume of plastic matter
caused some problems in the press operation due to coking. This disadvantage was overcome by its
pressing in the mixture with brown coal playing the role of a thinning additive. It was found that the
thermobriquetting of the coals mixture was smooth and the pressing equipment operated in the reliable
way, the manufactured briquettes being strong, stronger than those produced of the original coals.
Under the heating temperature of 380 ?? for the mixture with 1:1 ratio, the strength reached 11,1 MPa,
while moister absorption and heating value were 3.5 % and 25,5 ?J/kg, respectively.
Hydrolyzed lignin is known to yield a certain volume of plastic matter at the temperature between
200 and 250 ?? [10,11]. This property was used to improve the plastic behavior of dense brown coal on
thermopressing by mixing with a hydrolyzed lignin (instead of petroleum bitumen) [12,13].
# 273 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Pyotr N. Kuznetsov, Anatoly S. Maloletnev and Svetlana M. Kolesnikova. Production of Carbon Briquetted Fuel from?
The lignin content in the mixture was varied from 15 t? 40 wt. %, and the pressing temperature from 200 t? 300 ??. The lignin was preliminary dried till the 15 % humidity, after that it was crushed
and dried again till residual humidity of 8 %. In lab tests, the prepared mixture of brown coal and
lignin with the particles less than 1 mm was loaded into a preheated pressing form which was placed
into a preheated furnace and exposed to isothermal ageing, and then the hot mixture was pressed.
The coal-lignin briquettes produced by this technology were mechanically very strong. Their
moisture-proof property to certain extent depended on the briquetting conditions and batch composition
(T?ble 4). Improved briquettes with increased moister-proof properties were produced under rather
low briquetting temperatures of 200-250 ??. With the temperature increase the tendency to moister
absorption increase was observed. Under 200-250 ?? the most moister-proof briquettes were produced
under thermal ageing time of 10-15 min.
Under briquetting temperature of 200 ??, the increase in lignin content in the mixture from 15 t?
40 % improved the moister-proof property from 10,1 t? 4,1 % (Table 5).
??ble 4. Moister resistance of coal-lignin briquettes depending on the temperature and the time of thermal ageing
(coal:lignin ratio is 70:30, pressing pressure is 100 MPa)
Briquetting temperature
Time of thermal ageing, min
200 ??
250 ??
300 ??
Moister absorption, wt %
5
11,0
10,3
10,2
10
7,4
6,5
15,8
15
6,1
7,9
17,3
20
10,3
12,7
18,7
??ble 5. Moister resistance of briquettes depending on the coal-lignin ratio
Coal-lignin ratio, wt
85/15
80/20
70/30
60/40
Moister absorption, wt %
10,2
6,4
5,2
4,1
The data obtained have demonstrated that lignin additives allow dense brown coal being briquetted
under rather low temperature of 200-300 ?? producing reasonably moister-proof briquettes with a
high mechanical strength. The coal-lignin briquette manufacturing makes it possible to produce highenergy graded fuel for household use and at the same time, to use toxic lignin waste.
Conclusions
1. The highly moister-proof briquettes with high mechanical strength, high energy and low volatile
yield were produced of B3 dense brown coal from Latyntsev deposit and from gaseous coal from
Sayan-Partizansky deposit by means of hot pressing. The heating value of the produced briquettes
in comparison with the raw coals was 1,3-1,5 times higher and volatile yield causing black smoke
decreased by 11-13 %.
2. The calorific briquettes of the highest mechanical strength up to 11,1 MPa were produced of the
mixture of gaseous and brown coals.
# 274 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Pyotr N. Kuznetsov, Anatoly S. Maloletnev and Svetlana M. Kolesnikova. Production of Carbon Briquetted Fuel from?
3. Adding hydrolyzed lignin as a binding agent allows lowering the pressing temperature from
380-400 ?? to 200-250 ??, thus increasing the reliability of the press operation.
4. The thermobriquettes are more ecologically safe than ungraded coals under transportation,
storing and combustion for semi-industrial and household uses.
5. The briquette manufacture technology based on hot pressing is all-purpose and flexible and can
be applied to the upgrading of coals of different types.
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
?rokhin B.N. Coal Briquetting / B.N. ?rokhin. - Moscow: Nedra, 1984. - 243 p. (in Russian).
Sviatets I.E. Brown Coals Technological Use / I.E. Sviatets. - Moscow: Nedra, 1985. - 207 p.
(in Russian).
Kraptchin I.P. Economics of Coal Processing / I.P. Kraptchin. - Moscow: Nedra, 1989. ? 214 p.
(in Russian).
Tsikarev D.?. Production of Solid Fuel from Coal for Household Use and its Consumption in
the World / D.?. Tsikarev, ?.?. Krichko, ?.P. Fomin // Review of Central Research Institute
of Economic and Research Information on Coal Industry News. - 1991. - ? 2. - P. 1-35
(in Russian).
Zverev D.P. ??B ? a Perspective Base for Producing High Quality Caked Fuel / D.P. Zverev,
G.S. Smirn?va // Ugol. - 1988. - ? 10. - P. 49-50 (in Russian).
Shorokhov V.P. The Development of Raw Materials Base in Kansk-Achinsk Fuel Energy Complex
in a New Ecological and Economic Situation / V.P. Shorokhov. - Moscow: TsNIIUGOL, 1992. 43 p. (in Russian).
The Development of Thermobriquetting Production with 1 Mln Ton Capacity for Manufacturing
Ecologically Clean Caked Fuel from Kansk-Achinsk Coal with Heat Value not less than 6000 Kcal/
kg: The Report on Research Work / IGI, ? GR 0192.0010610. - Moscow, 1992 (in Russian).
Fomin ?.P. The Development of Theory and Methods on Processing Coal into Coke and Household
Fuel // ?bstract of Dissertation on Doctor of Technical Sciences Degree. Moscow, IGI. - 2000
(in Russian).
Fomin ?.P. Research on Berezovsky Coals as Potential Raw Material for Thermobriquette
Fuel / ?.P. Fomin, G.I. Yenik, D.V. Kler, G.N. Zaitseva // Chemistry of Solid fuel. - 1992. - ? 6. P. 98-103 (in Russian).
Stavitsky V.D. Lignin Road Binding Agents / V.D. Stavitsky. - Moscow: ?r?nsport, 1980. ? 77 p.
(in Russian).
Sharma R. Characterization of Chars From Pyrolysis of Lignin / R. Sharma, J. Wooten, V.L. Baliga,
X. Lin et al. // Fuel. - 2004. - V. 83. - P. 1469-1482.
Patent 2074236 Russian Federation, MPK6 ? 10 L 5/14, 5/44. The Method of Producing Fuel
Briquettes / ?uznetsov P.N., ?rutchinin ?.V. - Published 1997, Bulletin ? 6 (in Russian).
Patent 2126816 Russian Federation, MPK 6 ? 10 L 5/44. The Method of Producing Mold Fuel /
?rutchinin ?.V., ?uznetsov P.N. - Published 1999, Bulletin ? 6 (in Russian).
# 275 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2008 1) 276-286
~~~
??? 621.384 191
Accelerated Phase-lock-loop Frequency
Control Methods of User?s Equipment in Perspective Radio
Navigation Systems
Evgeny V. Kuzmin*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 05.08.2008, received in revised form 10.09.2008, accepted 17.09.2008
This paper investigates noise-immunity of accelerated phase-lock-loop frequency control algorithms
of user equipment in perspective ground-based radio navigation systems. Three algorithms of
accelerated phase-lock-loop frequency control are suggested and described. Statistic simulations of
signal processing in involved system are given.
Key words: Radio navigation, spread-spectrum signal, minimum shift keying, phase-shift discriminator,
phase synchronization system, accelerated phase-locked-loop frequency control, phase-tracing error,
statistical modeling, quasi-optimal algorithm.
Introduction
Spread spectrum signals with minimum shift keying (MSK) are widely used in modern radio
navigation systems (RNS), e.g.: GEOLOC (France). High accuracy of coordinate measuring in the whole
RNS working area requires providing phase shift measurements with root-mean-square (RMS) error
?? ? 3o , when signal-to-noise ratio threshold equals to ?40dB (in the band of MSK-signal). That is why,
the meaning of phase-lock-loop frequency control pass band equals to 0,1 Hz. Thus, locking time is 600 s,
and can grow by a factor of 10 under noise and jamming influence [1].
Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in Kalman filtering, because it can provide
high accuracy of phase tracing measurements. But Kalman filter has a significant disadvantage ?
computational complexity, therefore, in the foreseeable future it can?t be used for preprocessing
algorithms.
Due to limits in computational technology, it?s necessary to investigate phase tracking algorithms
with performance objectives: small values of locking time and RMS error. So, the hypothesis that
will be tested is that multistage (several meanings of pass band) phase-lock-loop frequency control
algorithms can provide adequate accuracy of phase-tracing measurements and greatly smaller locking
time. Consequently, investigation of accelerated phase-lock-loop frequency control algorithms with
invariable phase shift accuracy is a topical scientific problem.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: kuzminev@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 276 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Evgeny V. Kuzmin. Accelerated Phase-lock-loop Frequency Control Methods of User?s Equipment in?
1. Navigation signal model of perspective RNS
Total realization of received MSK-signal and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) can be
described as:
^
`
y t Re S t exp Є¬ j 2S f 0 r Fd t Ms єј [ t ,
(1)
here j ? imaginary unit; f0 ? carrier frequency; Fd ? Doppler frequency shift; ?s ? starting phase of
signal; ?(t ) ? AWGN; S& (t ) ? complex envelope of MSK-signal:
S t D t 2 Ps exp Є¬ jT t єј ,
where Ps ? signal?s power; D(t ) = ±1 ? information signal; ?(t ) =
N ?1
determines angle modulation, d (t ) = ? di rect(t ? iT ) ,
i =0
{di }
(2)
t
?
d (t ?)dt ? ? function which
2T ?0
? pseudorandom sequence (PRS) of
N-length, T ? one?s bit PRS duration, rect(t) ? square pulse with T duration [2].
2. Phase synchronization system of MSK-signal receiver
Structural chart of MSK-signal receiver?s digital phase-lock-loop frequency control system
(PLFS) is presented in Fig. 1. Values yi = y (ti ) ( ti = i?t , i = 0,1,..., ?t ? sampling interval) are incoming
observations to digital phase-shift discriminator (DPD), formed by analog-digital converter (ADC).
? (k ) = cos(2?( f ± F? ( k ))t )
cos ?
Reference
signals
of
carrier
frequency
and
i
0
d
i
?
?
sin ? i (k ) = cos(2?( f 0 ± Fd ( k ))ti ) come into supporting inputs of DPD. These signals are formed by
digital synthesizer (DS) and based on Doppler frequency shift estimation F?d (k ) in each k-period
of filtering. Reference signals Qi = sin ?i and I i = cos ?i , which are synchronous with quadrature
components of MSK-signal, are formed by delay lock system. Quadrature components of bandwidth
compressing signal (after MSK-detection) are formed by summarizing of multiplications of
quadrature components of realization (1) and reference signals I i , Qi and integration on intervals
t ?[kTp ,(k + 1)Tp ] , k = 0,1,..., ( Tp = 40 ms ? MSK-signal?s period). Time of one cycle radio-range
beacon transmition equals Tc = 25Tp . Error signal which is proportional to phase mismatch forms in
compliance with quasi-optimal algorithm [3]:
Z d (k ) = sign (z1 (k ))z2 (k ) = D? (k ) z2 (k ),
(3)
where sign (x ) ? sign function, D? (k ) ? estimation of information signal D(t ) on k-period of filtering,
z1 (k ) and z2 (k ) ? quadrature components of correlation, computed on interval t ?[kTp ,(k + 1)Tp ] . Error
? (k ) and
signal Z d (k ) comes into digital filter (DF). Output signal of DF used to control signals cos ?
i
? (k ) frequencies. When there is no noise, discrimination characteristic can be described as
sin ?
i
1
Z d (? ) = M sign (cos ? )sin ?
2
.
Structural chart of the DPD is presented in Fig. 2, where Ч ? multiplier; + ? adder; ? ? adder
accumulator (digital integrator), which interrogated in kTp moments, k = 0,1,...; M = Tp / ?t ? integer.
Normalized discrimination (curves 1, 2) and fluctuation (curve 3) characteristics of DPD
are presented in Fig. 3. At that, curve 1 corresponds with no-noise case, and curves 2, 3 present
discrimination and fluctuation characteristics respectively. Curves 2, 3 are the statistical simulation
# 277 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Evgeny V. Kuzmin. Accelerated Phase-lock-loop Frequency Control Methods of User?s Equipment in?
Qi
y t Ii
Zd k yi
t
? k cos )
i
ti
? k sin )
i
Fig. 1
u
yi
u
? k cos )
i
u
u
1...M
¦
z1 k sign
u
? k sin )
i
u
1...M
¦
Zd k z2 k u
Qi
Ii
Fig. 2
= V2 M S
S
S S
S
S
S
S
M rad
Fig. 3
[
Ms k Mk M? s k y k Zd M 1 pT i
2S p
F?d k Fig. 4
# 278 #
x k K
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Evgeny V. Kuzmin. Accelerated Phase-lock-loop Frequency Control Methods of User?s Equipment in?
data then signal-to-noise ratio equals to ?40dB . Length of using PRS N = 214 ? 1 = 16383 . Number of
statistical examinations equals to 104 .
The model of PLFS is presented in Fig. 4, where Zd (? ) ? discrimination characteristic of
DPD; Ti ? time constant of integrator; K = K? Kc ? instantaneous element, taking account of transfer
constants of digital filter K? and digital synthesizer Kc; the meaning of another designation are clear
without comments.
Doppler frequency shift on k-period of filtering is estimated in compliance with the following
algorithm:
T
?
?
(4)
F?d (k ) = K ? Z d (k ) + x (k ? 1) + p Z d (k ? 1)? .
Ti
?
?
Discriminator nonlinearity in case of using quasi-continuous analyzing method for digital
synchronization systems is taking into account by it parameters, which depend on signal-to-noise ratio [4].
3. Accelerated phase synchronization target setting
In phase navigation systems RMS error of coordinate measuring (in meters) can be approximately
determined as
1
? 0 Г?? ,
(5)
2?
where ? 0 ? wave-length, Г ? geometric quotient, ?? ? RMS error of phase-shift measurements [5]. In
?c ?
steady-state regime phase-tracking error dispersion value can be determined by using quasi-continuous
analyzing method for digital synchronization systems [6]:
??2 = 2?e2Tp F? ,
(6)
here ?e2 ? phase fluctuation dispersion, which can be calculated as
?e2 =
?2d
,
kd2
(7)
where ?2d = ?2d (0) ? fluctuation characteristic for algorithm (3) of phase mismatch failing;
kd = ? Z d (?) ?? ?=0 ? discrimination characteristic slope for algorithm (3), line from the top means
statistical estimation. Noise pass band of PLFS can be written as
?
F? =
2
1
K ( j?) d ?,
?
2? 0
(8)
where K ( j?) ? complex transfer coefficient of PLFS.
Using (5) it can be shown that in case of ?= 1,5 (rho-rho navigation), ? 0 = 150m for attainment of
coordinate measuring accuracy with RMS ?c ? 2 m needed RMS error of phase-shift measurements
value is ?? ? 3,3o 0,053rad . Further, using results [3] for ?2d and kd2 , when signal-to-noise ratio
threshold equals to ?40dB , and using equation (6) let?s compute required noise pass band of PLFS for
MSK-signal receiver:
?2
0,0532
? 0,1 Hz.
F? ? 2? ?
(9)
2?eTp 2 ? 0,364 ? 0,04
# 279 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Evgeny V. Kuzmin. Accelerated Phase-lock-loop Frequency Control Methods of User?s Equipment in?
M rad
1
0
5
10
15
10
15
3
20 k 10
1
a
F Hz
0, 2
1
0,1
0
b
5
3
20 k 10
Fig. 5
Thus, PLFS must provide RMS error of phase-shift measurements value ?? ? 0,05rad in case of
noise pass band value F? ? 0,1 Hz .
Functional dependences of phase-tracking and frequency estimation error average
values from discrete time k in digital PLFS are presented in Fig. 5, a and 5, b respectively.
Computational approach conditions are equal to discriminator modeling, except number of
statistical examinations ? 10 2 .
Presented functional dependences are correspondent to noise pass band value F? = 0,1 Hz , user?s
top speed equals Vmax = 100 km h (peak level of Doppler frequency shift Fd max = 0,2 Hz ) and capture
probability Pc ? 1 .
Analysis of statistic simulation data of digital PLFS (Fig. 5) shows that average locking time has
intolerable level for perspective RNS for special users ? tl ? 15 ? 103 ? Tp = 600 s .
4. Digital PLFS statistical simulation
Progress in locking time decrease can be realized by varying of PLFS noise pass band. Thus,
using ?wide? noise pass band F?w = 0,5 Hz on the first time stage and ?narrow? F?n = 0,1 Hz on the
second time stage, it is possible to attain benefit in synchronization time.
Digital PLFS statistical simulation results, namely: phase ? and frequency F tracking errors
average meanings (a, c), and RMS phase ?? and frequency ? F tracking errors (b, d) are presented in
Fig. 6 and in Fig. 7. All curves are functional dependences on discrete time k.
Curves 1, 2, and 3 are signifying Doppler frequency shifts: 0; 0,02; 0,2 Hz respectively. Noise pass
bands are described by discrete time step functions (10). Function F?? (k ) describes noise pass band for
Fig. 6, and F???(k ) for Fig. 7.
# 280 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Evgeny V. Kuzmin. Accelerated Phase-lock-loop Frequency Control Methods of User?s Equipment in?
M rad
1
3
0,5
0
1 2
k 102
5
2,5
7,5
10
0,5
1
a
VM , rad
1,5
0,08
0,07
0,75
1
3
2
3
0,05
9,5
9,75
10
1,2
0
b
2,5
5
Fig. 6
# 281 #
7,5
10
k 102
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Evgeny V. Kuzmin. Accelerated Phase-lock-loop Frequency Control Methods of User?s Equipment in?
F Hz
0,4
0,2
3
2
k 102
0
c
5
2,5
1
7,5
10
0,1
V F Hz
0,2
3
0,1
1,2
0
d
k 102
2,5
5
Fig. 6 (?ontinue)
# 282 #
7,5
10
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Evgeny V. Kuzmin. Accelerated Phase-lock-loop Frequency Control Methods of User?s Equipment in?
M rad
1
3
0,5
2
k 102
0
1
2,5
5
10
7,5
0,5
1
a
VM , rad
1,5
0,05
3
0,026
1
2
0,0475
3
0,024
0,75
1
2
0,045
21
0
b
21,25
12,5
21,5
25
Fig. 7
# 283 #
0,022
49,5
49,75
37,5
50
50
k 102
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Evgeny V. Kuzmin. Accelerated Phase-lock-loop Frequency Control Methods of User?s Equipment in?
F Hz
3
0,04
0,02
1
2
k 102
0
5
10
20
15
0,02
c
0,04
V F Hz
1
0,01
3
3
0, 2
0,0075
2
2
0,1
d
0
1
0,005
19,5
5
19,75
10
Fig. 7 (?ontinue)
# 284 #
20
15
20
k 102
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Evgeny V. Kuzmin. Accelerated Phase-lock-loop Frequency Control Methods of User?s Equipment in?
­° FMw 0,5 Hz ,0 d k d 300,
FMc k ®
°? FMn 0,1 Hz , k ! 300,
FMcc k (10)
­ FMw 0,5 Hz ,0 d k d 300,
°
® FMn1 0,1 Hz ,300 k d 1000,
°
Ї FMn 2 0,02 Hz , k ! 1000.
It becomes clear from Fig. 6, 7 that using multistage phase-lock-loop frequency control algorithms
for MSK-signals receivers, average locking time can be significantly decreased (in comparison with
autonomous algorithm F? = 0,1 Hz ) to tl ? 1000 ? Tp = 40 s , with phase tracking RMS error desired
value ( ?? = 0,05rad ) in case of using function F?? (k ). Using function F???(k ), it can be shown that
phase tracking RMS error desired value is provided in time equal to 40 s. Also, using function F???(k )
it is possible to achieve ?? = 0,03rad in 120 s and in steady-state regime ?? = 0,02rad ( k > 200 s ).
Number of statistical examinations for Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 equals to 103. In all examinations there are no
tracking losses. Described two- and three-stage phase-lock-loop frequency control algorithms with discrete
time step functions (10) can be used in MSK-signal receivers of perspective frequency-limited RNS.
Conclusions
In present paper multistage phase-lock-loop frequency control algorithms of perspective RNS
user?s equipment are suggested. Statistical simulation was used to prove that a two-stage phase-lockloop frequency control algorithm, using function F?? (k ), has gain in synchronization time equal to
560 s (in comparison with autonomous algorithm) and provides steady-state RMS error values ?? ? 3o
and ? F ? 0,03 Hz . It was also stated that a three-stage phase-lock-loop frequency control algorithm has
two benefits: first, gain in synchronization time is not less than 560 s; second, RMS error values in
steady-state regime ( k > 200 s ) is ?? ? 1,1o and ? F ? 0,01 Hz ? better than required.
This article contains specific results which can be used in digital phase synchronization systems of
user?s equipment for perspective RNS with spread-spectrum MSK-signals. The investigated algorithms
of accelerated phase synchronization can be easily realized on the basis of field programmable gate
array technology (FPGA).
Acknowledgements
The author of this paper would like to thank the following people: prof. V. N. Bondarenko, for
scientific help and scientific training; associate prof. O. A. Almabekova, for language support in this
article?s preparation; prof. V. I. Kokorin, for his practical advice and scientific help; associate prof. V.
A. Vyahirev, for his support, advice and help.
These investigations are financially supported with grants ? 08-08-00849-? of Russian
Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) and ? 18G041 of Krasnoyarsk Regional Scientific Foundation
(in Russian).
References
1.
Kuzmin E.V. Complex phase locked-loop system of spread-spectrum signal receiver / E.V. Kuzmin,
V.N. Bondarenko // Modern problems of radio electronics, 2007. ? P. 31 ? 34. (in Russian).
# 285 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Evgeny V. Kuzmin. Accelerated Phase-lock-loop Frequency Control Methods of User?s Equipment in?
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Kuzmin E.V. Phase synchronization system of spread-spectrum frequency-shift keying signal
receiver / E.V. Kuzmin, V.N. Bondarenko // Problems of evolution and integration of science,
professional education and public law in universe, 2007. ? P. 322-326. (in Russian).
Kuzmin E.V. Spread-spectrum signal phase discrimination algorithms noise-immunity
investigation / E.V. Kuzmin, V.N. Bondarenko // Modern problems of radio electronics, 2006. ?
P. 53 ? 56. (in Russian).
Jodzishsky M.I. Digital phase synchronization systems / M.I. Jodzishsky, S.U. Sila-Novitsky,
V.A. Prasolov et al. ? Moscow: Soviet radio, 1980. ? 208 p. (in Russian).
Kokorin V.I. Radio navigation systems and devices / V.I. Kokorin. ? Krasnoyarsk: KSTU, 2006. ?
175 p. (in Russian).
Byakov A.G. Onboard station of the spread-spectrum sea radio positioning system/
?.?. Aleshechkin, V.N. Bondarenko, A.G. Byakov, V.I. Kokorin, E.V. Kuzmin // Radio location,
navigation, communication, 2007. ? P. 1932 ? 1942. (in Russian).
# 286 #
???????????? ??????? Bi2O3-CdO. ?????????,
??? ????????????? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????
873 ? ? ??????????? ?? ????? ? ???????? ??????????, ??????????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????.
???????? ?????: ?????????, ????????????? ???????????, ??????????????? ????????,
????????????? ????, ????????, ????????, ???????? , ??????????????, ?????????????.
? ?????????????? ???? ?????????? ????- ? ??????????? ??????, ??? ??????????. ???
????????, ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ? ??? ???????? ????? ???????? ? ??????? ??????????????.
???? ?????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????????? ? ????????????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????. ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? Bi2O3-CdO.
????????? ????????? ??????? Bi2O3-CdO [1] ?????????????? ???? ? ???????????? ????????? 1070 ? ? ???????? 17 ????. % CdO. ?????????? ???? ?? ?????? Bi2O3, ? ??????? ??? 980 ?
??????? ??????????? ??????????? ? Bi2O3?? Bi2O3. ??????? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????
????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????. ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????? Bi2O3
????? 1 ????.% CdO.
???????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? [2] ? ????? ??????????????????? [3,4]. ???????? ??????? [2-4] ?????? ????? ??????? ??
??????????? 973 ? ???????? ??????????????? ?-????, ? ????? ?????? ? n-????. ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ? ??????????.
1. ???????? ????????????
1.1. ????????????? ??????????
??? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? Bi2O3-CdO ???? ????? ???????? ?????
???. ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ????? ? ??????? 50 ??. ?????????? ???????????
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: leonovvv@inbox.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 263 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ??????. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????????
?? ??????? ? ???? ??? ??????????? 1010 ? ? ????????? ??????. ????? ???????? ? ??????? 4
????? ??????? ???????????????, ???????? ?????? ? ?????. ????? ??? ????????? ????????????
????????? ????? ??? ??????????? 873 ? ? ??????? 3 ?????. ?? ?????????? ??????? ????????
???????. ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????? ??????. ?????????? ???? ??????? ? ????????????????? ??????? ??????? ? ??????? 5 ??????. ?????????
??????????? ?????? ??????????? ?? ??? ?? ????????.
1.2. ?????????? ? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ???????????
????????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????????????? ?????????? 0 - 4 ??. ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ????????. ???????? ????????? ??
?????????? ????????? ????????? 1,5 ??. ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ? ????????? ??????. ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ????. ? ??????
????????????? ?????? ?????????????.
??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?????????. ??????????? ??????? ????? ????????
??????? ???????? ? ?????? ? ? ?????????????? ????, ???????? ?? ??????????? ???????????. ?
??? ????? ??????, ? ?? ???????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????????. ??????? ??????????? ?
??????? ????????????? ???????, ?????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ?? ????. ????? ??
?????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ? ????? ????????? ??????? ?
??????? 5 ?????. ?????????? ??????? ???????? ?????????????? ? ????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ? ?.?. ??????? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ????? ????? ???? - ???? ????????.
??????????? ??? ?????? ??????? 873 ?, ??????? ???? ??????????? ?????????.
1.3. ???????? ????????????????? ??????? ???????
???????? ????????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??? ?????????????. ????????? ???????????? ?? ?????????
?????????????????? ? ????? ?????????????. ????????????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????
????????? ?? ??????????????. ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??????? ???-3.
? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????? ???
??????? ????? ???????????????? ??????? 136?. ????????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?
???????? ?????? ????????? ? ????? ? ??? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???????. ??? ??? ????????????? ?????
Bi2O3-CdO ????? ??????????????? ?????????, ?? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ??????
??? ???????? ?? ???????? 40 ?. ?? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????????. ?????????????
?????? ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ????? 6,5 % ??? ????????????? ??????????? 0,95.
2. ?????????? ????????????
2.1. ???????????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????? Bi2O3-CdO
????? ?????? ??? ???????????
????????? ???????? ????????, ??? ????????????? ????? Bi2O3-CdO ???????? ??????????????? n-????. ???????? ???? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????????.
?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ????. 1. ?? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???????, ??? ? ???? ? ???????? ??????????, ??????????? ?? ???????.
# 264 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ??????. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????????
? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????????. ??? ??????? ?????? ????? 45 ????? ?????? ????? ??????? (-3 ? 0 ??) ??? ????????
(+3??). ???????? ????????????? ??? ???? ????? ????????. ? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????????
??????????????, ?????????? ????? ????????? ??????, ??????????? ????? ???? ? 1,03 ???? ??
????????? ? ??????????????? ? ????? ????????. ??????? ????? ???????, ??? ????? 45 ?????
?????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????? ????????????.
??? ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ????? 45 ??? ??????, ? ??? ?????? ? ?????????????
??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????????. ? ????????? ??????? ? ????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???? ??????, ??? ?? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????.
?? ?????? ????. 1 ????????? ??????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ????? ???????
??????. ????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????. ???????
????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? tg ? ? ? ?????
?????? tg ? ? ????????? ?????????? (??), ??? ??????? ?????????? ?????. ??????????? ?? 4
???????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ????????? ? ????. 2. ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ????????.
??????? 1. ?????????? ????????? ?????????????? ?? (*107,?/?2) ?? ???????? ?????????????? ??????
Bi2O3-CdO ? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? U ? ??????? ?????? ?
?
???????
?, ???
U, ??
0
30
60
180
24,4
26,9
35,3
35,1
26,4
32,3
33,5
37,1
25,3
36,2
28,7
39,4
4
27,5
26,3
29,3
30,6
5
22,5
28,7
31,2
31,8
1
2
3
6
-3
24,5
34,2
33,4
32,2
26,5
30,7
34,2
30,3
8
27,0
34,8
33,7
32,4
9
21,9
26,0
25,5
21,9
7
10
11
12
0
+3
23,6
25,7
27,5
22,5
24,1
28,2
30,2
22,7
25,0
29,8
24,2
24,2
??????? 2. ??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ? ????? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????????????
?????? Bi2O3-CdO ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ? ?? ?????????. ?????????? ?? 4 ????????
????????? ???????, ??
??????? ???? ??????? ??????, 105, ?/(?2*???)
-3
0
+3
tg? (??????)
27,3
24.7
12,6
tg? (?????)
2,1
0,03
-5,1
# 265 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ??????. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????????
????????, ? ?????? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ????? ????????????? ????. ? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ??
??????, ?? ? ?? ????? ? ??????????? ?? ????? ??????????.
??? ?????, ?????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????????? -3??,
? ?????????? - ??? +3??. ??????? ???? ??????????? ??-? ???? ???????? ????????? ??????????????. ???????? ??? ??? ??????????? +3?? ????? tg ?(+3) = 5,1*10 -5 ?/(?2*???), ??? ? 5,1/2,1 =
2,5 ???? ?????? ?? ??????, ??? tg ?(-3). ????? ????, tg ?(+3) ? tg ?(-3) ?????????? ?? ?????, ???
tg ?(?), tg ?(-3), tg ?(+3) - ???????? ???? ??????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ??
??????? ????? ?????? ??? ????????, ?????????????? ? ?????????????? ???????????, ??????????????, ?? ??????? ??????.
3. ?????????? ???????????
??????????? ?????????????? ??????? Bi2O3-CdO ? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????? ????????? Bi2O3 ? ???????? CdO.
? ?????????? ??????? 1 - 17 ????. % CdO ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?????????
?? = (29,2+0,28?)*107, ?/?2,
(1)
??? ? - ?????????? CdO (????.%). ???????? ????????? (1) ???????????? ??????? ????????????
????????? ?.?. ??? ?????????? ???????
H?=H?1V1+H?2V2,
(2)
??? H? - ?????????????? ??????, H?1 ? V1 - ?????????????? ? ????????????? ????? ???? Bi2O3
, H?2 ? V2 - ?????????????? ? ????????????? ????? ???? CdO. ?? ????????? (1) ?????????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??????????? ????? ???? ?? 15 %, ?.?. ???????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? Bi2O3-CdO ????????? ?????????????? ???? ?? ?????? Bi2O3.
????? ????, ????????? (????. %) V1/V2 ? 83/17 = 5 ??? V1>>V2. ??????? ????????? (2) ?????
????????? ???????? ??
??=H?1V1+H?2V2 ? H?1
(3)
??????? ????? ????? ????????????? ????????, ???????????? ?????? ? ???? Bi2O3.
? ????? ? ???? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ? ????? ??????????? ?????? ??????
<1 ????. %. ?????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??????.
??????? ?? ?????? ??? 0,14 ????.% CdO ??? ??????????? ?????? 873 ?, ?.?. ??? ? ???? ????????????? CdO ? ??????? Bi2O3. ? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ???? ??????? ? ??????????? ?????
'+ P
69,2 * 10 7 , ? /( ? 2 ????.%).
'C
?????, ???? ????????? ?????????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ??tgJ
?????????, ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????????. ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??
??????? ?????:
'+P(3)
2,8 *10 7 ? * ? 2
tgJ
69,2 * 10 7 ? * ? 2 * ????% 1
? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ?
'C1
'C 2
'+P(3)
tgJ
5,8 * 10 7 ? * ? 2
69,2 *10 7 ? * ? 2 * ????% 1
# 266 #
0,04 ????.%,
0,083 ????.%,
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ??????. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????????
??? ???(-3) ? ???(+3) - ????????? ?????????????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????????? - ?????, ?.?. ??? ?????????? -3?? ? +3?? ?? ???????.
?????????????, ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? -3?? ???????????? ????????????? CdO ????????????? ?? 0,04 ????. % ??? ? 1,3 ????, ? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? +3?? ??????????? ??
0,083 ????. % ??? ? 2,5 ????.
?????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????. ?????? ??? ????????? ? ??? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ? ????????? ????????????, ? ???????? ? = 4,5. ???????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????? ????????????
? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????.
?????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ? ? ??????????? ??????? ??????. ? ?????????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ??????? [5].
?=
? ? ?U
,
d
(4)
??? ?? - ??????????????? ????????????? ???????, ? - ????????????? ??????????????? ?????????????
???????????, U - ?????????? ?? ????????????, d - ??????? ???????????. ???? ???????, ??? ??????
?????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? h ???????? ? ?? ???????, ??????? ?? ????????, ?????, ???? ?/h,
??????? ?????????? (??? ???????????) ???????????? ????????? ?n ? ???????. ???????? ??????
??? ? = 4,5, U = 3 ??, d = 2*10-3 ?, h = 2*10-3 ?. ? 1 ?????? ?????????? 0,625*1019 ??????????.
'n
G
h
8,85 *10 12 (?) * 4,5 * 3 *10 3 ( ?) * 0,625 *1019
2 * 10 3 * 2 *10 3 * 10 6 (?? 3 )
H R HU
dh
6,2 * 1010 ?? 3 .
(5)
????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? [2-4],
?????????? ?? ???????????? ? ?????? CdO ? Bi2O3 ?? ???????
n = ?(e?)-1,
(6)
??? ? - ??????????????????, e - ????? ?????????, ? - ??????????? ????????? ??????.
???????????? ?????????? ? ?????? CdO ?????????
10 9 ?? 1 * ?? 1
1,6 *10 19 ?? * 5 *10 3 ?? 2 ( ??) 1
? ???????????? ????? ? ?????? Bi2O3
n
p
10 8 ?? 1 * ?? 1
1,6 *10 19 ?? *10 2 ?? 2 ( ??) 1
1,25 * 10 6 ?? 3 ,
6,2 *10 8 ?? 3
??? ????????? ???????????.
??? ?????, ???????????? ????????? ?????? ? CdO ? 6,2*1010/1,25*106 = 5*104 ???? ?????? ? ?
Bi2O3 ? 6,2*1010/6,2*108 = 102 ???? ??????, ??? ???????????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ????? ???????
?? ???????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? 3 ??. ?????????????, ??????? ???????????? ?????????
?????? ? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? Bi2O3-CdO.
??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? CdO ? Bi2O3 ?????????????, ? ????????.
?????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???? ????????. ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ???? ? ????? ? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ? ?? ?????????.
???????????? [3, 4, 6] ??????????, ??? n-??? ???????????? ? CdO ?????????? ???????? ?????# 267 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ??????. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????????
??? ? ????????????? ?????? ??????, ? ?-??? ? Bi2O3 - ?????????? ???????. ??????????? CdO
? ???? Bi2O3 ????? ???? ??? ?? ?????????????, ??? ? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? [6-8]. ??????? ????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????????. ??? ???????????
???????? ? ??????????????? ??????? ???????? ???????, ???????????? ???????? [9].
0=e-+h+, Kj=np
(7)
0=(VBi ) , Kv= [VBi ]
(8)
(VBi0)(1) = (VBi-)(1)+h+, Kv=p[VBi-](1)
(9)
(CdCd0)(2)= (Cdi0)(1), KCdi(2)= [Cdi0](2)
(10)
(CdCd ) = (CdBi ) , KCdBi = [CdBi ]
(11)
0 (1)
0 (2)
0 (1)
0 (1)
0 (1)
(1)
(Cdi0)(1)= (Cdi+)(1)+e-, KCdi1=n[Cdi+](1)/ [Cdi0](1)
(CdBi ) = (CdBi ) +h , K
0 (1)
- (1)
+
=p[CdBi ] / [CdBi ]
1
CdBi
- (1)
0 (1)
(12)
(13)
??? ?- - ????????? ????????, h+- ?????, n ? p - ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????, VBi ? VCd ???????? ??????? ? ??????, Cdi- ????????????? ???? ??????, CdBi - ???? ?????? ? ???? ?????????? ???????, K - ????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????, ??? ??????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? (?)1 ? ??????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ?????????? ? ????? ????,
[](1) ? [](2) ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ? ????? Bi2O3 ? CdO, ??????????????, ?????? 0
- ?????????? ??????????? ????????, ??????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? [0], [+] ? [-] ????????? ?? ????? ??????? 0 - ???????, + - ?????????????, - ? ?????????????, ???????????? ?????
??????? ? ??????????? ????? [CdCdo](2) = 1 ? [BiBio](1)= 1.
??????? ???????????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????????
? ????????????? ???????:
n+[CdBi-](1)+ [VBi-](1)=p+ [Cdi+](1) .
(14)
????? ??????????? (10) ? (12) ? (11) ? (13) ??????? ??????????????
[Cdi+](1)=KCdi(1)KCdi(2)/n = pKCdi(1)KCdi(2)/Kj
(15)
??? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ?
[CdBi-](1)=KCd(1)/p = nKCdBi(1)/Kj
(16)
??? ??????????? ?? ????????????? ?????????.
?? ????????? (15) ????????, ??? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????????
+ 1
[Cdi ] ?? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ???????????. ?? ????????? (16) ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ????????????? [CdBi-]1 ? Bi2O3 ?? ????????????? ?????????,
??? ??? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????????. ????????????? ?????? ??????, ? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ??????, ??????????????? ????? ???????????? ????????:
[Cd](1)= [Cdi+](1)+ [CdBi-](1).
(17)
?? ????. 1 ?????, ??? ? ????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????,
?.?. ??? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????, ?????????????? ?????????????. ???? ???? ? ??# 268 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ??????. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????????
?????????? ? ?????????? (16) ????????? ?? ??, ??? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????
????????? [CdBi-]1. ?????????? ?????????????? ??? +3??, ?.?. ??? ?????????? ????????????
??????????, ????? ? ???????????? ? ?????????? (16) ????????? ?? ?????????? [CdBi-]1. ?????????????, ????????????? Cd ? Bi2O3 ?????????? ? ???????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????? (CdBi-)1, ? ???????????? ????????????? ???????? [Cdi+]1 ????.
??????
??????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????????? 0,75??? ??? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? 83 ????. % Bi2O3 (??????? ????) ? 17 ????. %CdO.
1. ??????????, ??? ? ???????? ??????:
- ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?, ???????? ?????????? ????????, ???????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????????;
- ? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ?????????????? ????? ????????;
- ? ????????????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ? ????? ????? ????????.
2. ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? (??????? ????) ? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ??????. ? ?????? ?????
?????????? ??? ?????????? ?????????????? ?????? Bi 2O3 -CdO ????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ? ????????????? ???????????, ??????????????, ??????????? ???????????
? 2,5 ? ??????????? ? 1,3 ???? ????????????? ??????? (Cd Bi -)1 ? ??????? ???? Bi 2O3
?????????????? ??????.
3. ????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???
????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?????? ? ??????? ???????? - ????? ??????.
?????? ??????????
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
???????, ?.?. ????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????? / ?.?. ???????, ?.?. ???????????? ? ??.- ?.: ?????, 1969. ? 824 ?.
????????, ?.?. ??????-?????????? ???????? ??????? / ?.?. ????????, ?.?. ????????, ?.?.
??????? ? ??. - ?.: ???????????, 1978. ? 472 ?.
????? ,?.?. ?????????????????? ? ???????? Bi2O3 ? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????? / ?.?.
????? , ?.?. ??????. -???, 1963. - ?.5. - ?9. - ?. 2420-2427.
Lamb E.F., Tompkins F.C. Semi-conductivity and thermoelectric of cadmium oxide. Trans.
Faraday Soc., v.58, J., p.1424-1438.
?????, ?.?. ????????????? ???????????? / ?.?. ?????. - ?.: ???????, 1969. -591 ?.
???????, ?. ?????????? ?? ????????????, ???????? ? ?????????????????? ? ???????
??????? ???????? / ?. ??????? .- ?.: ???, 1975. -397 ?.
?????????, ?.?. ??????? ???????? ? ????????????????? ???????? / ?.?. ?????????, ?.?.
????????.- ?.: ?????????, 1980. - 280 ?.
?????????, ?.?. ???????????? ??????? / ?.?. ????????? . -?.: ?????, 1978. - 360 ?.
??????, ?. ????? ????????????? ?????????? / ?. ?????? . - ?.: ???, 1969. - 654 ?.
# 269 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
?????? ?. ??????. ??????? ?????????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ????????????
The Influence of the Electric Potential on the Reciprocal Solubility
of the Two-Phase Alloy Bi2O3-CdO Components
Victor V. Leonov
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
The experiments were carried out on the two-phase alloys of the eutectic system Bi2O3-CdO. It turned
out that the solubility of cadmium oxide increased or decreased at the annealing temperature of 873 K
depending on the sign and value of the potential, which is fed to the sample during the annealing.
Key words: eutectic, electrical condenser, dielectric properties, electric field, electrode, plates,
diffusion, microhardness, solubility.
# 270 #
Copyright ??? «??? «??????» & ??? «A???????? K????-C?????»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Engineering & Technologies 3 (2008 1) 271-275
~~~
??? 553.24(?2-547)
Production of Carbon Briquetted Fuel from the Coals
of Kansk-Achinsk Basin by Means of Hot Pressing
Pyotr N. Kuznetsova*, Anatoly S. Maloletnevb
and Svetlana M. Kolesnikovaa
a
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, SB RAS,
42 Karl Marx st., Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russia
b
Institute of Fossil Fuels,
29 Lenin pr., Moscow, 119071 Russia 1
Received 05.08.2008, received in revised form 10.09.2008, accepted 17.09.2008
The paper presents the results of the research on thermobriquetting of dense brown and gaseous
coals from Kansk-Achinsk basin, brown and gaseous coal mixtures with no binding agent as well as a
mixture of brown coal with hydrolyzed lignin as a binding agent.
The heating values of the products were shown to increase 1,3-1,5 times in comparison with the raw
coals ?nd the volatile yields causing black smoke decrease by 11-13 %. Most efficient, strong moistureproof briquettes with the heating value of 25,50 ?J/kg were produced of the mixture of the B3 brown
and gaseous coals. The addition of lignin to the brown coal allowed lowering the pressing temperature
from 380-400 ?C to 200-250 ?C, thus improving the reliability of the press operation.
Key words: coal, lignin, coal briquettes, binding agent, thermobriquetting.
Introduction
Use of mining combines, rotor excavators and scraper conveyors as well as transporting and
loading machines and mechanisms in mines and strip mines can lead to large amount of coal
crank. It can cause some problems in storage and transportation of this fuel, worsens its ecological
characteristics. The largest amount of crank is produced of brown coals with low strength. The
additional crank is produced during its storage because of its disposition to weathering and
spontaneous inflammation. The fuel with the large content of fi ne fractions can be utilized
successfully by the thermal power stations with the powdered fuel combustion system but is not
go
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа