close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

60.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №3 2011

код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà
2011
Journal of Siberian Federal University
4 (3)
Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè
Humanities & Social Sciences
Редакционный совет
академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов
академик РАН И.И.Гительзон
академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат.наук
А.Г.Дегерменджи
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.Л.Миронов
чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук
Г.Л.Пашков
чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В.Шайдуров
академик РАО, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.С. Соколов
член-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В. В. Зуев
CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ
Aleksandr Yu. Bliznevsky and Valentina S. Bliznevskaya
Winter Sports for Olimpic Program Addition
– 309 –
Olga À. Karlova
Aspects of «Russianness» in the Philosophic-Artistic Concept of
Ivan Bunin Creative Work
– 315 –
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova
and Ksenia V. Reznikova
Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages of
the North-ern People of the Krasnoyarsk Region
– 323 –
Editorial Advisory Board
Chairman:
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Kirill S. Alexandrov
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Veniamin S. Sokolov
Editorial Board:
Vladimir S. Luzan
Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents,
Providing Realization of the State Cultural Policy (Federal and
Regional Aspects)
– 342 –
Julia G. Matushanskaya
Zealots’ World View
– 363 –
Valentina V. Nikitenko
Works of V.P. Astafiev in China
Editor-in-Chief:
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
– 372 –
Founding Editor:
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Vadim E. Petrov
Youth Event Tourism as Existential Experience of Creative
Idleness
Managing Editor:
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Natalia P. Koptseva
– 380 –
Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой
Подписано в печать 18.03.2011 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 12,9.
Уч.-изд. л. 12,4. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 3262.
Отпечатано в ПЦ БИК. 660041 Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Consulting Editors
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
Gershon M. Breslavs
Sergey V. Deviatkin
Sergey A. Drobyshevsky
Oleg M. Gotlib
Boris I. Hasan
Igor E. Kim
Natalia V. Kovtun
Aleksandr A. Kronik
Pavel V. Mandryka
Boris V. Markov
Valentin G. Nemirovsky
Daniel V. Pivovarov
Andrey V. Smirnov
Viktor I. Suslov
Evgeniya V. Zander
Igor S. Pyzhev
Olga G. Smolyaninova, Larisa M. Turanova
and Olga A. Pozhidaeva
The Role of Electronic Library in the Informatization of Modern
Education
– 386 –
Artem A. Smolin and Pavel V. Mandryka
The Technique of Virtual Archaeological Reconstructions on the
Example of a Medieval Fort in the Yenisei Taiga
– 393 –
Natalia U. Fadeeva
An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and
Assessments Abroad
– 400 –
Theocharis N. Grigoriadis
Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition
Economies of East Germany and Poland
– 410 –
Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ
ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г.
Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны
быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на
соискание ученой степени доктора и
кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.)
Natalya P. Koptseva
Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010 &Formation of the Model of a
New-Generation Specialist for the Sphere of Culture and Arts[
– 426 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 309-314
~~~
УДК 796.56
Winter Sports for Olimpic Program Addition
Aleksandr Yu. Bliznevsky and Valentina S. Bliznevskaya*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011
In the given article we consider the order of Olympic Games program extension in accordance with
the rules of the Olympic Charter. We define the most perspective kinds of sport for their inclusion
in the Program of the 2018 Winter Olympic Games – ski-orienteering and bandy. Besides, we have
formulated the advantages of these kinds of sport inclusion for the Russian Federation, and also the
level of their development on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk Region.
Keywords: Winter Olympic Games, sports, international Sports Federations, Olympic Games Program,
ski-orienteering, bandy.
Topicality: The history of the modern
Olympic Games development is more than 100
years old. The fi rst Games of Olympiad (OG)
took place in summer 1896. Winter Olympic
Games (WOG) were started to be run only
since 1924. The Olympic Charter is a Code
of fundamnetal principles, rules and official
explanations, which have been accepted by the
International Olympic Commette (IOC), and
its latest amendments were made at the 122-d
Session of IOC on 11 February, 2010. The Charter
regulates the structure, mechnism of action and
processes of the Olympic Movement and defi nes
the conditions of the Olympic Games staging.
In particular, IOC reveiws the Program after
every concrete Olympic Games. Competent
organs of IOC correct the standards of inclusion
or exclusion of sports and sport disciplines. The
decision concerning the inclusion of a new kind
of sport in the Program of the future Olympic
Games must be made not later than at the
*
1
Session of IOC, choosing the city-organizer of
the Olympic Games staging.
What concerns the Winter Olympic Games,
the next amendments of the list of sports of the
Program can be made at the Session of IOC on
6-9 June, 2011 in Durban (RSA), where they
will define the city-organizer of the 2018 WOG
staging. According to point 6.2 of the Olympic
Charter «winter kinds of sport are only those
sports, which competitions among the sportsmen
take place on a natural snow surface or flat ice».
By virtue of the mentioned circumstances, the
target of the given research is to define the most
perspective sports in order to include them in the
Program of these Olympic Games.
Methodology of research: on the basis of
the carried analysis of development of the winter
sports disciplines, being world-wide cultivated
and accepted by IOC, archive materials, historical
facts, current legal materials of IOC and the
Olympic Charter, legal normative documents of
Corresponding author E-mail address: bliznevskaya@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 309 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Aleksandr Yu. Bliznevsky and Valentina S. Bliznevskaya. Winter Sports for Olimpic Program Addition
Table 1. The Program of the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver
International Sports
Federations (ISFs)
1
2
3
4
5
International
Skating Union (ISU)
International
Ice Hokey Federation
(IIHF)
International Federation
Of Bobsleigh and
Tobogganing
(FIBT)
International
Ski Federation
(FIS)
International
Biathlon Union (IBU)
6
International
Luge Federation
(FIL)
7
World Curling Federation
(WCF)
TOTAL:
1908
3
The number
of types of
competitions
in the Program
4
Speed-skating
1924
6
12
Short-track
1992
4
8
4
Hockey
1920
1
2
5
Bobsleigh
1924
2
3
6
Skeleton
1928
1
2
7
Ski races
1924
6
12
8
Nordic combined
1924
3
3
№
The year of The number of
inclusion in disciplines in
the Program the Program
Sports
1
Figure skating
2
3
9
Ski jumping
1924
3
3
10
Mountaineering
1936
5
10
11
Freestyle
1992
3
6
12
Snowboard
1998
3
6
13
Biathlon
1960
5
10
14
Luge
1964
2
3
15
Curling
1924
1
2
48
86
the Ministry of Sports and Tourism of the Russian
Federation, we have shown the evolution of the
Program content of the Winter Olympic Games
and have defined additional kinds of sport for its
extension by means of comparative-analytical
method and ranking.
Results and discussions: since 1924 up to
2010 they have organized 20 Winter Olympic
Games. At the first WOG, in France in Chamonix,
they played 15 sets of medals in 8 kinds of sport.
Every kind of sport includes one or several sport
disciplines (a part of the kind of sport, including
one or several competitions). In its turn, every
kind of competitions represents a contest, which
ends by the placement and medals handling.
Correspondingly, the Program of all the following
WOGs has been gradually added not only with
new kinds of sport, but has been extended with
sports disciplines of already existing kinds of
sport. In the result, the Program of the latest WOG,
which took place in Vancouver in 2010 consisted
of 15 kinds of sport of seven International Sports
Federations, and they played 86 sets of medals.
In Table 1, we represent the list of international
sports federations and kinds of sport included
in this Program, and also the number of sports
disciplines and types of competitions, constituting
the Program.
Most of kinds of sport, being included in
the Program, have almost exhausted all their
# 310 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Aleksandr Yu. Bliznevsky and Valentina S. Bliznevskaya. Winter Sports for Olimpic Program Addition
possibilities for the Olympic mission growth.
Though, 86 sets of medals are far from the limit
of Olympic Games. For comparison, at the 2008
Olympic Games, in Peking there were presented
39 kinds of sport and played 302 sets of medals.
As for today, one may observe a misbalance
between the Programs of Olympic Games and
Winter Olympic Games; thereat, according to
point 33 of the Olympic Charter, continuation
of any Olympic Games must not exceed sixteen
days.
Taking into consideration the climatic
and geographical conditions of this country
for cultivation of winter kinds of sport, the
Russian Federation must be interested in making
amendments in the Program of WOG by adding
new kinds of sport. Moreover, in recent years,
some winter kinds of sport (trampoline ski
jumping, ski mountaineering, and short track)
have got almost no Olympic medals.
In order to develop and promote the principles
of the Olympic Movement, IOC carries out the
procedure of acceptance of kinds of sport by the
International Olympic Committee in accordance
with the article of law 29 of the Olympic Charter,
which allow gradual extension of the Programs
of OG or WOG. National sport federations for
these kinds of sport are included into the National
Olympic Committees of their own countries. All
the international sports federations (ISFs), which
kinds of sport have undergone such a procedure,
join the Association of Recognized International
Sports Federations (АRISF), which was organized
in 1984, and which is recognized by IOC. After
having sent their written applications and their
statuses having been checked and accepted by
IOC, these international sports federations become
members of АRISF, which is appealed to actively
support them in their striving to be included in
the Program of Olympic Games. As far as at least
one sport discipline of any kind of sport, being
accepted by IOC, is included in the Program of
Olympic Games, this ISF automatically loses the
status of a member of АRISF and acquires the
status of a member of IOC.
ISFs can manage one or several kinds of sport
on the international level, as it is shown in table
1, and include organizations, which manage these
kinds of sport on the national level. ISF’s Charter,
practice and activiy, which are accepted by IOC
and which are whithin the Olympic Movement,
must correspond to the Olympic Charter, and it
also conserns the acceptance and application of
the World Anti-Doping Code. Therat, every ISF
preserves its indepedendence and autonomy in
the management of its own kinds of sport.
Today, the Association of Recognized
International Sports Federations, recognized by
IOC, includes 32 kinds of sport of corresponding
international sports federations. Analysis of
the sport disciplines of these kinds of sport has
shown that only 4 ISFs represent winter sports
disciplines from all the mentioned list (Table 2).
Correspondingly, only disciplines of these kinds
of sport can be included in the Program of the
above mentioned Olympic Games.
In Table 2, we define the dates of formation
of international sports federations of perspective
kinds of sport for their inclusion in the Program
of the 2018 Winter Olympic Games, and also
the number of national sports federations, which
are their part. There are also represented the
data of statistic reporting form 1-ФК of the RF
Minsportstourism, characterizing the degree
of development of these kinds of sport in this
country. The number of people, going in for
these sports and staff coachers, working in the
mentioned kinds of sport, – all these data testify
of the fact that skiing disciplines have the biggest
number of advantages, such as ski-orienteering
and bandy. Besides, the above mentioned sports
disciplines have been already presented in the
cultural Programs of the Winter Olympic Games
of previous years.
# 311 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Aleksandr Yu. Bliznevsky and Valentina S. Bliznevskaya. Winter Sports for Olimpic Program Addition
Table 2. International Federations, Representing Winter Sports Disciplines in the Association of Recognized
International Sports Federations recognized by IOC
The Name of the
International Federation
1
The year of
formation
The number
of national
federations
The number of The number of Exhibition
people being staff coachers Demonstration of
involved in
in RF in 2009. the kind of sport
RF in 2009.
in the cultural
program of WOG
9 782
40
–
International
Federation of
Mountaineering
and Climbing
International
Bandy Federation
1932
52
1955
25
38 253
344
3
International
Orienteering
Federation
1961
71
134 381
722
4
International
Motorcycle
Federation
1904
98
No data
No data
2
If we compare these sports, then skiorienteering leaves bandy behind in its
popularity, as in the world, so in the Russian
Federation. For today, international federation
of bandy includes 25 national sports federations,
while international federation of ski-orienteering
accounts for 71 national sports federations, which
includes Africa, Asia, Europe, Northern America,
Southern America, and Pacific Region, and it
correspondingly influences the number of involved
people. At the World Bandy Championship they
played only one set of medals, and at the World
Ski-Orienteering Championship – eight sets of
medals in four disciplines: mass-start, sprint, long
and three-stage relay. Today, as it is well-known,
«medal-capacious» kinds of sport have strong
influence on the unofficial team classification in
the Olympic Games Program. In the recent years,
sportsmen of the national team of the Russian
Federation have been leading in the unofficial
team classifications at the World Ski-Orienteering
Championships.
1952
14 – 25 February
Norway
Oslo
1998
7 – 22 February
Japan
Nagano
–
Ski-orienteering disciplines are as
spectacular and attractive for the TV
audience as ski racing and biathlon. At the
new Millennium, World Ski-Orienteering
Championships are held in large ski stadiums
or biathlon complexes, using their ski-routes
and preparing an additional net of ski-runs
for distances planning. Monitoring with the
help of GPS-devices let us see the routes
of the sportsmen over all the distance, and
estimate their selected variants of running
and their mistakes. All these facts make skiorienteering to be a superior kind of sport for
TV translations.
Ski-orienteering and bandy are also very
well developed in the Krasnoyarsk Region.
Krasnoyarsk bandy has had a long and glorious
history for more than 70-ty years on the arena of
the Soviet Union and since 1993 on the Russian
arena. The Krasnoyarsk bandy club «Yenisei»
is one of the most award-winning clubs in
this country. There are more than 30 wins
# 312 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Aleksandr Yu. Bliznevsky and Valentina S. Bliznevskaya. Winter Sports for Olimpic Program Addition
in international and all-Russian (All-Union)
tournaments on the team’s account.
What concerns ski-orienteering, on the
territory of the Region it has been developed
since 1963, and it is almost simultaneously with
the start of its cultivation in this country. In the
course of the last 25 years, the Krasnoyarsk
Regional team has had its representatives in
the national teams of Russia (senior and junior
ones), and since 2004, it has been unchangeably
winning individual-team championships of
Russia.
In case these kinds of sport are included in
the Program of WOG and taking into account
the achievements of the Krasnoyarsk sportsmen
in these kinds of sport, contribution of the
Krasnoyarsk Region in the Olympic national
team can significantly increase.
Conclusion: Evolution of the International
Olympic Movement and intensity of the Olympic
Games Program prompt us a possibility to extend
it significantly by means of new kinds of sport
inclusion. Besides, inclusion of new kinds of
sport in the Program of WOG will not interfere
with increase of the number of sport disciplines
of the sports, which constitute the Program today.
The next amendments of the list of sports of the
Olympic Games Program will be done at the
session of IOC in summer 2011.
Ski-orienteering and bandy are the most
perspective sports disciplines for inclusion in the
Program of WOG, and these sports competitions
are run on the natural snow surface or flat ice.
Both kinds of sport can be strongly presented
at the Olympic Games, as for the moment, they
are highly developed on the territory of the
Krasnoyarsk Region.
If we speak about the right of priority,
then ski-orienteering has several advantages at
some points. Though, according to the Olympic
Charter, Olympic Games are the competitions
among separate sportsmen, but not among
national teams, nevertheless, unofficial team
classification (according to the number of won
medals of various denominations) between
the countries-participants is of high value for
most countries. That is why, ski-orienteering
is of our special interest, as far as beyond four
disciplines according to the program of the world
championship, there is an opportunity to run
pursuit races (the system of Gunderson), mixed
relays, and super-sprints.
Today, administration of the sports branch of
the Russian Federation, which has a high potential
in winter kinds of sport development, can make
utmost efforts for extension of the Program of
WOG with the kinds of sport, being perspective
for this country.
References and resources of information:
The Olympic Charter / accepted at the 122 Session of IOC dated 11 February 2011. Printed by the
company «DidWeDo S.à.r.l.». Lausanne. – 46 p.
The Charter of the Association of Recognized International Sports Federations recognized by
IOC / accepted at the General Assembly Session of АRISF dated 6 April 2006. Helsinki. – 11 p.
www.minstm.gov.ru
www.hc-enisey.ru
www.kfso.ru
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Aleksandr Yu. Bliznevsky and Valentina S. Bliznevskaya. Winter Sports for Olimpic Program Addition
Зимние виды спорта для пополнения
олимпийской программы
А.Ю. Близневский, В.С. Близневская
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье рассматривается порядок расширения Программы Олимпийских игр согласно
правилам Олимпийской хартии. Определены наиболее перспективные виды спорта для
включения в Программу зимних Олимпийских игр 2018 г. – лыжное ориентирование и хоккей
с мячом. Сформулированы преимущества включения этих видов спорта для Российской
Федерации, а также уровень их развития на территории Красноярского края.
Ключевые слова: зимние Олимпийские игры; виды спорта; международные спортивные
федерации; Программа Олимпийских игр; лыжное ориентирование; хоккей с мячом.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 315-322
~~~
УДК 82
Aspects of «Russianness»
in the Philosophic-Artistic Concept
of Ivan Bunin Creative Work
Olga А. Karlova*
Siberian Federal University
82 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011
This article gives an overview of philosophic issues of national identity in the creative work of the
famous Russian poet and writer Ivan Bunin, the investigation of the phenomenon of the «Russian soul
constant» in the context of his works, the determination of the aspects of «Russianness» of the genre
and style peculiarities of his prose and poetry, as well as Bunin’s creative style in general.
The reflection of nature accompanied by sounding silence is the most typical feature of Ivan Bunin’s
poetry.
The human in Bunin’s works is a vessel for the reflection of the nature, the organ of its thought
and emotional experience. It is the world of nature the images of which occupy 74 % of all artistic
descriptions by Bunin and for him it is the world of the highest harmony of the existence.
Another typically Russian aspect of Ivan Bunin’s work is his sinaesthetics. Bunin’s texts, especially
poetry, are first of all very picturesque. It may be said that it is the poetry of thousands of colours, but
colours strictly selected and philosophically encoded.
The picturesqueness of Bunin’s poetry and prose does not have analogues in the Russian literature: at
the average use of 70-90 colours formations for 10 thousand words in a text, Bunin uses 190 colours.
At the same time the colourful luxury of Bunin’s language according to Vladimir Nabokov is achieved,
first of all, by its tone-painting, rhythm, laconism and the highest density of the verse.
Letting the impressions through the prism of his concept, the master creates an integral image of
heightened life, aims at painting its intensity of emotions, at reaching the superb degree of existence.
The framework of the writer’s philosophic thought is the entireness of existence. This framework
includes all his poetry, plots, motifs, stories. Everything is connected with everything, everything is
mutually penetrating, everything has its meaning only in respect to the whole. It is not only ancient
logics of the mythocosmos typical for Russian philosophers and writers of various epochs, but also the
courage of the thinker to operate with such notions as «eternity», «cosmos», «life» and «death».
Love of a man and a woman obsessed with life and charmed with death, is eternal, tragic and mysterial
in Bunin’s work. His contemporaries used to note «repetitions» and imitation in Bunin’s works.
Yu. M. Lotman opened a new era in Bunin’s studies by speaking about Bunin’s modernist desire to
«rewrite» the Russian literature in its art samples.
Bunin is a realist only in artistic manner, although it is among the writers-realists of the 19th century,
where he felt at ease. But his everyday life description is anti-natural, selective and symbolic. And in
this anti-realist everyday life description Bunin was absolutely original.
Another aspect of the «Russianness» artistic concept of Bunin is the memory. It becomes the crossroads
of all the motifs of his work.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: marina_b@krskstate.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 315 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga А. Karlova. Aspects of «Russianness» in the Philosophic-Artistic Concept of Ivan Bunin Creative Work
Bunin himself expresses the essence of his work in words which at most cover the verges of life
«heightened by art»: «We live by all that, by what we live, only to the extent at which we understand the
price of that by what we live. Usually this price is very low: it rises only in the moments of excitement –
excitement of happiness or unhappiness, vivid consciousness of the acquisition or loss, and in moments
of poetic transfiguration of the past into memory».
These and other existential, reason-for-being questions tired pragmatic Western thinkers and especially
the European masters of arts of the 19th -20th centuries. For the natural-contemplating harmony of the
Oriental civilizations such questions were too straightforward and «humanized». Answers to them the
Russian culture gave. And these answers were secretly-mysterious, spiritual-pagan, light- sad, tragicmajeure. Perhaps these are the questions and the answers of the borderland of civilizations.
Keywords: Russian literature, mentality, Russianness, reflection, sinaesthetics, intertextuality, realism,
symbolism and modernism.
«Russia cannot be understood by mind
alone…» – having made this quite accurate
diagnosis a famous Russian poet though preaching
to believe, side stepped the question regarding
the essence of the Russian soul. Centuries pass
by but this mystery is still intriguing everybody
who shares the Russian point of view and the
mentality of the Russian art. Let us assume that
this mentality is a kind of a constant and its
essence has been appearing in various epochs, in
languages of different arts.
This year is the year of 140th anniversary
of Ivan Bunin. A poet who was appreciated as a
prosaic, the last Russian symbolist who strongly
believed himself to be the last Russian realist,
a philosopher of the Russian culture closing by
himself and his artistic reflection, his epoch and
opening the doors wide for new. Our considerations
seek the purpose to understand what determines
the deep essence of «Russianness» of Ivan Bunin
heritage, a person who after the «accursed days»
of 1917 left his homeland forever but never failed
to identify himself with Russia.
Let us start with the hypothesis which has
already become an axiom: «Russianness» is
being formed by the Russian nature itself, its
space. Not without a reason the Russian natural
landscapes can be so easily transformed to the
landscapes of the Russian soul. Not without a
reason a whole pleiad of masters of various arts
proudly bore the name of poets of the Russian
landscape.
The reflection of nature accompanied by
sounding silence is the most typical feature of
Ivan Bunin’s poetry. In the philosophic concept
of his work, as well as the art work of many other
Russian masters of art, nothing prevents the
lyrical character from contemplating the world of
forest sounds and images of nature; the life of the
human does not reach this world, where the poet
speaks with the wise cuckoo asserting: «…I love
the whole world, but I love it lonely, being lonely
everywhere and always».
Loneliness is a natural inner state of Ivan
Alekseevich. Having been born in a noble family
to which a famous poetess of the beginning of the
19th century and even a forefather of the Russian
Romanism Vasily Zhukovsky belonged, but
which was entirely ruined at the moment of the
small Ivan’s birth, Bunin was involuntarily under
the necessity to live the life of a poor commoner.
Being a fanatic worshiper of the Russian artistic
culture, the singer of the Russian landscape, he
has to spend half of his life abroad.
In cold and hunger, in the all-the-time
homelessness of Orel, Moscow, Grass and Paris,
Bunin finds company in nature. Its speechlessness
supposes forest rustle, screams of the cranes
and all other natural sounds which share the
poet’s loneliness and give him answers to the
# 316 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga А. Karlova. Aspects of «Russianness» in the Philosophic-Artistic Concept of Ivan Bunin Creative Work
unexpressed questions, allow to contemplate
beauty and verity.
Two temples – the temple of nature with
its natural sounds and orthodox church with
the roll call of the bells – these are two ways of
entering the heavenly world. The nature of Bunin
is active and emotional, it is not only consonant
with the human like in the Japanese tanka, but
it persuades, alerts and warns… In the world
of nature one can deeply feel something alien,
mysterious and supernatural… This is why the
winter in Bunin’s work is always a presage of
the eternal spring, the summer is a philosophic
presage of the autumn about which one can speak
only with nature itself.
The human in Bunin’s works is a vessel
for the reflection of the nature, the organ of
its thought and emotional experience. It is the
world of nature the images of which occupy
74 % of all artistic descriptions by Bunin and
for him it is the world of the highest harmony of
the existence.
Another typically Russian aspect of Ivan
Bunin’s work is his sinaesthetics. Bunin’s texts,
especially poetry, are first of all very picturesque.
It may be said that it is the poetry of thousands
of colours, but colours strictly selected and
philosophically encoded.
The picturesqueness of Bunin’s poetry and
prose does not have analogues in the Russian
literature: at the average use of 70-90 colours
formations for 10 thousand words in a text, Bunin
uses 190 colours. The feeling of admiring the
nature’s beauty makes him turn to white and blue –
23 % from the whole number of words usage. By
the way, it is the blue colour the linguists consider
to be the «colour ethnopriority of Russia». The
colour in Bunin’s work is steady and bears the
notion of a specific lyrical motif. This feature
of his artistry was perfectly expressed by the
philosopher Fyodor Stepun: «It should not be
forgotten that the Greek word «theory» does not
mean thinking, but contemplating. Bunin’s talent
remembers this. Bunin «thinks with his eyes».
Bunin uses colour as a means of
mythologizing. Good and sin in his works have
a certain range of colours. The palette of stories
of the «Dark Avenues» is based on the dominant
red-white-black colours, the number of variations
of black/dark is endless. The colour repeats the
rhythm of the plot: waiting for love, meeting
and parting. This where the special Bunin’s
genre of stories comes from – the literary stilllife. Portraits, landscapes, interiors dominate
in Bunin's prose absorbing and dissolving
in themselves the event–plot basis, giving
permanency and mise-en–scèneness to a verbal
image, a kind of paintingness.
At the same time the colourful luxury
of Bunin’s language according to Vladimir
Nabokov is achieved, fi rst of all, by its tonepainting, rhythm, laconism and the highest
density of the verse. By means of these
techniques he was able to enclose any object
of nature and «the obscured meaning which
it is full of» into accords and sounds of the
tremendous power of nature.
Ivan Bunin most of all wanted to be
considered, in the first place, a poet. But his
contemporaries seemed not to notice his poetry. In
his literary recognition in general there was a lot
of «not at the proper time» and «not about what is
needed». His honorary status of the academician
of the Imperator’s Academy of Sciences he
received in 1909 was ignored by the intelligent
outlaws in solidarity with M. Gorky who did not
receive this status. When he became the Nobel
Prize winner in 1933, Bunin had nobody to share
his happiness: the group of immigrants is not
large, the politicized homeland is far away. But
there is another court – the judgement by history
and culture. And nowadays we have the right
to exclaim: only a truly great poet could have
the sorrow of admiration and speechlessness
# 317 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga А. Karlova. Aspects of «Russianness» in the Philosophic-Artistic Concept of Ivan Bunin Creative Work
of existence melted to such tremendously tense
meditation and contrasting poetic musicality.
Bunin sees and hears the world not only in
the contrast of colours and music meditation. His
thirst for life, as Ivan Alekseevich said himself,
«heightened feeling of life», determined the
fundamental basis of Bunin’s artistry, especially
in the late period at the background of such
loneliness and cruel isolation from homeland
when it seemed that Russia is Bunin. Letting the
impressions through the prism of his concept, the
master creates an integral image of heightened
life, aims at painting its intensity of emotions, at
reaching the superb degree of existence.
The framework of the writer’s philosophic
thought is the entireness of existence. This
framework includes all his poetry, plots, motifs,
stories. Everything is connected with everything,
everything is mutually penetrating, everything
has its meaning only in respect to the whole. It
is not only ancient logics of the mythocosmos
typical for Russian philosophers and writers
of various epochs, but also the courage of the
thinker to operate with such notions as «eternity»,
«cosmos», «life» and «death». The notions which
are not only Europe-like psychological, but Orientlike ontological. From the Freudian vividness of
specific impressions, change of feverish, almost
ailing states, Bunin proceeds to philosophic
understanding of light and shade, Yang and Yin,
happiness and sorrow, cosmic, reviving love and
passion – sexual, all-absorbing and tragic.
In the work of the late Bunin the dramatic
early love of a poor journalist with the daughter
of the Eletski doctor, Barbara Pashchenko, a
short-lived marriage with Anna Nikolaevna
Tsakni, and conversely, many years of emotional
affection towards Vera Nikolaevna Muromtseva,
who became his wife in 1907 and lived with him
half a century, are fused together. This marriage
embodied passion and cooling, intimacy and
loneliness, noisy quarrels and infinite patience –
and all this was suffered through publicly, under
the same roof with Russian immigrant writers
living in their house, among whom were young
women as well.
Bunin’s love in his life and work is a state of
passion, life of life, the most striking developer
of truth and beauty. «He was very much in love»,
says the child in the short story «The Chapel»,
«and these who are very much in love, always
shoot themselves». This love is marked by the
fatal mutual closeness of the essence of male
and female passion. It is equally intimate and
worldwide, marvelous and awful. And death
comes not as an act of destruction, but as the
Great limit. And the Woman is only a trigger of
the deadly weapon, beautiful and unforgiving
at the same time. Love of a man and a woman
obsessed with life and charmed with death, is
eternal, tragic and mysterial in Bunin’s work.
Bunin’s contemporaries often spoke of
«rehashes» and feeble imitation in his work. The
first to note this «dependence of Bunin on the
great Russian culture» as a distinct originality of
creative handwriting was Hermann Hesse. For a
long time in the Russian literature studies Bunin
was spoken of exclusively in the context of the
concept of «tradition», however, not revealing
his uniqueness regarding the «traditions of the
Russian literary classics». It can be said that it was
Yu. M. Lotman who opened a new era in Bunin’s
studies by speaking about Bunin’s modernist
desire to «rewrite» the Russian literature in
its art samples. He called Bunin’s work of the
immigration period «the realistic representation
of the real world which does not exist», noting that
«this world once existed in the Russian literature
and it was this world which Bunin was drawn to
with nostalgia, it was this world in which he saw
genuine reality».
Bunin-innovator of the modernist era kind
of exempts the types of the Russian literature
from a dusty museum of classics, experiences
# 318 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga А. Karlova. Aspects of «Russianness» in the Philosophic-Artistic Concept of Ivan Bunin Creative Work
their untapped potential. These are the characters
of Pushkin, Turgenev and Tolstoy, but in the
conditions of turn of the twentieth century,
with new partners and new opportunities. The
writer reveals to us the infinity of the image–plot
potential of the Russian classics, its «resolving to
infinity». If the Turgenev’s story «The First Love»
begins with a detailed description of a young
man hunting for crows he hated, Bunin’s novel
«The Crow» built on the same dramatic theme of
love-obsession, pays tribute to Turgenev, but also
argues with him.
Bunin is a realist only in artistic manner,
although it is among the writers-realists of the 19th
century, where he felt at ease. But his everyday life
description is anti-natural, selective and symbolic.
And in this anti-realist everyday life description
Bunin was absolutely original. Thus, no one before
Bunin had conducted a verbal-figurative dialogue
with the visual arts: his constant technique –
«quotation» of artists’ canvases. Try look at his
Malyavin’s black–red-yellow beauties in Bunin’s
«Dark Avenues», «quotations» of paintings of
G.F. Yartsev, K.A. Korovin, S.P. Kuvshinnikova,
Russian icons, European religious paintings. And
finally, the «Shore» by Bunin is a direct quote
and development of Levitan’s painting «Above
the Eternal Peace».
We remember this canvas: a heavy grayblue-green gamma with pearl tints lulls the oval
of the lake stretched to infinity; powerful clouds
are floating forward to the viewer; the cape with a
church and a cemetery – in the depth and upwards
of the space, to infinity. The vast, inspired spaces
of the sky create an image of the lake, mournful
and majestic at the same time, persuading in
incomprehensible for the human, but perfect
essence of the universe.
In his «Shore» Bunin in a way continues
the philosophical theme declared by Levitan. He
speaks with the human substance on the way to
heaven. Describing people's ritual of the funeral,
«wax candles» and «plank long boat», the poet
focuses on the loneliness of the «speechless twin»
who has «no name and no patronymic, no friends,
no home, no relatives».
In the «Shore» Bunin joined the popular
poetic elements and the Orthodoxy. His «blue
sea» is a tribute to folklore. This is why he lets
go the «white boat» to the «blue sea» which
never existed in reality. The boat is a metaphor
for the grave, but the difference between the
long and white boat at the end of the verse
is enormous. The white boat seems to be not
material already, it is on its way to heaven. The
verse pause in the line of the last quatrain is
fi lled inside with incredible deep sense of the
watershed and at the same time the merging of
two worlds. It creates a feeling of compassion
and peace, overcoming the horror of life by
a strong and high emotion. It is not only the
reflection of the Russian classics, it is the
reflection of the Russian soul...
Another aspect of the «Russianness» artistic
concept of Bunin is the memory. It becomes the
crossroads of all the motifs of his work. This is an
in-depth recollection of his pre-existence, and also
the theme of appealing to the lived-through, and
the eternal world of the Russian artistic classics.
The memory in his work is a kind of artistic
optics of empathy into the world, it colours all
the narration of Bunin with a complicated feeling
of enthusiastic sadness. Behind the appeals to
the past primarily stays the desire to retain the
present. Therefore, memory began to occupy
quite a special place indeed in the works of Bunin,
when the Accursed days occurred in his life and
Russia irrevocably became the past.
The memory and creative work have a
deep relationship. Memory, like art, sifts out
everything empty and unimportant, exposing the
most essential thing. «That’s why», Bunin wrote,
«creative work requires only obsolete, only the
past». The selection of memory is unconscious,
# 319 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga А. Karlova. Aspects of «Russianness» in the Philosophic-Artistic Concept of Ivan Bunin Creative Work
it is driven not by mind, but by something much
deeper. With respect to the values of this deep
being pictures and story lines are being built
creating a surprising uniformity of time of
Bunin’s narration, when the past and the present
are almost indistinguishable in the manner of
writing – one might be living in another, making
one «timeless» time.
Bunin himself expresses the essence of
his work in words which at most cover the
verges of life «heightened by art»: «We live
by all that, by what we live, only to the extent
at which we understand the price of that by
what we live. Usually this price is very low:
it rises only in the moments of excitement –
excitement of happiness or unhappiness, vivid
consciousness of the acquisition or loss, and in
moments of poetic transfiguration of the past
into memory».
As the poet asserted himself, these are not
the landscape and colours which fascinated him
in the surrounding world, but «the shining of
colours of love and happiness of existence in it».
We have tried to identify only some of the
verges of philosophical and artistic concept of
Ivan Bunin, although many questions remain
unanswered. Was the literary heritage of this
writer, who considered himself a follower of Lev
Tolstoy, realistic? Was it at all realistic Russian
art of the 19th century?
One can say with certainty only that the
prose and poetry of Ivan Bunin, like work of many
Russian masters of arts, were sinaesthetic – equally
picturesque, musical and poetic. Bunin’s artistry
was symbolic in terms of existence in its stable
complexes of ideas, images, archetypes, and, of
course, was characterized by intertextuality and
dialogical consciousness.
Are these the features, which manifest
specific Russianness of the Russian culture and
its view of the world? Or is it the philosophy
of feeling which still lies in the basis – the
intellectual courage to handle the concepts of
«eternity», «love», «life» and «death», «ends
and beginnings», «soul» and «cosmos» –and
even greater courage to live all this in his work?
Or maybe it’s the utmost openness and utmost
secrecy as of the first, so of the second – the
great mystery of being and cognition of life in its
earthly fullness and divine destiny...?
These and other existential, reason-forbeing questions tired pragmatic Western
thinkers and especially the European masters
of arts of the 19 th – 20 th centuries. For the
natural-contemplating
harmony
of
the
Oriental civilizations such questions were too
straightforward and «humanized». Answers
to them the Russian culture gave. And these
answers were secretly-mysterious, spiritualpagan, light- sad, tragic-majeure. Perhaps
these are the questions and the answers of the
borderland of civilizations.
It is known that borders in this world go by
land. In this case, this land is Russia ...
References
T.A. Pavlyuchenkova. Tsvetooboznacheniya v poezii I.A. Bunina / Filologicheskiye nauki [Colour
naming in the poetry of I.A. Bunin. Philological sciences] 2008, No. 2, pp.99-107.
A.G. Razumovskaya. «Listiya padayut v sadu…» Osen’ kak ob’ekt poeticheskikh razmyshlenii
I. Bunina i V. Nabokova / Russkaya slovesnost’ [«Leaves are falling down in the yard...» Autumn
as an object of poetic thoughts of I. Bunin and V. Nabokov / Russian language arts], 2009, No.6, pp.
23-28.
Ye. G. Belousova. «…Chuvstvovat’, lyubit’, nenavidet’…» / Russkaya rech’ [«…Feel, love, hate…»
/ Russian speech], 2007, No.1, pp. 30-37.
# 320 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga А. Karlova. Aspects of «Russianness» in the Philosophic-Artistic Concept of Ivan Bunin Creative Work
V.A. Meskin. Lyubov’ v proze I. Bunina: dialog s predshestvennikami i sovremennikami /
Russkaya slovesnost’ [Love in the prose of I. Bunin: a dialog with predecessors and contemporaries /
Russian language arts], 2005, No.5 pp. 20-26.
T.M. Dvinyatina. «Mir Ivana Bunina»: ideal’naya proektsiya / Russkaya literatura [«The world of
Ivan Bunin»: an ideal projection / Russian literature], 2008, No. 2, pp. 216-223.
N.A. Pereverzeva. Mifosimvolicheskii contekst romana Bunina «Zhizn’ Arsenieva» /
Filologicheskiye nauki [Mythological and symbolic context of the Bunin’s novel «The life of Arseniev»
/ Philological sciences], 2010, No.3, pp. 15-22.
V. Marchenko. Perepisat’ klassiku v epokhu modernizma: o poetike i stile rasskaza Bunina
«Natali» / Izvestiya RAN. Seriya literatury i yazyka [To rewrite the classics during the epoch of
modernism: about the poetry and the style of Bunin’s story «Nataly» / The Journal of the Russian
Academy of Sciences. Series of literature and language], 2010, No. 2, Volume 069, pp. 25-42.
T.V. Marchenko. Na puti k akademicheskomu Buninu / Izvestiya RAN. Seriya literatury i yazyka
[On the way to the academic Bunin / The Journal of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Series of
literature and language ], 2007, No. 001, Volume 66, pp. 11-27.
Аспекты «русскости»
в философско-художественном концепте
творчества Ивана Бунина
О.А. Карлова
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, г. Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82
Статья посвящена философским вопросам национальной идентичности в творчестве
русского поэта и писателя Ивана Бунина, исследованию феномена «константа русской
души» в контексте его произведений, уточнению аспектов «русскости» жанровых и
стилистических особенностей его прозы и поэзии, а также в целом бунинского творческого
почерка.
Рефлексия природы, которой сопутствует звучащая тишина, является главной приметой
поэзии Ивана Бунина.
Человек у Бунина – сосуд рефлексии природы, орган ее мысли и переживания. Именно мир
природы, образы которого занимают 74% всех художественных описаний Бунина, – и есть для
него мир высшей гармонии бытия.
Другим типично русским аспектом творчества Ивана Бунина является его синэстетичность.
Бунинские тексты, особенно поэтические, прежде всего удивительно живописны. Можно
сказать, что это поэзия тысячи красок – но красок, строго отобранных и философски
закодированных.
Живописность поэзии и прозы Бунина не имеет аналогов в русской литературе: при среднем
использовании в текстах на 10 тысяч слов 70-90 цветообразований, только Бунин использует
190 красок.
В то же время красочная роскошь бунинского языка, по утверждению Владимира Набокова,
достигается прежде всего его звукописью, ритмикой, лаконизмом и высочайшей плотностью
стиха.
# 321 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga А. Karlova. Aspects of «Russianness» in the Philosophic-Artistic Concept of Ivan Bunin Creative Work
Пропуская впечатления через призму своего концепта, мастер создает интегральный образ
повышенной жизни, стремится к изображению ее страстного накала, к достижению
превосходной степени бытия.
Рамкой философского мышления писателя является целое бытия. В эту рамку вписаны все его
стихи, сюжеты, мотивы, рассказы. Все связано со всем, взаимопроникаемо, все имеет смысл
лишь по отношению к целому. Это не только древняя логика мифокосмоса, характерная для
русских философов и литераторов разных эпох, это еще и мужество мыслителя оперировать
понятиями «вечность», «космос», «жизнь» и «смерть».
Любовь мужчины и женщины, одержимых жизнью и завороженных смертью, у Бунина вечна,
трагична и мистериальна. Современники Бунина часто говорили о «перепевах» и эпигонстве
в его творчестве.
Ю.М. Лотман открыл новую эпоху в буниноведении, заговорив о бунинском модернистском
желании «переписать» русскую литературу в ее художественных образцах.
Бунин – реалист лишь по художественной манере, хотя именно среди писателей-реалистов
XIX века он чувствовал себя своим. Но его бытописание антинатуралистично, избирательно
и символично. И в этом своем антиреалистическом бытописательстве Бунин был абсолютно
оригинален.
Еще один аспект «русскости» художественного концепта Бунина – память. Она становится
перекрестком всех мотивов его творчества.
Сам Бунин выражает сущность своего творчества в словах, которые максимально полно
охватывают грани «повышенной искусством» жизни: «Мы живем всем тем, чем живем,
лишь в той мере, в какой постигаем цену того, чем живем. Обычно эта цена очень мала:
возвышается она лишь в минуты восторга – восторга счастия или несчастия, яркого сознания
приобретения или потери; еще в минуты поэтического преображения прошлого в памяти».
На эти и другие экзистенциональные, смысложизненные вопросы ответы давала русская
культура. И ответы эти были таинственно-мистериальные, духовно-языческие, светлопечальные, трагически-мажорные. Возможно, это и есть вопросы и ответы пограничья
цивилизаций.
Ключевые слова: русская литература, ментальность, русскость, рефлексия, синэстетичность,
интертекстуальность, реализм, символизм, модернизм.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 323-341
~~~
УДК 81-139
Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities
of National Languages of the Northern People
of the Krasnoyarsk Region
Natalya P. Koptseva*,
Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova and Ksenia V. Reznikova
Siberian Federal University
82 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011
In the given work, we observe some of the existing view points of such socio-linguistic problems as
definition of language boundaries, distinguishing of a language and a dialect, theories of language
development under the influence of social factors, language progress and regress, dying languages.
In particular, for the beginning, we find out the borders between the notions of «speech community»,
«speech society», and «speech commonness» for the purpose of defining of the frames of further
research, which logics is directed from consideration of more general questions to the study of
more specific items. At every stage, special attention is paid to disputable points, which have caused
the largest discussions in scientific circles. Thus, the search of language boundaries, reality of
existence of a general linguistic core and existence of a language of a separate person have become
such an object of discussion, which has been paid special attention.
Consideration of interrelations of the notions of «language» and «dialect» is an important moment
of theoretical research. Here, special attention is drawn to correlation of dialects within the
language, to a possibility of dialect transition from one language to another, that is, we actually
consider relations of dialects and language as in statics, so in dynamics. Thereat, the main accent
is also placed not only on the relation «language – dialect» itself, but also on the features, which
help to distinguish the denoted notions, moreover, these features are as linguistic, so cultureanthropological, in particular, we are speaking about people’s self-conscious, which is considered
by a row of socio-linguists to be a basis for ethnical identity formation. Settlement of language
boundaries makes us concentrate our attention only to the processes, which deal directly with the
language, i.e. to the language dynamics. So, here, we consider as the types of dynamics (evolution,
development, and perfection), so its reasons, which are usually divided into internal and external;
we reveal the analogy of language dynamics and human life, we speak about normal condition of a
language, its corruption, its birth and death. We appeal to the eposes of the native small-numbered
peoples of the Krasnoyarsk region and it allows visually illustrating theoretical elaborations of
the present work by means of tracing down of peculiarities of socio-cultural dynamics of some
languages of small-numbered peoples, peculiarities of their interrelations, and the character of
their mutual influence.
Keywords: Native peoples of the Krasnoyarsk region, socio-linguistics, language boundaries, language
development, linguistic shift, linguistic self-conscious, language socio-dynamics, concept, epos.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: decanka@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 323 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages…
The research has been carried out with financial support from the part of:
1) The Federal Purpose-Oriented Program «Scientific and Scientific-Pedagogical Personnel of
Innovative Russia For 2009-2013 Years» concerning the problematics of «Culture of Native and SmallNumbered Peoples of the North under the Condition of Global Transformations: foresight-research
for the period up to 2050 on the analysis of the material of the Yakut ethnos», which is held within the
frames of Event 1.2.1 «Running of Scientific Researches by Scientific Groups under the Leadership of
Doctors of Science».
2) The Regional State Autonomic Organization «Krasnoyarsk Regional Fond of Scientific and ScientificEngineering Activity Support» on the topic «The Krasnoyarsk Region as a poly-cultural space, is a
motherland of native small-numbered nations of the North. Informational-analytical project».
3) The Federal Purpose-Oriented Program «Scientific and Scientific-Pedagogical Personnel of
Innovative Russia For 2009-2013 Years» within the frames of Event 1.4 «Running of Exploration
Scientific-Research Works for the Purpose of General-Russian Mobility Development in the Sphere of
Natural and Humanitarian Sciences» on the topic: «Culture of Native and Small-Numbered Peoples of
the North, Siberia and Far East under the Condition of Global Transformations».
«Point of View»:
Conception of Language Socio-Dynamics
in the Context of the Modern
Socio-Linguistic Researches
In their research work «Socio-Linguistics»
(2001), V.I. Belikov and L.P. Krysin write that
«language is a social phenomenon, and as far as it
is so, then it is natural that language development
can be fully autonomic: this way or another it
depends on the development of society» (Belikov
et al., 2001; 100).
For the first time, the term «sociolinguistics» was used by American sociologist
German Carry in 1952, though it does not mean
that the science of social relations and languages
started to be formed only at that time. Already
in XVII century scientists were thinking about
the influence of some social factors on languages
(Gonzalo de Correas), and researches, «which
took into consideration dependence of linguistic
phenomena on social phenomena» (Belikov et
al., 2001; 14), were run rather actively since the
beginning of XX century.
The basis of socio-linguistics is relations
between language and society. Connection
of language evolution and social factors, the
speaker’s choice of this or that language variant,
children’s assimilation of the communicative
bases, linguistic contacts and their results – this
is the circle of topics of socio-linguistics – the
science, which studies «language and its relation
to the society» (Vakhtin).
In the given work, we are mostly interested
in various opinions of language, which are
connected to its existence and functioning in
the society, and in those linguistic changes,
which take place under the influence of man and
contacts with other languages. Thus, here, we
consider such notions, which are connected to
language changing and existence, precisely from
the positions of socio-linguistics.
1. Speech Community –
Speech Society – Speech Commonness
One of the key notions in socio-linguistics is
the notion of «speech society». It correlates with
such terms as «speech community» and «speech
commonness».
V.I. Belikov and L.P. Krysin suggest the
following definition of speech society – «it is an
integrity of people, who are united by common
social, economical, political and cultural ties and
performing direct and indirect contacts with each
other and with various social institutions with the
help of one or several languages, being spread
in this integrity, and in their everyday life»
# 324 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages…
(Belikov et al., 2001; 20). But people, speaking
one language, do not always make up one speech
society. Thus, Americans and Englishmen do not
belong to one society, though they speak English.
The authors write that «the boundaries of language
spreading do not often coincide with the political
boundaries. <…> that is why, when we define the
notion of «speech society» it is important to take
into consideration linguistic and social features»
(Belikov et al., 2001; 20).
The definition of language society, given
by V.I. Belikov and L.P. Krysin, is very close to
the understanding of speech community, which
is suggested by L. Bloomfield in his monograph
«Language» (1933, Russian translation – 1968).
«Speech community» is «a group of people, who
interact with the help of speech» (Bloomfield).
Other kinds of relations (economical, political
and cultural) can be to some extend correlated
to the linguistic ones, but, to the mind of L.
Bloomfield, they rarely coincide. As a rule,
cultural peculiarities are spread wider, then
speech peculiarities. For example, the scientist
recalls the situation which took place in the
Northern America before its colonization: every
independent Indian tribe had its own language,
thus, making up a separate speech society and it
also was a separate political and economical unit,
but common culture and religion made it close to
the neighboring tribes.
A similar idea was outspoken by N.B.
Vakhtin and Y.V. Golovkoin in their work «SocioLinguistics and Language Sociology» (2004):
«as a rule, the boundaries of ethnic and speech
group do not coincide. One can observe various
speech variants within the boundaries of one
ethnos and, visa verse, various ethnic groups can
speak one language» (Vakhtin et al., 2004; 37).
In linguistics, under speech variant we consider
a variant of language, which, as a rule, functions
independently. The most popular language
variants are the variants of English language:
British English, American English, and Australian
English. N.B. Vakhtin and Y.V. Golovkoin write:
«any collective, even a small one has several
speech variants» (Vakhtin et al., 2004; 37).
Though, Y.S. Maslov in his «Introduction
to Language Study» (1987) gives an alternative
thought concerning correlation of speech
boundaries with political, economical and others,
and asserts that «in a large number of cases, a
group of people, speaking the same language
(«speech commonness»), is an ethnic collective
(a nation, an ethnic group, a tribe)» (Maslov).
2. Language boundaries
The boundaries of language itself are also
rather difficult to define, as far as language
usually exists in several forms: literary language,
everyday variant, vernacular language, territorial
dialects, sociolects and so on. Nevertheless,
linguists single out a general, sort of formative
core of the language. Y.S. Maslov observes the
following: «Language of some group (nation,
ethnic group <…>) is not «a scientific fiction», not
a compulsory «averaging» of facts of individual
speech. It objectively exists, not as a «direct
entity», but as the general, which exists in a part,
as that one, which is being reproduced in speech
again and again, being repeated in thousands,
millions and billions of expressions, being
pronounced and perceived in a corresponding
collective» (Maslov). This way, a countless
number of concrete original expressions is united
by something common, invariant, and it let the
language exists as a certain integral system and
it is caused by «the existence of people, human
collectives, using this language as a mean of
communication» (Akhmamova, 1972; 99).
And visa verse, the neogrammarians negated
the existence of any common language, supposing
that only the language of a separate individual
is real. Baudouin de Courtenay also stuck to a
similar point of view: «language exists only in
# 325 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages…
some individual brains, only in the psychic of
individuals or species, making up the given speech
society» (ref. (Grechko, 2003; 21)). Academician
А.А. Shakhmatov also shared this point of view
of the language existence, admitting common
language to be «a famous scientific fiction» (ref.
(Grechko, 2003; 21)).
While А.А. Potebnya asserts that both
common and «personal» languages are real,
considering speech «to be a realized fragment
of language, which is enough for revelation
of necessary possible units» (ref. (Grechko,
2003; 22)).
3. Language
And Dialect Differenciation
According to various data, there are from six
to six and a half thousands languages in the world.
Such fluctuations of scientific data are first of all
connected to the fact that up till now scientists
have not yet decided what we should consider to
be a language and a dialect: what are the principles
for such decision making? Sometimes, dialects
can be even better developed than a language and
can function on a vast territory. Besides, a dialect
can differ a lot from the language, up to that, that
its carriers do not understand the carriers of the
language. Though, the situation can be a reverse
one, when speaking different languages people
can understand each other without any mediators
(the Dane and the Norwegians, the Serbians and
the Croats, and so on.).
There are several points of view of such a
differentiation:
Thus, N.B. Mechkovskaya («Social
Linguistics», 2000) supposes, that «the status
of language formation (i.e. language, dialect,
jargon, functional style and so on.), similar to the
ethnic status of some community of people, is
defined by the self-conscious of a corresponding
collective. Speech self-conscious is a notion of
those, who speak, of what language they speak»
(Mechkovskaya). To the researcher’s mind,
precisely the self-definition of speakers is of toppriority in relation to the structural-linguistic
criterion. N.B. Mechkovskaya writes «if the
collective of speakers consider their native speech
to be a separate language, being different from
the languages of all their neighbors, then, the
given collective speaks a separate independent
language. If we respect human rights, this point
of view must be admitted by scientists and
politicians» (Mechkovskaya).
V.I. Belikov and L.P. Krysin share this point
of view and suppose to consider the opinion of
the native speakers to be determinant in this
question, though, they point at that, that there
are «objective» indicators, to which number
they refer mutual perceptibility, presence of
a prestigious super-dialect variant (oral or
written) and also political-economical process
of integration of kindred variants speakers
(Belikov et al., 2001; 91).
Speaking about the problem of correlation
of a language and a dialect, S.А. Arutyunov
also marks that «there are no precise- and
correct-enough pure linguistic criteria, which
would help us to separate these notions clearly
and distinctly» (Arutyunov, 1987; 45), that is
why in each concrete case we make a decision in
accordance with the perception of its character
by the mass of its native speakers. For example,
it is quite interesting that the Georgians (the
people, who perceive themselves as Georgians)
speak various dialects, accents of Georgian
and also languages, which are remotely
kindred to Georgian, as in Georgia, so out of
its boundaries. And from the linguistic point
of view, these languages are special, they even
have their own dialects, but their speakers
perceive themselves as Georgians, some
specific spheres are also not covered by those
languages, and that is why «from the ethnosocial point of view, their role is equal to the
# 326 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages…
roles of the main dialects of the Georgian
language» (Arutyunov, 1987; 45).
But some linguists, for example,
G.I. Edelman, consider that it is not at all so
important to differentiate languages and dialects.
Edelman writes: «in the course of synchronic
linguistic description of a linguistic variant, in
the course of research of its history or finding
out its genetic, typological or even territorial
references it is practically insignificant, which
term «language» or «dialect» is to be used in
relation to it <…>: here, it is not qualitative» (ref.
(Belikov et al., 2001; 91)).
О.S. Akhmanova writes that dialect
crucially differs from language, because it is
not independent. Dialect «is in a compulsory
and inevitable correlation and interdependence
on other dialects» (Akhmamova, 1972; 100).
This way, there can appear «transitional cases of
correlation with neighboring adjacent semiotic
systems» (Akhmamova, 1972; 100). That is
why the boundaries of a dialect are vague: one
dialect slips into another. Though, a dialect can
move from one language structure to another
(for example, some Danish dialects became the
dialects of the English language), or they even
can become independent languages (the Dolgan
language originally existed as a dialect of
Yakut).
What concerns the opinion of the western
linguists in the question of differentiation of a
language and a dialect, the majority of scientists
also consider linguistic factors to be on the second
place after the people’s self-conscious (Alpatov,
2000; 196).
4. Dynamic of language
Language is the main means of people’s
communication. «Language appears, develops
and exists as a social phenomenon. Its main
appropriation is concluded in the following:
to serve the needs of human society and first
of all to provide communication among the
members of major or minor social collectives,
and also functioning of a collective memory of
this collective» (Susov). By means of language,
they achieve exchanging of information and
build up interpersonal relations; language reflects
the reality surrounding the individual and,
consequently, the occurring changes. Gradual
changing is a natural condition of language.
Dynamics shows that language is alive and
develops in a normal way.
In «General Language Study» (1970), B.А.
Serebrennikov notes, that «languages cannot
fail changing first of all because of that simple
reason, that language is a means of practical
realization of communicational acts, and in
their basis there is a human reflection of the
surrounding reality, which is itself in a constant
movement and development» (Serebrennikov).
Becoming and development of a living language
come to an end simultaneously with its living,
that is, when the language finishes its existence.
This gradual and continuous changing includes
not only reformation and renewal in connection
with the progress of society, but also perfection
of the language, getting rid of contradictions
and various shortcomings and defects. Thus,
«some part of changes has a sort of preventive
character, as far as they appear because of inner
necessity of the language mechanism reforming»
(Serebrennikov).
In his «Lectures of General Language
Study» (1990), Y.V. Rozhdestvensky separates
the dynamics of language into evolution,
development and language perfection. Evolution
and development are in some sense in opposition
to each other: in the course of evolution, language
units change their phonetic (graphic) and sense
qualities, but we do not observe any increase of
units’ quantity or qualitative changes of their
relations, while in the course of development we
observe all these phenomena at a time. Language
# 327 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages…
perfection opposes these two processes, as far as
language is changed not by itself, but in the result
of human influence (Rozhdestvensky, 1990).
The reasons of changes can be divided
into several groups: external, connected to
the influence of some outer phenomena on the
language, and internal, connected to organization
and functioning of the language itself. B.А.
Serebrennikov writes, that «language reforming
can be run under the influence of two various
motive forces, one of them is connected to
appropriation of language and realization of
communicative necessity of society, and the
other is connected to the principals of language
organization, to its embodiment in a certain
substance and its existence in the form of a special
sign system» (Serebrennikov).
А. Meillet singles out three groups of reasons
of changes, occurring in language: 1) language
structure (proper linguistic reasons, connected
to organization and functioning); 2) conditions
of language existence (psychological, physical,
spatial, social and other factors); 3) singular
impacts of other languages (language contacts)
(Serebrennikov).
Let us consider some conceptions of language
development, where the changes, occurring in
the language, are used to be associated with a
social structure of society, which uses the given
language. Socio-Linguistics is distinguished by
its extremely large variety of points of view of
social mechanisms of language changing.
For example, Y.D. Polivanov considers,
that «in the course of language development we
observe a complex interaction of proper linguistic,
internal, external, and social factors» (Belikov et
al., 2001; 102). Social changes, especially some
drastic events, certainly, exert certain influence
on language, but we should not overestimate
the scale of this influence. «Y.D. Polivanov
compares the course of language development
with the work of locomotive pistons. Similar to
that, as some social shift cannot make pistons
move along, but perpendicularly the railways,
so any kind of economical or political factor
cannot change the direction of phonetic and other
linguistic processes» (Belikov et al., 2001; 102).
Social factors influence on language indirectly,
for example, they change qualitatively or
quantitatively the set of native speakers of this or
that language, or dialect, and, consequently, «the
starting points of its evolution» are also modified.
Y.D. Polivanov also mentions the degree of social
factors influence on language: lexis is exposed
to it in a greater degree, while morphology
and syntaxes – in a much lesser. Though,
Y.D. Polivanov notes, that «our acceptance of
language dependence on life and social evolution
does not negate or reduce the meaning of naturalhistorical «theories of evolution» of language»
(ref. (Belikov et al., 2001; 101)).
М.V. Panov is the author of the theory of
antinomy, having got wide spreading in 60-s. He
thinks that «in the language development the key
role is played by the constantly acting, antithetical
tendencies (antinomies), which struggle is
the propelling motivation of the language
development» (Belikov et al., 2001; 105). All in
all he singles out four such tendencies:
1. Antinomy of the speaker (the tendency to
use reduced forms) and the listener (the tendency
to use full forms): reduced forms economize one’s
efforts, and that is why they are convenient to
the speaker, while full forms provide maximum
of information, and it makes the process of
understanding easier, and consequently, they are
convenient to the listener;
2. Antinomy of the system and the norm: on
one hand, the system lets us use everything, what
does not contradict the laws of language, and on
other hand, there is a norm, which selects only
some forms for application;
3. Antinomy of the code and the text: the
lesser number of units needs a longer text to
# 328 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages…
render a certain sense, and visa verse, the bigger
number of units needs a shorter text for the same
purpose;
4. Antinomy of the regularity and
expressivity: language informational function
demands a precise and definite word expression
of a thought, while emotive function appeals to
all the language abundance.
М.V. Panov considers that temporal
domineering of one or another tendency in any of
the antimonies is this way or another connected
to the position of social groups in the society. For
example, in 20 – 30-s of XX century, changing
of the set of the native speakers of the Russian
formal language influenced on its pronunciation –
it became more literal: people began to pronounce
bulo[chn]aya, smeyal[s’a] and ti[kh’i]y instead of
the old Moscow normative variant bulo[shn]aya,
smeyal[sa] and tj[khi]y.
American linguist W. Labov has worked out
an outstanding theory of language development.
According to this theory, changes in the language
structure cannot be understood correctly without
taking into consideration of the data of the
speech society, which applies this language. In
the course of research of the changes we are to
account following three aspects: what is the way
one stage of changes replaces the other, what is
that continuous process, within which limits
these changes take place and, finally, how does
the speaker evaluate this changing. Though, the
social status of the sub-group, where the changing
takes place, is also important. If it does not get
any definite position in the society, then the
changing can be rejected, the reaction will take
place and the reverse process back to the norm
will be started.
5. Language progress and regress
In spite of the fact that dynamics is a feature
of the language being alive, any changes can
be as of progressive, so of regressive character.
Progressive changes allow language to develop
at full rate and, while changing, to preserve its
integrity and originality. For example, Soviet
linguistics is presented by the works of Y.D.
Desheriev, and it asserts that, the process of
language development must be inevitably
connected to the language progress, which is
understood «as social product», i.e. the language
develops progressively only then, when the volume
of its social functions is growing (Desheriev,
1977; 185 – 186).
In language, the problem of progress is
understood in different ways. Thus, for example, F.
Bopp, J. Grimm, A. Schleicher, V. Humboldt have
compared ancient Hindu and modern European
languages and have come to the conclusion that
all the history of languages is a gradual decay
and depletion. But, other scientists suppose on
the contrary that, that there is nothing wrong
in simplification. For example, Otto Jespersen
writes that the easier the grammar system is, the
more perfect the language is.
It occurs very often that the character of
language changing is possible to be defined only
post factum. But, we can say it definitely that the
changing is regressive only when the language is
close to its «death».
6. Linguistic shift
and language «death»
In the native linguistics, A.Y. Kibrikov was
the first, who applied biological terms in respect to
the language («healthy», «sick», «disappearing»,
«dead»).
A.Y. Kibrikov writes: «healthy languages
are able to reproduce or even to enlarge their
social status, their sphere of activity, number of
native speakers, in other words, they function and
develop in a standard way, they are viable. «Sick»
languages are on this or that stage of degrading»
(Kibrik, 1992; 67). Their social status is gradually
coming down, the number of spheres of activity
# 329 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages…
and of native speakers is decreasing. Beside the
social parameters, the language existence is also
influenced by the internal structural parameters:
steadiness of the language structure to the impact
of other languages, dynamics of lexis development
and so on.
Severity of «the disease» is defined by the
degree of «the language progress and closeness to
the dead point» (the term of N.B. Mechkovskaya).
Transition of language from the category
of «living» to «dead» ones usually involves
«communicatively weak languages with an underdeveloped system of forms and styles. Though,
there are some examples, when languages with
a developed literary form (Latin, Sanskrit) have
disappeared. Thus way, as internal, so external
regressive changes are quite dangerous for
languages» (Felde; 114).
«In General Language Study», N.B.
Mechkovskaya marks, that usage of languages
is very often compared with «the loss of many
species of animals, plants, and with ecological
catastrophes: along with the death of hundreds
of languages – all this is various revelations of
increasing ill-being all over the world. Next to the
«Red Data Books» of flora and fauna there have
appeared «Red Data Books» of languages. The
question of «dying» languages survival became the
main question at the XV International Linguistic
Congress (1992, Canada)» (Mechkovskaya, 2001,
124].
At present time, the question of languages
extinction attracts more and more attention,
as far as right «now we have understood that
language variety is of as much value for the
human civilization, as the biological variety for
the nature» (Borgoykova, 2001; 3).
The language, which is communicatively
stronger, displaces the weaker one; though, there
is still no unanimous opinion of what defines
the power of a language. For example, N.B.
Vakhtin and Y.V. Golovko consider that «when a
language turns out to be in contact with another
one, then it is spreading wider and wider, and
pushes the weaker language out, just because its
native speakers are stronger in political, military
or economical relations. D. Crystall writes
about close connection between the linguistic
domineering and cultural power: language
exists only in the conscious, in the speech of its
carriers. When they succeed, the language is also
a success» (Vakhtin et al., 2004; 111-112).
Scientists also single out existence of
a written language, its literary form and a
developed system of styles to be the features of
communicative power of language.
In some cases, communicative power can
be defined by the number of its native speakers,
and then we speak about mega-languages, macrolanguages, languages with a medium number
of speakers and languages of small-numbered
nations.
Division of languages into healthy, sick,
vanishing and dead is not the only one. М. Krauss
(ref. (Vakhtin et al., 2004)) singles out other
categories:
• dying (moribund): they are not studied by
children as native ones;
• endangered: if the existing conditions are
preserved, then they will not be studied
by children as native ones in the next
century;
• safe: children will study them as their
native languages in the nearest future.
One language can be changed by the other
only passing the stage of social existence in
condition of bilingualism (or multilingualism).
On a certain stage of development, speech
community has to make its final choice: whether
to preserve its language (language maintenance)
or to change it for another (language shift).
Refusal of the commonness to use the old
language and transition to a new one is called a
language shift (Vakhtin et al., 2004). Language
# 330 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages…
shift can be slow (it can take hundreds years),
quick (three-four generations) and catastrophic
(one-two generations). «Some linguists suppose,
that bilingualism will surely bring to degradation
of one the languages or assimilation of one of
them (more often it is the primary language)»
(Bertagaev, 1972; 86).
V.М. Alpatov notes, that «language
minorities always undergo one and the same
way, consisting of three stages: domineering
of national monolingualism – domineering of
bilingualism – domineering of the language of
the majority; and the last stage is finished by the
death of the language. The reverse movement
is possible only in case the state boundaries are
changed and the speech minority becoming the
majority» (Alpatov, 2000; 203). Though, these
stages changing can flow with a various speed.
«The last stage (before complete disappearance
of the language) is the situation linguistic ghetto,
when the language is used only in some villages,
in some families and so on. <…> though, life
in ghetto can last for decades and even longer»
(Alpatov, 2000; 206).
The reasons, which bring the speech
community to such a refusal, are rather various:
from «prestige» to inculcation of other language
by force, and one could observe it in reality at
the end of 1950-s – at the beginning of 1960-s all
over the world (South America, Australia, USA,
Canada, Extreme North of the USSR), «when local
administrations took children from their families
by force and placed them in the boarding schools,
<…> and children of different nationalities were
taught together and the only communication
language of children and their teachers was their
state language» (Vakhtin et al., 2004; 121). R.
Fesold considers, that «language shift takes place
only at that moment, when the speech group itself
wishes to refuse from its identity» (ref. (Alpatov,
2000; 203)), but V.М. Alpatov thinks, that it is
not always true. For example, usually, the Jew
people easily assimilate with the local population
in western countries, but still they preserve their
national identity.
The choice of direction of the language
development depends on ethno-linguistic
livability. This approach appeared in the middle
of 1970-s and is described with the help of
three independent socio-linguistic parameters:
status (prestige of the group and its language
in the society), demography (the number of the
group members, its rate of birth, marriages,
immigrational and emigrational behavior) and
institutional support (mass media, education,
policy, cultural activity) (Vakhtin et al., 2004;
125-126).
2. «Example»:
Eposes of the Native Small-Numbered
Peoples of the Krasnoyarsk Region.
«Deer» as a Concept of the Evenki Epos
There are eight nationalities living in the
Krasnoyarsk Region, they are used to be referred
to the national small-numbered peoples: there
are the Dolgans, the Kets, the Nganasans, the
Nenets, the Selkups, the Chulymtsis, the Evenkis,
and the Entsis. Scientists often argue about the
ninth ethnos – about Yakuts, 72.5% of Yakuts,
populating the Krasnoyarsk Region, live in the
village Yessey, situated in the north-east of the
Evenkis municipal region. Consequently, further
we shall speak about peculiarities of eposes of the
mentioned nine ethnoses, which we shall consider
in the alphabetic order.
The Dolgan epos combines in itself features
of both Russian and Yakut influence. Thus,
folk tales are usually performed in the form of
songs, very close to the Yakut olonkho. Russian
borrowings are first of all traced in the structure
of the tale heroes. Dolgan olonkho and yryalaak
olonkho (with signing) are performed by the
fairy-tellers, who are considered to be the choice
of good spirits, which are held in special respect.
# 331 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages…
The plot, the composition of the Dolgan olonkhos
is close to the Yakut ones, including the Yessey
tales. The main hero of the Dolgan epos defends
the people of the Middle world from the bogatyrs
of abaasa, who live in the Lower world. Epic
Dolgan music is also directly connected to the
Dolgan epos, as a literature genre, it is presented
by individual vocal characteristics of some
personages of olonkho. Song melodies fulfill the
role of melodic characteristics of the main heroes;
besides, they are appealed to underline the most
significant moments of heroes’ actions.
The Kets epos is first of all presented by
cosmogonical tales and myths about the world
origin and about a man, about bogatyr Balne,
about Albe and his struggle with Khosedem.
Epic tales of the Kets are usually divided into two
big blocks: the first one is Creation of the world,
of the animals, and the people; the second one is
existence of this world in the past, the present and
the future. The Kets have been noticed to have a
dual attitude to the world creation: it is whether
self-development of the earth (water and air are
in the origin), or creation of the world by the will
of God. God, a positive personage, is opposed by
the negative beginning; and this antagonism is
also traced on the minor levels of the hierarchy.
Thus, the superior personage of the pantheon,
God Yesu, personifying Heaven, is opposed by
his wife Khosedem, exiled by himself to the
earth, the hostess of the world of the dead and the
North; in a similar way they refer mythological
hero Albe and legendary shaman Dokhu to
positive personages, while Dottet and others are
referred to negative. The Kets epos explains the
appearance of heavy-going rapids, mountain
ranges by the actions of epical heroes. Thus, the
name of Albe is connected to appearance of the
Yenisei river, which is lower the Osinovsk rifts,
and of the rifts themselves, rocky islands. Olgyt
with his family was turned in a rift in the Stony
Tunguska River. Escaping from Albe, Khosedem
is ascribed to have created uninhabitable floodable
islands lower the Osinovsk rifts.
According to the Kets mythological world
outlooks, organization of the world is of threepart structure: it is the land, which is in the middle
position and surrounded by the water («seven
seas»); above the land there is the seven-part
heaven, formed by parallel layers, circles or capes,
the seventh layer is the roof of heaven; below the
land there are seven underground caves – the
notions about them are rather vague. The middle
world is populated by the Kets (Kynden), animals
and birds. The underground world is presented
as the world of the dead and substances, which
are harmful for people. The heaven is presented
as a home for people and animals, having moved
from the land, and also the wintering place for
migrant birds. The connection between the
worlds is realized by shamans, some of them are
specialized in connections with the Lower world,
the others – with the Upper world.
We are to mark that, fragmentary
performance of the epos (singular plots, speeches
of heroes) by certain people under certain
conditions was considered to have a magic
influence on the forces of nature, in particular,
to help in traditional cropping (setting of the
necessary spell of weather, incantation of the
game to run into the hands of hunters and fishers
and so on.).
The Nganasan folklore is various, and it is
first of all presented by musical-narrative epical
tales (sitabi) about bogatyrs’ heroic deeds. These
tales were usually performed during several
evenings. Prolonged tales were often sung by
storytellers-singers in wintertime. These singers
were considered to have magic power. We are to
underline that in comparison with the fairy-tales,
characterized by a fictional plot, those mythological
tales were considered to be a real narration, which
told about the creation of the world. According
to Nganasan cosmogonical pieces, the world was
# 332 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages…
created by the will of «the Mother of all that has
eyes» and Syruta-ngou – God of earth, whose son
was the man-deer, who was the first man on the
earth, and was the first, who faced the evil forces,
embodied in a flying horned deer. After the real
people populated the earth, the man-deer became
their protector. In the Nganasan epos we can find
as supernatural substances nguo, barusi, djamady,
kojka, kocha (all of them were considered to be the
children of the mothers: Mou-nemy (the Earth),
Kou-nemy (the Sun), Tuy-nemy (the Fire), Khuanemy (the Tree), Byzy-nemy (the Water)); so the
legendary bogatyrs’ heroic deeds, including their
interaction with real peoples – with the Nenets,
the Russians, the Evenkis, and the Dolgans. Epical
tales of the Nganasans, the same as the majority of
other Northern peoples’, are performed on various
personalized melodies, which characterize the
main heroes and differentiate them from each
other.
The Nenets folklore contains narrative
stories (yarabtz), historical legends, lyrical songsimprovisations (khyinbatz), fairy-tales (vadako,
lakhnaku), and puzzles. Besides, the scientists
are used to single out heroic songs (syudbabtz).
As far as it is impossible to separate the genres
in the Nenets folklore, epical tales yarabtz and
syudbabtz are usually combined in one group,
which is often called epical songs, because they
are performed in the form of a song. Etymology
of the word «syudbabtz» goes from «syudbja» –
«giant», i.e. syudbabtz is actually the tale about
giants. In the course of time, the meaning of
the word «syudbja» has been changed, and now
it means a hero-bogatyr or his antagonist. The
main heroes of syudbabtz, bogatyrs possess an
exclusive power and fearlessness, and besides,
they have magic talents, for example, they can
move in the sky with the help of their bows. The
most wide spread plots of syudbabtz are revenge
for the insult, for the murder of a relative or
hunting for a wife.
The Nenets epos can be divided into two big
blocks, and for the basis of such a division, we
take the timing of the occurring events. Thus, the
first group is the epos, narrating of the events,
which took place in ancient times, following
the creation of the world and in a comparatively
small period of time. Here, we should also mark
that, cosmogonical myths about the creation of
the world, the man, the world of animals and
plants were not used to be delivered to strangers,
and that is why there are quite few pieces, which
can be referred to this block. The second group
is late epical pieces va’al, where the main heroes
are historical persons – Lenin, Vauli Nenyang,
heroes of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945.
We are particularly to mark the Nenets’
attitude to narrations on the whole: syudbabtz
narration is usually given in the third person, but
sometimes it is transferred to the first person.
But, syudbabtz, as the whole Nenets folklore, is
typical of personification of the narration itself;
when along with the main heroes there is one more
personified character – myneko, in other words,
it is the tale itself. Traditionally, the story-teller
was repeated by the audience, singing the last
long syllable in the line and varying the melody
of the narration, all this resulted in formation
of a canon-like structure of the tale with some
inclusions of heterophonic sub-voices.
The Selkup folklore is presented by
historical legends, heroic songs, fairy-tales and
small tales. A rather large layer of epical works
of the Selkups narrate about the wars, which
were led against their neighboring peoples –
against the Evenkis, the Nenets, the Tatars. The
Kets and the Khants were used to be allies of the
Selkups in those collisions. Epical Selkup tales
(keel’tyma) are, as a rule, performed in one piece,
though, in some cases they practice to divide the
plot into separate melodic formulas. Interaction
of Selkup and Kets cultures can be traced not
only in the structure of plots of the Selkup epos,
# 333 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages…
but also in their performance traditions, as far as
epical melodies of the Selkups can be compared
with the Kets tradition of shaman singing. One
of the peculiarities of the Selkup folklore is that,
that in the Tomsk region the main part of tales is
performed in Russian.
Epos of Chulym Ethnos has been preserved
in a lesser degree, so, various sources assert that
there are tales about bogatyrs, whose names
are considered to have given birth to Chulym
surnames.
The Evenkis folklore includes as songsimprovisations, fairy-tales, and everyday tales,
so the epos, as mythological, so historical. The
epos is intonated, and very often in the course
of the whole night. Performance of larger tales
could be prolonged not for one evening. The
Evenkis highly esteemed the art of talented storytellers, and people were coming to listen to their
epical stories even from quite afar. According to
the testimony of one of the tellers, Y.G. Trofimov,
performance of nimngakan usually started after
the day works and dinner were over. The storyteller was seated on an honored place in the
tent – malu – and fur-rug – kumalan. The tale
began with a concentrated quietness of the storyteller in a complete silence, supported by all the
audience: grown-ups and children. The words
of every hero were pronounced in an individual
manner – it concerned both the melody and
the voice peculiarities: rising and falling of the
pitch, its coloration by this or that way. It was a
common practice that the audience took an active
part in performance of epical tales, repeating
separate lines after the story-teller. In the
Evenkis folklore we can single out sub-ethnical
heroes – that is epical heroes (soning), who can
be refereed to various groups of Evenkis. Thus,
the hero of Ilimpijsk Evenkis is Uren, and the
hero of the Stony Tunguska Evenkis is Kheveke.
G.М. Vasilevich, the researcher of the smallnumbered peoples of the North of the first part of
ХХ century, singled out the traditional structure
of the Evenkis heroic tales, which were formed
by the story-teller in a strict order: introduction –
appearance of the Middle sea; appearance and the
first stage of the hero’s life; the hero’s crusade,
his struggle with the negative personages; saving
of his bride or one of her relatives and coming
back home. Thereat, the teller could narrate not
only about the life of the main hero, but about his
several generations.
According to the notions, presented in
the Evenkis epos, the World possesses a threepart structure: the Middle world, inhabited by
the animals, and where the fi rst Evenkis have
appeared; the Lower world, populated by the
evil creatures avakhi, ogenga; and the Upper
world of good spirits, spirits of nature, and
the Evenkis’ ancestors. General three-part
structure is in its turn subdivided into seven
worlds, according to the Evenkis’ notions they
are: three heaven worlds (Ugu buga), the Middle
land (Dulin buga) and three underground worlds
(Kheru buga). The Upper and the Lower worlds
are not fully separated form the Middle world,
thus, the entrance to the Upper one is realized
through the Polar star, while to the Lower one –
through the rock crevices, caves, and whirlpools.
Evenkis’ epical tales explain the march of day
and night (she-deer Bugady carries the sun away
on her horns, and hunter Mangi gets it back),
narrate about the world creation (the frog fought
the snake or the diver, who had brought a ball of
earth from the sea bottom). Epos narrates about
formation of rivers and mountains, about the
kinship of men and animals, in particular, of a
man and a bear. In the Evenkis epos they praise
union of man and nature, their cohesion. These
tales can be considered as sort of encyclopedias
of authentic life and spiritual culture of the
nation.
The Evenkis epos is used to be divided into
two types: western and eastern, which differ not
# 334 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages…
only by their content, but also by their musical
structure and the manner of performance. The
main content of the eastern type of the epos is the
hero’s marriage, the text consists of monologues,
and song words of every hero are individual.
The Evenkis epos of the eastern type is widespread in the Far East, including Sakhalin, and
presents an original phenomenon, in spite of the
influence of the Yakut olonkho. The western type
of the Evenkis epos is mainly concentrated on the
theme of inter-generic wars, which main purpose
was blood revenge. Its performance differs form
the eastern version by a lesser individualization
of the heroes; the western Evenkis epos is closer
to historical novels, while the eastern Evenkis
epos is full of hyperbolizations and fantastic
extravagancies.
What concerns the Enetsky folklore,
consisting of myths, historical legends, fairy-tales
about animals, narrations about shamans, and
everyday stories, the scientists testify that now it
is in the period of decay. The Enetsky folklore has
been under-studied and it has been also caused
by the fact that the notes and publications of the
folklore texts have mostly been done in Russian. In
the Enetsky folklore, epical Nganasan sitabis and
Nenets syudbabts correspond to large epical tales
about bogatyrs – syudobichu. Nenets naming of
bogatyrs – the heroes of syudobichu, the same as
Nenets naming of tribes, mentioned in syudobichu,
let the researchers come to the conclusion that
the genre itself and its main patterns have been
borrowed from the Nenets people rather recently.
Along with the cosmogonical myths, the main
themes of syudobichu are narrations about
hunger, finding food; besides, we can rather often
find the plots about heroes, who have survived
after some dreadful epidemy, which has killed
all the relatives. Moreover, the themes of struggle
with other peoples and myths about animals, in
particular, about bear, are most popular among
the Entsis.
The most wide-spread genre of the Yakut
folklore is the bogatyr epos of olonkho, which
is considered to be the main kind of the Yakut
poetry, being performed in the form of reciting
by the story-teller (olonkhosut), possessing the
divine gift, before a large audience. The main
theme of olonkho is narrations about bogatyrs,
being their progenitor. They were the people of
the Middle world, which belonged to a powerful
tribe ajyy ajmaga, which origination is connected
to the divine ajyy.
The Field research, which was carried out in
July, 2010, in the Turukhansk and Farkovo village,
and which participants were the representatives
of the small-numbered nations, has shown that
folklore, including epos as well, is mostly in the
condition of extinction or total disappearance.
Thus, the questioned Kets have told that the main
carriers of their folklore were their grandfathers
and grandmothers, who were speaking the Kets
language fluently and had difficulties in speaking
Russian. As the Kets, so the Selkups have
underlined songs of improvisational character as
the main genre of traditional folklore, which is
still alive. The singer was the author of the piece
at one and the same time; for example he could
sing about the kettle, which was boiling or about
what was going outside, or how the weather was
changing. At present time, national culture is of
minor interest, at least on words; there is actually
no ethnocentrism. The native people say that there
have been some fairy-tales, stories, and legends
and the older generation have been telling them,
but now they fail to remember at least one story.
The tendency of extinction was already
noticed by the researchers of the second half
of ХХ century, as far as they found out that
the texts, they managed to write down, were
mainly performed by the representatives of the
older generation, who had failed to fi nd any
successors to render their art. Moreover, the
carriers of the epos failed to fi nd not only any
# 335 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages…
successors of their story-telling tradition, but
even any listeners of their own performance, as
a consequence it brought to their seldom storytelling and resulted in an irrevocable loss of
some parts of the texts, to fragmentary notes,
to retelling of the plot, to instability in epical
formulas usage, tongue-slips, to usage of the
modern words and so on.
Having revised in short the eposes of various
ethnoses, populating the Krasnoyarsk region and
being referred to small-numbered peoples, for
example, we shall address to the piece «Brave
Sodani-bogatyr», which belongs to the Evenkis
tradition. The given piece was fixed by means of
self-recording by prominent rhapsodist Nikolay
Germogenovich Trofimov (1915-1971). In the
course of fixation, the story-teller did not use any
punctuation marks, the words were written as
an uninterrupted text, and were not divided into
separate verses. While writing, N.G. Trofimov
used Yakut vowels and diphthongs, which had
no analogues in the Evenkis alphabet. Later, the
scientists divided this uninterrupted text into
separate verses, for that purpose they used an
audio-record, made by the same story-teller, but
of some other legend, in order to use the analogue
for the text processing. Besides, the text was fully
re-transcribed within the frames of the modern
Evenkis written language, without omitting
any dialect forms of the original. Translation of
«Brave Sodani-bogatyr» to Russian was made
in accordance with the norms of the Russian
language; as a result there appeared a necessity to
introduce some words for connection, for example,
of complex sentences. Thereat, additional words
were taken in square brackets. Peculiarities of the
Russian syntaxes and Evenkis syntaxes did not
allow preserving the original order of the verses
in the course of translation, but the admitted
rearrangements of the lines did not change their
total number. Consequently, all the mentioned let
us suppose with a certain assurance, that content-
analysis of the text of «Brave Sodani-bogatyr»,
having been presented in Russian language,
pretends for verifiability.
The Evenkis epos «Brave Sodani-bogatyr»
inclludes 2632 verses, the total number of the
words in the text is about 10 000 (9 982), a
significant part of the total number of the words
is functional words (prepositions, conjunctions
and others). In the process of calculations it
have been found out that beside the words being
directly connected with the main heroes of the
epos (such as Evenki, ai, brother, sister, bogatyr,
mata), the most often used words in the text are:
wild (61), beautiful (49), and blood (42). If we
address to the words this or that way connected
to the world of plants, then we see that the most
wide spread are the following: trees (25), herbs
(13), osier-bed (12), and larch (9). Most popular
words, referred to the world of animals are:
moose (6), lynx (5), bear (4), and fox (4). But
the most popular word in the considered text
is the word deer. Thereat, it can be mentioned
as directly (105), so by means of such words as
horns (52) and roaring (3), thus, all in all the
usage of the word deer reaches up to 160 times.
This fact gives us an opportunity to come to
the conclusion about high significance of the
deer for the Evenkis. Precisely the word «deer»
can be singled out as the concept for further
researching of the Evenkis epos on the example
of the tale «Brave Sodani-bogatyr». For this very
purpose it is planned, fi rstly, to single out the
characteristics of the deer, which are given in
the text; secondly, to singled out as the concept
and compare the given word with some other
words according to their characteristics, having
denoted the basis for comparison; thirdly, in
order to research the chosen concept, we can
carry out content–analysis of another example
of the Evenkis epos, which was also fi xed with
the help of self-recording by the same storyteller – N.G. Trofi mov. Here, we mean the epical
# 336 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages…
text «Almighty bogatyr Develchen in fancyornate clothes».
Thus, making a certain conclusion of our
short review of the eposes of the native smallnumbered peoples of the Krasnoyarsk Region,
we shall mark, that all of them possess common
features, along with the fact that each of them
has its own originality. Thus, we refer to the
common features the following ones: compassion
of the story-teller and the audience in the process
of narration, high respect to the story-teller as a
possessor of the divine gift. The rhapsodist does
not simply present the events, but also colors
tonally various actions, various heroes, makes the
epical personages individual. Eposes of different
nations have similar structures: beginningintroduction (description of the time, place, and
its main heroes); intrigue (some disaster, wish of
travelling, matchmaking); culmination (hero’s
struggle with enemies, who can be relatives
of the future wife); plot movement (marriage,
bogatyr’s homecoming). Besides similarity of the
plot structure, eposes are also typical of common
motifs, such as hero’s anger, which changes the
appearance of the hero, hero’s incantation of
the arrows for the victory over his rival and so
on. Epos turns out to be a sort of encyclopedia
of people’s authentic everyday life and spiritual
culture, thus, for example, most eposes narrate
about the structure of the world (as a rule, it
is three-part structure), about peculiarities of
people’s habitation, about traditions of this or that
nation.
3. Results:
1. It is quite logical that in the process of
speech community definition one must take into
account not only territorial, political and proper
linguistic factors, but also self-conscious of the
native speakers.
2. The same way one should act in the
course of distinguishing of a language and a
dialect, though, up till now linguists do not share
one common opinion in these aspects, in spite of
some coincidences.
3. The reasons of language changing can
be as internal (purely linguistic), so external
(connected to the influence of various factors
on the language, including social factors and
language contacts). Progressive changes cause
a normal full-rate existence of the language,
while regressive ones can fi nally bring to its
«death».
4. Extinction of languages can be observed
because one language is displaced by another one,
which is communicatively stronger, prestigious,
supported by the state and so on in the situation
of multilingualism.
5. Though, every single epos of the native
small-numbered nation has its own originality, still
there are some common features, being typical
to all of them, and it can testify of the fact that
languages of the native small-numbered peoples
have mutual influence, thereat, epos researching
let us trace the process of their influence.
6. Comparative researching of the eposes
as of peculiar prints of their language actual
condition let us visually trace down peculiarities
of the socio-cultural dynamics of languages of
small-numbered nation, some details of their
interrelations with each other, and the character of
their mutual influence. Results of such a research
can be also extrapolated over the dynamics of
more popular languages.
References
V.М. Alpatov. Foreign Socio-Linguistics about the Problems of Bilingualism and Languages of
National Minorities: [text] / V.М. Alpatov // Speech Communication in the Conditions of Linguistic
Heterogeneity. – Moscow.: Editorial URSU, 2000. – P. 192 – 209.
# 337 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages…
S.А. Arutyunov. The Role and the Place of the Language in the Ethno-Cultural Development of
the Society: [text] / S.А. Arutyunov // Ethnical Processes in the Modern World. – Moscow: Nauka,
1987. – P. 44 – 67.
О.S. Akhmamova. Dichotomy «Language – Dialect» in the light of the Problems of Modern
Bilingualism: [text] / О.S. Akhmamova // Problems of Bilingualism and Multilingualism. – Moscow:
Nauka, 1972. – P. 98 – 102.
V.I. Belikov, L.P. Krysin. Socio-Linguistics [text] / V.I. Belikov, L.P. Krysin. – Moscow: RSHU,
2001. – 439 p.
Т.А. Bertagaev. Bilingualism and its Diversity in the System of Application: [text] / Т.А. Bertagaev
// Problems of Bilingualism and Multilingualism. – Moscow: Nauka, 1972. – P. 82 – 88.
L. Bloomfield. Language [electronic resource] / L. Bloomfield. – access mode: http://www.classes.
ru/grammar/142.Bloomfield-language/source/ worddocuments/iii.htm
Т.G. Borgoykova. Languages of Minorities: Problems of Perseverance and Development [text] /
Т.G. Borgoykova. – Abakan: Publishing House of the Khakass State University n.a. N.F. Katanova,
2001. – 160 p.
N.B. Vakhtin. Social Aspects of the Language Researching [electronic resource] / N.B. Vakhtin. –
access mode: http://window.edu.ru/window_catalog/ pdf2txt?p_id=16264&p
N.B. Vakhtin, Y.V. Golovko. Socio-Linguistics and Sociology of Language [text] / N.B. Vakhtin,
Y.V. Golovko. – St. Petersburg: Humanitarian Academy, 2004. – 335 p.
V.А. Grechko. Theory of Language Study [text] / V.А. Grechko. – Moscow: Higher School,
2003. – 375 p.
Y.D. Desheriev. Social Linguistics: [text] / Y.D. Desheriev. – Moscow: Nauka, 1977. – 384
(4) p.
А.Y. Kibrik. Essays on General and Applied Questions of Language Study [text] / А.Y. Kibrik. –
Moscow: MSU Publishers, 1992. – 335 p.
U.S. Maslov. Introduction to Language Study / U.S. Maslov. – access mode: http://www.classes.
ru/grammar/120.Maslov/html/ topic_7.html
N.B. Mechkovskaya. General Language Study: Structural and Social Typology of Languages:
educational book for students of philological and linguistic specialties [text] / N.B. Mechkovskaya. –
Moscow: Flinta: Science, 2001. – 312 p.
N.B. Mechkovskaya. Social Linguistics [electronic resource] / N.B. Mechkovskaya. – access
mode: http://www.philology.ru/linguistics1/ mechkovskaya-00.htm
Y.V. Rozhdestvensky. General Language Study Lections [text] / Y.V. Rozhdestvensky. – Moscow:
Higher School, 1990. – 384 p.
B.А. Serebrennikov. General Language Study [electronic reource] / B.А. Serebrennikov. – access
mode: http://www.classes.ru/grammar/ 115.Serebrennikov/chapter3/
I.P. Susov. Introduction to Theoretical Language Study [electronic resource] / I.P. Susov. – access
mode: http://homepages.tversu.ru/~ips/1_08.htm
О.V. Felde. Russian vulgarisms: more than alive [electronic resource] / О.V. Felde. – access mode:
http://elib.sfu-kras.ru:8080/ bitstream/2311/1578/1/13_feljde.pdf
L.Y. Averyanov. Content-Analysis: educational book / L.Y. Averyanov. – Moscow: KNORUS,
2009. – 456 p.
# 338 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages…
V.P. Krivonogov. The Kets: Ten Years Later (1991-2001)/ V.P. Krivonogov. – Krasnoyarsk:
Publishing House of KSTTU, 2003. – 200 p.
V.P. Krivonogov. The Kets on the verge of III millennium/ V.P. Krivonogov. – Krasnoyarsk:
KSTTU Publishers, 1998. – 88 p.
V.P. Krivonogov. The Peoples of Taymyr (the modern ethnical processes)/ V.P. Krivonogov. –
Krasnoyarsk: Publishing House of KSTTU, 2001. – 264 p.
V.P. Krivonogov. The Peoples of Taymyr at the beginning of XXI century / V.P. Krivonogov. –
Krasnoyarsk: Publishing House of KSTTU, 2007. – 420 p.
V.P. Krivonogov. the Chulyimtsi at the beginning of XXI century/ V.P. Krivonogov. – Krasnoyarsk:
Publishing House of KSTTU, 2008. – 148 p.
N.P. Makarov. History and culture of the peoples of the North of the Yenisei River basin /
N.P. Makarov, М.S. Batashev. – Krasnoyarsk: Publishing Center «KaSS» Ltd, 2007. – 240 p.
Evenkis heroic tales / compilation by А.N. Myreeva. – Novosibirsk: Nauka, Siberian department,
1990. – 392 p.
Ethnic Atlas of the Krasnoyarsk Region. – Krasnoyarsk: the Publishing House «Platina», 2008. –
224 p.
N.P. Koptseva. Cultural and Anthropological Problem of Social Engineering (Methodological
Problem at Modern Applied Culture Studies) / N.P. Koptseva // Journal of the Siberian Federal
University. Series «Humanitarian Sciences». – 2010. – V.3. – №1. – P. 22-34.
N.P. Koptseva. Indigenous peoples of Krasnoyarsk region: concerning the question of methodology
of culture studies/ N.P. Koptseva // Journal of the Siberian Federal University. Series «Humanitarian
Sciences». – 2010. – V.3. – №4. – V. 554-562.
N.P. Koptseva. Materials of the Fifth Session of Educational, Scientific and Methodological
Seminar «Theory and Practice of Applied Culture Studies» on the Basis of Art History and Cultural
Studies Department, Institute for the Humanities, Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk. June 17,
2010/ N.P. Koptseva // Journal of the Siberian Federal University. Series «Humanitarian Sciences». –
2010. – V.3. – №5. – P. 696-725.
N.P. Koptseva. Protection and Development of the Indigenous Peoples Living in Circumpolar
Territories: Cultural and Anthropological Analysis/ N.P. Koptseva, N.N. Pimenova, K.V. Reznikova//
Journal of the Siberian Federal University. Series «Humanitarian Sciences». – 2010. – V.3. – №5. –
P. 649-666.
N.P. Koptseva. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture/
N.P. Koptseva, K.V. Reznikova// Journal of the Siberian Federal University. Series «Humanitarian
Sciences». – 2009. – V.2. – №4. – P. 491-506.
V.S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as a Self-Independent Type of State Policy/ V.S. Luzan// Journal of the
Siberian Federal University. Series «Humanitarian Sciences». – 2009. – V.2. – №4. – P. 587-594.
V.S. Luzan. Cultural Policy as Subject of Applied Culture Studies/ V.S. Luzan// Journal of the
Siberian Federal University. Series «Humanitarian Sciences». – 2009. – V.2. – №3. – P. 323-335.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages…
Лингвокультурологические особенности
национальных языков
северных народов Красноярского края
Н.П. Копцева,
А.Н. Хижнякова, К.В. Резникова
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, г. Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82
В работе освещены некоторые из существующих взглядов на такие социо-лингвистические
проблемы, как определение границ языка, разграничение языка и диалекта, теории развития
языка под влиянием социальных факторов, прогресс и регресс в языке, вымирание языков.
В частности, для начала нащупывается граница между понятиями «языковой коллектив»,
«языковое сообщество», «языковая общность», с целью обозначить границы дальнейших
рассуждений, логика движений которых направлена от рассмотрения более общих вопросов
к изучению более частных моментов. Особое внимание на каждом из этапов уделяется
спорным вопросам, вызвавшим наиболее значимые дискуссии в научной среде. Так, подобного
рода объектам дискуссии, которому уделено внимание, стал поиск границ языка и реальности
существования общего языкового ядра и языка каждой отдельной личности.
Важный момент теоретического исследования – это рассмотрение взаимоотношений
понятий «язык» и «диалект». Здесь внимание сконцентрировано на корреляции диалектов
внутри языка, на возможности перехода диалекта из одного языка в другой язык, – то есть,
по сути, отношения языка и диалекта рассматриваются как в статике, так и в динамике.
При этом упор также делается не только на само отношение «язык – диалект» и на динамику
этого отношения, но и на признаки, лежащие в основе разграничения обозначенных понятий,
причем, признаки как лингвистические, так и культурантропологические, в частности,
речь идет о самосознании народа, на первичности которого в формировании этнической
идентичности настаивает ряд социолингвистов. Обозначение границ языка влечет за собой
необходимость концентрации внимания сугубо на процессах, касающихся непосредственно
языка, то есть на динамике языка. Здесь рассматриваются как виды динамики (эволюция,
развитие, совершенствование), так и причины ее, которые принято разделять на внутренние
и внешние, получает освещение аналогия динамики языка и жизни человека, речь идет о
здоровом состоянии языка, о болезненном, о рождении и о смерти языка. Обращение к эпосам
коренных малочисленных народов Красноярского края позволяет наглядно проиллюстрировать
теоретические разработки настоящей работы, проследив особенности социокультурной
динамики отдельных языков малочисленных народов, особенности их взаимоотношений друг с
другом, характер взаимовлияний.
Ключевые слова: коренные народы Красноярского края, социолингвистика, границы языка,
развитие языка, языковой сдвиг, языковое самосознание, социодинамика языка, концепт,
эпос.
Работа выполнена при финансовой поддержке:
1) Федеральной целевой программы “Научные и научно-педагогические кадры инновационной
России на 2009-2013 гг.” по проблеме “Культура коренных и малочисленных народов Севера
в условиях глобальных трансформаций: форсайт-исследование до 2050 г. на материале
анализа якутского этноса”, проводимому в рамках мероприятия 1.2.1 “Проведение научных
исследований научными группами под руководством докторов наук”.
2) Краевого государственного автономного учреждения «Красноярский краевой фонд
поддержки научной и научно-технической деятельности» по теме «Красноярский край
# 340 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages…
как поликультурное пространство, родина коренных малочисленных народов севера.
Информационно-аналитический проект».
3) Федеральной целевой программы «Научные и научно-педагогические кадры инновационной
России на 2009-2013 гг.» в рамках мероприятия 1.4 «Проведение поисковых научноисследовательских работ в целях развития общероссийской мобильности в области
естественных и гуманитарных наук» по теме: ««Культура коренных и малочисленных народов
Севера, Сибири и Дальнего Востока в условиях глобальных трансформаций».
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 342-362
~~~
УДК 304.4
Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents,
Providing Realization of the State Cultural Policy
(Federal and Regional Aspects)
Vladimir S. Luzan*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011
During recent years, content-analysis has been enriched by modern technical and software techniques,
and it has given it an opportunity to be based on all the vast spectrum of knowledge of the formalized
statistic analysis. Moreover, the article underlines that in the modern situation one can observe a certain
tendency of content-analysis application as one of the main methods of philosophical-culturological
researches. It indicates to a special significance of the results, which have been obtained in the course
of this method application.
To the mind of the author of the article and from the position of philosophy of culture, the choice of
normative-legal documents of the subjects of the Siberian Federal District as an object of our contentanalysis has been caused by the strategic meaning of this administrative-territorial formation for
the country in general – it is a region, which has a median position in the Russian Federation, what
allows it providing economical, transport and social-cultural connection of the whole territory of the
country. It means that population of the Siberian Federal District fulfills a most important geopolitical
function – the population keeps territorial integrity of Russia just by the fact of its existence.
In order to reveal not only regional but also federal aspect of the state cultural policy, in the given article
we perform a content analysis of Russian Federation Law № 3612-1 dated 09.10.1992 «Fundamental
Principles of Legislation of the Russian Federation on Culture».
In conclusion, we come to the following that philosophical-culturological aspects, being included
in conceptual documents concerning realization of the state cultural policy, do not correspond the
existing terminology and content of the basic normative legal documents as on the regional level, so
on the federal one.
Keywords: content-analysis, normative legal documents, cultural processes, organization of culture,
cultural policy.
During recent years, content-analysis
has been enriched by modern technical
and software techniques, and it has given it
an opportunity to be based on all the vast
spectrum of knowledge of the formalized
statistic analysis. Moreover, the article
*
1
underlines that in the modern situation one can
observe a certain tendency of application of the
content-analysis as one of the main methods
of philosophical-culturological researches.
It indicates to a special significance of the
results, which have been obtained in the course
Corresponding author E-mail address: luzan84@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 342 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
of this method application. In connection with
the mentioned we are to underline the role of
the native scientists, who use the techniques
of content-analysis for analysis, and first of all
for artistic texts1.
From the position of philosophy of culture,
the choice of normative-legal documents of the
subjects of the Siberian Federal District as an
object of our content-analysis has been caused
by the strategic meaning of this administrativeterritorial formation for the country in general –
it is a region, which has a median position in the
Russian Federation, what allows it providing
economical, transport and social-cultural
connection of the whole territory of the country.
It means that population of the Siberian Federal
District fulfills a most important geopolitical
function – the population keeps the territorial
integrity of Russia just by the fact of its
existence.
Beside regional laws, we have chosen Federal
Law Fundamental Principles of Legislation of the
Russian Federation on Culture, in order to have
a more precise notion of the cultural processes,
which take place on the territory of the Russian
Federation.
We are to mark, that the notion of «law»
is one of the most commonly used not only in
jurisprudence, but also in philosophy. This term
has a long history, and it has changed its content
in the course of its existence.
From the philosophical positions, law can be
most generally defined as a connection (relation)
between phenomena, processes, which is2:
a) objective, as far as it is typical to the real
world, sensual-objective human activity, which
expresses the real relations to things;
b) essential, concrete-general. Being a
reflection of the essential in the movement of
the Universe, any law is characteristic to all the
processes of the given class, of a certain type
without exceptions, and it operates always and
everywhere, where there are corresponding
processes and conditions;
c) inevitable, as far as, being in close
connection with the essence, the law operates and
is realized under the corresponding conditions;
d) internal, as far as it reflects the deepest ties
and dependencies of the given subjective sphere
in the integrity of all its moments and relations
within the frames of a certain entire system;
e) repeatable, steady, as far as a law is a
stability in the phenomenon, the identical in
the phenomenon. It is an expression of some
permanence in a certain process, regularity of its
course, similarity of its actions under the equal
conditions.
From the positions of jurisprudence, «law
(Lat. lex; Greek notos; Engl. law) is all the
normative legal acts, any kind of generallyobligatory rules, set by the state. In a proper
juridical sense, law is a normative act, which
is adopted in a special order by the higher
representative organ of the executive power or
by the direct will-expresser of population (for
example, in accordance with a referendum) and
which regulates the most important and steady
social relations»3.
It is used to single out the main features of
law:
a) law is a juridical will expression of people
in the result of coordination of various social
interests. In civilized countries, laws are adopted
by the representative organs, which are formed
by means of democratic elections. The process
of lawmaking is wide open, it involves parties,
movements, and social groups; projected laws
are published and discussed in mass media;
b) law is issued only by the organ of executive
power or adopted by means of referendum;
c) law regulates the most important relations
in the state and the society, provides an orderly
development of economical, political and social
spheres;
# 343 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
d) law possesses the highest (after
constitution) juridical power among other legal
acts; supremacy of law means its normative
orientation and that other acts are subordinate
to it, that they are possible to be canceled, to
undergone amendments, and become invalid
because of the law;
e) law possesses the highest normative
concentration and is meant to give subordinates
the right to a large choice of behavioral
variants, to an unlimited number of cases of
application;
f) law is accepted within the frames of a
special legislative process and on the basis of
fixed procedures;
g) law is characterized by the highest
stability of its norms, prolonged time length of its
existence and action.
Thus, law is a significant text, which defines
state policy and norms of society’s behavior in
this or that sphere of socio-economical relations.
Moreover, law possesses a row of peculiarities,
which are quite important for content-analysis
carriage.
Firstly, it is a material, which has been
considered from all the points of view, and
which has been created by dozens of specialists
in various spheres, and which has been checked
and read through dozens of times. Consequently,
we may suppose, that there are no spontaneous
words in a law, and there are no spontaneous
senses as well, i.e. senses which fail to reflect the
given situation or content.
Secondly, the text of a law is a thoroughlyconsidered semantic structure, where all
the elements have a contextual and logical
substantiation. Thereat, law includes a vast
semantic field, subordinating to several dominants
(tasks), and which is called a basic content. That
is what can be easily seen and what is first of all
intuitionally analyzed. But, there is the second
and still the third semantic row, which can be
revealed only with the help of special methods, in
particular with the help of content-analysis.
Thirdly, the text of law reflexes the main
idea, the content of what the powers have been
going to get across to the readers, thereat, not
only across to the narrow strata of the ruling elite,
but to wide social circles. Law is an intellectual
material, and that is its primary virtue. The text
of law is clear to educated people and, first of all,
to intelligentsia. And it is one more of its virtues –
to manage to express the main senses by means
of simple, clear and, at the same time, significant
language.
Thus, we may suppose that the chosen laws
quite fully reflect the modern state ideology and
the state policy in the sphere of culture.
Law is an official document. It is drawn in
accordance with the logics and reflects the official
position of those social circles, which wield the
power in the country at present time and which
will govern in the nearest future. It is important
from that point of view, that every day of their
functioning, powers can form the foundation of
the future of the country, its main principles and
postulates, can define the ideology of the country
in its most wide sense, especially in a transitional
period, in the period of becoming of new socialeconomical and political relations, of becoming
of political, economical and social stability of the
society, and correspondingly, of steadiness and
stability of the powers themselves.
Understanding of what kind of principals of
their functioning and preservation are used by the
powers in the course of realization of the cultural
policy, and what sense and ideology they stick
to – all these will finally determine this way or
another the content of the activity of the whole
society and of its separate strata and groups not
only for the nearest future, but for a long period
of time.
Thus, in order to understand philosophicalculturological aspects of the state cultural policy,
# 344 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
the following normative legal acts, which provide
its realization, have undergone our contentanalysis4:
– Law of the Russian Federation № 3612-1
dated 09.10.1992 «Fundamental Principles
of Legislation of the Russian Federation on
Culture» (in edition of Federal Laws dated
23.06.1999 № 115-ФЗ, dated 22.08.2004 № 122ФЗ, dated 31.12.2005 № 199-ФЗ, dated 03.11.2006
№ 175-ФЗ, dated 29.12.2006 № 258-ФЗ, dated
23.07.2008 № 160-ФЗ, dated 21.12.2009 № 335ФЗ, amendments, made by Federal Laws dated
27.12.2000 № 150-ФЗ, dated 30.12.2001 № 194ФЗ, dated 24.12.2002 № 176-ФЗ, dated 23.12.2003
№ 186-ФЗ);
– Law of the Altai Republic № 20-55
dated 15.02.2001 «Concerning Culture» (in
edition of Laws of the Republic of Altai dated
12.09.2001 № 24-63, dated 11.12.2003 № 1714, dated 17.11.2006 № 84-РЗ, dated 14.05.2007
№ 26-РЗ);
– Law of the Buryat Republic № 246-I
dated 01.02.1996 «Concerning Culture»
(in edition of Laws of the Buryat Republic
dated 29.12.2003 № 622-III, dated 27.12.2004
№ 994-III, dated 07.03.2006 № 1521-III, dated
04.05.2006 № 1619-III, dated 08.10.2007 № 2519III, dated 07.10.2009 № 1045-IV, amendments,
made by Laws of the Buryat Republic dated
27.12.2001 № 897-II, dated 09.01.2003 № 184III, dated 08.01.2004 № 592-III, dated 28.12.2006
№ 2057-III, dated 09.11.2007 № 2625-III, dated
22.11.2008 № 624-IV, dated 16.03.2009 № 738IV, by the decision of the Supreme Court of BR
dated 14.08.2003);
– Law of the Tuva Republic № 261 dated
03.04.1995 «Concerning Culture» (in edition
of Laws of the Tuva Republic dated 12.02.2001
№ 879, dated 10.07.2003 № 272 ВХ-1, dated
12.05.2004 № 725 ВХ-1, dated 17.12.2004 № 946
ВХ-1, dated 13.07.2006 № 1897 ВХ-1, dated
18.06.2007 № 193 ВХ-2, amendments, made
by Laws of the Tuva Republic dated 20.02.2004
№ 604 ВХ-1);
– Law of the Republic of Khakassia dated
28.06.2006 № 30-ЗРХ «Concerning Culture»
(in edition of Laws of the Republic of Khakassia
dated 01.11.2007 № 66-ЗРХ, dated 09.06.2009
№ 49-ЗРХ, dated 15.02.2010 № 2-ЗРХ);
– Law of the Zabaikalye Territory № 154ЗЗК dated 01.04.2009 «Concerning Culture»
(in edition of Law of the Zabaikalye Territory
dated 29.03.2010 № 347-ЗЗК);
– Law of the Krasnoyarsk Region № 2-190
dated 28.06.2007 «Concerning Culture» (in
edition of Laws of the Krasnoyarsk Region dated
26.06.2008 № 6-1867, dated 18.11.2008 № 7-2430,
dated 07.07.2009 № 8-3612, dated 24.12.2009
№ 9-4243);
– Law of the Irkutsk Region № 154-оз
dated 29.12.2007 «Concerning State Support
of Culture in the Irkutsk Region» (in edition
of Law of the Irkutsk Region dated 05.03.2010
№ 9-оз);
– Law of the Kemerovo Region № 26-ОЗ
dated 14.02.2005 «Concerning Culture» (in
edition of Laws of the Kemerovo Region dated
04.06.2007 № 62-ОЗ, dated 27.12.2007 № 200ОЗ, dated 29.12.2008 № 135-ОЗ);
– Law of the Novosibirsk Region № 124ОЗ dated 07.07.2007 «Concerning Culture in
the Novosibirsk Region» (in edition of Laws of
the Novosibirsk Region dated 02.07.2008 № 250ОЗ, dated 04.12.2008 № 286-ОЗ);
– Law of the Tomsk Region № 112-ОЗ
dated 13.06.2007 «Concerning Realization of
the State Policy in the Sphere of Culture and
Arts on the Territory of the Tomsk Region»
(in edition of Laws of the Tomsk Region dated
17.12.2007 № 267-ОЗ, dated 24.11.2009 № 253ОЗ, dated 24.11.2009 № 254-ОЗ).
We are to notice that two subjects of the
Siberian Federal District (the Altai and the
Omsk Regions) have not yet accepted laws,
# 345 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
which would regulate developments of the state
cultural policy, in spite of the fact that they still
have laws concerning separate directions of the
leisure-cultural activity, in particular concerning
the librarian and museum spheres. Thus, only
10 regional and one federal law on culture in
the current edition has undergone the contentanalysis.
In order to reveal philosophic-culturological
aspects of the state cultural policy of the Russian
Federation, we are to consider a fundamental
concept, on which basis we build the contentanalysis of the mentioned documents. It is the
notion of «culture», and its derivative (cultures,
by culture, to culture and so on.), and also all the
semantic expressions, which are in the nearest
surrounding.
We should notice that from the very
beginning there is only one document out of
those being analyzed, which mentions culture in
its title as one of the types of the state policy (the
law «Concerning Realization of the State Policy
in the Sphere of Culture and Arts on the territory
of the Tomsk Region»). In the rest of the cases,
the titles of the laws, including the basic one – the
federal law, have failed to imply not only the state
policy, but also any kind of mentioning of state’s
philosophic-culturological vision of what culture
generally is: the ideal-formative side of human
life, cultural branch, cultural sphere and so on. In
connection with this fact, 91 % of considered laws
have one common title «Concerning Culture»,
which do not at all reflect understanding of culture
as one of the leading types of the state policy.
As for today, the basic document, which
defines the development of the state cultural
policy over all the territory of this country, is
Law of the Russian Federation № 3612-1
«Fundamental Principles of Legislation of the
Russian Federation on Culture», which is dated
9 October, 1992, it means it was admitted almost
twenty years ago. Consequently, we should mark
the fact that in spite of numerous amendments (the
latest was done in 2009), the given law is morally
outdated and demands its complete reviewing.
We need to specify the notions, which
have been defined by the authors of the given
Law as the basic ones and which meanings are
revealed in the text: cultural activity; cultural
values; cultural goods; creative activity; creative
specialist; cultural property of peoples and
national groups; cultural heritage of peoples of the
Russian Federation; cultural property of peoples
of the Russian Federation; cultural aspects of the
program of development; state cultural policy
(policy of the state in the sphere of cultural
development). All in all, there is 10 notions.
Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows
the following:
– the number of words in the document is
5595;
– the number of use of words «culture» and
its derivatives in various cases is 146, that is 2.6 %
from the total number of words in the text.
The number of adjectives with the root
«cultur» is 123, that is 2.1 % from the total
number of words in the text.
The most popular word-combinations,
consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur»,
are the following: cultural activity (29), cultural
values (24), cultural heritage (20), cultural property
(8), cultural policy (4), cultural development (3),
and cultural collaboration (2).
In the result of comparison of the basic
notions, which have been denoted by the
authors in the Law, and the most popular wordcombinations, we have found out that the notion
of «cultural policy» is actually met 4 times in
the text, what makes up 3 % from all the wordcombinations, consisting of an adjective with the
root «cultur». It let us come to the conclusion
that the law-maker understands culture not as
a separate kind of state policy, but as a certain
sphere, reducing the state approach to a narrow
# 346 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
Table 1. Statistic analysis of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Russian Federation
«Fundamental Principles of Legislation of the Russian Federation on Culture»
The words, surrounding the concept «culture»,
and its derivatives having been used more than once
2
№
1
The number of usage
3
In the sphere
38
Organization(s)
38
Development
8
Institution(s)
5
Are referred to
4
Object(s)
3
Doers
2
Russian
2
Sphere
2
National
2
Peoples’
2
Statistics
2
Enterprises
2
Specialists
2
sectorial one. It is also proved by the fact that
the expression «cultural organizations» is on the
second place according to its usage. Consequently,
we may suppose that the basic instrument
of functioning of the sphere of «culture» is
concrete organizations, as governmental, so nongovernmental ones, but not any concrete cultural
doers, as far as this expression is met in the Law
only twice (Table 1).
The basic document, which defines
development of the state cultural policy on the
territory of the Altai Republic, is Law of the
Altai Republic № 20-55 dated 15.02.2001
«Concerning Culture».
We need to specify the notions, which have
been defined by the authors of the given Law as
the basic ones and which meanings are revealed
in the text: cultural activity; cultural values;
cultural goods; cultural organizations. In total,
we have 4 notions.
Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows
the following:
– the number of words in the document is
2695;
– the number of use of words «culture» and
its derivatives in various cases is 92, that is 3.4 %
from the total number of words in the text.
The number of adjectives with the root
«cultur» is 37, i.e. 1.3 % from the total number of
words in the text.
The most popular word-combinations,
consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur»,
are the following: cultural activity (12), cultural
values (5), cultural policy (4), cultural heritage
(4), and cultural space (2).
«Cultural policy» is on the third place
according to the frequency of usage, as far as
the analysis of the most-widely used wordcombinations shows. Though, there is not any
definition of this notion in the Law, and it let us
suppose that the authors sooner use this wordcombination as a synonym of the expression
«politics in the sphere of culture» (Table 2), what
does not correspond to its original meaning.
# 347 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
Table 2. Statistic analysis of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Altai Republic
«Concerning Culture»
№
The words, surrounding the concept «culture», and its derivatives
having been used more than once
Organization(s)
The number of usage
55
In the sphere
10
Sphere
5
Development
4
Institution(s)
4
Specialists
4
National
2
The basic document, which defines
development of the state cultural policy on the
territory of the Buryat Republic, is Law of the
Buryat Republic № 246-I dated 01.02.1996 «
Concerning Culture».
We need to specify the notions, which
have been defined by the authors of the given
Law as the basic ones and which meanings are
revealed in the text: cultural activity; cultural
values; cultural goods; creative activity; creative
specialist; cultural property of peoples and
national groups; cultural heritage of peoples of
the Buryat Republic; cultural property of peoples
of the Buryat Republic; state cultural support;
national (ethnic) culture; state cultural policy
(policy of the state in the sphere of cultural
development); organization of culture. In total,
we have 12 notions.
Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows
the following:
– the number of words in the document is
4480;
– the number of use f words «culture» and
its derivatives in various cases is 114, that is
2.5 % from the total number of words in the
text.
The number of adjectives with the root
«cultur» is 77, i.e. 1.7 % from the total number of
words in the text.
The most popular word-combinations,
consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur»,
are the following: cultural activity (18), cultural
values (17), cultural heritage (13), cultural
property (8), cultural exchanges (6), and cultural
policy (2).
The same, as it is in the case of the Federal
Law, it is rather interesting that the notion of
«cultural policy» is actually mentioned only twice
in the text, that is only 2.5 % of all the expressions,
which contain the adjective with the root «cultur».
It let us come to the conclusion that the legislator
percepts culture not as a separate type of the state
policy, but as a certain sphere, thus reducing
the state approach to a narrow branch. It is also
proved by the fact that the expression «cultural
organizations» is on the first place according to
the number of its applications. Consequently,
we may suppose that the basic instrument
of functioning of the sphere of «culture» is
concrete organizations, as governmental, so nongovernmental ones, but not any concrete cultural
doers, as far as this expression is met only thrice
in the Law (Table 3).
The basic document, which defines
development of the state cultural policy on the
territory of the Tuva Republic, is Law of the Tuva
Republic № 261, dated 03.04.1995 «Concerning
Culture».
# 348 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
Table 3. Statistic analysis of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Buryat Republic
«Concerning Culture»
№
The words, surrounding the concept «culture», and its derivatives
having been used more than once
Organization(s)
The number of usage
35
In the sphere
21
Development
13
Support
5
In the sphere
4
National
3
Peoples’
3
Doers
3
Specialists
3
Institution(s)
2
We are to specify the notions, which have
been defined by the authors of the given Law as
the basic ones and which meanings are revealed in
the text: cultural values; cultural goods; creative
activity; creative specialist; cultural property of
peoples and national groups; historical-cultural
heritage; cultural heritage of peoples of the Tuva
Republic; cultural aspects of the development
program; state cultural policy (policy of the state
in the sphere of cultural development). That is
totally, we have 10 notions.
Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows
the following:
– the number of words in the document is
5009;
– the number of use of the word «culture»
and its derivatives in various cases is 126, that
is 2.5 % from the total number of words in the
text.
The number of adjectives with the root
«cultur» is 93, i.e. 1.8 % from the total number of
words in the text.
The most popular word-combinations,
consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur»,
are the following: cultural activity (24), cultural
values (21), cultural heritage (11), cultural
property (6), cultural policy (4), cultural
originality (5), and cultural funds (3).
The basic document, which defines
development of the state cultural policy on the
territory of the Republic of Khakassia, is Law
of the Republic of Khakassia № 30-ЗРХ dated
28.06.2006 «Concerning Culture».
We should specify the notions, which have
been defined by the authors of the given Law as
the basic ones and which meanings are revealed
in the text: cultural organizations; protection
and preservation of the cultural heritage objects
of national significance; national artistic crafts;
young specialist. In general, there are 4 notions.
Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows
the following:
– the number of words in the document is
3345;
– the number of use of the word «culture»
and its derivatives in various cases is 113, that is
3.3 % from the total number of words in the text.
The number of adjectives with the root
«cultur» is 52, i.e. 1.5 % from the total number of
words in the text.
The most popular word-combinations,
consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur»,
# 349 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
Table 4. Statistic analysis of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Tuva Republic
«Concerning Culture»
The words, surrounding the concept «culture»,
and its derivatives having been used more than once
№
The number of usage
Organization(s)
34
In the region
32
Development
8
Peoples’
5
National
5
Institution(s)
4
Enterprises
2
In the sphere
2
Specialists
2
World-wide
2
Table 5. Statistic analysis of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Republic of
Khakassia «Concerning Culture»
№
The words, surrounding the concept «culture»,
and its derivatives having been used more than once
Organization(s)
The number of usage
34
In the region
26
In the sphere
13
Institution(s)
6
Specialists
6
National
2
Development
2
are the following: cultural activity (17), cultural
heritage (10), cultural values (9), cultural
policy (2), and cultural collaboration (2).
The same as with the case of the Law of
the Altai Republic, analysis of the most popular
word-combinations shows that «cultural policy»
takes the fourth place according to the frequency
of its usage. Though, the Law does not give
any defi nitions of the notion, and it allows us
supposing that the authors use this expression
sooner as a synonym of the word-combination
«politics in the sphere of culture», what does
not correspond to its original meaning. It also
brings to a narrow understanding of culture
and is proved by the fact that the expression
«cultural organizations» is on the fi rst place
(Table 5).
The basic document, which defines
development of the state cultural policy on the
territory of Zabaikalye, is Law of the Zabaikalye
Territory № 154-ЗЗК dated 01.04.2009
«Concerning Culture».
Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows
the following:
– the number of words in the document is
1354;
# 350 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
Table 6. Statistics of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Zabaikalye Territory
«Concerning Culture»
1
The words, surrounding the concept «culture»,
and its derivatives having been used more than once
Organization(s)
2
In the sphere
10
3
Institution(s)
4
№
– the number of use of the word «culture»
and its derivatives in various cases is 41, that is
3 % from the total number of words in the text.
The number of adjectives with the root
«cultur» is 4, i.e. 0.02 % from the total number of
words in the text.
The most popular word-combinations,
consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur»,
are the following: cultural heritage (3), cultural
property (1).
We are to underline that the authors of
the Law have not denoted the basic notions.
Consequently, we come to a supposition that the
text of the Law does not clarify what the legislator
understands concerning the philosophicculturological aspects of the state cultural policy.
We may suppose that it is connected with the
fact that the territory of Zabaikalye is a young
subject of the Russian Federation. And that is
why its normative legal base is being formed in
a rather active way, and in the result of it the
legislator does not take into account the basic
notions. This peculiarity, in its turn, increases
the variability of the law rendering, as far as
it does not contain even the most-widely used
expressions, for example cultural organizations
(Table 6). Moreover, complexity of revelation of
philosophic-culturological aspects of the state
cultural policy on the territory of Zabaikalye
region proves that the territory does not have
most of special sectorial laws, which the most
part of the subjects of the Siberian Federal
District has.
The number of usage
14
The basic document, which defines
development of the state cultural policy on the
territory of the Krasnoyarsk Region, is Law
of the Krasnoyarsk Region № 2-190 dated
28.06.2007 «Concerning Culture».
We need to specify the notions, which
have been defi ned by the authors of the given
Law as the basic ones and which meanings are
revealed in the text: cultural organizations;
cultural heritage of the Region; public register of
especially valuable objects of cultural heritage
of the Krasnoyarsk Region; creative specialist;
national artistic collectives; folklore of the
native small-numbered peoples of the North of
the Krasnoyarsk Region; folklore carrier; sociocultural project; creative heritage. In total, there
are 9 notions.
Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows
the following:
– the number of words in the document is
4015;
– the number of use of the word «culture»
and its derivatives in various cases is 130, that is
3.2 % from the total number of words in the text.
The number of adjectives with the root
«cultur» is 50, i.e. 1.2 % from the total number of
words in the text.
The most popular word-combinations,
consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur»,
are the following: cultural heritage (17), cultural
values (10), cultural activity (5), cultural
originality (5), cultural heritage (3), and cultural
exchanges (4).
# 351 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
Table 7. Statistics of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in Law of the Krasnoyarsk Region
«Concerning Culture»
№
The words, surrounding the concept «culture»,
and its derivatives having been used more than once
In the region
Institution(s)
The number of usage
44
30
Organization(s)
18
Specialists
13
National
7
In the sphere
6
Development
5
Doers
2
Table 8. Statistics of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Irkutsk Region «Concerning
State Support of Culture in the Irkutsk Region»
№
The words, surrounding the concept «culture»,
and its derivatives having been used more than once
In the region
The number of usage
15
Organization(s)
10
Support
5
Institution(s)
3
Specialists
3
Analysis of the basic notions, being
defined by the authors of the Law; words,
surrounding the concept of «culture»; and
word-combinations, containing an adjective
with the root «cultur», has shown that the
notion of «cultural policy» is not at all used
in the text of the Law. In a certain way,
it contradicts that fact that the Regional
Government of the Krasnoyarsk Region has
worked out and approved the main directions
of the Krasnoyarsk Region cultural policy for
the period of 2009 – 2020 years (Appendix 1).
Consequently, those philosophic-culturological
aspects of the state cultural policy, being meant
in the conceptual document, do not correspond
the existing terminology and content of the
fundamental legislative act.
The basic document, which defines
development of the state cultural policy on the
territory of the Irkutsk Region, is Law of the
Irkutsk Region № 154- оз dated 29.12.2007
«Concerning State Support of Culture in the
Irkutsk Region».
Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows
the following:
– the number of words in the document is
1118;
– the number of use of the word «culture»
and its derivatives in various cases is 34, that
is 3 % from the total number of words in the
text.
The number of adjectives with the root
«cultur» is 1, i.e. 0.0008 % from the total number
of words in the text.
# 352 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
Table 9. Statistics of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Kemerovo Region
«Concerning Culture»
№
The words, surrounding the concept «culture»,
and its derivatives having been used more than once
Organization(s)
The number of usage
24
In the sphere
12
In the region
6
Institution(s)
6
Development
2
Specialists
2
The most popular word-combination,
consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur»,
is «cultural events» (1).
We have to remark, that the authors of the
given Law have not defined any basic notions
in the text of the Law. Consequently, we may
suppose, that the text of the Law does not clarify
what the legislator understands concerning the
philosophic-culturological aspects of the state
cultural policy, and the fact is proved by the
absence of the notion of «cultural policy» in the
text.
Basic document, which defines development
of the state cultural policy on the territory of
the Kemerovo Region, is Law of the Kemerovo
Region № 26-ОЗ dated 14.02.2005 «Concerning
Culture».
We need to specify the notions, which
have been defi ned by the authors of the given
Law as the basic ones and which meanings are
revealed in the text: cultural activity; cultural
organizations; and artistic national crafts. So,
there are 3 notions.
Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows
the following:
– the number of words in the document is
1962;
– the number of use of the word «culture»
and its derivatives in various cases is 61, that is
3.1 % from the total number of words in the text.
The number of adjectives with the root
«cultur» is 31, i.e. 1.5 % from the total number of
words in the text.
The most popular word-combinations,
consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur»,
are: cultural property (9), cultural activity (7),
cultural heritage (7), cultural values (5), and
cultural unions (2).
Analysis of the basic notions, which have
been denoted by the authors of the Law; words,
surrounding the concept of «culture»; and wordcombinations, containing an adjective with
the root «cultur», has shown, that the notion of
«cultural policy» is not at all used in the text of
the Law. It speaks of the fact that the legislator
understands culture in a narrow way, and it is also
proved by the fact that the expression «cultural
organizations» is on the first place according to
its frequency of usage (Table 9).
Basic document, which defines development
of the state cultural policy on the territory of the
Novosibirsk Region, is Law of the Novosibirsk
Region №124-ОЗ dated 07.07.2007 «Concerning
Culture in the Novosibirsk Region».
We need to specify the notions, which have
been defined by the authors of the given Law as
the basic ones and which meanings are revealed in
the text: cultural activity; cultural organizations;
cultural institution; national artistic crafts; and
cultural specialist. In total, we have 5 notions.
# 353 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
Table 10. Statistics of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Novosibirsk Region
№124-ОЗ dated 07.07.2007 «Concerning Culture in the Novosibirsk Region»
№
The words, surrounding the concept «culture»,
and its derivatives having been used more than once
2
1
In the sphere
The number of usage
3
32
Organization(s)
21
In the region
19
Institution(s)
16
Specialists
8
National
4
Development
3
Doers
2
Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows
the following:
– the number of words in the document is
2963;
– the number of use of the word «culture»
and its derivatives in various cases is 106, that is
3.5 % from the total number of words in the text.
The number of adjectives with the root
«cultur» is 24, i.e. 0.8 % from the total number of
words in the text.
The most popular word-combinations,
consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur»,
are: cultural activity (8), cultural values (5), and
cultural heritage (4).
The same as in the case with the Law of
the Kemerovo Region «Concerning Culture»,
analysis of the basic notions, having been
specified by the authors of the Law; words,
surrounding the concept of «culture»; and wordcombinations, containing an adjective with the
root «cultur», has shown, that the notion of
«cultural policy» is not used at all. It speaks of
the fact that the legislator understands culture in
a narrow way. And it is also proved by the fact
that the expression «cultural organizations» is
on the second place according to its frequency
of usage» (Table 10).
Basic document, which defines development
of the state cultural policy on the territory of the
Tomsk Region, is Law of the Tomsk Region
№112-ОЗ dated 13.06.2007 «Concerning
Realization of the State Policy in the Sphere
of Culture and Arts on the Territory of the
Tomsk Region».
Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows
the following:
– the number of words in the document is
2236;
– the number of use of the word «culture»
and its derivatives in various cases is 69, that is
3 % from the total number of words in the text.
The number of adjectives with the root
«cultur» is 18, i.e. 0.8 % from the total number of
words in the text.
The most popular word-combinations,
consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur»,
are: cultural activity (8), cultural values (5), and
cultural heritage (2).
It is necessary to underline that the
authors of the given law have not defi ned its
basic notions. In the result, we may suppose,
that the text of the law does not clarify what
the legislator thinks about the philosophicalcultural aspects of the state cultural policy.
# 354 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
Table 11. Statistics of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Tomsk Region «Concerning
Realization of the State Policy in the Sphere of Culture and Arts on the Territory of the Tomsk Region»
№
The words, surrounding the concept «culture»,
and its derivatives having been used more than once
Institution(s)
The number of usage
30
In the sphere
27
Specialists
6
In the region
3
Table 12. Comparative Statistics of Usage of the Word «Culture» and its Derivatives in the Normative Legal
Acts
№
1
Total
number
words
The title of the Law
2
% of Usage of the
Word «Culture»
and its Derivatives
3
Law of the Russian Federation № 3612-1 «Fundamental Principles
of Legislation of the Russian Federation on Culture»
Law of the Republic of Altai № 20-55 «Concerning Culture»
4
5595
2,6
2695
3,4
Law of the Buryat Republic № 246-I «Concerning Culture»
4480
2,5
Law of the Republic of Tuva № 261 «Concerning Culture»
5009
2,5
Law of the Republic of Khakassia № 30-ЗРХ «Concerning
3345
Culture»
Law of the Zabaikalye Territory № 154-ЗЗК «Concerning Culture» 1354
3,3
Law of the Krasnoyarsk Region № 2-190 «Concerning Culture»
4015
3,2
Law of the Irkutsk Region № 154-оз «Concerning State Support of
Culture in the Irkutsk Region»
Law of the Kemerovo Region № 26-ОЗ «Concerning Culture»
1118
3
1962
3,1
Law of the Novosibirsk Region № 124-ОЗ «Concerning Culture in
the Novosibirsk Region»
Law of the Tomsk Region № 112-ОЗ «Concerning Realization of
the State Policy in the Sphere of Culture and Arts on the Territory
of the Tomsk Region»
2963
3,5
2236
3
Moreover, it is proved by the fact that, there
is a minimal number of word-combinations,
constituting of adjectives with the root «cultur»
in the text of the law, – that is only 0.8 % from the
total number words. What is also typical of the
given text is a narrow-sectorial understanding
of culture, which is proved by that, that the
expression «cultural organizations» is on the
fi rst place according to the frequency of its
usage (Table 11).
3
As it is seen from the Table 12, Law of the
Russian Federation № 3612-1 «Fundamental
Principles of Legislation of the Russian
Federation on Culture» contains the biggest
number of the word «culture» and its derivatives,
and it is absolutely reasonable, as far as it is
the basic law, which regulates the development
of the cultural policy of all the territory of the
Russian Federation. Consequently, the text of the
Law contains the biggest number of articles and
# 355 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
theoretically it must mention all the positions,
which are connected to realization of the state
cultural policy. Moreover, basing on this Law,
they have developed special normative legal acts,
which regulate separate kinds of social-cultural
activity.
Thus, proceeding from the quantitative
analysis, we can suppose that the Laws concerning
culture of 4 of the subjects of the Russian
Federation (the Zabaikalye Territory, the Irkutsk
Region, the Kemerovo Region, and the Tomsk
Region) reflect the logics of development of the
territorial cultural policy least of all others, as far
as the number of words in those laws is more than
twice as little than in the Federal Law.
The per cent of usage of the word «culture»
and its derivatives differs from 2.5 % to 3.5 %
from the total number of words in the texts of the
normative legal acts. Thereat, the least per cent is
observed in Law of the Buryat Republic № 246-I
«Concerning Culture», which takes the third
place according to the total number of words in
the text.
As it is seen from Table 13, the first place
according the frequency of usage belongs to
the word «organization», or «institution» (they
can be used as synonyms in the given context),
surrounding the concept of «culture» and its
derivatives.
To our mind, the most optimal definition
of this notion has been given in Law of the
Novosibirsk Region № 124-ОЗ «Concerning
Culture in the Novosibirsk Region», according to
which «cultural organization is an organization,
which has been created for cultural activity
realization (theatrical-spectacular and concert
organizations, libraries, museums, exhibition
halls and centers, planetariums, houses of culture,
clubs, centers and houses of national arts and
crafts, parks of recreation and leisure, cinemas,
movies- and video-rental services and cinemashowing organizations, organizations, being
involved in the sphere of conservation, usage,
popularization and state protection of the objects
of cultural heritage, and other organizations,
which provide services in the sphere of culture),
and also educational institutions in the sphere of
culture and arts».
Consequently, we may suppose that the
main instrument of cultural policy realization is
concrete governmental and private organizations.
Thereat, the legislators have fully left out of
account the doers of culture, as far as this wordcombination has failed to be enrolled in the list of
the most popular words.
Moreover, we may conclude that almost in
all the cases the legislators perceive culture not
as a separate kind of state policy, but as a certain
sphere, thus reducing the state approach to a
sectorial one (Table 13).
As it is seen from the comparison of the main
notions, which have been denoted by the authors,
and word-combinations (Table 14), the notions
of «cultural activity» and «cultural values» are
used most often in the texts of the Laws, and their
most-often-used definitions are given in Law of
the Russian Federation № 3612-1 «Fundamental
Principles of Legislation of the Russian Federation
on Culture». So, «cultural activity is an activity
aimed for conservation, creation, popularization
and assimilation of cultural values»; «cultural
values are moral and esthetic ideals, norms and
patterns of behavior, languages, dialects and
accents, national traditions and customs, historical
toponyms, folklore, artistic arts and crafts,
pieces of culture and arts, results and methods of
scientific researches of cultural activity, buildings,
constructions, subjects and technologies, having
historical-cultural significance, historically- and
culturally-unique territories and objects».
As we can see, the legislators indirectly
admit culture to be the ideal-formative side of
human life and activity; though, the activity of
ideals formation is entrusted to organizations
# 356 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Table 13. Statistic Analysis of the Words, surrounding the concept of «Culture» and its Derivatives (we specify
three most popular words for each normative legal act)
№
Words, Surrounding the Concept
of «Culture», and its Derivatives
In the region
The number
of Usage
38
Organization(s)
38
Development
8
Organization(s)
55
In the region
10
In the sphere
5
Law of the Buryat Republic № 246-I
«Concerning Culture»
Organization(s)
35
In the region
21
Development
13
Law of the Republic of Tuva № 261
«Concerning Culture»
Organization(s)
34
The title of the Law
Law of the Russian Federation № 3612-1
«Fundamental Principles of Legislation of
the Russian Federation on Culture»
Law of the Republic of Altai № 20-55
«Concerning Culture»
In the region
32
Development
8
Law of the Republic of Khakassia № 30ЗРХ «Concerning Culture»
Organization(s)
34
In the region
26
In the sphere
13
Law of the Zabaikalye Territory № 154-ЗЗК
«Concerning Culture»
Organization(s)
14
In the region
10
Law of the Krasnoyarsk Region № 2-190
«Concerning Culture»
Law of the Irkutsk Region № 154-оз
«Concerning State Support of Culture in the
Irkutsk Region»
Law of the Kemerovo Region № 26-ОЗ
«Concerning Culture»
Law of the Novosibirsk Region № 124-ОЗ
«Concerning Culture in the Novosibirsk
Region»
Law of the Tomsk Region № 112-ОЗ
«Concerning Realization of the State Policy
in the Sphere of Culture and Arts on the
Territory of the Tomsk Region»
Institution(s)
4
In the region
44
Institution(s)
30
Organization(s)
18
In the region
15
Organization(s)
10
Support
5
Organization(s)
24
In the sphere
12
In the region
6
In the sphere
32
Organization(s)
21
In the region
19
Institution(s)
30
In the sphere
27
Specialists
6
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
Table 14. Statistic Analysis of the Most Popular Word-Combinations, Consisting of an Adjective with the Root
«Cultur» (we have given two most popular word-combinations for each normative legal act)
№
The Title of the Normative Legal Act
Word-combination
Law of the Russian Federation № 3612-1 «Fundamental
cultural activity
Principles of Legislation of the Russian Federation on
cultural values
Culture»
Law of the Republic of Altai № 20-55 «Concerning Culture» cultural activity
Number
of Usage
29
24
12
cultural values
5
cultural activity
18
cultural values
17
cultural activity
24
cultural values
21
Law of the Republic of Khakassia № 30-ЗРХ «Concerning
Culture»
cultural activity
17
cultural heritage
10
Law of the Zabaikalye Territory № 154-ЗЗК «Concerning
Culture»
cultural heritage
3
cultural property
1
Law of the Krasnoyarsk Region № 2-190 «Concerning
Culture»
cultural heritage
17
cultural values
10
Law of the Irkutsk Region № 154-оз «Concerning State
Support of Culture in the Irkutsk Region»
Law of the Kemerovo Region № 26-ОЗ «Concerning
Culture»
cultural events
Law of the Buryat Republic № 246-I «Concerning Culture»
Law of the Republic of Tuva № 261 «Concerning Culture»
1
cultural property
9
cultural activity
7
Law of the Novosibirsk Region № 124-ОЗ «Concerning
Culture in the Novosibirsk Region»
cultural activity
8
cultural values
5
Law of the Tomsk Region № 112-ОЗ «Concerning
Realization of the State Policy in the Sphere of Culture and
Arts on the Territory of the Tomsk Region»
cultural activity
8
cultural values
3
and cultural institutions, and it contradicts their
primary functions, which are to provide cultural
services to the population.
This way, basing on the content-analysis of
the normative legal documents, which guarantee
realization of the state cultural policy in the
subjects of the Siberian Federal District, and also
on the content-analysis of Law of the Russian
Federation № 3612-1 «Fundamental Principles of
Legislation of the Russian Federation on Culture»,
we conclude the following:
– Only 1 document out of 11 considered
mentions culture in its title as one of the kinds
of the state policy. In all other cases, the titles of
the laws, including the basic one – the federal
law, fail to imply not only the state cultural
policy, but also specification concerning
governmental philosophic-culturological vision
of what culture is. In connection with the fact,
91 % of the considered laws have one common
title «Concerning Culture», which does not at all
reflect the comprehension of culture as one of the
main kinds of the state policy;
– In the texts, they regularly use incorrect
synonyms of the notion «cultural policy», which
significantly corrupt the role of the state: the
branch of «culture», politics in the sphere of
culture, sphere of culture;
# 358 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
– Application of such synonyms speaks
of the fact that the legislator reduces the state
approach to cultural policy realization to a narrow
sectorial one;
– The basic instrument of the «cultural»
branch functioning is concrete governmental and
non-governmental organizations, thereat the role
of cultural doers and cultural specialists is almost
reduced to zero;
– Texts of some laws do not clarify what
precisely the legislator conceives concerning
philosophic-culturological aspects of the state
cultural policy, as far as the basic notions are not
specified in those texts. It results in the following:
1
2
3
4
the function of the state cultural policy realization
becomes vague;
– Being applied in conceptual documents for
the state cultural policy realization, philosophicculturological aspects do not correspond to the
existing terminology and content of the basic
legislative acts;
– All the existing normative-legal acts,
which provide the state cultural policy realization,
demand a detail reviewing for the purpose of
elaboration of one common terminology and in
order to fix the function of the state for the cultural
policy realization, but not to affirm a departmental
narrow sectorial approach to culture.
The problem of text in linguistics, philology and other humanitarian sciences. Experience of philosophical analysis. [Electronic resource]. URL: www.i-u.ru/biblio/archive/bahtin %5Fproblema.
Philosophy: education book for higher institutions. Edition №13. Rostov-on-Don: Fenix, 2006. – 576 p.
The Russian Juridical Encyclopedia. Moscow, 1999. – P. 988.
Texts of the laws have been taken from the legal reference system «ConsultantPlus».
References
I.О. Abramova. Russia and Globalization: International Aspects. Moscow: Nauka, 2006. – 367 p.
L.Y. Averyanov. Content-Analysis: Educational Book. Moscow: KNORUS, 2009. – 456 p.
О.N. Astafyeva, Т.G. Bogatyriova, V.К. Yegorov. Culturology: Educational Book for the System
of Government Employees’ Training and Re-Training. Moscow: RAGS Publishing House, 2005. –
280 p.
А.S. Balakshin. Cultural Policy: Theory and Methodology of Researching: Doctorial dissertation
work in Philosophical Sciences. N. Novgorod 2006. – 358 p.
V.P. Bolshakov. Provinciality of Cultural Spaces in Russia of Today // Culture of Russian Provinces:
the Past, the Presence, and the Future: Round Table Materials. St. Petersburg, 2005. – P. 6–8.
Y.G. Bryndin. Evolution of Harmony from Natural to Social Harmonization of Man and Society.
Novosibirsk: NSTU, 2007. – 228 p.
Y.G. Bryndin. Spiritual Evolution. Novosibirsk –Pyatigorsk: PSLU, 2007. – 234 p.
Vestnik of Philosophy and Sociology of KSU. 2010. № 1. – 307 p.
L.Y. Vostryakov. Cultural Policy: Conception, Notions, and Models [electronic resource]. URL:
www.cpolicy.ru/analytics.
L.Y. Vostryakov. Regional Cultural Policy of Post-Reformist Russia: Subjective Measuring. St.
Petersburg: NWAGS Publishing House, 2005. – 344 p.
М. Gnedovsky. Creative Industries: Russian Political Challenge // Domestic Notes. 2005. № 4
(25). – P. 168–181.
М.N. Gromov. Cultural Heritage as a Foundation of National Identity. Moscow: SASC, 2005. –
141 p.
А.I. Guseinov. Socio-Normative Sphere of Culture // Questions of Philosophy. 2008. № 8. – P. 39.
# 359 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
I. Dmitriev. Content-Analysis: the Essence, Tasks and Procedures [electronic resource]. URL:
www.inform-kurort.ru.
Report of the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation «Culture and the Future of Russia. New
Vision» at the plenary meeting of the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation dated 24 November,
2007 года [electronic resource]. URL: www.dokladoprfcultura.ru.
S.N. Ikonnikova. History of Culturological Theories. 2-d Edition. St. Petersburg, 2005. – 473 p.
G.М. Kazakova. Regional Culture: Generic Features and Structural-Functional Characteristics //
Questions of Culturology. 2009. № 5. – P. 12.
N.G. Kozin. Universalistic Project of Civilized Identity of Russia // Philosophy and Society. 2008.
№ 4. – P. 75.
Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Russian Federation. Moscow: Astrel, 2009. – 63 p.
А.I. Kravchenko. History of Management: Educational Book for HEIs. Moscow: Academic
Project: Triksta, 2005. – 560 p.
Creative Laboratory: Dialogue of Creative Practices: Monograph / editor-compiler. О.А. Karlova.
Moscow: Academic Project, 2009. – 476 p.
Culturology: Educational Book / compiler and executive editor А.А. Radugin. Moscow: Library,
2005. – 304 p.
The Main Directions of the Cultural Policy Strategy in the Krasnoyarsk Region for the period of
2009–2020 years [electronic resource]. URL: www.krskstate.ru/culture.
Fundamentals of the State Cultural Policy: Educational Book / G.L. Ruksha (the head of the authors’
collective), S.V. Andreeva, I.N. Kryukov and others. Krasnoyarsk: KrasSU, 2006. – 125 p.
From the Strategy of Cultural Policy to the Tactics of Managerial Interaction: Materials of
the Regional Public Hearing on 11–12 March, 2009 Krasnoyarsk: the Ministry of Culture of the
Krasnoyarsk Region, 2009. – 128 p.
Collection of Conference Materials According to the Results of Municipal Management Organs
and State Institutions of Culture and Education of the Krasnoyarsk Region for the Period of 2009 year.
Krasnoyarsk: the Ministry of Culture of the Krasnoyarsk Region, 2010. – 116 p.
Modern Problems of Socio-Cultural Sphere Researching: Collection of Materials of All-Russian
Scientific-Practical Conference of Young Scientists, Aspirants and Candidates. Orel, 25–26 February,
2010 / scientific editor N.А. Parshikov; editorial staff: V.P. Polyanov, Y.А. Finogeeva, N.L. Chupakhina,
G.V. Yakushkina (executive editor). Orel: The Orel State Institute of Arts and Culture; «Horizont Ltd.
», 2010. – 303 p.
Socio-Humanitarian Vestnik of the Kemerovo Institute вестник (branch) SEI HPE «RSTEU».
2010. № 4 (June). – 239 p.
Philosophy: Educational Book for Higher Educational Institutions. – 13-d Edition. Rostov-onDon: Feniks, 2006. – 576 p.
Fundamental Problems of Culturology: 4-volumed edition. V. 1: Theory of Culture / executive
editor D.L. Spivak. St. Petersburg: Aletya, 2008. – 432 p.
Fundamental Problems of Culturology: 4-volumed edition. Т. 3: Cultural Dynamics / executive
editor D.L. Spivak. St. Petersburg: Aletya, 2008. – 518 p.
Fundamental Problems of Culturology: 4-volumed edition. Т. 4: Cultural Policy / executive editor
D.L. Spivak. St. Petersburg: Aletya, 2008. – 424 p.
# 360 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
К.V. Kharchenko. Material Part of Life in the Mirror of Subjective Senses: Experience of ContentAnalysis// Sociology: Methodology, Methods, Mathematical Modeling. 2009. № 1 (28). – P. 129–148.
Human Capital of the Krasnoyarsk Region: Foresight-Research – 2030 / Analytic Report under
the editorship of V.S. Yefimov. Krasnoyarsk: SFU, 2010. – 126 p.
S. Chistyakova. Cultural Globalization: Genesis, Typology, And Modern Senses: annotation of
the dissertation work in Philosophical Sciences / the Belgorod State University, 2007. – 22 p.
А.I. Shendrik. Sociology of Culture. Moscow, 2005. – 495 p.
Evolution of Cultural Activity in The New Millennium: Socio-Economical Aspects of Cultural
Policy: 3-volumed edition. V. 2. Culture in the Global World / editor-compiler. B.Y. Sorochkin. St.
Petersburg: Aletya, 2005. – 525 p.
N.P. Koptzeva, Libakova N.M. Native Culture of the 19th – 20th Centuries in Search After Truth.
Truth of Real Human Being in Vladimir Solovyov’s Philosophy of the Universal Unity and Works of
Art in the Russian Painting // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 1
(2009 2). Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia. – P. 67–83.
N.P. Koptzeva, A.A. Makhonina. Henrich Rickert’s methodology and its application for solution
of the problem of cultural values in contemporary theory of culture // Journal of Siberian Federal
University. Humanities & Social Sciences, 2009. № 2 (2). Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk,
Russia. – P. 247–258.
N.P. Koptzeva, K.V. Reznikova. Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on
Culture // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2). Siberian
Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia. – P. 491–506.
N. Koptzeva, A. Semenova. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level //
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social science. 2009. № 2 (1). – P. 31–55.
V. Luzan. Cultural Policy as a Subject of Applied Culturology // Journal of Siberian Federal
University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3. 2009. № 2. P. 323 – 334.
V. Luzan. Cultural Policy as a Self-Independent Type of State Policy // Journal of Siberian Federal
University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4. 2009. № 2. P. 587 – 594.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization…
Контент-анализ основных
нормативных правовых документов,
обеспечивающих реализацию
государственной культурной политики
(федеральный и региональный аспекты)
В.С. Лузан
Сибирский федеральный университет
660041 Россия, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
За последние годы контент-анализ обогатился современными техническими и программными
средствами, что позволило ему в большей степени основываться на всем богатстве знаний
по формализованному статистическому анализу. Кроме того, в статье отмечается, что в
современной ситуации наблюдается определенная тенденция применения контент-анализа
в качестве одного из основных методов философско-культурологических исследований. Это
говорит об особой значимости результатов, полученных при применении данного метода.
По мнению автора статьи, с позиции философии культуры выбор в качестве объекта
контент-анализа нормативных правовых документов субъектов Сибирского федерального
округа обусловлен стратегическим значением этого административно-территориального
образования для страны в целом – это регион, который занимает срединное положение в
Российской Федерации, что позволяет ему обеспечивать экономическую, транспортную и
социально-культурную связность всей территории страны. Это означает, что население
Сибирского федерального округа выполняет важнейшую геополитическую функцию – самим
фактом своего проживания удерживает территориальную целостность России.
С целью выявления не только регионального аспекта государственной культурной политики,
но и федерального, в статье осуществлен контент-анализ Закона Российской Федерации от
09.10.1992 № 3612-1 «Основы законодательства Российской Федерации о культуре».
В заключение делается вывод о том, что философско-культурологические аспекты,
заложенные в концептуальных документах по реализации государственной культурной
политики, не соответствуют существующей терминологии и содержанию основных
нормативных правовых документов как на региональном уровне, так и федеральном.
Ключевые слова: контент-анализ, нормативные правовые документы, культурные процессы,
организации культуры, культурная политика.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 363-371
~~~
УДК 141.412
Zealots’ World View
Julia G. Matushanskaya*
Kazan State Technological University
68 K. Marx st., Kazan, 420015 Russia 1
Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011
Zealot had been a milleniaristic movements as well as Middle Age heresies. As we see their attitude
to human life, material goods and archives, the Zealots believed that the time of history had come to
the end. In the deposited Jerusalem they did the actions which contradicted to Halaha, thus showing
the fact that it also had come to the end. Their attitude to the temple had been ambivalent – on the one
side they believed that the Most High would save the Temple, but on the other side they questioned
the sacrality of the Temple’s space. The spatio-temporal continuum in the deposited Jerusalem had
been probably perceived as some intermediate state between this present world and the Olam haBaha, descending from Heavens. The overcoming of the division of the worlds into phenomenal and
transcendent had a natural social consequence the rejection of personalism.
Keywords: Zealots, Halaha, milleniaristic movements.
Point
The Zealots had been a group very close
to Milleniaristic movements of the Middle Age
Europe. If, like the researches of “The School
of Annals”, we would make conclusions on
the materials of the texts left by witnesses, for
instance by Josephus Flavius, then Zealots, as
it can be seen, thought that the history comes
to its end. That’s why Zealots didn’t value the
human life high, violating ethic and ritual laws
of Judaism.
Examples
The Apocalyptic had prepared the specific
mentality of the Judea of the second Temple
Age. According to Josephus Flavius, during the
uprising a lot of Jews had been on the side of
the radical Zealots’ party. Josephus writes that
*
1
“the people begun to suffer from mad passion to
them during Gessius Flora’s rule, who had been
a governor and because of his abuse of power the
Jews were made to rebel” (Josephus, Ant.Jud.
XVIII,1,6). The Josephus’ texts and the Talmud
became the only sources for the reconstruction of
the adequate conception of the mentality of Judea
risen in arms.
In spite of the lack of material, in our opinion,
the religious views of Zealots as well as their
conception of History development (connected
with their views) can be reconstructed by means
of the modern methods. The most appropriate
are the methods of historical anthropology. So,
according to the methodology of the “School of
Annals” it is stated that every memorial of the
past is mute by itself. It becomes a source only
being included by a scientist into the sphere of
Corresponding author E-mail address: jgm2007@yandex.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 363 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Julia G. Matushanskaya. Zealots’ World View
his analysis. Instead of the narrative description
on the basis of available sources, the principle
“history – problem” had been stated. According to
this principle the explorer formulates the problem
in the light of which he selects the materials,
which can serve as a source of knowledge about
this problem.
Our stated problem if the Zealots’ view
to History and the forming of the historical
conception of Josephus Flavius in the polemic with
the Zealots. One of analogues of the antropologic
research is the book of Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie
«Montaillou: village de occitan de1294 a 1324»
(Le Roy Ladurie, 1975). The author reconstructs
the living world of a village in Aquitania during
the live of one generation, from the end of XIII th
to the beginning of XIV century on the basis of the
remained reports of questionings by the bishop of
the town of Pamiers of Jacques Fournier. The texts
contain the information of the different aspects of
material life, family and culture. Emmanuel Le
Roy Ladurie had re-grouped and reorganized the
material in the style of monograph on agrarian
history.
Our main source are the works of Josephus
Flavius, who had been a witness of the fall of
Jerusalem (Josephus, Bell.Jud. V). Besides, if
we re-group and reorganize the material as in the
book «Montaillou», then we can see in «Jewish
War» and «Vita» some regularity, on the base of
which we can classify Zealots as an apocalyptic
movement typologically close the Middle-Age
heresies.
The comparison of mentality of Zealots –
the religious movement of Antiquity – and the
mentality of Cathars – the heretics of the MiddleAge West states the problem of chronology. J. Le
Goff, substantiating his conception of “the long
Middle Age” views as one of the criterions the
struggle of two almost equal powers – of God and
Satan. According to J. Le Goff “Satan is born with
the Middle Age and dies with the Middle Age”
(Le Goff, 1985). But the Biblical conception of the
war between God and Satan had been developed
in Jewish apocalyptic. The apocalyptic in turn
influenced the birth of Christianity, which became
the world outlook basis of the West European
Civilization. Thus, either in makes sense to move
the borders of “the long Middle Age” to the times
of the birth of Christianity”, or maybe the position
of К. Pomian (Pomian, 1979, p.455-457) is more
appropriate in this situation. He called to reject
every precise periodization, because every age is
co-existence of anisochronous chains of historic
events, abiding in different temporal dimensions
to each other.
In 1958 the famous (and only one)
methodological article of Braudel «History and
historical sciences. Historic activity» (Braudel,
1958, p. 725 – 753) was published. It caused sharp
discussions among intellectuals of the time.
Sociologist G. Gurvich acknowledged the priority
of sociology before history and he marked that
«historical reality is just a privileged sector of a
much wider circle – the circle of social reality».
Unlike E. Durkheim, who tried sociologize
various areas of scientific knowledge, Gurvich
acknowledged «duumvirate» of sociology and
history for integration of all social sciences
(geography, ethnography, political economy,
philosophy) in the framework of the one “Science
about Man»( Gurvich, 1977). According to
Gurvich, social reality consists of «a number of
total social phenomena» such as deep levels of
social life, types of social interactions, socials
groups, global commonwealthes. Those social
structures need to be studied with the help of
analysis of different time rhythms typical to
them: long-term of slowly moving time, illusory
of sudden time, incorrectly pulsating time,
explosion time, awaiting time etc. For Braudel
Gurvich personified friendly, almost brotherly
type of sociology, but the historian called the
researchers to beware of the endless morphologies
# 364 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Julia G. Matushanskaya. Zealots’ World View
of «chameleon-like time», which is a new but
actually unchangeable formula of the same levels
of immovable social architecture.
At the same time the historians were
theoretically challenged by C. Levi-Strauss,
who considered anthropology as a basis for
unification of two sciences. Formally declaring
parity and complementarity of two sciences,
Levi-Strauss gave to history role of working only
with «conscious manifestations of social life»
and empiric plane of study, presenting to his
own science the right to study its subconscious
foundations, universal, out-of-time structures of
human thought, which we see in customs, myths
and languages of different nations (Levi-Strauss,
1993). Countering Levi-Strauss’ ideas, Braudel
marked that the out-of-time structures don’t exist,
because the society is movable and changeable,
every society is a child of its own time.
Answering to polemic of Gurvich and LeviStrauss Braudel introduces the concept of “time
of big duration», which, according to his idea,
must help to unify all the «sciences about man»,
historify them, giving to researched social reality
the character of duration, extension, historicity.
For a historian «the dialectic of time is a nucleus
of social reality, living, innermost, constantly
renewed contradiction between actual moment
and slow flowing of time (Braudel, 1958, p. 117).
Unlike Bergson, for whom time as duration
(«durée») has psychological and subjective
character, Braudel imparts to «la longue durée»
social and methodological sense. According to
Braudel the perspective of long extension lets a
historian contemplate «panorama of the whole
mankind, in which the game of civilizations
is displayed», and, moreover, can disclose the
connections of history with present time, to
determine «strong and week points in our move
to future».
Jean-Paul Sartre’s philosophic concept of
time was especially close to Braudel. According
to Sartre, dialectic as a move of reality in
impossible, if time is not dialectical i.e. if activity
of future itself is denied. We have to understand
that neither people nor their actions do not lie in
time; time, as the specific attribute of history,
is being created by people on the basis of their
initial (Sartre, 1963). Thus, historical time was
chosen by Braudel as a basis for creation of
the common project of social-humanitarian
sciences. Social-philosophical sense of dialectic
connection of the past with the present and of the
present with the future, lying in the foundation of
Braudel’s «la longue durée» lets talk about this
category not as about final временной длине, but
as about “long prolongation”, about “time in the
stage of realization”, like «soft time», displayed
on surrealistic canvases of S. Dali (Khakimov,
2009, p. 135-147).
For the removal of the lack of chronologic
correspondence the anthropologic approach of
V. Turner will be useful. V. Turner concentrates
his attention on the aspects of human activity,
intentionally brought out of the stream of social
life and contrasted the everyday existence as
“anti-structures” (Turner, 1984; Katz, 1984, p.
84–89). In the Turner’s opinion in the most of
cases the milleniaristic movements rose in those
historical periods when the society had been in the
transition from one cultural condition to another.
The destruction of the Second Temple in the result
of uprising brought to the rise of the Talmudic
Judaism. The article of M.Goodman challenges
the standard picture that religious variety within
Judaism before 70 CE was focused on the Temple,
and that variety was replaced by unity in 70 when
the Temple was destroyed. Evidence is presented
that different groups shared the Temple despite
their disagreements on how the cult should be
organised, and it is argued that the loss of this
shared institution did not cause such groups to
disappear, although it may have made it easier
for them to ignore each other (Goodman, 2009,
# 365 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Julia G. Matushanskaya. Zealots’ World View
p.202-213). But this shift of the emphasis from the
Temple cult to hermeneutics of the Biblical text
was conditioned by the development of Judaism of
the beginning of the Christian Age itself, as being
strongly influenced by Hellenistic philosophy.
The translation of the Bible into Greek, and
the works oh Philo and Josephus Flavius and
Jewish apocalyptic texts, and also the spread of
Christianity – all of them are just the stages of
Jewish-Hellenistic syncretism, which led to the
creation of Middle-Age society. The Antique antiSemitism was the reaction if the Hellenes, and the
war of Maccabeus and Jewish war are the Jews’
reaction to cross-influence of cultures. Although
the term for “apocalypse” is not attested as a title
or genre definition in the extant corpus of Hebrew
or Jewish Aramaic documents, some early
Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic texts may contain
rudimentary evidence in favor of the existence of
a Hebrew or Jewish Aramaic equivalent for the
term. Moreover, its reconstruction can contribute
to better understanding of certain wide spread
apocalyptic imagery, which must be closely
connected to the semantics of this term (Kulik,
2009, p. 540-550).
The Jewish war had strongly expressed
eschatological nature. Josephus writes about
people who perished in the Temple, burn by
the Titus’ soldiers: “The initiator of their death
was a false prophet who proclaims in those day
in the city that God commanded to go up to the
Temple in order to receive the Sign of Salvation”
(Josephus, Bell.Jud. VI,5,3). So, the people in the
deposited Jerusalem had been waiting the coming
of the Messiah “here and now”. According to
Josephus, after the fall of Jerusalem one of the
Zealots’ leaders, Shimon bar Giora, who had
been hiding in underground tunnels, came out in
Romans’ views from underground in the place
of destructed Temple in the white tunic and red
chlamys, presenting being a king (and probably
the King-Messiah) (Josephus, Bell.Jud.VII,2,1).
According to a great number of false Messiahs,
a lot of people of those times thought about
being messiahs themselves. The conception of
the Messiah as a political leader made possible
the receiving the messianic role for every more
or less charismatic person of the Second Temple
Age.
The coming of the messianic age let the
Zealots have the more simple attitude to the
strictness of Jewish Law, which can be called
the tendency to interiorization of the concept
of freedom. This kind of freedom can in time
become the freedom from all limitations and
responsibilities, the freedom from morality. It had
been a kind of sacral anti-behavior (Uspensky,
1996, p.460-476). The Zealots, transgressing the
Jewish law, had been advancing the coming of new
Messianic age. Josephus, rebuking the leaders of
Zealots, Johanan from Gischala and Shimon bar
Giora, writes that there had not left any crime
not committed by them. So, Johanan, according
to Josephus’ words, “ate the forbidden food
and rejected the originally stated purification”
(Josephus, Bell.Jud.VII,2,1). In the deposited
Jerusalem the Galileans under his leadership
“robbed the houses of the rich, for fun killed the
men and raped the women, and then drunk away
the blood washed plunder. Because of satiety
they committed themselves to feminine behavior:
fixed their hair, dressed in women’s garments,
used perfumes and to be attractive they penciled
their eyes. They imitated not only the garment but
also the passions of women and in the extremes
of their debauchery invented lawless pleasures”
(Josephus, Bell.Jud.IV,9,10). This testifies the fact
that the age of Halaha had passed for the Zealots
as well as for Frankists who had been waiting for
Messiah in the XVIII century. Jacob Frank had
proclaimed that he came to deliver the world of
all the laws (Scholem, 1974, p.139-217). From
the other side Josephus possibly intentionally
tries to show their opponents repulsive. But if we
# 366 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Julia G. Matushanskaya. Zealots’ World View
consider that according to the rabbinic tradition
Josephus tried to make this text as decorous as
possible, it is less probable that he invented those
accusations.
The attitude of Zealots to the sacral space of
the Temple deserves special attention. Josephus
writes that Johanan from Gischala had given
the golden temple plate to re-melting. “He told
to his close men that things which belonged to
God they could fearlessly use for God-pleasing
purposes, and for those who fight for the Temple
it is permitted to take means for living from the
Temple. For the same cause he devastated also the
stores of sacred wine and oil, which had been kept
by the priests in the Inner Temple for sprinkle
of the burnt offering sacrifices and shared them
between the crowd” (Josephus, Bell.Jud.V,13,6).
Besides the Zealots refused to leave the Temple
and not to use it as a fortress because, according
to the words of the rebellions, “the Universe is
the best Temple which God has. Nevertheless this
very Temple will be saved by the One abiding in
it” (Josephus, Bell.Jud. V,11,2). The next words
in their essence discredited the service in the
Temple, which had risen the indignation of the
priests. But zealots had not been the only persons
who had this attitude to the Temple. So Jesus’
follower Stephanus tells in his sermon: “The Most
High does not live in hand-made temples, as the
prophet says: Heavens is the Throne of Mine and
the Earth in pedestal for My feet» (Acts 7:1-53).
As in other milleniaristic movements the
Zealots touch the problem of the social justice.
Thus, recruiting the rebellions into his army,
Shimon bar Giora had promised the freedom
the slaves (Josephus, Bell.Jud.IV,9,3). Having
captured the Jerusalem, the rebellions has burned
the archives where the obligatory bill had been
kept, so the debtors had become free from their
debts (Josephus, Bell.Jud. II,17,6). It caused
some of the scientist to regard the Jewish revolt
a kind of social revolution. The Soviet scientist
A.G. Bokschanin (Bokschanin, 1954, p. 179)
states the Zealots, who, according to Josephus’
words “going to death count as nothing, and also
despise the death of their friends and relatives,
only not to admit the domination of other human
being” (Josephus, Ant.Jud.XVIII,1,6), were the
representatives of the revolutionary circles. But,
in his opinion they had not gone to the end in
their political strives, as sikaries did afterwards.
Also Bokschanin doesn’t trust to the Josephus’
report of the sikaries as hired assasins, which
“mixed with crowd and killed there their personal
enemies as well as those against whom they were
hired for money” (Josephus, Ant.Jud. XX, 8, 5),
because it doesn’t correspond with the image of a
revolutionary.
According to Acts.21:38, where it is written
about 4000 outlaws which “sikarion” led to the
desert, another Soviet historian A.V. Ranovich
makes a conclusion that the sikaries were a
separated revolutionary group (Ranovich, 1937,
p.131-132). In the Ranovich’s opinion the memoirs
of the sikaries as of people who violently took the
land from the rich and gave it out to the poor are
reflected in Mishna in the statement about lawless
owners of the land – sikaricon (Ranovich, 1937a,
p. 301). It can be connected with the fact that
the sikaries who sat in the fortress of Masada
robbed the closest villages. For instance Josephus
tells about the robbing the village of Ein-Gedi
(Josephus, Bell.Jud.IV,7,2). The troops of Shimon
bar Giora captured Idumea (Josephus, Bell.
Jud.IV,9). During the famine in the deposited
Jerusalem the rebellions took the food firstly
from the rich, and then from everybody who
had some food. The Zelots themselves had no
need because they stored for future (Josephus,
Bell.Jud.V,10,2). Besides Johanan gave out the
Temple stores of food to the crowd, as Josephus
tells (Josephus, ell.Jud.V,13,6). The Zealots made
court examinations of the rich, accusing them in
conspiracy, with the purpose to get their goods
# 367 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Julia G. Matushanskaya. Zealots’ World View
(Josephus, Bell.Jud.V,10,4). When during the first
of such court examinations the religious court
had justified the prisoners at the bar, the accused
had been killed anyway and the judges had been
beaten. So the historic memory could be kept for
long time (Josephus, Bell.Jud.IV,5,4).
As theory and practice of studying of
ethnic confl ict show, they are one of the
most complicated type of confl icts, fi rst of
all because of duration and changeability of
forms in time. Contradictions lie in the basis
of every confl ict and for solving of them sides
are struggling. The content of ethnic confl ict is
often territorial claims of sides, undividedness
of spheres of influence and consequently,
presence of different stages of confl ict, – from
psychological incompatibility of existence of
sides and peaceful confrontation to an armed
confl ict – and vice versa. Ethnic confl icts in the
ranks of one state often develop in the result of
pressure and falsification by one side of history,
culture, mentality of another one. The tactic
of capture and keeping of defending side in
unnatural state, often relied with physical and
psychological violence, permanently applied
during centuries, i.e. in situation of constant
challenges, leads to changes of social settings
of whole society and individual person. Ethnocultural unity of opinions in relation to settings
and claims from the outside is being formed.
Ethnos feels constantly restrained and waiting
the danger of restraining from the opponent, in
result of which new social-cultural model of its
existence in the condition of confl ict is formed.
The given model is a sum total of orientations
(political, economic, cultural) of the person
and society as whole, supported by its élite
part as a regular practice. Practices formulate
corresponding socio-cultural models, value
and norm patterns of interactions between
persons and institutes of society (Kvitsinia,
2010, p. 166-171).
The revolutionary nature of the Jewish revolt
was emphasized by those scientists who were
themselves connected with revolutionary struggle
of their time. So K. Kautsky regarded Zealots
as Jewish paupers and lumpen-proletarians, but
he thought that the terror of the lowest classes
in Judea begun too late to save the Jewish state
(Kautsky, 1909, p. 271). However not politically
engaged A. Appelbaum expressed an opinion that
during the conquest of the Judea by Pompey (63
B.C.), the Jews were sent out from the considerable
part of agricultural lands. They filled the army of
the country proletariat which become the driving
force of the rebellion. Besides the taxation in the
Herod’s time became heavier. All this caused
the fact that the most of population of Judea was
involved into revolt against Rome (Appelbaum,
1972, p.355-396).
In our opinion the Zealot’s attitude to
human life expresses their “liminality” first of all
(Turner, 1975). So in Jerusalem the habitant of
the city who had not wished to take the side of the
rebellions, were tortured and murdered (Josephus,
Bell.Jud.IV,5,3). Besides, the repressions against
the members of their own movement. Thus,
Simon executed Matityahu, who helped him
enter Jerusalem, and hid three sons, probably as
a punishment for the fact that the fourth son took
the part of Romans (Josephus, Bell.Jud.V,13,1).
On the accusation that the members of King’s
family betrayed the idea of freedom they also had
been executed (Josephus, Bell.Jud.IV,3,4). Also it
had been forbidden in the city to come together
and have conversation and also to express some
sorrow for the condemned, and the punishment
was death (Josephus, ell.Jud.V,13,1). The
purpose of Zealots was to bring fear into Jewish
community and make them to refuse totally from
any contacts and of course from service to the
Roman Empire, and also to push those who had
been hesitating to the proper support of JewishRoman conflict.
# 368 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Julia G. Matushanskaya. Zealots’ World View
Although the rebellions gave a lots of
promises to set the slaves free and to forgive
the debts, commune had not been their social
ideal. The robbery the Essean settlement in EinGedi (the Esseans according to Flavius lived
as commune (Josephus, Bell.Jud. II,8)) and the
murder of about 700 habitants by the Sikaries
who had been hidden in Masada (Josephus,
Bell.Jud.IV,7,2), confi rms once more the fact of
essence of the left revolutionary attitude among
the later. As to the burning of archives (Josephus,
Bell.Jud. II, 17,6), this act is ambiguous. Besides
the direct profit from the refuse to pay the debts
there’s also a sacral meaning in this act. In the
opinion of Levi- Strauss the archives brings us
into contact with history. The history becomes
material in the archive (Levi-Strauss, 1962).
Thus the struggle of Zealots with archive had
been also the struggle with history and a sign
of its end.
The struggle with the rich in the name
of the Most High typologically resembles the
religious movements of Middle Ages and New
Time. Thus, peasants and the poor follows
the medieval leader of insurgents in the name
of the pure faith, which is proclaimed by the
poor to the poor and have nothing to do with
the riches of the official church. The call to the
creation of the just society in the mouth of the
ideologists of the religious revolts caused the
fact that in historiography of the socialistic
states those revolts are considered fi rst of
all as social revolutions. The same attitude
to religious movements in Russian science
has a long tradition. N. A. Osokin stated that
Savonarola used the religion for the advancing
of the social purposes (Osokin, 1865, p. 148). In
this sense the research of Zealots’ world view in
Soviet historiography made in accordance with
common Soviet methodology, applied for the
research of the religious revolts of all the times.
This approach significantly impoverishes our
understanding of the complicated phenomenon
of milleniaristic movements.
Resume
Thus, Zealot had been a milleniaristic
movements as well as Middle Age heresies. As
we see their attitude to human life, material
goods and archives, the Zealots believed that
the time of history had come to the end. In the
deposited Jerusalem they did the actions which
contradicted to Halaha, thus showing the fact
that it also had come to the end. Their attitude
to the temple had been ambivalent – on the one
side they believed that the Most High would
save the Temple, but on the other side they
questioned the sacrality of the Temple’s space.
The spatio-temporal continuum in the deposited
Jerusalem had been probably perceived as
some intermediate state between this present
world and the Olam ha-Baha, descending from
Heavens. The overcoming of the division of the
worlds into phenomenal and transcendent had
a natural social consequence the rejection of
personalism.
References
S. Appelbaum, “Judea as a Roman province, the Countryside as a Political and Economic Factor”,
in Aufstug zum Niedergang der römischen Welt. V. II (Berlin – New-York, 1972).
A.G. Bokschanin, Social crisis of the Roman Empire (Мoscow, 1954), in Russian.
F. Braudel, “Histoire et sciences socials. La longue durée”, Annales, 4 (1958)
M.Goodman, “Religious Variety and the Temple in the Late Second Temple Period and its
Aftermat”, The Journal of Jewish Studies, 60, 2 (2009).
G. Gurvich Dialectique et sociologie (Paris, 1977).
# 369 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Julia G. Matushanskaya. Zealots’ World View
E. Katz, “Media Events: The Sense of the Occasion”, Studies in Visual Communication, 6
(1984) .
K. Kautsky, Judaism and Christianity (St.-Petersburg, 1909), in Russian.
G. A. Khakimov , “«Time of big duration» of F. Braudel as methodological principle of humanitarian
knowledge”, Questions of Philosophy (Voprosy filisofii), .8 (2009), in Russian.
A. Kulik, “Genre without a Name: Was There a Hebrew Term for “Apocalypse”?” Journal for the
Study of Judaism In the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period, 4-5 (2009 ).
M. B. Kvitsinia, “About socialization of person in conditions of ethnic conflict”, Questions of
Philosophy (Voprosy filisofii), 1 (2010) in Russian..
J. Le Goff, L’imaginaire médiéval: essays (Paris, 1985).
E. Le Roy Ladurie, Montaillou, village occitan de 1294 à 1324 (Paris, 1975).
C. Levi- Strauss, La pensée sauvage (Paris, 1962).
C. Levi-Strauss, Structural anthropology (London –New-York, 1993).
J. Madaule, Le drame albigeois et l’unité française (Paris, 1973).
N. Osokin, Savonarola and Florence (Kazan, 1865), in Russian.
K. Pomian, Periodisation, in La Nouvele Histoire ed. By J. Le Goff, R. Chartiev, J. Revel (Paris,
1979).
A.V. Ranovich, Social revolution in Judea in 66-73, Journal of Ancient History, 1 (1937), in
Russian.
A.V. Ranovich, Sketch about ancient Hebrew religion (Мoscow, 1937), in Russian.
J.-P. Sartre, The Problems of method (London, 1963).
G. Scholem, La redemption par la peche, à La messianisme juif (Paris, 1974).
V. Turner, The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure (Chicago, 1969).
V. Turner, Symbol and Ritual (Lima, 1975)
B.A. Uspensky, Selected works (Moscow, 1996), in Russian.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Julia G. Matushanskaya. Zealots’ World View
Мировоззрение зелотов
Ю.Г. Матушанская
Казанский государственный
технологический университет
Россия 420015, Казань, ул. К.Маркса, 68
Зелоты были милленаристским движением, подобным средневековым ересям. Судя по их
отношению к человеческим жизням, материальным ценностям и архивам, зелоты считали,
что время истории кончилось. В осажденном Иерусалиме они предпринимали действия,
явно противоречащие Галахе, тем самым, показывая, что время ее действия истекло. Их
отношение к Храму было амбивалентным, с одной стороны, они считали, что Всевышний
сохранит Храм, а с другой стороны – сакральность пространства Иерусалимского Храма
зелоты оспаривали. Пространственно- временной континуум в осажденном Иерусалиме, повидимому, воспринимался как промежуточное состояние между этим миром и спускающимся
свыше Олам Хаба. Это преодоление разделения миров на феноменальный и трансцендентный
имело своим естественным социальным следствием отрицание персонализма.
Ключевые слова: зелоты, галаха, милленаристское движение.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 372-379
~~~
УДК 81.33
Works of V.P. Astafiev in China
Valentina V. Nikitenko*
Siberian Federal University
82a Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011
This article is devoted to a brief analysis of the study and translations of Russian literature in China.
The article describes the main stages of the study of Russian literature in China, from the origins to
the present day. Particular attention is paid to the works of the Siberian writer V.P. Astafiev in modern
Chinese translated literature. As an example, the Chinese researchers specified their comments on
his books having researched the peculiarities of his works and felt that his original language was
complicated.
Keywords: Russian literature, translation, the Chinese language, Cultural Revolution, the policy of
“reform and openness”, the “Chinese trap”, Astafiev’s works.
Point of view
A short introduction about
the study and translation
of Russian literature works in China
Early stage of the study
and translation of Russian
literature works in China
The history of translation and study of
Russian literature in China consists of several
periods in the formation of which, above all,
historical and political factors play a decisive
role.
Relations between China and Russia in the
sphere of literature emerged only in the early
XX century. There is an interesting fact that
translating of Russian works in China began
later than that of Chinese works in Russia. The
book “Chinese thought” (Saint-Petersburg, 17721775) was the first Chinese book met by Russian
readers, the translation of which was made by
*
1
sinologist A. L. Leontiev. In the XIX century
only the translations from Chinese into Russian
were published. But in the XX century, Chinese
translators of Russian literature took over and
gradually surpassed their Russian colleagues
with both the number of translations and the scale
of them.
The first Chinese translations of Russian
literature emerged in the early XX century. The
order was as follows: first, I. A. Krylov, later A.
S. Pushkin, I. F. Turgenev, M. U. Lermontov, A.
N. Tolstoy, A. P. Chekhov and others. It all started
with the classics, but gradually the works of
modern authors began to be translated. The first
Chinese translators chose the most prominent
Russian writers and selected the masterpieces of
their many works, thus allowing them to present
to their contemporaries the reliable and extensive
picture of Russian literature within a very short
time (about 10 years).
Corresponding author E-mail address: valya.nik@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 372 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Valentina V. Nikitenko. Works of V.P. Astafiev in China
A characteristic feature of the initial period
of perception of Russian literature in China is the
fact that the translations were not always directly
from the Russian language, but mostly through
Japanese and English. In addition, a part of the
translations was made into the ancient Chinese
(wenyan ).
Since 1919, a new phase of Russian literature
study began. In China, there was a cultural
process, called “May, 4th Process”, whose goal
was a departure from the Chinese feudal culture
and the assimilation of Western democratic
ideology. The ideas of the French Enlightenment,
the theory of German Marxism, and Russian
literature are in the basis of this drawing.
During this period, China’s “new literature”
was emerging and its development is closely
linked with the development of translations of
Russian literature in China. The founders of the
new Chinese literature served as the translators
of Russian literature. Lu Xun was a pioneer
translator and researcher of Russian literature and
made the first distribution of Russian literature in
China. He translated the works of N. V. Gogol,
A. P. Chekhov, A. M. Gorky and other Russian
writers.
After the founding of the People’s Republic
of China in 1949, thanks to the “fraternal
friendship” between China and the USSR, the
study and translation of Russian literature in
China reached unprecedented proportions.
Millions of Chinese people studied the Russian
language and read the Russian literature with
interest and respect. In a short time, no more
than 10 years, almost all the classics of Russian
literature and Soviet literature masterpieces
were translated into Chinese. We can say that an
entire generation of Chinese readers was formed
under the strong influence of Russian (and
Soviet) literature, which is still an important
factor of cultural experiences and the memories
of those living in this generation.
During the Cultural Revolution (1966 –
1976), which in fact is regarded as a ‘Cultural
Destruction’ by most Chinese people, all the works
of foreign literature, including Russian, were
considered “forbidden books”, and all attempts
to translate foreign literature were outlawed.
Many translators and scholars- the specialists
in Russian philology – suffered because of their
work or even simply because of their profession.
This gap in the period of the development of
Chinese culture and the period of stagnation in
the translation and study of Russian literature in
China occurred simultaneously.
Current stage of the study
and translation of Russian
literature works in China
After the launch of “reform and openness”
in China in 1978, the policy of openness to the
world extended not only to the economy, but
also to culture. China has experienced and is
experiencing the most powerful cultural influence,
greater than that of any other country. The
works of foreign writers were translated in large
quantities. During this time, work on translations
and the study of Russian literature was resumed
by the translators of the older generation and their
younger colleagues. The old translations have
since been republished and the new ones appear
one after the other. From M. U. Lomonosov
and N. M. Karamzin to I. A. Brodsky and V. V.
Erofeev, and even V. O. Pelevin’s Russian books
are actively translated into Chinese. Previously,
China had only 2 – 3 publishers of Russian
literature translations, but now the number of
the publishers is over two dozens. Some classical
works such as “Resurrection” and “Anna
Karenina” by A. N. Tolstoy, “Eugene Onegin”
and “The Captain’s Daughter” by A.S. Pushkin,
“Hero of Our Time” by M. U. Lermontov and
“Crime and Punishment” by F. M. Dostoevsky
have up to ten variants of the translation, and
# 373 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Valentina V. Nikitenko. Works of V.P. Astafiev in China
the N. A. Ostrovsky’s novel “How the Steel Was
Tempered” – has even twenty. Since the beginning
of the “policy of opening” the study of Russian
literature in China regained its official status,
new journals of Russian literature appeared, new
scientific papers on the life and works of Russian
writers have been published and the Association
of Chinese scholars of Russian literature has been
formed.
But compared with the period before
the Cultural Revolution, the share of Russian
literature in the overall volume of translated
foreign literature in China has decreased, now in
first place are translations from English – Chinese
readers have since become more interested in the
literature of Europe and America. According
to translator of Russian children’s literature Xu
Yongping, a teacher of Taiyuan Pedagogical
Institute, the real connection in the literature
between China and Russia broke down in the past
ten-plus years (Xu Yongping).
It is important to note that in socialist
China, literature has always been regarded
as an ideological weapon. Given the political
influence of the Soviet Union on the formation
of a new Chinese society, the study of Russian
literature in China has been a clear trend towards
the politicization and an influence of Sociology.
These trends in the study of Russian literature in
China have existed there for quite a long time.
In China the policy in the field of literature and
art was almost identical to that of Soviet Union:
“the only” creative method in Soviet Union
was “socialist realism”, and in China – the
“revolutionary realism”. Recently, these trends,
according to many Chinese critics, are much
less evident: due to the development of social
democracy and economic reform, combined with
the emergence of a new generation of translators
and researchers, the study of Russian literature
in China is now more and more focused on the
artistry and the aesthetic aspects of literature, as
well as more attention being paid to the scientific
and independence of literary studies.
Chinese specialists in Russian philology
at different times focused on various aspects of
Russian literature. In recent decades, Chinese
researchers draw attention to topics such as
“village” prose, “Humanism in literature”,
literature “after the collapse of the Soviet
Union” – “other” prose, postmodernism, and
many others. According to a renowned Chinese
literary critic, Russian philologist and translator,
Yu Yizhon (professor of Nanjing University)
“Chinese readers have a special interest and love
for Russian literature, they want it to catch a whiff
of the modern history of Russian people who
along with us have experienced the same stages
of historical development, and benefit from it, the
new Russian literature, experience and lessons
learned” (Fu Xuan; Yu Yizhong).
In the 1980’s, one of the leading trends in
Russian literature became focused on the study
of time – historical and current, the change in the
spiritual world of people, a focus on the study of
the phenomenon of life in its moral aspect. The
word “life” is no longer synonymous with “ideal”
and “beautiful”, the post-war optimistic outlook
on life has gradually transformed into a critical
outlook. The new generation of writers is not only
looking for an explanation of the social order or
other phenomena of life, but also attaches the
highest importance to the study of the moral
aspect of human nature.
Research and translations
of Siberian writers V. G. Rasputin
and V. P. Astafiev in China
Chinese scholars have a strong interest
among creative Siberian writers – V. G. Rasputin
and V. P. Astafiev. They both become well known
to Chinese readers as traditional writers in the
early 80’s (Chinese researchers call them the
classics of modern Russian literature). Almost
# 374 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Valentina V. Nikitenko. Works of V.P. Astafiev in China
all the works of Rasputin have been translated
into Chinese. Great interest was aroused by
the stories “Money for Maria”, “Deadline”,
“Farewell to Inveterate”, “Live and Remember”.
As the researcher of Russian literature Phu Xuan
(Associate Professor of the Institute of Foreign
Languages, Yunnan University): “Heroes of
Rasputin’s works embody a profound awareness
of the disintegration of traditional forms of life,
loss of morality, existential crisis. These concepts
are well understood by Chinese readers (Fu
Xuan, 73).
One of the recent translations of V. G.
Rasputin in Chinese “Daughter of Ivan, Ivan’s
mother” had a hot author’s response. In the
words of Chinese (and Russian) readers, entitled
“Chinese trap”, V. G. Rasputin, with unconcealed
pain, writes that “Russia holds literature in a
perfectionist and chaste taste, and dispelled it
into the wind so quickly, if not had great skill in
and content of the XIX century, and then threequarters of the XX century»”, and that “Western
world, recently defining the subtle tone in the
literature, has lost it without any regret”. And
in the fact that, namely, China, translates and
publishes the books, “written in the old manner,
according to the precepts and norms of those
times when A. N. Tolstoy and F. M. Dostoyevsky,
Ch. Dickens and W. Faulkner, as well as Chinese
Lu Xun and Lao She have sermonized” V. G.
Rasputin sees a concrete sign: “In China, nearly
one and a half a billion people, of whom not less
than a billion readers, and if all of them brought
up on good and sound examples, compassionate
and love for hard work, the beauty of nature and
beauty of the human soul, the wise and profound
language, with examples of love for their land and
its traditions – on a lot beautiful and instructive
in the literature! – And if a billion Chinese were
brought up on it, and millions, not yet fallen
under the power of evil in Russia, and some of the
survivors in the West, and the Great East, and so
considerable the rest world – namely This would
be a New Civilization, proactively rejected the
evil in books and in all other arts! After all, we
know: evil is powerful, but the love and beauty
are more powerful” (Rasputin,1996).
Example
Research and translations
of V. P. Astafiev’s works in China
V. P. Astafiev could sign under these words
as well. He often met with his Chinese translators,
and conducted an active correspondence with
them. He visited China and was very interested
in distributing his works in this country.
His foreword to the publication of the book
“Zatesi” in 1990 (V. P. Astafiev,1990), to date
one of the most recent translations of his works
into Chinese, is full of disturbing reflections on
the fate of Russia, the Russian people and the
arts. He wrote bitterly that “the great Chinese
neighbour”, i.e. Russia, “struck, disconnected
and brought to its knees“, “where the majority
of the population has lost interest in work, where
the history of the native homeland is crucified,
where the centuries-old foundations of family
are destructed, where more rarely is the one
who remembers his pedigree more over then
grandfather, where the human lives and blood
is devalued, and it is difficult to regain faith in
anything, including Faith in God”. But a country
whose people, “in the eighties generation
esteemed a great poet and thinker Confucius
cannot be either suppressed, or converted into a
herd”. There are 17 years between V. P. Astafiev’s
and V. G. Rasputin’s thoughts, but unlike his
younger contemporary, V. P. Astafiev believed
that the country still retained power, “capable
of resurrection, not everywhere and in every
Russian more memory and the need for education
and self-improvement are extinguished”. “And
the Russian literature that is always sensitive,
nicely captures the mood of their people,
# 375 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Valentina V. Nikitenko. Works of V.P. Astafiev in China
variations in their life, constantly looking for
ways of rapprochement with its readers, gaining
their attention, defends the right attention
to this”. A modern writer, according to V. P.
Astafiev, must fi rst become a companion to the
reader – “Anyone always needs an interlocutor,
otherwise he/she will be crushed by the terrible
disease of the Century – loneliness”. V. P.
Astafiev hoped that he “can fi nd my listeners and
interlocutors among Chinese readers. The Great
literature and the Great culture of the country in
which the lyrical prose and poetry, as in Russia,
has always been desirable to the reader, give
me that hope” (V. P. Astafiev,1990). Indeed, in
the face of Chinese readers V. P. Astafiev found
grateful listeners. His work is under the scrutiny
of Chinese researchers and translators.
One of the modern critics of V. P. Astafiev’s
works is Chen Shuxian, a famous translator and
professor of Russian literature of the Philological
Faculty of Nankai University. When in the
early 90’s the famous Chinese publishing house
“Baihua” decided to release a series of prose of
writers of the world, Chen Shuxian proposed to
include the V. P. Astafiev’s works in it. So along
with the masterpieces of A. S. Pushkin, M. U.
Lermontov, I. F. Turgenev, K. G. Paustovsky, M.
M.Prishvin in Chinese, the V. P. Astafiev’s works
“Zatesi” and “Ode to Russian garden” were also
published.
Chen Shuxian discovered for herself the
works of V. P. Astafiev in the late 80’s and admired
them so much that she even made a translation of
his “Zatesi” and “Ode to Russian garden”. V. P.
Astafiev himself wrote the preface to the Chinese
edition of his works.
As the translator Chen Shuxian says, in V.
P. Astafiev’s works she mostly liked his modesty,
humanity, and love for the common people: “We
can name only a few works, where Nature is
described so beautifully and poetically as in the
miniatures “Zatesi” and “Ode to Russian garden”.
Mapping the subtleties of this is a bit like Chinese
painting” (Chen Shuxian, 2006).
However, it is worth noting that only a few
works of V. P. Astafiev have been translated into
the Chinese language, such as “Shepherd and
Shepherdess”, “The Tzar Fish” (translated by Xia
Zhongyi in 1982), “Starfall” (translated by Feng
Yuli in 1985), “Sad Detective” (translated by
Yu Yizhong in 1989), “Zatesi”, “Ode to Russian
kitchen garden” (translated by Chen Shuxian,
Zhang Daben in 1995), as well as some short
stories. This is undoubtedly due to the difficulties
of translation of Astafiev’s works, the ambiguous
and difficult language, abundant dialect, nonce
words, author’s neologisms, etc. As the translator
of “Zatesi” Chen Shuxian said: “The translation
of the original author – is the real test. Not
every Russian knows, for example, that “zaplot”
is a fence, and “zhalitsa” – a nettle growing
underneath, it leaves too much for a foreigner to
guess (Chen Shuxian, 2005).
The problems in V. P. Astafiev’s works
are very close to the Chinese reader. The big
resonance among the Chinese literary critics
and writers called the Chinese translation of
the novels “The Tzar Fish”. Modern Chinese
writer Liu Xinglong called this book “Scripture
Villages”(Liu Xinglong, 2005). Chinese critic
says that V. P. Astafiev is, first of all, the creator
of lyrical prose and a true humanist, whose
“imagination is always imbued with spirituality”.
Analyzing “The Tzar Fish”, Liu Xinglong first
notes free composition and brushwork, which
helps the author of “wilfully interpret social
facts, express his own inner experiences”. The
critic of the Russian writer calls it “a brilliant
description”, and in his opinion, the author’s
arguments combine “lyricism and philosophic”.
For the external dissimilarity of stories belonging
to “The Narrative”, Liu Xinglong saw an intimate
relationship due to issues and the general idea of
the work: “they are all devoted to the problems of
# 376 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Valentina V. Nikitenko. Works of V.P. Astafiev in China
man and nature, which are discussed in different
ways with dissimilar perspectives and different
parties, so the stories, united together among
some dispersion, reveal some connection and
organize a single global point of view – What
is the World heading”? The Chinese researcher
denotes a symbolic value of the novels “The Tzar
Fish”. The relationship between man and nature
reveals its essence. The looting of nature leads
to a “human degradation and loss of love”, but
to changing attitude to nature – “the way of man
perfection”. “The Tzar Fish” leads Liu Xinglong
to disappointing deduction: “People dream of a
“fun and easy life”, this desire runs through the
centuries, and today is no exception. Therefore,
man transforms nature in order to control and
conquer nature, but in the end people lose a lot:
they lose clean air, pure water, natural treats,
amazing scenery, the joy of communion with
nature, they lose their calm ... and even great
feeling.” The Chinese researcher is well aware
that the problems posed by the Russian writer,
are the pressing problems of humankind, as are
all problems regarding the future of all life on
Earth.
Result
The important place of Russian literature
in China is widely acknowledged. The amount
of Russian literature translations in China in
comparison to other foreign literature translations
has varied greatly during different periods of
cultural interaction between China and Russia.
In 50-60-s Russian literature was translated more
than that from any other country and that was due
to the significant influence of the Soviet Union
on “The New China”. There were also periods
of total oblivion of Russian literary works (The
Cultural Revolution) and periods of rebirth of
Russian literature during which it was newly
brought to Chinese researchers and readers. Over
the last decades the research interests of Chinese
scientists have been addressed towards such
subjects as “rural” or “country” prose, humanism
in literature, “post-soviet” Russian literature – a
“other” prose, post-modernism and other.
V. P. Astafiev was the most widely translated
Siberian writer. His works have been published in
many foreign languages. The first time his work
was published abroad was in Warsaw in 1961- this
was the story ‘Starfall’. Over the next 40 years his
works have been translated in 28 countries into
22 languages worldwide.
V.P. Astafiev’s works, as well as other
Siberian writers, are available to the foreign
reader. But there is one problem: the unique
original vocabulary of V. P Astafiev have been
translated with great difficulties into foreign
languages. One way of solving this problem
seems to be the analysis after the translation
of the V. P. Astafiev’s works and, above all, the
creation of a special dictionary of extra-literary
vocabulary of the writer.
Therefore, the perspectives of studying
the V. P. Astafiev’s work in Chinese literary are
rather extensive. Only a few Chinese philologists
have attempted to make a comprehensive analysis
of his legacy. The work of the last period (1990 –
2001 years) and the non-fiction of the writer, as
well as the V. P. Astafiev’s works in the context of
the world literature are studied not deep enough
and extensively.
The study of translations of V. P. Astafiev’s
works into the Chinese language and analysis
of his work in China gives grace material for a
researcher, enabling a deeper understanding of
the author and identifying the points of agreement
of not such similar, but close in spirit cultures.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Valentina V. Nikitenko. Works of V.P. Astafiev in China
References
I.S. Alekseeva, Introduction into Theory of Translation, (St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State
University; Moscow: Academy Publishing Center, 2004).
S. A. Agapova, L. G. Samotik, Creating the image of interethnic communication partner by
means of literary text translation (Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 1999) [The youth and Russia’s road to stable
development. Abstracts of Republican Conference School], 108-110.
V. P. Astafiev, Zatesi (Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 1990) [From the author: A foreword to publication of
Zatesi book in China, Krasnoyarsky Rabochy newspaper], p. 12.
V.S. Vinogradov, Translation: General and Lexical Problems, (Moscow: KDU, 2006).
G.D. Voskoboinik, “On One Type of Cognitive Dissonance in Translation Discourse”, [Vestnik of
Irkutsk State Linguistic University (Herald of ISLU)], 7 (2006), 18-29.
Chen Shuxian, Chinese sing the “Ode to Russian garden” (Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 2006) [Vecherny
Krasnoyarsk newspaper, no. 38], p. 5.
Chen Shuxian, Art features of lyrical and philosophical miniatures of Astafiev “Zatesi”
(Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 2005) [Collected materials of the First International Scientific Conference
devoted to works of Astafiev: Phenomenon of Astafiev in the socio-cultural and literary life of the late
XX century, Krasnoyarsk State University], 43-50.
A.V. Fedorov, Introduction into General Theory of Translation (linguistic problems), (St.
Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University; Moscow: Filologia Tri, 2002).
Fu Xuan, New Russian literature in China (Moscow, Russia, 2001, no. 2) 72-74 .
Liu Xinglong,“The Tzar Fish” recreates the image of modern village:http://www.gmw.cn/
CONTENT/node_4236.htm (2005-09-01)
V. G. Rasputin, Chinese trap (From the Word to Chinese (and Russian) reader) (Irkutsk, Russia,
1996). http://www.filgrad.ru/texts/rasputin44.htm
A.L. Semenov, Basic Guidelines of General Theory of Translation, (Moscow: Peoples Friendship
University of Russia, 2005).
13. Xu Yongping, the Chinese translator, “I want that as many as possible of our children would
learn about Russia”, russian.xinhuanet.com
14. N. Yashkova, The phenomenon of Astafiev (Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 2004) [“Astafiev’s reading”,
the International Scientific Conference], p. 8
Yu Yizhong, Siberian sun had set (Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 2007) [Krasnoyarsky Rabochy
newspaper], p. 5.
R. Yakobson, “On Linguistic Aspects of Translation” (Moscow, Russia, 1978) [Problems in theory
of translation in foreign linguistics] 16-24
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Valentina V. Nikitenko. Works of V.P. Astafiev in China
Произведения В.П. Астафьева в Китае
В.В. Никитенко
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82a
Статья посвящена анализу изучения и переводов русской литературы в Китае. В статье
рассматриваются основные этапы изучения русской литературы в Китае от истоков до
наших дней. Особое внимание уделено творчеству сибирского писателя В. П. Астафьева в
современной китайской переводной литературе. В качестве примера анализируются работы
китайских исследователей творчества В. П. Астафьева.
Ключевые слова: русская литература, художественный перевод, китайский язык, Культурная
революция, политика «реформы и открытости», «Китайская ловушка», произведения
В. П. Астафьева.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 380-385
~~~
УДК 130.3 + 175
Youth Event Tourism as Existential Experience
of Creative Idleness
Vadim E. Petrov*
Novgorod State University named after Yaroslav the Wise
Antonovo, Velikyi Novgorod, 173014 Russia 1
Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011
One of the topics analyzed in this article is the modern practice of youth event tourism in the context of
its dependence on the mechanisms of social integration of the included individuals and the peculiarities
of underlying existantional and siciocultural experience which is formed by means of such practices.
Keywords: youth event tourism, idleness, idle experience; existential experience, deprivation; youth
community
Point
The characteristic feature of different
modern practices of the social communication is
demonstratively anticonsumer character, which
sometimes borders with pure escapism. First of
all it is connected with the sharp crises of the
«consumer society» and various sociocultural
deformations of modern civilization. Today we
may see the formation of the new type of thinking
and social models of the modern guidelines- post
materialistic and post economic (Inozemtsev,
1998). An important aspect of such process is selforganization and transformation of individual self
aspiration into the structured advocacy groups,
which helps the participants of such practices
not only to create communities, develop fullfledged cooperation and communication inside
the group, but also to translate the strategies
and the experience, attracting more and more
newcomers. This new for post modern society
practices of social interaction are connected
*
1
with technological mechanisms of acquiring new
and specific existential experience, favoring the
self-actualization and overcoming of the social
estrangement. Among such practices it is worth
marking out the intensively developing eventtrigger tourism.
The complex of new specific kinds of
tourism which is connected with the set of
«event-trigger» forms of tourist structurization
of individual and collective leisure and travel
acts as a modern kind of creative idleness of
an active part of a society, especially the youth.
Under the word «event-trigger» tourism which is
now the most perspective trend of development of
tourist business, we mean the purposeful travel
not simply with fact-finding, recreational or
business problems, but, also, visiting and active
participation in this or that considerable cultural,
entertaining, sports or other action (“event”).
As a rule, such events, which are capable to
attract attention and interest of young men from
Corresponding author E-mail address: e-mail: pve8@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 380 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vadim E. Petrov. Youth Event Tourism as Existential Experience of Creative Idleness
the most remote regions and the countries, are
as valid large international cultural actions (rock
festivals, raves, concerts of variety executors of
the first size, historical festivals), as the unique
events which may be found only in a given “place”
(a solar eclipse which can be seen only in certain
district; the Brazilian and Venetian carnivals;
various national and ethno-holidays etc.). For
the sake of participation in such celebratory and
idle events many young (and not so) people are
ready to endow everything – money, time, career,
family relations, obtaining frequently invaluable
the worthless experience, especially unique in
the conditions of the globalized and standardised
daily world of an epoch of a postmodern. It is
remarkable that ыгср experience is not only
new knowledge, but, first of all, individually
endured corporally new sensual sensations,
positive emotions, participation in other social
spaces. Traditions of hippie culture which have
drawn the rituals and artifacts from the most
various ethnic and geographical spaces also are
easily seen in these practices. It is necessary to
search for historical and sociocultural sources of
youth and event-trigger tourism as specific public
phenomenon ,in our opinion, in post-war 50-60th
of the XX-th century when basic needs of citizens
of the developed western countries have been
already satisfied by mass conveyor manufacture.
At the same time, existential and spiritual
aspirations of many people, and especially the
first generation which have born after II World
war of youth, have been focused on search of new
impressions and formation of new ethical values.
The boom of socially-protest moods (bit and
hippie-culture, anti-war and antinuclear social
movements, “student’s” and “sexual” revolutions,
actions of civil disobedience, etc.) has been in
many respects connected with utopian attempt
of radical transformation of a society and human
nature towards a practical embodiment of
humanistic values and multicultural ideas. It is
possible to say that during this historical period,
perhaps, first in social history ideals of narrow
layers of intellectual elite became a part of
thinking of wide public layers. It was promoted to
mostly by a way of life and specific social activity
of the first hippies who have safely opened new
geographical and cultural horizons for the
contemporaries. Even the well-known philosopher
Bertran Russell, the active participant and the
leader of the international anti-war movement,
saw the decision of a problem of aggression of
society as in the change of an education system
and education of citizens (it based on the deep
confidence that the aspiration to wars is not
inherent in human nature, and grows out of
traditions and, first of all wrong education), and
in creation of wide opportunities for satisfaction
of natural aspiration of the person to adventures.
“It is necessary, that everyone had a possibility to
climb mountains, without spending a large sum
of money, or to go on the Northern or to the South
Pole “, – the scientist (Russell, 1961, p.43) wrote.
Bertran Russell one of the first intellectuals of
Europe has proclaimed that the importance of
satisfaction of existential requirements of the
person, formation of personal socially-spiritual
experience by means of tourism and the travel,
carrying the idle character.
It is important to notice that, going in «eventtrigger» travel, the tourists in practice combine
all components of tourism and rest – culturalinformative, rekreatsionno-improving, probably,
business activity. Visiting a new country or a
region for examining or participation in the
certain event, the traveler has a possibility to
do the most standard procedures– surveys of
museums, historical or natural monuments
,acquaintance to culture of the given district,
dialogue and an having long (business or friendly)
communications with new people and, at last,
overcoming the personal and social alienation
which inevitably arises in usual, an everyday life.
# 381 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vadim E. Petrov. Youth Event Tourism as Existential Experience of Creative Idleness
Thus, idle leisure, which is based on the eventtrigger tourism, promotes personal, cultural
and social growth of the person, destruction
institutional and topological social stereotypes.
Example
As a good example of the idea that bears the
youth event tourism and at the same time bright
idle and holiday action, it is possible to result the
extremely unusual show-festival «Burning Man».
It is the annual creative action that lasts for many
days. The event takes place in huge territory in
Desert of the Black Rock in state of Nevada, the
USA. This is a great action in which there are no
spectators, but participants. The festival starts in
the end of August – the beginning of September
and it declares absence of any set objective of
the carrying out. Organizers define festival as
an experiment on creation of the community of
radical self-expression and radical self-reliance.
The main feature and the basic content of the
action is the huge and alive exhibition of enormous
installations and technical achievements of
vanguard art. Not everyone could become the
participant of the action. Only courageous artists
and vanguard bohemia, whose primary goal is
to shock traditional conservative values, could
attend this event. Free customs and practically
uncontrollable conditions attract thousands of
people, some of them young by body and others
by soul.
Here for a week «freaks of all colours» such
as inventors of crazy cars, designers, whose main
credo is shocking, the masters of installations,
admirers of body art and many other things find
there a shelter . The culmination of festival and the
reason for its name is ignition of a huge wooden
statue of the person two days before the end of the
action. There is still no consensus of what does
it symbolize, or at the same time the reasons for
its ignition, except for reception of aesthetic and
emotional pleasure from this process.
Unlike other great actions, the given festival
has a non-profit character. Any commerce is
forbidden there (even products and souvenirs),
all necessary things and products are brought
by participants independently, and there is no
advertising, and all expenses on its carrying
out are compensated due to entrance tickets
(not really cheap). Just because of their high
price, inaccessibility of place of the festival, its
closeness for usual visitors-observers and a lot of
other reasons, it is difficult to reach the event, so
a made up problem in fact makes it look “elite”,
even there is still a visible large number of
participants. there are no specially invited 'stars'
and celebrities, but in crowd it is possible to meet
everybody – from usual managers, party-goers
or hippie, up to representatives of international
business-elites and other known public persons
who, however, try not to be caught by mass-media
at this unusual ecstatic and mad performance.
Ethics of festival assume realization of a
principle «do not leave a trace» – after carrying
out of a holiday all results of human activity
(garbage, elements of scenery, structures and
the equipment, etc.) is completely taken out back
to city by participants that shows a valid and
responsible position, a moral and social maturity
of community of visitors of The Burning Man.
The ecological component of the given action
also is shown in prohibition of the use of motor
transport in territory of the festival except for
special «freak-cars» and the bicycles or own
legs.
The atmosphere of creative infinity,
inexhaustibility of possibilities of human
imagination and thinking, absurdity of occurring
and general joyful mixed with other kinds of fun
bring new intellectual and sensual experiences to
the participants of this event. It also makes and
approves other social reality in comparison with
'background' social experience. The individual
person, being dissolved in a similar idle collective
# 382 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vadim E. Petrov. Youth Event Tourism as Existential Experience of Creative Idleness
stream, loses nothing, does not become 'weight'
but receives a new impulse to spiritual and social
growth and perceives itself and accept others from
the great variety of outlooks. Therefore existential
and world outlook value such sociocultural
practices is multidimensional and invaluable.
Generally, event tourism is extremely
heterogeneous and cannot be a clearly defined
area or type of activities; In particular, in the
modern world such types of the event tourism in
could be displayed as the 'club' tourism, including
'rave-tourism'(this type is especially widespread).
'Club' tourism is a travel with the aim of visiting
popular clubs in other cities or specific parties
everywhere, as well as the idea of participating
raves or other cultural actions within the limits of
«club culture».
Raves as mass event, but with its underground
cultural characteristic are widely widespread
in the modern world, especially in European
countries (the Great Britain, Germany, Holland,
etc.) and some other regions of the world which
the western culture historically influenced. The
rave itself represents the mass dancing showfestival which takes place on large and more often
unusual platforms (from abandoned warehouses,
deserted places and fields to architectural
monuments – castles, forts, castles), and standard
stadiums, parks and city streets, for example,
«Love Parade» in cities of Germany and «Street
Parade» in capital of Switzerland (do not confuse
with the gay-parades!), within one or several
days, with neatly certain semantic concept and,
as a rule, without specific, official occasions. The
greatest propagation and popularity received such
raves, as «MAYDAY» (Germany), «GLOBAL
GATHERING» (Great Britain), «TRANCE
ENERGY» (Holland), etc., This greatly expands
the access of citizens and youth of different
countries to the largest cultural forums today, and
also promotes the development of domestic and
foreign tourism.
Another version of the club tourism «is a
purposeful journey to some night club (or a few
clubs) of a large club center. In particular, the
example of the famous New York club 1970-80ies. «Studio 54» at a party which sought to enter
the bohemian elite from around the world, or
the equally legendary British club Manchester
«Hacienda» (Garnier, 2005), which gathers the
best European clubbers and Party People, art
lovers and cultural avant-garde club fun travel on
«club capital «of the world – New York, London,
Amsterdam, Berlin, St. Petersburg, etc. Thus, in
recent years, the most popular among European
youth enjoy amateur «weekend tours in Berlin
clubs, have proliferated in the dissemination of
techno-culture (the current style of club music)
in the German capital, comfort and safety of
the city for recreation, and affordable Airlines
have provided an opportunity for the democratic
value and rapid time-travel in Europe (Rapp,
2009). In the summer club activity is moved to
the Spanish island of Ibiza resorts (where many
are concentrated capacious clubs) and Indian
Goa (with semi-legal cross-rave in the open air) –
the largest youth centers and recreation club,
which pioneered in the XX century were already
referred to us hippies.
At the post-Soviet space, not counting the
«club of the capital» of Russia – St. Petersburg,
where there are more than 200 clubs and held
throughout the year in Europe's largest rave
festivals (renowned for their size and playgrounds,
among which are many monuments of architecture
and culture), also emerged the largest centre for
club tourism – Youth Spa «Republic» KaZantip
«in Crimea, six weeks annual festival of electronic
music and a unique, unparalleled in the world of
informal youth centre, which annually within
a few weeks, visiting more than 100 thousand
people from around the world.
The main feature of the festival and rave
Resort KaZantip is a special social atmosphere
# 383 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vadim E. Petrov. Youth Event Tourism as Existential Experience of Creative Idleness
of goodwill, based on a variety of traditions
of mutual communication and festive social
practices, wearing a pointed non-consumptive
nature – daily meetings sunsets («Sunset»),
the procession of people in unusual costumes
with bright or creative images («freak
parade»), a public ceremony, informal wedding
(«Z-wedding»), etc. The main purpose of your
stay at this event is postulated to achieve the
state of «Schastya”, some special, unique to this
place socio-existential experience that is close
to the ideal of happiness, mental and emotional
harmony, but at the same time, and active social
activities.
Numerous reviews of visitors to the festival
in different years (as well as other similar events)
on the Internet demonstrate that the experience
gained it is extremely valuable and important
existential dimension to its members and helps
to better organize further personal development,
social and professional growth. The growing
popularity and relevance of such cultural practices
due to the existential and social importance of
property and broadcast it «production» of relevant
experience, the lack of which in everyday life
encourages an active part of society's interest in
the non-traditional ways of organizing work and
leisure.
Resume
Youth event tourism – the most typical
example of a modern event-driven travel in its
integral manifestation, because its implementation
is achieved multicultural cumulative effect (as
seen at the same time entertainment and cultural
events, the implementation of physical and
emotional relaxation, communication, including
new people, cultural and educational travel,
development of new geographical, social and
cultural spaces, etc.), which creates conditions
for the formation of an adduced individual multidisciplinary (perhaps even elitist) experience.
Paradoxically, the hiking event-idle practice
in today’s world do not lead to deprivation of
personality and do not destroy the social potency
of their adherents, and, moreover, contribute to
personal, social and spiritual growth of those
involved individuals and social groups, and
positively influence public perception of the world
where active translation of these values in life.
References
L. Garnier, Аn electroshock: Notes of the DJ (Moscow: FreeFly, 2005), in Russian.
V.L. Inozemtsev, Outside an economic society: postindustrial theories and posteconomic
tendencies in the modern world (Moscow: Academy – the Science, 1998), in Russian.
T. Rapp, Lost and Sound: Berlin, Techno and the Easyjetset (Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, 2009).
B. Russell, Bertrand Russell Speaks His Mind (London, 1961).
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Vadim E. Petrov. Youth Event Tourism as Existential Experience of Creative Idleness
Молодежный событийный туризм
как экзистенциальный опыт
творческой праздности
В.Е. Петров
Новгородский государственный университет
им. Ярослава Мудрого
Россия 173014, Великий Новгород, Антоново
В статье анализируются современные практики молодежного событийного туризма в
контексте их влияния на механизмы социальной интеграции включенных в них индивидов и
особенности формируемого посредством данных практик глубинного экзистенциального и
социокультурного опыта.
Ключевые слова: молодежный событийный туризм, праздность,
экзистенциальный опыт, депривация, молодежные сообщества.
праздный
опыт,
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 386-392
~~~
УДК 37.014
The Role of Electronic Library
in the Informatization of Modern Education
Olga G. Smolyaninova,
Larisa M. Turanova and Olga A. Pozhidaeva*
Siberian Federal University
82 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011
The role of electronic library in the informatization of modern education is presented in the article.
The results of research that have been carried out on the territory of Krasnoyarsk Territory concerning
Internet sources usage by students and teachers have been described. So have been the conditions of
access to the Global Network in schools of Krasnoyarsk Territory.
Keywords: electronic library, informatization of education, information resources, socio-educational
content.
Introduction
We consider informatization as a process
of large-scale info communications’ usage in
all spheres of socio-economic, political and
cultural life of society with a view to increase
the effectiveness of information and knowledge
usage in order to manage, satisfy information
needs of people, organizations and state, and
create prerequisites of Russia’s transition to
Information Society(Gould and Gomez, 2010).
Informatization process involves a high-level
delivery support of information resources,
infrastructure development and the system of
information gathering, formation, dissemination,
usage and regulation of public relations
occurring there. Educational informatization
appears as a system of interrelated purposeful,
organizational and methodical events connected
with information means, technologies and
*
1
culture penetration into all levels and parts of
educational system (such as teaching, upbringing,
supplementary education management, etc.).
Thus regarding the tasks of electronic library
development under the conditions of educational
informatization technical availability and
people’s information electronic resources needs
arise substantial.
Research prerequisites
The technical requirements of the Internet
access support in educational institutions’ of
Krasnoyarsk Territory have been provided
within the framework of Federal goal-oriented
program “Development of uniform educational
information environment for 2001-2005”,
national project “Education”, Pilot project
“Informatization of educational system”, in
which Krasnoyarsk Territory took part. As
Corresponding author E-mail address: opozhidaeva@sfu-kras.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 386 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga G. Smolyaninova, Larisa M. Turanova… The Role of Electronic Library in the Informatization of Modern Education
a result of the work within the bounds of
mentioned projects in every territory region
a necessary technical base for the adoption of
modern educational and teaching technologies
has been formed, all schools for better or worse
have been connected to the Internet (Griffi n,
1999). Meanwhile, the results of the survey
among teachers, administrative workers of
educational institutions, students of several
Krasnoyarsk Territory regions conducted within
the framework of the project “Socio-educational
content of SFU electronic library for human
capital development in Krasnoyarsk Territory:
conception and realization technologies” let
us draw a conclusion that remote areas of the
Territory are considerably limited in the access
to the Internet sources; these are the areas of
Far North, population places, situated at the
distance of more than 200km from regional
centres. In most cases the minimal speed of the
Internet connection at educational institutions is
128 Kb/s with the use of such technologies as
xSDL, Wi-Fi, WiMAX and what is more, with
satellite link in the places where it is highly
needed. Modem connection is more often used,
although in the remote from the regional centre
areas satellite dish links are used. The method
of net connection is determined according to the
facilities of a concrete educational institution –
wired (over the telephone circuit), wireless and
satellite methods. In spite of different technical
requirements and impartial characteristics of
Global network connection both teachers and
students from all territorial groups mention
their dissatisfaction with the stability and speed
of the Internet connection, though, objectively
the Internet connection in the north areas (the
town of Kodinsk) is indeed beneath all criticism
and it is very temperature-sensitive, while in
the other under-test groups’ territories there are
rather appropriate technical requirements that
allow to download video at acceptable speed.
Example
The teachers’ and students’ access depends
on a chosen plan. In Kodinsk, for instance,
educational institutions are confined to the limit
(six thousand roubles for web traffic payment
are allocated to the school a year whereas a real
need is measured as 4.5thousand roubles per
month). In case of unlimited Internet connection
in most educational institutions teachers and
students have at their disposal free access to the
Internet resources. In half cases students’ access
to web sources is carried out under teacher’s
supervision, but at extracurricular time their
access is not restricted to subject resources.
Mostly the access of teachers and student to web
resources at educational institutions is organized
in a Computer Sciences classroom, in single
instances there is an access to the Internet in the
library or specially made media classroom.
Facilities of people’s information needs
satisfaction directly depend on both technical
requirements of the access to electronic web
resources and the level of users’ information
culture maturity.
Research results
Questionnaire survey has shown that teachers
actively use educational web sources, the obvious
champions of the most popular resources among
teachers are social network websites, and some of
them are “Open class”, “Internet government of
teachers”, “Creative teachers network” and many
others. More than 30 % of teachers point out the
website of electronic encyclopedia Wikipedia and
the website of Federal Institute of Pedagogical
Instrumentation (www.fipi.ru), educationalmethodical resources, that have been mentioned,
indicate some spread in preferable sources. The
website of the united digital educational resources
collection enjoys considerable popularity among
teachers from the rural educational institutions,
so do the website of publishing house “1st
# 387 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga G. Smolyaninova, Larisa M. Turanova… The Role of Electronic Library in the Informatization of Modern Education
September” and the website of Krasnoyarsk
Territory Ministry of Education. Apparently
teachers are familiar to electronic libraries in
a less degree, in the answers to questionnaire
on electronic libraries different encyclopedia,
particularly encyclopedia by Cyril and Methodius,
Wikipedia and electronic dictionaries have been
often mentioned. The greatest teachers’ interest is
caused by methodical resources, actual scientific
research materials carried out in psychologicalpedagogical and subject areas, materials for the
supplementary education and, first of all, the
programs of supplementary courses designed
according the latest regulations.
Students’ distribution in time spent on the
Internet illustrates the Internet usage activity
among students of educational institutions (Fig. 1).
In the majority of country schools respondents are
divided into approximately equal parts (30 % for
each) in the following groups: those who spent on
the Internet one or two hours, more than 4 hours,
less than an hour or they just don’t have Internet
access, however, at the expense of city schools
participants, first of all Krasnoyarsk schools, the
percentage of the respondents using the Internet
actively has substantially increased so that among
140 participants involved into the research only
23 % spend on the Internet less than an hour a day
or don’t have it, 53 % spend there approximately
more than two hours a day. There is also a separate
part of respondents which consists of vocational
schools students the vast majority of whom don’t
have Internet sources access or have no need in it.
Doubtless leader of the resources used by students
most of all has occurred the website “V kontakte”
(“In the contact”). It was named by more than
40 % of respondents. Portals which have search
engines particularly www.mail.ru, www.yandex.
ru, www.google.ru were often mentioned (about
20 % of students name them), online communities
websites are rather popular with students
(“Moi mir”, “Odnoklassniki”) (“My world”,
”Classmates”). So do the website www.ege24.
ru, the site of on-line encyclopedia “Wikipedia”,
www.youtube.ru, report websites, game and
music ones, sites with e-books, celebrities fan
clubs, sport websites and sites on private interests.
Reasons for the Internet attendance named by
the test people were the following: mail check,
on-line games playing, answers connected with
the Internet use for hometask preparation were
present in a less degree that can be explained by
the fact that the research was done in the summer
time when learning motivation is hardly present.
Survey participants have found hard to recall any
specific web sources for students and electronic
libraries.
A modern school has sufficient conditions
for providing a possibility of web resources
free access both for teachers and students.
However, some researches depict that electronic
libraries resources containing bibliographic
data, electronic journals, e-books, regulatory
and legislative information and study materials
are not sufficiently used that influences a level
of the youth information competence. On the
assumption of modern researches conclusions
information competence of a person is not directly
dependent on the “consumed” resources and time
spent on the Internet usage. A level of information
competence maturity can be determined with the
help of the following indicators:
• skill of orientation in the world information
environment;
• to search necessary web resources;
• to work with authentic information
resources and extract necessary data;
• to implement a revision of the findings
and based on it to produce knowledge.
Besides, it is considered that a person
must have practical skills of the work with new
information communication forms and data and
information distribution. Realizing the education
and personal and collective literacy development
# 388 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga G. Smolyaninova, Larisa M. Turanova… The Role of Electronic Library in the Informatization of Modern Education
Fig. 1. Amount of time spent by the research participants on the Internet a day
purposefully, the education system contributes a
creation of the information sphere that is necessary
for society and includes socio-economic, political,
cultural, scientific and educational components.
Nowadays the amount of available Internet
web resources is rising daily and there are
diverse ways of information distribution and web
sources access supply. Being a powerful cultural
information resource electronic library provides
an educational potential, promotes broadening
of the Internet user group boundaries and
traditional information sources complement. It is
expected that students’ information competence
will be formed provided that the activity with
electronic library authentic resources is specially
organized.
The development of a regional important
electronic library with a scientific, educational
and cultural content may become a task of
federal university that is being a natural leader
of scientific work in the region, in the long view
electronic library development is to influence the
speed and depth of the regional socio-economic
development.
Modern electronic library is socially
focused on new forms of virtual interaction.
Basic principles of activities in the network
are its openness and availability for different
user categories and, what is more, a possibility
to use the up-to-date media technologies at
information resources making. Today the
electronic library space is build up not only and
not so much for books but for the information
work that assumes up-to-date equipment and
software availability and comfortable physical
environment. A new model of the Electronic
library that is extensively discussed in Russian
educational space calls for an adequate
response to modern and forthcoming demands
of information society.
The survey about needs in resources of SFU
Electronic Library (SFU EL) let us find out test
people’s preferences which are presented at Fig. 2
and 3. Such resources as scientific, consultative,
exhibition, informative enjoy the greatest
popularity among teachers and administrators
and as for students they are: cribs, advisory
resources, ways of communication with teachers
and supplementary courses.
Wishes on the content of school section of
the SFU EL include the following: additional
information on subjects, tasks of academic
# 389 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga G. Smolyaninova, Larisa M. Turanova… The Role of Electronic Library in the Informatization of Modern Education
Fig. 2. Preferences of teachers taking part in the research in terms of resource kinds for the future electronic
library of SFU
Fig. 3. Preferences of students taking part in the research in terms of resource kinds for the future electronic
library of SFU
competition format, methodical novelties, USE
tasks analysis, and materials on preparation for the
university entering, digital textbooks. Teachers
have suggested that the following resources are
to be included in the SFU EL:
• resources just on the subject
• library of methodical and normative
materials, especially there is a great
interest to such materials on supplementary
education system,
# 390 #
• students research works and their results’
discussion,
• academic competition tasks analysis,
• collected papers on the results of scientific
conferences,
• guidance and recommendations on
students’ scientific project design,
• teachers’ works of authorship that passed
reviewing and competitive selection (as
part of regional and city competitions),
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga G. Smolyaninova, Larisa M. Turanova… The Role of Electronic Library in the Informatization of Modern Education
• lively and game resources for different
educational levels and subjects.
Students proposed to include the following
resources in the content of SFU EL:
• entertainments,
• reports and papers,
• on-line communication with teachers
aimed at discussion of the literary
writings.
Focus-group representatives of the research
have mentioned that the most actual necessity
for the SFU Electronic library is to engage such
resources as audio, video and flash and have
stressed that it is highly required to enlarge
communication facilities of educational space
participants in Krasnoyarsk Territory. At the
same time they greatly emphasize the problem of
interaction with SFU as an organization disposing
powerful technical and scientific bases, site of
breeding gifted children and talented teachers
and furthermore administration and scientificmethodical maintenance for school teachers’
qualifying evaluation. Despite great numbers
of websites designed for the educational system
some problems are still mentioned:
• shortage of made structured, cataloged
annotated information and methodical
support
of
educational
process
(digital educational materials, specific
programs);
• lack of unified criteria and requirements
for necessary documents and digital
educational resources and for teachers’
qualified documentation.
Conclusion
Within the framework of focus groups
of pedagogical community representatives
timeliness of SFU EL and its content designing
for students and teachers have been noted. In
the context of high significance of the factor that
teachers access to the Internet and electronic
libraries resources turns out to be rather difficult
the question of teachers interaction with SFU EL
has gained special importance – only this way
of communication provides maximum potential
of the suggested communicative-educational
service increase. Overwhelming majority of
teachers would rather see interactive resources
and scientific ones as educational content of SFU
EL (Fig. 2). So we can say that scientific potential
of SFU EL for human potential development and
interaction is fully situated in the organizationcommunication sphere, as far as teachers mention
their total interest in development of relationships
with the higher school and only face a lack of such
scientific-methodical network environment in
SFU EL practice of our country and in the foreign
one too. Besides interaction with SFU EL from
the viewpoint of digital educational resources
involvement the question of information exchange
between two successive elements of educational
system (school and university) appears to be of
great importance. In this context the interaction
of EL with students and parents (in terms
of allocation of the information on potential
clients) and with teachers for the purpose of
mutual information exchange is believed to have
prospects.
SFU Electronic Library development is
connected with forming of digital educational
resources fund in the field of scientific and
educational programs and support of all
categories of users availability and maintenance
of the interest in electronic library funds at the
expense of the activity organized around the
electronic library in the network of communities
with diverse orientations (Smolyaninova and
Ryzhkova, 2010). Electronic library is an
integrated system that includes a support system
and a fi rmware complex which maintains the
stable work of the search engine and provide an
opportunity of EL funds stocking, registration
and long-term storage, multiaspect search and
# 391 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Olga G. Smolyaninova, Larisa M. Turanova… The Role of Electronic Library in the Informatization of Modern Education
an access to the centralized and distributed
EL resources. EL development will result in
the rise of educational and research activity
effectiveness owing to the efficient usage of
digital educational resources for solving of SFU
foreground tasks.
References
Gould, Elizabeth and Ricardo Gomez (2010) “New Challenges for Libraries in the Information
Age: a Comparative Study of ICT in Public Libraries in 25 Countries”, Information Development, 2010
26: 166
Griffin S. (1999) Digital Libraries Initiative. Phase II, Russian Digital Libraries Journal. Vol. 2,
Issue 3. Retrieved from http://www.elbib//1998/199801/nsf/nsf.ru.html
Smolyaninova O.G. and Ryzhkova T.N. (2010) “Social Aspects of an Academic Digital Library:
New Initiative of Siberian Federal University” Journal of Siberian Federal University 2010. Vol. 3(5).
P.805-809.
Translated by Maria Tepereva
Электронная библиотека
в условиях информатизации образования
О.Г. Смолянинова,
Л.М. Туранова, О.А. Пожидаева
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82
В статье будет представлена роль электронной библиотеки в процессе информатизации
современного образования. Описаны результаты проведенного исследования на территории
Красноярского края относительно использования ресурсов сети Интернет школьниками и
учителями. Также описаны условия доступа к глобальной сети в школах Красноярского края.
Ключевые слова: электронная библиотека, информатизация образования, информационные
ресурсы, социально-образовательный контент.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 393-399
~~~
УДК 39.572
The Technique of Virtual
Archaeological Reconstructions on the Example
of a Medieval Fort in the Yenisei Taiga
Artem A. Smolin* and Pavel V. Mandryka
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011
The article discusses the basic principles of virtual reconstruction in archaeological research. The
introduction states that the virtual reconstruction is an important and popular resource for research,
as well as a means of preserving and maintaining the cultural heritage.
Materials and methods section considers an example of the virtual reconstruction of the fort
Lesosibirsk-1 drawn under the grant of Institute of Humanities at Siberian Federal University.
General method for the virtual reconstruction of archaeological research is explained through the
reconstruction of a particular architectural object.
Keywords: history, archeology, ethnography, virtual reconstruction, heritage and culture.
Introduction
The need for virtual reconstructions of
already destroyed, as well as or partly destroyed
monuments, various artifacts, historical events,
etc. appeared once UNESCO adopted the
Convention Concerning the Protection of World
Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1972.
Following one of the definitions, a virtual
reconstruction is the reconstruction of historical
and archaeological objects or processes, with
the use of various computer technologies and
software.
Virtual reconstruction has become popular
for at least two important reasons:
1. Cultural heritage objects trapped in zones
of modern economic development (construction
of hydropower station, mining, etc.) are needed to
*
1
be virtually reconstructed in order to preserve the
“historic memory” of the culture of a destroyed
region.
2. The ability to use virtual reconstructions
for research purposes, as well as for various
educational resources.
One of the most striking examples of the
virtual reconstruction is Google Earth allowing
not only to see three-dimensional architectural
monuments, but in some cases, chronologically
trace the development of a cultural heritage site
(Fig. 1).
Materials and methods
A serious research project carrying out
a virtual reconstruction of an object or event
is not possible without a multidisciplinary
Corresponding author E-mail address: artikus@inbox.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 393 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Artem A. Smolin and Pavel V. Mandryka. The Technique of Virtual Archaeological Reconstructions on the Example…
Fig. 1. Reconstruction pharaons’ tombs at Karnak. University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
approach. Depending on the current project
creators team includes academicians, architects,
IT-specialists, artists, specialists in PR, actors,
etc.
The cooperation of the Department
«Information technologies in creative and
cultural industries» and laboratories of
archeology, ethnography and history of Siberia at
Siberian Federal University resulted in creation
of the virtual reconstruction of the medieval fort
Lesosobirskoe-1 located on the riversides of the
Yenisei.
Artifacts of archaeological excavations
at the Krasnoyarsk Territory in 1998-2002
make up the base of source materials for the
reconstruction.
Hillfort Lesosibirsk-1 is located on the 16meter right-bank terrace of the Yenisei river
near Lesosibirsk city. This cape-shaped terrace
smoothly declines to 1-meter height to the north,
on the west the terrace faces the Yenisei river, and
on the east side it goes down into the ravine of
dried stream.
An dirt road goes over the terrace. 8.2 km
to the north is village Gorodishche, 3.2 km to
the south is village Rudikovka. A part of the
monument was destroyed during the construction
of the road, as well as through the collection of
floating wood.
The hillfort was discovered in 1998 and being
studied with two excavations during 3 years.
Total square of them was 390 m2. Inside part and
defensive constructions consisted of three lines of
half-ring safety fortifications were investigated.
Found on the excavations iron melting furnaces,
fragments of ceramic with comb ornament,
iron loopy knives and other implements allow
referring the hillfort to culture of autochthonic
population who had lived at the beginning of the
2nd millennium AD (Mandryka, 2003).
Hillfort Lesosibirsk-1 was constructed by
the following algorithm:
1. Deforestation and stubbing of the
area. Trunks of the trees were used for building,
and branches and stumps were burned. The total
area amounted to the area of the future village,
# 394 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Artem A. Smolin and Pavel V. Mandryka. The Technique of Virtual Archaeological Reconstructions on the Example…
a)
b)
c)
Fig. 2. Reconstruction of an authentic area of the right bank of the Yenisei: a) the topographical plan of the
monument; b) The Mask c) three-dimensional model of the landscape
1840 square meters, and additional space,
calculated for the flight of the arrow from the
outer turn of the fortifications.
2. Creating a semiring protective moat
adjacent to the steep slope of the Yenisei
terrace. Blade from the moat was put on the
inner side of the platform, thereby heightening
it. Isthmuses were made in moats for the future
passes in the defensive wall. Simultaneously,
residential area was being built.
3. Construction of the first (internal) system
of fortifications. Each line of defense was
equipped with a with log wall, which is proved by
concentrations of charcoal and the remains of burnt
wood in the moans found during excavations. Log
wall were formed from the horizontal logs laid
down in vertical columns. The distance of each
bay ranged from 1.6 to 1.8 m.
4. Construction of the second (middle)
system of fortifications. The average line of
fortifications was held parallel to the inner, three
meters away from it.
5. Construction of the third (external) system
of fortifications. The outer boundary had the
lowest height of the log walls.
The Virtual reconstruction of the
archaeological object required use of twodimensional (Adobe Photoshop) and threedimensional (3D Studio Max) graphics image
editing programs.
Two-dimensional graphics editors were
used for creation and texture processing, as well
as for subsequent processing of the images (post
processing).
To create the territory on which the fort
located, as well as for modeling of various objects
three-dimensional image editors were used.
The first step of creation of the virtual
reconstruction of the fort Lesosibirsk-1 was
the simulation of the authentic territory where
archaeological excavations were carried out.
There are at least two ways to create threedimensional model of the necessary territory.
The first method is a polygonal modeling
or use of specialized software such as Autodesk
MapGuide, etc.
The second way is to use a special mask,
which is a bitmap image in grayscale, and with
which, there is a “bumping” of the territory on
the plane.
# 395 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Artem A. Smolin and Pavel V. Mandryka. The Technique of Virtual Archaeological Reconstructions on the Example…
Fig. 3. Virtual reconstruction of the fort, a shot from an educational video
Since the results of this reconstruction will
be used in educational activities, we had to create
the territory of the right bank of the Yenisei river
using the second method, which gives acceptable
results for the final image.
Using the topographic plan of the monument
fort Lesosibirsk-1 (Fig. 2, a) in a mask was
created in Adobe Photoshop editor (Fig. 2, b),
use of this mask in three-dimensional graphics
editor allowed to “bump” the require territory
(Fig. 2, c).
After that appropriate textures and landscape
elements were added: the texture of land, water
surface, the model trees and bushes.
The final result of the virtual reconstruction
is the sequence of images demonstrating the
algorithm of construction of fortifications of
Lesosibirsk-1.
In addition to the sequence of images a
three-minute educational video in which guest
actor tells about the construction process was
created by (Fig. 3).
Besides, some of the artifacts found during
excavations were modeled.
The originals inhabitants living in
this area were the keepers of traditions of
comb pottery making. Thanks to use of the
technology of three-dimensional «skulping»
the original shape of the object with the
appropriate ornamentation was recreated
(Fig. 4).
One of the objects found was the remains of
a loopy knife. A loopy knife and a leather sheath
was reconstruction virtually (Fig. 5).
The algorithm for constructing dwellings (a
tent (of skins or bark)) consisting of the following
stages was reconstructed (Fig. 6):
1. Fixing carrying poles;
2. Creating main frame;
3. The construction of the hearth;
4. Imposition of birch bark cover;
5. Fixing of the coating.
Using the experience gained we put forward
the main stages in the virtual reconstruction of an
archaeological research:
1. Analysis of materials from excavation:
artifacts, topographic maps, etc. followed by the
simulation.
# 396 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Fig. 4. Reconstruction of pottery with a “comb”
ornament
Fig. 6. Reconstruction of the building plague
Fig. 5. Reconstruction of loopy knife
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Artem A. Smolin and Pavel V. Mandryka. The Technique of Virtual Archaeological Reconstructions on the Example…
2. Creating a model of the landscape in
which the excavations were carried out using
various technologies:
2.1. Polygonal modeling in various graphic
editors, based on available data;
2.2. Using specialized equipment to
obtain a more accurate model: ground-based
laser scanning, digital photogrammetric
survey, etc.
3. Creating a two- or three-dimensional
virtual reconstruction of scientific research and
educational aspects.
Conclusions
For the results of scientific research accuracy
and reliability are of high importance, while
educational resources require high image quality
aimed at attracting as many Internet users as
possible.
In spite of an offered method, any
virtual reconstruction of historical and
archaeological research is a particular case
requiring from designers new approaches,
methods and different outcomes depending
on the goal.
References
P.M. Shulgin. Historical and cultural heritage as a special resource in the region and the factor of
its social and economic development / P.M. Shulgin // World Russia. – June 7, 2004.
P.V. Mandryka. Report on the results of archaeological studies around the city Lesosibirsk
Krasnoyarsk Territory in 1998 / P.V. Mandryka / archive LA FAS, FA-1, RM-1, Inventory – 1, № 21. –
106 liters. (36 pages + 70 tab.)
P.V. Mandryka The medieval fort in the Yenisei taiga / P.V. Mandryka Vestnik NGU.Series:
History, Philology. – T. 2. – Vol. 3: Archaeology and Ethnography. – Novosibirsk, 2003. – P. 89-91.
E.A. Svalova. On the question of cultural affiliation settlement Lesosibirsk-1 / E.A.Svalova //
The heritage of ancient and traditional cultures of North and Central Asia. – Volume 2. – Novosibirsk,
2000. – P. 44-46.
A.A. Smolin. Application of 3D-imaging studies in the humanities / M.V. Rumyantsev, and
A.V. Usachev. // Newsletter of the Association of History and the computer. № 35. Proceedings of XI
Conference of AIC. December 2008 – Moscow, Barnaul: Azbuka, 2008. – P. 72-74.
Методика виртуальных реконструкций
в археологии на примере
средневекового городища в Енисейской тайге
А.А. Смолин, П.В.Мандрыка
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В данной статье рассмотрены основные принципы виртуальной реконструкции в
археологических исследованиях. Во введении приводятся доводы в пользу того, что виртуальная
реконструкция является важным и востребованным ресурсом в научных исследованиях, а так
же как средство по сохранению и актуализации культурного наследия.В разделе материалы
и методы рассматривается пример виртуальной реконструкции городища Лесосибирское-1
# 398 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Artem A. Smolin and Pavel V. Mandryka. The Technique of Virtual Archaeological Reconstructions on the Example…
в рамках грантовой деятельности Гуманитарного института Сибирского федерального
университета. На примере реконструкции конкретного архитектурного объекта приводится
общая методика виртуальных реконструкций в археологических исследованиях.
Ключевые слова: история, археология, этнография, виртуальная реконструкция, наследие,
культура.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 400-409
~~~
УДК 378.147:7.071.3(075.8)
An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training
and Assessments Abroad
Natalia U. Fadeeva*
Siberian Federal University,
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyask, 660041 Russia 1
Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011
The issues considered in this article are related to assessment in translators and interpreters training.
Traditional tests in translators and interpreters education are found to be indirect, incomplete,
imprecise and subjective. The shift to constructivism in education introduced the idea of «assessment
for learning». A descriptive analysis of the developments in the assessments used at the Graduate School
of Translation and Interpretation of the Monterey Institute of International Studies, California, reveals
a tendency towards a more learner-centered education environment. The Y- track curriculum model,
well-balanced formative, summative and ipsative assessments at different study periods, examination
procedures, and introduction of alternative forms of assessment are the evidence of an ongoing
process. The inclusion of alternative forms of assessment (such as a portfolio) can add depth and
range to assessment regimes and foster the learner’s participation in the education process, ensuring
the development of self-assessment skills that contribute towards a student’s life-long learning.
Keywords: assessment, quality assurance, curriculum development, interpreter and translator
training, alternative forms of assessment, testing, examinations, portfolio.
Point
According to C. Wyatt-Smith and J.
Cumming the introduction of a fundamentally
new model of assessment is inevitable. «The
traditional ‘rites of passage’ of school-leaving
and university entrance examinations, degree
finals and professional qualifications are likely to
be gradually replaced by the ability to accumulate
credit at different times and levels. Individuals
will be able to study for credit in different
settings such as school, college, university or
work, at different times–pre-work, during work
and post-work, during retirement and through
different means such as e-tests and work-based
*
1
assessment as well as through more traditional
performance assessments. The credits obtained
will accumulate into a personal portfolio–a
record of achievement that provides a unique and
self-managed narrative on each individual’s lifelong learning» (Wyatt-Smith et al., 2009:ix).
The methods of translation and interpretation
instruction, as a relatively young, independent
academic discipline, have been actively
developed in recent years (Alekseeva, 2003;
Ieronova, 2006; Prozorova, 2006; Budarina,
2007; Anfimova, 2008; Ieronova, 2008;
Khomutova, 2008). Although it has received
growing attention as a research area, the quality
Corresponding author E-mail address: fadeevan2001@inbox.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 400 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia U. Fadeeva. An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad
assurance in interpreter and translator training
is understudied in comparison to other branches
of translation and interpretation research. One of
the most understudied issues is the assessment
of translation and interpretation training, despite
the fact that the role and purpose of assessment
and testing in the broader educational context is
an area of increasing interest (Muratova, 2006).
«Assessment plays a key role in the educational
system» according to Martinez Melis and
Hurtado Albir. Melis and Albir consider it is
necessary to:
1. Research the current situation of
assessment in translation teaching
2. Catalogue the existing bibliography
3. Develop a database of current assessment
practices in curricula translator training centers
(e.g. tests, assessment criteria, programs, etc.)
4. Carry out surveys amongst teachers
and students in order to know their views on
assessment (in J. Del Rio, 2005).
Example
A valuable contribution to the field was
made by D. Sawyer (2004), who investigated two
fundamental aspects of interpreter education:
curriculum and assessment in the Graduate
School of Translation and Interpretation (GSTI)
of the Monterey Institute of International
Studies, California. Current trends show two
broad research directions based on the purpose
of assessment: «assessment of learning» (not
contributing to the students’ learning) and
«assessment for learning» (having ‘learning’
as a goal). The latter came into use in the late
1980s and early 1990s and can be described as
«the process of seeking and interpreting evidence
for use by learners and their teachers to identify
where the learners are in their learning, where they
need to go and how best to get there» (Gardner
2006, p. 3). This article presents a descriptive
analysis of assessment practices in translators
and interpreters training, particularly with
regard to the aspect of «assessment for learning».
«Changes in the nature of work, globalization,
the information revolution and the increasingly
social nature of contemporary challenges also
suggest different priorities for education systems.
These will in turn require different priorities
for assessment practices. By contrast with the
pursuit of maximum accuracy in educational
measurement, which largely defined the 20thcentury approach to examinations, testing and
assessment, the agenda for assessment in the 21st
century shows signs of a growing preoccupation
with ‘fitness for purpose’ and impact on learning».
(Wyatt-Smith et al., 2009, vii).
The overarching purpose of professional
training is «to produce interpreters who are
able to work immediately and reliably on the
market» (Sawyer, 2004, p. 56). Due to the lack
of government control over higher education
institutions in the USA, the educators apply the
recognized standards of professional associations
as the basis for their own standards of education
and development. «Evaluation will remain a
problematic issue for as long as internal criteria
(‘accomplishment of learning aims’) fail to
connect with diversified professional practice. In
many countries professional certification is quite
independent from educational degrees, a situation
that might suggest the degrees are not trusted by
employer groups» (Pym, 2009). This link between
professional and educational spheres ensures a
flexible approach to the development of the GSTI
professional program, thus adequately reflecting
the current situation on the market.
The curriculum documents of the GSTI
consist of a school-wide promotional brochure
and a website (http://www.miis.edu/). Much
information about studying is left unspecified
and there is no clear statement about the goals of
the educational program in terms of observable
performance in tasks, the breadth and depth
# 401 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia U. Fadeeva. An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad
of subject matter knowledge or the nature of
interpretation and translation as skills. The
sequences of courses in specific degree paths is
clearly described in the curriculum documents
and in the map of the typical route that a
Translation and Interpretation student might take
at the Institute. However, there is no indication of
workload in terms of credits, hours, or required
commitment. For example, The Master of Arts
in Translation and Interpretation (MATI) degree
is described at the site as a dual specialization
in both translation and interpretation, including
a summary of the advantages of studying
complementary skill such as these and a statement
on the popularity of the degree.
The curriculum documents do not meet the
transparency criterion – «requirements to an
information system, such as reflecting priorities,
accessibility and effectiveness, and correlation
between aims and major directions» (Vcherashnij,
2009) – for all stakeholders.
The complete picture emerges only after
meticulous examination of the individual
course descriptions. This is clearly not ideal,
as it could hinder the learner’s participation in
the interactive process of the development of
professional competencies. «Essential features of
social constructivist educational experiences will
include authentic practice in actual professional
activities, a collaborative learning environment
including not only interaction among students
but also the extensive involvement of the
students in every aspect of the teaching/learning
process, including syllabus and curriculum
design, task selection, subtask identification
and assessment of their own performance and
learning, as well as program effectiveness»
(Kiraly, 2000). This shift in the traditional focus
of authority, responsibility and control away
from the teacher towards the learner causes a
new type of student – perhaps more motivated,
more responsible for decisions, and therefore
ultimately more responsible for the quality of
their progress.
The consequences of such a lack of
information are found in the analysis of
assessment data. Research on student perceptions
of the Qualifying Exams (which students must
pass at the end of the first year to enter the
GSTI’s second-year curriculum) indicated three
main factors contributing to student anxiety:
uncertainties about grading criteria; a lack of
stress management skills; uneasiness about
testing conditions (Sawyer, 2004, p. 177). The
jury survey also showed evident fluctuation in
professional judgment throughout assessment.
There was a lack of conformity with regard to jury
conduct, the administration of exam procedures
and the presence of external examiners. Criteria
for assessment and scoring were also not highly
explicit or highly consistent among jury members
or language programs, thus undermining their
validity and reliability (Sawyer, 2004, pp. 184-189).
Though the summative assessment procedures
were analyzed in a definite educational context,
its conceptual insight is obvious. The public
access to details of curriculum and assessment
is necessary as a prerequisite for the level of
educational quality provided the institution.
The course of study is subject to modifications
that meet the learner’s individual needs. Firstly,
this is achieved by Y- track curriculum model.
Most professional knowledge is taught and
applied in the second year courses, while fi rst
year courses are universal – irrespective of
the chosen degree. This provides the students
with the opportunity to reconsider their chosen
career, and also to develop necessary skills and
professional qualities. The GSTI offers three
degrees in the applied language arts, all of which
last two years: a Master of Arts in Translation
and Interpretation (MATI); a Master of Arts
in Translation (MAT); a Master of Arts in
Conference Interpretation (MACI). In the fi rst
# 402 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia U. Fadeeva. An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad
semester, professional knowledge is handled
exclusively in language-specific courses. An
introduction to the theory of translation is given
in lectures in the second semester. Therefore,
the amount of time spent on written as opposed
to oral translation skills during the fi rst year
of study is roughly equivalent. In addition, a
seven weeks elective is offered across the all of
the language courses during the fi rst semester
of study. This elective includes memory and
active listening exercises in addition to a general
introduction to note-taking skill. At the end
of the fi rst year, students are required to take
Qualifying Examinations in their language
combination and disciplines in order to prove
their readiness to move onto the second year of
study in their selected degree track.
Analysis of examination results shows that
MACI students do not always perform better in
the GSTI interpretation exams than students who
study both translation and interpretation. This can
be explained by two reasons. Firstly, the MATI
provides job skills that are highly marketable in the
language industry and some students may select
this degree track even though they show great
promise for conference interpretation. Secondly,
the simultaneous development of translation and
interpretation skills reciprocally enhances the
development professional competencies, proven
by the final assessment outcomes.
There are also two more ways to modify
the curriculum according to students needs.
Advanced-entry students must meet all general
admission requirements, pass the Qualifying
Examinations in their degree, and hold a degree
from a recognized school of translation and
interpretation or provide evidence of significant
professional experience (in which case students
generally study for one year). Some students may
also extend their program over a three-year period
by spending a year abroad after completion of
their second semester.
The role of assessment types and purposes
at different stages of the GSTI curriculum makes
the relationship between curriculum, assessment,
and learning outcomes explicit. According
to the purpose of assessment, three areas are
distinguished:
1. Formative assessment aims at giving
feedback on the teaching/learning process and
takes place during the course of teaching.
2. Summative
assessment
provides
qualitative information on students’ achievements
and instruction effectiveness.
3. Ipsative assessment is an ongoing
reflection upon the learning process of the
students, including the evaluation of current
performance against previous performance,
as well as against the performance of others.
Ideally, ipsative assessment should continue
throughout the professional career of the student.
A determining factor in the training context
is the degree to which ipsative assessment is
purposefully integrated into the curriculum,
thus allowing the student to fully benefit from
self-assessment opportunities to enhance his/her
learning. (Sawyer, 2004, p. 107).
The examinations and other forms
of assessment (the terms ‘assessment’ and
‘test’/‘testing’ are used interchangeably by
D. Sawyer) are closely related to curriculum
objectives. Student performance must be assessed
appropriately, meaningfully and usefully at all
stages of the curriculum. In most programs (apart
from ongoing formative testing in individual
courses) three areas of testing are apparent:
(1) entry-level aptitude or, more appropriately,
diagnostic testing for selection purposes; (2)
intermediate, formative testing for entry into
or confirmation of the selected degree track; (3)
final, summative testing for the purpose of degree
or certificate conferral (Sawyer, 2004, p. 109).
Entry-level assessment in the GSTI falls
into two categories: off-campus testing, often in
# 403 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia U. Fadeeva. An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad
the form of a written translation, essay or préciswriting task as part of an application package
completed at home by the candidate; and oncampus testing, a form of in situ testing through
a series of oral interviews and written translation
tasks. The early diagnostic test during the fi rst
(and sometimes second) semester of study
consists of written and oral portions, which
include essay-writing, translation, and précis
writing exercises as well as pronunciation,
extemporaneous speech, abstract thinking, and
self-assessment tasks.
Intermediate testing has the purpose of
assessing whether the candidate has the potential
to continue and successfully complete the degree
program. It is in this regard that intermediate
testing is both formative and summative –
formative in that feedback is given on a
student’s work, thus guiding decision-making
for continuation in the degree program, and
summative in that learners demonstrate baseline
competence on specific occasions.
Final assessment is aimed at determining
whether the candidate is ready to enter the
profession. Summative assessment at the end of a
course or program provides essential information
on the effectiveness of the instruction. «When the
majority of the students do poorly on an assessment,
it may be the fault of the students but the difficulty
is more likely to be found in the instruction. The
teacher may be striving for learning outcomes
that are unattainable by the students, may be
using inappropriate materials, or may be using
ineffective methods for bringing about the desired
changes» (Gronlund, 1998, p. 11).
The final testing as a high-stake exam
is of crucial importance for the graduates’
life careers, as well as the reputation of the
educational institution. Highly reliable and valid
exam procedures and unambiguous assessment
and scoring criteria should be a matter of great
concern for the educators.
Traditional testing in translators and
interpreters education cannot be considered an
objective endeavor, considering that they have
the following negative aspects (Bachman, 1990):
1. Tests are indirect as they measure the
test taker’s performance on a particular occasion
rather than his underlying competence.
2. Tests are incomplete. The choice of
topic and terminology is limited in scope, as the
test can constitute only one sample and «the
performance we observe and measure . . . is a
sample of an individual’s total performance.»
(Bachman, 1990, p. 33).
3. Ratings are imprecise. «In measuring
language abilities, where we are not dealing
with direct physical comparison, the units
of measurement scales must be defined, and
precision, or reliability, becomes, in part, a
function of how we define these units» (Bachman,
1990, p. 35).
4. Tests are subjective. Developers make
subjective decisions when designing tests and
selecting materials; test takers make subjective
judgments in taking tests, and scorers make
subjective decisions in scoring them (Bachman,
1990, p. 37).
5. Tests are relative. There are «‘norms’ of
performance» for example a «kind of language
use» defined by variety, dialect, and register, as
well as a «standard for score interpretation . . . in
terms of levels of language abilities» (Bachman,
1990, pp. 38-40). It remains a matter of discussion,
however, whether norms in interpreter testing
have been precisely defined.
The Professional Examinations in the
GSTI are a series of comprehensive, summative
assessment instruments administered after the
fourth semester of study. There are two exam
sessions per year: May and August. Students
must pass all sections of the Professional Exams
(example, Table 1) to be eligible for graduation
(Sawyer, 2004, p. 159). As can be seen from the
# 404 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia U. Fadeeva. An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad
Table 1. GSTI’s Professional Examinations for MATI
Translation
B into A
2 exams, one general and
one technical text; each
600 words in two hours
(600 words in three
hours
for oriental languages)
Consecutive interpretation
A into B
2 exams, one general
and
one technical text; each
500 words in two hours
(500 words in three hours
for oriental languages)
table the examination process is labor, time and
effort-consuming for the students as well as the
juries (one party should produce and another
assess 14 texts).
Juries consist of a minimum of three
instructors in the relevant language combination,
as well as external jury members. The
examinations are scored on a pass-fail basis using
an ordinal scale with four levels:
90–100 high pass (Should be awarded
only occasionally to exceptionally qualified
candidates),
75–89 pass (Should be considered the norm
for passing candidates),
70–74 borderline fail (Should be awarded
to candidates who stand a good chance of passing
a retake in August),
0–70 fail (The student should be urged either
to take an additional year to work on language
deficiencies or to consider another career.).
The scale can be found in the Faculty
Handbook and Guidelines for Exam Jurors. The
passing grade (75) represents comparatively high
requirements.
Having done an objective and thorough
analysis of existing GSTI assessment procedures,
D. Sawyer concluded that they were unsuccessful
and unreliable, suggesting nine steps for
improving their examination procedures:
1. Conduct a ‘needs’ analysis by relating
examinations to curriculum objectives
B into A
1 general and 1
technical
speech,
5 minutes each
A into B
1 general and
1 technical
speech,
5 minutes each
Simultaneous
interpretation
B into A
1 general speech
without
and 1 technical
speech
with text,
10 minutes each
and other forms of assessment, e.g., entrylevel, intermediate, and fi nal testing, as
well as summative, formative, and ipsative
assessment.
2. Document exam procedures currently
in place, including a description of the testing
procedures, the collection and filing of all test
materials, (i.e. examination texts – videotapes
of source speeches and student performances,
recordings of jury deliberations etc.), and the
resulting scores.
3 Review test methods (e.g. the aspects of
environment, test rubric, input, and response)
specific to interpretation and the needs of the
training program. Write test specifications.
4. Develop a representative pool of exam
texts from real-world sources for faculty and
student reference and conduct an analysis of text
features grounded in linguistics. This process
should result in descriptions of prototypical exam
texts that are empirically validated.
5. Collect representative performances for
faculty and student reference, as well as rater
training, e.g., videotapes of exam sessions and
documentation of the corresponding assessment.
6. Define constructs for assessment according
to domain, criteria, and standards, as well as level
of expertise.
7. Define assessment criteria for each of these
constructs. Criteria should be elaborated in terms
of observable performance and include a clear
# 405 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia U. Fadeeva. An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad
description of the performance characteristics on
each level of assessment (score).
8. Train raters (jury members) in exam
design, jury procedures, and the systematic
application of assessment criteria.
9. Explore alternative methods of assessment,
e.g., portfolio, and benefits of their use in the
program of instruction. (Sawyer, 2004, p. 128).
The inclusion of alternative forms of
assessment can add depth and range to systems
of assessment, as well as fostering the active
learner’s participation in the education process.
An alternative assessment «is any method that
differs from conventional paper-and-pencil
tests, most particularly objective tests», which
includes «authentic assessment, performancebased assessment, portfolios, exhibitions,
demonstrations, journals, and other forms of
assessment that required the active construction
of meaning rather than the passive regurgitation
of isolated facts» (McMillan, 1997, p. 199).
According to McMillan’s defi nition, traditional
testing in translation and interpretation can
be considered an alternative assessment form
(though not a perfect one), as a translation
or interpretation student’s main activity is to
construct new meanings. Another form – the
20,000 word translation thesis required of MATI
students until 1996 – seems to overcome some
of the limitations of traditional testing (group
translations, requiring project management
skills and including terminological and editing
coordination, are also possible, although
this requirement was dropped due to course
overload). This form of assessment shows
considerable advantages compared to traditional
testing, as a result of its learner-oriented nature:
the text was of the student’s choice (though of
course subject to approval by the thesis adviser)
as was the time, place and intensity of the
translation work. Moreover, the student was
provided with an opportunity to demonstrate
a broad set of professional skills. Teamwork
is an essential aspect of both translating and
interpreting (interpersonal, intercultural, and
networking skills are an integral part of a
translator or interpreter’s training) and this form
of assessment allowed the student to more easily
demonstrate competence in such an area.
One more example of an alternative form
is a model that represents an integration of
academic study and project work connected
with the translation and interpretation of reallife orders (Mikhailova, 2009). Developed by
The Faculty of Translators and Interpreters of
the International Higher School of Practical
Psychology in Latvia it was incorporated into
the curriculum. The results of the long-term
studies have demonstrated the necessity of
such real-life integration in the instruction
both in class and in students’ independent work
(Lebedeva, 2008), providing the development
of «respective skills, i.e. languages and cultures
knowledge, text analysis, use of various tools,
and active translation skills, which also include
working in teams, working at big projects,
keeping to certain deadlines» (Ch. Nord,
2009).
The portfolio idea has a long history and is
developed now through the sphere of translation
and interpretation training. D. Sawyer shows
how portfolio assessment can complement
the traditional one-chance interpreter testing.
The collection and organization of a student’s
work is a similar process to that of gathering
‘evidence’ on performance quality. Students
play an active role in the process of selecting
their work, therefore aiding self-reflection and
analysis. Such a system gathers a much greater
range and depth of sample performances and also
facilitates both process and product-oriented
assessment, thus combining all three forms of
testing – ipsative, formative and summative.
«A translation portfolio may be defi ned as a
# 406 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia U. Fadeeva. An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad
systematic collection of students’ translations
or reports of tasks to represent a variety of
students’ achievements in the translation course
over a specified period of time. It may include
the students’ actual products, a statement of
why each translation is included and the criteria
used in evaluating them. It is not a random, but
systematic, collection of students’ products in
that the student’s products are related to major
instructional goals.» (Li, 2006).
According to D. Sawyer, the integration
of alternative forms of assessment into the
curriculum requires the substantial revision
of existing courses, as well as several years
for their implementation and a reduction in
the number of examinations. Without such a
reduction, it is highly unlikely that such labor
and time-intensive forms of assessment can
be successfully implemented, as in general
higher education faculties already work at peak
capacity. Nevertheless, F. Federici suggests a
combination of assessments, supported by a
bespoke form of formative feedback as a timeeffective solution for tutors. «The feedback
sheet familiarizes students with assessment
criteria and professional practice, thus fulfilling
the expectations for an alignment of teaching
and learning outcomes in a professional
perspective…» (Federici, 2007). R. S. Glukhikh
and O. G. Smolyaninova (2009) developed an
electronic portfolio method that «is motivated to
personal achievements presentation, collecting
different artifacts in electronic form, which
could be catalogued and sorted for analysis» and
suggest three ways of portfolio assessment: by
quantitative measure, by qualitative measure, by
expert opinion (Glukhikh et al., 2009).
Resume
Using a portfolio will ensure a practice
of self-reflection and self-assessment among
students, eventually contributing to the life-long
development of the student’s skills. Freihoff
advocates an approach to instruction in which
students learn to analyze their own performance
and compare their individual progress to the
specific goals of the program. He regards selfdiagnosis and self-correction in a foreign
language as particularly important, as students
rarely have constant access to instructors
and native speakers and must therefore learn
to judge the quality of their performance
independently (Freihoff, 1993, p. 210). The need
for improvement in the assessment of interpreter
and translator programs emerges from the
existing and future challenges that currently
face the Russian education system. It is therefore
only by observing, analyzing and learning from
the experience of well-established programs
around the world that the development of a
successful national quality assurance system in
such a sphere can be nurtured and achieved.
References
I. S. Alekseeva, Professional Training of Translators-Interpreters, (St. Petersburg, 2003), in
Russian.
L. A. Anfimova, «Challenge and Potential of the Competence Approach Development in
Translators and Interpreters Training», Bulletin of South Federal University. Pedagogy studies, 2
(2008), 128-136, in Russian.
L. Bachman, Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1990).
A. O. Budarina, «Development of Individual Professional Experience in Interpreter Training»,
Bulletin of Russian State University named after I. Kant, 2 (2007), 21-28, in Russian.
# 407 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia U. Fadeeva. An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad
L. Darling-Hammond, J. Snyder, «Curriculum studies and the traditions of inquiry: The scientific
tradition», Handbook of Research on Curriculum: A Project of the American Educational Research
Association, ed. by P. W. Jackson, (New York: Macmillan, 1992), 41–78.
J. Del Rio, Training for Interpreters and Translators in Australia: Summary of Research Report
(Monash University November 2005) http://arts.monash.edu.au/translation-interpreting/pgrad/
research-reports-del-rio.pdf.
R. Freihoff, Überlegungen zur Curriculumplanung und -entwicklung im Bereich der Translation.
(TextconText, 8, 1993), 197–224.
F. M. Federici, «An Experiment into Combined Approaches to Translation Assessment and
Feedback» in The Interpreter and Translator Trainer (Newcastle University Conference On Interpreter
and Translator Training and Assessment (NUCITTA), Abstracts, September 2007), http://www.ncl.
ac.uk/sml/2007conference/documents/NUCITTAConferenceAbstracts.pdf.
J. Gardner, Assessment and Learning, ed. by J. Gardner (SACE Publications 2006).
R. S. Glukhikh, O. G. Smolyaninova, University Teacher Professional Development and
Assessment on the Basis of E-portfolio Method (Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities &
Social Sciences, 4 2009), http://elib.sfu-kras.ru/bitstream/2311/1129/1/16_Smolyanikova.pdf.
N. Gronlund, Assessment of Student Achievement (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998).
I. U. Ieronova, «The Conceptual Ideas in Training of Translators-Interpreters for Intercultural
Mediation», Bulletin of Russian State University named after I. Kant, 4 (2008), 65-69, in Russian.
I. U. Ieronova, «Professional Training of the Students (Future Interpreters) in Higher Educational
Institutions», Bulletin of Russian State University named after I. Kant, 5 (2006), 62-66, in Russian.
T. N. Khomutova, «Two Level System of Education and Translation Training», Bulletin of SouthUral State University. Linguistics series, 1 (2008), 66-70, in Russian.
D. Kiraly, A Social Constructivist Approach to Translator Education: Empowerment from Theory
to Practice (Manchester: St. Jerome. 2000).
M. V. Lebedeva, «Interlanguage and Intercultural Communication as Indispensable Parts
of Translators Training» Bulletin of Vyatka State Humanitarian University, 3 (2008), 110-112, in
Russian.
H. Li, Cultivating Translator Competence: Teaching & Testing Translation Journal 2006 http://
accurapid.com/journal/37testing.htm.
McMillan, H. James, Classroom Assessment: Principles and Practice for Effective Instruction
(Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1997).
S. Mikhailova, «Project Work and Its Integration into the Curricula of Teaching Professional
Translators and Interpreters», Bulletin published in Nizhni Novgorod Linguistic University named
after N.A. Dobrolubov, 4 (2009), 144-150, in Russian.
I. A. Muratova, «The Contents and the Format of the Certification Examination of Court
Interpreters», Bulletin of Moscow State University, 19 Linguistics and Cross-cultural Communication
Series, 3 (2006), 157-171, in Russian.
Ch. Nord, «Jack of All Trades, Master of None?», Bulletin of Nizhni Novgorod Linguistic University
named after N.A. Dobrolubov, 4 (2009), 114-121.
M. I. Prozorova, « The Didactic Means for Developing Students’ Professional Skills», Bulletin of
Russian State University named after I. Kant, 2 (2006), 36-41, in Russian.
# 408 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalia U. Fadeeva. An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad
A. Pym, Translator training (Pre-print text written for the Oxford Companion to Translation
Studies 2009)
www.tinet.cat/~apym/on-line/training/2009_translator_training.pdf.
D. Sawyer, Fundamental Aspects of Interpreter Education: Curriculum and Assessment
(Benjamin’s Translation Library, V. 47, 2004).
P. M. Vcherashnij, Complex Evaluation of Efficiency and Quality of Educational Services: Current
Approaches (Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences, 4 2009), http://elib.
sfu-kras.ru/bitstream/2311/1441/1.
C. Wyatt-Smith, J. J. Cumming, Educational Assessment in the 21st Century Connecting Theory
and Practice, ed. by C. Wyatt-Smith J. Cumming, (Springer 2009).
Из зарубежного опыта оценивания
уровня подготовки переводчиков
Н.Ю. Фадеева
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82
Статья посвящена подготовке переводчиков и месту системы оценивания в программах
обучения переводчиков. Конструктивизм – популярная за рубежом философия в образовании –
привнес новый взгляд на оценивание как инструмент повышения качества процесса обучения.
На примере учебного плана и процедур оценивания, разработанных в Школе устного и
письменного перевода (г. Монтерей, Калифорния), раскрывается потенциал альтернативных
форм оценивания для формирования компетенций лингвиста-переводчика.
Ключевые слова: оценивание, оценка качества, программа обучения, подготовка переводчиков,
альтернативные формы оценивания, тестирование, экзамен, портфолио.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 410-425
~~~
УДК 330.15, 330.101.8
Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution
in the Transition Economies
of East Germany and Poland
Theocharis N. Grigoriadis*
Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy (ELIAMEP)
49 Vas. Sofias, Athens, 10676 Greece 1
Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011
This article analyzes the politicаl economy of energy restructuring in East Germany and Poland from
the perspective of social distribution. Its purpose is two-fold: on the one hand, it provides analytical
dichotomies between regulatory vs. procedural and horizontal vs. hierarchical restructuring to
explain the different paths in the liberal transformation of the energy industry in East Germany and
Poland. The substitution of a central and legitimate government by Treuhand in the East German
case as well as the central coordinating role of the government in the Polish case constitute the key
indicators for these conceptual distinctions. On the other hand, post-socialist energy firms are treated
as social distribution mechanisms, whose restructuring is defined by a public ownership minimum.
Contrary to Treuhand, which functioned as an institutional sponsor for an ethnically-driven transfer
of the East German energy sector to a set of subsidiaries of West German corporations, the Polish
Ministry of Privatization preferred to adopt the equity constraint rather than regulate its energy policy
preferences through the private sector. Private organizations or semi-legitimate public agencies
captured by corporate interests have no incentive to maintain the public ownership minimum as
the central government can. The existence of distributive energy firms implies distributive energy
bureaucracies; the preservation of a public ownership minimum rather than inter-elite privatization
contracts is a prerequisite for energy-driven distribution in post-socialism.
Keywords: energy, restructuring, privatization, social distribution, East Germany, Poland, Treuhand,
public ownership minimum.
Introduction
The Oder-Neiße borderline between the
German Democratic Republic and Poland did
not only signal Germany’s defeat in the Second
War and the end of Prussia as a formative
component of German political identity and
economic development;1 it also hallmarked highly
differentiated patterns of enterprise restructuring
in the transition period following the dissolution
*
1
of the USSR and led both communist economies
to divergent sets of industrial arrangements. The
purpose of this article is to unfold the economic and
institutional mechanisms that created divergent
corporate structures in the energy sectors of East
Germany and Poland; in its next stage, the article
treats these structures as fixed and analyzes their
role as social distribution mechanisms. Why the
energy sector? I contend that the increased role
Corresponding author E-mail address: theocharis.grigoriadis@gmail.com
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 410 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany…
of public interest in the continuity and diversity
of energy production combined with the crossnationally observed inclination of the socialist
and post-socialist state to exercise direct or
indirect control over their natural resources
justifies this choice. Furthermore, the significant
share of energy companies in the industrial
GDP of GDR and Poland as well as the social
cleavages rising in the aftermath of restructuring
implementation in both countries form the basis
for a second question;2 what were the distributive
effects of energy restructuring and how can
they be translated into the ex novo formation of
socio-economic strata in East German and Polish
societies?
There is a clear distinction between
restructuring and privatization. Restructuring
can occur before or after privatization,
but unlike privatization it does not touch
ownership relations inside an enterprise;3 the
latter can be either a State-Owned Enterprise
(SOE) or a private corporation. Hence,
corporate restructuring focuses on debt
reduction, attraction of state aid and foreign
direct investment, boost of labor productivity,
employment adjustment, reform of corporate
governance, increase of exports and profitability,
and new marketing strategies. Nevertheless,
the time differential between restructuring
and privatization can be so small that the
boundaries between these two phases in market
transition are uncertain.4 The East German and
Polish energy sectors pose interesting cases in
that direction, given their common state origins
and their distinct structural features. The
Polish energy sector has had a higher degree
of diversity in resources: oil, gas, electricity
and coal (lignite) have constituted the main
market fields, open to structural reform.5 On
the contrary, the East German energy sector
is determined by coal (lignite) and electricity
production, while natural gas has only had a
marginal role in domestic growth, as the GDR
never enjoyed natural gas reserves.6
This plurality in Polish energy resources
does not change the fact that Poland has been
one of the most coal-dependent countries in the
world (US Department of Energy Overview).
Coal dependence has been the main common
energy industry feature across the Oder-Neiße
borderline. However, what I observe in East
Germany and Poland is the distinction between
procedural and regulatory energy restructuring.
What I define as procedural restructuring is the
organizational reform of SOEs with the imminent
purpose of privatization. There is practically
no difference between the time point of
privatization and the time point of restructuring.
Moreover, the direct involvement of Treuhand
as the institutional intermediary between the
East German government and West German
energy corporations indicates a multiplicity of
actors that participated in the restructuring and
privatization process;7 thus, I can also argue for
a critical distinction between horizontal and
vertical (hierarchical) energy restructuring;
horizontal energy restructuring is linked to
the implementation of energy reform plans by
institutional coalitions that do not belong to the
same administrative or hierarchical line.
I define Polish energy restructuring as
regulatory and vertical (hierarchical).8 The
adjective regulatory refers to restructuring
implementation with the use of administrative
acts. Its purpose is not imminent privatization,
but the preservation of state control and the
maintenance of lower subsidized energy prices
for both social and electoral reasons. Hierarchical
restructuring is the top-down implementation of
organizational reform at the enterprise level. The
government alone is the common denominator
of all restructuring efforts; foreign investors and
international organizations are complementary
rather than central in the reform process. In
# 411 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany…
addition to these theoretical formulations, I argue
that the difference between shock therapy and
gradualism, which is observed in the East German
and Polish cases, is heavily influenced by the
factor of state sovereignty. East Germany’s energy
restructuring was designed as a consequence of
the abolition of the country’s sovereignty;9 in
Poland energy restructuring was connected to a
transition to a new form of government within
set geographical boundaries, but with diversified
economic foundations.
In the aftermath of these parallel reform
processes, the distributive role of companies
emerged in both countries is evaluated in terms
of employment, income, education, pensions, and
labor representation. More specifically, I intend
to analyze the impact of energy restructuring in
East Germany and Poland in terms of equality
rather than liberty. The underlying normative
principle of economic liberalization in Eastern
Europe is reversed; if the purpose of the state is
to advance individual liberties constrained by
social deliberations, then this article provides an
explanation that reverses the roles of liberty and
equality. Now equality is the objective principle
and liberty the constraint. Social distribution is
used as a proxy for equality to the same extent
that privatization is used as a proxy for liberty.
The article is organized as follows. In
Section 1, I propose an ideal type of industrial
restructuring and then I compare the politics
of energy restructuring in East Germany and
Poland based on my aforementioned distinctions.
In Section 2, I treat energy firms as social
distribution mechanisms through the lens of the
public ownership. Section 3 proposes a twodimensional map on the interaction between
energy restructuring and social distribution.
Moreover, it stresses the derived observation that
the existence of distributive energy firms in postsocialism implies the existence of distributive
energy bureaucracies. The treatment of energy as
a public rather than private good is critical in that
respect. Section 4 concludes.
I. Models of Industrial Transition
in former Eastern Germany
and Poland
To provide an effective analysis of energy
restructuring in East Germany and Poland I
propose an ideal type of industrial restructuring
in the period of transition from a communist to
a capitalist economy. The actors of my model
include the state, which is the owner of any given
enterprise and represents people’s interests,
institutional intermediaries that assist the state
in restructuring implementation such as banks,
independent agencies, international organizations
and private advisors. The organizational division
of the firm into smaller corporate units, which
become financially viable with state subsidies,
FDI and bank loans, is considered to be the first
step toward efficient restructuring.10 Furthermore,
the substitution of public managers with shortterm skilled personnel and preservation of the
government’s veto against to block any major
proposal presented in the board of directors
constitute the second step in the restructuring
process.
Profitability and therefore liquidity is the
key proxy used to evaluate the success of the
restructuring phase.11 Increased market value for
the firm is translated into higher state revenues,
increased job security for the currently employed
and sustainable economic growth. Export
growth, increased labor productivity, cash flow
as well as total factor productivity are treated as
functions of profitability; the term organizational
restructuring encompasses both what the
literature calls organizational and financial
restructuring.12 Privatization is regarded as the
final component of industrial transition, which is
an inclusive term that I use both for restructuring
and privatization. The institutional map of
# 412 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany…
privatization does not have the state as its main
point of reference, as is the case in restructuring.13
On the contrary, it entails a significant bargaining
role for entrepreneurs who are willing to acquire
governmental shares in state corporations.14 It
also includes supporting institutions, which can
be either financial (banks), international (World
Bank and IMF), or administrative (agencies)
with a broader and more independent statutory
mandate.15
Because the goal of privatization should be
a contract, where economic efficiency and social
justice meet, I argue that the government has to
preserve a package of vetoing minority shares
in the post-privatization period. This should be
particularly the case for sectors of reinforced
public interest such as energy, infrastructure,
and telecommunications.16 I treat this package
of shares as a public ownership minimum that
affects the management’s decisions about
employment relations, when both phases of
industrial transformation are over.17 My transition
theory of corporate governance necessitates an
alliance between the unions and the government.
The imposition of the public ownership minimum
protracts the privatization process and increases
the number of private contenders.18 Thus, the
bargaining position of the private investor is
restrained, but not to such an extent that he opts
to exit the transaction. In this approach minority
state ownership does not have a positive, but a
normative component (Meyer 2002: 269-274).19
The government does not care about maximizing
the value of its stocks, but its reelection. By
blocking decisions against labor interests, it
indirectly implements social policy.
This two-stage concept of industrial
transformation can be applied in the cases of
East German and Polish energy restructuring.
When the Berlin Wall fell, East Germany’s
energy industry consisted of the electrical
power industry and lignite (brown coal) mining
operations in Lusatia and Middle Germany.20 The
Electricity Treaty (Stromvertrag) signed among
the Treuhand – East Germany’s privatization
agency – the GDR government and seven West
German firms on August 22 of 1990 led to the
creation of the Unified Energy Plants as a jointstock corporation (Vereinte Energiewerke AG);
this company included the East German lignite
power plants, which had been already restructured
by the Treuhand for that purpose.21 Treuhand was
not as efficient in selling the lignite mines per se;
Middle German mining operations were finally
bought by PowerGen plc, Morrison Knudsen
Corporation and NRG Energy Inc., which
formed the Middle German Lignite Corporation
(MIBRAG BV).22 Nevertheless, it was able to
sell the Lusatia mines to a business consortium
formed by RWE AG and Viag/Veba (Lausitzer
Braunkohle AG).23 It is evident why the definitions
of procedural and horizontal restructuring
are useful to conceptualize the industrial
transformation of the East German energy sector.
Treuhand functions as a quasi GDR government,
whose mandate and legitimacy is derived from its
institutional linkage to West Germany’s political
and economic system.24 The immediate transition
from restructuring to privatization resulted in the
rapid generation of property rights; the source of
these property rights was not the East German
government, but the Treuhand.25 This was the
first time in the history of democratization and
industrial transformation that an administrative
agency was subjected to the laws of a foreign
country (West Germany) and then privatizes
the energy infrastructure of a country, despite
the obvious welfare spillovers that this series
of policies would impose on GDR’s populous
working class.
Communist economies are two or three
times more energy intensive than capitalist ones;
this feature is likely to endure in early transition
period.26 The economic report on East German
# 413 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany…
energy sector in 1990 confirms the belief that
this industry can form the basis for generalizable
research conclusions; while the energy sector
did not occupy a leading position in the share of
industrial employment, it reflected accurately the
changes in labor relations and employment during
the post-reunification period.27 The negative
slope of the East German energy intensity
curve between 1990 and 1994, which implies a
parallel decrease in both energy consumption and
production, shows Treuhand’s objective to fully
change the sectoral distribution of East German
industrial GDP.28 This strategic decision was not
supported with a sustainability plan for neither
power plants nor mining operations; on the
contrary, it linked them to the corporate interests
of West German multinationals without taking
into account the input from either East German
state governments or trade unions.29
The procedural and horizontal nature of
East German energy restructuring now becomes
evident.30 I argue that restructuring served
exclusively the interests of West German energy
oligopolies;31 not only did it increase energy
market concentration and therefore violated even
more antitrust law in the New Germany, but it also
facilitated an unprecedented bargaining between
energy multinationals and an administrative
agency for resources and infrastructure that
belonged to the people, whose legitimate
representative was certainly not the Treuhand.32
Energy restructuring in East Germany should be
seen as a seminal paradigm of an ethnically driven
FDI externalization and state capture. Although
West and East Germans belonged to the same
state (German Empire) before the Second War,
this does not serve as a justification for Bonn’s
raw economic intervention into a foreign state
entity.33 The distinction between vertical and
horizontal restructuring, which will be further
elaborated in the Polish case, does not refer to
the way that the old Kombinate were reorganized
or liquidated but to the matrix of institutional
players that participated in the unbundling
process. Treuhand’s failure to generate a surplus
between restructuring revenues and expenditures
undermined the infrastructural modernization
of the East German energy companies and had
an adverse effect on the overall competitiveness
of the German economy.34 Particularly in the
energy sector, the rapid transfer of privatization
costs from producers who bought underpriced
power plants and brown coal (lignite) mines to
consumers who had to pay higher prices and
many of them lose their energy industry jobs or
see their wages decrease constitutes the most
ample manifestation of Treuhand’s politically
conservative bias and pro-business orientation.35
I argue that in Poland the state remained the
main source of energy industry transformation
(hierarchical
and
regulatory).
Energy
restructuring was defined not only in terms of
privatization, but also in terms of energy law
reform, commercialization of energy enterprises,
energy pricing and policy-relevant issues for
each subsector.36 The World Bank’s seminal
proposal on Polish energy restructuring outlined
the reform steps that were actually implemented
in this sector; privatization of infrastructure was
designed and advanced under the regulatory
supervision of five different ministries. Pricing –
while still subsidized – was cost-reflective to
the best possible extent, and in many cases
state management was accountable to workers
councils.37 The Polish Oil and Gas Company
(PGNG) is the most important corporate actor
in the oil and gas sectors and was owned by the
state; nevertheless, Poland’s limited gas and broad
oil dependence on Russia render the politics of oil
and gas industry transformation less interesting.38
What matters most is electricity restructuring
and the regulation of the Upper Silesian lignite
mines that have been intertemporally accounting
for a major component of electricity production.39
# 414 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany…
The government maintained direct control over
PSE SA, the Polish National Grid, as well as over
the generation and distribution companies until
mid-1990s; only when the Energy Act entered
into force and adjustment to the European
acquis became a serious incentive for energy
restructuring, the state embarked on a partial
privatization of its energy assets.40
Polish transition to market economy is
considered to be a success story for shock therapy
privatization proponents. However, I suggest
that in energy restructuring rapid privatization
was certainly not the case. Unlike East German
restructuring where the boundaries between
restructuring and privatization are substantially
blurred, Polish energy industry was transformed
under the public ownership minimum that I
described in the beginning of this section; this
observation is also supported by the weakened
role of the Privatization Ministry and the
increased role of workers’ councils in enterprise
restructuring.41 Differentials in profit and time are
large enough to make a clear distinction between
restructuring and privatization; the latter stage
was largely concluded upon Polish accession to the
European Union. It is reasonable to hypothesize
that the government in Warsaw has been reluctant
in the public offerings of its energy assets. This
is in line with the results of its mass privatization
programs; their scope was not as wide as
initially expected and in sectors where extensive
privatization took place it was due to the impact
of foreign experts rather than administrative
pressures.42 Hence, energy restructuring is one
of these policy initiatives where the government
decided to defend its ownership shares; minority
state ownership in the energy sector was seen as a
method of offsetting the negative welfare effects
of employment decline.43 Contrary to Russian
privatization schemes, direct rather than indirect
bureaucratic intervention in the restructuring
and privatization of energy SOEs preserved a
minimum equality threshold in Poland necessary
for social solidarity.44
II. Energy Firms
as Distributive Mechanisms:
The Oder-Neiße Dichotomy
Social distribution is inherently connected
to the idea of the allocation of public resources by
the government.45 In this article, I do not intend
to limit my analysis to the political mechanics
of energy restructuring and privatization. I also
propose an analytical path that links the industrial
transformation of energy assets to equity; it is
assumed that restructuring and privatization
as a two-stage process provides the firm with
a series of property assets that are taxable by
the government. In that respect, I suggest that
the public ownership minimum determines the
distributive power of the firm both toward its
employees and the citizens. I contend that the
same set of incentives that prevent the government
from fully privatizing the energy sector is also
valid for the explanation of energy firms as social
distribution mechanisms; thus, state ownership,
unemployment benefits and taxation may be
considered as forms of social insurance that
bridge corporate restructuring with inequality
alleviation.46 When transition to market economy
occurs, the government is not likely to treat the
energy sector as a first priority privatization area,
because this would radically increase energy
prices, inflation and unemployment rates; this
it would bolster an evolving social crisis that no
government wants to face. Energy restructuring
and privatization may be seen as a more powerful
but indirect way of social distribution; firms that
receive less subsidies and pay more in social
services and compensation for their employees
are “rewarded” with lower taxes and vice versa.
The existence of the public ownership
minimum defines my understanding of energy
firms as social distribution mechanisms in the post-
# 415 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany…
communist context of East Germany and Poland.
I argue that in the former German Democratic
Republic distributive energy restructuring
did not occur due to biased and unilaterally
inspired macroeconomic and political planning.
Minimization of state ownership over electricity
markets and coal operations, dramatic increase of
the East-West unemployment differential without
taking proper policy measures and the conclusion
of industry- rather firm- or employee-centered
collective wage contracts indicate what the
Treuhand’s finite regulatory objective was: the
political and resource expropriation of the East
German energy sector rather than the preservation
of social stability with the maintenance of a
public ownership minimum, which is a sine
qua non component of positive distributive
dynamics in the energy sector.47 Lignite industry
production and employment data in the 1990s
amplify a radical decrease in energy significance
for East Germany, which becomes broader as the
time distance from 1990 increases; the lignite
employment/lignite production ratio also becomes
exponentially smaller.48 Schleiniger has argued
that the exemption of energy-intensive export
sector from environmental-friendly taxation can
increase energy use because energy-intensive
commodities are cheaper and therefore substitute
for labor-intensive commodities;49 taxation of
energy companies does not distribute per capita
income for the benefit of lower-class people,
unless it discourages producers from shifting
the additional cost of taxation to consumers
without the provision of any additional public
goods or social services. The goal of a tripartite
social contract becomes critical here; because
antagonistic relations among capital, labor and
the government are constrained by minority state
ownership and the public interest component of
energy business, the establishment of a social
contract can only occur under conditions of
stringent labor and corporate tax regulation with
direct or indirect distributive effects. I contend
that the energy sector is the main industry
from which the distributive intentions of any
government can be clearly inferred.50
The maintenance of powerful regulatory
mechanisms in the Polish energy sector
prevented the adjustment of energy prices to
efficient levels; it is shown that although rich
people make a much more extensive use of
electrical power, any price increase in residential
electricity is much more likely to hurt workers,
pensioners, self-employed people and social
transfers recipients, whose energy expenditure
occupies a relatively large share of their total
expenditure basket.51 I argue that the prospect
for upward mobility (POUM) motivates lowerand middle-income citizens to support the
public ownership minimum in the energy sector
given the limited price elasticity (in comparison
with mature market economies) and the strong
income elasticity of energy consumption.52 The
Polish Ministry of Privatization chose to sell
state-owned energy enterprises only if it was
able to substantially support the state budget;
thus, complete corporate restructuring has
been treated as a prerequisite of privatization
due to the distributive considerations of the
government.53 More specifically, the energy
administration in Warsaw opted for negative
rather than positive distribution by continuing
to subsidize electricity prices while maintaining
variable but significant control over domestic
energy fi rms.54
III. Analytical Framework
The arguments presented above lead to the
following propositions:
1. Propositions
P1: The public ownership minimum rather
than full privatization guarantees the survival
of energy firms and the maintenance of social
peace.
# 416 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany…
P2: Hierarchical rather than horizontal
energy restructuring leads to socially distributive
subsidies and prices.
P3: Procedural rather than regulatory
energy restructuring is likely to benefit producers
at the expense of consumers.
P4: Institutional and political legitimacy of
the regulatory authority are prerequisites for
effective energy restructuring.
2. Corollaries
C1: The Treuhand was the institutional
sponsor for an ethnically-driven transfer of the
East German energy sector to a set of subsidiaries
of West German corporations.
C2: The Polish Ministry of Privatization
preferred to adopt the public ownership minimum
rather than regulate its energy policy preferences
through the private sector.
Moene and Wallerstein argue that higher
degrees of inequality do not automatically
generate support for social spending in the
form of publicly fi nanced insurance; this is the
case only when public distribution is targeted
toward lower-income people that already have
a job rather than to unemployed people or
pensioners.55 To provide a primary analytical
design on the interaction between energy
restructuring and social distribution, I suggest
a two-by-two matrix (Matrix 1) where energy
restructuring forms the fi rst axis of analysis
and sectoral workforce constitutes the second
axis of analysis. I classify energy restructuring
into two categories according to its sequential
timing with respect to privatization; a high
value is assigned when privatization follows
restructuring, whereas a low value is assigned
when privatization precedes restructuring.
Sectoral workforce is evaluated on the basis
of its vocational training; the government can
restructure its own energy assets considering
the welfare of either high- or low-skilled energy
workers.
According to matrix 1, when energy
restructuring benefits the interests of highskilled workforce and energy privatization
follows restructuring, then social mobility is
likely (High, High); hierarchical restructuring
makes the government in charge of the industrial
transformation process. Under the condition
that the government is in control of energy
restructuring and sectoral transition rents are used
to improve the status of high-skilled workers, then
social mobility is expected; the public provision of
a resource-based insurance to the qualified middle
class generates sufficient levels of occupational
mobility. In the lower left entry of the matrix (Low,
High) the government supports its low-skilled
workforce; due to their limited skills in the phase
anteceding restructuring, they can only use public
insurance in a non-positive way, i.e. to reduce their
unemployment risk, but not to find a more qualified
job. That is why labor peace is achieved.
In the upper right entry (High, Low) I
combine procedural restructuring with the
interests of high-skilled workers; the immediate
transfer of state-owned energy assets to private
investors reduces the volume of energy rents
that the government can distribute. Hence, highskilled employees are incentivized to change
their occupational status; however, this change is
constrained by the limited quantity of the public
insurance provided. This is why it is more likely
to observe horizontal (intersectoral) rather than
vertical labor transfers. The lower right entry
(Low, Low) implies limited public insurance
for low-skilled workers; socially disruptive
unemployment is the expected policy outcome,
because the latter are not any more protected by
the public ownership minimum.
Distributive energy firms imply the
existence of distributive energy bureaucracies;
since the fall of centrally planned economies,
culture and the “symbolic-ideological control”
of resources have been in decline in Eastern
# 417 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany…
Matrix 1
Energy Restructuring →
Sectoral Workforce ↓
Privatization Ex Post →
Hierarchical Restructuring (High)
Privatization Ex Ante →
Procedural Restructuring (Low)
High-Skilled Workforce (High)
Social Mobility
Intersectoral Transfers
Low-Skilled Workforce (Low)
Labor Peace
Disruptive Unemployment
Matrix 2
Energy Bureaucracy →
Economic Organization ↓
Public Ownership Minimum (High) Full Privatization (Low)
Centralized Markets (High)
Social Distribution
Patronage Networks
Decentralized Markets (Low)
Union Corporatism
Elite Contracts
Europe.56 The level of adherence to the political
legacies of socialism defines the distributive
role of bureaucracy in the transition period. The
appropriation of the East German government
by Treuhand and the centralized authority of the
Polish Ministry of Privatization constitute two
extreme phenomena in the energy map of Eastern
Europe and the former Soviet Union. Unlike
the institutionally supported oil privatization
in Russia and the successful implementation of
shock therapy policies in the Czech Republic and
Slovakia, Poland suggests a case where energy
bureaucracies maintained the majority of their
regulatory privileges. At the same time, in East
Germany they ceased to exist.
I define social distribution as the set of those
expenditure-minimizing policies that maintain
a minimum of social welfare for all citizens.57
Because there is no objective definition of equity,
social distribution can never be value-free or
impartial.58 As Nee points out, the transition
from socialism to capitalism entails the transfer
of resources from hierarchies to markets;
nevertheless, gradual reforms can preserve the
social stratification observed under socialism and
maintain the significance of bureaucracy in the
market allocation of resources.59 To examine the
impact of energy bureaucracies on centralized
and decentralized marketplaces, I propose a
two-by-two matrix (Matrix 2) where energy
bureaucracy constitutes the first dimension
and economic organization the second. I divide
energy bureaucracy according to its regulatory
capacity; when the public ownership minimum
is preserved, then I assign a high value. The
opposite holds when the energy sector is fully
privatized. Economic organization is explained
in terms of centralized vs. decentralized markets;
centralized marketplaces imply interventionist
governments with sufficient ownership shares in
the economy. On the other hand, in decentralized
markets, the state plays an intermediary role in
the regulation and allocation of resources.
I suggest that when energy bureaucracy
maintains an ownership minimum in centralized
market systems, then social distribution is
feasible (High, High); the government is able
to subsidize energy prices at a low cost and thus
ensure a minimum of energy consumption for all
citizens. This is the entry where I locate the Polish
energy sector. When the government maintains
an ownership minimum in decentralized
# 418 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany…
marketplaces, then union corporatism is the
political equilibrium; advanced rather than
transition European economies could qualify for
that entry, where public ownership meets labor
co-determination and tripartite negotiations
(Low, High).
Nevertheless, when energy bureaucrats
give up their distributive potential and approve
full-scale privatization policies, while economic
organization is still defined by a centralized
marketplace, then the formation of patronage
networks between business and government is
observed; the cases of energy privatization in
Azerbaijan, Ukraine and other post-Soviet states
are indicative in that respect (High, Low). In the
lower right entry (Low, Low), the privatization
of energy firms in decentralized markets leads
to elite contracts between the government and
corporate investors; after the contracts are
concluded, the government ceases to control
its energy assets; this was the case for the East
German electricity sector whose privatization
followed German reunification.
IV. Conclusions
The politics of energy restructuring in East
Germany and Poland provides a paradigm of the
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
theoretical inclination presented here, contrary
to the general and often appraised theory of
democratic transitions in East-Central Europe.
The Oder-Neiße dichotomy shows that the public
ownership minimum rather than the withering
of public regulation is the most effective basis
for collective welfare and the increase of public
revenues through privatization. The thesis of this
article is heavily influenced by the normative
foundation of equity rather than liberty. It is clear
how crucial the role of two administrative bodies,
the Polish Ministry of Privatization and the
Treuhand, has been despite their variable political
legitimacy and connections to the domestic
business community. A major part of this article
has focused on the administrative and social
aspects of energy restructuring. Because the
energy sector has been the epicenter of industrial
development under socialism and post-socialism,
it is crucial to link its ownership transformation
to the ex novo class formation, which has been
observed in Eastern Europe.
My analysis brings together two elements
which have made this part of the world invariably
important in the history of world economy and
economic thought: Marxist economics and
energy resources.
Craig Gordon. “The End of Prussia”. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 124, No. 2, (Apr. 29, 1980):
97-99.
Falkinger Josef. “Social Instability and Distribution of Income”. European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 15 (1999):
35–51.
Carlin Wendy, Colin Mayer, Hans-Werner Sinn, and Vittorio Grilli. “Restructuring Enterprises in Eastern Europe”, Economic Policy, Vol. 7, No. 15, (October 1992): 312-352, at 314-318.
Ibid, at 317-321.
Lill Bruno. Energy Sector in Poland. Center for Markets in Transition, HSE, October 2001.
Yandle Traci J. “The Impact of Governing and Economic Institutions on Energy Systems Development: A Case Study of
the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic”, Journal of Energy and Development, Vol. 24,
No. 1, 1999, Accepted Manuscript.
Webber Douglas. “The decline and resurgence of the German model': The Treuhandanstalt and Privatization politics in
East Germany”, Journal of European Public Policy 1:2, 1994, 151-175, at 151-155.
For an overview of the restructuring and privatization of SOEs in Poland see Rondinelli Dennis and Jay Yurkiewicz.
“Privatization And Economic Restructuring in Poland: An Assessment of Transition Policies”, American Journal of
Economics and Sociology Vol. 55, No. 2 (April, 1996): 148-152.
Horst Siebert. “The integration of Germany: Real economic adjustment”. European Economic Review 35 (1991): 591-602,
at 600-602; Hall John and Udo Ludwig. “German unification and the market adoption hypothesis”. Cambridge Journal of
Economics 1995, 19, 491-507, at 492-492 and 504-505.
Barrel Ray and Dawn Holland. “Foreign Direct Investment and Enterprise Restructuring in Central Europe”. Economics
of Transition, Vol. 8 (2) 2000: 477-504, at 500-501.
# 419 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany…
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
Blaszczyk Barbara. “Privatization and Company Restructuring in Poland”. Working Paper No. 18, CASE Reports, Center
for Economic and Social Research, March 1999, at 23-26.
Pohl Gerhard et al. “Privatization and Restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe: Evidence and Policy Options”, World
Bank Technical Paper No. 368, 1997: 12-19.
Gray Cheryl W. “In search of owners: Privatization and corporate governance in transition economies”, The World Sank
Research Observer, Vol. 11, No. 2 (August 1996): 179-97, at 190-192.
McMillan John and Christopher Woodruff. “The Central Role of Entrepreneurs in Transition Economies”. Journal of
Economic Perspectives, Volume 16, No. 3 (Summer 2002): 153–170, at 156-159.
See the legal foundations of East German and Polish corporate privatization in Bolton Patrick, Gerard Roland, John
Vickers, and Michael Burda. “Privatization Policies in Central and Eastern Europe”, Economic Policy Vol. 7, No. 15,
(October 1992): 275-309.
For a good account of the reasons why privatization and industrial transition may not conincide see Brada Josef C.
“Privatization is Transition--Or is it?” The Journal of Economic Perspectives Vol. 10, No. 2, (Spring 1996): 67-86.
Debande Olivier and Guido Friebel. “A positive theory of give-away privatization”, International Journal of Industrial
Organization 22 (2004): 1309– 1325, at 1321-1323.
Meyer Klaus E. “Management challenges in privatization acquisitions in transition economies”. Journal of World Business, 37 (2002): 266-276, at 267-268.
Ibid, at 269-274.
Michel Jeffrey H. “Status and Impacts of the German Lignite Industry”, Air Pollution and Climate Series 18, The Swedish
NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain, at 10.
Ibid, at 34.
Ibid, at 35-36; Hansen Ulf. “Restructuring the East German energy system”. Energy Policy Vol. 24. No. 6: 553-562. 1996,
at 556.
Michel Jeffrey H. “Status and Impacts of the German Lignite Industry”, Air Pollution and Climate Series 18, The Swedish
NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain, at 38.
Lehmbruch Gerhard (1994). “The process of regime change in East Germany: An institutionalist scenario for German
unification”, Journal of European Public Policy 1:1, 115-141, at 138-139.
For a thorough account on the creation and enforcement of property rights in post-socialism, see Rapaczynski Andrzej.
“The Roles of the State and the Market in Establishing Property Rights”, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 10,
No. 2, (Spring 1996): 87-103.
Hughes Gordon. “The Energy Sector and Problems of Energy Policy in Eastern Europe”, Oxford Review for Economic
Policy Vol. 7, No. 2, at 78-81.
Economic Report. “The East German Industrial Sector in 1990”. 1991: 10-13.
Hansen Ulf. “Restructuring the East German energy system”. Energy Policy Vol. 24. No. 6: 553-562. 1996, at 553-556; See
also Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft EV. Dateien. Essen und Koeln, Januar 2009, Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen.
Webber Douglas. “The decline and resurgence of the German model': The Treuhandanstalt and Privatization politics in
East Germany”, Journal of European Public Policy 1:2, 1994, 151-175, at 154-160.
Estrin Saul. “Competition and Corporate Governance in Transition”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 16, No. 1,
winter 2002: 101-124, at 108-110.
In Kettler Hannah E. (1997). “The Emergence of Concentrated Ownership Structures in East Germany: the implications
for enterprise restructuring”. Review of Political Economy 9 (2): 139-142 I fi nd a useful analysis of the reasoning behind
the takeover of East German corporate entities by leading West German fi rms.
An interesting theoretical approach on Treuhand’s failure to boost sustainable competition combined with a minor application in the energy sector is also offered by Dale Gareth “More shock than therapy: Why there has been no “miracle”
in Eastern Germany”, Socialism and Democracy, (2002): 108-115 and 121; For a more moderate evaluation of Treuhand’s
politics see Priewe Jan. “Privatisation of the industrial sector: the function and activities of the Treuhandanstalt”, Cambridge Journal of Economics 1993, 17: 333-348.
I propose the name Bonnhand instead of Treuhand; My take is in contrast with Schütte Tjark (1993). “Bad debt problems
and enterprise restructuring in Eastern Germany”, Post-Communist Economies, 5 (2): 161-185.
Roesler Jorg. “Privatisation in Eastern Germany. Experience with the Treuhand”, Europe-Asia Studies Vol. 46, No. 3,
(1994): 505-517, at 508.
Brezinski Horst. “Privatization in East Germany”, Moct-Most, N. 1, 1992: 11 and 18.
Joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program. “Poland: Energy Sector Restructuring Program, Volume I”, Report No. 153/93: Annex 1.
Joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program. “Poland: Energy Sector Restructuring Program, Volume I”, Report No. 153/93: Main Report; The Polish administrative bodies involved in the energy restructuring
process were the Ministries of Industry and Trade, Environment and Natural Resources, Finance, Local Government, and
Privatization.
Naimski Petr. “Energy diversification strategy for Poland”, Columbia University, September 17th 2007, at 4-7.
Kaminski Jacek. Energy sector overview in Poland. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of
Sciences.
Mantorski Zbigniew. “Polish electric energy sector just before accessing European Union”, Int. J. Entrepreneurship and
Innovation Management, Vol. 6, Nos. 1/2, 2006, at 53-57; See also Ministerstwo Gospodarki. “The Citizen, Market and
Competition: Organisational, Structural and Structure of Ownership Transformations in the Fuel and Energy Sector”,
Appendix 3.
# 420 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany…
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
Squires Meaney Constance. “Foreign Experts, Capitalists, and Competing Agendas: Privatization in Poland, Czech
Republic and Hungary”. Comparative Political Studies 1995, 28; 275, at 286-291.
Blaszczyk Barbara. “Privatization and Company Restructuring in Poland”. Working Paper No. 18, CASE Reports, Center
for Economic and Social Research, March 1999, at 11-15 and 45-46.
Ibid, at 23.
Kenway Peter. “The role of the state in privatization in Poland and Czechoslovakia”, Moct-Most, N. 2, 1993, at 67-69.
Kitson Michael, Ron Martin and Frank Wilkinson. “Labor Markets, Social Justice and Economic Efficiency”. Cambridge
Journal of Economics 2000, 24, 631-641.
Cremer Helmuth and Pierre Pestieu. “Distributive Taxation and Social Insurance”. International Tax and Public Finance,
3:281-295 (1996), at 292-293.
Wolfgang Franz, and Viktor Steiner. “Wages in the East German Transition Process: Facts and Explanations”. German
Economic Review 1 (3): 241-269, at 246-247, and 256-264; Bispinck Reinhard. “Collective Bargaining in East Germany:
Between Economic Constraints and Political Regulations”. Cambridge Journal of Economics 1993, 17: 309-331.
Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft EV. Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im
Jahre 2006. Essen und Koeln, November 2007.
Schleiniger Reto. “Energy tax reform with exceptions for the energy-intensive export sector”. Working Paper No. 73,
Institute of Empirical Economics, University of Zurich, February 2001, at 10-15.
For an interesting take on the interaction between market regulation and social distribution in East Germany see Solga
Heike and Martin Diewald. “The East German Labor Market After German Unification: A Study of Structural Change
and Occupational Matching”, Work, Employment & Society, Vol. 15, No. 1: 95–126.
Freund Caroline and Christine Wallich. “Public-Sector Price Reforms in Transition Economies: Who Gains? Who Loses?
The Case of Household Energy Prices in Poland”. Economic Development and Cultural Change 1997: 35-59, University of
Chicago University Press, at 46-47 and 52-55.
Benabou Roland and Efe A. Ok. “Social Mobility and the Demand for Distribution: The POUM Hypothesis”. Quarterly
Journal of Economics May 2001: 447-487, at 447-453.
Milewski Roman. “The Effects of Privatization of SOEs in Poland and East Germany”. Research Support Scheme Open
Society Institute, May 1999, at 18-19.
Falkinger Josef. “Social Instability and Distribution of Income”. European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 15 (1999):
35–51, at 49-50.
Moene Karl Ove and Michael Wallerstein. “Inequality, Social Insurance and Distribution”. American Political Science
Review Vol. 95, No. 4 (December 2001): 860-874, at 863-865.
Verdery Katherine. “A Prologue to the Transition”, American Ethnologist, Vol. 18, No. 3, Representations of Europe;
Transforming State, Society and Identity, (August 1991): 419-439, at 434.
Titmuss Richard. “The Role of Distribution in Social Policy”, Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 20, 1965: 14-20, at
14-15.
Rittel Horst W. J. and Melvin M. Webber. “Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning”, Policy Sciences, Vol. 4, 1973:
155-169, at 167-169.
Nee Victor. “A Theory of Market Transition: From Distribution to Markets in State Socialism”, American Sociological
Review, Vol. 54, No. 5, (October 1989): 663-689, at 678-679.
V. References
Aghion Philippe and Olivier J. Blanchard. “On privatization methods in Eastern Europe and their
implications”. Economics of Transition, Volume 6 (I), 1998: 87-99.
Barrel Ray and Dawn Holland. “Foreign Direct Investment and Enterprise Restructuring in
Central Europe”. Economics of Transition, Vol. 8 (2) 2000: 477-504.
Benabou Roland and Efe A. Ok. “Social Mobility and the Demand for Distribution: The POUM
Hypothesis”. Quarterly Journal of Economics May 2001: 447-487.
Bispinck Reinhard. “Collective Bargaining in East Germany: Between Economic Constraints and
Political Regulations”. Cambridge Journal of Economics 1993, 17: 309-331.
Blaszczyk Barbara. “Privatization and Company Restructuring in Poland”. Working Paper No.
18, CASE Reports, Center for Economic and Social Research, March 1999.
Bolton Patrick, Gerard Roland, John Vickers, Michael Burda. “Privatization Policies in Central
and Eastern Europe”, Economic Policy Vol. 7, No. 15, (Oct., 1992): 275-309.
Bonin John P. and Bozena Leven. (2001). “Can State-owned Banks Promote Enterprise Restructuring?
Evidence from One Polish Bank's Experience”, Post-Communist Economies, 13:4, 431-443.
# 421 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany…
Brada Josef C. “Privatization is Transition--Or is it?” The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol.
10, No. 2, (Spring 1996): 67-86.
Brezinski Horst. “Privatization in East Germany”, Moct-Most, N. 1, 1992.
Carlin Wendy, Colin Mayer, Hans-Werner Sinn, and Vittorio Grilli. “Restructuring Enterprises in
Eastern Europe”, Economic Policy, Vol. 7, No. 15, (October 1992): 312-352.
Craig Gordon. “The End of Prussia”. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol.
124, No. 2, (Apr. 29, 1980): 97-99.
Cremer Helmuth and Pierre Pestieu. “Distributive Taxation and Social Insurance”. International
Tax and Public Finance, 3:281-295 (1996).
Dale Gareth “More shock than therapy: Why there has been no “miracle” in Eastern Germany”,
Socialism and Democracy, (2002): 93-136.
Debande Olivier and Guido Friebel. “A positive theory of give-away privatization”, International
Journal of Industrial Organization 22 (2004): 1309– 1325.
Economic Report. “The East German Industrial Sector in 1990”. 1991: 10-13.
Estrin Saul. “Competition and Corporate Governance in Transition”, Journal of Economic
Perspectives, Vol. 16, No. 1, winter 2002: 101-124.
Falkinger Josef. “Social Instability and Distribution of Income”. European Journal of Political
Economy, Vol. 15 (1999): 35–51.
Franz Wolfgang and Viktor Steiner. “Wages in the East German Transition Process: Facts and
Explanations”. German Economic Review 1 (3): 241-269.
Freund Caroline and Christine Wallich. “Public-Sector Price Reforms in Transition Economies:
Who Gains? Who Loses? The Case of Household Energy Prices in Poland”. Economic Development
and Cultural Change 1997: 35-59, University of Chicago University Press.
Gray Cheryl W. “In search of owners: Privatization and corporate governance in transition
economies”, The World Sank Research Observer, Vol. 11, No. 2 (August 1996): 179-97.
Hall John and Udo Ludwig. “German unification and the market adoption hypothesis”. Cambridge
Journal of Economics 1995, 19, 491-507.
Hansen Ulf. “Restructuring the East German energy system”. Energy Policy Vol. 24. No. 6: 553562. 1996.
Headey Bruce, Peter Krause, and Roland Habich. “East Germany: Rising Incomes, Unchanged
Inequality and the Impact of Distributive Government 1990-92”. The British Journal of Sociology, Vol.
46, No. 2, (June 1995): 225-243.
Horst Siebert. “The integration of Germany: Real economic adjustment”. European Economic
Review 35 (1991): 591-602.
Hughes Gordon. “The Energy Sector and Problems of Energy Policy in Eastern Europe”, Oxford
Review for Economic Policy Vol. 7, No. 2.
Joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program. “Poland: Energy
Sector Restructuring Program, Volume I”, Report No. 153/93.
Kaminski Jacek. Energy sector overview in Poland. Mineral and Energy Economy Research
Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences.
Kaufmann D., Kraay A., & Zoido-Lobaton P. (1999). Aggregating governance indicators (Policy
Research Working Paper No. 2195). Washington, DC: World Bank.
# 422 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany…
Kenway Peter. “The role of the state in privatization in Poland and Czechoslovakia”, Moct-Most,
N. 2, 1993
Kettler Hannah E. (1997). “The Emergence of Concentrated Ownership Structures in East
Germany: the implications for enterprise restructuring”. Review of Political Economy 9 (2):
117-149.
Kitson Michael, Ron Martin and Frank Wilkinson. “Labor Markets, Social Justice and Economic
Efficiency”. Cambridge Journal of Economics 2000, 24, 631-641.
Kočenda Evžen and Štěpán Čábelka. “Liberalization in the Energy Sector: Transition and
Growth”, Manuscript 1998.
Lehmbruch Gerhard (1994). “The process of regime change in East Germany: An institutionalist
scenario for German unification”, Journal of European Public Policy 1:1, 115-141.
Lill Bruno. Energy Sector in Poland. Center for Markets in Transition, HSE, October 2001.
Mantorski Zbigniew. “Polish electric energy sector just before accessing European Union”, Int. J.
Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Vol. 6, Nos. 1/2, 2006.
McMillan John and Christopher Woodruff. “The Central Role of Entrepreneurs in Transition
Economies”. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Volume 16, No. 3 (Summer 2002): 153–170.
Menz Georg. “Old bottles – new wine: The new dynamics of industrial relations”. German
Politics, (2005) 14:2, 196-207.
Meyer Klaus E. “Management challenges in privatization acquisitions in transition economies”.
Journal of World Business, 37 (2002): 266-276.
Michel Jeffrey H. “Status and Impacts of the German Lignite Industry”, Air Pollution and Climate
Series 18, The Swedish NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain.
Milewski Roman. “The Effects of Privatization of SOEs in Poland and East Germany”. Research
Support Scheme Open Society Institute, May 1999.
Ministerstwo Gospodarki. “The Citizen, Market and Competition: Organisational, Structural and
Structure of Ownership Transformations in the Fuel and Energy Sector”, Appendix 3.
Minogue Martin. “Apples and Oranges: Problems in the Analysis of Comparative Regulatory
Governance”. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance Vol. 45 (2005): 195-214.
Moene Karl Ove and Michael Wallerstein. “Inequality, Social Insurance and Distribution”.
American Political Science Review Vol. 95, No. 4 (December 2001): 860-874.
Naimski Petr. “Energy diversification strategy for Poland”, Columbia University, September 17th
2007.
Nee Victor. “A Theory of Market Transition: From Distribution to Markets in State Socialism”,
American Sociological Review, Vol. 54, No. 5, (October 1989): 663-689.
Pohl Gerhard et al. “Privatization and Restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe: Evidence and
Policy Options”, World Bank Technical Paper No. 368, 1997.
Priewe Jan. “Privatisation of the industrial sector: the function and activities of the Treuhandanstalt”,
Cambridge Journal of Economics 1993, 17: 333-348.
Rapaczynski Andrzej. “The Roles of the State and the Market in Establishing Property Rights”,
The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 10, No. 2, (Spring 1996): 87-103.
Rittel Horst W. J. and Melvin M. Webber. “Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning”, Policy
Sciences, Vol. 4, 1973: 155-169.
# 423 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany…
Roesler Jorg. “Privatisation in Eastern Germany. Experience with the Treuhand”, Europe-Asia
Studies Vol. 46, No. 3, (1994): 505-517.
Rondinelli Dennis and Jay Yurkiewicz. “Privatization And Economic Restructuring in Poland:
An Assessment of Transition Policies”, American Journal of Economics and Sociology Vol. 55, No. 2
(April, 1996): 145-160.
Schleiniger Reto. “Energy tax reform with exceptions for the energy-intensive export sector”.
Working Paper No. 73, Institute of Empirical Economics, University of Zurich, February 2001.
Schütte Tjark (1993). “Bad debt problems and enterprise restructuring in Eastern Germany”,
Post-Communist Economies, 5 (2): 161-185.
Sinn Hans-Werner and Alfons J. Weichenrieder. “Foreign Direct Investment, Political Resentment,
and the Privatization Process in Eastern Europe”, Economic Policy, 1997: 179-209.
Solga Heike and Martin Diewald. “The East German Labor Market After German Unification: A
Study of Structural Change and Occupational Matching”, Work, Employment & Society, Vol. 15, No.
1: 95–126.
Squires Meaney Constance. “Foreign Experts, Capitalists, and Competing Agendas: Privatization
in Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary”. Comparative Political Studies 1995, 28; 275.
Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft EV. Dateien. Essen und Koeln, Januar 2009.
Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft EV. Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der
Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2006. Essen und Koeln, November 2007.
Titmuss Richard. “The Role of Distribution in Social Policy”, Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28,
No. 20, 1965: 14-20.
Uerge-Vorsatz Diana, Gergana Miladinova, and Laszlo Paizs. “Energy in transition: From the
iron curtain to the European Union”, Energy Policy 34 (2006): 2279–2297.
US Department of Energy. “An Energy Overview of the Republic of Poland”. Fossil Energy
International, Society, Electronic Resource.
Verdery Katherine. “A Prologue to the Transition”, American Ethnologist, Vol. 18, No. 3,
Representations of Europe; Transforming State, Society and Identity, (August 1991): 419-439.
Webber Douglas. “The decline and resurgence of the German model': The Treuhandanstalt and
Privatization politics in East Germany”, Journal of European Public Policy 1:2, 1994, 151-175.
Yandle Traci J. “The Impact of Governing and Economic Institutions on Energy Systems
Development: A Case Study of the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic
Republic”, Journal of Energy and Development, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1999, Accepted Manuscript.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany…
Реструктуризация энергетического сектора
и социальное распределение в переходных экономиках
Восточной Германии и Польши
Т.Н. Григориадис
Греческий Фонд Европейских
и Внешнеполитических Исследований,
Греция 10676, Афины, Проспект Вас. Софияс, 49
В статье анализируются политические и экономические аспекты реструктуризации
энергетического сектора в Восточной Германии и Польше с точки зрения социального
распределения. Ее цель двояка: с одной стороны, она обеспечивает аналитическую дихотомию
между регулирующей и процедурной реструктуризацией, с другой – между горизонтальной
и иерархической. Таким образом, можно объяснить различные пути реформирования
энергетических отраслей Восточной Германии и Польши. Замена центрального и законного
правительства Тройхандом в Восточной Германии, а также центральная координирующая
роль правительства в случае Польши являются ключевыми показателями этих концептуальных
отличий. Постсоциалистические энергетические компании рассматриваются как механизмы
социального распределения, реструктуризация которых определяется минимумом
общественной собственности. Вопреки Тройханду, который стал институциональной основой
для передачи энергетического сектора бывшей ГДР на множество дочерних западногерманских
корпораций, польское министерство приватизации предпочло поддерживать экономическую
справедливость, а не разрешить проведение полной приватизации в энергетической отрасли
страны. Кажется, частные организации или государственные институты, которые связаны
с корпоративными интересами, имеют меньше стимулов для сохранения этого минимума
общественной собственности, чем центральное правительство. В энергетических секторах
переходных экономик, сохранение минимума общественной собственности, а не полная
приватизация является необходимым условием социального распределения.
Ключевые слова: энергетика, реструктуризация, приватизация, социальное распределение,
Восточная Германия, Польша, Tройханд, минимум общественной собственности.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 426-465
~~~
УДК 378.2
Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010
«Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist
for the Sphere of Culture and Arts»
Natalya P. Koptseva*
Siberian Federal University
82 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1
Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011
The results of expert seminar for the problem of formation of the graduate of new generation
in art and culture sphere are presented. The leader of seminar is Koptzeva N.P. The following
experts were presented as the leader specialists in art and culture sphere in Krasnoyarsk region:
humanity scientists and professors of Siberian Federal University, professors of Krasnoyarsk State
Art institute, the professors of Krasnoyarsk State Academy of music and theatre, the scientists of
Siberian State technological institute and representatives of ministry of culture of Krasnoyarsk
region.
One of the main problem was discussed during the seminar. The problem is about the best strategy
of formation of modern specialist in art and culture sphere in Krasnoyarsk region. What kind of
specialists will be demanded in the future for the development of culture in Krasnoyarsk region?
Taking into account the fact that the region probably will stay industrial region in priority. The
start for the discussion was the valuable statistic information about the structure and the system
of functioning of 2-level system of education in modern universities (bachelor and master); the
structure and perspectives of development of educational system for art in culture in leader
universities in Krasnoyarsk.
On the one hand, during the seminar the fundamental questions about world view and system of
mind of specialist in culture are discussed. On the other hand, the range of specifi c applied and
real problems and challenges that lie ahead the cultural specialists on Krasnoyarsk territory
in the near future are outlined. One of the reports of the expert seminar is directly focused on
specifi c requests which put the regional administration put forward to the professionals who are
responsible for the development of culture in the region. In addition, during the expert seminar
it was specifi cally discussed the development prospects of the regional component in education
of cultural specialist and principles of teaching of natural sciences for students of creative
disciplines.
Keywords: Krasnoyarsk region, education in art and culture sphere, world view of culture
specialist, applied tasks of culture specialist, the image of graduate for culture sphere for future,
the system of education in art and culture sphere in Krasnoyarsk region, the leading universities in
Krasnoyarsk region in art and culture sphere, regional additive for education of culture specialist
in Krasnoyarsk region, natural sciences in education of cultural specialist, the model of graduate
of new generation for art and cultural sphere, the government order for cultural specialist in
Krasnoyarsk region.
*
1
Corresponding author E-mail address: decanka@mail.ru
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
# 426 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
Expert Seminar was organized by the
faculty of art theory and cultural studies of
the Humanitarian Institute of the SFU within
the frames of the scientific project «ScientificMethodological Provision of the Highest
Qualification Personnel’s Training for the
Sphere of Culture and Arts in the Krasnoyarsk
Region», which was supported by the grant of
the Krasnoyarsk Regional Fond of Support of
Scientific and Scientific-Technical Activity in
2010.
Targeted audience of the seminar –
representatives of the organs of power in the
sphere of social policy, culture and arts, prorectors, heads of departments, tutors of higher
institutions, maintaining the highest qualification
personnel’s training for the sphere of culture and
arts, scientists, project executors.
Expert Seminar was organized in the form
of a focus-group discussion.
Participants:
Natalya P. Koptseva, Doctor of Philosophic
Sciences, Professor, the Head of the Cultural
Studies Department, the Dean of the art theory
and cultural studies faculty of the Humanitarian
Institute of the SFU
Irina A. Panteleeva, Candidate of
Philosophic Sciences, Docent of the Department
of Marketing and Social-cultural activity of the
art theory and cultural studies faculty of the
Humanitarian Institute of the SFU
Sergey I. Pochekutov, Candidate of
Technical Sciences, Docent of the Department of
materials science and technology of construction
materials of the Polytechnic Institute of the SFU
Nikolay V. Sosnin, Candidate of Technical
Sciences, Docent, the Head of the Engineering
and Computer Graphics Department of the
Institute of Psychology, Teachers’ Training and
Sociology of the SFU
Ivan A. Pfanenshtil, Doctor of Philosophic
Sciences, Professor, the Head of the Philosophy
department of the Institute of the Fundamental
Training of the SFU
Victoria L. Pfanenshtil, Aspirant of the
Philosophy department of the Institute of the
Fundamental Training of the SFU
Natalya V. Malashyuk, the Head of the
Krasnoyarsk Chief Administration of Culture
Irina A. Skuratova, the Leading Specialist
of the Krasnoyarsk Chief Administration of
Culture
Olga Y. Kolpetskaya, Candidate of the
Art Theory, pro-rector of the scientific work of
the FSEI HPE «Krasnoyarsk State Academy of
Music and Theatre»
Svetlana G. Voitkevich, Candidate of the
Art Theory, pro-rector of the artistic work of
the FSEI HPE «Krasnoyarsk State Academy of
Music and Theatre»
Elena N. Pavlyuchenkova, Professor, the
first pro-rector of the FSEI HPE «Krasnoyarsk
State Arts Institute»
Elena Y. Khudonogova, Candidate
of the Art Theory, Docent, the Head of the
World Artistic Culture and Social Disciplines
of the FSEI HPE «Krasnoyarsk State Arts
Institute»
Elena A. Yershova, Candidate of Pedagogic
Sciences, the Head of the Quality Management
Department of the FSEI HPE «Krasnoyarsk State
Arts Institute»
Victoria V. Dubich, Candidate of Technical
Sciences, Docent of the Modern Natural Sciences
Department of the Institute of the Fundamental
Training of the SFU
Denis A. Antonov, Candidate of Philosophic
Sciences, deputy administrator of the Social Policy
Department of the Krasnoyarsk Administration,
Docent of the Social Work and Sociology
Department of the Siberian State Technological
University
Dmitri Y. Grigorenko, Docent of the
Philosophy and Social Sciences Department of
# 427 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
the Siberian State Aero-Cosmic University n.a.
M.F. Reshetnev
Yekaterina V. Karelina, Candidate of
Philosophic Sciences, Docent of the Philosophy
and History Department of the Humanitarian
Institute of the SFU
Olga V. Letunova, Candidate of
Philosophic Sciences, Docent of the Philosophy
and Social Sciences Department of the Siberian
State Aero-Cosmic University n.a. M.F.
Reshetnev
Irina S. Lyisenko, Assistant of the
Philosophy and Social Sciences Department of
the Siberian State Aero-Cosmic University n.a.
M.F. Reshetnev
Natalya N. Libakova, the Head Tutor of
the Art Theory Department of the Humanitarian
Institute of the SFU
Yekaterina A. Sertakova, Apirant of the
Art Theory Department of the Humanitarian
Institute of the FSEI HPE «Siberian Federal
University»
Natalya P. Koptseva,
Doctor of Philosophic Sciences, Professor, the Head of the Cultural Studies Department,
the Dean of the art theory and cultural studies faculty
of the Humanitarian Institute of the SFU:
Introduction:
We are glad to see you at the fi rst seminar, which is dedicated to the formation of a new generation
model for the sphere of culture and arts. This year, we are planning to carry out two more seminars
on the given problematics and we hope to see at the forthcoming meetings as experienced experts,
participating at the seminar, as we have today. These seminars are dedicated to the scientific project,
which is called «Scientific-Methodological Provision of the Highest Qualification Personnel’s
Training for the Sphere of Culture and Arts in the Krasnoyarsk Region». We would like to invite
you, our dear experts, to participate in our project, aimed to scientific-methodological provision of
the highest qualification personnel in the sphere of culture and arts. Moreover, in the course of the
project realization it is supposed to prepare some educational programs for international accreditation
procedure. But it is not the main aim, we are going to reach. The main target is improvement
of personnel qualification and development such a package of scientific-methodological ware,
which would become highly demanded in all the higher education institutions of the Krasnoyarsk
Region and, possibly, in other regions. Publications in the scientific journal of SFU, in the series
«Humanitarian Sciences» will be also a sort of results of the project. This journal is included in the
list of pre-reviewed journals, being recommended by the State Commission for Academic Degrees
and Titles for publishing of the main results of the scientific activity. I suppose, that all the present
scientists, and higher institutions’ tutors will be interested in this proposal. Our journal is targeted
to the international academician society. At present time, the journal undergoes the expertise, which
concerns the journal’s acceptance into the international scientific quoting system “Web of Science”
and “Scopus”. The Journal of SFU is presented on the web-site of the Russian Electronic Library
and is included into the Google quoting system. It is also included into the Russian Institute of
Publications’ Quoting; and citing of the articles, which are published in the Journal, is taken into
consideration in the course of scientific activity results calculations. Taking into account all the
mentioned, the articles in the journal, including the materials of the present seminar, are published
in the English language.
# 428 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
The scientific project «Scientific-Methodological Provision of the Highest Qualification
Personnel’s Training for the Sphere of Culture and Arts in the Krasnoyarsk Region» is realized under
the aegis of the Higher Education Intuitions Rectors’ Board of the Krasnoyarsk Region. Preliminary,
technical specification of the project has undergone a very serious expertise. The Rectors’ Board of
the Krasnoyarsk Region has brought significant remarks and observations in the process of the project
approval to a focus. For example, remarks on the question what highest qualification is? We supposed
that we were talking about higher education, or about the second level of higher education – Master’s
degree. Experts from the Rectors’ Board have come to the conclusion that the matter is, first of all,
about post-graduate education – aspirant and doctoral candidacies. In fact, we are ready to discuss all
the levels – as 2-level personnel training for the sphere of culture and arts of the Krasnoyarsk Region,
so Master’s degree and its programs, and so future education and our possibilities within its frames.
Report:
Now, I shall tell you about the possibilities, which SFU possesses for the targets, having been
put in the project. At present time, there are three specialists’ preparing departments on the basis of
the art theory and cultural studies faculty of the Humanitarian Institute. Two of the departments of
«Humanitarian sciences» have licenses:
- Cultural studies, this department has been teaching students for 4 years. We have not accredited it
yet. But this procedure is planned for the nearest future, and we hope that we shall be a success. For the
given branch, we have chosen specialization «Culture of the Asian-Pacific Region Countries (APR)», it
has been done according to the request of A.G. Khloponin, the Gubernator of the Krasnoyarsk Region,
and also because of the fact that the APR countries are our close economical partners. The Krasnoyarsk
Region is interested in the projects, which would study the mentioned region. Thereat, we understand
that specialization is a dynamic phenomenon and there are a lot of possibilities in the sphere of sociocultural development, and that is why we may develop new specializations in the branch of Cultural
studies. For four years we have been observing a very serious competition to enter the course, high
quality of prospective students, and, correspondingly, good students.
- Second department, which we are developing in the sphere of Humanitarian sciences along with
the Cultural studies, is Theory of Art. We have got accreditations for Bachelor’s Degree (history of
art according to its forms), and Specialist Diploma (Theory of Art). And just a week ago we got the
Order of the Ministry of Education of RF that the second level of our program of Theory of Art –
Magistracy was licensed. Thus, we have got the whole spectrum of possibilities for development of
any Magistracy program for narrow-focused specialists. Having licensed our Magistracy program, we
have got an opportunity to create various magistracy programs and prepare Art Theory Magistrates
of most various Magistracy specializations just by the decision of our Board. We may get orders for
training of one-two students – specialists, for most peculiar demands of our City and Region. We have
got managers for development of such concrete programs and their realization. For the time being, our
tutors are finishing the cycle, which is connected with the Higher School Teacher Diploma. And as
their diploma projects, they have suggested their Magistracy programs, connected, for example with
the artistic criticism in the Krasnoyarsk Region. Our specialists have suggested their own plan for the
discipline, which is highly required. Elena Y. Khudonogova is one of rear specialists of this sphere and
can confirm that we have plenty of work in the Krasnoyarsk Region, in the projects of culture and art.
# 429 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
Ten years ago, in Gubernator Lebed’s time, there was raised a topical problem of auditing of
the Cultural department of the Krasnoyarsk Region. And it was found out that, only 25% specialists,
working in the Cultural department of the Region, had at least some higher education. And then, by the
direct order of the gubernator, we developed a new specialty «Socio-cultural activity». The Moscow
State University of Culture and Arts had much supported us. We chose organization (management)
of the Socio-cultural sphere, as a specialization, meeting the requirements of the Krasnoyarsk
Region. So, now it is already 10 years, as we have been preparing specialists – managers of sociocultural activity by the External Degree Program (the educational program is planned for 6 years).
The Administration of the Krasnoyarsk Region was the ordering party of many of our students. And
for most of them it was the only chance to get special education and a document certifying their
higher legal education. In spite of the fact that they had been working in this sphere for many years,
it was very difficult for them to be enrolled in our faculty. Three courses of students of the Cultural
department have gone home to their regions, where now they are working as managers. It is a pity
that our collaboration with the Administration has been stopped according to objective reasons, but
nevertheless, we still continue to enroll students for this specialty (external form of education), and
the competition for it is rather steady. We have got license for the Bachelor’s degree program «Sociocultural activity» (external and intramural forms) and this year, for the fi rst time, there appeared a
full-time education form with 8 budget places. And we also preserve 10 budget places of the external
education form. For the present time, this is the situation that concerns higher education in the
sphere of culture and arts in the SFU.
In 2003, when the Krasnoyarsk State University was undergoing attestations and accreditations,
we used the opportunity and branched out post-graduate education according to the program 17.00.09
«Theory and History of Art». At that time, we even formed a nonrecurring dissertation board and
managed to defend two dissertations. Besides, we had a working post-graduate education program by
specialty 24.00.04 «Theory and History of Art».
As far as we know in the Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Art and also in other higher education
institutions of the region there is a post-graduate education program by another specialty 17.00.04 –
«Depictive, Decorative and Applied Art and Architecture». We have got an idea to form a regional
dissertation board by specialty 17.00.04. It becomes possible if there is such a license at higher education
institutions, which can be united into one conversional dissertation board. Just a week ago, we received
a license of the program 17.00.04 «Depictive, Decorative and Applied Art and Architecture». And we
opened this specialty only in order to create such a conversional dissertation board. We would like
to work for the benefit of the Region and the City, in order our scientists could get Candidate’s and
Doctor’s Degrees in the sphere of Art Theory, not leaving the Krasnoyarsk Region.
So, generally, we have finished 15-years’ work of creation of regulatory and legal framework in the
sphere of Art Theory. A package of documents for creation of the dissertation board for consideration
of the post-graduate education of theory of art and cultural studies has been already sent to the State
Commission for Academic Degrees and Titles. And we hope so much that the Tyva State University
will help and will much contribute to this project. Administration of the Tyva State University has
written a whole row of letters of support to various echelons, as far as they also wish such a board to
be formed. And if it happens, then the highest qualification specialist’s model for the sphere of culture
and arts will be fully completed in the Krasnoyarsk Region.
# 430 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
On the other hand, the Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Arts and the Krasnoyarsk State Academy
of Music and Theatre have also their own specifics, which is difficult to be understood. And we may
only venerate the mysteries of creation. But we are to know the details, as it is very important for our
project target’s achievement. Traditions of theory of art, theory of music, cultural studies, and creative
education are very strong in the Krasnoyarsk Region, and it is one of the seven whales, which the Earth
rests on. And within the frames of this project, I would like to integrate our efforts. There is a lot of
work concerning realization of this project and we would like other higher education institutions of the
Krasnoyarsk Region to take this opportunity.
On one hand, administration needs concrete orders for scientific work and preparation of
specialists, and that is why, our task is evidently to prepare specialists according to a certain order and
it must be realized. But, on the other hand, if science is not freely developed, as a personal initiative
of the scientist, then it will be impossible to solve any of application tasks. The sphere of culture and
arts is surely targeted to salvation of application tasks of the region, but if creative work does not have
a peculiar and independent character, then it can disappear at all. That is why the suggested project is
of so much importance. We are to come to a scientific agreement, to get the access to the integrated
resources, in order we shall be able to prepare highly-qualified specialists, not bothering each other
and not ignoring our own specifics. And what concerns the possibility of our direct participation in
the mentioned project, then, here first of all, we are interested in your experience, analogues in the
past and the present, and forecasts for the future. Collected achievements will allow us to obtain a
realistic picture of the present and to chose correctly the strategy against such «bogeyman stories»,
as «Andropov’s desert», development of the region by the method of shifts, petroleum pipeline as a
priority of the region, and complete absence and needlessness of arts theory scientists, dances and
artists. This awful scenario should be always born in mind.
And fi nally, I would like to tell you a fairy-tale – a Jataka, connected to the life of Buddha.
Once upon a time there was a marsh with frogs in the midst of the forest. And one day a heron flew
to them and told them: «you all live here and do not know that not far from here there is a lake,
much more comfortable for your life. The water there is warmer and there is much more food».
Frogs were very interested in the new place of living, but did not know how to get there. Then,
to everyone’s joy, the heron told them that it was going to help them and would do everything by
itself to move the frogs to the lake. So, it took the frogs one by one and carried away from the
marsh in its beak. And when it came to take the last frog, the frog began to reject. It said that it
would go nowhere from its house, as far as it liked its house. The heron became angry and said that
it would make the frog leave the marsh by force and caught it quickly by the head. The frog, in its
turn, caught the heron by the neck and began to strangle it by its small paws with all its strength.
Never give up – this is the main idea of this Jataka. The only thing, which is still left unclear, is
what the role of Buddha was in this story – was he a brave frog, a heron, or a tree, at which roots
there was the mentioned lake?
That is why we shall not give up as well. Three powerful higher education institutions are going to
join their efforts in order to prepare the best specialists in the region – this is the picture of the project
that I see. For the time being, we need analogues in the Region, in Russia and abroad. Experience of
your and other HE institutions in the sphere of highly qualified personnel’s training is very valuable. We
need your help in order to address concrete methods and to give strategic forecast of the development
# 431 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
of the sphere of culture and arts, as far as education and graduates of the creative HE institutions are
absolutely unique.
Ivan A. Pfanenshtil: Natalya Petrovna, as far as I have understood, today’s seminar is dedicated
to consideration of specialties, their becoming, and to the models of graduates in the sphere of arts and
culture.
Natalya P. Koptseva: yes, you are right.
Nikolay V. Sosnin: I suppose, the scheme, which I am going to suggest will help us. If there is
a project, there should be concrete tasks and targets. We are to write down the tasks, distribute them
among the people, taking into consideration their labor content. When we know the possibilities of all
the participants, their suggestions, then we shall form a working group. Otherwise, the matter will not
be productive. Though, your opinion may differ.
Natalya P. Koptseva: yes, I see it differently. First of all, everything, what is said here, is very
important. You are all really experts. Secondly, all the present are the participants of a sort of a focusgroup discussion of the experts. And experience of these experts and their thoughts concerning the
given problematics are highly important already on this very stage.
Elena Y. Khudonogova: as far as I understand, this group has been gathered here in order
to speak over the situation, where we are in, and afterwards we shall seek a strategic way out of
it, some solutions, which could be right in a far perspective. In comparison with the technical
specialties, humanitarians are very scattered in the region. There are few of them. And if we
speak of the tasks, having been mentioned by Natalya Petrovna, they are very important and
serious.
Sergey I. Pochekutov: as one of the participants of this project, I would like to introduce
you Nikolay V. Sosnin, whom I have invited in connection with the fact that for today new federal
state educational standards have been accepted. These standards are based on a competence-based
approach, according to which we shall review all the educational process. Nikolay V. Sosnin is exactly
the specialist in the given sphere, and soon he is planning to defend doctorial dissertation on the given
problematics. In his work, he considers the competence-based approach and the way we are to go to it.
I think Nikolay V. Sosnin will make a short report, where he will tell us about some methodological
foundation. The way, how real competences should be realized in a HE Institution, taking into account
the new standards.
Natalya P. Koptseva: I have seen the structure of competences, which suggests Nikolay V. Sosnin.
It will be interesting for us. Please tell us about it in detail.
Nikolay V. Sosnin: The competence-based approach is a very large theme. It includes a lot of
aspects. I can give you just some part of it – formation of competences in the model of the graduate of
engineering specialties and tell you where we should start and where to go in this matter, taking into
account our new educational programs.
Ivan A. Pfanenshtil: what a luck that you have dealt with the model of preparation of an engineer.
On the whole, we are speaking about just the same thing. How to prepare a specialist? On what basis?
How should the specialist in the sphere of culture and arts look like? What kind of competences should
he possess? Here, we are to join our efforts and to understand what sort of philosophical basis we must
use, for example, is it possible to use here the philosophy of Russian cosmism. What type of specialist
would we like to have at the end – cosmopolitan or Russian, or for some specific region, for example,
# 432 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
for the Krasnoyarsk Krai? If we need just a Russian specialist, then we are to bring him up basing on
the Russian philosophy and national culture.
Natalya P. Koptseva: We are to bring up Russian identity in him.
Ivan A. Pfanenshtil: Surely. We are to choose the approach and form the model of the specialist,
proceeding from it. We need a conception. How should this model of the specialist look like? How shall
we monitor it? How shall we control that he becomes the specialist that we have planed? We are to be
responsible for those, we are teaching. We are to render them the competences, being necessary for
their future activity. Natalya Petrovna has presented the problem so strongly, that I have begun to be
beware of it and understand it. So, let us start our discussion, at least from the model of the specialistengineer.
Natalya P. Koptseva: the matter is that there are formal things and there are conceptual things.
Nikolay Sosnin is a specialist in form, in universal technologies and logics. That is why, we would like
to listen to his report at the very beginning, in order to decide about the form, and then we shall fill it
with some content.
Nikolay V. Sosnin,
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Docent, the Head of the Engineering
and Computer Graphics Department of the Institute of Psychology,
Teachers’ Training and Sociology of the SFU
Report «FSEI HPE Competence-Based Format»:
The mankind enters a new epoch of its existence – informational society causes far-reaching
changes in policy, economy, culture, labor and in personal life of every person. In connection with
it, systems of education all over the world have faced a serious problem – to reform drastically their
targets, contents, forms, methods, means and all their organization in correspondence with the demands
of the time. Unfortunately, global reforms in the sphere of education have gone not by the way of
humanization, but by the economical way. And the determining role in formation of new education
requirements is played by the market.
In the modern circumstances, transition to the market is acceptance of market categories:
competition, competitiveness, competency, competences and others. One can observe as market
categories are included into educational processes and they play external role in relation to the
system of education itself. Precisely this circumstance reflects the global shift in the system of Higher
Professional Education (HPE) to the market. It is a fact that today and, first of all, it is observed in
the higher school, innovations are considered not as a realization of anthropological and philosophic
conceptions of man and culture, but as a balanced response to the demands of the time, taking into
consideration the demands of the market economy. Though, we must not allow that HE institutions
become the subjects of exclusively market relations, rendering educational services. System of
education and HE Institutions has a more socially significant mission – to raise educational level of the
nation, its intellectual, cultural, spiritual and moral potential.
Now, local system of the higher professional education undergoes the next stage of modernization.
In the course of searching for the adequate educational model, which would meet the modern demands,
they use stipulations of the Bologna declaration, and take in to consideration the experience of other
countries. In the circumstances of transition to the new generation standards of HPE, the problem of
# 433 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
educational programs projecting at the local levels (right in HEIs) becomes more and more topical. But
before we start projecting an educational program, considering the format, being set by the standards,
we are to decide – how does the new model of educational process differ from the traditional one.
FSEI HPE of the new generation sets the model of education and teaching, which significantly
differs from the traditional model. In traditional curriculums, the subject-content model of the process is
precisely fixed – the number of subjects, their content and structure, didactic description, characteristics
of labor intensity, temporal parameters and other structural-content parameters of the process. The
new standard is a standard of anther type, where the subject of standardization is not oriented to the
resource parameters of the process, but to its results. The standard regulates the development of the
basic 2-level educational programs on the ground of the competence-based approach and with the help
of the credit system of education content and labor intensity accounting. Competence-based and credit
format of the standard presupposes a new projecting of the results of education. And this is the principal
innovation of the educational standard of the new generation. That means that they set the transition
from the model, which is oriented to the quantitative (resource) parameters of the educational process,
to the model, which is oriented to the result. The competence-based approach means a significant shift
from the subject differentiation to inter-subject integration.
Obviously, the competence-based approach can contribute to the overcoming of traditional
cognitive orientations of the higher education and leads to a new vision of the educational content,
of its methods and technologies. While in the traditional model, theoretical and practical education
is just oriented to the industrial reality and models it with the help of symbolic systems, in the new
model we are to transfer to the systematic professional education. It is one of the leading lines of the
competence-based approach – enforcement of the practical orientation of education, of its pragmatic,
subject-professional aspect.
That is why we are to underline the following contradiction, which demands to be solved. The
higher European education and the local system of HPE go by different ways of assimilation of
the competence-based approach. In Europe with its academic values, there has been a necessity of
development by the way of the market economy, of practical orientation, which is understood and
accepted by the employer. Our local professional education has always been competency oriented. The
practical component, especially what concerns technical education of the narrow-focused specialties,
has been quite strong. That is why we have got other tasks in our HPE system – we are to get rid
of the fixed linear regulation, we must give freedom to the person in his self-development and selfdefinition in the market under the new conditions, in the new economical situation. The competencebased approach is appealed to solve this problem in the educational process, which is still not solved
within the frames of the existing educational model up to the present moment. Introduction of the
competence-based approach in to the native system of education will allow us to realize to a large
extent the personal-oriented, activity and practical-oriented approaches in to the educational process.
Thus, the targets of education in the new standard are set by the competence-based model of
the graduate – these are sets of competencies, expressing what precisely the graduate must know,
understand and be able to do at the end of the process of education. Thereat, we fix the changing
of the accent in the formulation of educational targets – it is not the formation of a set of students’
knowledge and skills in the spheres of certain disciplines, but formation of such a system and structure
of thinking, practical and moral activity, that will allow our students to work and to act independently
# 434 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
in the more and more growing flow of educational and scientific information, to assimilate freely in the
rapidly changing social-economical and technological conditions.
In the process of the educational programs projecting we face difficulty in selection of working
definitions of competences from the position of the competence-based approach. According to its
definition – competences and competencies is a new method of setting (describing) targets of the
educational process. Competence is a summation of interconnected personal qualities (knowledge,
skills, and types of activity), which are set in relation to a certain number of objects and processes
and which are necessary in order to act qualitatively and productively in relation to these objects and
processes. Competency is a man’s possession, grasp of a corresponding competence, including his
personal attitude towards it and to the object of his activity.
While speaking about the system of education, we are to divide these two notions, meaning under
the word competence a fore-set requirement (norm) to the educational readiness of the graduate, and
under the word competency – one’s already formed personal quality (summation of qualities) and
minimal experience in the given sphere’s activity.
Let us consider, what the place of these construct in the educational process is. Competences, a
set of competences are a starting position for the educational program projecting. Such a set describes
the qualities of the worker, being already prepared for a certain professional activity and fulfilling this
activity. First of all we form this set (the model of the specialist’s competences can be determined by
some professional standard), then we form a competence-based model of the graduate on its basis, and
further we plan the results of education by its stages, we project a content structure (courses units and
cycles, disciplines and modules, practice and educational-research work).
Competency of the student presupposes a whole spectrum of his personal qualities. The notion of
competency includes in itself not only cognitive and operational-technological components, but also
motivating, ethic, social and behavioral. In other words, competency is always personally determined
by the qualities of a certain concrete person, starting from meaningful and world outlook qualities (for
example, what do we need this competence for?) to reflexive-axiological (how much successful do I
apply it in my Life?
Now, let us analyze if it makes any sense for educational projecting and process realization
the fact, which one of the considered notions is chosen for a final result. If we put the accent
on the competences in results of education, then we get a precise mind-set for mastering in
a concrete profession (a precisely fixed volume of skills, knowledge, necessary experience,
meta-professional qualities and so on) and we observe a sort of «training» for a concrete set
of man’s competences in a chosen profession. In this case we need special circumstances, a
concrete working place for revelation and demonstration of competences. It is difficult to create
such circumstances and to organize real professional activity in the walls of a HE institution.
For example, we may take the preparation to a working specialty in the system of primary
and additional professional education – it is an example of such a scheme of educational
process. Though, for example, universitarian education is something larger than mastering of
competences of whatever concrete profession.
If competency of the graduate is taken as a result of education, then it is a fixation of personal
achievements of the student or the graduate at every stage of his course of study (integrative qualities,
skills, knowledge, values, and experience), being necessary for fulfillment of these or those generalized
# 435 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
types of activity for some field of professional activity. In this case, specialists’ preparation is run not
in accordance to a concrete profession, but in accordance to a certain branch labor market. In order
to reveal the competencies we should take some life situations, occasions from profession; i.e. in the
process of education it is necessary to create circumstances, simulating professional activity in this or
that sphere.
So, we come the conclusion, the question about competences and competencies is a question about
targets and results of education. Hence, we use verbs, denoting perfection of the process. Competence
is mastering (assimilation). Competency is formation.
A competence-based model of HPE leads to projecting of a content, wherein constructs are
variously included into the process. Competences are technological elements of the common target
(a competence-based model of the specialist in the professional sphere). Competency is an integral
characteristic of personality; it is a technological element of person’s evaluation on various stages of
preparation and at the very end.
In the process of new model assimilation, they often make a mistake in appliance of the notions
«competence», «competency», while describing the results of education, and consequently in the
projecting of the whole process of education. We are speaking about those cases, when they take the
process, its content, being made in traditional format – disciplinary, and then they add the competencebased approach to the description of the results as in separate disciplines, so in the final attestation. In
summary, they get a sort of passive model: the students have been taught and taught some subjects, and
at the end of education we start revealing – what kinds of competences and competencies have been
formed and what is missing.
In such cases, the main problem is misunderstanding of inter-disciplinary, integrative and transsubject essence of the notions «competence», «competency». Complex preparation, inter-disciplinary
knowledge and skills, readiness to professional activity – all these demands of the competence-based
model cannot be formed in the process of traditional «teaching» on the subject-content level. Having
such a disciplinarity, it is impossible to «divide» competences and competencies according to the
disciplines. Competences formation cannot be inscribed into the traditional understanding of the
education process organization, as far as it is not the consequence of the volume of information, having
been learnt by the graduate of a HEI in concrete disciplines. Competence-based format of FSEI HPE
needs new approaches to projecting of the educational process in HEI.
That is why, the first position, which has been announced by you, is absolutely correct. If we form
the process of education, then we should obviously start from formation of a model of the specialist.
What is cultural specialist? What does he do, what is he responsible for? What is the sphere of his
power? First of all, we must depict a capacious model of the specialist, and afterwards, we must cut it
up to its key professional competences – in order it could be diagnosed and we could understand what
should be added. It will be our working scheme.
Ivan A. Pfanenshtil: to my mind, the model of the specialist, which is adequate to the economy
and market, is not at all adequate to the humane nature. As far as we know, even Russian engineer
is sufistic and thinking. And cultural specialist is much more of it. We are of other spiritual culture
than the West. And we should orient to that atmosphere, which exists in the faculty. We are to think
of the specialists and those courses, which will be delivered to them. Then we shall speak not of some
abstract model of the graduate, but of the real one.
# 436 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
Nikolay V. Sosnin: I agree with you that technical education in Russia has been developed in
some other way than it has been abroad. Our knowledge has been originated from handicrafts. This
tradition has been brought by Peter I. It has always been very applicative engineering. And now,
basing on our technical education, we must decide, what kind of model we shall use for specialists’
preparation – the Bologna model (English-Saxon) or the American one. When we make the decision,
we shall understand how we shall form the model of the graduate not preceding from the Ministry’s
order, but preceding from the demands of our professional society.
Ivan A. Pfanenshtil,
Doctor of Philosophic Sciences, Professor, the Head of the Philosophy department
of the Institute of the Fundamental Training of the SFU
Victoria L. Pfanenshtil,
Aspirant of the Philosophy department of the Institute
of the Fundamental Training of the SFU
Report: «Anent the Formation of a Specialist Model for the Sphere
of Culture and Arts»
Topicality of the target of the expert seminar «Formation of the New Generation Specialist Model
for the Sphere of Culture and Arts», having been presented by the project leader, the dean of the faculty
of art theory and cultural studies, Professor N.P. Koptseva together with Natalya V. Malashyuk, the
Head of the Krasnoyarsk Chief Administration of Culture, is impossible to overestimate.
And in reality, in the modern conditions of globalization of economy, culture and education, the
Siberian Federal University, as an innovative HEI, and the faculty of art theory and cultural studies,
in particular, faces the task of the new generation graduate model formation, which would meet the
requirements of the international level. It must be a young creative specialist, having competences,
knowledge and skills, which are not out-of-touch, and which allow him to orient and to assimilate to
rapidly-changing circumstances of socio-cultural existence. Hence, we face a new problem in education
and teaching – we are to change their content and model: from the one reproducing (reproductive)
the sum of knowledge – to formation of creative skills of learning, to assimilation of the system of
teaching, modern methods (methods and methodologies) and socio-cultural project technologies.
The epoch of cultural and art-theory scientist is over; it is being changed by the epoch of
cultural-methodologist, who researches, and creatively projects socio-cultural harmonious systems in
correspondence with natural laws and demands of the informational society of 21 century.
Achievement of the set target and creation of a new model of the specialist requires innovative
reforms in the following spheres:
1. In the process and the content of the specialist preparation, his fundamentalization;
2. Methods and methodologies;
3. Modern socio-cultural technologies;
4. Program-objective approaches including individualization and independent work;
5. Methodic retraining of the teachers on the basis of the highest expression of the Russian culture
of 19-20 centuries, including Russian cosmism, binding altogether all the existing sociocultural phenomena through the prism of cosmological values.
# 437 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
To our mind, the mentioned problem should be not only theoretically thought over, but also
practically solved and politically controlled and motivated, if we take into consideration today’s
situation in the country, in the University and in the society.
Natalya P. Koptseva: though, administrative order is very important in the given case. And
today one of our guests is Natalya V. Malashyuk, the Head of the Krasnoyarsk Chief Administration
of Culture. She has prepared a report just concerning the given problematics.
Natalya V. Malashyuk,
the Head of the Krasnoyarsk Chief Administration of Culture
Report «New Requirements of the Service Receiver of Krasnoyarsk Municipal
Cultural Institutions as a Vector of the Branch Personnel Potential Formation»:
At the beginning, l would like to mention that I am myself a student of SFU and study the specialty
«socio-cultural activity». l would like to begin from the kind of senses I have realized in the course of
our meeting and concerning the fact, that democratic state gives a person a wide range of possibilities
for the search, which has been mentioned by Natalya P. Koptseva. For us (for administration) this search
and right of choice are also important and needed. We are also interested in the notions of competence
and competency, as far as there is a competition. Private organizations are more competent in providing
services, they professionally advertise themselves. And we must change something in ourselves.
The theme of the seminar raises topical, but quite solvable questions. And to my settled conviction,
the main condition of the competent specialist formation in the higher education institutions is a timely
changing of the educational program and consideration of demands of the practical sphere. And it
is possible only under the systematic monitoring of the service receiver’s opinion of that sphere of
activity, of that branch, which is chosen by the future specialist.
In my report, I make an attempt to represent briefly the existing experience of management of
development processes of the branch of Culture, processes which are aimed to the services’ quality
improvement in the Krasnoyarsk municipal institutions, taking into account opinion of the citizens,
in order to transfer to those knowledge and skills, which are necessary not only for the officials of the
institutions or specialists of the apparatus, but also for every employee of the branch institutions.
I shall remind you of the qualitative-quantitative characteristics of the net of cultural institutions
of Krasnoyarsk, including regional institutions, situated on the territory of our city: 50 libraries, 20
club institutions (including 5 Houses of Culture and centralized club system, containing 13 filiations,
the amateur theatre «Our theatre» and «Creative experimental center»), 7 museums, 17 Municipal
Educational Institutions of additional children’s education, 5 Municipal creative collectives, 5 theatres,
2 municipal cinema-halls, the Krasnoyarsk Park of Flora and Fauna «Royev’s Spring».
The city of Krasnoyarsk needs new perspective projects, targeted to improvement of life quality of
its citizens. in collaboration with commercial and non-commercial organizations, the city administration
shows practically its exclusive interest in formation of comfortable living city environment, which is
revealed not only in creation of the attractive image of Krasnoyarsk, but also in its striving for solving
the problem of quality of the mentioned environment by means of innovative reforms of the existing
system of city management, which motto is: «the city of quality, responsibility and collaboration!».
The target of these changes is improvement of quality of services, being rendered to the population by
the municipal administration.
# 438 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
At present time, finding resultative and efficient methods of provision of population with the
services of corresponding quality and affordable level, formation of strategic directions of realization
of the city social policy in the sphere of guaranteed social services, and creation of a reasonable system
of regulation measures (as a factor of population’s life quality improvement) in the of sphere of social
services become of crucial importance.
Analysis of the regulatory base allows singling out three blocks of indicators (criteria) of the
quality of services, which are oriented to the result:
1) Indicators of resources exploitation (statistic, sociological and other report data, Characterizing
the volume and the quality of the social service and other report data, Characterizing the
volume and the quality of the social service, and also the volume of organizations’ activity
(organization, which represents them);
2) Indicators of the immediate result (volume of the used resources in its natural and monetary
terms, qualitative characteristics and technology of usage in the process of the service provision
under the fixed budget limitations and with the aim of achieving of the targeted indicators of
the immediate result)
3) Indicators of the final socio-economical effect of services' rendering (condition and changing
of the object of the service rendering).
There can be several indicators in every block. For example, in the process of serving, the client
is influenced by a whole system of factors, directed from the executor’s side. Service quality criteria of
the first block are the following main indicators of quality estimation of social service:
Indicators of the external environment quality: comfort of the rooms, esthetic attractiveness of
the personnel, appearance of the personnel, office and room design.
Indicators of service quality criteria of the social sphere: timely social service; time of the
service expectation; time of the service provision.
Indicators of effective functioning of social service: adequacy of the service forms, technologies,
and methods used by the executor.
Indicators of professional mastership of the service provider: professional qualification, special
training, practical experience.
Indicators of the service provider’s motivation: executor’s motivational readiness, interest in
the client’s problem salvation.
Indicators of accessibility: accessibility of the service and of the procedure of its receiving;
accessibility of the personnel, providing social services: accessibility of the personnel by phone,
in the institution of the social sphere at the moment of the service requirement; accessibility of
the personnel by electronic resource (forum in the Internet, electronic mail), possibility of the
service provision at home (for disabled and old people).
Indicators of the equal right status of the customer and the service executor: equal right
partnership in the course of the service providing.
Communicative indicator: executor’s ability to listen and to communicate, absence of
communicative barriers in the course of communication with clients,
And all these criteria demand presence of the sense of responsibility, the skill of appliance of
perfection action, and, if it is necessary, appliance of cyclicality of typical actions. Special role is given
to the knowledge and effective appliance of psychology and pedagogics bases.
# 439 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
Among the criteria of the immediate result (the second block of indicators), we can single out the
following:
Presence of the documents, with which correspondence the institution is functioning (presence
of organization charter and local acts; license; certification of the state accreditation)
Complete stuffing level of specialists of necessary qualification (staff completeness).
Presence of special techniques and facilities in the institution (equipment, instruments,
apparatuses and so on.).
Information about the institution, its regulations and rules of services provision.
Existence of the inner (own) and outer systems of control of the institution activity.
Reliable information of the service provision includes in itself:
A list of essential services; characteristics of the service and time consumption for its provision;
conditions of services provision and its cost; possibilities to obtain the estimation of quality from
consumer’s part; timely and fully-fledged provision of budget services, achievement of final results,
which are defined by the budgetary assignment of the chief controller of the budget funds.
Undoubtedly, in order to fulfill the given standards the specialist must know and do the
following:
• Know how to analyze and to perform a comparative characteristic,
• To reveal the main criteria and indicators of the current activity,
• Know economical disciplines, fundamentals of the workflow management and culture of speech,
have skills of text compilation under the given conditions (and consequently, the specialist must
know not only the theory, but know how to apply the bases of stylistics, vocabulary, grammar
and many other disciplines).
• These skills are also important for organization and promotion of the services, i.e. informational
support in the course of public opinion formation (PR).
Since 2007, in Krasnoyarsk they have been carrying out a Week of Quality, within which frames
and summarizing its results they have been running a row of actions, studying citizens’ satisfaction
with the quality of cultural services. This action is also run in the institutions of the cultural branch.
They have also organized «the days of open doors», informational exhibitions, round tables, educational
seminars, parents’ conferences, presentations of cultural services, sociological inquiries. There has
been organized and is still working «a hot telephone line» in the Krasnoyarsk Chief Administration
of Culture. Everyone may call by it and has a possibility to leave his feedback concerning the work of
cultural institutions.
Analysis of the annual sociological inquiry of visitors of the cultural institutions, which are
subordinated to the Chief Administration of Culture, has revealed the following tendencies:
• In spite of the fact that the most part of the visitors has been satisfied by all the factors, the
weakest point (most unsatisfactory opinion) is the technical support of institutions;
• The second factor according to the visitors’ discontent is the factor of information awareness
of the institutions’ activity;
• The inquiry has also revealed a demand of the visitors of municipal houses of culture to widen
the number of events, involving the people of senior ages and professional colleges’ students,
necessity to organize more service clubs, including women clubs for 45-years-old people and
senior;
# 440 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
• Among the visitors of libraries the main discontent has been caused by the librarians’ lack
of skills of finding necessary information in the internet system (and, certainly, this item is
closely connected with the first item of the given table)
• The visitors of museums have marked that there is a lack of new, non-standard (unique)
services, motivating people to mass visitation of museums – first of all, attracting the youth
and teenagers.
Now, I am not going to linger on the implementation methods of corrections, I shall only say that
they have created separate plans for every item, but the main problem of their realization is absence
of institution officials’ flexibility in making administrative decisions and disability to change their
traditional approaches in the sphere of personnel activities, first of all it concerns the employees, who
have worked for more than 10 years at one and the same place. And all this is caused by the lack of
knowledge and application of this knowledge in the sphere of management and self-management.
Organization of work in institutions, the work, which is targeted to improvement of the service
quality, customer- and result-oriented presupposes a new, modern quality, a new level of training and
a new spectrum of professional competences of the cultural institutions’ employees, competences,
which go far beyond the boarder of their occupational work, which has been taught in their educational
institution. Today, cultural institution’s employee – it can be a librarian, a teacher of the school of arts, a
service club manager or a specialist of the flora and fauna park «Royev Spring» – must simultaneously
know the bases of management, project culture, technology of program-objective planning, must have
a developed strategic thinking and must certainly know the basis of historical dynamics of the sociocultural processes of the city, the region, the country, and of the world. Thereat, he should possess a
full spectrum of special knowledge.
We should mark that at present time and up to 2020 in the strategy of the Krasnoyarsk branch
of culture, they are going to make an accent on the development and support of cultural and creative
industries, which will allow to put into action an innovative socially-oriented type of branch
development with a new spectrum of cultural services and goods for the Krasnoyarsk citizens. It
presupposes formation of special conditions and maximally attractive environment for creative people.
And today, many an institution of Krasnoyarsk includes in its program educational courses, forming
creative competences of the future specialists in the sphere of culture and arts.
Today, the theme of creative industries development is rather topical in Krasnoyarsk, and in
connection with this fact, on 24.04.2010 within the frames of the III Municipal Assembly «Krasnoyarsk.
Technologies of the Future. The First Stage of Modernization» the Chief Administration of Culture
organized and carried out a discussion with elements of presentation «creative industries: city resources,
conditions of realization». In the protocol of intentions, participants of the given discussion marked that
we needed specialists of new competences, and we were to train them in all the educational institutions
of all the stages of preparation, beginning probably even from the preschool education.
At present time, in the branch of culture they have organized work in various directions, which
have influence on development of the personnel potential of the branch, which are the following:
• Improvement of the project culture in order to receive budget funds because of participation in
grant programs and collaboration with sponsors;
• collaboration with institutions employees for searching of new formats of service quality
improvement on the basis of research activity; also including the work with parental
# 441 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
collectives in Municipal Educational Institutions of Additional Children’s Education, Houses
of Culture;
• Interaction with the Humanitarian Institute of SFU in joint researches of socio-cultural
processes and organization of students’ practice in cultural institutions of Krasnoyarsk, all this
contributes to the newest approaches to earlier non-demanded practical skills of the branch
employees. For example: we have already positive experience of SFU students’ participation
in surveying of the objects of cultural heritage, creation of the web-site of MIC «Krasnoyarsk
Artistic Museum n.a. V.I. Surikov» and MIC «V.I. Surikov’s Museum-Mansion», presenting
their funds and halls in 3D-format. Such an interchange of knowledge and skills is a sort of
master-class for both parts of the joint activity – a very perspective and resultative direction in
the course of formation of a new personnel potential of the branch.
One more source of mutual enrichment of students and employees of the cultural branch could
be students’ practice and scientific researches, being run by the students of SFU, KSTTU, SSAU
and other HEIs in the institutions of the branch by the following specializations: socio-cultural
activity, sociology, industrial civil engineering, organizations’ management, record management and
archivistics, architecture and design,.
We suggest the following research directions:
• Mapping of the Krasnoyarsk creative industries’ resources;
• Researching of the existent and creation of new practices, being able to form Krasnoyarsk
brands, including the brand «Siberian Character»;
• Monitoring of evaluation of customers’ satisfaction by the services of cultural institutions
(sociological research, there is a possibility of methodologies of information collection and
processing);
• Inspection of technical conditions of the tasks, given by the Chief Administration of Culture;
• Development of paid services in the autonomic institutions;
• Development of HR service activity and usage of the method of cost-effectiveness analysis
(CEA);
• Development of electronic catalogues for the Archive Files Administration (creation of
electronic data-base); and so on and so forth.
Certainly, in order to carry out the announced researches we shall render maximum assistance
in selection of the practical materials, in provision of the existing regulatory and legal framework,
in searching of experts, we shall provide systematic consulting assistance, and if it is necessary –
shall fulfi ll the role of a scientific supervisor. And consequently, theory and practice, topicality of
diploma works will prove the main tasks of development of the SFU, and newly-issued specialists
will be interested in address choice of their working places for their future activity, and this is
already in the interests of the branch. Surely, we shall be glad to recruit the best student assistants
at their graduation of the HEI or in the course of their study. We consider that in order to reveal the
most professionally-interested students, we must have a reserve data-base, which would contain
all the information about the graduates, who have shown prominent results in the course of their
practice.
We are sure that in the nearest 3 years the salaries of the cultural branch employees will be
raised, and consequently – the youth will be motivated to choose these very specialties and will gladly
# 442 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
participate in salvation of the cultural branch problems, using their new knowledge and new unique
competences.
One of the main criteria, expressed in the requirements, which is faced by the cultural specialist
of the new generation, is the following:
1. Efficient participation of the specialists in realization of Krasnoyarsk cultural projects and
programs, including development and realization of their own events, running of their own separate
programs within the frames of municipal projects, organization of students’ participation in the projects
and competitions (for teachers and conductors of creative amateur collectives).
2. Application of topical and innovative methods in their work (sociological, project, marketing,
computer, educational methods):
- Organization of the work with visitors of various age and social groups (orphans, disabled
people, families with many children, people of senior age and others);
- Application of methodologies and forms of work, allowing to attract visitors and to improve the
quality of the rendering services;
- Participation in grant competitions and programs of various levels;
- Organization of scientific-research, experimental activity (first of all for museums’ personnel
and librarians);
- Organization of the work with students’ parents (for the teachers of children’s schools of arts).
3. Exchange of experience on the municipal and (or) regional level:
- Development of their own methodical materials;
- Development of modified and authorial educational programs (for the teachers of children’s
schools of arts);
- Public reporting and speaking at round tables, seminars, conferences and forums (carrying out
consultations, master-classes) and so on;
- Organization of interaction work with various creative teams, institutions of various types
(educational, including schools and higher schools, museums, creative teams and others), with
non-commercial organizations and units (interdepartmental interaction);
- Publications in mass media (articles in print publications, plots and TV programs).
4. Participation in competitions of professional skills and knowledge and creative competitions
and festivals.
5. Systematic improvement of professional skills by means of qualification improvement
(professional re-training).
These are the criteria of participants’ evaluation of the competition «The best employee of the
municipal cultural institutions of Krasnoyarsk», which has been held by us already for three years.
Annually, we choose the most deserved representatives according to five categories (5 main activity
directions of the net of institutions). And consequently, there are specialists, who are able to meet all
those demands, which are required by the modern life, by our spectator, our listener, and our partner.
Of course, we need a precisely-formulated competence-based model of the specialist for efficient
interuniversity interaction concerning educational programs compilation. And for that purpose, we
need to gather already right now all the characteristics, and describe our expectations and necessities.
Nonstandard educational approaches will also be needed, for example, a transition to the system
of modules, which allows to study not only the module of a concrete topic, but also to run plunges of
# 443 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
the students into the practical activity in the given topic, while teachers get an opportunity to estimate
quickly the quality of students’ mastering of new theoretical and practical knowledge.
I am sure that our co-joint survey for the instruments of the new generation specialist’s preparation
in the sphere of «culture and arts» will become an interesting and unique project with equally interesting
and unique results!
Natalya P. Koptseva: Natalya Valeryevna, and the main question, which torches me, as you
know, what the Russian state is. It seems to me that there is a contradiction. The Russian state is a
unique state, which would like to embrace everything, including culture and arts as well. How can the
state in the face of the Chief Administration of Culture or of the Regional Ministry cover by itself such
wonderful phenomena as culture and arts? Recently, I have got to know with cultural anthropology, and
there is such a theme – national character’s study. They have run certain researches and found out that
we all are anarchists deep inside. On one hand, we are constantly trying to run away from the state –
we move to Siberia, to Far East, run to our country houses, and thereat, we are constantly waiting for
something from our state (diplomas, merit certificates, bonuses, and ranks). It is a remarkable feature
of our national character. And you act somewhere here, using this very contradiction. Do you agree
with this? We would like to work creatively, but at the same time we would like to have many sanctions
from the state. And one more thing, it is interesting, what your budget is?
Natalya V. Malashyuk: what concerns the contradiction – yes, I agree with you. It is really the
feature of our character, and on the other hand, it is our Russian Siberian character that helps us to go
on and not to lose our heart, as far as cultural budget is the smallest one. And we are trying to hold the
bar mainly by means of our work with partners, arts patronage, and merchantry. That is why we must
bring up those ones, who will understand us and will support us.
Natalya P. Koptseva: this way, the state support of the cultural branch will not disappear,
won’t it?
Natalya V. Malashyuk: Certainly, everybody sees and understands the necessity of these tasks
and strategic salvations. But there are other directions. People are constantly complaining about awful
conditions of our roads. Hence, the priorities are changing, and it does not mainly depend on us. That
is why, we are also to bring up our own deputes, who would hear us and understand our problems.
And answering to your question, I say – yes, the state understands that the branch of culture and art
is needed, but they do not know how to develop it. It is very difficult to hear the customer and to be in
step with the times.
Natalya P. Koptseva: and what does the Chief Administration of Culture think about the transition
of some organizations to the autonomic existence?
Natalya V. Malashyuk: we do need autonomic institutions. In 2012 году our government will
issue a document, according to which organizations and institutions will be divided into governmental,
budget, and autonomic. At present time, Krasnoyarsk has tried only autonomic institutions. Nobody,
who has changed the status (and there are a lot of institutions, which have done so – for example music
schools), has yet regretted it. Though, many people are afraid of the fact that they take the risk of losing
of their academician beginning. But the transformation has also a lot of advantages. If the director
is ready to become a businessman, to make decisions in a mobile way, to provide the customer such
services, which he won’t be able to refuse from – his organization will develop and will always have
a good budget.
# 444 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
Natalya P. Koptseva: let us speak about creative higher education institutions. As far as precisely
these kind of institutions are going to prepare highest qualification personnel in the sphere of culture
and arts. Today, we have two guests – two pro-rectors of the Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and
Theatre. We would like to know how the things are in the academy concerning the transition to the
two-leveled system of education.
Olga Y. Kolpetskaya,
Candidate of the Theory of Art, pro-rector of the scientific work
of the FSEI HPE «Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre»
Svetlana G. Voitkevich,
Candidate of the Theory of Art, pro-rector of the artistic work
of the FSEI HPE «Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre»
Report: «The Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre: peculiarities
of the music education and difficulties of the transition
to the new educational standards»:
The Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Art was opened in accordance of resolution № 529 of the
Council of Ministers of the RSFSR d.d. 19 October, 1977 within the system of the Ministry of
Culture of the RSFSR. Later, by order №675 of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation d.d.
13.11.2000, the Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Art was renamed into the State Educational Institution
«Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre». And then, by order №569 of the Ministry of
Culture of the Russian Federation d.d. 25.04.2003, the State Educational Institution «Krasnoyarsk
State Academy of Music and Theatre» was renamed into the Federal State Educational Institution of
the Higher Professional Education «Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre».
There are three faculties in the Academy: musical, theatrical and extra-mural. Obviously, we
should mention about our structural organizational unit – musical college, which is administered by
A.D. Yakobson. In the academy, HR training is run according to the programs of higher education,
secondary professional, post-graduate and additional education (pre-higher education training,
qualification upgrading). Thereat, the process of education is carried out in both intra-mural and extramural forms, as by means of the federal budget funds, so under the contract conditions, which means
full compensation of educational expenditures.
On 01.10.2009, the total number of students was 652 people. The Academy performed specialists’
training in eight specialties of higher professional education in the sphere of culture and arts:
070101 65 Instrumental performances (according to the types of instruments):
Fortepiano, orchestra string instruments, orchestra brass and drum instruments, orchestra folk
instruments.
070103 65 Vocal arts (according to the types of vocal): academic singing;
070105 65 Conducting (types): academic choir conducting; folk choir conducting.
070107 65 Composition.
070111 65 Theory of Music.
070201 65 Dramatic arts: Drama theatre and cinema actor
070208 65 Audio engineering of theatricalized performances and events.
# 445 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
070304 65 Pedagogics of ballet (qualification – ballet dance teacher).
By the way, the Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre is the only specialized higher
education institution on the territory of East Siberia, which prepares specialists in the sphere of music
and theatrical arts.
Natalya P. Koptseva: and so, you prepare scientific personnel, do you have a post-graduate
centre?
Olga Y. Kolpetskaya: yes, sure. We have had the post-graduate centre (of scientific profi le) in
the Academy since 1994. Accompanists and tutors of the Academy, specialists from various music
educational institutions and schools of Russia have raised and continue raising their scientificpedagogical qualification. In our post-graduate centre we study the following specialty 17.00.02 –
Musical art on the basis of the acting legislation concerning the post-graduate education and in
correspondence with aspirants’ individual plans, which are approved by the academic council of
the Academy. Annually, during the last five years, the Academy post-graduate centre has been
receiving from 2 to 3 specialists on the basis of the state order. Teaching of aspirants is also
realized on the basis of direct contracts with organizations, being interested in their employees’
qualification upgrading, and also on the basis of individual contracts. Among our aspirants there
are specialists from Novosibirsk and other cities of Siberia (for example, from Kemerovo, Abakan,
Bratsk, Tomsk, Omsk, Tyiva, Buryatia). Perspectives of the post-graduate centre development are
determined, fi rstly, by the necessity to accelerate and to broaden the preparation of candidates of
science, and secondly, by the growing demand in personnel preparation for HEIs of arts of the
Siberian region.
Natalya P. Koptseva: the Academy of Music and Theatre is a creative HEI, which is firstly wellknown by its musicians and actors. Which departments do they most actively lead their scientificresearch works at?
Olga Y. Kolpetskaya: the major part of the Academy’s scientific-research works is done at the
departments of history of music, theory of music and composing, humanitarian and social sciences,
choir conducting, and chamber ensemble. We create inter-departmental groups, in order to solve local
and perspective scientific problems. The printing and publication department plays the leading role
in scientific-research and methodological work results implementation. And all the departments take
part in making of annual and perspective plans of the institution’s scientific and methodological work,
which is later approved by the academic council. In the Academy, there is a wide and varied spectrum
of directions, which correspond to the profiles of the disciplines, representing spheres of musical
science. The following directions are the most significant:
1. Poetics of the native musical theatre;
2. Theory, methodology and practice of performatory art;
3. Musical regional study;
4. Philosophic-esthetic problems of culture and arts.
All the mentioned directions have been formed in correspondence with the profile of specialists’
preparation, prior directions of the modern humanitarian knowledge development, and specific tasks
of the Academy as a Siberian musical higher education institution. In the scientific-research activity
of the Academy we should underline its orientation to natural scientific fundamentalization of musical
knowledge, musical and theatrical education.
# 446 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
Natalya P. Koptseva: and what is the specific of your training of graduates? What kind of
difficulties do you face?
Svetlana G. Voitkevich: when we are speaking of a new model of the specialist, then representatives
of creative professions experience a lot of difficulties. First of all, it concerns musicians and actors, as
far as the volume of one’s talent, of one’s gift, and abilities is impossible to measure by the generally
accepted frameworks. Speaking about our graduates, we must bear in mind that they are all exclusive,
and it is impossible to measure them by the general criteria.
Experience of centuries and generations proves that a talented person often turns out to be
absolutely helpless in his everyday life, routine questions, usually he is not good at modern technologies,
is not able to advertise himself with a profit, and these qualities have always been and still are of much
necessity, as everyone here understands. All the more it is revealed in this century! That is why pains
and hopes of the teacher and strivings of the students themselves are very often broken by the reality. If
we are speaking of a model of the new generation specialist, then we mean under it such a person, who
equally possesses both talent and necessary complex of professional knowledge and skills to organize
projects, which are directed to his creative potential realization.
Natalya P. Koptseva: will you please tell us, if there is a competition among your prospective
students to be enrolled in your HEI?
Olga Y. Kolpetskaya: yes, there are specialties, where the competition is traditionally unvarying.
These are theatrical faculty and a new specialty «Audio engineering of theatricalized performances and
events», which is highly demanded because of active development of new technologies. At the musical
faculty, the competition is smaller and smaller from year to year. It is the impact of the demographic
«gap», and also the decreasing of the specialty prestige. But the main thing is certainly the state policy
and that cultural space, which dictates new conditions and devaluates the value of education. What for
to study vocal in the course of 9 years, if, having some minor talent, one can take part in some show
program and take a chance of making «easy» money? It is a pity, but nobody shows «the other side» of
such «elevations» to the young generation.
Natalya P. Koptseva: why does the system of musical education resist the introduction of the 3-d
generation standard?
Svetlana G. Voitkevich: specifics of education in a creative HEI is in the following: our students
are «piece-goods». Sometimes, there are only 5-6 people in the group. In the course of two centuries we
have got a steady system in the musical education: school – college – HEI. Except academic vocal, all
the rest performance and research specialties presuppose future students’ training in musical schools
and colleges. Moreover, there is a whole complex of disciplines, which are connected exclusively with
individual education. There are no as much individual lessons in the curriculum of any institution, as
there is in the Academy. In the developed 3-d generation standards all the specialties are «fractionized».
And sometimes the complex of announced disciplines does not correspond to that, what is necessary.
And what is the last drop – creative probations, which are the main examination for evaluation of the
potential students of our specifics, are ascribed to the row of «additional» ones! In other words, any
person, who has passed the Russian and literature USE, has a right to be enrolled in to the creative
HEI to the chosen specialty, having just performed a piece of a primary-music-school level. And such
important qualities as staginess, good ear, sense of rhythm, intoning skill, flexibility, emotionality and
musicality will be hardly taken into consideration.
# 447 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
Natalya P. Koptseva: how much are the graduates of your HEI demanded?
Olga Y. Kolpetskaya, Svetlana G. Voitkevich: today, our former students represent our region
on the vast territory of Russia and work in central drama and musical theatres and also abroad. Such
names as Dmitry Khvorostovskiy, Nikolay Putilin, Alexander Bogdanov, Vera Baranova, and Valery
Mikitskiy are well-known all over the world. Graduates from our Academy amount from 40 to 70
% of the creative collectives of the city and the region, of culture and arts institutions. On the basis
of the Academy, they have formed the following collectives, which still exist and are working in the
municipal status: Choir Ensemble of Soloists «Singing to you» (Artistic Director, Honored Artist
of RF К. Yakobson) and Krasnoyarsk Chamber Orchestra (Artistic Director, Honored Artist of RF
M. Benumov). Moreover, it has become a tradition that orchestras of the Academy take part in the
celebration events, which are organized by the municipal and regional administrations. They are
the symphonic orchestra (Artistic Director, Laureate of the All-Russian competition V. Shelepov),
the brass orchestra (Artistic Director, Honored man of art of the Tyva Republic P. Kazimir), the
folk orchestra (Artistic Director, R. Antipinsky); the Choir of Academy students (Artistic Director,
Honored woman of art of RF L. Krayevaya), and the folk ensemble «Svetlitsa» (Artistic Director,
Honored man of art of the RF N. Shulpekov). Since 2005, thanks to the activity of our Students’
theatre, our citizens have got an opportunity to watch performances of the graduates of our theatrical
faculty.
Our Academy is open to cooperation. Organization and running of seminars, similar to this one,
will help to find those common themes, which will allow to enrich our graduates and to make them
more able to meet competition under such complicated modern circumstances.
Nikolay V. Sosnin: it has become a revelation for me that specifics of musicians’ teaching does
not at all correlate with the competence-based approach and even contradicts it. And how are you going
to built it in the frames of the competence-based approach, if you prepare the students so exclusively
and individually?
Olga Y. Kolpetskaya: yes, Nikolay, here you are right. There is a whole row of contradictions. And
we hope that we will be able to solve this contradiction that way that our system of high qualification
specialists’ preparation, which has been formed for centuries, won’t suffer. And we also hope that such
kind of seminars will be of much help for us.
Natalya P. Koptseva: I would like to introduce you one more HEI, which issue specialists of
creative specialties, people of practice – the Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Arts. How do you manage
to implement the requirements of the competence-based approach along with the specifics of your
specialties?
Elena Y. Khudonogova,
Candidate of Art Theory, Docent, the Head of the World Artistic Culture
and Social Disciplines of the FSEI HPE «Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Arts »
Report «Modern artistic education: its tendencies and tasks»:
Today, in Russia we observe how slowly, but inevitably the system of the modern arts is forming.
Hence, there appears a whole list of problems, being connected to the artistic society, system role of
the artist, market system of the arts functioning and so on. In such a situation, education is the leading
beginning, is the basis of the system of arts, which guarantees its reproduction and perspective.
# 448 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
Artistic education can be efficient only in case it turns out to be ready to transformations along
with the others, transformations, which will be synchronous to the changing of the artistic process
itself. That is why, now, we may observe a growing interest to educational concepts of various type,
including the experience of Bauhaus and BXYTEMAC. One of the basic tasks of the classic education –
to teach how to think, to cultivate practical skills, – becomes secondary in the given situation. We are
to develop the ability to conduct a dialogue, to teach to function within the system, to assimilate to the
modern processes of the artistic market. Today, the artistic market is presented not only by separate
artists and museums, but also by galleries, private customers, and, on the other side, by independent
creative groups.
We are to divide the notions of commercial and creative success, as far as creation of «another
world» becomes an alternative of the existing system for young people. We observe an active interest
towards anti-academic systems and inclination to form independent private or commercial schools.
The new format of school is absence of any kind of pressure on talented students, free development of
skills and abilities in this or that direction, appliance of the modern technologies, work with various
techniques and materials. This is precisely what the academic education is lacking. Artistic institutions
are closed in themselves and they are practically not ready to take the challenge of the time. That is why
there is a conflict between the traditional and the creative, new.
As a consequence – we lose potential students, loose the quality of our new comers and talents
become rear, those, who are able to independent creative thinking. Activity and creativity of the
students are very low. At present time, expansion of the cultural and social spheres demands reviewing
of the educational programs of artistic specialties. The student should not «be old» and reproduce the
patterns of the past. Teaching process should be formed that way that it helps the student «to disclose
himself», to strive to create something new.
Most dynamic young people try to find such an educational institution, which will allow them to
develop themselves in the freest way, and to be successful and creative in the system of education. Or,
the second variant – it will give them an opportunity to master their craft in the fullest volume, in future
it will allow them to master the skills of drawing and picturing, and to create remarkable technique
imitations of the saloon academic school (as an example, it obviously prevails in the market).
Educational program of the modern student of creative faculties must form his activity and the
skill of dialogue leading, and his readiness to agues and discussions. There is a necessity in the social
exchange «school» → society, and also exchange with the professional society, critics and masters. We
can teach to think only in such a context.
Exactness of the idea of artistic expression is very important in the modern art. Author’s position,
communicability and activity are the basis of the creative education. Today, advance guard is a position,
defending a new social role of art, its place in the society and in new social systems.
Here, the traditional mechanism of knowledge transference does not work. It is necessary to
work out the system of collaboration teacher-pupil. Dialogue, ability to defend one’s ideas, and here,
the main link is artistic criticism. Active involvement into the modern cultural situation demands a
certain shock. Shocking education is the most efficient today. It is impossible to educate somebody,
one can do it only himself. It is impossible to teach, one can only study. And the task of teaching is
not to obtain a quick result, but to provoke as maximally as possible and give a possibility to be ready
to take the challenge of various situations. The man should get a sum of knowledge, the system of
# 449 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
reacting. Difficulties in socialization are one of the main reasons of absence of demand and disability
to adaptation in the professional sphere, to galleries, to the market. So, there is only one way left– to
a cheep commercial saloon, to the shop, to the mixed systemless exhibitions. And in such a variant,
professional prestige becomes absolutely low.
The system of artistic education persistently demands crucial changes. Expansion of the row of
specialties and much more flexible involvement into the educational process, where there will be no
such a leading principle as preparation «according to the types», and universality of the professional
education will run the show, when the student will freely master «the language» of art in various
techniques, materials, including modern technologies as well.
Such training is highly demanded in the modern society and will allow the graduate of creative
faculties to find his professional place in the society.
Natalya P. Koptseva: what is the dynamics of potential students’ and of the first-year students’
quality?
Elena Y. Khudonogova: in the last 20 year, the cultural sphere of Krasnoyarsk has much shrink.
Since the time, when P.S. Fedirko announced that there was «High Culture» in Siberia, the situation
has drastically changed. Precisely at that very time they open the Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Art.
It gave Siberia the artists with high education. Earlier there had been just few of them. Now, we have
quite many professional painters and all of them are moving away all over Russia and abroad. Firstly,
it allows other cities to open these specialties in common universities, and it influences our institute’s
enrollment competition. And secondly, we observe weakening of the professional level. Earlier, we
have had competition of15-20 persons per a place, today it is only 1-2. What concerns the specialty
«sculpture», the situation is still worse. Sometimes, there is a lack of students for the first year of study.
And if we take into account, that the percentage of students’ expelling is rather high, so then only few
of them get their diplomas. And thirdly, in comparison with musicians, it is very difficult to find job for
painters in the city. After they graduate from the institute, all of them are in a sort of a free flight. And
our system of education is unique, individual. The entire institute is only 280 people. It is the smallest
institute. Though, teacher-painters are themselves in the same situation. This problem is highly topical
at the present moment and it must be solved as soon as possible.
Moreover, I would like to add, that I am very glad, that such a project has appeared, the project,
which, being on the basis of the SFU, will allow joining the efforts of the HEIs, preparing the specialists
for the sphere of culture and arts, in order to change the formed situation. On the other hand, I think,
that communication with the representatives of technical sciences, with the so-called technocrats is
very important for our disciplines development. They are very good at setting the goals and defining
the tasks.
Elena A. Yershova,
Candidate of Pedagogic Sciences, the Head of the Quality Management Department
of the FSEI HPE «Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Arts »
Report: «Usage of Informational Technologies at the Self-Presentation
of a Student of. the Creative HEI»
Those problems, which have been mentioned in the course of Elena Y. Khudonogova’s report, do
really have a negative impact on the successfulness of our Institute’s graduates. In my report I would
# 450 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
like to look at these global problems in detail, and to look at them just in one aspect – in the aspect of
the creative institute student’s self-presentation.
Humanitarian education is targeted not only to give the students the sum of knowledge and
skills in a certain sphere, but also to widen their horizon, to develop their creative thinking,
abilities of self-education, to give them understanding of inter-disciplinary links, and also to form
humanistic values. Precisely these very parameters make up the specifics of the competencebased approach. For the student of the Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Arts the way to professional
mastery passes through the development of professional competences, which the future painter
carriers through all his life and which motivate him to a constant self-perfection in his profession.
The following components from the basis of the artistic education content, which is oriented to
the competence-based approach realization: cognitive personal experience, emotional personal
experience, experience of creation and experience of practical activity. All the given components
become not only the basis for artistic activity realization, but they themselves are being formed in
the course of this activity.
Indication of the student’s growth as an artistic person is his constant formation of his portfolio
in the course of his education.
Many artists made their creative works’ portfolio even in the previous centuries. It was a collection
of works, which demonstrated the style of the artist and his possibilities.
In the educational process of the Institute, we consider the student’s portfolio as a sum of
educational and professional achievements, their presentation and demonstration of the best individual
achievements. Portfolio is a self-presentation of the student’s educational achievements, which he
records timely by himself.
There are 6 educational programs, which are realized in the Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Arts.
They are:
0707901.65 «Pictorial art»
070902.65 «Graphics»
070903.65 «Sculpture»»
070603.65 «Interior»
070801.65 «Decorative and applied arts»
070601.65 «Design»
Since first year of study, the students of the institute take an active part in various exhibitions,
competitions, conferences, plain-airs and so on. That is why the student’s portfolio also fulfills the
functions of self-presentation, job placement.
Portfolio can be of various forms: a paper variant, an electronic version or a presentation in the website (web-portfolio). Portfolio paper variant contains the main information about its author, documents,
certifying his educational achievements, annotations of his project and creative work results and so on.
But, this type of portfolio is quite archaic; it does not provide an effective presentation and can be just
an addition to the electronic portfolio, and best of all – a portfolio in the web-site.
Various scientific schools have different approaches to portfolio characteristics. Out of the whole
variety of characteristics, we may single out the following three:
• The main sense of educational portfolio is to show everything, what the student is capable of,
to demonstrate his strongest points and to reveal most fully his creative potential.
# 451 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
• To teach and to bring up the skills of the student’s activity analysis, self-organization, selfcontrol, self-evaluation, and also positive attitude to somebody’s critics of his activity;
• Self-conscious and self-feeling of one’s own results and understanding of the results’
dynamics.
In the curriculum of all the specialties, within the frames of the discipline «Informational
Technologies» the students study programs which can be used as an electronic presentation, and which
allow to perform digital image processing, and create WEB – resources.
Students get to know to post their creative achievements on the Internet on various WEB – portals,
dedicated to creative activity (for example artlib.ru).
Electronic portfolio contains of two main parts:
1. Portfolio of documents is a set of certified (documented) individual educational achievements.
The main requirement of this component is validity of these documents. In the paper variant all the
certificates, merit letters and diplomas are verified by the signatures of responsible executives and by
the stamp of organization, which has issued the document.
2. Portfolio of works is a collection of various creative, project and research works of the student.
The given part of the electronic portfolio does not almost differ from the paper variant. Any document,
being set in the traditional paper portfolio, can be easily transferred into the electronic format.
At present time, publication of electronic portfolios of the students of KSIA is done on the
individual electronic media, on the local computer net resources and we are planning to create such a
resource on the web-site of KSIA.
Denis A. Antonov,
Candidate of Philosophic Sciences, deputy administrator
of the Social Policy Department of the Krasnoyarsk Administration,
Docent of the Social Work and Sociology Department
of the Siberian State Technological University
Report: «Specialists’ training for the sphere of culture and arts
in the context of the problem of social identity»
The pathos of my report is in the following: the process of the highest qualification specialists’
preparation for the sphere of culture and arts must be adequate to the historically-formed peculiarities
of the native system of education and must serve to the cause of preservation of the Russian society’s
identity.
Every society asserts itself in special objective conditions, and taking into account that there
are specific subjective factors , we see that in the result of all these there are formed certain peculiar
features and characteristics of the society and in their integrity they form a certain definiteness of
the society, its specifics and recognizability in the existing variety of societies. This definiteness is
precisely the identity of the society. Consequently, every society has its own definiteness and, retaining
its definiteness, it keeps its viability.
In this respect, the system of education gains a special status, as far as it is a historically formed
social institute, being not only one of the elements of society’s identity, but also, and it is especially
important, a system of society’ identity reproduction, including its key component – its culture. The
given statement is also reflected in the researches of S.G. Kara-Murza, who marks, that «the Russian
# 452 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
system of the higher education has been formed for almost 300 years. It is one of the most complicated
and the richest products of the native culture, but the fact that it is a matrix, wherein our culture is
reproduced, is even more important».
That is why, being within the frames of the Russian higher education school, training of the
highest qualification specialists for the sphere of culture and arts must be run not under the influence of
the borrowed quality standards of higher education, but considering the necessity, firstly, of the further
development of the native education system’s productivity, secondly, of preservation of society’s
identity, formation of personnel potential, being able to solve topical problems in the sphere of culture
and art.
Such an approach presupposes a constructive perception of the formed western system
of education, i.e. it accepts its substantiality and viability under the living conditions of the
western societies, and also allows to escape the imitation of the western educational system,
being so harmful as for the Russian education identity, so for identity of the Russian society on
the whole.
Natalya P. Koptseva: at the beginning of the seminar, I have already told you about the directions
and specialties, being realized at the art theory and cultural studies faculty of the SFU and also about
the necessity to reconstruct the educational process in correspondence with the federal state educational
standards of the 3-d generation, having been formed in accordance with the competence-based approach,
and also about the necessity to take into account our regional specifics of the specialists’ training. Irina
A. Panteleeva and Sergey I. Pochekutov have worked upon the formation of the graduate’s model of
the direction «socio-cultural activity» within the frames of the competence-based approach and taking
into account our regional specifics.
Irina A. Panteleeva,
Candidate of Philosophic Sciences, Docent of the Department of Marketing
and Social-cultural activity of the art theory and cultural studies
faculty of the Humanitarian Institute of the SFU
Sergey I. Pochekutov,
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Docent of the Department of materials science
and technology of construction materials of the Polytechnic Institute of the SFU
Report: «Model of the Graduate of the Direction «Socio-Cultural Activity»
of the Siberian Federal University with respect of the regional competences»:
At present time, improvement of the quality of the higher education institution’s graduate is a
topical problem not only for Russia, but also for the whole world. And salvation of this problem is
directly connected with modernization of the higher education content, in particular, with the transition
to the new educational standards, optimization of educational process methods and technologies and
rethinking of the final result of the higher education.
Today, the modern Russian education is on the stage of a crisis, which, on one hand, is determined
by a certain «detachment» of the education from the quickly changing demands of the modern market
of labor and its requirements to new specialists and, on the other hand, because of Russia’s entering
into the Bologna process and its inevitable transference to the two-leveled system of education.
# 453 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
This problem is especially severe in the sphere of culture and arts, where the system of education
(primary, high, and higher) has been formed not simply for years, but for decades, if not for centuries.
Several modern scientists have substantiated the competence-based approach as a basis for the
crisis overcoming:
• the competence-based approach gives answers to the requests of the industrial sphere (Т.М.
Kovaljeva);
• the competence-based approach reveals itself as a renewing of the educational content in
response to the changing socio-economical reality (I.D. Frumin);
• the competence-based approach is a generalized condition of the person’s ability to act
efficiently beyond the boarders of educational plots and situations (V.A. Bolotov);
• Competency seems to be radical means of modernization (B.D. Elkonin);
• Competency is characterized by the possibility of abilities transition into the conditions, being
different from those, upon which this competency has been originally formed (V.V. Bashev).
Implementation of the competence-based approach into the modern Russian higher education
is inevitable, as far as it is caused by the world-wide tendency of integration, by globalization in the
sphere of economy, education and culture, and, to the opinion of A.N. Afanasjev, it is «a starting point
of integration of Russia and Europe» (Afanasjev, 2003. P. 54).
In connection with all the mentioned, it seems to be topical to create a model of the graduate of the
new generation in the sphere of culture and arts, which would take into consideration all the modern
socio-economical and cultural realities, and precisely on the basis of the competence-based approach.
And as a representative, we suggest the direction «socio-cultural activity».
Since 2000, the art theory and cultural studies faculty of the Siberian Federal University has
been enrolling the students on the specialty «socio-cultural activity», which is included into the
general group «culture and arts» and is the only classic university, which prepares students in the
given direction. Specialty «socio-cultural activity» has been opened according to the order of the
Krasnoyarsk Region Administration because of a huge deficit of specialists-managers of socio-cultural
activity in the region. Less than 20% of managers in the sphere of culture and arts in the Krasnoyarsk
Region had had higher education and only some part of them had education in the sphere of culture
and arts. The need in the graduates of the given specialty is still urgent. Since 2010 the faculty has been
enrolling students for the specialty «socio-cultural activity» in accordance with the given planned
figures of enrollment.
Federal educational standard of the direction «socio-cultural activity» includes in itself general
cultural and professional competences.
General cultural competences (GC), which are necessary for the graduate, presuppose to possess
the culture of thinking, the skill to speak and to write logically and correctly, with necessary arguments,
the skill to work in the team, the ability to work with information in global computer nets, knowledge
of one of the foreign languages and so on. (Federal State.., 2010).
Professional competences (PC) of the graduate of the direction «socio-cultural activity» are given
in FSES and divided according to the types of activity (creative-industrial activity, organizationmanagement activity, artistic direction of the cultural institution’s activity, scientific-methodical
activity, project activity, pedagogical activity) and includes in itself 29 competences (Federal State..,
2010).
# 454 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
As far as the direction «socio-cultural activity», being realized in the art theory and cultural
studies faculty of the Humanitarian Faculty of the SFU, has been originally conceived as the one,
being oriented to the demands of the region; general cultural and professional competences, written
in FSES, need to be added in the part of professional competences for the sphere of culture and arts of
the Krasnoyarsk region. Within the frames of the educational conception, the graduate of the direction
«socio-cultural activity» of the art theory and cultural studies faculty must:
- be ready to run his own professional activity on the basis of his knowledge of cultures and the
peoples, living on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk region;
- to be able to take into consideration specifics of cultures of the native small-numbered
nations of the Krasnoyarsk region on the basis of the notion of peculiarities of their lives, living
conditions, traditional occupations, religious notions and artistic and decorative-applied creative
activity;
- To work in accordance with the cultural legislation fundamentals of the Krasnoyarsk region and
other normative documents, determining the specifics of socio-cultural activity in the region;
- to be ready to run professional activity on the basis of one’s knowledge in the sphere of cultural
policy of the Krasnoyarsk region on the whole and of its separate municipal institutions; to be able to
realization of the regional policy positions in practice and its content modernization in connection with
the changing realties;
- To be able to formation of creative products in the socio-cultural sphere, which are targeted to
development of tolerance in the poly-cultural space of the Krasnoyarsk region;
- To be ready to assimilation and communication in the poly-cultural space of separate kinds
of ethnos and on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk region; able to management activity in the sociocultural sphere with due respect to a concrete ethno-cultural and territorial situation;
- To be ready to the scientific researches carriage, to development and realization of creative
projects, targeted to promotion of the positive image of the Krasnoyarsk region in the Russian Federation
and all over the world.
At present time, they develop a basic education program in the direction «socio-cultural activity»,
which is based on Federal Educational Standard 071800 «Socio-Cultural Activity» dated January 2010.
In connection with all this, they continue to define the groups of competences, which take into account
the Krasnoyarsk region’s specifics and which will be included into the variable part of the educational
program.
References:
Federal State Educational Standard of the Higher Professional Education 071800 in the direction
«Socio-Cultural Activity» (qualification (degree) «Bachelor». Accepted by the Ministry of Education
and Science of RF, dated January 13, 2010, № 16.
A.N. Afanasjev. The Bologna Process in Germany / A.N. Afanasjev / / Higher Education of
Today. – 2003. – № 5. – P. 54-57.
Natalya P. Koptseva: this report is very topical; especially what concerns the aspect of the
problematics, being studied at the faculty. And in continuation of it, we shall listen to the following
report, which discloses the modern requirements to the specialists in the sphere of culture and arts in
the respect of inter-ethnical relations.
# 455 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
Irina S. Lyisenko,
Assistant of the Philosophy and Social Sciences Department
of the Siberian State Aero-Cosmic University n.a. M.F. Reshetnev
Report: «Inter-Ethnical Relations: Modern Requirements to the Specialists
in the Sphere of Culture and Arts»
At present time, inter-ethnical relations become more urgent. It is caused by the processes of
globalization, which also involve active migratory movements. Unsatisfactory economical situation,
social and ethnical conflicts in the former republics of the USSR contribute only to the growth of labor
migration as to the territory of Russia, so to the territory of the Krasnoyarsk region. Inter-ethnical
relations are very topical for Russia not only because of the labor migration, but also because of
centuries-old historical experience of existence of representatives of multi-ethnical communities on
its territory.
At present time, ethnical activity can be observed in various spheres of the Krasnoyarsk region
(economy, education, culture, sports) and in various forms, thus creating the conditions for inter-ethnical
contacts. For example, in the sphere of culture, ethnical activity is revealed in the activity of nationalcultural (NCU) unions and ethno-cultural youth movements, which organize and run public national
holidays and actions, connected to ethnical traditions. In the Krasnoyarsk region there are more than
30 national-cultural unions, which are registered in the Ministry of justice of the Krasnoyarsk region.
Introduction to the traditions of various nations is an important factor of the peaceful inter-ethnical
co-existence. Thus, the given idea is taken as a basis of quite a many educational projects, which are
targeted to give children an opportunity to get acquainted to various cultural traditions. This idea is
taken as a basis of many cultural institutions’ activity (museums, palaces of culture, various esthetic
centers and sports clubs).
Though, addressing to cultures, to traditions of various nations and organization of events of the
given thematic direction demands theoretical knowledge and thinking over. For example, to the given
knowledge we can refer the material about ethno-psychological peculiarities of the nations, about
history of culture and arts of separate nations, the material concerning the theory of ethno-conflicts.
General interest of the specialist himself to historical and modern events from the sphere of interethnical relations also plays an important role.
Professional knowledge of the sphere of inter-ethnical relations can be needed not only in
collaboration of the cultural institution with the institutions of the civil society (including NCIs), but
can be also useful in the course of work with the historical heritage of Russia. For example, activity of
these or those ethnic communities on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk region can influence the choice
of this or that ethnic content of the cultural project.
Integration approach to the work with the participants of cultural projects can be also referred to
one of the demands to the specialists of the sphere of culture and arts in the course of work with ethnoprojects. At the same time, it is one more mechanism of formation of peace-loving inter-ethnic relations.
In this case, the integration approach presupposes appliance of the inter-disciplinary approach, as far
as knowledge itself of the inter-ethnic relations is already inter-disciplinary, including the material of
psychology, history, cultural studies and sociology.
To our opinion, we should also refer evaluation of efficiency of projects functioning (projects,
which are targeted to formation, development and fortification of inter-ethnic relations) to professional
# 456 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
requirements. Project work efficiency is revealed in fi xation of specifics of the customer’s relation
to the content and sense, being translated outwards. To our mind, it is fi xation of this relation,
what allows the specialist of the sphere of culture and arts to perform the analysis of ethno-project
efficiency.
And attitude towards representatives of a certain nation depends on to what extend correctly and
professionally they translate the traditions of various ethnoses by means of cultural projects. Interest
to cultural peculiarities also forms a positive attitude towards the ethnos itself. Positive images of the
ethnos are formed by means of its culture. At present time, culture represents by itself an important
instrument of formation, development and fortification of the inter-ethnic positive relations.
Thus, professionalism of the specialists of the sphere of culture and arts, working with the projects
of ethnic content, depends to a certain degree on the condition of the inter-ethnic relations.
Anatoly V. Brilkov,
Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor of the Modern Natural Sciences Department
of the Institute of the Fundamental Training of the SFU,
Victoria V. Dubich,
Candidate of Technical Sciences, Docent of the Modern Natural Sciences Department
of the Institute of the Fundamental Training of the SFU
Oleg A. Zolotov,
Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Docent
of the Modern Natural Sciences Department of the Institute
of the Fundamental Training of the SFU,
Yury Y. Loginov,
Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor
of the Modern Natural Sciences Department of the Institute
of the Fundamental Training of the SFU,
Zoja G. Kholostova,
Docent of the Modern Natural Sciences Department of the Institute
of the Fundamental Training of the SFU.
Report: «The Main Conceptions of Natural Scientific Education
of the Specialists in the Sphere of Culture and Arts»
The modern humanity lives in the world of dynamically developing technologies, very often
opposing them. This antagonism is possibly the main challenge of the civilization of our time. And it
is apparent that precisely the specialists in the sphere of culture and art are right on the verge of this
opposition. From this point of view, conceptions of the modern natural science are presented as an
indispensable part of the sphere of education of such specialists.
Moreover, if we speak about methodological skills of specialists of humanitarian directions, about
their «skill of thinking», then we should say that humanitarian style of thinking must be dialectically
completed by the natural-scientific way of thinking.
# 457 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
And finally, in the modern world of high-technology, it is impossible to imagine a modern young
specialist (Master, Bachelor) simply without the skill of utilitarian usage of modern technologies in
his professional activity. And as far as modern technologies are very dynamic, then in the course of
specialists’ teaching it is necessary not so to teach certain techniques, as to bring up technological
culture and to make them understand basic conceptions.
To the mind of the authors, salvation of the mentioned above tasks is the main target of the
discipline «conception of the modern natural science (CMNS)», which is given to the future specialists
in the sphere of culture and arts.
The main task of the discipline is to contribute to formation of the wide basic higher education,
which will in its turn contribute to farther development of the person. In the course of the study, we are
to give a panorama of the most universal methods and laws of the modern natural science, demonstrate
the specifics of the rational method of cognition of the surrounding world.
In the process of the discipline study, the students obtain the following competences.
Instrumental competences:
1. Mastering of scientific methods of nature cognition;
2. Learning of fundamental laws of the modern natural science;
3. Adoption of the skills and methods of concrete applied problems’ salvation, being dictated by
the demands of the modern world;
4. Skills of working with the modern research devices and equipment, study of mathematical
methods of experimental results’ processing, questionnaire surveys;
5. Formation of natural science world outlook and modern thinking.
The students will use the skills and knowledge, having been obtained in the course of their study,
as a theoretical natural scientific basis in the process of their professional activity in the sphere of
culture and arts.
Professional competences:
1. to possess scientific methods of cognition and to know how to apply them in the professional
activity in the sphere of culture and arts;
2. to have a notion of the main achievements and perspectives of the natural science development
as a fundamentals of science-intensive technologies;
3. to know fundamental laws and research methods of the modern natural science, which are
lying in the basis of progressive branch technologies;
4. to possess an instrumental basis of the modern natural science and methods of processing of
measurement results or questionnaire surveys in respect of the specifics of culture and arts;
5. to know how to apply the basic conceptions of the modern natural science for creation of
progressive technological processes;
6. To possess scientific knowledge of healthy way of living, have skills and knowledge for selfperfection.
The main target of the discipline “conception of the modern natural science” is to acquaint
humanitarian specialties student with an indispensable component of the integral culture – natural
science, and to form an integral world outlook. Moreover, nowadays it is necessary as far as rational
# 458 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
natural-scientific method is penetrating into the humanitarian sphere, takes part in the society’s
conscious formation and, along with it, acquires more universal language, being adequate to philosophy,
psychology, social sciences and even arts. Today, we may observe the appearance of the tendency of
harmonious synthesis of two components of culture, having been traditionally opposing each other,
and this tendency reflects the necessity of the society in the integral world outlook and underlines the
topicality of the suggested discipline.
The idea of the course is in the following: to transfer the elements of natural scientific knowledge,
notions of fundamental conceptions of various natural sciences, making up an integral picture of the
world, to humanitarian specialists. In spite of the fact that there are all the necessary elements of history
and philosophy, the main content of the discipline presupposes to contain integral descriptions of
nature and man (as a part of nature) on the basis of scientific achievements, changes of methodologies,
conceptions and paradigms, in the general cultural and historical contexts.
Acquaintance of the students with the basic theoretical statements in the sphere of modern natural
science forms general notions of tendencies and directions of natural sciences development. The
students are presented a harmonious system of knowledge concerning the origination, organization
and development of organic and inorganic nature. It is necessary to make students be sure in a right
understanding and necessary application of natural laws in their everyday life. At the present course,
significant attention is paid to ecological problems for ecological education development.
Since the beginning of CMNS teaching in the HEIs of the country there have been published a
lot of educational books and guidances on the modern natural science conceptions. They differ from
the old ones by the selection of material, by the structure and by the level of the material presentation.
And to our point of view, none of them satisfies to full extend the existing state standard (the second
one) of this discipline. The course structure and the order of the main topics’ presentation play the
leading role in realization of the targets of teaching of the discipline «conception of the modern
natural science».
Introduction to the course is the theme «scientific method of the world cognition and specifics of
its appearance in natural science». In the process of its existence, the mankind has worked out a lot
of methods of world cognition: artistic, mythological, religious, scientific, technical, and others. Each
of them has its own bases to be considered to be the right one. They concern the choice of problems,
being solved, the choice of methods of their salvation and the choice of evaluation of the gained results.
At present time, scientific method of world cognition dominates. Though, we should not forget that
only all of them together provide human life-sustaining activity. Whatever the level of science and
technology development of the society is, the man has to live, to act and to make serious decisions on
the boarder of science and other ways of world cognition. The man has to pass this boarder a lot of
times and consequently, he has to know where the science is and where it ends. Here, we should pay
attention to the fact that scientific knowledge is essential, generalized, substantiated, and proved, and
every stage of science development generates its own norms and mind sets, science is guided by the
integral system of methodological approaches.
A very important theme is about scientific methods. In this theme we disclose peculiarities
of the modern natural scientific observation and experiment, including elemental presentation of
the experiment theory. It is also necessary to consider general objective laws of the natural science
development: questions of integration of fundamental and applied research works in the modern
# 459 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
natural science, the role of mathematics in natural sciences, natural science development as a change
of paradigms, and succession in the natural science development.
The main parts of the CMNS course are fundamental ideas and principles of physics, chemistry,
biology, synergetic paradigm, origination and evolution of the Universe, and global evolutionism. It is
important that in the course of CMNS study, the students would understand not only the material itself,
but also the logics of its presentation.
Thus, the course “conception of the modern natural science” has been conceived as an interdisciplinary dynamic description of the basic phenomena and laws of nature and those scientific
inventions, which have given a way to revolutionary changes in technologies, social world outlook
and conscious. For that purpose it has been required a strict selection of the main scientific factors,
representing each branch of the natural sciences. Methodology of the course consists of the ascension
along the organizational stages of the developing material world up to a man as a bio-psycho-social
being, and then to interaction of the biosphere and civilization. The practical aim of the course is not
only to bring up students’ natural scientific culture of thinking, but also to teach them a correct attitude
to nature and all the living beings, which can be called a basic ecological culture.
The given discipline is a product of inter-disciplinary synthesis. That is why its teaching is possible
only on the basis of appliance of the general evolutionary-synergetic paradigm, which is able to unite
both components of culture. This way, we can illustrate the objective law of scientific knowledge
development, inevitability of rotations of scientific rationality types and paradigms of natural science,
and we can explain the need in integral culture in our critical time.
In connection with all the mentioned, in the course of natural science lectures delivering we are
to pay attention to those moments, which raise the questions of scientific-technological progress before
every member of civilized society. New technologies, informatization and ecologization have actually
overwhelmed most of the spheres of human activity, which concern as professional duties, so our every
day life. To our mind, the task of the natural sciences course is in the following: to teach the student to
understand the tendencies of the further development of scientific-technological progress, to know the
role of natural science disciplines in that progress, to apply them in every day life, if it is possible.
Now, it is obvious, that teaching of the specialist of the highest qualification, who has to live and
to work in the third century, is impossible without harmonious knowledge of origination, organization
and processes of nature development.
References:
V.K. Voronov, M.V. Grechneva, R.Z. Sagdeev «Fundamentals of the Modern Natural Science»,
Moscow: Higher School, 1999. – 247 p.
T.Y Dubnishjeva, «Conceptions of the Modern Natural Science», Moscow: Academy, 2006. – 608 p.
S.H. Karpenkov, «Conceptions of the Modern Natural Science», Moscow: Higher School, 2003. –
488 p.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
Dmitri Y. Grigorenko,
Docent of the Philosophy and Social Sciences Department
of the Siberian State Aero-Cosmic University n.a. M.F. Reshetnev
Report: «Specialist of the New Generation as the Best Representative
of the Modern Society».
Working out of the model of the specialist for the sphere of culture and arts demands theoretical
understanding of criteria, which allow revealing the main definitions of his personal-professional
image. As far as culture is directed, first of all, to man’s perfection, and the specialist in the given
sphere must possess certain qualities of personal perfection. This statement has been mainly developed
in the native philosophic tradition. From the times of ancient Russ, Russian philosophers has been
researching the problem of social advance guard, within which frames the following questions have
been solved: who should be in its rows, what are the qualities of the representative of the social advance
guard, what is the specifics of its activity and so on. The problem of the social advance guard has been
concentrated with in the frames of the principle «the power of the best». Reproducing aristocratic beliefs
of Plato and Aristotle, the given principle has been represented in the following idea: representatives
of the social advance guard must play the leading role in the religious and cultural enlightenment of
the people. In this respect, F.M. Dostoevsky marked: «People’s, national teacher is made by centuries,
kept by legends, and by innumerable experience». (Dostoevsky, 1980). The great thinker says in the
given statement that the specialist in the sphere of culture is formed on the basis of historical national
tradition and, correspondingly, carries in his personal image the best definitions of the national spirit.
In confirmation of the thesis, we can recollect a statement of another eminent theoretic of the idea of
aristocracy – N.A. Berdyaev: «Aristocratic idea demands real dominance of the best … aristocracy,
as government and dominance of the best, as a requirement of qualitative selection, remains to be
the highest principle of the social life …find a person, who is the most talented in the given country,
appoint him to as high position as possible, esteem him steadily and you will get quite a perfect
government …». (Berdyaev, 2006)
This way, only the best representatives of the people may govern the cultural sphere of the society –
this is the imperative of the national philosophical tradition of all the times. The given idea presupposes
a dual-unity of principles of aristocratism and conciliarism in governance of the society, when one can
observe the dialectics of management and self-management (when the best ones managing, but they are
chosen by the people, subordinated to and controlled by the people).
References:
F.M. Dostoevsky. The writer’s dairy. 1883. Full collection of works in 30 volumes. V. 21. Moscow.
Science, 1980. P. 93.
N.A. Berdyaev. Philosophy of Inequality. / N.A. Berdyaev. Moscow.: Ast, 2006. P. 145-146.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
Yekaterina V. Karelina,
Candidate of Philosophic Sciences, Docent of the Philosophy
and History Department of the Humanitarian Institute of the SFU
Report: «The Model of «the Perfect Man» is the Basis
of the Modern Society Development»
Russian philosophy is one of the important stages of development of the world philosophical
thought, as far as in this period they analyze the question of man’s spiritual perfection, which, to
the mind of Russian thinkers, appears to be the basis of successful existence and development of the
society and is expressed in the ideas of conciliarism, pan-unity, and dual-unity. The given question
is discussed in the teachings of N.O. Lossky, L.P. Krasavin, N.N. Alekseev. To the opinion of these
philosophers, man’s spiritual perfection is the basis for person’s formation and development.
In his work «Value and existence», N.O. Lossky supposes, that in practical activity, positive
results can be achieved by means of man’s perfection on the basis of religious knowledge, by the idea
of conciliarism, and with the help of upbringing of the feeling of love to the world and to God.
N.O. Lossky describes the ideas of conciliarism, of man’s spiritual perfection by means of God
cognition in his book «The World as an Organic Entirety».
To the mind of N.O. Lossky, the main factor, which contributes to perfection of the man and
society, is building of the Kingdom of Harmony, which is characterized by the commonness of human
existence.
L.P. Krasavin expresses the idea of man’s perfection in his work «Fundamentals of the Politics»,
discussing the specifics of the perfect and non-perfect person.
Person’s perfection is realized in his integrity with God. Non-perfect conciliar person stops
and closes in his becoming, and neither wish and nor achieve the fullness of unity and fullness of
multitude.
Man’s perfection is possible by means of God cognition (the Good, Beauty, and the Truth) and also
in the process of study and thinking over of the religious-moral principals and ideals.
In his work «Anent the Person», L.P. Krasavin analyses the peculiarity of the perfect person
and underlines that multitude’s unity is such in the perfect person, that unity is not weaker than
the multitude, while in the non-perfect person we can observe a non-full unity, as far as there is
irresistibility of the multitude.
The thinker describes specifics of Divine Humanity, which includes integrity of God and man.,
self-perfection and creation of Divine Humanity (the true and perfect dual-unity of God and man) take
place by means of God cognition.
In his work «From the Past of the Russian Thought» G.V. Florovsky characterizes the idea of
perfection through the project of perfect (ideal) society, the idea of conciliarism. Perfect society is
expressed by the completed fullness of perfection (an ideal condition).
Analyzing the perfect society, G.V. Florovsky writes about a universal mission of the Church,
as far as the good, being carried by It, is spread over all the society, all the humanity. The Church
unites people; it is the one conciliar organism, which carries the good, the blessing and the true faith
to people.
So, we should conclude: the model of «perfect man», which bases are the ideas of: conciliarism,
pan-unity, dual-unity, is the fundamental for the development of man and society, as far as it is targeted
# 462 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
to perfection of individual and social principles, because it is the necessary point in person’s becoming
and upbringing.
Olga V. Letunova,
Candidate of Philosophic Sciences, Docent of the Philosophy
and Social Sciences Department
of the Siberian State Aero-Cosmic University n.a. M.F. Reshetnev
Report: «Formation of the Adequate Type of Thinking of the Specialists
of the Sphere of Culture and Arts»
When we speak about humanitarian specialists’ training in the socio-cultural, economical and
political spheres in the modern system of higher education, there is a lack of attention to the questions of
philosophical fundamentals, and in the result of it, the students are mainly targeted to foreign theories
study. Though, future specialists need to understand not only the peculiarities of all the spheres of
the western social life, but also of the life of Russia, including the spheres of culture and arts as well.
At present time, the fact raises already no doubts that humanitarian disciplines study according to
the western recourses brings to the loss of cultural, economical and political identity of the Russian
society.
We should mark that various philosophical problems are considered from the point of view of
dialectics and metaphysics. Thereat, both methodology of dialectics and methodology of metaphysics,
each in its own way, are quite productive and allow to understand the logics of thinking as of Russian
theoreticians of the former centuries, so the logics of the western researchers’ surveys, and what is
more, the culture of this country, and the culture of the western countries reveal different ways of
the social life development. The given circumstance seems to be very important in the course of
substantiation of the practical significance of philosophical bases of humanitarian sciences, and it is
out of the question that it must be reflected in teaching of philosophy in order to form an adequate type
of thinking of the future specialists.
Formation of this or that type of thinking defines the character of individual behavior, also
including the sphere of culture and arts. To our mind, it is important to differentiate metaphysical and
dialectical methodologies and the types of thinking, being adequate to them.
Dialectical type of thinking is revealed in accordance with the principle of the world integrity
and general connection of all the phenomena. Thereat, the theory of cognition comes into effect as a
theory of reflection, within which frames the image and the prototype are inseparable from each other.
And in this connection, thinking, which is revealed as reflection of reality, cannot be separated from
reality and acts as a process of reflection of objective reality. Knowledge is directed to obtention of
objective truths, having subjective parts: absoluteness and relativity, abstractness and concreteness of
one and the same truth. The truth is one, and it is expressed by an image – existence of reality essence.
Images of reality are the starting points of the dialectic logics, which content is the principle of general
connection of all the phenomena.
Thinking, which is realized according to the dialectical principal, is a dialectical type of thinking
and is adequate to the standards of the Russian society’s sociality.
Metaphysical type of thinking is revealed in accordance with the principles of dual-unity and
anthropocentrism, which are the fundamental principals of the western society’s development.
# 463 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
According to the principle of anthropocentrism they arbitrarily formulate the language, axioms and
systems of proofs as the starting points of formal logics. What concerns the formal logics, knowledge
is considered to be relative, imageless, as far as thinking does not reflect what exists in reality, but just
represents it. And as far as the starting points of formal logics are formulated liberally, so they act as
representatives, which double the reality. Correspondingly, the theory of cognition is actualized as the
theory of representations.
Thus, humanitarian specialists’ training in the sphere of culture and arts requires differentiation
of that fact, that formation of the type of thinking can be realized according to the laws of formal
logics or to the laws of dialectic logic. And the type of thinking must be adequate to the peculiarities of
development and functioning of all the spheres of social life, including the social–cultural one.
Natalya P. Koptseva: Dear colleagues, we have had a very contextually-rich dialogue, it has been
a real expert seminar, which will be surely published in the SFU Scientific Journal. You have generated
a whole row of ideas, which demand consideration and theoretical and practical development. We
invite you all to further collaboration in our work on the project «Scientific-methodological Support of
the Highest Qualification Specialists’ training for the Sphere of Culture and Arts of the Krasnoyarsk
Region». Joining of our efforts will make it possible to solve a whole row of problems, which are faced
today by the higher educational institutions, realizing specialists’ training in the sphere of culture and
arts.
Материалы экспертного семинара
«Формирование модели
специалиста нового поколения
для сферы культуры и искусства»
Н.П. Копцева,
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Представлены результаты экспертного семинара по проблеме формирования выпускника
нового поколения в сфере культуры и искусства. Модератор семинара – Копцева Н.П. В качестве
экспертов на семинаре выступают ведущие специалисты в сфере культуры и искусства в
Красноярске: ученые-гуманитарии и преподаватели Сибирского федерального университета,
специалисты Красноярского государственного художественного института, Красноярской
государственной Академии музыки и театра, ученые Сибирского государственного
технологического института, ведущие представители министерства культуры Красноярского
края и специалисты иных областей.
Один из ключевых вопросов семинара – обсуждение стратегии подготовки современного
специалиста в сфере культуры для Красноярского региона, который будет востребован
на территории края, который в перспективе, возможно, сохранит свою приоритетно
промышленную направленность. Отправной точкой для дискуссии выступает блок ценной
статической и аналитической информации: новая двухуровневая система университетского
образования (бакалавриат и магистратура), ее структура и система функционирования;
организация и перспективы образовательной системы в ведущих вузах Красноярска,
# 464 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist…
занимающихся подготовкой специалистов в сфере культуры. В ходе семинара, с одной стороны,
обсуждаются фундаментальные теоретические проблемы образования специалиста в
области культуры для будущего – такие, как специфика мировоззрения и мышления идеального
специалиста, проблемы ответственности и обязанности подобного рода специалиста. С другой
стороны, очерчивается круг конкретных прикладных проблем и задач, которые предстоит
решать в культуре Красноярского края в ближайшем будущем. Один из докладов экспертного
семинара напрямую посвящен конкретным запросам, выдвигаемым администрацией края к
специалисту, отвечающему за развитие культуры в регионе. Помимо этого, в ходе экспертного
семинара специально обсуждается перспектива развития регионального компонента в
образовании специалиста по культуре, а также принципы изучения естественно-научных
дисциплин студентами творческих специальностей.
Ключевые слова: Красноярский край; образование в сфере культуры и искусства; мировоззрение
специалиста в области культуры; прикладные задачи специалиста в области культуры;
образ выпускника будущего в сфере культуры и искусства; система образования в сфере
культуры и искусства; ведущие вузы Красноярского края в сфере культуры и искусства;
региональный компонент в образовании специалиста в области культуры; естественные
науки для специалиста в области культуры; модель выпускника нового типа в сфере культуры
и искусства; государственный заказ к специалисту в области культуры в Красноярском крае.
Документ
Категория
Научные
Просмотров
320
Размер файла
1 826 Кб
Теги
журнал, университета, науки, гуманитарные, 2011, сер, сибирской, федеральное
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа