60.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №3 2011код для вставкиСкачать
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà 2011 Journal of Siberian Federal University 4 (3) Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè Humanities & Social Sciences Редакционный совет академик РАН Е.А.Ваганов академик РАН И.И.Гительзон академик РАН В.Ф.Шабанов чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат.наук А.Г.Дегерменджи чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.Л.Миронов чл.-к. РАН, д-р техн. наук Г.Л.Пашков чл.-к. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В.Шайдуров академик РАО, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.С. Соколов член-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В. В. Зуев CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ Aleksandr Yu. Bliznevsky and Valentina S. Bliznevskaya Winter Sports for Olimpic Program Addition – 309 – Olga À. Karlova Aspects of «Russianness» in the Philosophic-Artistic Concept of Ivan Bunin Creative Work – 315 – Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova and Ksenia V. Reznikova Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages of the North-ern People of the Krasnoyarsk Region – 323 – Editorial Advisory Board Chairman: Eugene A. Vaganov Members: Kirill S. Alexandrov Josef J. Gitelzon Vasily F. Shabanov Andrey G. Degermendzhy Valery L. Mironov Gennady L. Pashkov Vladimir V. Shaidurov Veniamin S. Sokolov Editorial Board: Vladimir S. Luzan Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization of the State Cultural Policy (Federal and Regional Aspects) – 342 – Julia G. Matushanskaya Zealots’ World View – 363 – Valentina V. Nikitenko Works of V.P. Astafiev in China Editor-in-Chief: Mikhail I. Gladyshev – 372 – Founding Editor: Vladimir I. Kolmakov Vadim E. Petrov Youth Event Tourism as Existential Experience of Creative Idleness Managing Editor: Olga F. Alexandrova Executive Editor for Humanities & Social Sciences: Natalia P. Koptseva – 380 – Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой Подписано в печать 18.03.2011 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 12,9. Уч.-изд. л. 12,4. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 3262. Отпечатано в ПЦ БИК. 660041 Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Consulting Editors for Humanities & Social Sciences: Gershon M. Breslavs Sergey V. Deviatkin Sergey A. Drobyshevsky Oleg M. Gotlib Boris I. Hasan Igor E. Kim Natalia V. Kovtun Aleksandr A. Kronik Pavel V. Mandryka Boris V. Markov Valentin G. Nemirovsky Daniel V. Pivovarov Andrey V. Smirnov Viktor I. Suslov Evgeniya V. Zander Igor S. Pyzhev Olga G. Smolyaninova, Larisa M. Turanova and Olga A. Pozhidaeva The Role of Electronic Library in the Informatization of Modern Education – 386 – Artem A. Smolin and Pavel V. Mandryka The Technique of Virtual Archaeological Reconstructions on the Example of a Medieval Fort in the Yenisei Taiga – 393 – Natalia U. Fadeeva An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad – 400 – Theocharis N. Grigoriadis Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany and Poland – 410 – Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г. Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора и кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.) Natalya P. Koptseva Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010 &Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist for the Sphere of Culture and Arts[ – 426 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 309-314 ~~~ УДК 796.56 Winter Sports for Olimpic Program Addition Aleksandr Yu. Bliznevsky and Valentina S. Bliznevskaya* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011 In the given article we consider the order of Olympic Games program extension in accordance with the rules of the Olympic Charter. We define the most perspective kinds of sport for their inclusion in the Program of the 2018 Winter Olympic Games – ski-orienteering and bandy. Besides, we have formulated the advantages of these kinds of sport inclusion for the Russian Federation, and also the level of their development on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk Region. Keywords: Winter Olympic Games, sports, international Sports Federations, Olympic Games Program, ski-orienteering, bandy. Topicality: The history of the modern Olympic Games development is more than 100 years old. The fi rst Games of Olympiad (OG) took place in summer 1896. Winter Olympic Games (WOG) were started to be run only since 1924. The Olympic Charter is a Code of fundamnetal principles, rules and official explanations, which have been accepted by the International Olympic Commette (IOC), and its latest amendments were made at the 122-d Session of IOC on 11 February, 2010. The Charter regulates the structure, mechnism of action and processes of the Olympic Movement and defi nes the conditions of the Olympic Games staging. In particular, IOC reveiws the Program after every concrete Olympic Games. Competent organs of IOC correct the standards of inclusion or exclusion of sports and sport disciplines. The decision concerning the inclusion of a new kind of sport in the Program of the future Olympic Games must be made not later than at the * 1 Session of IOC, choosing the city-organizer of the Olympic Games staging. What concerns the Winter Olympic Games, the next amendments of the list of sports of the Program can be made at the Session of IOC on 6-9 June, 2011 in Durban (RSA), where they will define the city-organizer of the 2018 WOG staging. According to point 6.2 of the Olympic Charter «winter kinds of sport are only those sports, which competitions among the sportsmen take place on a natural snow surface or flat ice». By virtue of the mentioned circumstances, the target of the given research is to define the most perspective sports in order to include them in the Program of these Olympic Games. Methodology of research: on the basis of the carried analysis of development of the winter sports disciplines, being world-wide cultivated and accepted by IOC, archive materials, historical facts, current legal materials of IOC and the Olympic Charter, legal normative documents of Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 309 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Aleksandr Yu. Bliznevsky and Valentina S. Bliznevskaya. Winter Sports for Olimpic Program Addition Table 1. The Program of the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver International Sports Federations (ISFs) 1 2 3 4 5 International Skating Union (ISU) International Ice Hokey Federation (IIHF) International Federation Of Bobsleigh and Tobogganing (FIBT) International Ski Federation (FIS) International Biathlon Union (IBU) 6 International Luge Federation (FIL) 7 World Curling Federation (WCF) TOTAL: 1908 3 The number of types of competitions in the Program 4 Speed-skating 1924 6 12 Short-track 1992 4 8 4 Hockey 1920 1 2 5 Bobsleigh 1924 2 3 6 Skeleton 1928 1 2 7 Ski races 1924 6 12 8 Nordic combined 1924 3 3 № The year of The number of inclusion in disciplines in the Program the Program Sports 1 Figure skating 2 3 9 Ski jumping 1924 3 3 10 Mountaineering 1936 5 10 11 Freestyle 1992 3 6 12 Snowboard 1998 3 6 13 Biathlon 1960 5 10 14 Luge 1964 2 3 15 Curling 1924 1 2 48 86 the Ministry of Sports and Tourism of the Russian Federation, we have shown the evolution of the Program content of the Winter Olympic Games and have defined additional kinds of sport for its extension by means of comparative-analytical method and ranking. Results and discussions: since 1924 up to 2010 they have organized 20 Winter Olympic Games. At the first WOG, in France in Chamonix, they played 15 sets of medals in 8 kinds of sport. Every kind of sport includes one or several sport disciplines (a part of the kind of sport, including one or several competitions). In its turn, every kind of competitions represents a contest, which ends by the placement and medals handling. Correspondingly, the Program of all the following WOGs has been gradually added not only with new kinds of sport, but has been extended with sports disciplines of already existing kinds of sport. In the result, the Program of the latest WOG, which took place in Vancouver in 2010 consisted of 15 kinds of sport of seven International Sports Federations, and they played 86 sets of medals. In Table 1, we represent the list of international sports federations and kinds of sport included in this Program, and also the number of sports disciplines and types of competitions, constituting the Program. Most of kinds of sport, being included in the Program, have almost exhausted all their # 310 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Aleksandr Yu. Bliznevsky and Valentina S. Bliznevskaya. Winter Sports for Olimpic Program Addition possibilities for the Olympic mission growth. Though, 86 sets of medals are far from the limit of Olympic Games. For comparison, at the 2008 Olympic Games, in Peking there were presented 39 kinds of sport and played 302 sets of medals. As for today, one may observe a misbalance between the Programs of Olympic Games and Winter Olympic Games; thereat, according to point 33 of the Olympic Charter, continuation of any Olympic Games must not exceed sixteen days. Taking into consideration the climatic and geographical conditions of this country for cultivation of winter kinds of sport, the Russian Federation must be interested in making amendments in the Program of WOG by adding new kinds of sport. Moreover, in recent years, some winter kinds of sport (trampoline ski jumping, ski mountaineering, and short track) have got almost no Olympic medals. In order to develop and promote the principles of the Olympic Movement, IOC carries out the procedure of acceptance of kinds of sport by the International Olympic Committee in accordance with the article of law 29 of the Olympic Charter, which allow gradual extension of the Programs of OG or WOG. National sport federations for these kinds of sport are included into the National Olympic Committees of their own countries. All the international sports federations (ISFs), which kinds of sport have undergone such a procedure, join the Association of Recognized International Sports Federations (АRISF), which was organized in 1984, and which is recognized by IOC. After having sent their written applications and their statuses having been checked and accepted by IOC, these international sports federations become members of АRISF, which is appealed to actively support them in their striving to be included in the Program of Olympic Games. As far as at least one sport discipline of any kind of sport, being accepted by IOC, is included in the Program of Olympic Games, this ISF automatically loses the status of a member of АRISF and acquires the status of a member of IOC. ISFs can manage one or several kinds of sport on the international level, as it is shown in table 1, and include organizations, which manage these kinds of sport on the national level. ISF’s Charter, practice and activiy, which are accepted by IOC and which are whithin the Olympic Movement, must correspond to the Olympic Charter, and it also conserns the acceptance and application of the World Anti-Doping Code. Therat, every ISF preserves its indepedendence and autonomy in the management of its own kinds of sport. Today, the Association of Recognized International Sports Federations, recognized by IOC, includes 32 kinds of sport of corresponding international sports federations. Analysis of the sport disciplines of these kinds of sport has shown that only 4 ISFs represent winter sports disciplines from all the mentioned list (Table 2). Correspondingly, only disciplines of these kinds of sport can be included in the Program of the above mentioned Olympic Games. In Table 2, we define the dates of formation of international sports federations of perspective kinds of sport for their inclusion in the Program of the 2018 Winter Olympic Games, and also the number of national sports federations, which are their part. There are also represented the data of statistic reporting form 1-ФК of the RF Minsportstourism, characterizing the degree of development of these kinds of sport in this country. The number of people, going in for these sports and staff coachers, working in the mentioned kinds of sport, – all these data testify of the fact that skiing disciplines have the biggest number of advantages, such as ski-orienteering and bandy. Besides, the above mentioned sports disciplines have been already presented in the cultural Programs of the Winter Olympic Games of previous years. # 311 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Aleksandr Yu. Bliznevsky and Valentina S. Bliznevskaya. Winter Sports for Olimpic Program Addition Table 2. International Federations, Representing Winter Sports Disciplines in the Association of Recognized International Sports Federations recognized by IOC The Name of the International Federation 1 The year of formation The number of national federations The number of The number of Exhibition people being staff coachers Demonstration of involved in in RF in 2009. the kind of sport RF in 2009. in the cultural program of WOG 9 782 40 – International Federation of Mountaineering and Climbing International Bandy Federation 1932 52 1955 25 38 253 344 3 International Orienteering Federation 1961 71 134 381 722 4 International Motorcycle Federation 1904 98 No data No data 2 If we compare these sports, then skiorienteering leaves bandy behind in its popularity, as in the world, so in the Russian Federation. For today, international federation of bandy includes 25 national sports federations, while international federation of ski-orienteering accounts for 71 national sports federations, which includes Africa, Asia, Europe, Northern America, Southern America, and Pacific Region, and it correspondingly influences the number of involved people. At the World Bandy Championship they played only one set of medals, and at the World Ski-Orienteering Championship – eight sets of medals in four disciplines: mass-start, sprint, long and three-stage relay. Today, as it is well-known, «medal-capacious» kinds of sport have strong influence on the unofficial team classification in the Olympic Games Program. In the recent years, sportsmen of the national team of the Russian Federation have been leading in the unofficial team classifications at the World Ski-Orienteering Championships. 1952 14 – 25 February Norway Oslo 1998 7 – 22 February Japan Nagano – Ski-orienteering disciplines are as spectacular and attractive for the TV audience as ski racing and biathlon. At the new Millennium, World Ski-Orienteering Championships are held in large ski stadiums or biathlon complexes, using their ski-routes and preparing an additional net of ski-runs for distances planning. Monitoring with the help of GPS-devices let us see the routes of the sportsmen over all the distance, and estimate their selected variants of running and their mistakes. All these facts make skiorienteering to be a superior kind of sport for TV translations. Ski-orienteering and bandy are also very well developed in the Krasnoyarsk Region. Krasnoyarsk bandy has had a long and glorious history for more than 70-ty years on the arena of the Soviet Union and since 1993 on the Russian arena. The Krasnoyarsk bandy club «Yenisei» is one of the most award-winning clubs in this country. There are more than 30 wins # 312 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Aleksandr Yu. Bliznevsky and Valentina S. Bliznevskaya. Winter Sports for Olimpic Program Addition in international and all-Russian (All-Union) tournaments on the team’s account. What concerns ski-orienteering, on the territory of the Region it has been developed since 1963, and it is almost simultaneously with the start of its cultivation in this country. In the course of the last 25 years, the Krasnoyarsk Regional team has had its representatives in the national teams of Russia (senior and junior ones), and since 2004, it has been unchangeably winning individual-team championships of Russia. In case these kinds of sport are included in the Program of WOG and taking into account the achievements of the Krasnoyarsk sportsmen in these kinds of sport, contribution of the Krasnoyarsk Region in the Olympic national team can significantly increase. Conclusion: Evolution of the International Olympic Movement and intensity of the Olympic Games Program prompt us a possibility to extend it significantly by means of new kinds of sport inclusion. Besides, inclusion of new kinds of sport in the Program of WOG will not interfere with increase of the number of sport disciplines of the sports, which constitute the Program today. The next amendments of the list of sports of the Olympic Games Program will be done at the session of IOC in summer 2011. Ski-orienteering and bandy are the most perspective sports disciplines for inclusion in the Program of WOG, and these sports competitions are run on the natural snow surface or flat ice. Both kinds of sport can be strongly presented at the Olympic Games, as for the moment, they are highly developed on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk Region. If we speak about the right of priority, then ski-orienteering has several advantages at some points. Though, according to the Olympic Charter, Olympic Games are the competitions among separate sportsmen, but not among national teams, nevertheless, unofficial team classification (according to the number of won medals of various denominations) between the countries-participants is of high value for most countries. That is why, ski-orienteering is of our special interest, as far as beyond four disciplines according to the program of the world championship, there is an opportunity to run pursuit races (the system of Gunderson), mixed relays, and super-sprints. Today, administration of the sports branch of the Russian Federation, which has a high potential in winter kinds of sport development, can make utmost efforts for extension of the Program of WOG with the kinds of sport, being perspective for this country. References and resources of information: The Olympic Charter / accepted at the 122 Session of IOC dated 11 February 2011. Printed by the company «DidWeDo S.à.r.l.». Lausanne. – 46 p. The Charter of the Association of Recognized International Sports Federations recognized by IOC / accepted at the General Assembly Session of АRISF dated 6 April 2006. Helsinki. – 11 p. www.minstm.gov.ru www.hc-enisey.ru www.kfso.ru Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Aleksandr Yu. Bliznevsky and Valentina S. Bliznevskaya. Winter Sports for Olimpic Program Addition Зимние виды спорта для пополнения олимпийской программы А.Ю. Близневский, В.С. Близневская Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В статье рассматривается порядок расширения Программы Олимпийских игр согласно правилам Олимпийской хартии. Определены наиболее перспективные виды спорта для включения в Программу зимних Олимпийских игр 2018 г. – лыжное ориентирование и хоккей с мячом. Сформулированы преимущества включения этих видов спорта для Российской Федерации, а также уровень их развития на территории Красноярского края. Ключевые слова: зимние Олимпийские игры; виды спорта; международные спортивные федерации; Программа Олимпийских игр; лыжное ориентирование; хоккей с мячом. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 315-322 ~~~ УДК 82 Aspects of «Russianness» in the Philosophic-Artistic Concept of Ivan Bunin Creative Work Olga А. Karlova* Siberian Federal University 82 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011 This article gives an overview of philosophic issues of national identity in the creative work of the famous Russian poet and writer Ivan Bunin, the investigation of the phenomenon of the «Russian soul constant» in the context of his works, the determination of the aspects of «Russianness» of the genre and style peculiarities of his prose and poetry, as well as Bunin’s creative style in general. The reflection of nature accompanied by sounding silence is the most typical feature of Ivan Bunin’s poetry. The human in Bunin’s works is a vessel for the reflection of the nature, the organ of its thought and emotional experience. It is the world of nature the images of which occupy 74 % of all artistic descriptions by Bunin and for him it is the world of the highest harmony of the existence. Another typically Russian aspect of Ivan Bunin’s work is his sinaesthetics. Bunin’s texts, especially poetry, are first of all very picturesque. It may be said that it is the poetry of thousands of colours, but colours strictly selected and philosophically encoded. The picturesqueness of Bunin’s poetry and prose does not have analogues in the Russian literature: at the average use of 70-90 colours formations for 10 thousand words in a text, Bunin uses 190 colours. At the same time the colourful luxury of Bunin’s language according to Vladimir Nabokov is achieved, first of all, by its tone-painting, rhythm, laconism and the highest density of the verse. Letting the impressions through the prism of his concept, the master creates an integral image of heightened life, aims at painting its intensity of emotions, at reaching the superb degree of existence. The framework of the writer’s philosophic thought is the entireness of existence. This framework includes all his poetry, plots, motifs, stories. Everything is connected with everything, everything is mutually penetrating, everything has its meaning only in respect to the whole. It is not only ancient logics of the mythocosmos typical for Russian philosophers and writers of various epochs, but also the courage of the thinker to operate with such notions as «eternity», «cosmos», «life» and «death». Love of a man and a woman obsessed with life and charmed with death, is eternal, tragic and mysterial in Bunin’s work. His contemporaries used to note «repetitions» and imitation in Bunin’s works. Yu. M. Lotman opened a new era in Bunin’s studies by speaking about Bunin’s modernist desire to «rewrite» the Russian literature in its art samples. Bunin is a realist only in artistic manner, although it is among the writers-realists of the 19th century, where he felt at ease. But his everyday life description is anti-natural, selective and symbolic. And in this anti-realist everyday life description Bunin was absolutely original. Another aspect of the «Russianness» artistic concept of Bunin is the memory. It becomes the crossroads of all the motifs of his work. * 1 Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 315 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga А. Karlova. Aspects of «Russianness» in the Philosophic-Artistic Concept of Ivan Bunin Creative Work Bunin himself expresses the essence of his work in words which at most cover the verges of life «heightened by art»: «We live by all that, by what we live, only to the extent at which we understand the price of that by what we live. Usually this price is very low: it rises only in the moments of excitement – excitement of happiness or unhappiness, vivid consciousness of the acquisition or loss, and in moments of poetic transfiguration of the past into memory». These and other existential, reason-for-being questions tired pragmatic Western thinkers and especially the European masters of arts of the 19th -20th centuries. For the natural-contemplating harmony of the Oriental civilizations such questions were too straightforward and «humanized». Answers to them the Russian culture gave. And these answers were secretly-mysterious, spiritual-pagan, light- sad, tragicmajeure. Perhaps these are the questions and the answers of the borderland of civilizations. Keywords: Russian literature, mentality, Russianness, reflection, sinaesthetics, intertextuality, realism, symbolism and modernism. «Russia cannot be understood by mind alone…» – having made this quite accurate diagnosis a famous Russian poet though preaching to believe, side stepped the question regarding the essence of the Russian soul. Centuries pass by but this mystery is still intriguing everybody who shares the Russian point of view and the mentality of the Russian art. Let us assume that this mentality is a kind of a constant and its essence has been appearing in various epochs, in languages of different arts. This year is the year of 140th anniversary of Ivan Bunin. A poet who was appreciated as a prosaic, the last Russian symbolist who strongly believed himself to be the last Russian realist, a philosopher of the Russian culture closing by himself and his artistic reflection, his epoch and opening the doors wide for new. Our considerations seek the purpose to understand what determines the deep essence of «Russianness» of Ivan Bunin heritage, a person who after the «accursed days» of 1917 left his homeland forever but never failed to identify himself with Russia. Let us start with the hypothesis which has already become an axiom: «Russianness» is being formed by the Russian nature itself, its space. Not without a reason the Russian natural landscapes can be so easily transformed to the landscapes of the Russian soul. Not without a reason a whole pleiad of masters of various arts proudly bore the name of poets of the Russian landscape. The reflection of nature accompanied by sounding silence is the most typical feature of Ivan Bunin’s poetry. In the philosophic concept of his work, as well as the art work of many other Russian masters of art, nothing prevents the lyrical character from contemplating the world of forest sounds and images of nature; the life of the human does not reach this world, where the poet speaks with the wise cuckoo asserting: «…I love the whole world, but I love it lonely, being lonely everywhere and always». Loneliness is a natural inner state of Ivan Alekseevich. Having been born in a noble family to which a famous poetess of the beginning of the 19th century and even a forefather of the Russian Romanism Vasily Zhukovsky belonged, but which was entirely ruined at the moment of the small Ivan’s birth, Bunin was involuntarily under the necessity to live the life of a poor commoner. Being a fanatic worshiper of the Russian artistic culture, the singer of the Russian landscape, he has to spend half of his life abroad. In cold and hunger, in the all-the-time homelessness of Orel, Moscow, Grass and Paris, Bunin finds company in nature. Its speechlessness supposes forest rustle, screams of the cranes and all other natural sounds which share the poet’s loneliness and give him answers to the # 316 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga А. Karlova. Aspects of «Russianness» in the Philosophic-Artistic Concept of Ivan Bunin Creative Work unexpressed questions, allow to contemplate beauty and verity. Two temples – the temple of nature with its natural sounds and orthodox church with the roll call of the bells – these are two ways of entering the heavenly world. The nature of Bunin is active and emotional, it is not only consonant with the human like in the Japanese tanka, but it persuades, alerts and warns… In the world of nature one can deeply feel something alien, mysterious and supernatural… This is why the winter in Bunin’s work is always a presage of the eternal spring, the summer is a philosophic presage of the autumn about which one can speak only with nature itself. The human in Bunin’s works is a vessel for the reflection of the nature, the organ of its thought and emotional experience. It is the world of nature the images of which occupy 74 % of all artistic descriptions by Bunin and for him it is the world of the highest harmony of the existence. Another typically Russian aspect of Ivan Bunin’s work is his sinaesthetics. Bunin’s texts, especially poetry, are first of all very picturesque. It may be said that it is the poetry of thousands of colours, but colours strictly selected and philosophically encoded. The picturesqueness of Bunin’s poetry and prose does not have analogues in the Russian literature: at the average use of 70-90 colours formations for 10 thousand words in a text, Bunin uses 190 colours. The feeling of admiring the nature’s beauty makes him turn to white and blue – 23 % from the whole number of words usage. By the way, it is the blue colour the linguists consider to be the «colour ethnopriority of Russia». The colour in Bunin’s work is steady and bears the notion of a specific lyrical motif. This feature of his artistry was perfectly expressed by the philosopher Fyodor Stepun: «It should not be forgotten that the Greek word «theory» does not mean thinking, but contemplating. Bunin’s talent remembers this. Bunin «thinks with his eyes». Bunin uses colour as a means of mythologizing. Good and sin in his works have a certain range of colours. The palette of stories of the «Dark Avenues» is based on the dominant red-white-black colours, the number of variations of black/dark is endless. The colour repeats the rhythm of the plot: waiting for love, meeting and parting. This where the special Bunin’s genre of stories comes from – the literary stilllife. Portraits, landscapes, interiors dominate in Bunin's prose absorbing and dissolving in themselves the event–plot basis, giving permanency and mise-en–scèneness to a verbal image, a kind of paintingness. At the same time the colourful luxury of Bunin’s language according to Vladimir Nabokov is achieved, fi rst of all, by its tonepainting, rhythm, laconism and the highest density of the verse. By means of these techniques he was able to enclose any object of nature and «the obscured meaning which it is full of» into accords and sounds of the tremendous power of nature. Ivan Bunin most of all wanted to be considered, in the first place, a poet. But his contemporaries seemed not to notice his poetry. In his literary recognition in general there was a lot of «not at the proper time» and «not about what is needed». His honorary status of the academician of the Imperator’s Academy of Sciences he received in 1909 was ignored by the intelligent outlaws in solidarity with M. Gorky who did not receive this status. When he became the Nobel Prize winner in 1933, Bunin had nobody to share his happiness: the group of immigrants is not large, the politicized homeland is far away. But there is another court – the judgement by history and culture. And nowadays we have the right to exclaim: only a truly great poet could have the sorrow of admiration and speechlessness # 317 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga А. Karlova. Aspects of «Russianness» in the Philosophic-Artistic Concept of Ivan Bunin Creative Work of existence melted to such tremendously tense meditation and contrasting poetic musicality. Bunin sees and hears the world not only in the contrast of colours and music meditation. His thirst for life, as Ivan Alekseevich said himself, «heightened feeling of life», determined the fundamental basis of Bunin’s artistry, especially in the late period at the background of such loneliness and cruel isolation from homeland when it seemed that Russia is Bunin. Letting the impressions through the prism of his concept, the master creates an integral image of heightened life, aims at painting its intensity of emotions, at reaching the superb degree of existence. The framework of the writer’s philosophic thought is the entireness of existence. This framework includes all his poetry, plots, motifs, stories. Everything is connected with everything, everything is mutually penetrating, everything has its meaning only in respect to the whole. It is not only ancient logics of the mythocosmos typical for Russian philosophers and writers of various epochs, but also the courage of the thinker to operate with such notions as «eternity», «cosmos», «life» and «death». The notions which are not only Europe-like psychological, but Orientlike ontological. From the Freudian vividness of specific impressions, change of feverish, almost ailing states, Bunin proceeds to philosophic understanding of light and shade, Yang and Yin, happiness and sorrow, cosmic, reviving love and passion – sexual, all-absorbing and tragic. In the work of the late Bunin the dramatic early love of a poor journalist with the daughter of the Eletski doctor, Barbara Pashchenko, a short-lived marriage with Anna Nikolaevna Tsakni, and conversely, many years of emotional affection towards Vera Nikolaevna Muromtseva, who became his wife in 1907 and lived with him half a century, are fused together. This marriage embodied passion and cooling, intimacy and loneliness, noisy quarrels and infinite patience – and all this was suffered through publicly, under the same roof with Russian immigrant writers living in their house, among whom were young women as well. Bunin’s love in his life and work is a state of passion, life of life, the most striking developer of truth and beauty. «He was very much in love», says the child in the short story «The Chapel», «and these who are very much in love, always shoot themselves». This love is marked by the fatal mutual closeness of the essence of male and female passion. It is equally intimate and worldwide, marvelous and awful. And death comes not as an act of destruction, but as the Great limit. And the Woman is only a trigger of the deadly weapon, beautiful and unforgiving at the same time. Love of a man and a woman obsessed with life and charmed with death, is eternal, tragic and mysterial in Bunin’s work. Bunin’s contemporaries often spoke of «rehashes» and feeble imitation in his work. The first to note this «dependence of Bunin on the great Russian culture» as a distinct originality of creative handwriting was Hermann Hesse. For a long time in the Russian literature studies Bunin was spoken of exclusively in the context of the concept of «tradition», however, not revealing his uniqueness regarding the «traditions of the Russian literary classics». It can be said that it was Yu. M. Lotman who opened a new era in Bunin’s studies by speaking about Bunin’s modernist desire to «rewrite» the Russian literature in its art samples. He called Bunin’s work of the immigration period «the realistic representation of the real world which does not exist», noting that «this world once existed in the Russian literature and it was this world which Bunin was drawn to with nostalgia, it was this world in which he saw genuine reality». Bunin-innovator of the modernist era kind of exempts the types of the Russian literature from a dusty museum of classics, experiences # 318 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga А. Karlova. Aspects of «Russianness» in the Philosophic-Artistic Concept of Ivan Bunin Creative Work their untapped potential. These are the characters of Pushkin, Turgenev and Tolstoy, but in the conditions of turn of the twentieth century, with new partners and new opportunities. The writer reveals to us the infinity of the image–plot potential of the Russian classics, its «resolving to infinity». If the Turgenev’s story «The First Love» begins with a detailed description of a young man hunting for crows he hated, Bunin’s novel «The Crow» built on the same dramatic theme of love-obsession, pays tribute to Turgenev, but also argues with him. Bunin is a realist only in artistic manner, although it is among the writers-realists of the 19th century, where he felt at ease. But his everyday life description is anti-natural, selective and symbolic. And in this anti-realist everyday life description Bunin was absolutely original. Thus, no one before Bunin had conducted a verbal-figurative dialogue with the visual arts: his constant technique – «quotation» of artists’ canvases. Try look at his Malyavin’s black–red-yellow beauties in Bunin’s «Dark Avenues», «quotations» of paintings of G.F. Yartsev, K.A. Korovin, S.P. Kuvshinnikova, Russian icons, European religious paintings. And finally, the «Shore» by Bunin is a direct quote and development of Levitan’s painting «Above the Eternal Peace». We remember this canvas: a heavy grayblue-green gamma with pearl tints lulls the oval of the lake stretched to infinity; powerful clouds are floating forward to the viewer; the cape with a church and a cemetery – in the depth and upwards of the space, to infinity. The vast, inspired spaces of the sky create an image of the lake, mournful and majestic at the same time, persuading in incomprehensible for the human, but perfect essence of the universe. In his «Shore» Bunin in a way continues the philosophical theme declared by Levitan. He speaks with the human substance on the way to heaven. Describing people's ritual of the funeral, «wax candles» and «plank long boat», the poet focuses on the loneliness of the «speechless twin» who has «no name and no patronymic, no friends, no home, no relatives». In the «Shore» Bunin joined the popular poetic elements and the Orthodoxy. His «blue sea» is a tribute to folklore. This is why he lets go the «white boat» to the «blue sea» which never existed in reality. The boat is a metaphor for the grave, but the difference between the long and white boat at the end of the verse is enormous. The white boat seems to be not material already, it is on its way to heaven. The verse pause in the line of the last quatrain is fi lled inside with incredible deep sense of the watershed and at the same time the merging of two worlds. It creates a feeling of compassion and peace, overcoming the horror of life by a strong and high emotion. It is not only the reflection of the Russian classics, it is the reflection of the Russian soul... Another aspect of the «Russianness» artistic concept of Bunin is the memory. It becomes the crossroads of all the motifs of his work. This is an in-depth recollection of his pre-existence, and also the theme of appealing to the lived-through, and the eternal world of the Russian artistic classics. The memory in his work is a kind of artistic optics of empathy into the world, it colours all the narration of Bunin with a complicated feeling of enthusiastic sadness. Behind the appeals to the past primarily stays the desire to retain the present. Therefore, memory began to occupy quite a special place indeed in the works of Bunin, when the Accursed days occurred in his life and Russia irrevocably became the past. The memory and creative work have a deep relationship. Memory, like art, sifts out everything empty and unimportant, exposing the most essential thing. «That’s why», Bunin wrote, «creative work requires only obsolete, only the past». The selection of memory is unconscious, # 319 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga А. Karlova. Aspects of «Russianness» in the Philosophic-Artistic Concept of Ivan Bunin Creative Work it is driven not by mind, but by something much deeper. With respect to the values of this deep being pictures and story lines are being built creating a surprising uniformity of time of Bunin’s narration, when the past and the present are almost indistinguishable in the manner of writing – one might be living in another, making one «timeless» time. Bunin himself expresses the essence of his work in words which at most cover the verges of life «heightened by art»: «We live by all that, by what we live, only to the extent at which we understand the price of that by what we live. Usually this price is very low: it rises only in the moments of excitement – excitement of happiness or unhappiness, vivid consciousness of the acquisition or loss, and in moments of poetic transfiguration of the past into memory». As the poet asserted himself, these are not the landscape and colours which fascinated him in the surrounding world, but «the shining of colours of love and happiness of existence in it». We have tried to identify only some of the verges of philosophical and artistic concept of Ivan Bunin, although many questions remain unanswered. Was the literary heritage of this writer, who considered himself a follower of Lev Tolstoy, realistic? Was it at all realistic Russian art of the 19th century? One can say with certainty only that the prose and poetry of Ivan Bunin, like work of many Russian masters of arts, were sinaesthetic – equally picturesque, musical and poetic. Bunin’s artistry was symbolic in terms of existence in its stable complexes of ideas, images, archetypes, and, of course, was characterized by intertextuality and dialogical consciousness. Are these the features, which manifest specific Russianness of the Russian culture and its view of the world? Or is it the philosophy of feeling which still lies in the basis – the intellectual courage to handle the concepts of «eternity», «love», «life» and «death», «ends and beginnings», «soul» and «cosmos» –and even greater courage to live all this in his work? Or maybe it’s the utmost openness and utmost secrecy as of the first, so of the second – the great mystery of being and cognition of life in its earthly fullness and divine destiny...? These and other existential, reason-forbeing questions tired pragmatic Western thinkers and especially the European masters of arts of the 19 th – 20 th centuries. For the natural-contemplating harmony of the Oriental civilizations such questions were too straightforward and «humanized». Answers to them the Russian culture gave. And these answers were secretly-mysterious, spiritualpagan, light- sad, tragic-majeure. Perhaps these are the questions and the answers of the borderland of civilizations. It is known that borders in this world go by land. In this case, this land is Russia ... References T.A. Pavlyuchenkova. Tsvetooboznacheniya v poezii I.A. Bunina / Filologicheskiye nauki [Colour naming in the poetry of I.A. Bunin. Philological sciences] 2008, No. 2, pp.99-107. A.G. Razumovskaya. «Listiya padayut v sadu…» Osen’ kak ob’ekt poeticheskikh razmyshlenii I. Bunina i V. Nabokova / Russkaya slovesnost’ [«Leaves are falling down in the yard...» Autumn as an object of poetic thoughts of I. Bunin and V. Nabokov / Russian language arts], 2009, No.6, pp. 23-28. Ye. G. Belousova. «…Chuvstvovat’, lyubit’, nenavidet’…» / Russkaya rech’ [«…Feel, love, hate…» / Russian speech], 2007, No.1, pp. 30-37. # 320 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga А. Karlova. Aspects of «Russianness» in the Philosophic-Artistic Concept of Ivan Bunin Creative Work V.A. Meskin. Lyubov’ v proze I. Bunina: dialog s predshestvennikami i sovremennikami / Russkaya slovesnost’ [Love in the prose of I. Bunin: a dialog with predecessors and contemporaries / Russian language arts], 2005, No.5 pp. 20-26. T.M. Dvinyatina. «Mir Ivana Bunina»: ideal’naya proektsiya / Russkaya literatura [«The world of Ivan Bunin»: an ideal projection / Russian literature], 2008, No. 2, pp. 216-223. N.A. Pereverzeva. Mifosimvolicheskii contekst romana Bunina «Zhizn’ Arsenieva» / Filologicheskiye nauki [Mythological and symbolic context of the Bunin’s novel «The life of Arseniev» / Philological sciences], 2010, No.3, pp. 15-22. V. Marchenko. Perepisat’ klassiku v epokhu modernizma: o poetike i stile rasskaza Bunina «Natali» / Izvestiya RAN. Seriya literatury i yazyka [To rewrite the classics during the epoch of modernism: about the poetry and the style of Bunin’s story «Nataly» / The Journal of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Series of literature and language], 2010, No. 2, Volume 069, pp. 25-42. T.V. Marchenko. Na puti k akademicheskomu Buninu / Izvestiya RAN. Seriya literatury i yazyka [On the way to the academic Bunin / The Journal of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Series of literature and language ], 2007, No. 001, Volume 66, pp. 11-27. Аспекты «русскости» в философско-художественном концепте творчества Ивана Бунина О.А. Карлова Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, г. Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82 Статья посвящена философским вопросам национальной идентичности в творчестве русского поэта и писателя Ивана Бунина, исследованию феномена «константа русской души» в контексте его произведений, уточнению аспектов «русскости» жанровых и стилистических особенностей его прозы и поэзии, а также в целом бунинского творческого почерка. Рефлексия природы, которой сопутствует звучащая тишина, является главной приметой поэзии Ивана Бунина. Человек у Бунина – сосуд рефлексии природы, орган ее мысли и переживания. Именно мир природы, образы которого занимают 74% всех художественных описаний Бунина, – и есть для него мир высшей гармонии бытия. Другим типично русским аспектом творчества Ивана Бунина является его синэстетичность. Бунинские тексты, особенно поэтические, прежде всего удивительно живописны. Можно сказать, что это поэзия тысячи красок – но красок, строго отобранных и философски закодированных. Живописность поэзии и прозы Бунина не имеет аналогов в русской литературе: при среднем использовании в текстах на 10 тысяч слов 70-90 цветообразований, только Бунин использует 190 красок. В то же время красочная роскошь бунинского языка, по утверждению Владимира Набокова, достигается прежде всего его звукописью, ритмикой, лаконизмом и высочайшей плотностью стиха. # 321 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga А. Karlova. Aspects of «Russianness» in the Philosophic-Artistic Concept of Ivan Bunin Creative Work Пропуская впечатления через призму своего концепта, мастер создает интегральный образ повышенной жизни, стремится к изображению ее страстного накала, к достижению превосходной степени бытия. Рамкой философского мышления писателя является целое бытия. В эту рамку вписаны все его стихи, сюжеты, мотивы, рассказы. Все связано со всем, взаимопроникаемо, все имеет смысл лишь по отношению к целому. Это не только древняя логика мифокосмоса, характерная для русских философов и литераторов разных эпох, это еще и мужество мыслителя оперировать понятиями «вечность», «космос», «жизнь» и «смерть». Любовь мужчины и женщины, одержимых жизнью и завороженных смертью, у Бунина вечна, трагична и мистериальна. Современники Бунина часто говорили о «перепевах» и эпигонстве в его творчестве. Ю.М. Лотман открыл новую эпоху в буниноведении, заговорив о бунинском модернистском желании «переписать» русскую литературу в ее художественных образцах. Бунин – реалист лишь по художественной манере, хотя именно среди писателей-реалистов XIX века он чувствовал себя своим. Но его бытописание антинатуралистично, избирательно и символично. И в этом своем антиреалистическом бытописательстве Бунин был абсолютно оригинален. Еще один аспект «русскости» художественного концепта Бунина – память. Она становится перекрестком всех мотивов его творчества. Сам Бунин выражает сущность своего творчества в словах, которые максимально полно охватывают грани «повышенной искусством» жизни: «Мы живем всем тем, чем живем, лишь в той мере, в какой постигаем цену того, чем живем. Обычно эта цена очень мала: возвышается она лишь в минуты восторга – восторга счастия или несчастия, яркого сознания приобретения или потери; еще в минуты поэтического преображения прошлого в памяти». На эти и другие экзистенциональные, смысложизненные вопросы ответы давала русская культура. И ответы эти были таинственно-мистериальные, духовно-языческие, светлопечальные, трагически-мажорные. Возможно, это и есть вопросы и ответы пограничья цивилизаций. Ключевые слова: русская литература, ментальность, русскость, рефлексия, синэстетичность, интертекстуальность, реализм, символизм, модернизм. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 323-341 ~~~ УДК 81-139 Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages of the Northern People of the Krasnoyarsk Region Natalya P. Koptseva*, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova and Ksenia V. Reznikova Siberian Federal University 82 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011 In the given work, we observe some of the existing view points of such socio-linguistic problems as definition of language boundaries, distinguishing of a language and a dialect, theories of language development under the influence of social factors, language progress and regress, dying languages. In particular, for the beginning, we find out the borders between the notions of «speech community», «speech society», and «speech commonness» for the purpose of defining of the frames of further research, which logics is directed from consideration of more general questions to the study of more specific items. At every stage, special attention is paid to disputable points, which have caused the largest discussions in scientific circles. Thus, the search of language boundaries, reality of existence of a general linguistic core and existence of a language of a separate person have become such an object of discussion, which has been paid special attention. Consideration of interrelations of the notions of «language» and «dialect» is an important moment of theoretical research. Here, special attention is drawn to correlation of dialects within the language, to a possibility of dialect transition from one language to another, that is, we actually consider relations of dialects and language as in statics, so in dynamics. Thereat, the main accent is also placed not only on the relation «language – dialect» itself, but also on the features, which help to distinguish the denoted notions, moreover, these features are as linguistic, so cultureanthropological, in particular, we are speaking about people’s self-conscious, which is considered by a row of socio-linguists to be a basis for ethnical identity formation. Settlement of language boundaries makes us concentrate our attention only to the processes, which deal directly with the language, i.e. to the language dynamics. So, here, we consider as the types of dynamics (evolution, development, and perfection), so its reasons, which are usually divided into internal and external; we reveal the analogy of language dynamics and human life, we speak about normal condition of a language, its corruption, its birth and death. We appeal to the eposes of the native small-numbered peoples of the Krasnoyarsk region and it allows visually illustrating theoretical elaborations of the present work by means of tracing down of peculiarities of socio-cultural dynamics of some languages of small-numbered peoples, peculiarities of their interrelations, and the character of their mutual influence. Keywords: Native peoples of the Krasnoyarsk region, socio-linguistics, language boundaries, language development, linguistic shift, linguistic self-conscious, language socio-dynamics, concept, epos. * 1 Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 323 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages… The research has been carried out with financial support from the part of: 1) The Federal Purpose-Oriented Program «Scientific and Scientific-Pedagogical Personnel of Innovative Russia For 2009-2013 Years» concerning the problematics of «Culture of Native and SmallNumbered Peoples of the North under the Condition of Global Transformations: foresight-research for the period up to 2050 on the analysis of the material of the Yakut ethnos», which is held within the frames of Event 1.2.1 «Running of Scientific Researches by Scientific Groups under the Leadership of Doctors of Science». 2) The Regional State Autonomic Organization «Krasnoyarsk Regional Fond of Scientific and ScientificEngineering Activity Support» on the topic «The Krasnoyarsk Region as a poly-cultural space, is a motherland of native small-numbered nations of the North. Informational-analytical project». 3) The Federal Purpose-Oriented Program «Scientific and Scientific-Pedagogical Personnel of Innovative Russia For 2009-2013 Years» within the frames of Event 1.4 «Running of Exploration Scientific-Research Works for the Purpose of General-Russian Mobility Development in the Sphere of Natural and Humanitarian Sciences» on the topic: «Culture of Native and Small-Numbered Peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East under the Condition of Global Transformations». «Point of View»: Conception of Language Socio-Dynamics in the Context of the Modern Socio-Linguistic Researches In their research work «Socio-Linguistics» (2001), V.I. Belikov and L.P. Krysin write that «language is a social phenomenon, and as far as it is so, then it is natural that language development can be fully autonomic: this way or another it depends on the development of society» (Belikov et al., 2001; 100). For the first time, the term «sociolinguistics» was used by American sociologist German Carry in 1952, though it does not mean that the science of social relations and languages started to be formed only at that time. Already in XVII century scientists were thinking about the influence of some social factors on languages (Gonzalo de Correas), and researches, «which took into consideration dependence of linguistic phenomena on social phenomena» (Belikov et al., 2001; 14), were run rather actively since the beginning of XX century. The basis of socio-linguistics is relations between language and society. Connection of language evolution and social factors, the speaker’s choice of this or that language variant, children’s assimilation of the communicative bases, linguistic contacts and their results – this is the circle of topics of socio-linguistics – the science, which studies «language and its relation to the society» (Vakhtin). In the given work, we are mostly interested in various opinions of language, which are connected to its existence and functioning in the society, and in those linguistic changes, which take place under the influence of man and contacts with other languages. Thus, here, we consider such notions, which are connected to language changing and existence, precisely from the positions of socio-linguistics. 1. Speech Community – Speech Society – Speech Commonness One of the key notions in socio-linguistics is the notion of «speech society». It correlates with such terms as «speech community» and «speech commonness». V.I. Belikov and L.P. Krysin suggest the following definition of speech society – «it is an integrity of people, who are united by common social, economical, political and cultural ties and performing direct and indirect contacts with each other and with various social institutions with the help of one or several languages, being spread in this integrity, and in their everyday life» # 324 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages… (Belikov et al., 2001; 20). But people, speaking one language, do not always make up one speech society. Thus, Americans and Englishmen do not belong to one society, though they speak English. The authors write that «the boundaries of language spreading do not often coincide with the political boundaries. <…> that is why, when we define the notion of «speech society» it is important to take into consideration linguistic and social features» (Belikov et al., 2001; 20). The definition of language society, given by V.I. Belikov and L.P. Krysin, is very close to the understanding of speech community, which is suggested by L. Bloomfield in his monograph «Language» (1933, Russian translation – 1968). «Speech community» is «a group of people, who interact with the help of speech» (Bloomfield). Other kinds of relations (economical, political and cultural) can be to some extend correlated to the linguistic ones, but, to the mind of L. Bloomfield, they rarely coincide. As a rule, cultural peculiarities are spread wider, then speech peculiarities. For example, the scientist recalls the situation which took place in the Northern America before its colonization: every independent Indian tribe had its own language, thus, making up a separate speech society and it also was a separate political and economical unit, but common culture and religion made it close to the neighboring tribes. A similar idea was outspoken by N.B. Vakhtin and Y.V. Golovkoin in their work «SocioLinguistics and Language Sociology» (2004): «as a rule, the boundaries of ethnic and speech group do not coincide. One can observe various speech variants within the boundaries of one ethnos and, visa verse, various ethnic groups can speak one language» (Vakhtin et al., 2004; 37). In linguistics, under speech variant we consider a variant of language, which, as a rule, functions independently. The most popular language variants are the variants of English language: British English, American English, and Australian English. N.B. Vakhtin and Y.V. Golovkoin write: «any collective, even a small one has several speech variants» (Vakhtin et al., 2004; 37). Though, Y.S. Maslov in his «Introduction to Language Study» (1987) gives an alternative thought concerning correlation of speech boundaries with political, economical and others, and asserts that «in a large number of cases, a group of people, speaking the same language («speech commonness»), is an ethnic collective (a nation, an ethnic group, a tribe)» (Maslov). 2. Language boundaries The boundaries of language itself are also rather difficult to define, as far as language usually exists in several forms: literary language, everyday variant, vernacular language, territorial dialects, sociolects and so on. Nevertheless, linguists single out a general, sort of formative core of the language. Y.S. Maslov observes the following: «Language of some group (nation, ethnic group <…>) is not «a scientific fiction», not a compulsory «averaging» of facts of individual speech. It objectively exists, not as a «direct entity», but as the general, which exists in a part, as that one, which is being reproduced in speech again and again, being repeated in thousands, millions and billions of expressions, being pronounced and perceived in a corresponding collective» (Maslov). This way, a countless number of concrete original expressions is united by something common, invariant, and it let the language exists as a certain integral system and it is caused by «the existence of people, human collectives, using this language as a mean of communication» (Akhmamova, 1972; 99). And visa verse, the neogrammarians negated the existence of any common language, supposing that only the language of a separate individual is real. Baudouin de Courtenay also stuck to a similar point of view: «language exists only in # 325 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages… some individual brains, only in the psychic of individuals or species, making up the given speech society» (ref. (Grechko, 2003; 21)). Academician А.А. Shakhmatov also shared this point of view of the language existence, admitting common language to be «a famous scientific fiction» (ref. (Grechko, 2003; 21)). While А.А. Potebnya asserts that both common and «personal» languages are real, considering speech «to be a realized fragment of language, which is enough for revelation of necessary possible units» (ref. (Grechko, 2003; 22)). 3. Language And Dialect Differenciation According to various data, there are from six to six and a half thousands languages in the world. Such fluctuations of scientific data are first of all connected to the fact that up till now scientists have not yet decided what we should consider to be a language and a dialect: what are the principles for such decision making? Sometimes, dialects can be even better developed than a language and can function on a vast territory. Besides, a dialect can differ a lot from the language, up to that, that its carriers do not understand the carriers of the language. Though, the situation can be a reverse one, when speaking different languages people can understand each other without any mediators (the Dane and the Norwegians, the Serbians and the Croats, and so on.). There are several points of view of such a differentiation: Thus, N.B. Mechkovskaya («Social Linguistics», 2000) supposes, that «the status of language formation (i.e. language, dialect, jargon, functional style and so on.), similar to the ethnic status of some community of people, is defined by the self-conscious of a corresponding collective. Speech self-conscious is a notion of those, who speak, of what language they speak» (Mechkovskaya). To the researcher’s mind, precisely the self-definition of speakers is of toppriority in relation to the structural-linguistic criterion. N.B. Mechkovskaya writes «if the collective of speakers consider their native speech to be a separate language, being different from the languages of all their neighbors, then, the given collective speaks a separate independent language. If we respect human rights, this point of view must be admitted by scientists and politicians» (Mechkovskaya). V.I. Belikov and L.P. Krysin share this point of view and suppose to consider the opinion of the native speakers to be determinant in this question, though, they point at that, that there are «objective» indicators, to which number they refer mutual perceptibility, presence of a prestigious super-dialect variant (oral or written) and also political-economical process of integration of kindred variants speakers (Belikov et al., 2001; 91). Speaking about the problem of correlation of a language and a dialect, S.А. Arutyunov also marks that «there are no precise- and correct-enough pure linguistic criteria, which would help us to separate these notions clearly and distinctly» (Arutyunov, 1987; 45), that is why in each concrete case we make a decision in accordance with the perception of its character by the mass of its native speakers. For example, it is quite interesting that the Georgians (the people, who perceive themselves as Georgians) speak various dialects, accents of Georgian and also languages, which are remotely kindred to Georgian, as in Georgia, so out of its boundaries. And from the linguistic point of view, these languages are special, they even have their own dialects, but their speakers perceive themselves as Georgians, some specific spheres are also not covered by those languages, and that is why «from the ethnosocial point of view, their role is equal to the # 326 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages… roles of the main dialects of the Georgian language» (Arutyunov, 1987; 45). But some linguists, for example, G.I. Edelman, consider that it is not at all so important to differentiate languages and dialects. Edelman writes: «in the course of synchronic linguistic description of a linguistic variant, in the course of research of its history or finding out its genetic, typological or even territorial references it is practically insignificant, which term «language» or «dialect» is to be used in relation to it <…>: here, it is not qualitative» (ref. (Belikov et al., 2001; 91)). О.S. Akhmanova writes that dialect crucially differs from language, because it is not independent. Dialect «is in a compulsory and inevitable correlation and interdependence on other dialects» (Akhmamova, 1972; 100). This way, there can appear «transitional cases of correlation with neighboring adjacent semiotic systems» (Akhmamova, 1972; 100). That is why the boundaries of a dialect are vague: one dialect slips into another. Though, a dialect can move from one language structure to another (for example, some Danish dialects became the dialects of the English language), or they even can become independent languages (the Dolgan language originally existed as a dialect of Yakut). What concerns the opinion of the western linguists in the question of differentiation of a language and a dialect, the majority of scientists also consider linguistic factors to be on the second place after the people’s self-conscious (Alpatov, 2000; 196). 4. Dynamic of language Language is the main means of people’s communication. «Language appears, develops and exists as a social phenomenon. Its main appropriation is concluded in the following: to serve the needs of human society and first of all to provide communication among the members of major or minor social collectives, and also functioning of a collective memory of this collective» (Susov). By means of language, they achieve exchanging of information and build up interpersonal relations; language reflects the reality surrounding the individual and, consequently, the occurring changes. Gradual changing is a natural condition of language. Dynamics shows that language is alive and develops in a normal way. In «General Language Study» (1970), B.А. Serebrennikov notes, that «languages cannot fail changing first of all because of that simple reason, that language is a means of practical realization of communicational acts, and in their basis there is a human reflection of the surrounding reality, which is itself in a constant movement and development» (Serebrennikov). Becoming and development of a living language come to an end simultaneously with its living, that is, when the language finishes its existence. This gradual and continuous changing includes not only reformation and renewal in connection with the progress of society, but also perfection of the language, getting rid of contradictions and various shortcomings and defects. Thus, «some part of changes has a sort of preventive character, as far as they appear because of inner necessity of the language mechanism reforming» (Serebrennikov). In his «Lectures of General Language Study» (1990), Y.V. Rozhdestvensky separates the dynamics of language into evolution, development and language perfection. Evolution and development are in some sense in opposition to each other: in the course of evolution, language units change their phonetic (graphic) and sense qualities, but we do not observe any increase of units’ quantity or qualitative changes of their relations, while in the course of development we observe all these phenomena at a time. Language # 327 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages… perfection opposes these two processes, as far as language is changed not by itself, but in the result of human influence (Rozhdestvensky, 1990). The reasons of changes can be divided into several groups: external, connected to the influence of some outer phenomena on the language, and internal, connected to organization and functioning of the language itself. B.А. Serebrennikov writes, that «language reforming can be run under the influence of two various motive forces, one of them is connected to appropriation of language and realization of communicative necessity of society, and the other is connected to the principals of language organization, to its embodiment in a certain substance and its existence in the form of a special sign system» (Serebrennikov). А. Meillet singles out three groups of reasons of changes, occurring in language: 1) language structure (proper linguistic reasons, connected to organization and functioning); 2) conditions of language existence (psychological, physical, spatial, social and other factors); 3) singular impacts of other languages (language contacts) (Serebrennikov). Let us consider some conceptions of language development, where the changes, occurring in the language, are used to be associated with a social structure of society, which uses the given language. Socio-Linguistics is distinguished by its extremely large variety of points of view of social mechanisms of language changing. For example, Y.D. Polivanov considers, that «in the course of language development we observe a complex interaction of proper linguistic, internal, external, and social factors» (Belikov et al., 2001; 102). Social changes, especially some drastic events, certainly, exert certain influence on language, but we should not overestimate the scale of this influence. «Y.D. Polivanov compares the course of language development with the work of locomotive pistons. Similar to that, as some social shift cannot make pistons move along, but perpendicularly the railways, so any kind of economical or political factor cannot change the direction of phonetic and other linguistic processes» (Belikov et al., 2001; 102). Social factors influence on language indirectly, for example, they change qualitatively or quantitatively the set of native speakers of this or that language, or dialect, and, consequently, «the starting points of its evolution» are also modified. Y.D. Polivanov also mentions the degree of social factors influence on language: lexis is exposed to it in a greater degree, while morphology and syntaxes – in a much lesser. Though, Y.D. Polivanov notes, that «our acceptance of language dependence on life and social evolution does not negate or reduce the meaning of naturalhistorical «theories of evolution» of language» (ref. (Belikov et al., 2001; 101)). М.V. Panov is the author of the theory of antinomy, having got wide spreading in 60-s. He thinks that «in the language development the key role is played by the constantly acting, antithetical tendencies (antinomies), which struggle is the propelling motivation of the language development» (Belikov et al., 2001; 105). All in all he singles out four such tendencies: 1. Antinomy of the speaker (the tendency to use reduced forms) and the listener (the tendency to use full forms): reduced forms economize one’s efforts, and that is why they are convenient to the speaker, while full forms provide maximum of information, and it makes the process of understanding easier, and consequently, they are convenient to the listener; 2. Antinomy of the system and the norm: on one hand, the system lets us use everything, what does not contradict the laws of language, and on other hand, there is a norm, which selects only some forms for application; 3. Antinomy of the code and the text: the lesser number of units needs a longer text to # 328 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages… render a certain sense, and visa verse, the bigger number of units needs a shorter text for the same purpose; 4. Antinomy of the regularity and expressivity: language informational function demands a precise and definite word expression of a thought, while emotive function appeals to all the language abundance. М.V. Panov considers that temporal domineering of one or another tendency in any of the antimonies is this way or another connected to the position of social groups in the society. For example, in 20 – 30-s of XX century, changing of the set of the native speakers of the Russian formal language influenced on its pronunciation – it became more literal: people began to pronounce bulo[chn]aya, smeyal[s’a] and ti[kh’i]y instead of the old Moscow normative variant bulo[shn]aya, smeyal[sa] and tj[khi]y. American linguist W. Labov has worked out an outstanding theory of language development. According to this theory, changes in the language structure cannot be understood correctly without taking into consideration of the data of the speech society, which applies this language. In the course of research of the changes we are to account following three aspects: what is the way one stage of changes replaces the other, what is that continuous process, within which limits these changes take place and, finally, how does the speaker evaluate this changing. Though, the social status of the sub-group, where the changing takes place, is also important. If it does not get any definite position in the society, then the changing can be rejected, the reaction will take place and the reverse process back to the norm will be started. 5. Language progress and regress In spite of the fact that dynamics is a feature of the language being alive, any changes can be as of progressive, so of regressive character. Progressive changes allow language to develop at full rate and, while changing, to preserve its integrity and originality. For example, Soviet linguistics is presented by the works of Y.D. Desheriev, and it asserts that, the process of language development must be inevitably connected to the language progress, which is understood «as social product», i.e. the language develops progressively only then, when the volume of its social functions is growing (Desheriev, 1977; 185 – 186). In language, the problem of progress is understood in different ways. Thus, for example, F. Bopp, J. Grimm, A. Schleicher, V. Humboldt have compared ancient Hindu and modern European languages and have come to the conclusion that all the history of languages is a gradual decay and depletion. But, other scientists suppose on the contrary that, that there is nothing wrong in simplification. For example, Otto Jespersen writes that the easier the grammar system is, the more perfect the language is. It occurs very often that the character of language changing is possible to be defined only post factum. But, we can say it definitely that the changing is regressive only when the language is close to its «death». 6. Linguistic shift and language «death» In the native linguistics, A.Y. Kibrikov was the first, who applied biological terms in respect to the language («healthy», «sick», «disappearing», «dead»). A.Y. Kibrikov writes: «healthy languages are able to reproduce or even to enlarge their social status, their sphere of activity, number of native speakers, in other words, they function and develop in a standard way, they are viable. «Sick» languages are on this or that stage of degrading» (Kibrik, 1992; 67). Their social status is gradually coming down, the number of spheres of activity # 329 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages… and of native speakers is decreasing. Beside the social parameters, the language existence is also influenced by the internal structural parameters: steadiness of the language structure to the impact of other languages, dynamics of lexis development and so on. Severity of «the disease» is defined by the degree of «the language progress and closeness to the dead point» (the term of N.B. Mechkovskaya). Transition of language from the category of «living» to «dead» ones usually involves «communicatively weak languages with an underdeveloped system of forms and styles. Though, there are some examples, when languages with a developed literary form (Latin, Sanskrit) have disappeared. Thus way, as internal, so external regressive changes are quite dangerous for languages» (Felde; 114). «In General Language Study», N.B. Mechkovskaya marks, that usage of languages is very often compared with «the loss of many species of animals, plants, and with ecological catastrophes: along with the death of hundreds of languages – all this is various revelations of increasing ill-being all over the world. Next to the «Red Data Books» of flora and fauna there have appeared «Red Data Books» of languages. The question of «dying» languages survival became the main question at the XV International Linguistic Congress (1992, Canada)» (Mechkovskaya, 2001, 124]. At present time, the question of languages extinction attracts more and more attention, as far as right «now we have understood that language variety is of as much value for the human civilization, as the biological variety for the nature» (Borgoykova, 2001; 3). The language, which is communicatively stronger, displaces the weaker one; though, there is still no unanimous opinion of what defines the power of a language. For example, N.B. Vakhtin and Y.V. Golovko consider that «when a language turns out to be in contact with another one, then it is spreading wider and wider, and pushes the weaker language out, just because its native speakers are stronger in political, military or economical relations. D. Crystall writes about close connection between the linguistic domineering and cultural power: language exists only in the conscious, in the speech of its carriers. When they succeed, the language is also a success» (Vakhtin et al., 2004; 111-112). Scientists also single out existence of a written language, its literary form and a developed system of styles to be the features of communicative power of language. In some cases, communicative power can be defined by the number of its native speakers, and then we speak about mega-languages, macrolanguages, languages with a medium number of speakers and languages of small-numbered nations. Division of languages into healthy, sick, vanishing and dead is not the only one. М. Krauss (ref. (Vakhtin et al., 2004)) singles out other categories: • dying (moribund): they are not studied by children as native ones; • endangered: if the existing conditions are preserved, then they will not be studied by children as native ones in the next century; • safe: children will study them as their native languages in the nearest future. One language can be changed by the other only passing the stage of social existence in condition of bilingualism (or multilingualism). On a certain stage of development, speech community has to make its final choice: whether to preserve its language (language maintenance) or to change it for another (language shift). Refusal of the commonness to use the old language and transition to a new one is called a language shift (Vakhtin et al., 2004). Language # 330 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages… shift can be slow (it can take hundreds years), quick (three-four generations) and catastrophic (one-two generations). «Some linguists suppose, that bilingualism will surely bring to degradation of one the languages or assimilation of one of them (more often it is the primary language)» (Bertagaev, 1972; 86). V.М. Alpatov notes, that «language minorities always undergo one and the same way, consisting of three stages: domineering of national monolingualism – domineering of bilingualism – domineering of the language of the majority; and the last stage is finished by the death of the language. The reverse movement is possible only in case the state boundaries are changed and the speech minority becoming the majority» (Alpatov, 2000; 203). Though, these stages changing can flow with a various speed. «The last stage (before complete disappearance of the language) is the situation linguistic ghetto, when the language is used only in some villages, in some families and so on. <…> though, life in ghetto can last for decades and even longer» (Alpatov, 2000; 206). The reasons, which bring the speech community to such a refusal, are rather various: from «prestige» to inculcation of other language by force, and one could observe it in reality at the end of 1950-s – at the beginning of 1960-s all over the world (South America, Australia, USA, Canada, Extreme North of the USSR), «when local administrations took children from their families by force and placed them in the boarding schools, <…> and children of different nationalities were taught together and the only communication language of children and their teachers was their state language» (Vakhtin et al., 2004; 121). R. Fesold considers, that «language shift takes place only at that moment, when the speech group itself wishes to refuse from its identity» (ref. (Alpatov, 2000; 203)), but V.М. Alpatov thinks, that it is not always true. For example, usually, the Jew people easily assimilate with the local population in western countries, but still they preserve their national identity. The choice of direction of the language development depends on ethno-linguistic livability. This approach appeared in the middle of 1970-s and is described with the help of three independent socio-linguistic parameters: status (prestige of the group and its language in the society), demography (the number of the group members, its rate of birth, marriages, immigrational and emigrational behavior) and institutional support (mass media, education, policy, cultural activity) (Vakhtin et al., 2004; 125-126). 2. «Example»: Eposes of the Native Small-Numbered Peoples of the Krasnoyarsk Region. «Deer» as a Concept of the Evenki Epos There are eight nationalities living in the Krasnoyarsk Region, they are used to be referred to the national small-numbered peoples: there are the Dolgans, the Kets, the Nganasans, the Nenets, the Selkups, the Chulymtsis, the Evenkis, and the Entsis. Scientists often argue about the ninth ethnos – about Yakuts, 72.5% of Yakuts, populating the Krasnoyarsk Region, live in the village Yessey, situated in the north-east of the Evenkis municipal region. Consequently, further we shall speak about peculiarities of eposes of the mentioned nine ethnoses, which we shall consider in the alphabetic order. The Dolgan epos combines in itself features of both Russian and Yakut influence. Thus, folk tales are usually performed in the form of songs, very close to the Yakut olonkho. Russian borrowings are first of all traced in the structure of the tale heroes. Dolgan olonkho and yryalaak olonkho (with signing) are performed by the fairy-tellers, who are considered to be the choice of good spirits, which are held in special respect. # 331 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages… The plot, the composition of the Dolgan olonkhos is close to the Yakut ones, including the Yessey tales. The main hero of the Dolgan epos defends the people of the Middle world from the bogatyrs of abaasa, who live in the Lower world. Epic Dolgan music is also directly connected to the Dolgan epos, as a literature genre, it is presented by individual vocal characteristics of some personages of olonkho. Song melodies fulfill the role of melodic characteristics of the main heroes; besides, they are appealed to underline the most significant moments of heroes’ actions. The Kets epos is first of all presented by cosmogonical tales and myths about the world origin and about a man, about bogatyr Balne, about Albe and his struggle with Khosedem. Epic tales of the Kets are usually divided into two big blocks: the first one is Creation of the world, of the animals, and the people; the second one is existence of this world in the past, the present and the future. The Kets have been noticed to have a dual attitude to the world creation: it is whether self-development of the earth (water and air are in the origin), or creation of the world by the will of God. God, a positive personage, is opposed by the negative beginning; and this antagonism is also traced on the minor levels of the hierarchy. Thus, the superior personage of the pantheon, God Yesu, personifying Heaven, is opposed by his wife Khosedem, exiled by himself to the earth, the hostess of the world of the dead and the North; in a similar way they refer mythological hero Albe and legendary shaman Dokhu to positive personages, while Dottet and others are referred to negative. The Kets epos explains the appearance of heavy-going rapids, mountain ranges by the actions of epical heroes. Thus, the name of Albe is connected to appearance of the Yenisei river, which is lower the Osinovsk rifts, and of the rifts themselves, rocky islands. Olgyt with his family was turned in a rift in the Stony Tunguska River. Escaping from Albe, Khosedem is ascribed to have created uninhabitable floodable islands lower the Osinovsk rifts. According to the Kets mythological world outlooks, organization of the world is of threepart structure: it is the land, which is in the middle position and surrounded by the water («seven seas»); above the land there is the seven-part heaven, formed by parallel layers, circles or capes, the seventh layer is the roof of heaven; below the land there are seven underground caves – the notions about them are rather vague. The middle world is populated by the Kets (Kynden), animals and birds. The underground world is presented as the world of the dead and substances, which are harmful for people. The heaven is presented as a home for people and animals, having moved from the land, and also the wintering place for migrant birds. The connection between the worlds is realized by shamans, some of them are specialized in connections with the Lower world, the others – with the Upper world. We are to mark that, fragmentary performance of the epos (singular plots, speeches of heroes) by certain people under certain conditions was considered to have a magic influence on the forces of nature, in particular, to help in traditional cropping (setting of the necessary spell of weather, incantation of the game to run into the hands of hunters and fishers and so on.). The Nganasan folklore is various, and it is first of all presented by musical-narrative epical tales (sitabi) about bogatyrs’ heroic deeds. These tales were usually performed during several evenings. Prolonged tales were often sung by storytellers-singers in wintertime. These singers were considered to have magic power. We are to underline that in comparison with the fairy-tales, characterized by a fictional plot, those mythological tales were considered to be a real narration, which told about the creation of the world. According to Nganasan cosmogonical pieces, the world was # 332 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages… created by the will of «the Mother of all that has eyes» and Syruta-ngou – God of earth, whose son was the man-deer, who was the first man on the earth, and was the first, who faced the evil forces, embodied in a flying horned deer. After the real people populated the earth, the man-deer became their protector. In the Nganasan epos we can find as supernatural substances nguo, barusi, djamady, kojka, kocha (all of them were considered to be the children of the mothers: Mou-nemy (the Earth), Kou-nemy (the Sun), Tuy-nemy (the Fire), Khuanemy (the Tree), Byzy-nemy (the Water)); so the legendary bogatyrs’ heroic deeds, including their interaction with real peoples – with the Nenets, the Russians, the Evenkis, and the Dolgans. Epical tales of the Nganasans, the same as the majority of other Northern peoples’, are performed on various personalized melodies, which characterize the main heroes and differentiate them from each other. The Nenets folklore contains narrative stories (yarabtz), historical legends, lyrical songsimprovisations (khyinbatz), fairy-tales (vadako, lakhnaku), and puzzles. Besides, the scientists are used to single out heroic songs (syudbabtz). As far as it is impossible to separate the genres in the Nenets folklore, epical tales yarabtz and syudbabtz are usually combined in one group, which is often called epical songs, because they are performed in the form of a song. Etymology of the word «syudbabtz» goes from «syudbja» – «giant», i.e. syudbabtz is actually the tale about giants. In the course of time, the meaning of the word «syudbja» has been changed, and now it means a hero-bogatyr or his antagonist. The main heroes of syudbabtz, bogatyrs possess an exclusive power and fearlessness, and besides, they have magic talents, for example, they can move in the sky with the help of their bows. The most wide spread plots of syudbabtz are revenge for the insult, for the murder of a relative or hunting for a wife. The Nenets epos can be divided into two big blocks, and for the basis of such a division, we take the timing of the occurring events. Thus, the first group is the epos, narrating of the events, which took place in ancient times, following the creation of the world and in a comparatively small period of time. Here, we should also mark that, cosmogonical myths about the creation of the world, the man, the world of animals and plants were not used to be delivered to strangers, and that is why there are quite few pieces, which can be referred to this block. The second group is late epical pieces va’al, where the main heroes are historical persons – Lenin, Vauli Nenyang, heroes of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. We are particularly to mark the Nenets’ attitude to narrations on the whole: syudbabtz narration is usually given in the third person, but sometimes it is transferred to the first person. But, syudbabtz, as the whole Nenets folklore, is typical of personification of the narration itself; when along with the main heroes there is one more personified character – myneko, in other words, it is the tale itself. Traditionally, the story-teller was repeated by the audience, singing the last long syllable in the line and varying the melody of the narration, all this resulted in formation of a canon-like structure of the tale with some inclusions of heterophonic sub-voices. The Selkup folklore is presented by historical legends, heroic songs, fairy-tales and small tales. A rather large layer of epical works of the Selkups narrate about the wars, which were led against their neighboring peoples – against the Evenkis, the Nenets, the Tatars. The Kets and the Khants were used to be allies of the Selkups in those collisions. Epical Selkup tales (keel’tyma) are, as a rule, performed in one piece, though, in some cases they practice to divide the plot into separate melodic formulas. Interaction of Selkup and Kets cultures can be traced not only in the structure of plots of the Selkup epos, # 333 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages… but also in their performance traditions, as far as epical melodies of the Selkups can be compared with the Kets tradition of shaman singing. One of the peculiarities of the Selkup folklore is that, that in the Tomsk region the main part of tales is performed in Russian. Epos of Chulym Ethnos has been preserved in a lesser degree, so, various sources assert that there are tales about bogatyrs, whose names are considered to have given birth to Chulym surnames. The Evenkis folklore includes as songsimprovisations, fairy-tales, and everyday tales, so the epos, as mythological, so historical. The epos is intonated, and very often in the course of the whole night. Performance of larger tales could be prolonged not for one evening. The Evenkis highly esteemed the art of talented storytellers, and people were coming to listen to their epical stories even from quite afar. According to the testimony of one of the tellers, Y.G. Trofimov, performance of nimngakan usually started after the day works and dinner were over. The storyteller was seated on an honored place in the tent – malu – and fur-rug – kumalan. The tale began with a concentrated quietness of the storyteller in a complete silence, supported by all the audience: grown-ups and children. The words of every hero were pronounced in an individual manner – it concerned both the melody and the voice peculiarities: rising and falling of the pitch, its coloration by this or that way. It was a common practice that the audience took an active part in performance of epical tales, repeating separate lines after the story-teller. In the Evenkis folklore we can single out sub-ethnical heroes – that is epical heroes (soning), who can be refereed to various groups of Evenkis. Thus, the hero of Ilimpijsk Evenkis is Uren, and the hero of the Stony Tunguska Evenkis is Kheveke. G.М. Vasilevich, the researcher of the smallnumbered peoples of the North of the first part of ХХ century, singled out the traditional structure of the Evenkis heroic tales, which were formed by the story-teller in a strict order: introduction – appearance of the Middle sea; appearance and the first stage of the hero’s life; the hero’s crusade, his struggle with the negative personages; saving of his bride or one of her relatives and coming back home. Thereat, the teller could narrate not only about the life of the main hero, but about his several generations. According to the notions, presented in the Evenkis epos, the World possesses a threepart structure: the Middle world, inhabited by the animals, and where the fi rst Evenkis have appeared; the Lower world, populated by the evil creatures avakhi, ogenga; and the Upper world of good spirits, spirits of nature, and the Evenkis’ ancestors. General three-part structure is in its turn subdivided into seven worlds, according to the Evenkis’ notions they are: three heaven worlds (Ugu buga), the Middle land (Dulin buga) and three underground worlds (Kheru buga). The Upper and the Lower worlds are not fully separated form the Middle world, thus, the entrance to the Upper one is realized through the Polar star, while to the Lower one – through the rock crevices, caves, and whirlpools. Evenkis’ epical tales explain the march of day and night (she-deer Bugady carries the sun away on her horns, and hunter Mangi gets it back), narrate about the world creation (the frog fought the snake or the diver, who had brought a ball of earth from the sea bottom). Epos narrates about formation of rivers and mountains, about the kinship of men and animals, in particular, of a man and a bear. In the Evenkis epos they praise union of man and nature, their cohesion. These tales can be considered as sort of encyclopedias of authentic life and spiritual culture of the nation. The Evenkis epos is used to be divided into two types: western and eastern, which differ not # 334 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages… only by their content, but also by their musical structure and the manner of performance. The main content of the eastern type of the epos is the hero’s marriage, the text consists of monologues, and song words of every hero are individual. The Evenkis epos of the eastern type is widespread in the Far East, including Sakhalin, and presents an original phenomenon, in spite of the influence of the Yakut olonkho. The western type of the Evenkis epos is mainly concentrated on the theme of inter-generic wars, which main purpose was blood revenge. Its performance differs form the eastern version by a lesser individualization of the heroes; the western Evenkis epos is closer to historical novels, while the eastern Evenkis epos is full of hyperbolizations and fantastic extravagancies. What concerns the Enetsky folklore, consisting of myths, historical legends, fairy-tales about animals, narrations about shamans, and everyday stories, the scientists testify that now it is in the period of decay. The Enetsky folklore has been under-studied and it has been also caused by the fact that the notes and publications of the folklore texts have mostly been done in Russian. In the Enetsky folklore, epical Nganasan sitabis and Nenets syudbabts correspond to large epical tales about bogatyrs – syudobichu. Nenets naming of bogatyrs – the heroes of syudobichu, the same as Nenets naming of tribes, mentioned in syudobichu, let the researchers come to the conclusion that the genre itself and its main patterns have been borrowed from the Nenets people rather recently. Along with the cosmogonical myths, the main themes of syudobichu are narrations about hunger, finding food; besides, we can rather often find the plots about heroes, who have survived after some dreadful epidemy, which has killed all the relatives. Moreover, the themes of struggle with other peoples and myths about animals, in particular, about bear, are most popular among the Entsis. The most wide-spread genre of the Yakut folklore is the bogatyr epos of olonkho, which is considered to be the main kind of the Yakut poetry, being performed in the form of reciting by the story-teller (olonkhosut), possessing the divine gift, before a large audience. The main theme of olonkho is narrations about bogatyrs, being their progenitor. They were the people of the Middle world, which belonged to a powerful tribe ajyy ajmaga, which origination is connected to the divine ajyy. The Field research, which was carried out in July, 2010, in the Turukhansk and Farkovo village, and which participants were the representatives of the small-numbered nations, has shown that folklore, including epos as well, is mostly in the condition of extinction or total disappearance. Thus, the questioned Kets have told that the main carriers of their folklore were their grandfathers and grandmothers, who were speaking the Kets language fluently and had difficulties in speaking Russian. As the Kets, so the Selkups have underlined songs of improvisational character as the main genre of traditional folklore, which is still alive. The singer was the author of the piece at one and the same time; for example he could sing about the kettle, which was boiling or about what was going outside, or how the weather was changing. At present time, national culture is of minor interest, at least on words; there is actually no ethnocentrism. The native people say that there have been some fairy-tales, stories, and legends and the older generation have been telling them, but now they fail to remember at least one story. The tendency of extinction was already noticed by the researchers of the second half of ХХ century, as far as they found out that the texts, they managed to write down, were mainly performed by the representatives of the older generation, who had failed to fi nd any successors to render their art. Moreover, the carriers of the epos failed to fi nd not only any # 335 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages… successors of their story-telling tradition, but even any listeners of their own performance, as a consequence it brought to their seldom storytelling and resulted in an irrevocable loss of some parts of the texts, to fragmentary notes, to retelling of the plot, to instability in epical formulas usage, tongue-slips, to usage of the modern words and so on. Having revised in short the eposes of various ethnoses, populating the Krasnoyarsk region and being referred to small-numbered peoples, for example, we shall address to the piece «Brave Sodani-bogatyr», which belongs to the Evenkis tradition. The given piece was fixed by means of self-recording by prominent rhapsodist Nikolay Germogenovich Trofimov (1915-1971). In the course of fixation, the story-teller did not use any punctuation marks, the words were written as an uninterrupted text, and were not divided into separate verses. While writing, N.G. Trofimov used Yakut vowels and diphthongs, which had no analogues in the Evenkis alphabet. Later, the scientists divided this uninterrupted text into separate verses, for that purpose they used an audio-record, made by the same story-teller, but of some other legend, in order to use the analogue for the text processing. Besides, the text was fully re-transcribed within the frames of the modern Evenkis written language, without omitting any dialect forms of the original. Translation of «Brave Sodani-bogatyr» to Russian was made in accordance with the norms of the Russian language; as a result there appeared a necessity to introduce some words for connection, for example, of complex sentences. Thereat, additional words were taken in square brackets. Peculiarities of the Russian syntaxes and Evenkis syntaxes did not allow preserving the original order of the verses in the course of translation, but the admitted rearrangements of the lines did not change their total number. Consequently, all the mentioned let us suppose with a certain assurance, that content- analysis of the text of «Brave Sodani-bogatyr», having been presented in Russian language, pretends for verifiability. The Evenkis epos «Brave Sodani-bogatyr» inclludes 2632 verses, the total number of the words in the text is about 10 000 (9 982), a significant part of the total number of the words is functional words (prepositions, conjunctions and others). In the process of calculations it have been found out that beside the words being directly connected with the main heroes of the epos (such as Evenki, ai, brother, sister, bogatyr, mata), the most often used words in the text are: wild (61), beautiful (49), and blood (42). If we address to the words this or that way connected to the world of plants, then we see that the most wide spread are the following: trees (25), herbs (13), osier-bed (12), and larch (9). Most popular words, referred to the world of animals are: moose (6), lynx (5), bear (4), and fox (4). But the most popular word in the considered text is the word deer. Thereat, it can be mentioned as directly (105), so by means of such words as horns (52) and roaring (3), thus, all in all the usage of the word deer reaches up to 160 times. This fact gives us an opportunity to come to the conclusion about high significance of the deer for the Evenkis. Precisely the word «deer» can be singled out as the concept for further researching of the Evenkis epos on the example of the tale «Brave Sodani-bogatyr». For this very purpose it is planned, fi rstly, to single out the characteristics of the deer, which are given in the text; secondly, to singled out as the concept and compare the given word with some other words according to their characteristics, having denoted the basis for comparison; thirdly, in order to research the chosen concept, we can carry out content–analysis of another example of the Evenkis epos, which was also fi xed with the help of self-recording by the same storyteller – N.G. Trofi mov. Here, we mean the epical # 336 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages… text «Almighty bogatyr Develchen in fancyornate clothes». Thus, making a certain conclusion of our short review of the eposes of the native smallnumbered peoples of the Krasnoyarsk Region, we shall mark, that all of them possess common features, along with the fact that each of them has its own originality. Thus, we refer to the common features the following ones: compassion of the story-teller and the audience in the process of narration, high respect to the story-teller as a possessor of the divine gift. The rhapsodist does not simply present the events, but also colors tonally various actions, various heroes, makes the epical personages individual. Eposes of different nations have similar structures: beginningintroduction (description of the time, place, and its main heroes); intrigue (some disaster, wish of travelling, matchmaking); culmination (hero’s struggle with enemies, who can be relatives of the future wife); plot movement (marriage, bogatyr’s homecoming). Besides similarity of the plot structure, eposes are also typical of common motifs, such as hero’s anger, which changes the appearance of the hero, hero’s incantation of the arrows for the victory over his rival and so on. Epos turns out to be a sort of encyclopedia of people’s authentic everyday life and spiritual culture, thus, for example, most eposes narrate about the structure of the world (as a rule, it is three-part structure), about peculiarities of people’s habitation, about traditions of this or that nation. 3. Results: 1. It is quite logical that in the process of speech community definition one must take into account not only territorial, political and proper linguistic factors, but also self-conscious of the native speakers. 2. The same way one should act in the course of distinguishing of a language and a dialect, though, up till now linguists do not share one common opinion in these aspects, in spite of some coincidences. 3. The reasons of language changing can be as internal (purely linguistic), so external (connected to the influence of various factors on the language, including social factors and language contacts). Progressive changes cause a normal full-rate existence of the language, while regressive ones can fi nally bring to its «death». 4. Extinction of languages can be observed because one language is displaced by another one, which is communicatively stronger, prestigious, supported by the state and so on in the situation of multilingualism. 5. Though, every single epos of the native small-numbered nation has its own originality, still there are some common features, being typical to all of them, and it can testify of the fact that languages of the native small-numbered peoples have mutual influence, thereat, epos researching let us trace the process of their influence. 6. Comparative researching of the eposes as of peculiar prints of their language actual condition let us visually trace down peculiarities of the socio-cultural dynamics of languages of small-numbered nation, some details of their interrelations with each other, and the character of their mutual influence. Results of such a research can be also extrapolated over the dynamics of more popular languages. References V.М. Alpatov. Foreign Socio-Linguistics about the Problems of Bilingualism and Languages of National Minorities: [text] / V.М. Alpatov // Speech Communication in the Conditions of Linguistic Heterogeneity. – Moscow.: Editorial URSU, 2000. – P. 192 – 209. # 337 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages… S.А. Arutyunov. The Role and the Place of the Language in the Ethno-Cultural Development of the Society: [text] / S.А. 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Series «Humanitarian Sciences». – 2009. – V.2. – №3. – P. 323-335. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages… Лингвокультурологические особенности национальных языков северных народов Красноярского края Н.П. Копцева, А.Н. Хижнякова, К.В. Резникова Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, г. Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82 В работе освещены некоторые из существующих взглядов на такие социо-лингвистические проблемы, как определение границ языка, разграничение языка и диалекта, теории развития языка под влиянием социальных факторов, прогресс и регресс в языке, вымирание языков. В частности, для начала нащупывается граница между понятиями «языковой коллектив», «языковое сообщество», «языковая общность», с целью обозначить границы дальнейших рассуждений, логика движений которых направлена от рассмотрения более общих вопросов к изучению более частных моментов. Особое внимание на каждом из этапов уделяется спорным вопросам, вызвавшим наиболее значимые дискуссии в научной среде. Так, подобного рода объектам дискуссии, которому уделено внимание, стал поиск границ языка и реальности существования общего языкового ядра и языка каждой отдельной личности. Важный момент теоретического исследования – это рассмотрение взаимоотношений понятий «язык» и «диалект». Здесь внимание сконцентрировано на корреляции диалектов внутри языка, на возможности перехода диалекта из одного языка в другой язык, – то есть, по сути, отношения языка и диалекта рассматриваются как в статике, так и в динамике. При этом упор также делается не только на само отношение «язык – диалект» и на динамику этого отношения, но и на признаки, лежащие в основе разграничения обозначенных понятий, причем, признаки как лингвистические, так и культурантропологические, в частности, речь идет о самосознании народа, на первичности которого в формировании этнической идентичности настаивает ряд социолингвистов. Обозначение границ языка влечет за собой необходимость концентрации внимания сугубо на процессах, касающихся непосредственно языка, то есть на динамике языка. Здесь рассматриваются как виды динамики (эволюция, развитие, совершенствование), так и причины ее, которые принято разделять на внутренние и внешние, получает освещение аналогия динамики языка и жизни человека, речь идет о здоровом состоянии языка, о болезненном, о рождении и о смерти языка. Обращение к эпосам коренных малочисленных народов Красноярского края позволяет наглядно проиллюстрировать теоретические разработки настоящей работы, проследив особенности социокультурной динамики отдельных языков малочисленных народов, особенности их взаимоотношений друг с другом, характер взаимовлияний. Ключевые слова: коренные народы Красноярского края, социолингвистика, границы языка, развитие языка, языковой сдвиг, языковое самосознание, социодинамика языка, концепт, эпос. Работа выполнена при финансовой поддержке: 1) Федеральной целевой программы “Научные и научно-педагогические кадры инновационной России на 2009-2013 гг.” по проблеме “Культура коренных и малочисленных народов Севера в условиях глобальных трансформаций: форсайт-исследование до 2050 г. на материале анализа якутского этноса”, проводимому в рамках мероприятия 1.2.1 “Проведение научных исследований научными группами под руководством докторов наук”. 2) Краевого государственного автономного учреждения «Красноярский краевой фонд поддержки научной и научно-технической деятельности» по теме «Красноярский край # 340 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva, Alexandra N. Khizhnyakova… Linguistic-Culturological Peculiarities of National Languages… как поликультурное пространство, родина коренных малочисленных народов севера. Информационно-аналитический проект». 3) Федеральной целевой программы «Научные и научно-педагогические кадры инновационной России на 2009-2013 гг.» в рамках мероприятия 1.4 «Проведение поисковых научноисследовательских работ в целях развития общероссийской мобильности в области естественных и гуманитарных наук» по теме: ««Культура коренных и малочисленных народов Севера, Сибири и Дальнего Востока в условиях глобальных трансформаций». Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 342-362 ~~~ УДК 304.4 Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization of the State Cultural Policy (Federal and Regional Aspects) Vladimir S. Luzan* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011 During recent years, content-analysis has been enriched by modern technical and software techniques, and it has given it an opportunity to be based on all the vast spectrum of knowledge of the formalized statistic analysis. Moreover, the article underlines that in the modern situation one can observe a certain tendency of content-analysis application as one of the main methods of philosophical-culturological researches. It indicates to a special significance of the results, which have been obtained in the course of this method application. To the mind of the author of the article and from the position of philosophy of culture, the choice of normative-legal documents of the subjects of the Siberian Federal District as an object of our contentanalysis has been caused by the strategic meaning of this administrative-territorial formation for the country in general – it is a region, which has a median position in the Russian Federation, what allows it providing economical, transport and social-cultural connection of the whole territory of the country. It means that population of the Siberian Federal District fulfills a most important geopolitical function – the population keeps territorial integrity of Russia just by the fact of its existence. In order to reveal not only regional but also federal aspect of the state cultural policy, in the given article we perform a content analysis of Russian Federation Law № 3612-1 dated 09.10.1992 «Fundamental Principles of Legislation of the Russian Federation on Culture». In conclusion, we come to the following that philosophical-culturological aspects, being included in conceptual documents concerning realization of the state cultural policy, do not correspond the existing terminology and content of the basic normative legal documents as on the regional level, so on the federal one. Keywords: content-analysis, normative legal documents, cultural processes, organization of culture, cultural policy. During recent years, content-analysis has been enriched by modern technical and software techniques, and it has given it an opportunity to be based on all the vast spectrum of knowledge of the formalized statistic analysis. Moreover, the article * 1 underlines that in the modern situation one can observe a certain tendency of application of the content-analysis as one of the main methods of philosophical-culturological researches. It indicates to a special significance of the results, which have been obtained in the course Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 342 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization… of this method application. In connection with the mentioned we are to underline the role of the native scientists, who use the techniques of content-analysis for analysis, and first of all for artistic texts1. From the position of philosophy of culture, the choice of normative-legal documents of the subjects of the Siberian Federal District as an object of our content-analysis has been caused by the strategic meaning of this administrativeterritorial formation for the country in general – it is a region, which has a median position in the Russian Federation, what allows it providing economical, transport and social-cultural connection of the whole territory of the country. It means that population of the Siberian Federal District fulfills a most important geopolitical function – the population keeps the territorial integrity of Russia just by the fact of its existence. Beside regional laws, we have chosen Federal Law Fundamental Principles of Legislation of the Russian Federation on Culture, in order to have a more precise notion of the cultural processes, which take place on the territory of the Russian Federation. We are to mark, that the notion of «law» is one of the most commonly used not only in jurisprudence, but also in philosophy. This term has a long history, and it has changed its content in the course of its existence. From the philosophical positions, law can be most generally defined as a connection (relation) between phenomena, processes, which is2: a) objective, as far as it is typical to the real world, sensual-objective human activity, which expresses the real relations to things; b) essential, concrete-general. Being a reflection of the essential in the movement of the Universe, any law is characteristic to all the processes of the given class, of a certain type without exceptions, and it operates always and everywhere, where there are corresponding processes and conditions; c) inevitable, as far as, being in close connection with the essence, the law operates and is realized under the corresponding conditions; d) internal, as far as it reflects the deepest ties and dependencies of the given subjective sphere in the integrity of all its moments and relations within the frames of a certain entire system; e) repeatable, steady, as far as a law is a stability in the phenomenon, the identical in the phenomenon. It is an expression of some permanence in a certain process, regularity of its course, similarity of its actions under the equal conditions. From the positions of jurisprudence, «law (Lat. lex; Greek notos; Engl. law) is all the normative legal acts, any kind of generallyobligatory rules, set by the state. In a proper juridical sense, law is a normative act, which is adopted in a special order by the higher representative organ of the executive power or by the direct will-expresser of population (for example, in accordance with a referendum) and which regulates the most important and steady social relations»3. It is used to single out the main features of law: a) law is a juridical will expression of people in the result of coordination of various social interests. In civilized countries, laws are adopted by the representative organs, which are formed by means of democratic elections. The process of lawmaking is wide open, it involves parties, movements, and social groups; projected laws are published and discussed in mass media; b) law is issued only by the organ of executive power or adopted by means of referendum; c) law regulates the most important relations in the state and the society, provides an orderly development of economical, political and social spheres; # 343 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization… d) law possesses the highest (after constitution) juridical power among other legal acts; supremacy of law means its normative orientation and that other acts are subordinate to it, that they are possible to be canceled, to undergone amendments, and become invalid because of the law; e) law possesses the highest normative concentration and is meant to give subordinates the right to a large choice of behavioral variants, to an unlimited number of cases of application; f) law is accepted within the frames of a special legislative process and on the basis of fixed procedures; g) law is characterized by the highest stability of its norms, prolonged time length of its existence and action. Thus, law is a significant text, which defines state policy and norms of society’s behavior in this or that sphere of socio-economical relations. Moreover, law possesses a row of peculiarities, which are quite important for content-analysis carriage. Firstly, it is a material, which has been considered from all the points of view, and which has been created by dozens of specialists in various spheres, and which has been checked and read through dozens of times. Consequently, we may suppose, that there are no spontaneous words in a law, and there are no spontaneous senses as well, i.e. senses which fail to reflect the given situation or content. Secondly, the text of a law is a thoroughlyconsidered semantic structure, where all the elements have a contextual and logical substantiation. Thereat, law includes a vast semantic field, subordinating to several dominants (tasks), and which is called a basic content. That is what can be easily seen and what is first of all intuitionally analyzed. But, there is the second and still the third semantic row, which can be revealed only with the help of special methods, in particular with the help of content-analysis. Thirdly, the text of law reflexes the main idea, the content of what the powers have been going to get across to the readers, thereat, not only across to the narrow strata of the ruling elite, but to wide social circles. Law is an intellectual material, and that is its primary virtue. The text of law is clear to educated people and, first of all, to intelligentsia. And it is one more of its virtues – to manage to express the main senses by means of simple, clear and, at the same time, significant language. Thus, we may suppose that the chosen laws quite fully reflect the modern state ideology and the state policy in the sphere of culture. Law is an official document. It is drawn in accordance with the logics and reflects the official position of those social circles, which wield the power in the country at present time and which will govern in the nearest future. It is important from that point of view, that every day of their functioning, powers can form the foundation of the future of the country, its main principles and postulates, can define the ideology of the country in its most wide sense, especially in a transitional period, in the period of becoming of new socialeconomical and political relations, of becoming of political, economical and social stability of the society, and correspondingly, of steadiness and stability of the powers themselves. Understanding of what kind of principals of their functioning and preservation are used by the powers in the course of realization of the cultural policy, and what sense and ideology they stick to – all these will finally determine this way or another the content of the activity of the whole society and of its separate strata and groups not only for the nearest future, but for a long period of time. Thus, in order to understand philosophicalculturological aspects of the state cultural policy, # 344 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization… the following normative legal acts, which provide its realization, have undergone our contentanalysis4: – Law of the Russian Federation № 3612-1 dated 09.10.1992 «Fundamental Principles of Legislation of the Russian Federation on Culture» (in edition of Federal Laws dated 23.06.1999 № 115-ФЗ, dated 22.08.2004 № 122ФЗ, dated 31.12.2005 № 199-ФЗ, dated 03.11.2006 № 175-ФЗ, dated 29.12.2006 № 258-ФЗ, dated 23.07.2008 № 160-ФЗ, dated 21.12.2009 № 335ФЗ, amendments, made by Federal Laws dated 27.12.2000 № 150-ФЗ, dated 30.12.2001 № 194ФЗ, dated 24.12.2002 № 176-ФЗ, dated 23.12.2003 № 186-ФЗ); – Law of the Altai Republic № 20-55 dated 15.02.2001 «Concerning Culture» (in edition of Laws of the Republic of Altai dated 12.09.2001 № 24-63, dated 11.12.2003 № 1714, dated 17.11.2006 № 84-РЗ, dated 14.05.2007 № 26-РЗ); – Law of the Buryat Republic № 246-I dated 01.02.1996 «Concerning Culture» (in edition of Laws of the Buryat Republic dated 29.12.2003 № 622-III, dated 27.12.2004 № 994-III, dated 07.03.2006 № 1521-III, dated 04.05.2006 № 1619-III, dated 08.10.2007 № 2519III, dated 07.10.2009 № 1045-IV, amendments, made by Laws of the Buryat Republic dated 27.12.2001 № 897-II, dated 09.01.2003 № 184III, dated 08.01.2004 № 592-III, dated 28.12.2006 № 2057-III, dated 09.11.2007 № 2625-III, dated 22.11.2008 № 624-IV, dated 16.03.2009 № 738IV, by the decision of the Supreme Court of BR dated 14.08.2003); – Law of the Tuva Republic № 261 dated 03.04.1995 «Concerning Culture» (in edition of Laws of the Tuva Republic dated 12.02.2001 № 879, dated 10.07.2003 № 272 ВХ-1, dated 12.05.2004 № 725 ВХ-1, dated 17.12.2004 № 946 ВХ-1, dated 13.07.2006 № 1897 ВХ-1, dated 18.06.2007 № 193 ВХ-2, amendments, made by Laws of the Tuva Republic dated 20.02.2004 № 604 ВХ-1); – Law of the Republic of Khakassia dated 28.06.2006 № 30-ЗРХ «Concerning Culture» (in edition of Laws of the Republic of Khakassia dated 01.11.2007 № 66-ЗРХ, dated 09.06.2009 № 49-ЗРХ, dated 15.02.2010 № 2-ЗРХ); – Law of the Zabaikalye Territory № 154ЗЗК dated 01.04.2009 «Concerning Culture» (in edition of Law of the Zabaikalye Territory dated 29.03.2010 № 347-ЗЗК); – Law of the Krasnoyarsk Region № 2-190 dated 28.06.2007 «Concerning Culture» (in edition of Laws of the Krasnoyarsk Region dated 26.06.2008 № 6-1867, dated 18.11.2008 № 7-2430, dated 07.07.2009 № 8-3612, dated 24.12.2009 № 9-4243); – Law of the Irkutsk Region № 154-оз dated 29.12.2007 «Concerning State Support of Culture in the Irkutsk Region» (in edition of Law of the Irkutsk Region dated 05.03.2010 № 9-оз); – Law of the Kemerovo Region № 26-ОЗ dated 14.02.2005 «Concerning Culture» (in edition of Laws of the Kemerovo Region dated 04.06.2007 № 62-ОЗ, dated 27.12.2007 № 200ОЗ, dated 29.12.2008 № 135-ОЗ); – Law of the Novosibirsk Region № 124ОЗ dated 07.07.2007 «Concerning Culture in the Novosibirsk Region» (in edition of Laws of the Novosibirsk Region dated 02.07.2008 № 250ОЗ, dated 04.12.2008 № 286-ОЗ); – Law of the Tomsk Region № 112-ОЗ dated 13.06.2007 «Concerning Realization of the State Policy in the Sphere of Culture and Arts on the Territory of the Tomsk Region» (in edition of Laws of the Tomsk Region dated 17.12.2007 № 267-ОЗ, dated 24.11.2009 № 253ОЗ, dated 24.11.2009 № 254-ОЗ). We are to notice that two subjects of the Siberian Federal District (the Altai and the Omsk Regions) have not yet accepted laws, # 345 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization… which would regulate developments of the state cultural policy, in spite of the fact that they still have laws concerning separate directions of the leisure-cultural activity, in particular concerning the librarian and museum spheres. Thus, only 10 regional and one federal law on culture in the current edition has undergone the contentanalysis. In order to reveal philosophic-culturological aspects of the state cultural policy of the Russian Federation, we are to consider a fundamental concept, on which basis we build the contentanalysis of the mentioned documents. It is the notion of «culture», and its derivative (cultures, by culture, to culture and so on.), and also all the semantic expressions, which are in the nearest surrounding. We should notice that from the very beginning there is only one document out of those being analyzed, which mentions culture in its title as one of the types of the state policy (the law «Concerning Realization of the State Policy in the Sphere of Culture and Arts on the territory of the Tomsk Region»). In the rest of the cases, the titles of the laws, including the basic one – the federal law, have failed to imply not only the state policy, but also any kind of mentioning of state’s philosophic-culturological vision of what culture generally is: the ideal-formative side of human life, cultural branch, cultural sphere and so on. In connection with this fact, 91 % of considered laws have one common title «Concerning Culture», which do not at all reflect understanding of culture as one of the leading types of the state policy. As for today, the basic document, which defines the development of the state cultural policy over all the territory of this country, is Law of the Russian Federation № 3612-1 «Fundamental Principles of Legislation of the Russian Federation on Culture», which is dated 9 October, 1992, it means it was admitted almost twenty years ago. Consequently, we should mark the fact that in spite of numerous amendments (the latest was done in 2009), the given law is morally outdated and demands its complete reviewing. We need to specify the notions, which have been defined by the authors of the given Law as the basic ones and which meanings are revealed in the text: cultural activity; cultural values; cultural goods; creative activity; creative specialist; cultural property of peoples and national groups; cultural heritage of peoples of the Russian Federation; cultural property of peoples of the Russian Federation; cultural aspects of the program of development; state cultural policy (policy of the state in the sphere of cultural development). All in all, there is 10 notions. Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows the following: – the number of words in the document is 5595; – the number of use of words «culture» and its derivatives in various cases is 146, that is 2.6 % from the total number of words in the text. The number of adjectives with the root «cultur» is 123, that is 2.1 % from the total number of words in the text. The most popular word-combinations, consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur», are the following: cultural activity (29), cultural values (24), cultural heritage (20), cultural property (8), cultural policy (4), cultural development (3), and cultural collaboration (2). In the result of comparison of the basic notions, which have been denoted by the authors in the Law, and the most popular wordcombinations, we have found out that the notion of «cultural policy» is actually met 4 times in the text, what makes up 3 % from all the wordcombinations, consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur». It let us come to the conclusion that the law-maker understands culture not as a separate kind of state policy, but as a certain sphere, reducing the state approach to a narrow # 346 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization… Table 1. Statistic analysis of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Russian Federation «Fundamental Principles of Legislation of the Russian Federation on Culture» The words, surrounding the concept «culture», and its derivatives having been used more than once 2 № 1 The number of usage 3 In the sphere 38 Organization(s) 38 Development 8 Institution(s) 5 Are referred to 4 Object(s) 3 Doers 2 Russian 2 Sphere 2 National 2 Peoples’ 2 Statistics 2 Enterprises 2 Specialists 2 sectorial one. It is also proved by the fact that the expression «cultural organizations» is on the second place according to its usage. Consequently, we may suppose that the basic instrument of functioning of the sphere of «culture» is concrete organizations, as governmental, so nongovernmental ones, but not any concrete cultural doers, as far as this expression is met in the Law only twice (Table 1). The basic document, which defines development of the state cultural policy on the territory of the Altai Republic, is Law of the Altai Republic № 20-55 dated 15.02.2001 «Concerning Culture». We need to specify the notions, which have been defined by the authors of the given Law as the basic ones and which meanings are revealed in the text: cultural activity; cultural values; cultural goods; cultural organizations. In total, we have 4 notions. Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows the following: – the number of words in the document is 2695; – the number of use of words «culture» and its derivatives in various cases is 92, that is 3.4 % from the total number of words in the text. The number of adjectives with the root «cultur» is 37, i.e. 1.3 % from the total number of words in the text. The most popular word-combinations, consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur», are the following: cultural activity (12), cultural values (5), cultural policy (4), cultural heritage (4), and cultural space (2). «Cultural policy» is on the third place according to the frequency of usage, as far as the analysis of the most-widely used wordcombinations shows. Though, there is not any definition of this notion in the Law, and it let us suppose that the authors sooner use this wordcombination as a synonym of the expression «politics in the sphere of culture» (Table 2), what does not correspond to its original meaning. # 347 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization… Table 2. Statistic analysis of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Altai Republic «Concerning Culture» № The words, surrounding the concept «culture», and its derivatives having been used more than once Organization(s) The number of usage 55 In the sphere 10 Sphere 5 Development 4 Institution(s) 4 Specialists 4 National 2 The basic document, which defines development of the state cultural policy on the territory of the Buryat Republic, is Law of the Buryat Republic № 246-I dated 01.02.1996 « Concerning Culture». We need to specify the notions, which have been defined by the authors of the given Law as the basic ones and which meanings are revealed in the text: cultural activity; cultural values; cultural goods; creative activity; creative specialist; cultural property of peoples and national groups; cultural heritage of peoples of the Buryat Republic; cultural property of peoples of the Buryat Republic; state cultural support; national (ethnic) culture; state cultural policy (policy of the state in the sphere of cultural development); organization of culture. In total, we have 12 notions. Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows the following: – the number of words in the document is 4480; – the number of use f words «culture» and its derivatives in various cases is 114, that is 2.5 % from the total number of words in the text. The number of adjectives with the root «cultur» is 77, i.e. 1.7 % from the total number of words in the text. The most popular word-combinations, consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur», are the following: cultural activity (18), cultural values (17), cultural heritage (13), cultural property (8), cultural exchanges (6), and cultural policy (2). The same, as it is in the case of the Federal Law, it is rather interesting that the notion of «cultural policy» is actually mentioned only twice in the text, that is only 2.5 % of all the expressions, which contain the adjective with the root «cultur». It let us come to the conclusion that the legislator percepts culture not as a separate type of the state policy, but as a certain sphere, thus reducing the state approach to a narrow branch. It is also proved by the fact that the expression «cultural organizations» is on the first place according to the number of its applications. Consequently, we may suppose that the basic instrument of functioning of the sphere of «culture» is concrete organizations, as governmental, so nongovernmental ones, but not any concrete cultural doers, as far as this expression is met only thrice in the Law (Table 3). The basic document, which defines development of the state cultural policy on the territory of the Tuva Republic, is Law of the Tuva Republic № 261, dated 03.04.1995 «Concerning Culture». # 348 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization… Table 3. Statistic analysis of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Buryat Republic «Concerning Culture» № The words, surrounding the concept «culture», and its derivatives having been used more than once Organization(s) The number of usage 35 In the sphere 21 Development 13 Support 5 In the sphere 4 National 3 Peoples’ 3 Doers 3 Specialists 3 Institution(s) 2 We are to specify the notions, which have been defined by the authors of the given Law as the basic ones and which meanings are revealed in the text: cultural values; cultural goods; creative activity; creative specialist; cultural property of peoples and national groups; historical-cultural heritage; cultural heritage of peoples of the Tuva Republic; cultural aspects of the development program; state cultural policy (policy of the state in the sphere of cultural development). That is totally, we have 10 notions. Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows the following: – the number of words in the document is 5009; – the number of use of the word «culture» and its derivatives in various cases is 126, that is 2.5 % from the total number of words in the text. The number of adjectives with the root «cultur» is 93, i.e. 1.8 % from the total number of words in the text. The most popular word-combinations, consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur», are the following: cultural activity (24), cultural values (21), cultural heritage (11), cultural property (6), cultural policy (4), cultural originality (5), and cultural funds (3). The basic document, which defines development of the state cultural policy on the territory of the Republic of Khakassia, is Law of the Republic of Khakassia № 30-ЗРХ dated 28.06.2006 «Concerning Culture». We should specify the notions, which have been defined by the authors of the given Law as the basic ones and which meanings are revealed in the text: cultural organizations; protection and preservation of the cultural heritage objects of national significance; national artistic crafts; young specialist. In general, there are 4 notions. Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows the following: – the number of words in the document is 3345; – the number of use of the word «culture» and its derivatives in various cases is 113, that is 3.3 % from the total number of words in the text. The number of adjectives with the root «cultur» is 52, i.e. 1.5 % from the total number of words in the text. The most popular word-combinations, consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur», # 349 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization… Table 4. Statistic analysis of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Tuva Republic «Concerning Culture» The words, surrounding the concept «culture», and its derivatives having been used more than once № The number of usage Organization(s) 34 In the region 32 Development 8 Peoples’ 5 National 5 Institution(s) 4 Enterprises 2 In the sphere 2 Specialists 2 World-wide 2 Table 5. Statistic analysis of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Republic of Khakassia «Concerning Culture» № The words, surrounding the concept «culture», and its derivatives having been used more than once Organization(s) The number of usage 34 In the region 26 In the sphere 13 Institution(s) 6 Specialists 6 National 2 Development 2 are the following: cultural activity (17), cultural heritage (10), cultural values (9), cultural policy (2), and cultural collaboration (2). The same as with the case of the Law of the Altai Republic, analysis of the most popular word-combinations shows that «cultural policy» takes the fourth place according to the frequency of its usage. Though, the Law does not give any defi nitions of the notion, and it allows us supposing that the authors use this expression sooner as a synonym of the word-combination «politics in the sphere of culture», what does not correspond to its original meaning. It also brings to a narrow understanding of culture and is proved by the fact that the expression «cultural organizations» is on the fi rst place (Table 5). The basic document, which defines development of the state cultural policy on the territory of Zabaikalye, is Law of the Zabaikalye Territory № 154-ЗЗК dated 01.04.2009 «Concerning Culture». Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows the following: – the number of words in the document is 1354; # 350 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization… Table 6. Statistics of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Zabaikalye Territory «Concerning Culture» 1 The words, surrounding the concept «culture», and its derivatives having been used more than once Organization(s) 2 In the sphere 10 3 Institution(s) 4 № – the number of use of the word «culture» and its derivatives in various cases is 41, that is 3 % from the total number of words in the text. The number of adjectives with the root «cultur» is 4, i.e. 0.02 % from the total number of words in the text. The most popular word-combinations, consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur», are the following: cultural heritage (3), cultural property (1). We are to underline that the authors of the Law have not denoted the basic notions. Consequently, we come to a supposition that the text of the Law does not clarify what the legislator understands concerning the philosophicculturological aspects of the state cultural policy. We may suppose that it is connected with the fact that the territory of Zabaikalye is a young subject of the Russian Federation. And that is why its normative legal base is being formed in a rather active way, and in the result of it the legislator does not take into account the basic notions. This peculiarity, in its turn, increases the variability of the law rendering, as far as it does not contain even the most-widely used expressions, for example cultural organizations (Table 6). Moreover, complexity of revelation of philosophic-culturological aspects of the state cultural policy on the territory of Zabaikalye region proves that the territory does not have most of special sectorial laws, which the most part of the subjects of the Siberian Federal District has. The number of usage 14 The basic document, which defines development of the state cultural policy on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk Region, is Law of the Krasnoyarsk Region № 2-190 dated 28.06.2007 «Concerning Culture». We need to specify the notions, which have been defi ned by the authors of the given Law as the basic ones and which meanings are revealed in the text: cultural organizations; cultural heritage of the Region; public register of especially valuable objects of cultural heritage of the Krasnoyarsk Region; creative specialist; national artistic collectives; folklore of the native small-numbered peoples of the North of the Krasnoyarsk Region; folklore carrier; sociocultural project; creative heritage. In total, there are 9 notions. Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows the following: – the number of words in the document is 4015; – the number of use of the word «culture» and its derivatives in various cases is 130, that is 3.2 % from the total number of words in the text. The number of adjectives with the root «cultur» is 50, i.e. 1.2 % from the total number of words in the text. The most popular word-combinations, consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur», are the following: cultural heritage (17), cultural values (10), cultural activity (5), cultural originality (5), cultural heritage (3), and cultural exchanges (4). # 351 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization… Table 7. Statistics of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in Law of the Krasnoyarsk Region «Concerning Culture» № The words, surrounding the concept «culture», and its derivatives having been used more than once In the region Institution(s) The number of usage 44 30 Organization(s) 18 Specialists 13 National 7 In the sphere 6 Development 5 Doers 2 Table 8. Statistics of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Irkutsk Region «Concerning State Support of Culture in the Irkutsk Region» № The words, surrounding the concept «culture», and its derivatives having been used more than once In the region The number of usage 15 Organization(s) 10 Support 5 Institution(s) 3 Specialists 3 Analysis of the basic notions, being defined by the authors of the Law; words, surrounding the concept of «culture»; and word-combinations, containing an adjective with the root «cultur», has shown that the notion of «cultural policy» is not at all used in the text of the Law. In a certain way, it contradicts that fact that the Regional Government of the Krasnoyarsk Region has worked out and approved the main directions of the Krasnoyarsk Region cultural policy for the period of 2009 – 2020 years (Appendix 1). Consequently, those philosophic-culturological aspects of the state cultural policy, being meant in the conceptual document, do not correspond the existing terminology and content of the fundamental legislative act. The basic document, which defines development of the state cultural policy on the territory of the Irkutsk Region, is Law of the Irkutsk Region № 154- оз dated 29.12.2007 «Concerning State Support of Culture in the Irkutsk Region». Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows the following: – the number of words in the document is 1118; – the number of use of the word «culture» and its derivatives in various cases is 34, that is 3 % from the total number of words in the text. The number of adjectives with the root «cultur» is 1, i.e. 0.0008 % from the total number of words in the text. # 352 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization… Table 9. Statistics of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Kemerovo Region «Concerning Culture» № The words, surrounding the concept «culture», and its derivatives having been used more than once Organization(s) The number of usage 24 In the sphere 12 In the region 6 Institution(s) 6 Development 2 Specialists 2 The most popular word-combination, consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur», is «cultural events» (1). We have to remark, that the authors of the given Law have not defined any basic notions in the text of the Law. Consequently, we may suppose, that the text of the Law does not clarify what the legislator understands concerning the philosophic-culturological aspects of the state cultural policy, and the fact is proved by the absence of the notion of «cultural policy» in the text. Basic document, which defines development of the state cultural policy on the territory of the Kemerovo Region, is Law of the Kemerovo Region № 26-ОЗ dated 14.02.2005 «Concerning Culture». We need to specify the notions, which have been defi ned by the authors of the given Law as the basic ones and which meanings are revealed in the text: cultural activity; cultural organizations; and artistic national crafts. So, there are 3 notions. Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows the following: – the number of words in the document is 1962; – the number of use of the word «culture» and its derivatives in various cases is 61, that is 3.1 % from the total number of words in the text. The number of adjectives with the root «cultur» is 31, i.e. 1.5 % from the total number of words in the text. The most popular word-combinations, consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur», are: cultural property (9), cultural activity (7), cultural heritage (7), cultural values (5), and cultural unions (2). Analysis of the basic notions, which have been denoted by the authors of the Law; words, surrounding the concept of «culture»; and wordcombinations, containing an adjective with the root «cultur», has shown, that the notion of «cultural policy» is not at all used in the text of the Law. It speaks of the fact that the legislator understands culture in a narrow way, and it is also proved by the fact that the expression «cultural organizations» is on the first place according to its frequency of usage (Table 9). Basic document, which defines development of the state cultural policy on the territory of the Novosibirsk Region, is Law of the Novosibirsk Region №124-ОЗ dated 07.07.2007 «Concerning Culture in the Novosibirsk Region». We need to specify the notions, which have been defined by the authors of the given Law as the basic ones and which meanings are revealed in the text: cultural activity; cultural organizations; cultural institution; national artistic crafts; and cultural specialist. In total, we have 5 notions. # 353 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization… Table 10. Statistics of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Novosibirsk Region №124-ОЗ dated 07.07.2007 «Concerning Culture in the Novosibirsk Region» № The words, surrounding the concept «culture», and its derivatives having been used more than once 2 1 In the sphere The number of usage 3 32 Organization(s) 21 In the region 19 Institution(s) 16 Specialists 8 National 4 Development 3 Doers 2 Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows the following: – the number of words in the document is 2963; – the number of use of the word «culture» and its derivatives in various cases is 106, that is 3.5 % from the total number of words in the text. The number of adjectives with the root «cultur» is 24, i.e. 0.8 % from the total number of words in the text. The most popular word-combinations, consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur», are: cultural activity (8), cultural values (5), and cultural heritage (4). The same as in the case with the Law of the Kemerovo Region «Concerning Culture», analysis of the basic notions, having been specified by the authors of the Law; words, surrounding the concept of «culture»; and wordcombinations, containing an adjective with the root «cultur», has shown, that the notion of «cultural policy» is not used at all. It speaks of the fact that the legislator understands culture in a narrow way. And it is also proved by the fact that the expression «cultural organizations» is on the second place according to its frequency of usage» (Table 10). Basic document, which defines development of the state cultural policy on the territory of the Tomsk Region, is Law of the Tomsk Region №112-ОЗ dated 13.06.2007 «Concerning Realization of the State Policy in the Sphere of Culture and Arts on the Territory of the Tomsk Region». Statistic analysis of the text of the Law shows the following: – the number of words in the document is 2236; – the number of use of the word «culture» and its derivatives in various cases is 69, that is 3 % from the total number of words in the text. The number of adjectives with the root «cultur» is 18, i.e. 0.8 % from the total number of words in the text. The most popular word-combinations, consisting of an adjective with the root «cultur», are: cultural activity (8), cultural values (5), and cultural heritage (2). It is necessary to underline that the authors of the given law have not defi ned its basic notions. In the result, we may suppose, that the text of the law does not clarify what the legislator thinks about the philosophicalcultural aspects of the state cultural policy. # 354 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization… Table 11. Statistics of the words, surrounding the concept of «culture» in the Law of the Tomsk Region «Concerning Realization of the State Policy in the Sphere of Culture and Arts on the Territory of the Tomsk Region» № The words, surrounding the concept «culture», and its derivatives having been used more than once Institution(s) The number of usage 30 In the sphere 27 Specialists 6 In the region 3 Table 12. Comparative Statistics of Usage of the Word «Culture» and its Derivatives in the Normative Legal Acts № 1 Total number words The title of the Law 2 % of Usage of the Word «Culture» and its Derivatives 3 Law of the Russian Federation № 3612-1 «Fundamental Principles of Legislation of the Russian Federation on Culture» Law of the Republic of Altai № 20-55 «Concerning Culture» 4 5595 2,6 2695 3,4 Law of the Buryat Republic № 246-I «Concerning Culture» 4480 2,5 Law of the Republic of Tuva № 261 «Concerning Culture» 5009 2,5 Law of the Republic of Khakassia № 30-ЗРХ «Concerning 3345 Culture» Law of the Zabaikalye Territory № 154-ЗЗК «Concerning Culture» 1354 3,3 Law of the Krasnoyarsk Region № 2-190 «Concerning Culture» 4015 3,2 Law of the Irkutsk Region № 154-оз «Concerning State Support of Culture in the Irkutsk Region» Law of the Kemerovo Region № 26-ОЗ «Concerning Culture» 1118 3 1962 3,1 Law of the Novosibirsk Region № 124-ОЗ «Concerning Culture in the Novosibirsk Region» Law of the Tomsk Region № 112-ОЗ «Concerning Realization of the State Policy in the Sphere of Culture and Arts on the Territory of the Tomsk Region» 2963 3,5 2236 3 Moreover, it is proved by the fact that, there is a minimal number of word-combinations, constituting of adjectives with the root «cultur» in the text of the law, – that is only 0.8 % from the total number words. What is also typical of the given text is a narrow-sectorial understanding of culture, which is proved by that, that the expression «cultural organizations» is on the fi rst place according to the frequency of its usage (Table 11). 3 As it is seen from the Table 12, Law of the Russian Federation № 3612-1 «Fundamental Principles of Legislation of the Russian Federation on Culture» contains the biggest number of the word «culture» and its derivatives, and it is absolutely reasonable, as far as it is the basic law, which regulates the development of the cultural policy of all the territory of the Russian Federation. Consequently, the text of the Law contains the biggest number of articles and # 355 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization… theoretically it must mention all the positions, which are connected to realization of the state cultural policy. Moreover, basing on this Law, they have developed special normative legal acts, which regulate separate kinds of social-cultural activity. Thus, proceeding from the quantitative analysis, we can suppose that the Laws concerning culture of 4 of the subjects of the Russian Federation (the Zabaikalye Territory, the Irkutsk Region, the Kemerovo Region, and the Tomsk Region) reflect the logics of development of the territorial cultural policy least of all others, as far as the number of words in those laws is more than twice as little than in the Federal Law. The per cent of usage of the word «culture» and its derivatives differs from 2.5 % to 3.5 % from the total number of words in the texts of the normative legal acts. Thereat, the least per cent is observed in Law of the Buryat Republic № 246-I «Concerning Culture», which takes the third place according to the total number of words in the text. As it is seen from Table 13, the first place according the frequency of usage belongs to the word «organization», or «institution» (they can be used as synonyms in the given context), surrounding the concept of «culture» and its derivatives. To our mind, the most optimal definition of this notion has been given in Law of the Novosibirsk Region № 124-ОЗ «Concerning Culture in the Novosibirsk Region», according to which «cultural organization is an organization, which has been created for cultural activity realization (theatrical-spectacular and concert organizations, libraries, museums, exhibition halls and centers, planetariums, houses of culture, clubs, centers and houses of national arts and crafts, parks of recreation and leisure, cinemas, movies- and video-rental services and cinemashowing organizations, organizations, being involved in the sphere of conservation, usage, popularization and state protection of the objects of cultural heritage, and other organizations, which provide services in the sphere of culture), and also educational institutions in the sphere of culture and arts». Consequently, we may suppose that the main instrument of cultural policy realization is concrete governmental and private organizations. Thereat, the legislators have fully left out of account the doers of culture, as far as this wordcombination has failed to be enrolled in the list of the most popular words. Moreover, we may conclude that almost in all the cases the legislators perceive culture not as a separate kind of state policy, but as a certain sphere, thus reducing the state approach to a sectorial one (Table 13). As it is seen from the comparison of the main notions, which have been denoted by the authors, and word-combinations (Table 14), the notions of «cultural activity» and «cultural values» are used most often in the texts of the Laws, and their most-often-used definitions are given in Law of the Russian Federation № 3612-1 «Fundamental Principles of Legislation of the Russian Federation on Culture». So, «cultural activity is an activity aimed for conservation, creation, popularization and assimilation of cultural values»; «cultural values are moral and esthetic ideals, norms and patterns of behavior, languages, dialects and accents, national traditions and customs, historical toponyms, folklore, artistic arts and crafts, pieces of culture and arts, results and methods of scientific researches of cultural activity, buildings, constructions, subjects and technologies, having historical-cultural significance, historically- and culturally-unique territories and objects». As we can see, the legislators indirectly admit culture to be the ideal-formative side of human life and activity; though, the activity of ideals formation is entrusted to organizations # 356 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Table 13. Statistic Analysis of the Words, surrounding the concept of «Culture» and its Derivatives (we specify three most popular words for each normative legal act) № Words, Surrounding the Concept of «Culture», and its Derivatives In the region The number of Usage 38 Organization(s) 38 Development 8 Organization(s) 55 In the region 10 In the sphere 5 Law of the Buryat Republic № 246-I «Concerning Culture» Organization(s) 35 In the region 21 Development 13 Law of the Republic of Tuva № 261 «Concerning Culture» Organization(s) 34 The title of the Law Law of the Russian Federation № 3612-1 «Fundamental Principles of Legislation of the Russian Federation on Culture» Law of the Republic of Altai № 20-55 «Concerning Culture» In the region 32 Development 8 Law of the Republic of Khakassia № 30ЗРХ «Concerning Culture» Organization(s) 34 In the region 26 In the sphere 13 Law of the Zabaikalye Territory № 154-ЗЗК «Concerning Culture» Organization(s) 14 In the region 10 Law of the Krasnoyarsk Region № 2-190 «Concerning Culture» Law of the Irkutsk Region № 154-оз «Concerning State Support of Culture in the Irkutsk Region» Law of the Kemerovo Region № 26-ОЗ «Concerning Culture» Law of the Novosibirsk Region № 124-ОЗ «Concerning Culture in the Novosibirsk Region» Law of the Tomsk Region № 112-ОЗ «Concerning Realization of the State Policy in the Sphere of Culture and Arts on the Territory of the Tomsk Region» Institution(s) 4 In the region 44 Institution(s) 30 Organization(s) 18 In the region 15 Organization(s) 10 Support 5 Organization(s) 24 In the sphere 12 In the region 6 In the sphere 32 Organization(s) 21 In the region 19 Institution(s) 30 In the sphere 27 Specialists 6 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization… Table 14. Statistic Analysis of the Most Popular Word-Combinations, Consisting of an Adjective with the Root «Cultur» (we have given two most popular word-combinations for each normative legal act) № The Title of the Normative Legal Act Word-combination Law of the Russian Federation № 3612-1 «Fundamental cultural activity Principles of Legislation of the Russian Federation on cultural values Culture» Law of the Republic of Altai № 20-55 «Concerning Culture» cultural activity Number of Usage 29 24 12 cultural values 5 cultural activity 18 cultural values 17 cultural activity 24 cultural values 21 Law of the Republic of Khakassia № 30-ЗРХ «Concerning Culture» cultural activity 17 cultural heritage 10 Law of the Zabaikalye Territory № 154-ЗЗК «Concerning Culture» cultural heritage 3 cultural property 1 Law of the Krasnoyarsk Region № 2-190 «Concerning Culture» cultural heritage 17 cultural values 10 Law of the Irkutsk Region № 154-оз «Concerning State Support of Culture in the Irkutsk Region» Law of the Kemerovo Region № 26-ОЗ «Concerning Culture» cultural events Law of the Buryat Republic № 246-I «Concerning Culture» Law of the Republic of Tuva № 261 «Concerning Culture» 1 cultural property 9 cultural activity 7 Law of the Novosibirsk Region № 124-ОЗ «Concerning Culture in the Novosibirsk Region» cultural activity 8 cultural values 5 Law of the Tomsk Region № 112-ОЗ «Concerning Realization of the State Policy in the Sphere of Culture and Arts on the Territory of the Tomsk Region» cultural activity 8 cultural values 3 and cultural institutions, and it contradicts their primary functions, which are to provide cultural services to the population. This way, basing on the content-analysis of the normative legal documents, which guarantee realization of the state cultural policy in the subjects of the Siberian Federal District, and also on the content-analysis of Law of the Russian Federation № 3612-1 «Fundamental Principles of Legislation of the Russian Federation on Culture», we conclude the following: – Only 1 document out of 11 considered mentions culture in its title as one of the kinds of the state policy. In all other cases, the titles of the laws, including the basic one – the federal law, fail to imply not only the state cultural policy, but also specification concerning governmental philosophic-culturological vision of what culture is. In connection with the fact, 91 % of the considered laws have one common title «Concerning Culture», which does not at all reflect the comprehension of culture as one of the main kinds of the state policy; – In the texts, they regularly use incorrect synonyms of the notion «cultural policy», which significantly corrupt the role of the state: the branch of «culture», politics in the sphere of culture, sphere of culture; # 358 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization… – Application of such synonyms speaks of the fact that the legislator reduces the state approach to cultural policy realization to a narrow sectorial one; – The basic instrument of the «cultural» branch functioning is concrete governmental and non-governmental organizations, thereat the role of cultural doers and cultural specialists is almost reduced to zero; – Texts of some laws do not clarify what precisely the legislator conceives concerning philosophic-culturological aspects of the state cultural policy, as far as the basic notions are not specified in those texts. It results in the following: 1 2 3 4 the function of the state cultural policy realization becomes vague; – Being applied in conceptual documents for the state cultural policy realization, philosophicculturological aspects do not correspond to the existing terminology and content of the basic legislative acts; – All the existing normative-legal acts, which provide the state cultural policy realization, demand a detail reviewing for the purpose of elaboration of one common terminology and in order to fix the function of the state for the cultural policy realization, but not to affirm a departmental narrow sectorial approach to culture. The problem of text in linguistics, philology and other humanitarian sciences. Experience of philosophical analysis. [Electronic resource]. URL: www.i-u.ru/biblio/archive/bahtin %5Fproblema. Philosophy: education book for higher institutions. Edition №13. Rostov-on-Don: Fenix, 2006. – 576 p. The Russian Juridical Encyclopedia. Moscow, 1999. – P. 988. 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Selection of Methodological Principles for Actual Research on Culture // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4 (2009 2). Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, Russia. – P. 491–506. N. Koptzeva, A. Semenova. Truth as a Form of Modelling of Integrity at Social Being Level // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social science. 2009. № 2 (1). – P. 31–55. V. Luzan. Cultural Policy as a Subject of Applied Culturology // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3. 2009. № 2. P. 323 – 334. V. Luzan. Cultural Policy as a Self-Independent Type of State Policy // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 4. 2009. № 2. P. 587 – 594. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vladimir S. Luzan. Content-Analysis of the Basic Normative Legal Documents, Providing Realization… Контент-анализ основных нормативных правовых документов, обеспечивающих реализацию государственной культурной политики (федеральный и региональный аспекты) В.С. Лузан Сибирский федеральный университет 660041 Россия, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 За последние годы контент-анализ обогатился современными техническими и программными средствами, что позволило ему в большей степени основываться на всем богатстве знаний по формализованному статистическому анализу. Кроме того, в статье отмечается, что в современной ситуации наблюдается определенная тенденция применения контент-анализа в качестве одного из основных методов философско-культурологических исследований. Это говорит об особой значимости результатов, полученных при применении данного метода. По мнению автора статьи, с позиции философии культуры выбор в качестве объекта контент-анализа нормативных правовых документов субъектов Сибирского федерального округа обусловлен стратегическим значением этого административно-территориального образования для страны в целом – это регион, который занимает срединное положение в Российской Федерации, что позволяет ему обеспечивать экономическую, транспортную и социально-культурную связность всей территории страны. Это означает, что население Сибирского федерального округа выполняет важнейшую геополитическую функцию – самим фактом своего проживания удерживает территориальную целостность России. С целью выявления не только регионального аспекта государственной культурной политики, но и федерального, в статье осуществлен контент-анализ Закона Российской Федерации от 09.10.1992 № 3612-1 «Основы законодательства Российской Федерации о культуре». В заключение делается вывод о том, что философско-культурологические аспекты, заложенные в концептуальных документах по реализации государственной культурной политики, не соответствуют существующей терминологии и содержанию основных нормативных правовых документов как на региональном уровне, так и федеральном. Ключевые слова: контент-анализ, нормативные правовые документы, культурные процессы, организации культуры, культурная политика. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 363-371 ~~~ УДК 141.412 Zealots’ World View Julia G. Matushanskaya* Kazan State Technological University 68 K. Marx st., Kazan, 420015 Russia 1 Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011 Zealot had been a milleniaristic movements as well as Middle Age heresies. As we see their attitude to human life, material goods and archives, the Zealots believed that the time of history had come to the end. In the deposited Jerusalem they did the actions which contradicted to Halaha, thus showing the fact that it also had come to the end. Their attitude to the temple had been ambivalent – on the one side they believed that the Most High would save the Temple, but on the other side they questioned the sacrality of the Temple’s space. The spatio-temporal continuum in the deposited Jerusalem had been probably perceived as some intermediate state between this present world and the Olam haBaha, descending from Heavens. The overcoming of the division of the worlds into phenomenal and transcendent had a natural social consequence the rejection of personalism. Keywords: Zealots, Halaha, milleniaristic movements. Point The Zealots had been a group very close to Milleniaristic movements of the Middle Age Europe. If, like the researches of “The School of Annals”, we would make conclusions on the materials of the texts left by witnesses, for instance by Josephus Flavius, then Zealots, as it can be seen, thought that the history comes to its end. That’s why Zealots didn’t value the human life high, violating ethic and ritual laws of Judaism. Examples The Apocalyptic had prepared the specific mentality of the Judea of the second Temple Age. According to Josephus Flavius, during the uprising a lot of Jews had been on the side of the radical Zealots’ party. Josephus writes that * 1 “the people begun to suffer from mad passion to them during Gessius Flora’s rule, who had been a governor and because of his abuse of power the Jews were made to rebel” (Josephus, Ant.Jud. XVIII,1,6). The Josephus’ texts and the Talmud became the only sources for the reconstruction of the adequate conception of the mentality of Judea risen in arms. In spite of the lack of material, in our opinion, the religious views of Zealots as well as their conception of History development (connected with their views) can be reconstructed by means of the modern methods. The most appropriate are the methods of historical anthropology. So, according to the methodology of the “School of Annals” it is stated that every memorial of the past is mute by itself. It becomes a source only being included by a scientist into the sphere of Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 363 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. Zealots’ World View his analysis. Instead of the narrative description on the basis of available sources, the principle “history – problem” had been stated. According to this principle the explorer formulates the problem in the light of which he selects the materials, which can serve as a source of knowledge about this problem. Our stated problem if the Zealots’ view to History and the forming of the historical conception of Josephus Flavius in the polemic with the Zealots. One of analogues of the antropologic research is the book of Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie «Montaillou: village de occitan de1294 a 1324» (Le Roy Ladurie, 1975). The author reconstructs the living world of a village in Aquitania during the live of one generation, from the end of XIII th to the beginning of XIV century on the basis of the remained reports of questionings by the bishop of the town of Pamiers of Jacques Fournier. The texts contain the information of the different aspects of material life, family and culture. Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie had re-grouped and reorganized the material in the style of monograph on agrarian history. Our main source are the works of Josephus Flavius, who had been a witness of the fall of Jerusalem (Josephus, Bell.Jud. V). Besides, if we re-group and reorganize the material as in the book «Montaillou», then we can see in «Jewish War» and «Vita» some regularity, on the base of which we can classify Zealots as an apocalyptic movement typologically close the Middle-Age heresies. The comparison of mentality of Zealots – the religious movement of Antiquity – and the mentality of Cathars – the heretics of the MiddleAge West states the problem of chronology. J. Le Goff, substantiating his conception of “the long Middle Age” views as one of the criterions the struggle of two almost equal powers – of God and Satan. According to J. Le Goff “Satan is born with the Middle Age and dies with the Middle Age” (Le Goff, 1985). But the Biblical conception of the war between God and Satan had been developed in Jewish apocalyptic. The apocalyptic in turn influenced the birth of Christianity, which became the world outlook basis of the West European Civilization. Thus, either in makes sense to move the borders of “the long Middle Age” to the times of the birth of Christianity”, or maybe the position of К. Pomian (Pomian, 1979, p.455-457) is more appropriate in this situation. He called to reject every precise periodization, because every age is co-existence of anisochronous chains of historic events, abiding in different temporal dimensions to each other. In 1958 the famous (and only one) methodological article of Braudel «History and historical sciences. Historic activity» (Braudel, 1958, p. 725 – 753) was published. It caused sharp discussions among intellectuals of the time. Sociologist G. Gurvich acknowledged the priority of sociology before history and he marked that «historical reality is just a privileged sector of a much wider circle – the circle of social reality». Unlike E. Durkheim, who tried sociologize various areas of scientific knowledge, Gurvich acknowledged «duumvirate» of sociology and history for integration of all social sciences (geography, ethnography, political economy, philosophy) in the framework of the one “Science about Man»( Gurvich, 1977). According to Gurvich, social reality consists of «a number of total social phenomena» such as deep levels of social life, types of social interactions, socials groups, global commonwealthes. Those social structures need to be studied with the help of analysis of different time rhythms typical to them: long-term of slowly moving time, illusory of sudden time, incorrectly pulsating time, explosion time, awaiting time etc. For Braudel Gurvich personified friendly, almost brotherly type of sociology, but the historian called the researchers to beware of the endless morphologies # 364 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. Zealots’ World View of «chameleon-like time», which is a new but actually unchangeable formula of the same levels of immovable social architecture. At the same time the historians were theoretically challenged by C. Levi-Strauss, who considered anthropology as a basis for unification of two sciences. Formally declaring parity and complementarity of two sciences, Levi-Strauss gave to history role of working only with «conscious manifestations of social life» and empiric plane of study, presenting to his own science the right to study its subconscious foundations, universal, out-of-time structures of human thought, which we see in customs, myths and languages of different nations (Levi-Strauss, 1993). Countering Levi-Strauss’ ideas, Braudel marked that the out-of-time structures don’t exist, because the society is movable and changeable, every society is a child of its own time. Answering to polemic of Gurvich and LeviStrauss Braudel introduces the concept of “time of big duration», which, according to his idea, must help to unify all the «sciences about man», historify them, giving to researched social reality the character of duration, extension, historicity. For a historian «the dialectic of time is a nucleus of social reality, living, innermost, constantly renewed contradiction between actual moment and slow flowing of time (Braudel, 1958, p. 117). Unlike Bergson, for whom time as duration («durée») has psychological and subjective character, Braudel imparts to «la longue durée» social and methodological sense. According to Braudel the perspective of long extension lets a historian contemplate «panorama of the whole mankind, in which the game of civilizations is displayed», and, moreover, can disclose the connections of history with present time, to determine «strong and week points in our move to future». Jean-Paul Sartre’s philosophic concept of time was especially close to Braudel. According to Sartre, dialectic as a move of reality in impossible, if time is not dialectical i.e. if activity of future itself is denied. We have to understand that neither people nor their actions do not lie in time; time, as the specific attribute of history, is being created by people on the basis of their initial (Sartre, 1963). Thus, historical time was chosen by Braudel as a basis for creation of the common project of social-humanitarian sciences. Social-philosophical sense of dialectic connection of the past with the present and of the present with the future, lying in the foundation of Braudel’s «la longue durée» lets talk about this category not as about final временной длине, but as about “long prolongation”, about “time in the stage of realization”, like «soft time», displayed on surrealistic canvases of S. Dali (Khakimov, 2009, p. 135-147). For the removal of the lack of chronologic correspondence the anthropologic approach of V. Turner will be useful. V. Turner concentrates his attention on the aspects of human activity, intentionally brought out of the stream of social life and contrasted the everyday existence as “anti-structures” (Turner, 1984; Katz, 1984, p. 84–89). In the Turner’s opinion in the most of cases the milleniaristic movements rose in those historical periods when the society had been in the transition from one cultural condition to another. The destruction of the Second Temple in the result of uprising brought to the rise of the Talmudic Judaism. The article of M.Goodman challenges the standard picture that religious variety within Judaism before 70 CE was focused on the Temple, and that variety was replaced by unity in 70 when the Temple was destroyed. Evidence is presented that different groups shared the Temple despite their disagreements on how the cult should be organised, and it is argued that the loss of this shared institution did not cause such groups to disappear, although it may have made it easier for them to ignore each other (Goodman, 2009, # 365 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. Zealots’ World View p.202-213). But this shift of the emphasis from the Temple cult to hermeneutics of the Biblical text was conditioned by the development of Judaism of the beginning of the Christian Age itself, as being strongly influenced by Hellenistic philosophy. The translation of the Bible into Greek, and the works oh Philo and Josephus Flavius and Jewish apocalyptic texts, and also the spread of Christianity – all of them are just the stages of Jewish-Hellenistic syncretism, which led to the creation of Middle-Age society. The Antique antiSemitism was the reaction if the Hellenes, and the war of Maccabeus and Jewish war are the Jews’ reaction to cross-influence of cultures. Although the term for “apocalypse” is not attested as a title or genre definition in the extant corpus of Hebrew or Jewish Aramaic documents, some early Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic texts may contain rudimentary evidence in favor of the existence of a Hebrew or Jewish Aramaic equivalent for the term. Moreover, its reconstruction can contribute to better understanding of certain wide spread apocalyptic imagery, which must be closely connected to the semantics of this term (Kulik, 2009, p. 540-550). The Jewish war had strongly expressed eschatological nature. Josephus writes about people who perished in the Temple, burn by the Titus’ soldiers: “The initiator of their death was a false prophet who proclaims in those day in the city that God commanded to go up to the Temple in order to receive the Sign of Salvation” (Josephus, Bell.Jud. VI,5,3). So, the people in the deposited Jerusalem had been waiting the coming of the Messiah “here and now”. According to Josephus, after the fall of Jerusalem one of the Zealots’ leaders, Shimon bar Giora, who had been hiding in underground tunnels, came out in Romans’ views from underground in the place of destructed Temple in the white tunic and red chlamys, presenting being a king (and probably the King-Messiah) (Josephus, Bell.Jud.VII,2,1). According to a great number of false Messiahs, a lot of people of those times thought about being messiahs themselves. The conception of the Messiah as a political leader made possible the receiving the messianic role for every more or less charismatic person of the Second Temple Age. The coming of the messianic age let the Zealots have the more simple attitude to the strictness of Jewish Law, which can be called the tendency to interiorization of the concept of freedom. This kind of freedom can in time become the freedom from all limitations and responsibilities, the freedom from morality. It had been a kind of sacral anti-behavior (Uspensky, 1996, p.460-476). The Zealots, transgressing the Jewish law, had been advancing the coming of new Messianic age. Josephus, rebuking the leaders of Zealots, Johanan from Gischala and Shimon bar Giora, writes that there had not left any crime not committed by them. So, Johanan, according to Josephus’ words, “ate the forbidden food and rejected the originally stated purification” (Josephus, Bell.Jud.VII,2,1). In the deposited Jerusalem the Galileans under his leadership “robbed the houses of the rich, for fun killed the men and raped the women, and then drunk away the blood washed plunder. Because of satiety they committed themselves to feminine behavior: fixed their hair, dressed in women’s garments, used perfumes and to be attractive they penciled their eyes. They imitated not only the garment but also the passions of women and in the extremes of their debauchery invented lawless pleasures” (Josephus, Bell.Jud.IV,9,10). This testifies the fact that the age of Halaha had passed for the Zealots as well as for Frankists who had been waiting for Messiah in the XVIII century. Jacob Frank had proclaimed that he came to deliver the world of all the laws (Scholem, 1974, p.139-217). From the other side Josephus possibly intentionally tries to show their opponents repulsive. But if we # 366 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. Zealots’ World View consider that according to the rabbinic tradition Josephus tried to make this text as decorous as possible, it is less probable that he invented those accusations. The attitude of Zealots to the sacral space of the Temple deserves special attention. Josephus writes that Johanan from Gischala had given the golden temple plate to re-melting. “He told to his close men that things which belonged to God they could fearlessly use for God-pleasing purposes, and for those who fight for the Temple it is permitted to take means for living from the Temple. For the same cause he devastated also the stores of sacred wine and oil, which had been kept by the priests in the Inner Temple for sprinkle of the burnt offering sacrifices and shared them between the crowd” (Josephus, Bell.Jud.V,13,6). Besides the Zealots refused to leave the Temple and not to use it as a fortress because, according to the words of the rebellions, “the Universe is the best Temple which God has. Nevertheless this very Temple will be saved by the One abiding in it” (Josephus, Bell.Jud. V,11,2). The next words in their essence discredited the service in the Temple, which had risen the indignation of the priests. But zealots had not been the only persons who had this attitude to the Temple. So Jesus’ follower Stephanus tells in his sermon: “The Most High does not live in hand-made temples, as the prophet says: Heavens is the Throne of Mine and the Earth in pedestal for My feet» (Acts 7:1-53). As in other milleniaristic movements the Zealots touch the problem of the social justice. Thus, recruiting the rebellions into his army, Shimon bar Giora had promised the freedom the slaves (Josephus, Bell.Jud.IV,9,3). Having captured the Jerusalem, the rebellions has burned the archives where the obligatory bill had been kept, so the debtors had become free from their debts (Josephus, Bell.Jud. II,17,6). It caused some of the scientist to regard the Jewish revolt a kind of social revolution. The Soviet scientist A.G. Bokschanin (Bokschanin, 1954, p. 179) states the Zealots, who, according to Josephus’ words “going to death count as nothing, and also despise the death of their friends and relatives, only not to admit the domination of other human being” (Josephus, Ant.Jud.XVIII,1,6), were the representatives of the revolutionary circles. But, in his opinion they had not gone to the end in their political strives, as sikaries did afterwards. Also Bokschanin doesn’t trust to the Josephus’ report of the sikaries as hired assasins, which “mixed with crowd and killed there their personal enemies as well as those against whom they were hired for money” (Josephus, Ant.Jud. XX, 8, 5), because it doesn’t correspond with the image of a revolutionary. According to Acts.21:38, where it is written about 4000 outlaws which “sikarion” led to the desert, another Soviet historian A.V. Ranovich makes a conclusion that the sikaries were a separated revolutionary group (Ranovich, 1937, p.131-132). In the Ranovich’s opinion the memoirs of the sikaries as of people who violently took the land from the rich and gave it out to the poor are reflected in Mishna in the statement about lawless owners of the land – sikaricon (Ranovich, 1937a, p. 301). It can be connected with the fact that the sikaries who sat in the fortress of Masada robbed the closest villages. For instance Josephus tells about the robbing the village of Ein-Gedi (Josephus, Bell.Jud.IV,7,2). The troops of Shimon bar Giora captured Idumea (Josephus, Bell. Jud.IV,9). During the famine in the deposited Jerusalem the rebellions took the food firstly from the rich, and then from everybody who had some food. The Zelots themselves had no need because they stored for future (Josephus, Bell.Jud.V,10,2). Besides Johanan gave out the Temple stores of food to the crowd, as Josephus tells (Josephus, ell.Jud.V,13,6). The Zealots made court examinations of the rich, accusing them in conspiracy, with the purpose to get their goods # 367 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. Zealots’ World View (Josephus, Bell.Jud.V,10,4). When during the first of such court examinations the religious court had justified the prisoners at the bar, the accused had been killed anyway and the judges had been beaten. So the historic memory could be kept for long time (Josephus, Bell.Jud.IV,5,4). As theory and practice of studying of ethnic confl ict show, they are one of the most complicated type of confl icts, fi rst of all because of duration and changeability of forms in time. Contradictions lie in the basis of every confl ict and for solving of them sides are struggling. The content of ethnic confl ict is often territorial claims of sides, undividedness of spheres of influence and consequently, presence of different stages of confl ict, – from psychological incompatibility of existence of sides and peaceful confrontation to an armed confl ict – and vice versa. Ethnic confl icts in the ranks of one state often develop in the result of pressure and falsification by one side of history, culture, mentality of another one. The tactic of capture and keeping of defending side in unnatural state, often relied with physical and psychological violence, permanently applied during centuries, i.e. in situation of constant challenges, leads to changes of social settings of whole society and individual person. Ethnocultural unity of opinions in relation to settings and claims from the outside is being formed. Ethnos feels constantly restrained and waiting the danger of restraining from the opponent, in result of which new social-cultural model of its existence in the condition of confl ict is formed. The given model is a sum total of orientations (political, economic, cultural) of the person and society as whole, supported by its élite part as a regular practice. Practices formulate corresponding socio-cultural models, value and norm patterns of interactions between persons and institutes of society (Kvitsinia, 2010, p. 166-171). The revolutionary nature of the Jewish revolt was emphasized by those scientists who were themselves connected with revolutionary struggle of their time. So K. Kautsky regarded Zealots as Jewish paupers and lumpen-proletarians, but he thought that the terror of the lowest classes in Judea begun too late to save the Jewish state (Kautsky, 1909, p. 271). However not politically engaged A. Appelbaum expressed an opinion that during the conquest of the Judea by Pompey (63 B.C.), the Jews were sent out from the considerable part of agricultural lands. They filled the army of the country proletariat which become the driving force of the rebellion. Besides the taxation in the Herod’s time became heavier. All this caused the fact that the most of population of Judea was involved into revolt against Rome (Appelbaum, 1972, p.355-396). In our opinion the Zealot’s attitude to human life expresses their “liminality” first of all (Turner, 1975). So in Jerusalem the habitant of the city who had not wished to take the side of the rebellions, were tortured and murdered (Josephus, Bell.Jud.IV,5,3). Besides, the repressions against the members of their own movement. Thus, Simon executed Matityahu, who helped him enter Jerusalem, and hid three sons, probably as a punishment for the fact that the fourth son took the part of Romans (Josephus, Bell.Jud.V,13,1). On the accusation that the members of King’s family betrayed the idea of freedom they also had been executed (Josephus, Bell.Jud.IV,3,4). Also it had been forbidden in the city to come together and have conversation and also to express some sorrow for the condemned, and the punishment was death (Josephus, ell.Jud.V,13,1). The purpose of Zealots was to bring fear into Jewish community and make them to refuse totally from any contacts and of course from service to the Roman Empire, and also to push those who had been hesitating to the proper support of JewishRoman conflict. # 368 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. Zealots’ World View Although the rebellions gave a lots of promises to set the slaves free and to forgive the debts, commune had not been their social ideal. The robbery the Essean settlement in EinGedi (the Esseans according to Flavius lived as commune (Josephus, Bell.Jud. II,8)) and the murder of about 700 habitants by the Sikaries who had been hidden in Masada (Josephus, Bell.Jud.IV,7,2), confi rms once more the fact of essence of the left revolutionary attitude among the later. As to the burning of archives (Josephus, Bell.Jud. II, 17,6), this act is ambiguous. Besides the direct profit from the refuse to pay the debts there’s also a sacral meaning in this act. In the opinion of Levi- Strauss the archives brings us into contact with history. The history becomes material in the archive (Levi-Strauss, 1962). Thus the struggle of Zealots with archive had been also the struggle with history and a sign of its end. The struggle with the rich in the name of the Most High typologically resembles the religious movements of Middle Ages and New Time. Thus, peasants and the poor follows the medieval leader of insurgents in the name of the pure faith, which is proclaimed by the poor to the poor and have nothing to do with the riches of the official church. The call to the creation of the just society in the mouth of the ideologists of the religious revolts caused the fact that in historiography of the socialistic states those revolts are considered fi rst of all as social revolutions. The same attitude to religious movements in Russian science has a long tradition. N. A. Osokin stated that Savonarola used the religion for the advancing of the social purposes (Osokin, 1865, p. 148). In this sense the research of Zealots’ world view in Soviet historiography made in accordance with common Soviet methodology, applied for the research of the religious revolts of all the times. This approach significantly impoverishes our understanding of the complicated phenomenon of milleniaristic movements. Resume Thus, Zealot had been a milleniaristic movements as well as Middle Age heresies. As we see their attitude to human life, material goods and archives, the Zealots believed that the time of history had come to the end. In the deposited Jerusalem they did the actions which contradicted to Halaha, thus showing the fact that it also had come to the end. Their attitude to the temple had been ambivalent – on the one side they believed that the Most High would save the Temple, but on the other side they questioned the sacrality of the Temple’s space. The spatio-temporal continuum in the deposited Jerusalem had been probably perceived as some intermediate state between this present world and the Olam ha-Baha, descending from Heavens. The overcoming of the division of the worlds into phenomenal and transcendent had a natural social consequence the rejection of personalism. References S. Appelbaum, “Judea as a Roman province, the Countryside as a Political and Economic Factor”, in Aufstug zum Niedergang der römischen Welt. V. II (Berlin – New-York, 1972). A.G. Bokschanin, Social crisis of the Roman Empire (Мoscow, 1954), in Russian. F. Braudel, “Histoire et sciences socials. La longue durée”, Annales, 4 (1958) M.Goodman, “Religious Variety and the Temple in the Late Second Temple Period and its Aftermat”, The Journal of Jewish Studies, 60, 2 (2009). G. Gurvich Dialectique et sociologie (Paris, 1977). # 369 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. Zealots’ World View E. Katz, “Media Events: The Sense of the Occasion”, Studies in Visual Communication, 6 (1984) . K. Kautsky, Judaism and Christianity (St.-Petersburg, 1909), in Russian. G. A. Khakimov , “«Time of big duration» of F. Braudel as methodological principle of humanitarian knowledge”, Questions of Philosophy (Voprosy filisofii), .8 (2009), in Russian. A. Kulik, “Genre without a Name: Was There a Hebrew Term for “Apocalypse”?” Journal for the Study of Judaism In the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman Period, 4-5 (2009 ). M. B. Kvitsinia, “About socialization of person in conditions of ethnic conflict”, Questions of Philosophy (Voprosy filisofii), 1 (2010) in Russian.. J. Le Goff, L’imaginaire médiéval: essays (Paris, 1985). E. Le Roy Ladurie, Montaillou, village occitan de 1294 à 1324 (Paris, 1975). C. Levi- Strauss, La pensée sauvage (Paris, 1962). C. Levi-Strauss, Structural anthropology (London –New-York, 1993). J. Madaule, Le drame albigeois et l’unité française (Paris, 1973). N. Osokin, Savonarola and Florence (Kazan, 1865), in Russian. K. Pomian, Periodisation, in La Nouvele Histoire ed. By J. Le Goff, R. Chartiev, J. Revel (Paris, 1979). A.V. Ranovich, Social revolution in Judea in 66-73, Journal of Ancient History, 1 (1937), in Russian. A.V. Ranovich, Sketch about ancient Hebrew religion (Мoscow, 1937), in Russian. J.-P. Sartre, The Problems of method (London, 1963). G. Scholem, La redemption par la peche, à La messianisme juif (Paris, 1974). V. Turner, The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure (Chicago, 1969). V. Turner, Symbol and Ritual (Lima, 1975) B.A. Uspensky, Selected works (Moscow, 1996), in Russian. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. Zealots’ World View Мировоззрение зелотов Ю.Г. Матушанская Казанский государственный технологический университет Россия 420015, Казань, ул. К.Маркса, 68 Зелоты были милленаристским движением, подобным средневековым ересям. Судя по их отношению к человеческим жизням, материальным ценностям и архивам, зелоты считали, что время истории кончилось. В осажденном Иерусалиме они предпринимали действия, явно противоречащие Галахе, тем самым, показывая, что время ее действия истекло. Их отношение к Храму было амбивалентным, с одной стороны, они считали, что Всевышний сохранит Храм, а с другой стороны – сакральность пространства Иерусалимского Храма зелоты оспаривали. Пространственно- временной континуум в осажденном Иерусалиме, повидимому, воспринимался как промежуточное состояние между этим миром и спускающимся свыше Олам Хаба. Это преодоление разделения миров на феноменальный и трансцендентный имело своим естественным социальным следствием отрицание персонализма. Ключевые слова: зелоты, галаха, милленаристское движение. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 372-379 ~~~ УДК 81.33 Works of V.P. Astafiev in China Valentina V. Nikitenko* Siberian Federal University 82a Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011 This article is devoted to a brief analysis of the study and translations of Russian literature in China. The article describes the main stages of the study of Russian literature in China, from the origins to the present day. Particular attention is paid to the works of the Siberian writer V.P. Astafiev in modern Chinese translated literature. As an example, the Chinese researchers specified their comments on his books having researched the peculiarities of his works and felt that his original language was complicated. Keywords: Russian literature, translation, the Chinese language, Cultural Revolution, the policy of “reform and openness”, the “Chinese trap”, Astafiev’s works. Point of view A short introduction about the study and translation of Russian literature works in China Early stage of the study and translation of Russian literature works in China The history of translation and study of Russian literature in China consists of several periods in the formation of which, above all, historical and political factors play a decisive role. Relations between China and Russia in the sphere of literature emerged only in the early XX century. There is an interesting fact that translating of Russian works in China began later than that of Chinese works in Russia. The book “Chinese thought” (Saint-Petersburg, 17721775) was the first Chinese book met by Russian readers, the translation of which was made by * 1 sinologist A. L. Leontiev. In the XIX century only the translations from Chinese into Russian were published. But in the XX century, Chinese translators of Russian literature took over and gradually surpassed their Russian colleagues with both the number of translations and the scale of them. The first Chinese translations of Russian literature emerged in the early XX century. The order was as follows: first, I. A. Krylov, later A. S. Pushkin, I. F. Turgenev, M. U. Lermontov, A. N. Tolstoy, A. P. Chekhov and others. It all started with the classics, but gradually the works of modern authors began to be translated. The first Chinese translators chose the most prominent Russian writers and selected the masterpieces of their many works, thus allowing them to present to their contemporaries the reliable and extensive picture of Russian literature within a very short time (about 10 years). Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 372 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentina V. Nikitenko. Works of V.P. Astafiev in China A characteristic feature of the initial period of perception of Russian literature in China is the fact that the translations were not always directly from the Russian language, but mostly through Japanese and English. In addition, a part of the translations was made into the ancient Chinese (wenyan ). Since 1919, a new phase of Russian literature study began. In China, there was a cultural process, called “May, 4th Process”, whose goal was a departure from the Chinese feudal culture and the assimilation of Western democratic ideology. The ideas of the French Enlightenment, the theory of German Marxism, and Russian literature are in the basis of this drawing. During this period, China’s “new literature” was emerging and its development is closely linked with the development of translations of Russian literature in China. The founders of the new Chinese literature served as the translators of Russian literature. Lu Xun was a pioneer translator and researcher of Russian literature and made the first distribution of Russian literature in China. He translated the works of N. V. Gogol, A. P. Chekhov, A. M. Gorky and other Russian writers. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, thanks to the “fraternal friendship” between China and the USSR, the study and translation of Russian literature in China reached unprecedented proportions. Millions of Chinese people studied the Russian language and read the Russian literature with interest and respect. In a short time, no more than 10 years, almost all the classics of Russian literature and Soviet literature masterpieces were translated into Chinese. We can say that an entire generation of Chinese readers was formed under the strong influence of Russian (and Soviet) literature, which is still an important factor of cultural experiences and the memories of those living in this generation. During the Cultural Revolution (1966 – 1976), which in fact is regarded as a ‘Cultural Destruction’ by most Chinese people, all the works of foreign literature, including Russian, were considered “forbidden books”, and all attempts to translate foreign literature were outlawed. Many translators and scholars- the specialists in Russian philology – suffered because of their work or even simply because of their profession. This gap in the period of the development of Chinese culture and the period of stagnation in the translation and study of Russian literature in China occurred simultaneously. Current stage of the study and translation of Russian literature works in China After the launch of “reform and openness” in China in 1978, the policy of openness to the world extended not only to the economy, but also to culture. China has experienced and is experiencing the most powerful cultural influence, greater than that of any other country. The works of foreign writers were translated in large quantities. During this time, work on translations and the study of Russian literature was resumed by the translators of the older generation and their younger colleagues. The old translations have since been republished and the new ones appear one after the other. From M. U. Lomonosov and N. M. Karamzin to I. A. Brodsky and V. V. Erofeev, and even V. O. Pelevin’s Russian books are actively translated into Chinese. Previously, China had only 2 – 3 publishers of Russian literature translations, but now the number of the publishers is over two dozens. Some classical works such as “Resurrection” and “Anna Karenina” by A. N. Tolstoy, “Eugene Onegin” and “The Captain’s Daughter” by A.S. Pushkin, “Hero of Our Time” by M. U. Lermontov and “Crime and Punishment” by F. M. Dostoevsky have up to ten variants of the translation, and # 373 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentina V. Nikitenko. Works of V.P. Astafiev in China the N. A. Ostrovsky’s novel “How the Steel Was Tempered” – has even twenty. Since the beginning of the “policy of opening” the study of Russian literature in China regained its official status, new journals of Russian literature appeared, new scientific papers on the life and works of Russian writers have been published and the Association of Chinese scholars of Russian literature has been formed. But compared with the period before the Cultural Revolution, the share of Russian literature in the overall volume of translated foreign literature in China has decreased, now in first place are translations from English – Chinese readers have since become more interested in the literature of Europe and America. According to translator of Russian children’s literature Xu Yongping, a teacher of Taiyuan Pedagogical Institute, the real connection in the literature between China and Russia broke down in the past ten-plus years (Xu Yongping). It is important to note that in socialist China, literature has always been regarded as an ideological weapon. Given the political influence of the Soviet Union on the formation of a new Chinese society, the study of Russian literature in China has been a clear trend towards the politicization and an influence of Sociology. These trends in the study of Russian literature in China have existed there for quite a long time. In China the policy in the field of literature and art was almost identical to that of Soviet Union: “the only” creative method in Soviet Union was “socialist realism”, and in China – the “revolutionary realism”. Recently, these trends, according to many Chinese critics, are much less evident: due to the development of social democracy and economic reform, combined with the emergence of a new generation of translators and researchers, the study of Russian literature in China is now more and more focused on the artistry and the aesthetic aspects of literature, as well as more attention being paid to the scientific and independence of literary studies. Chinese specialists in Russian philology at different times focused on various aspects of Russian literature. In recent decades, Chinese researchers draw attention to topics such as “village” prose, “Humanism in literature”, literature “after the collapse of the Soviet Union” – “other” prose, postmodernism, and many others. According to a renowned Chinese literary critic, Russian philologist and translator, Yu Yizhon (professor of Nanjing University) “Chinese readers have a special interest and love for Russian literature, they want it to catch a whiff of the modern history of Russian people who along with us have experienced the same stages of historical development, and benefit from it, the new Russian literature, experience and lessons learned” (Fu Xuan; Yu Yizhong). In the 1980’s, one of the leading trends in Russian literature became focused on the study of time – historical and current, the change in the spiritual world of people, a focus on the study of the phenomenon of life in its moral aspect. The word “life” is no longer synonymous with “ideal” and “beautiful”, the post-war optimistic outlook on life has gradually transformed into a critical outlook. The new generation of writers is not only looking for an explanation of the social order or other phenomena of life, but also attaches the highest importance to the study of the moral aspect of human nature. Research and translations of Siberian writers V. G. Rasputin and V. P. Astafiev in China Chinese scholars have a strong interest among creative Siberian writers – V. G. Rasputin and V. P. Astafiev. They both become well known to Chinese readers as traditional writers in the early 80’s (Chinese researchers call them the classics of modern Russian literature). Almost # 374 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentina V. Nikitenko. Works of V.P. Astafiev in China all the works of Rasputin have been translated into Chinese. Great interest was aroused by the stories “Money for Maria”, “Deadline”, “Farewell to Inveterate”, “Live and Remember”. As the researcher of Russian literature Phu Xuan (Associate Professor of the Institute of Foreign Languages, Yunnan University): “Heroes of Rasputin’s works embody a profound awareness of the disintegration of traditional forms of life, loss of morality, existential crisis. These concepts are well understood by Chinese readers (Fu Xuan, 73). One of the recent translations of V. G. Rasputin in Chinese “Daughter of Ivan, Ivan’s mother” had a hot author’s response. In the words of Chinese (and Russian) readers, entitled “Chinese trap”, V. G. Rasputin, with unconcealed pain, writes that “Russia holds literature in a perfectionist and chaste taste, and dispelled it into the wind so quickly, if not had great skill in and content of the XIX century, and then threequarters of the XX century»”, and that “Western world, recently defining the subtle tone in the literature, has lost it without any regret”. And in the fact that, namely, China, translates and publishes the books, “written in the old manner, according to the precepts and norms of those times when A. N. Tolstoy and F. M. Dostoyevsky, Ch. Dickens and W. Faulkner, as well as Chinese Lu Xun and Lao She have sermonized” V. G. Rasputin sees a concrete sign: “In China, nearly one and a half a billion people, of whom not less than a billion readers, and if all of them brought up on good and sound examples, compassionate and love for hard work, the beauty of nature and beauty of the human soul, the wise and profound language, with examples of love for their land and its traditions – on a lot beautiful and instructive in the literature! – And if a billion Chinese were brought up on it, and millions, not yet fallen under the power of evil in Russia, and some of the survivors in the West, and the Great East, and so considerable the rest world – namely This would be a New Civilization, proactively rejected the evil in books and in all other arts! After all, we know: evil is powerful, but the love and beauty are more powerful” (Rasputin,1996). Example Research and translations of V. P. Astafiev’s works in China V. P. Astafiev could sign under these words as well. He often met with his Chinese translators, and conducted an active correspondence with them. He visited China and was very interested in distributing his works in this country. His foreword to the publication of the book “Zatesi” in 1990 (V. P. Astafiev,1990), to date one of the most recent translations of his works into Chinese, is full of disturbing reflections on the fate of Russia, the Russian people and the arts. He wrote bitterly that “the great Chinese neighbour”, i.e. Russia, “struck, disconnected and brought to its knees“, “where the majority of the population has lost interest in work, where the history of the native homeland is crucified, where the centuries-old foundations of family are destructed, where more rarely is the one who remembers his pedigree more over then grandfather, where the human lives and blood is devalued, and it is difficult to regain faith in anything, including Faith in God”. But a country whose people, “in the eighties generation esteemed a great poet and thinker Confucius cannot be either suppressed, or converted into a herd”. There are 17 years between V. P. Astafiev’s and V. G. Rasputin’s thoughts, but unlike his younger contemporary, V. P. Astafiev believed that the country still retained power, “capable of resurrection, not everywhere and in every Russian more memory and the need for education and self-improvement are extinguished”. “And the Russian literature that is always sensitive, nicely captures the mood of their people, # 375 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentina V. Nikitenko. Works of V.P. Astafiev in China variations in their life, constantly looking for ways of rapprochement with its readers, gaining their attention, defends the right attention to this”. A modern writer, according to V. P. Astafiev, must fi rst become a companion to the reader – “Anyone always needs an interlocutor, otherwise he/she will be crushed by the terrible disease of the Century – loneliness”. V. P. Astafiev hoped that he “can fi nd my listeners and interlocutors among Chinese readers. The Great literature and the Great culture of the country in which the lyrical prose and poetry, as in Russia, has always been desirable to the reader, give me that hope” (V. P. Astafiev,1990). Indeed, in the face of Chinese readers V. P. Astafiev found grateful listeners. His work is under the scrutiny of Chinese researchers and translators. One of the modern critics of V. P. Astafiev’s works is Chen Shuxian, a famous translator and professor of Russian literature of the Philological Faculty of Nankai University. When in the early 90’s the famous Chinese publishing house “Baihua” decided to release a series of prose of writers of the world, Chen Shuxian proposed to include the V. P. Astafiev’s works in it. So along with the masterpieces of A. S. Pushkin, M. U. Lermontov, I. F. Turgenev, K. G. Paustovsky, M. M.Prishvin in Chinese, the V. P. Astafiev’s works “Zatesi” and “Ode to Russian garden” were also published. Chen Shuxian discovered for herself the works of V. P. Astafiev in the late 80’s and admired them so much that she even made a translation of his “Zatesi” and “Ode to Russian garden”. V. P. Astafiev himself wrote the preface to the Chinese edition of his works. As the translator Chen Shuxian says, in V. P. Astafiev’s works she mostly liked his modesty, humanity, and love for the common people: “We can name only a few works, where Nature is described so beautifully and poetically as in the miniatures “Zatesi” and “Ode to Russian garden”. Mapping the subtleties of this is a bit like Chinese painting” (Chen Shuxian, 2006). However, it is worth noting that only a few works of V. P. Astafiev have been translated into the Chinese language, such as “Shepherd and Shepherdess”, “The Tzar Fish” (translated by Xia Zhongyi in 1982), “Starfall” (translated by Feng Yuli in 1985), “Sad Detective” (translated by Yu Yizhong in 1989), “Zatesi”, “Ode to Russian kitchen garden” (translated by Chen Shuxian, Zhang Daben in 1995), as well as some short stories. This is undoubtedly due to the difficulties of translation of Astafiev’s works, the ambiguous and difficult language, abundant dialect, nonce words, author’s neologisms, etc. As the translator of “Zatesi” Chen Shuxian said: “The translation of the original author – is the real test. Not every Russian knows, for example, that “zaplot” is a fence, and “zhalitsa” – a nettle growing underneath, it leaves too much for a foreigner to guess (Chen Shuxian, 2005). The problems in V. P. Astafiev’s works are very close to the Chinese reader. The big resonance among the Chinese literary critics and writers called the Chinese translation of the novels “The Tzar Fish”. Modern Chinese writer Liu Xinglong called this book “Scripture Villages”(Liu Xinglong, 2005). Chinese critic says that V. P. Astafiev is, first of all, the creator of lyrical prose and a true humanist, whose “imagination is always imbued with spirituality”. Analyzing “The Tzar Fish”, Liu Xinglong first notes free composition and brushwork, which helps the author of “wilfully interpret social facts, express his own inner experiences”. The critic of the Russian writer calls it “a brilliant description”, and in his opinion, the author’s arguments combine “lyricism and philosophic”. For the external dissimilarity of stories belonging to “The Narrative”, Liu Xinglong saw an intimate relationship due to issues and the general idea of the work: “they are all devoted to the problems of # 376 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentina V. Nikitenko. Works of V.P. Astafiev in China man and nature, which are discussed in different ways with dissimilar perspectives and different parties, so the stories, united together among some dispersion, reveal some connection and organize a single global point of view – What is the World heading”? The Chinese researcher denotes a symbolic value of the novels “The Tzar Fish”. The relationship between man and nature reveals its essence. The looting of nature leads to a “human degradation and loss of love”, but to changing attitude to nature – “the way of man perfection”. “The Tzar Fish” leads Liu Xinglong to disappointing deduction: “People dream of a “fun and easy life”, this desire runs through the centuries, and today is no exception. Therefore, man transforms nature in order to control and conquer nature, but in the end people lose a lot: they lose clean air, pure water, natural treats, amazing scenery, the joy of communion with nature, they lose their calm ... and even great feeling.” The Chinese researcher is well aware that the problems posed by the Russian writer, are the pressing problems of humankind, as are all problems regarding the future of all life on Earth. Result The important place of Russian literature in China is widely acknowledged. The amount of Russian literature translations in China in comparison to other foreign literature translations has varied greatly during different periods of cultural interaction between China and Russia. In 50-60-s Russian literature was translated more than that from any other country and that was due to the significant influence of the Soviet Union on “The New China”. There were also periods of total oblivion of Russian literary works (The Cultural Revolution) and periods of rebirth of Russian literature during which it was newly brought to Chinese researchers and readers. Over the last decades the research interests of Chinese scientists have been addressed towards such subjects as “rural” or “country” prose, humanism in literature, “post-soviet” Russian literature – a “other” prose, post-modernism and other. V. P. Astafiev was the most widely translated Siberian writer. His works have been published in many foreign languages. The first time his work was published abroad was in Warsaw in 1961- this was the story ‘Starfall’. Over the next 40 years his works have been translated in 28 countries into 22 languages worldwide. V.P. Astafiev’s works, as well as other Siberian writers, are available to the foreign reader. But there is one problem: the unique original vocabulary of V. P Astafiev have been translated with great difficulties into foreign languages. One way of solving this problem seems to be the analysis after the translation of the V. P. Astafiev’s works and, above all, the creation of a special dictionary of extra-literary vocabulary of the writer. Therefore, the perspectives of studying the V. P. Astafiev’s work in Chinese literary are rather extensive. Only a few Chinese philologists have attempted to make a comprehensive analysis of his legacy. The work of the last period (1990 – 2001 years) and the non-fiction of the writer, as well as the V. P. Astafiev’s works in the context of the world literature are studied not deep enough and extensively. The study of translations of V. P. Astafiev’s works into the Chinese language and analysis of his work in China gives grace material for a researcher, enabling a deeper understanding of the author and identifying the points of agreement of not such similar, but close in spirit cultures. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentina V. Nikitenko. Works of V.P. Astafiev in China References I.S. Alekseeva, Introduction into Theory of Translation, (St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University; Moscow: Academy Publishing Center, 2004). S. A. Agapova, L. G. Samotik, Creating the image of interethnic communication partner by means of literary text translation (Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 1999) [The youth and Russia’s road to stable development. Abstracts of Republican Conference School], 108-110. V. P. Astafiev, Zatesi (Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 1990) [From the author: A foreword to publication of Zatesi book in China, Krasnoyarsky Rabochy newspaper], p. 12. V.S. Vinogradov, Translation: General and Lexical Problems, (Moscow: KDU, 2006). G.D. Voskoboinik, “On One Type of Cognitive Dissonance in Translation Discourse”, [Vestnik of Irkutsk State Linguistic University (Herald of ISLU)], 7 (2006), 18-29. Chen Shuxian, Chinese sing the “Ode to Russian garden” (Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 2006) [Vecherny Krasnoyarsk newspaper, no. 38], p. 5. Chen Shuxian, Art features of lyrical and philosophical miniatures of Astafiev “Zatesi” (Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 2005) [Collected materials of the First International Scientific Conference devoted to works of Astafiev: Phenomenon of Astafiev in the socio-cultural and literary life of the late XX century, Krasnoyarsk State University], 43-50. A.V. Fedorov, Introduction into General Theory of Translation (linguistic problems), (St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University; Moscow: Filologia Tri, 2002). Fu Xuan, New Russian literature in China (Moscow, Russia, 2001, no. 2) 72-74 . Liu Xinglong,“The Tzar Fish” recreates the image of modern village：http://www.gmw.cn/ CONTENT/node_4236.htm (2005-09-01) V. G. Rasputin, Chinese trap (From the Word to Chinese (and Russian) reader) (Irkutsk, Russia, 1996). http://www.filgrad.ru/texts/rasputin44.htm A.L. Semenov, Basic Guidelines of General Theory of Translation, (Moscow: Peoples Friendship University of Russia, 2005). 13. Xu Yongping, the Chinese translator, “I want that as many as possible of our children would learn about Russia”, russian.xinhuanet.com 14. N. Yashkova, The phenomenon of Astafiev (Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 2004) [“Astafiev’s reading”, the International Scientific Conference], p. 8 Yu Yizhong, Siberian sun had set (Krasnoyarsk, Russia, 2007) [Krasnoyarsky Rabochy newspaper], p. 5. R. Yakobson, “On Linguistic Aspects of Translation” (Moscow, Russia, 1978) [Problems in theory of translation in foreign linguistics] 16-24 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentina V. Nikitenko. Works of V.P. Astafiev in China Произведения В.П. Астафьева в Китае В.В. Никитенко Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82a Статья посвящена анализу изучения и переводов русской литературы в Китае. В статье рассматриваются основные этапы изучения русской литературы в Китае от истоков до наших дней. Особое внимание уделено творчеству сибирского писателя В. П. Астафьева в современной китайской переводной литературе. В качестве примера анализируются работы китайских исследователей творчества В. П. Астафьева. Ключевые слова: русская литература, художественный перевод, китайский язык, Культурная революция, политика «реформы и открытости», «Китайская ловушка», произведения В. П. Астафьева. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 380-385 ~~~ УДК 130.3 + 175 Youth Event Tourism as Existential Experience of Creative Idleness Vadim E. Petrov* Novgorod State University named after Yaroslav the Wise Antonovo, Velikyi Novgorod, 173014 Russia 1 Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011 One of the topics analyzed in this article is the modern practice of youth event tourism in the context of its dependence on the mechanisms of social integration of the included individuals and the peculiarities of underlying existantional and siciocultural experience which is formed by means of such practices. Keywords: youth event tourism, idleness, idle experience; existential experience, deprivation; youth community Point The characteristic feature of different modern practices of the social communication is demonstratively anticonsumer character, which sometimes borders with pure escapism. First of all it is connected with the sharp crises of the «consumer society» and various sociocultural deformations of modern civilization. Today we may see the formation of the new type of thinking and social models of the modern guidelines- post materialistic and post economic (Inozemtsev, 1998). An important aspect of such process is selforganization and transformation of individual self aspiration into the structured advocacy groups, which helps the participants of such practices not only to create communities, develop fullfledged cooperation and communication inside the group, but also to translate the strategies and the experience, attracting more and more newcomers. This new for post modern society practices of social interaction are connected * 1 with technological mechanisms of acquiring new and specific existential experience, favoring the self-actualization and overcoming of the social estrangement. Among such practices it is worth marking out the intensively developing eventtrigger tourism. The complex of new specific kinds of tourism which is connected with the set of «event-trigger» forms of tourist structurization of individual and collective leisure and travel acts as a modern kind of creative idleness of an active part of a society, especially the youth. Under the word «event-trigger» tourism which is now the most perspective trend of development of tourist business, we mean the purposeful travel not simply with fact-finding, recreational or business problems, but, also, visiting and active participation in this or that considerable cultural, entertaining, sports or other action (“event”). As a rule, such events, which are capable to attract attention and interest of young men from Corresponding author E-mail address: e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 380 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vadim E. Petrov. Youth Event Tourism as Existential Experience of Creative Idleness the most remote regions and the countries, are as valid large international cultural actions (rock festivals, raves, concerts of variety executors of the first size, historical festivals), as the unique events which may be found only in a given “place” (a solar eclipse which can be seen only in certain district; the Brazilian and Venetian carnivals; various national and ethno-holidays etc.). For the sake of participation in such celebratory and idle events many young (and not so) people are ready to endow everything – money, time, career, family relations, obtaining frequently invaluable the worthless experience, especially unique in the conditions of the globalized and standardised daily world of an epoch of a postmodern. It is remarkable that ыгср experience is not only new knowledge, but, first of all, individually endured corporally new sensual sensations, positive emotions, participation in other social spaces. Traditions of hippie culture which have drawn the rituals and artifacts from the most various ethnic and geographical spaces also are easily seen in these practices. It is necessary to search for historical and sociocultural sources of youth and event-trigger tourism as specific public phenomenon ,in our opinion, in post-war 50-60th of the XX-th century when basic needs of citizens of the developed western countries have been already satisfied by mass conveyor manufacture. At the same time, existential and spiritual aspirations of many people, and especially the first generation which have born after II World war of youth, have been focused on search of new impressions and formation of new ethical values. The boom of socially-protest moods (bit and hippie-culture, anti-war and antinuclear social movements, “student’s” and “sexual” revolutions, actions of civil disobedience, etc.) has been in many respects connected with utopian attempt of radical transformation of a society and human nature towards a practical embodiment of humanistic values and multicultural ideas. It is possible to say that during this historical period, perhaps, first in social history ideals of narrow layers of intellectual elite became a part of thinking of wide public layers. It was promoted to mostly by a way of life and specific social activity of the first hippies who have safely opened new geographical and cultural horizons for the contemporaries. Even the well-known philosopher Bertran Russell, the active participant and the leader of the international anti-war movement, saw the decision of a problem of aggression of society as in the change of an education system and education of citizens (it based on the deep confidence that the aspiration to wars is not inherent in human nature, and grows out of traditions and, first of all wrong education), and in creation of wide opportunities for satisfaction of natural aspiration of the person to adventures. “It is necessary, that everyone had a possibility to climb mountains, without spending a large sum of money, or to go on the Northern or to the South Pole “, – the scientist (Russell, 1961, p.43) wrote. Bertran Russell one of the first intellectuals of Europe has proclaimed that the importance of satisfaction of existential requirements of the person, formation of personal socially-spiritual experience by means of tourism and the travel, carrying the idle character. It is important to notice that, going in «eventtrigger» travel, the tourists in practice combine all components of tourism and rest – culturalinformative, rekreatsionno-improving, probably, business activity. Visiting a new country or a region for examining or participation in the certain event, the traveler has a possibility to do the most standard procedures– surveys of museums, historical or natural monuments ,acquaintance to culture of the given district, dialogue and an having long (business or friendly) communications with new people and, at last, overcoming the personal and social alienation which inevitably arises in usual, an everyday life. # 381 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vadim E. Petrov. Youth Event Tourism as Existential Experience of Creative Idleness Thus, idle leisure, which is based on the eventtrigger tourism, promotes personal, cultural and social growth of the person, destruction institutional and topological social stereotypes. Example As a good example of the idea that bears the youth event tourism and at the same time bright idle and holiday action, it is possible to result the extremely unusual show-festival «Burning Man». It is the annual creative action that lasts for many days. The event takes place in huge territory in Desert of the Black Rock in state of Nevada, the USA. This is a great action in which there are no spectators, but participants. The festival starts in the end of August – the beginning of September and it declares absence of any set objective of the carrying out. Organizers define festival as an experiment on creation of the community of radical self-expression and radical self-reliance. The main feature and the basic content of the action is the huge and alive exhibition of enormous installations and technical achievements of vanguard art. Not everyone could become the participant of the action. Only courageous artists and vanguard bohemia, whose primary goal is to shock traditional conservative values, could attend this event. Free customs and practically uncontrollable conditions attract thousands of people, some of them young by body and others by soul. Here for a week «freaks of all colours» such as inventors of crazy cars, designers, whose main credo is shocking, the masters of installations, admirers of body art and many other things find there a shelter . The culmination of festival and the reason for its name is ignition of a huge wooden statue of the person two days before the end of the action. There is still no consensus of what does it symbolize, or at the same time the reasons for its ignition, except for reception of aesthetic and emotional pleasure from this process. Unlike other great actions, the given festival has a non-profit character. Any commerce is forbidden there (even products and souvenirs), all necessary things and products are brought by participants independently, and there is no advertising, and all expenses on its carrying out are compensated due to entrance tickets (not really cheap). Just because of their high price, inaccessibility of place of the festival, its closeness for usual visitors-observers and a lot of other reasons, it is difficult to reach the event, so a made up problem in fact makes it look “elite”, even there is still a visible large number of participants. there are no specially invited 'stars' and celebrities, but in crowd it is possible to meet everybody – from usual managers, party-goers or hippie, up to representatives of international business-elites and other known public persons who, however, try not to be caught by mass-media at this unusual ecstatic and mad performance. Ethics of festival assume realization of a principle «do not leave a trace» – after carrying out of a holiday all results of human activity (garbage, elements of scenery, structures and the equipment, etc.) is completely taken out back to city by participants that shows a valid and responsible position, a moral and social maturity of community of visitors of The Burning Man. The ecological component of the given action also is shown in prohibition of the use of motor transport in territory of the festival except for special «freak-cars» and the bicycles or own legs. The atmosphere of creative infinity, inexhaustibility of possibilities of human imagination and thinking, absurdity of occurring and general joyful mixed with other kinds of fun bring new intellectual and sensual experiences to the participants of this event. It also makes and approves other social reality in comparison with 'background' social experience. The individual person, being dissolved in a similar idle collective # 382 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vadim E. Petrov. Youth Event Tourism as Existential Experience of Creative Idleness stream, loses nothing, does not become 'weight' but receives a new impulse to spiritual and social growth and perceives itself and accept others from the great variety of outlooks. Therefore existential and world outlook value such sociocultural practices is multidimensional and invaluable. Generally, event tourism is extremely heterogeneous and cannot be a clearly defined area or type of activities; In particular, in the modern world such types of the event tourism in could be displayed as the 'club' tourism, including 'rave-tourism'(this type is especially widespread). 'Club' tourism is a travel with the aim of visiting popular clubs in other cities or specific parties everywhere, as well as the idea of participating raves or other cultural actions within the limits of «club culture». Raves as mass event, but with its underground cultural characteristic are widely widespread in the modern world, especially in European countries (the Great Britain, Germany, Holland, etc.) and some other regions of the world which the western culture historically influenced. The rave itself represents the mass dancing showfestival which takes place on large and more often unusual platforms (from abandoned warehouses, deserted places and fields to architectural monuments – castles, forts, castles), and standard stadiums, parks and city streets, for example, «Love Parade» in cities of Germany and «Street Parade» in capital of Switzerland (do not confuse with the gay-parades!), within one or several days, with neatly certain semantic concept and, as a rule, without specific, official occasions. The greatest propagation and popularity received such raves, as «MAYDAY» (Germany), «GLOBAL GATHERING» (Great Britain), «TRANCE ENERGY» (Holland), etc., This greatly expands the access of citizens and youth of different countries to the largest cultural forums today, and also promotes the development of domestic and foreign tourism. Another version of the club tourism «is a purposeful journey to some night club (or a few clubs) of a large club center. In particular, the example of the famous New York club 1970-80ies. «Studio 54» at a party which sought to enter the bohemian elite from around the world, or the equally legendary British club Manchester «Hacienda» (Garnier, 2005), which gathers the best European clubbers and Party People, art lovers and cultural avant-garde club fun travel on «club capital «of the world – New York, London, Amsterdam, Berlin, St. Petersburg, etc. Thus, in recent years, the most popular among European youth enjoy amateur «weekend tours in Berlin clubs, have proliferated in the dissemination of techno-culture (the current style of club music) in the German capital, comfort and safety of the city for recreation, and affordable Airlines have provided an opportunity for the democratic value and rapid time-travel in Europe (Rapp, 2009). In the summer club activity is moved to the Spanish island of Ibiza resorts (where many are concentrated capacious clubs) and Indian Goa (with semi-legal cross-rave in the open air) – the largest youth centers and recreation club, which pioneered in the XX century were already referred to us hippies. At the post-Soviet space, not counting the «club of the capital» of Russia – St. Petersburg, where there are more than 200 clubs and held throughout the year in Europe's largest rave festivals (renowned for their size and playgrounds, among which are many monuments of architecture and culture), also emerged the largest centre for club tourism – Youth Spa «Republic» KaZantip «in Crimea, six weeks annual festival of electronic music and a unique, unparalleled in the world of informal youth centre, which annually within a few weeks, visiting more than 100 thousand people from around the world. The main feature of the festival and rave Resort KaZantip is a special social atmosphere # 383 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vadim E. Petrov. Youth Event Tourism as Existential Experience of Creative Idleness of goodwill, based on a variety of traditions of mutual communication and festive social practices, wearing a pointed non-consumptive nature – daily meetings sunsets («Sunset»), the procession of people in unusual costumes with bright or creative images («freak parade»), a public ceremony, informal wedding («Z-wedding»), etc. The main purpose of your stay at this event is postulated to achieve the state of «Schastya”, some special, unique to this place socio-existential experience that is close to the ideal of happiness, mental and emotional harmony, but at the same time, and active social activities. Numerous reviews of visitors to the festival in different years (as well as other similar events) on the Internet demonstrate that the experience gained it is extremely valuable and important existential dimension to its members and helps to better organize further personal development, social and professional growth. The growing popularity and relevance of such cultural practices due to the existential and social importance of property and broadcast it «production» of relevant experience, the lack of which in everyday life encourages an active part of society's interest in the non-traditional ways of organizing work and leisure. Resume Youth event tourism – the most typical example of a modern event-driven travel in its integral manifestation, because its implementation is achieved multicultural cumulative effect (as seen at the same time entertainment and cultural events, the implementation of physical and emotional relaxation, communication, including new people, cultural and educational travel, development of new geographical, social and cultural spaces, etc.), which creates conditions for the formation of an adduced individual multidisciplinary (perhaps even elitist) experience. Paradoxically, the hiking event-idle practice in today’s world do not lead to deprivation of personality and do not destroy the social potency of their adherents, and, moreover, contribute to personal, social and spiritual growth of those involved individuals and social groups, and positively influence public perception of the world where active translation of these values in life. References L. Garnier, Аn electroshock: Notes of the DJ (Moscow: FreeFly, 2005), in Russian. V.L. Inozemtsev, Outside an economic society: postindustrial theories and posteconomic tendencies in the modern world (Moscow: Academy – the Science, 1998), in Russian. T. Rapp, Lost and Sound: Berlin, Techno and the Easyjetset (Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp, 2009). B. Russell, Bertrand Russell Speaks His Mind (London, 1961). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Vadim E. Petrov. Youth Event Tourism as Existential Experience of Creative Idleness Молодежный событийный туризм как экзистенциальный опыт творческой праздности В.Е. Петров Новгородский государственный университет им. Ярослава Мудрого Россия 173014, Великий Новгород, Антоново В статье анализируются современные практики молодежного событийного туризма в контексте их влияния на механизмы социальной интеграции включенных в них индивидов и особенности формируемого посредством данных практик глубинного экзистенциального и социокультурного опыта. Ключевые слова: молодежный событийный туризм, праздность, экзистенциальный опыт, депривация, молодежные сообщества. праздный опыт, Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 386-392 ~~~ УДК 37.014 The Role of Electronic Library in the Informatization of Modern Education Olga G. Smolyaninova, Larisa M. Turanova and Olga A. Pozhidaeva* Siberian Federal University 82 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011 The role of electronic library in the informatization of modern education is presented in the article. The results of research that have been carried out on the territory of Krasnoyarsk Territory concerning Internet sources usage by students and teachers have been described. So have been the conditions of access to the Global Network in schools of Krasnoyarsk Territory. Keywords: electronic library, informatization of education, information resources, socio-educational content. Introduction We consider informatization as a process of large-scale info communications’ usage in all spheres of socio-economic, political and cultural life of society with a view to increase the effectiveness of information and knowledge usage in order to manage, satisfy information needs of people, organizations and state, and create prerequisites of Russia’s transition to Information Society(Gould and Gomez, 2010). Informatization process involves a high-level delivery support of information resources, infrastructure development and the system of information gathering, formation, dissemination, usage and regulation of public relations occurring there. Educational informatization appears as a system of interrelated purposeful, organizational and methodical events connected with information means, technologies and * 1 culture penetration into all levels and parts of educational system (such as teaching, upbringing, supplementary education management, etc.). Thus regarding the tasks of electronic library development under the conditions of educational informatization technical availability and people’s information electronic resources needs arise substantial. Research prerequisites The technical requirements of the Internet access support in educational institutions’ of Krasnoyarsk Territory have been provided within the framework of Federal goal-oriented program “Development of uniform educational information environment for 2001-2005”, national project “Education”, Pilot project “Informatization of educational system”, in which Krasnoyarsk Territory took part. As Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 386 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova, Larisa M. Turanova… The Role of Electronic Library in the Informatization of Modern Education a result of the work within the bounds of mentioned projects in every territory region a necessary technical base for the adoption of modern educational and teaching technologies has been formed, all schools for better or worse have been connected to the Internet (Griffi n, 1999). Meanwhile, the results of the survey among teachers, administrative workers of educational institutions, students of several Krasnoyarsk Territory regions conducted within the framework of the project “Socio-educational content of SFU electronic library for human capital development in Krasnoyarsk Territory: conception and realization technologies” let us draw a conclusion that remote areas of the Territory are considerably limited in the access to the Internet sources; these are the areas of Far North, population places, situated at the distance of more than 200km from regional centres. In most cases the minimal speed of the Internet connection at educational institutions is 128 Kb/s with the use of such technologies as xSDL, Wi-Fi, WiMAX and what is more, with satellite link in the places where it is highly needed. Modem connection is more often used, although in the remote from the regional centre areas satellite dish links are used. The method of net connection is determined according to the facilities of a concrete educational institution – wired (over the telephone circuit), wireless and satellite methods. In spite of different technical requirements and impartial characteristics of Global network connection both teachers and students from all territorial groups mention their dissatisfaction with the stability and speed of the Internet connection, though, objectively the Internet connection in the north areas (the town of Kodinsk) is indeed beneath all criticism and it is very temperature-sensitive, while in the other under-test groups’ territories there are rather appropriate technical requirements that allow to download video at acceptable speed. Example The teachers’ and students’ access depends on a chosen plan. In Kodinsk, for instance, educational institutions are confined to the limit (six thousand roubles for web traffic payment are allocated to the school a year whereas a real need is measured as 4.5thousand roubles per month). In case of unlimited Internet connection in most educational institutions teachers and students have at their disposal free access to the Internet resources. In half cases students’ access to web sources is carried out under teacher’s supervision, but at extracurricular time their access is not restricted to subject resources. Mostly the access of teachers and student to web resources at educational institutions is organized in a Computer Sciences classroom, in single instances there is an access to the Internet in the library or specially made media classroom. Facilities of people’s information needs satisfaction directly depend on both technical requirements of the access to electronic web resources and the level of users’ information culture maturity. Research results Questionnaire survey has shown that teachers actively use educational web sources, the obvious champions of the most popular resources among teachers are social network websites, and some of them are “Open class”, “Internet government of teachers”, “Creative teachers network” and many others. More than 30 % of teachers point out the website of electronic encyclopedia Wikipedia and the website of Federal Institute of Pedagogical Instrumentation (www.fipi.ru), educationalmethodical resources, that have been mentioned, indicate some spread in preferable sources. The website of the united digital educational resources collection enjoys considerable popularity among teachers from the rural educational institutions, so do the website of publishing house “1st # 387 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova, Larisa M. Turanova… The Role of Electronic Library in the Informatization of Modern Education September” and the website of Krasnoyarsk Territory Ministry of Education. Apparently teachers are familiar to electronic libraries in a less degree, in the answers to questionnaire on electronic libraries different encyclopedia, particularly encyclopedia by Cyril and Methodius, Wikipedia and electronic dictionaries have been often mentioned. The greatest teachers’ interest is caused by methodical resources, actual scientific research materials carried out in psychologicalpedagogical and subject areas, materials for the supplementary education and, first of all, the programs of supplementary courses designed according the latest regulations. Students’ distribution in time spent on the Internet illustrates the Internet usage activity among students of educational institutions (Fig. 1). In the majority of country schools respondents are divided into approximately equal parts (30 % for each) in the following groups: those who spent on the Internet one or two hours, more than 4 hours, less than an hour or they just don’t have Internet access, however, at the expense of city schools participants, first of all Krasnoyarsk schools, the percentage of the respondents using the Internet actively has substantially increased so that among 140 participants involved into the research only 23 % spend on the Internet less than an hour a day or don’t have it, 53 % spend there approximately more than two hours a day. There is also a separate part of respondents which consists of vocational schools students the vast majority of whom don’t have Internet sources access or have no need in it. Doubtless leader of the resources used by students most of all has occurred the website “V kontakte” (“In the contact”). It was named by more than 40 % of respondents. Portals which have search engines particularly www.mail.ru, www.yandex. ru, www.google.ru were often mentioned (about 20 % of students name them), online communities websites are rather popular with students (“Moi mir”, “Odnoklassniki”) (“My world”, ”Classmates”). So do the website www.ege24. ru, the site of on-line encyclopedia “Wikipedia”, www.youtube.ru, report websites, game and music ones, sites with e-books, celebrities fan clubs, sport websites and sites on private interests. Reasons for the Internet attendance named by the test people were the following: mail check, on-line games playing, answers connected with the Internet use for hometask preparation were present in a less degree that can be explained by the fact that the research was done in the summer time when learning motivation is hardly present. Survey participants have found hard to recall any specific web sources for students and electronic libraries. A modern school has sufficient conditions for providing a possibility of web resources free access both for teachers and students. However, some researches depict that electronic libraries resources containing bibliographic data, electronic journals, e-books, regulatory and legislative information and study materials are not sufficiently used that influences a level of the youth information competence. On the assumption of modern researches conclusions information competence of a person is not directly dependent on the “consumed” resources and time spent on the Internet usage. A level of information competence maturity can be determined with the help of the following indicators: • skill of orientation in the world information environment; • to search necessary web resources; • to work with authentic information resources and extract necessary data; • to implement a revision of the findings and based on it to produce knowledge. Besides, it is considered that a person must have practical skills of the work with new information communication forms and data and information distribution. Realizing the education and personal and collective literacy development # 388 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova, Larisa M. Turanova… The Role of Electronic Library in the Informatization of Modern Education Fig. 1. Amount of time spent by the research participants on the Internet a day purposefully, the education system contributes a creation of the information sphere that is necessary for society and includes socio-economic, political, cultural, scientific and educational components. Nowadays the amount of available Internet web resources is rising daily and there are diverse ways of information distribution and web sources access supply. Being a powerful cultural information resource electronic library provides an educational potential, promotes broadening of the Internet user group boundaries and traditional information sources complement. It is expected that students’ information competence will be formed provided that the activity with electronic library authentic resources is specially organized. The development of a regional important electronic library with a scientific, educational and cultural content may become a task of federal university that is being a natural leader of scientific work in the region, in the long view electronic library development is to influence the speed and depth of the regional socio-economic development. Modern electronic library is socially focused on new forms of virtual interaction. Basic principles of activities in the network are its openness and availability for different user categories and, what is more, a possibility to use the up-to-date media technologies at information resources making. Today the electronic library space is build up not only and not so much for books but for the information work that assumes up-to-date equipment and software availability and comfortable physical environment. A new model of the Electronic library that is extensively discussed in Russian educational space calls for an adequate response to modern and forthcoming demands of information society. The survey about needs in resources of SFU Electronic Library (SFU EL) let us find out test people’s preferences which are presented at Fig. 2 and 3. Such resources as scientific, consultative, exhibition, informative enjoy the greatest popularity among teachers and administrators and as for students they are: cribs, advisory resources, ways of communication with teachers and supplementary courses. Wishes on the content of school section of the SFU EL include the following: additional information on subjects, tasks of academic # 389 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova, Larisa M. Turanova… The Role of Electronic Library in the Informatization of Modern Education Fig. 2. Preferences of teachers taking part in the research in terms of resource kinds for the future electronic library of SFU Fig. 3. Preferences of students taking part in the research in terms of resource kinds for the future electronic library of SFU competition format, methodical novelties, USE tasks analysis, and materials on preparation for the university entering, digital textbooks. Teachers have suggested that the following resources are to be included in the SFU EL: • resources just on the subject • library of methodical and normative materials, especially there is a great interest to such materials on supplementary education system, # 390 # • students research works and their results’ discussion, • academic competition tasks analysis, • collected papers on the results of scientific conferences, • guidance and recommendations on students’ scientific project design, • teachers’ works of authorship that passed reviewing and competitive selection (as part of regional and city competitions), Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova, Larisa M. Turanova… The Role of Electronic Library in the Informatization of Modern Education • lively and game resources for different educational levels and subjects. Students proposed to include the following resources in the content of SFU EL: • entertainments, • reports and papers, • on-line communication with teachers aimed at discussion of the literary writings. Focus-group representatives of the research have mentioned that the most actual necessity for the SFU Electronic library is to engage such resources as audio, video and flash and have stressed that it is highly required to enlarge communication facilities of educational space participants in Krasnoyarsk Territory. At the same time they greatly emphasize the problem of interaction with SFU as an organization disposing powerful technical and scientific bases, site of breeding gifted children and talented teachers and furthermore administration and scientificmethodical maintenance for school teachers’ qualifying evaluation. Despite great numbers of websites designed for the educational system some problems are still mentioned: • shortage of made structured, cataloged annotated information and methodical support of educational process (digital educational materials, specific programs); • lack of unified criteria and requirements for necessary documents and digital educational resources and for teachers’ qualified documentation. Conclusion Within the framework of focus groups of pedagogical community representatives timeliness of SFU EL and its content designing for students and teachers have been noted. In the context of high significance of the factor that teachers access to the Internet and electronic libraries resources turns out to be rather difficult the question of teachers interaction with SFU EL has gained special importance – only this way of communication provides maximum potential of the suggested communicative-educational service increase. Overwhelming majority of teachers would rather see interactive resources and scientific ones as educational content of SFU EL (Fig. 2). So we can say that scientific potential of SFU EL for human potential development and interaction is fully situated in the organizationcommunication sphere, as far as teachers mention their total interest in development of relationships with the higher school and only face a lack of such scientific-methodical network environment in SFU EL practice of our country and in the foreign one too. Besides interaction with SFU EL from the viewpoint of digital educational resources involvement the question of information exchange between two successive elements of educational system (school and university) appears to be of great importance. In this context the interaction of EL with students and parents (in terms of allocation of the information on potential clients) and with teachers for the purpose of mutual information exchange is believed to have prospects. SFU Electronic Library development is connected with forming of digital educational resources fund in the field of scientific and educational programs and support of all categories of users availability and maintenance of the interest in electronic library funds at the expense of the activity organized around the electronic library in the network of communities with diverse orientations (Smolyaninova and Ryzhkova, 2010). Electronic library is an integrated system that includes a support system and a fi rmware complex which maintains the stable work of the search engine and provide an opportunity of EL funds stocking, registration and long-term storage, multiaspect search and # 391 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Olga G. Smolyaninova, Larisa M. Turanova… The Role of Electronic Library in the Informatization of Modern Education an access to the centralized and distributed EL resources. EL development will result in the rise of educational and research activity effectiveness owing to the efficient usage of digital educational resources for solving of SFU foreground tasks. References Gould, Elizabeth and Ricardo Gomez (2010) “New Challenges for Libraries in the Information Age: a Comparative Study of ICT in Public Libraries in 25 Countries”, Information Development, 2010 26: 166 Griffin S. (1999) Digital Libraries Initiative. Phase II, Russian Digital Libraries Journal. Vol. 2, Issue 3. Retrieved from http://www.elbib//1998/199801/nsf/nsf.ru.html Smolyaninova O.G. and Ryzhkova T.N. (2010) “Social Aspects of an Academic Digital Library: New Initiative of Siberian Federal University” Journal of Siberian Federal University 2010. Vol. 3(5). P.805-809. Translated by Maria Tepereva Электронная библиотека в условиях информатизации образования О.Г. Смолянинова, Л.М. Туранова, О.А. Пожидаева Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82 В статье будет представлена роль электронной библиотеки в процессе информатизации современного образования. Описаны результаты проведенного исследования на территории Красноярского края относительно использования ресурсов сети Интернет школьниками и учителями. Также описаны условия доступа к глобальной сети в школах Красноярского края. Ключевые слова: электронная библиотека, информатизация образования, информационные ресурсы, социально-образовательный контент. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 393-399 ~~~ УДК 39.572 The Technique of Virtual Archaeological Reconstructions on the Example of a Medieval Fort in the Yenisei Taiga Artem A. Smolin* and Pavel V. Mandryka Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011 The article discusses the basic principles of virtual reconstruction in archaeological research. The introduction states that the virtual reconstruction is an important and popular resource for research, as well as a means of preserving and maintaining the cultural heritage. Materials and methods section considers an example of the virtual reconstruction of the fort Lesosibirsk-1 drawn under the grant of Institute of Humanities at Siberian Federal University. General method for the virtual reconstruction of archaeological research is explained through the reconstruction of a particular architectural object. Keywords: history, archeology, ethnography, virtual reconstruction, heritage and culture. Introduction The need for virtual reconstructions of already destroyed, as well as or partly destroyed monuments, various artifacts, historical events, etc. appeared once UNESCO adopted the Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1972. Following one of the definitions, a virtual reconstruction is the reconstruction of historical and archaeological objects or processes, with the use of various computer technologies and software. Virtual reconstruction has become popular for at least two important reasons: 1. Cultural heritage objects trapped in zones of modern economic development (construction of hydropower station, mining, etc.) are needed to * 1 be virtually reconstructed in order to preserve the “historic memory” of the culture of a destroyed region. 2. The ability to use virtual reconstructions for research purposes, as well as for various educational resources. One of the most striking examples of the virtual reconstruction is Google Earth allowing not only to see three-dimensional architectural monuments, but in some cases, chronologically trace the development of a cultural heritage site (Fig. 1). Materials and methods A serious research project carrying out a virtual reconstruction of an object or event is not possible without a multidisciplinary Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 393 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Artem A. Smolin and Pavel V. Mandryka. The Technique of Virtual Archaeological Reconstructions on the Example… Fig. 1. Reconstruction pharaons’ tombs at Karnak. University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) approach. Depending on the current project creators team includes academicians, architects, IT-specialists, artists, specialists in PR, actors, etc. The cooperation of the Department «Information technologies in creative and cultural industries» and laboratories of archeology, ethnography and history of Siberia at Siberian Federal University resulted in creation of the virtual reconstruction of the medieval fort Lesosobirskoe-1 located on the riversides of the Yenisei. Artifacts of archaeological excavations at the Krasnoyarsk Territory in 1998-2002 make up the base of source materials for the reconstruction. Hillfort Lesosibirsk-1 is located on the 16meter right-bank terrace of the Yenisei river near Lesosibirsk city. This cape-shaped terrace smoothly declines to 1-meter height to the north, on the west the terrace faces the Yenisei river, and on the east side it goes down into the ravine of dried stream. An dirt road goes over the terrace. 8.2 km to the north is village Gorodishche, 3.2 km to the south is village Rudikovka. A part of the monument was destroyed during the construction of the road, as well as through the collection of floating wood. The hillfort was discovered in 1998 and being studied with two excavations during 3 years. Total square of them was 390 m2. Inside part and defensive constructions consisted of three lines of half-ring safety fortifications were investigated. Found on the excavations iron melting furnaces, fragments of ceramic with comb ornament, iron loopy knives and other implements allow referring the hillfort to culture of autochthonic population who had lived at the beginning of the 2nd millennium AD (Mandryka, 2003). Hillfort Lesosibirsk-1 was constructed by the following algorithm: 1. Deforestation and stubbing of the area. Trunks of the trees were used for building, and branches and stumps were burned. The total area amounted to the area of the future village, # 394 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Artem A. Smolin and Pavel V. Mandryka. The Technique of Virtual Archaeological Reconstructions on the Example… a) b) c) Fig. 2. Reconstruction of an authentic area of the right bank of the Yenisei: a) the topographical plan of the monument; b) The Mask c) three-dimensional model of the landscape 1840 square meters, and additional space, calculated for the flight of the arrow from the outer turn of the fortifications. 2. Creating a semiring protective moat adjacent to the steep slope of the Yenisei terrace. Blade from the moat was put on the inner side of the platform, thereby heightening it. Isthmuses were made in moats for the future passes in the defensive wall. Simultaneously, residential area was being built. 3. Construction of the first (internal) system of fortifications. Each line of defense was equipped with a with log wall, which is proved by concentrations of charcoal and the remains of burnt wood in the moans found during excavations. Log wall were formed from the horizontal logs laid down in vertical columns. The distance of each bay ranged from 1.6 to 1.8 m. 4. Construction of the second (middle) system of fortifications. The average line of fortifications was held parallel to the inner, three meters away from it. 5. Construction of the third (external) system of fortifications. The outer boundary had the lowest height of the log walls. The Virtual reconstruction of the archaeological object required use of twodimensional (Adobe Photoshop) and threedimensional (3D Studio Max) graphics image editing programs. Two-dimensional graphics editors were used for creation and texture processing, as well as for subsequent processing of the images (post processing). To create the territory on which the fort located, as well as for modeling of various objects three-dimensional image editors were used. The first step of creation of the virtual reconstruction of the fort Lesosibirsk-1 was the simulation of the authentic territory where archaeological excavations were carried out. There are at least two ways to create threedimensional model of the necessary territory. The first method is a polygonal modeling or use of specialized software such as Autodesk MapGuide, etc. The second way is to use a special mask, which is a bitmap image in grayscale, and with which, there is a “bumping” of the territory on the plane. # 395 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Artem A. Smolin and Pavel V. Mandryka. The Technique of Virtual Archaeological Reconstructions on the Example… Fig. 3. Virtual reconstruction of the fort, a shot from an educational video Since the results of this reconstruction will be used in educational activities, we had to create the territory of the right bank of the Yenisei river using the second method, which gives acceptable results for the final image. Using the topographic plan of the monument fort Lesosibirsk-1 (Fig. 2, a) in a mask was created in Adobe Photoshop editor (Fig. 2, b), use of this mask in three-dimensional graphics editor allowed to “bump” the require territory (Fig. 2, c). After that appropriate textures and landscape elements were added: the texture of land, water surface, the model trees and bushes. The final result of the virtual reconstruction is the sequence of images demonstrating the algorithm of construction of fortifications of Lesosibirsk-1. In addition to the sequence of images a three-minute educational video in which guest actor tells about the construction process was created by (Fig. 3). Besides, some of the artifacts found during excavations were modeled. The originals inhabitants living in this area were the keepers of traditions of comb pottery making. Thanks to use of the technology of three-dimensional «skulping» the original shape of the object with the appropriate ornamentation was recreated (Fig. 4). One of the objects found was the remains of a loopy knife. A loopy knife and a leather sheath was reconstruction virtually (Fig. 5). The algorithm for constructing dwellings (a tent (of skins or bark)) consisting of the following stages was reconstructed (Fig. 6): 1. Fixing carrying poles; 2. Creating main frame; 3. The construction of the hearth; 4. Imposition of birch bark cover; 5. Fixing of the coating. Using the experience gained we put forward the main stages in the virtual reconstruction of an archaeological research: 1. Analysis of materials from excavation: artifacts, topographic maps, etc. followed by the simulation. # 396 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Fig. 4. Reconstruction of pottery with a “comb” ornament Fig. 6. Reconstruction of the building plague Fig. 5. Reconstruction of loopy knife Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Artem A. Smolin and Pavel V. Mandryka. The Technique of Virtual Archaeological Reconstructions on the Example… 2. Creating a model of the landscape in which the excavations were carried out using various technologies: 2.1. Polygonal modeling in various graphic editors, based on available data; 2.2. Using specialized equipment to obtain a more accurate model: ground-based laser scanning, digital photogrammetric survey, etc. 3. Creating a two- or three-dimensional virtual reconstruction of scientific research and educational aspects. Conclusions For the results of scientific research accuracy and reliability are of high importance, while educational resources require high image quality aimed at attracting as many Internet users as possible. In spite of an offered method, any virtual reconstruction of historical and archaeological research is a particular case requiring from designers new approaches, methods and different outcomes depending on the goal. References P.M. Shulgin. Historical and cultural heritage as a special resource in the region and the factor of its social and economic development / P.M. Shulgin // World Russia. – June 7, 2004. P.V. Mandryka. Report on the results of archaeological studies around the city Lesosibirsk Krasnoyarsk Territory in 1998 / P.V. Mandryka / archive LA FAS, FA-1, RM-1, Inventory – 1, № 21. – 106 liters. (36 pages + 70 tab.) P.V. Mandryka The medieval fort in the Yenisei taiga / P.V. Mandryka Vestnik NGU.Series: History, Philology. – T. 2. – Vol. 3: Archaeology and Ethnography. – Novosibirsk, 2003. – P. 89-91. E.A. Svalova. On the question of cultural affiliation settlement Lesosibirsk-1 / E.A.Svalova // The heritage of ancient and traditional cultures of North and Central Asia. – Volume 2. – Novosibirsk, 2000. – P. 44-46. A.A. Smolin. Application of 3D-imaging studies in the humanities / M.V. Rumyantsev, and A.V. Usachev. // Newsletter of the Association of History and the computer. № 35. Proceedings of XI Conference of AIC. December 2008 – Moscow, Barnaul: Azbuka, 2008. – P. 72-74. Методика виртуальных реконструкций в археологии на примере средневекового городища в Енисейской тайге А.А. Смолин, П.В.Мандрыка Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В данной статье рассмотрены основные принципы виртуальной реконструкции в археологических исследованиях. Во введении приводятся доводы в пользу того, что виртуальная реконструкция является важным и востребованным ресурсом в научных исследованиях, а так же как средство по сохранению и актуализации культурного наследия.В разделе материалы и методы рассматривается пример виртуальной реконструкции городища Лесосибирское-1 # 398 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Artem A. Smolin and Pavel V. Mandryka. The Technique of Virtual Archaeological Reconstructions on the Example… в рамках грантовой деятельности Гуманитарного института Сибирского федерального университета. На примере реконструкции конкретного архитектурного объекта приводится общая методика виртуальных реконструкций в археологических исследованиях. Ключевые слова: история, археология, этнография, виртуальная реконструкция, наследие, культура. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 400-409 ~~~ УДК 378.147:7.071.3(075.8) An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad Natalia U. Fadeeva* Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyask, 660041 Russia 1 Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011 The issues considered in this article are related to assessment in translators and interpreters training. Traditional tests in translators and interpreters education are found to be indirect, incomplete, imprecise and subjective. The shift to constructivism in education introduced the idea of «assessment for learning». A descriptive analysis of the developments in the assessments used at the Graduate School of Translation and Interpretation of the Monterey Institute of International Studies, California, reveals a tendency towards a more learner-centered education environment. The Y- track curriculum model, well-balanced formative, summative and ipsative assessments at different study periods, examination procedures, and introduction of alternative forms of assessment are the evidence of an ongoing process. The inclusion of alternative forms of assessment (such as a portfolio) can add depth and range to assessment regimes and foster the learner’s participation in the education process, ensuring the development of self-assessment skills that contribute towards a student’s life-long learning. Keywords: assessment, quality assurance, curriculum development, interpreter and translator training, alternative forms of assessment, testing, examinations, portfolio. Point According to C. Wyatt-Smith and J. Cumming the introduction of a fundamentally new model of assessment is inevitable. «The traditional ‘rites of passage’ of school-leaving and university entrance examinations, degree finals and professional qualifications are likely to be gradually replaced by the ability to accumulate credit at different times and levels. Individuals will be able to study for credit in different settings such as school, college, university or work, at different times–pre-work, during work and post-work, during retirement and through different means such as e-tests and work-based * 1 assessment as well as through more traditional performance assessments. The credits obtained will accumulate into a personal portfolio–a record of achievement that provides a unique and self-managed narrative on each individual’s lifelong learning» (Wyatt-Smith et al., 2009:ix). The methods of translation and interpretation instruction, as a relatively young, independent academic discipline, have been actively developed in recent years (Alekseeva, 2003; Ieronova, 2006; Prozorova, 2006; Budarina, 2007; Anfimova, 2008; Ieronova, 2008; Khomutova, 2008). Although it has received growing attention as a research area, the quality Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 400 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia U. Fadeeva. An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad assurance in interpreter and translator training is understudied in comparison to other branches of translation and interpretation research. One of the most understudied issues is the assessment of translation and interpretation training, despite the fact that the role and purpose of assessment and testing in the broader educational context is an area of increasing interest (Muratova, 2006). «Assessment plays a key role in the educational system» according to Martinez Melis and Hurtado Albir. Melis and Albir consider it is necessary to: 1. Research the current situation of assessment in translation teaching 2. Catalogue the existing bibliography 3. Develop a database of current assessment practices in curricula translator training centers (e.g. tests, assessment criteria, programs, etc.) 4. Carry out surveys amongst teachers and students in order to know their views on assessment (in J. Del Rio, 2005). Example A valuable contribution to the field was made by D. Sawyer (2004), who investigated two fundamental aspects of interpreter education: curriculum and assessment in the Graduate School of Translation and Interpretation (GSTI) of the Monterey Institute of International Studies, California. Current trends show two broad research directions based on the purpose of assessment: «assessment of learning» (not contributing to the students’ learning) and «assessment for learning» (having ‘learning’ as a goal). The latter came into use in the late 1980s and early 1990s and can be described as «the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their teachers to identify where the learners are in their learning, where they need to go and how best to get there» (Gardner 2006, p. 3). This article presents a descriptive analysis of assessment practices in translators and interpreters training, particularly with regard to the aspect of «assessment for learning». «Changes in the nature of work, globalization, the information revolution and the increasingly social nature of contemporary challenges also suggest different priorities for education systems. These will in turn require different priorities for assessment practices. By contrast with the pursuit of maximum accuracy in educational measurement, which largely defined the 20thcentury approach to examinations, testing and assessment, the agenda for assessment in the 21st century shows signs of a growing preoccupation with ‘fitness for purpose’ and impact on learning». (Wyatt-Smith et al., 2009, vii). The overarching purpose of professional training is «to produce interpreters who are able to work immediately and reliably on the market» (Sawyer, 2004, p. 56). Due to the lack of government control over higher education institutions in the USA, the educators apply the recognized standards of professional associations as the basis for their own standards of education and development. «Evaluation will remain a problematic issue for as long as internal criteria (‘accomplishment of learning aims’) fail to connect with diversified professional practice. In many countries professional certification is quite independent from educational degrees, a situation that might suggest the degrees are not trusted by employer groups» (Pym, 2009). This link between professional and educational spheres ensures a flexible approach to the development of the GSTI professional program, thus adequately reflecting the current situation on the market. The curriculum documents of the GSTI consist of a school-wide promotional brochure and a website (http://www.miis.edu/). Much information about studying is left unspecified and there is no clear statement about the goals of the educational program in terms of observable performance in tasks, the breadth and depth # 401 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia U. Fadeeva. An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad of subject matter knowledge or the nature of interpretation and translation as skills. The sequences of courses in specific degree paths is clearly described in the curriculum documents and in the map of the typical route that a Translation and Interpretation student might take at the Institute. However, there is no indication of workload in terms of credits, hours, or required commitment. For example, The Master of Arts in Translation and Interpretation (MATI) degree is described at the site as a dual specialization in both translation and interpretation, including a summary of the advantages of studying complementary skill such as these and a statement on the popularity of the degree. The curriculum documents do not meet the transparency criterion – «requirements to an information system, such as reflecting priorities, accessibility and effectiveness, and correlation between aims and major directions» (Vcherashnij, 2009) – for all stakeholders. The complete picture emerges only after meticulous examination of the individual course descriptions. This is clearly not ideal, as it could hinder the learner’s participation in the interactive process of the development of professional competencies. «Essential features of social constructivist educational experiences will include authentic practice in actual professional activities, a collaborative learning environment including not only interaction among students but also the extensive involvement of the students in every aspect of the teaching/learning process, including syllabus and curriculum design, task selection, subtask identification and assessment of their own performance and learning, as well as program effectiveness» (Kiraly, 2000). This shift in the traditional focus of authority, responsibility and control away from the teacher towards the learner causes a new type of student – perhaps more motivated, more responsible for decisions, and therefore ultimately more responsible for the quality of their progress. The consequences of such a lack of information are found in the analysis of assessment data. Research on student perceptions of the Qualifying Exams (which students must pass at the end of the first year to enter the GSTI’s second-year curriculum) indicated three main factors contributing to student anxiety: uncertainties about grading criteria; a lack of stress management skills; uneasiness about testing conditions (Sawyer, 2004, p. 177). The jury survey also showed evident fluctuation in professional judgment throughout assessment. There was a lack of conformity with regard to jury conduct, the administration of exam procedures and the presence of external examiners. Criteria for assessment and scoring were also not highly explicit or highly consistent among jury members or language programs, thus undermining their validity and reliability (Sawyer, 2004, pp. 184-189). Though the summative assessment procedures were analyzed in a definite educational context, its conceptual insight is obvious. The public access to details of curriculum and assessment is necessary as a prerequisite for the level of educational quality provided the institution. The course of study is subject to modifications that meet the learner’s individual needs. Firstly, this is achieved by Y- track curriculum model. Most professional knowledge is taught and applied in the second year courses, while fi rst year courses are universal – irrespective of the chosen degree. This provides the students with the opportunity to reconsider their chosen career, and also to develop necessary skills and professional qualities. The GSTI offers three degrees in the applied language arts, all of which last two years: a Master of Arts in Translation and Interpretation (MATI); a Master of Arts in Translation (MAT); a Master of Arts in Conference Interpretation (MACI). In the fi rst # 402 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia U. Fadeeva. An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad semester, professional knowledge is handled exclusively in language-specific courses. An introduction to the theory of translation is given in lectures in the second semester. Therefore, the amount of time spent on written as opposed to oral translation skills during the fi rst year of study is roughly equivalent. In addition, a seven weeks elective is offered across the all of the language courses during the fi rst semester of study. This elective includes memory and active listening exercises in addition to a general introduction to note-taking skill. At the end of the fi rst year, students are required to take Qualifying Examinations in their language combination and disciplines in order to prove their readiness to move onto the second year of study in their selected degree track. Analysis of examination results shows that MACI students do not always perform better in the GSTI interpretation exams than students who study both translation and interpretation. This can be explained by two reasons. Firstly, the MATI provides job skills that are highly marketable in the language industry and some students may select this degree track even though they show great promise for conference interpretation. Secondly, the simultaneous development of translation and interpretation skills reciprocally enhances the development professional competencies, proven by the final assessment outcomes. There are also two more ways to modify the curriculum according to students needs. Advanced-entry students must meet all general admission requirements, pass the Qualifying Examinations in their degree, and hold a degree from a recognized school of translation and interpretation or provide evidence of significant professional experience (in which case students generally study for one year). Some students may also extend their program over a three-year period by spending a year abroad after completion of their second semester. The role of assessment types and purposes at different stages of the GSTI curriculum makes the relationship between curriculum, assessment, and learning outcomes explicit. According to the purpose of assessment, three areas are distinguished: 1. Formative assessment aims at giving feedback on the teaching/learning process and takes place during the course of teaching. 2. Summative assessment provides qualitative information on students’ achievements and instruction effectiveness. 3. Ipsative assessment is an ongoing reflection upon the learning process of the students, including the evaluation of current performance against previous performance, as well as against the performance of others. Ideally, ipsative assessment should continue throughout the professional career of the student. A determining factor in the training context is the degree to which ipsative assessment is purposefully integrated into the curriculum, thus allowing the student to fully benefit from self-assessment opportunities to enhance his/her learning. (Sawyer, 2004, p. 107). The examinations and other forms of assessment (the terms ‘assessment’ and ‘test’/‘testing’ are used interchangeably by D. Sawyer) are closely related to curriculum objectives. Student performance must be assessed appropriately, meaningfully and usefully at all stages of the curriculum. In most programs (apart from ongoing formative testing in individual courses) three areas of testing are apparent: (1) entry-level aptitude or, more appropriately, diagnostic testing for selection purposes; (2) intermediate, formative testing for entry into or confirmation of the selected degree track; (3) final, summative testing for the purpose of degree or certificate conferral (Sawyer, 2004, p. 109). Entry-level assessment in the GSTI falls into two categories: off-campus testing, often in # 403 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia U. Fadeeva. An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad the form of a written translation, essay or préciswriting task as part of an application package completed at home by the candidate; and oncampus testing, a form of in situ testing through a series of oral interviews and written translation tasks. The early diagnostic test during the fi rst (and sometimes second) semester of study consists of written and oral portions, which include essay-writing, translation, and précis writing exercises as well as pronunciation, extemporaneous speech, abstract thinking, and self-assessment tasks. Intermediate testing has the purpose of assessing whether the candidate has the potential to continue and successfully complete the degree program. It is in this regard that intermediate testing is both formative and summative – formative in that feedback is given on a student’s work, thus guiding decision-making for continuation in the degree program, and summative in that learners demonstrate baseline competence on specific occasions. Final assessment is aimed at determining whether the candidate is ready to enter the profession. Summative assessment at the end of a course or program provides essential information on the effectiveness of the instruction. «When the majority of the students do poorly on an assessment, it may be the fault of the students but the difficulty is more likely to be found in the instruction. The teacher may be striving for learning outcomes that are unattainable by the students, may be using inappropriate materials, or may be using ineffective methods for bringing about the desired changes» (Gronlund, 1998, p. 11). The final testing as a high-stake exam is of crucial importance for the graduates’ life careers, as well as the reputation of the educational institution. Highly reliable and valid exam procedures and unambiguous assessment and scoring criteria should be a matter of great concern for the educators. Traditional testing in translators and interpreters education cannot be considered an objective endeavor, considering that they have the following negative aspects (Bachman, 1990): 1. Tests are indirect as they measure the test taker’s performance on a particular occasion rather than his underlying competence. 2. Tests are incomplete. The choice of topic and terminology is limited in scope, as the test can constitute only one sample and «the performance we observe and measure . . . is a sample of an individual’s total performance.» (Bachman, 1990, p. 33). 3. Ratings are imprecise. «In measuring language abilities, where we are not dealing with direct physical comparison, the units of measurement scales must be defined, and precision, or reliability, becomes, in part, a function of how we define these units» (Bachman, 1990, p. 35). 4. Tests are subjective. Developers make subjective decisions when designing tests and selecting materials; test takers make subjective judgments in taking tests, and scorers make subjective decisions in scoring them (Bachman, 1990, p. 37). 5. Tests are relative. There are «‘norms’ of performance» for example a «kind of language use» defined by variety, dialect, and register, as well as a «standard for score interpretation . . . in terms of levels of language abilities» (Bachman, 1990, pp. 38-40). It remains a matter of discussion, however, whether norms in interpreter testing have been precisely defined. The Professional Examinations in the GSTI are a series of comprehensive, summative assessment instruments administered after the fourth semester of study. There are two exam sessions per year: May and August. Students must pass all sections of the Professional Exams (example, Table 1) to be eligible for graduation (Sawyer, 2004, p. 159). As can be seen from the # 404 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia U. Fadeeva. An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad Table 1. GSTI’s Professional Examinations for MATI Translation B into A 2 exams, one general and one technical text; each 600 words in two hours (600 words in three hours for oriental languages) Consecutive interpretation A into B 2 exams, one general and one technical text; each 500 words in two hours (500 words in three hours for oriental languages) table the examination process is labor, time and effort-consuming for the students as well as the juries (one party should produce and another assess 14 texts). Juries consist of a minimum of three instructors in the relevant language combination, as well as external jury members. The examinations are scored on a pass-fail basis using an ordinal scale with four levels: 90–100 high pass (Should be awarded only occasionally to exceptionally qualified candidates), 75–89 pass (Should be considered the norm for passing candidates), 70–74 borderline fail (Should be awarded to candidates who stand a good chance of passing a retake in August), 0–70 fail (The student should be urged either to take an additional year to work on language deficiencies or to consider another career.). The scale can be found in the Faculty Handbook and Guidelines for Exam Jurors. The passing grade (75) represents comparatively high requirements. Having done an objective and thorough analysis of existing GSTI assessment procedures, D. Sawyer concluded that they were unsuccessful and unreliable, suggesting nine steps for improving their examination procedures: 1. Conduct a ‘needs’ analysis by relating examinations to curriculum objectives B into A 1 general and 1 technical speech, 5 minutes each A into B 1 general and 1 technical speech, 5 minutes each Simultaneous interpretation B into A 1 general speech without and 1 technical speech with text, 10 minutes each and other forms of assessment, e.g., entrylevel, intermediate, and fi nal testing, as well as summative, formative, and ipsative assessment. 2. Document exam procedures currently in place, including a description of the testing procedures, the collection and filing of all test materials, (i.e. examination texts – videotapes of source speeches and student performances, recordings of jury deliberations etc.), and the resulting scores. 3 Review test methods (e.g. the aspects of environment, test rubric, input, and response) specific to interpretation and the needs of the training program. Write test specifications. 4. Develop a representative pool of exam texts from real-world sources for faculty and student reference and conduct an analysis of text features grounded in linguistics. This process should result in descriptions of prototypical exam texts that are empirically validated. 5. Collect representative performances for faculty and student reference, as well as rater training, e.g., videotapes of exam sessions and documentation of the corresponding assessment. 6. Define constructs for assessment according to domain, criteria, and standards, as well as level of expertise. 7. Define assessment criteria for each of these constructs. Criteria should be elaborated in terms of observable performance and include a clear # 405 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia U. Fadeeva. An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad description of the performance characteristics on each level of assessment (score). 8. Train raters (jury members) in exam design, jury procedures, and the systematic application of assessment criteria. 9. Explore alternative methods of assessment, e.g., portfolio, and benefits of their use in the program of instruction. (Sawyer, 2004, p. 128). The inclusion of alternative forms of assessment can add depth and range to systems of assessment, as well as fostering the active learner’s participation in the education process. An alternative assessment «is any method that differs from conventional paper-and-pencil tests, most particularly objective tests», which includes «authentic assessment, performancebased assessment, portfolios, exhibitions, demonstrations, journals, and other forms of assessment that required the active construction of meaning rather than the passive regurgitation of isolated facts» (McMillan, 1997, p. 199). According to McMillan’s defi nition, traditional testing in translation and interpretation can be considered an alternative assessment form (though not a perfect one), as a translation or interpretation student’s main activity is to construct new meanings. Another form – the 20,000 word translation thesis required of MATI students until 1996 – seems to overcome some of the limitations of traditional testing (group translations, requiring project management skills and including terminological and editing coordination, are also possible, although this requirement was dropped due to course overload). This form of assessment shows considerable advantages compared to traditional testing, as a result of its learner-oriented nature: the text was of the student’s choice (though of course subject to approval by the thesis adviser) as was the time, place and intensity of the translation work. Moreover, the student was provided with an opportunity to demonstrate a broad set of professional skills. Teamwork is an essential aspect of both translating and interpreting (interpersonal, intercultural, and networking skills are an integral part of a translator or interpreter’s training) and this form of assessment allowed the student to more easily demonstrate competence in such an area. One more example of an alternative form is a model that represents an integration of academic study and project work connected with the translation and interpretation of reallife orders (Mikhailova, 2009). Developed by The Faculty of Translators and Interpreters of the International Higher School of Practical Psychology in Latvia it was incorporated into the curriculum. The results of the long-term studies have demonstrated the necessity of such real-life integration in the instruction both in class and in students’ independent work (Lebedeva, 2008), providing the development of «respective skills, i.e. languages and cultures knowledge, text analysis, use of various tools, and active translation skills, which also include working in teams, working at big projects, keeping to certain deadlines» (Ch. Nord, 2009). The portfolio idea has a long history and is developed now through the sphere of translation and interpretation training. D. Sawyer shows how portfolio assessment can complement the traditional one-chance interpreter testing. The collection and organization of a student’s work is a similar process to that of gathering ‘evidence’ on performance quality. Students play an active role in the process of selecting their work, therefore aiding self-reflection and analysis. Such a system gathers a much greater range and depth of sample performances and also facilitates both process and product-oriented assessment, thus combining all three forms of testing – ipsative, formative and summative. «A translation portfolio may be defi ned as a # 406 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia U. Fadeeva. An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad systematic collection of students’ translations or reports of tasks to represent a variety of students’ achievements in the translation course over a specified period of time. It may include the students’ actual products, a statement of why each translation is included and the criteria used in evaluating them. It is not a random, but systematic, collection of students’ products in that the student’s products are related to major instructional goals.» (Li, 2006). According to D. Sawyer, the integration of alternative forms of assessment into the curriculum requires the substantial revision of existing courses, as well as several years for their implementation and a reduction in the number of examinations. Without such a reduction, it is highly unlikely that such labor and time-intensive forms of assessment can be successfully implemented, as in general higher education faculties already work at peak capacity. Nevertheless, F. Federici suggests a combination of assessments, supported by a bespoke form of formative feedback as a timeeffective solution for tutors. «The feedback sheet familiarizes students with assessment criteria and professional practice, thus fulfilling the expectations for an alignment of teaching and learning outcomes in a professional perspective…» (Federici, 2007). R. S. Glukhikh and O. G. Smolyaninova (2009) developed an electronic portfolio method that «is motivated to personal achievements presentation, collecting different artifacts in electronic form, which could be catalogued and sorted for analysis» and suggest three ways of portfolio assessment: by quantitative measure, by qualitative measure, by expert opinion (Glukhikh et al., 2009). Resume Using a portfolio will ensure a practice of self-reflection and self-assessment among students, eventually contributing to the life-long development of the student’s skills. Freihoff advocates an approach to instruction in which students learn to analyze their own performance and compare their individual progress to the specific goals of the program. He regards selfdiagnosis and self-correction in a foreign language as particularly important, as students rarely have constant access to instructors and native speakers and must therefore learn to judge the quality of their performance independently (Freihoff, 1993, p. 210). The need for improvement in the assessment of interpreter and translator programs emerges from the existing and future challenges that currently face the Russian education system. It is therefore only by observing, analyzing and learning from the experience of well-established programs around the world that the development of a successful national quality assurance system in such a sphere can be nurtured and achieved. References I. S. Alekseeva, Professional Training of Translators-Interpreters, (St. Petersburg, 2003), in Russian. L. A. Anfimova, «Challenge and Potential of the Competence Approach Development in Translators and Interpreters Training», Bulletin of South Federal University. Pedagogy studies, 2 (2008), 128-136, in Russian. L. Bachman, Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990). A. O. Budarina, «Development of Individual Professional Experience in Interpreter Training», Bulletin of Russian State University named after I. Kant, 2 (2007), 21-28, in Russian. # 407 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia U. Fadeeva. An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad L. Darling-Hammond, J. Snyder, «Curriculum studies and the traditions of inquiry: The scientific tradition», Handbook of Research on Curriculum: A Project of the American Educational Research Association, ed. by P. W. Jackson, (New York: Macmillan, 1992), 41–78. J. Del Rio, Training for Interpreters and Translators in Australia: Summary of Research Report (Monash University November 2005) http://arts.monash.edu.au/translation-interpreting/pgrad/ research-reports-del-rio.pdf. R. Freihoff, Überlegungen zur Curriculumplanung und -entwicklung im Bereich der Translation. (TextconText, 8, 1993), 197–224. F. M. Federici, «An Experiment into Combined Approaches to Translation Assessment and Feedback» in The Interpreter and Translator Trainer (Newcastle University Conference On Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessment (NUCITTA), Abstracts, September 2007), http://www.ncl. ac.uk/sml/2007conference/documents/NUCITTAConferenceAbstracts.pdf. J. Gardner, Assessment and Learning, ed. by J. Gardner (SACE Publications 2006). R. S. Glukhikh, O. G. Smolyaninova, University Teacher Professional Development and Assessment on the Basis of E-portfolio Method (Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences, 4 2009), http://elib.sfu-kras.ru/bitstream/2311/1129/1/16_Smolyanikova.pdf. N. Gronlund, Assessment of Student Achievement (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1998). I. U. Ieronova, «The Conceptual Ideas in Training of Translators-Interpreters for Intercultural Mediation», Bulletin of Russian State University named after I. Kant, 4 (2008), 65-69, in Russian. I. U. Ieronova, «Professional Training of the Students (Future Interpreters) in Higher Educational Institutions», Bulletin of Russian State University named after I. Kant, 5 (2006), 62-66, in Russian. T. N. Khomutova, «Two Level System of Education and Translation Training», Bulletin of SouthUral State University. Linguistics series, 1 (2008), 66-70, in Russian. D. Kiraly, A Social Constructivist Approach to Translator Education: Empowerment from Theory to Practice (Manchester: St. Jerome. 2000). M. V. Lebedeva, «Interlanguage and Intercultural Communication as Indispensable Parts of Translators Training» Bulletin of Vyatka State Humanitarian University, 3 (2008), 110-112, in Russian. H. Li, Cultivating Translator Competence: Teaching & Testing Translation Journal 2006 http:// accurapid.com/journal/37testing.htm. McMillan, H. James, Classroom Assessment: Principles and Practice for Effective Instruction (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1997). S. Mikhailova, «Project Work and Its Integration into the Curricula of Teaching Professional Translators and Interpreters», Bulletin published in Nizhni Novgorod Linguistic University named after N.A. Dobrolubov, 4 (2009), 144-150, in Russian. I. A. Muratova, «The Contents and the Format of the Certification Examination of Court Interpreters», Bulletin of Moscow State University, 19 Linguistics and Cross-cultural Communication Series, 3 (2006), 157-171, in Russian. Ch. Nord, «Jack of All Trades, Master of None?», Bulletin of Nizhni Novgorod Linguistic University named after N.A. Dobrolubov, 4 (2009), 114-121. M. I. Prozorova, « The Didactic Means for Developing Students’ Professional Skills», Bulletin of Russian State University named after I. Kant, 2 (2006), 36-41, in Russian. # 408 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalia U. Fadeeva. An Analysis of Interpreter and Translator Training and Assessments Abroad A. Pym, Translator training (Pre-print text written for the Oxford Companion to Translation Studies 2009) www.tinet.cat/~apym/on-line/training/2009_translator_training.pdf. D. Sawyer, Fundamental Aspects of Interpreter Education: Curriculum and Assessment (Benjamin’s Translation Library, V. 47, 2004). P. M. Vcherashnij, Complex Evaluation of Efficiency and Quality of Educational Services: Current Approaches (Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences, 4 2009), http://elib. sfu-kras.ru/bitstream/2311/1441/1. C. Wyatt-Smith, J. J. Cumming, Educational Assessment in the 21st Century Connecting Theory and Practice, ed. by C. Wyatt-Smith J. Cumming, (Springer 2009). Из зарубежного опыта оценивания уровня подготовки переводчиков Н.Ю. Фадеева Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82 Статья посвящена подготовке переводчиков и месту системы оценивания в программах обучения переводчиков. Конструктивизм – популярная за рубежом философия в образовании – привнес новый взгляд на оценивание как инструмент повышения качества процесса обучения. На примере учебного плана и процедур оценивания, разработанных в Школе устного и письменного перевода (г. Монтерей, Калифорния), раскрывается потенциал альтернативных форм оценивания для формирования компетенций лингвиста-переводчика. Ключевые слова: оценивание, оценка качества, программа обучения, подготовка переводчиков, альтернативные формы оценивания, тестирование, экзамен, портфолио. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 410-425 ~~~ УДК 330.15, 330.101.8 Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany and Poland Theocharis N. Grigoriadis* Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy (ELIAMEP) 49 Vas. Sofias, Athens, 10676 Greece 1 Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011 This article analyzes the politicаl economy of energy restructuring in East Germany and Poland from the perspective of social distribution. Its purpose is two-fold: on the one hand, it provides analytical dichotomies between regulatory vs. procedural and horizontal vs. hierarchical restructuring to explain the different paths in the liberal transformation of the energy industry in East Germany and Poland. The substitution of a central and legitimate government by Treuhand in the East German case as well as the central coordinating role of the government in the Polish case constitute the key indicators for these conceptual distinctions. On the other hand, post-socialist energy firms are treated as social distribution mechanisms, whose restructuring is defined by a public ownership minimum. Contrary to Treuhand, which functioned as an institutional sponsor for an ethnically-driven transfer of the East German energy sector to a set of subsidiaries of West German corporations, the Polish Ministry of Privatization preferred to adopt the equity constraint rather than regulate its energy policy preferences through the private sector. Private organizations or semi-legitimate public agencies captured by corporate interests have no incentive to maintain the public ownership minimum as the central government can. The existence of distributive energy firms implies distributive energy bureaucracies; the preservation of a public ownership minimum rather than inter-elite privatization contracts is a prerequisite for energy-driven distribution in post-socialism. Keywords: energy, restructuring, privatization, social distribution, East Germany, Poland, Treuhand, public ownership minimum. Introduction The Oder-Neiße borderline between the German Democratic Republic and Poland did not only signal Germany’s defeat in the Second War and the end of Prussia as a formative component of German political identity and economic development;1 it also hallmarked highly differentiated patterns of enterprise restructuring in the transition period following the dissolution * 1 of the USSR and led both communist economies to divergent sets of industrial arrangements. The purpose of this article is to unfold the economic and institutional mechanisms that created divergent corporate structures in the energy sectors of East Germany and Poland; in its next stage, the article treats these structures as fixed and analyzes their role as social distribution mechanisms. Why the energy sector? I contend that the increased role Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 410 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany… of public interest in the continuity and diversity of energy production combined with the crossnationally observed inclination of the socialist and post-socialist state to exercise direct or indirect control over their natural resources justifies this choice. Furthermore, the significant share of energy companies in the industrial GDP of GDR and Poland as well as the social cleavages rising in the aftermath of restructuring implementation in both countries form the basis for a second question;2 what were the distributive effects of energy restructuring and how can they be translated into the ex novo formation of socio-economic strata in East German and Polish societies? There is a clear distinction between restructuring and privatization. Restructuring can occur before or after privatization, but unlike privatization it does not touch ownership relations inside an enterprise;3 the latter can be either a State-Owned Enterprise (SOE) or a private corporation. Hence, corporate restructuring focuses on debt reduction, attraction of state aid and foreign direct investment, boost of labor productivity, employment adjustment, reform of corporate governance, increase of exports and profitability, and new marketing strategies. Nevertheless, the time differential between restructuring and privatization can be so small that the boundaries between these two phases in market transition are uncertain.4 The East German and Polish energy sectors pose interesting cases in that direction, given their common state origins and their distinct structural features. The Polish energy sector has had a higher degree of diversity in resources: oil, gas, electricity and coal (lignite) have constituted the main market fields, open to structural reform.5 On the contrary, the East German energy sector is determined by coal (lignite) and electricity production, while natural gas has only had a marginal role in domestic growth, as the GDR never enjoyed natural gas reserves.6 This plurality in Polish energy resources does not change the fact that Poland has been one of the most coal-dependent countries in the world (US Department of Energy Overview). Coal dependence has been the main common energy industry feature across the Oder-Neiße borderline. However, what I observe in East Germany and Poland is the distinction between procedural and regulatory energy restructuring. What I define as procedural restructuring is the organizational reform of SOEs with the imminent purpose of privatization. There is practically no difference between the time point of privatization and the time point of restructuring. Moreover, the direct involvement of Treuhand as the institutional intermediary between the East German government and West German energy corporations indicates a multiplicity of actors that participated in the restructuring and privatization process;7 thus, I can also argue for a critical distinction between horizontal and vertical (hierarchical) energy restructuring; horizontal energy restructuring is linked to the implementation of energy reform plans by institutional coalitions that do not belong to the same administrative or hierarchical line. I define Polish energy restructuring as regulatory and vertical (hierarchical).8 The adjective regulatory refers to restructuring implementation with the use of administrative acts. Its purpose is not imminent privatization, but the preservation of state control and the maintenance of lower subsidized energy prices for both social and electoral reasons. Hierarchical restructuring is the top-down implementation of organizational reform at the enterprise level. The government alone is the common denominator of all restructuring efforts; foreign investors and international organizations are complementary rather than central in the reform process. In # 411 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany… addition to these theoretical formulations, I argue that the difference between shock therapy and gradualism, which is observed in the East German and Polish cases, is heavily influenced by the factor of state sovereignty. East Germany’s energy restructuring was designed as a consequence of the abolition of the country’s sovereignty;9 in Poland energy restructuring was connected to a transition to a new form of government within set geographical boundaries, but with diversified economic foundations. In the aftermath of these parallel reform processes, the distributive role of companies emerged in both countries is evaluated in terms of employment, income, education, pensions, and labor representation. More specifically, I intend to analyze the impact of energy restructuring in East Germany and Poland in terms of equality rather than liberty. The underlying normative principle of economic liberalization in Eastern Europe is reversed; if the purpose of the state is to advance individual liberties constrained by social deliberations, then this article provides an explanation that reverses the roles of liberty and equality. Now equality is the objective principle and liberty the constraint. Social distribution is used as a proxy for equality to the same extent that privatization is used as a proxy for liberty. The article is organized as follows. In Section 1, I propose an ideal type of industrial restructuring and then I compare the politics of energy restructuring in East Germany and Poland based on my aforementioned distinctions. In Section 2, I treat energy firms as social distribution mechanisms through the lens of the public ownership. Section 3 proposes a twodimensional map on the interaction between energy restructuring and social distribution. Moreover, it stresses the derived observation that the existence of distributive energy firms in postsocialism implies the existence of distributive energy bureaucracies. The treatment of energy as a public rather than private good is critical in that respect. Section 4 concludes. I. Models of Industrial Transition in former Eastern Germany and Poland To provide an effective analysis of energy restructuring in East Germany and Poland I propose an ideal type of industrial restructuring in the period of transition from a communist to a capitalist economy. The actors of my model include the state, which is the owner of any given enterprise and represents people’s interests, institutional intermediaries that assist the state in restructuring implementation such as banks, independent agencies, international organizations and private advisors. The organizational division of the firm into smaller corporate units, which become financially viable with state subsidies, FDI and bank loans, is considered to be the first step toward efficient restructuring.10 Furthermore, the substitution of public managers with shortterm skilled personnel and preservation of the government’s veto against to block any major proposal presented in the board of directors constitute the second step in the restructuring process. Profitability and therefore liquidity is the key proxy used to evaluate the success of the restructuring phase.11 Increased market value for the firm is translated into higher state revenues, increased job security for the currently employed and sustainable economic growth. Export growth, increased labor productivity, cash flow as well as total factor productivity are treated as functions of profitability; the term organizational restructuring encompasses both what the literature calls organizational and financial restructuring.12 Privatization is regarded as the final component of industrial transition, which is an inclusive term that I use both for restructuring and privatization. The institutional map of # 412 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany… privatization does not have the state as its main point of reference, as is the case in restructuring.13 On the contrary, it entails a significant bargaining role for entrepreneurs who are willing to acquire governmental shares in state corporations.14 It also includes supporting institutions, which can be either financial (banks), international (World Bank and IMF), or administrative (agencies) with a broader and more independent statutory mandate.15 Because the goal of privatization should be a contract, where economic efficiency and social justice meet, I argue that the government has to preserve a package of vetoing minority shares in the post-privatization period. This should be particularly the case for sectors of reinforced public interest such as energy, infrastructure, and telecommunications.16 I treat this package of shares as a public ownership minimum that affects the management’s decisions about employment relations, when both phases of industrial transformation are over.17 My transition theory of corporate governance necessitates an alliance between the unions and the government. The imposition of the public ownership minimum protracts the privatization process and increases the number of private contenders.18 Thus, the bargaining position of the private investor is restrained, but not to such an extent that he opts to exit the transaction. In this approach minority state ownership does not have a positive, but a normative component (Meyer 2002: 269-274).19 The government does not care about maximizing the value of its stocks, but its reelection. By blocking decisions against labor interests, it indirectly implements social policy. This two-stage concept of industrial transformation can be applied in the cases of East German and Polish energy restructuring. When the Berlin Wall fell, East Germany’s energy industry consisted of the electrical power industry and lignite (brown coal) mining operations in Lusatia and Middle Germany.20 The Electricity Treaty (Stromvertrag) signed among the Treuhand – East Germany’s privatization agency – the GDR government and seven West German firms on August 22 of 1990 led to the creation of the Unified Energy Plants as a jointstock corporation (Vereinte Energiewerke AG); this company included the East German lignite power plants, which had been already restructured by the Treuhand for that purpose.21 Treuhand was not as efficient in selling the lignite mines per se; Middle German mining operations were finally bought by PowerGen plc, Morrison Knudsen Corporation and NRG Energy Inc., which formed the Middle German Lignite Corporation (MIBRAG BV).22 Nevertheless, it was able to sell the Lusatia mines to a business consortium formed by RWE AG and Viag/Veba (Lausitzer Braunkohle AG).23 It is evident why the definitions of procedural and horizontal restructuring are useful to conceptualize the industrial transformation of the East German energy sector. Treuhand functions as a quasi GDR government, whose mandate and legitimacy is derived from its institutional linkage to West Germany’s political and economic system.24 The immediate transition from restructuring to privatization resulted in the rapid generation of property rights; the source of these property rights was not the East German government, but the Treuhand.25 This was the first time in the history of democratization and industrial transformation that an administrative agency was subjected to the laws of a foreign country (West Germany) and then privatizes the energy infrastructure of a country, despite the obvious welfare spillovers that this series of policies would impose on GDR’s populous working class. Communist economies are two or three times more energy intensive than capitalist ones; this feature is likely to endure in early transition period.26 The economic report on East German # 413 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany… energy sector in 1990 confirms the belief that this industry can form the basis for generalizable research conclusions; while the energy sector did not occupy a leading position in the share of industrial employment, it reflected accurately the changes in labor relations and employment during the post-reunification period.27 The negative slope of the East German energy intensity curve between 1990 and 1994, which implies a parallel decrease in both energy consumption and production, shows Treuhand’s objective to fully change the sectoral distribution of East German industrial GDP.28 This strategic decision was not supported with a sustainability plan for neither power plants nor mining operations; on the contrary, it linked them to the corporate interests of West German multinationals without taking into account the input from either East German state governments or trade unions.29 The procedural and horizontal nature of East German energy restructuring now becomes evident.30 I argue that restructuring served exclusively the interests of West German energy oligopolies;31 not only did it increase energy market concentration and therefore violated even more antitrust law in the New Germany, but it also facilitated an unprecedented bargaining between energy multinationals and an administrative agency for resources and infrastructure that belonged to the people, whose legitimate representative was certainly not the Treuhand.32 Energy restructuring in East Germany should be seen as a seminal paradigm of an ethnically driven FDI externalization and state capture. Although West and East Germans belonged to the same state (German Empire) before the Second War, this does not serve as a justification for Bonn’s raw economic intervention into a foreign state entity.33 The distinction between vertical and horizontal restructuring, which will be further elaborated in the Polish case, does not refer to the way that the old Kombinate were reorganized or liquidated but to the matrix of institutional players that participated in the unbundling process. Treuhand’s failure to generate a surplus between restructuring revenues and expenditures undermined the infrastructural modernization of the East German energy companies and had an adverse effect on the overall competitiveness of the German economy.34 Particularly in the energy sector, the rapid transfer of privatization costs from producers who bought underpriced power plants and brown coal (lignite) mines to consumers who had to pay higher prices and many of them lose their energy industry jobs or see their wages decrease constitutes the most ample manifestation of Treuhand’s politically conservative bias and pro-business orientation.35 I argue that in Poland the state remained the main source of energy industry transformation (hierarchical and regulatory). Energy restructuring was defined not only in terms of privatization, but also in terms of energy law reform, commercialization of energy enterprises, energy pricing and policy-relevant issues for each subsector.36 The World Bank’s seminal proposal on Polish energy restructuring outlined the reform steps that were actually implemented in this sector; privatization of infrastructure was designed and advanced under the regulatory supervision of five different ministries. Pricing – while still subsidized – was cost-reflective to the best possible extent, and in many cases state management was accountable to workers councils.37 The Polish Oil and Gas Company (PGNG) is the most important corporate actor in the oil and gas sectors and was owned by the state; nevertheless, Poland’s limited gas and broad oil dependence on Russia render the politics of oil and gas industry transformation less interesting.38 What matters most is electricity restructuring and the regulation of the Upper Silesian lignite mines that have been intertemporally accounting for a major component of electricity production.39 # 414 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany… The government maintained direct control over PSE SA, the Polish National Grid, as well as over the generation and distribution companies until mid-1990s; only when the Energy Act entered into force and adjustment to the European acquis became a serious incentive for energy restructuring, the state embarked on a partial privatization of its energy assets.40 Polish transition to market economy is considered to be a success story for shock therapy privatization proponents. However, I suggest that in energy restructuring rapid privatization was certainly not the case. Unlike East German restructuring where the boundaries between restructuring and privatization are substantially blurred, Polish energy industry was transformed under the public ownership minimum that I described in the beginning of this section; this observation is also supported by the weakened role of the Privatization Ministry and the increased role of workers’ councils in enterprise restructuring.41 Differentials in profit and time are large enough to make a clear distinction between restructuring and privatization; the latter stage was largely concluded upon Polish accession to the European Union. It is reasonable to hypothesize that the government in Warsaw has been reluctant in the public offerings of its energy assets. This is in line with the results of its mass privatization programs; their scope was not as wide as initially expected and in sectors where extensive privatization took place it was due to the impact of foreign experts rather than administrative pressures.42 Hence, energy restructuring is one of these policy initiatives where the government decided to defend its ownership shares; minority state ownership in the energy sector was seen as a method of offsetting the negative welfare effects of employment decline.43 Contrary to Russian privatization schemes, direct rather than indirect bureaucratic intervention in the restructuring and privatization of energy SOEs preserved a minimum equality threshold in Poland necessary for social solidarity.44 II. Energy Firms as Distributive Mechanisms: The Oder-Neiße Dichotomy Social distribution is inherently connected to the idea of the allocation of public resources by the government.45 In this article, I do not intend to limit my analysis to the political mechanics of energy restructuring and privatization. I also propose an analytical path that links the industrial transformation of energy assets to equity; it is assumed that restructuring and privatization as a two-stage process provides the firm with a series of property assets that are taxable by the government. In that respect, I suggest that the public ownership minimum determines the distributive power of the firm both toward its employees and the citizens. I contend that the same set of incentives that prevent the government from fully privatizing the energy sector is also valid for the explanation of energy firms as social distribution mechanisms; thus, state ownership, unemployment benefits and taxation may be considered as forms of social insurance that bridge corporate restructuring with inequality alleviation.46 When transition to market economy occurs, the government is not likely to treat the energy sector as a first priority privatization area, because this would radically increase energy prices, inflation and unemployment rates; this it would bolster an evolving social crisis that no government wants to face. Energy restructuring and privatization may be seen as a more powerful but indirect way of social distribution; firms that receive less subsidies and pay more in social services and compensation for their employees are “rewarded” with lower taxes and vice versa. The existence of the public ownership minimum defines my understanding of energy firms as social distribution mechanisms in the post- # 415 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany… communist context of East Germany and Poland. I argue that in the former German Democratic Republic distributive energy restructuring did not occur due to biased and unilaterally inspired macroeconomic and political planning. Minimization of state ownership over electricity markets and coal operations, dramatic increase of the East-West unemployment differential without taking proper policy measures and the conclusion of industry- rather firm- or employee-centered collective wage contracts indicate what the Treuhand’s finite regulatory objective was: the political and resource expropriation of the East German energy sector rather than the preservation of social stability with the maintenance of a public ownership minimum, which is a sine qua non component of positive distributive dynamics in the energy sector.47 Lignite industry production and employment data in the 1990s amplify a radical decrease in energy significance for East Germany, which becomes broader as the time distance from 1990 increases; the lignite employment/lignite production ratio also becomes exponentially smaller.48 Schleiniger has argued that the exemption of energy-intensive export sector from environmental-friendly taxation can increase energy use because energy-intensive commodities are cheaper and therefore substitute for labor-intensive commodities;49 taxation of energy companies does not distribute per capita income for the benefit of lower-class people, unless it discourages producers from shifting the additional cost of taxation to consumers without the provision of any additional public goods or social services. The goal of a tripartite social contract becomes critical here; because antagonistic relations among capital, labor and the government are constrained by minority state ownership and the public interest component of energy business, the establishment of a social contract can only occur under conditions of stringent labor and corporate tax regulation with direct or indirect distributive effects. I contend that the energy sector is the main industry from which the distributive intentions of any government can be clearly inferred.50 The maintenance of powerful regulatory mechanisms in the Polish energy sector prevented the adjustment of energy prices to efficient levels; it is shown that although rich people make a much more extensive use of electrical power, any price increase in residential electricity is much more likely to hurt workers, pensioners, self-employed people and social transfers recipients, whose energy expenditure occupies a relatively large share of their total expenditure basket.51 I argue that the prospect for upward mobility (POUM) motivates lowerand middle-income citizens to support the public ownership minimum in the energy sector given the limited price elasticity (in comparison with mature market economies) and the strong income elasticity of energy consumption.52 The Polish Ministry of Privatization chose to sell state-owned energy enterprises only if it was able to substantially support the state budget; thus, complete corporate restructuring has been treated as a prerequisite of privatization due to the distributive considerations of the government.53 More specifically, the energy administration in Warsaw opted for negative rather than positive distribution by continuing to subsidize electricity prices while maintaining variable but significant control over domestic energy fi rms.54 III. Analytical Framework The arguments presented above lead to the following propositions: 1. Propositions P1: The public ownership minimum rather than full privatization guarantees the survival of energy firms and the maintenance of social peace. # 416 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany… P2: Hierarchical rather than horizontal energy restructuring leads to socially distributive subsidies and prices. P3: Procedural rather than regulatory energy restructuring is likely to benefit producers at the expense of consumers. P4: Institutional and political legitimacy of the regulatory authority are prerequisites for effective energy restructuring. 2. Corollaries C1: The Treuhand was the institutional sponsor for an ethnically-driven transfer of the East German energy sector to a set of subsidiaries of West German corporations. C2: The Polish Ministry of Privatization preferred to adopt the public ownership minimum rather than regulate its energy policy preferences through the private sector. Moene and Wallerstein argue that higher degrees of inequality do not automatically generate support for social spending in the form of publicly fi nanced insurance; this is the case only when public distribution is targeted toward lower-income people that already have a job rather than to unemployed people or pensioners.55 To provide a primary analytical design on the interaction between energy restructuring and social distribution, I suggest a two-by-two matrix (Matrix 1) where energy restructuring forms the fi rst axis of analysis and sectoral workforce constitutes the second axis of analysis. I classify energy restructuring into two categories according to its sequential timing with respect to privatization; a high value is assigned when privatization follows restructuring, whereas a low value is assigned when privatization precedes restructuring. Sectoral workforce is evaluated on the basis of its vocational training; the government can restructure its own energy assets considering the welfare of either high- or low-skilled energy workers. According to matrix 1, when energy restructuring benefits the interests of highskilled workforce and energy privatization follows restructuring, then social mobility is likely (High, High); hierarchical restructuring makes the government in charge of the industrial transformation process. Under the condition that the government is in control of energy restructuring and sectoral transition rents are used to improve the status of high-skilled workers, then social mobility is expected; the public provision of a resource-based insurance to the qualified middle class generates sufficient levels of occupational mobility. In the lower left entry of the matrix (Low, High) the government supports its low-skilled workforce; due to their limited skills in the phase anteceding restructuring, they can only use public insurance in a non-positive way, i.e. to reduce their unemployment risk, but not to find a more qualified job. That is why labor peace is achieved. In the upper right entry (High, Low) I combine procedural restructuring with the interests of high-skilled workers; the immediate transfer of state-owned energy assets to private investors reduces the volume of energy rents that the government can distribute. Hence, highskilled employees are incentivized to change their occupational status; however, this change is constrained by the limited quantity of the public insurance provided. This is why it is more likely to observe horizontal (intersectoral) rather than vertical labor transfers. The lower right entry (Low, Low) implies limited public insurance for low-skilled workers; socially disruptive unemployment is the expected policy outcome, because the latter are not any more protected by the public ownership minimum. Distributive energy firms imply the existence of distributive energy bureaucracies; since the fall of centrally planned economies, culture and the “symbolic-ideological control” of resources have been in decline in Eastern # 417 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany… Matrix 1 Energy Restructuring → Sectoral Workforce ↓ Privatization Ex Post → Hierarchical Restructuring (High) Privatization Ex Ante → Procedural Restructuring (Low) High-Skilled Workforce (High) Social Mobility Intersectoral Transfers Low-Skilled Workforce (Low) Labor Peace Disruptive Unemployment Matrix 2 Energy Bureaucracy → Economic Organization ↓ Public Ownership Minimum (High) Full Privatization (Low) Centralized Markets (High) Social Distribution Patronage Networks Decentralized Markets (Low) Union Corporatism Elite Contracts Europe.56 The level of adherence to the political legacies of socialism defines the distributive role of bureaucracy in the transition period. The appropriation of the East German government by Treuhand and the centralized authority of the Polish Ministry of Privatization constitute two extreme phenomena in the energy map of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Unlike the institutionally supported oil privatization in Russia and the successful implementation of shock therapy policies in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Poland suggests a case where energy bureaucracies maintained the majority of their regulatory privileges. At the same time, in East Germany they ceased to exist. I define social distribution as the set of those expenditure-minimizing policies that maintain a minimum of social welfare for all citizens.57 Because there is no objective definition of equity, social distribution can never be value-free or impartial.58 As Nee points out, the transition from socialism to capitalism entails the transfer of resources from hierarchies to markets; nevertheless, gradual reforms can preserve the social stratification observed under socialism and maintain the significance of bureaucracy in the market allocation of resources.59 To examine the impact of energy bureaucracies on centralized and decentralized marketplaces, I propose a two-by-two matrix (Matrix 2) where energy bureaucracy constitutes the first dimension and economic organization the second. I divide energy bureaucracy according to its regulatory capacity; when the public ownership minimum is preserved, then I assign a high value. The opposite holds when the energy sector is fully privatized. Economic organization is explained in terms of centralized vs. decentralized markets; centralized marketplaces imply interventionist governments with sufficient ownership shares in the economy. On the other hand, in decentralized markets, the state plays an intermediary role in the regulation and allocation of resources. I suggest that when energy bureaucracy maintains an ownership minimum in centralized market systems, then social distribution is feasible (High, High); the government is able to subsidize energy prices at a low cost and thus ensure a minimum of energy consumption for all citizens. This is the entry where I locate the Polish energy sector. When the government maintains an ownership minimum in decentralized # 418 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany… marketplaces, then union corporatism is the political equilibrium; advanced rather than transition European economies could qualify for that entry, where public ownership meets labor co-determination and tripartite negotiations (Low, High). Nevertheless, when energy bureaucrats give up their distributive potential and approve full-scale privatization policies, while economic organization is still defined by a centralized marketplace, then the formation of patronage networks between business and government is observed; the cases of energy privatization in Azerbaijan, Ukraine and other post-Soviet states are indicative in that respect (High, Low). In the lower right entry (Low, Low), the privatization of energy firms in decentralized markets leads to elite contracts between the government and corporate investors; after the contracts are concluded, the government ceases to control its energy assets; this was the case for the East German electricity sector whose privatization followed German reunification. IV. Conclusions The politics of energy restructuring in East Germany and Poland provides a paradigm of the 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 theoretical inclination presented here, contrary to the general and often appraised theory of democratic transitions in East-Central Europe. The Oder-Neiße dichotomy shows that the public ownership minimum rather than the withering of public regulation is the most effective basis for collective welfare and the increase of public revenues through privatization. The thesis of this article is heavily influenced by the normative foundation of equity rather than liberty. It is clear how crucial the role of two administrative bodies, the Polish Ministry of Privatization and the Treuhand, has been despite their variable political legitimacy and connections to the domestic business community. A major part of this article has focused on the administrative and social aspects of energy restructuring. Because the energy sector has been the epicenter of industrial development under socialism and post-socialism, it is crucial to link its ownership transformation to the ex novo class formation, which has been observed in Eastern Europe. My analysis brings together two elements which have made this part of the world invariably important in the history of world economy and economic thought: Marxist economics and energy resources. Craig Gordon. “The End of Prussia”. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 124, No. 2, (Apr. 29, 1980): 97-99. Falkinger Josef. “Social Instability and Distribution of Income”. European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 15 (1999): 35–51. Carlin Wendy, Colin Mayer, Hans-Werner Sinn, and Vittorio Grilli. “Restructuring Enterprises in Eastern Europe”, Economic Policy, Vol. 7, No. 15, (October 1992): 312-352, at 314-318. Ibid, at 317-321. Lill Bruno. Energy Sector in Poland. Center for Markets in Transition, HSE, October 2001. Yandle Traci J. “The Impact of Governing and Economic Institutions on Energy Systems Development: A Case Study of the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic”, Journal of Energy and Development, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1999, Accepted Manuscript. Webber Douglas. “The decline and resurgence of the German model': The Treuhandanstalt and Privatization politics in East Germany”, Journal of European Public Policy 1:2, 1994, 151-175, at 151-155. For an overview of the restructuring and privatization of SOEs in Poland see Rondinelli Dennis and Jay Yurkiewicz. “Privatization And Economic Restructuring in Poland: An Assessment of Transition Policies”, American Journal of Economics and Sociology Vol. 55, No. 2 (April, 1996): 148-152. Horst Siebert. “The integration of Germany: Real economic adjustment”. European Economic Review 35 (1991): 591-602, at 600-602; Hall John and Udo Ludwig. “German unification and the market adoption hypothesis”. Cambridge Journal of Economics 1995, 19, 491-507, at 492-492 and 504-505. Barrel Ray and Dawn Holland. “Foreign Direct Investment and Enterprise Restructuring in Central Europe”. Economics of Transition, Vol. 8 (2) 2000: 477-504, at 500-501. # 419 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany… 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Blaszczyk Barbara. “Privatization and Company Restructuring in Poland”. Working Paper No. 18, CASE Reports, Center for Economic and Social Research, March 1999, at 23-26. Pohl Gerhard et al. “Privatization and Restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe: Evidence and Policy Options”, World Bank Technical Paper No. 368, 1997: 12-19. Gray Cheryl W. “In search of owners: Privatization and corporate governance in transition economies”, The World Sank Research Observer, Vol. 11, No. 2 (August 1996): 179-97, at 190-192. McMillan John and Christopher Woodruff. “The Central Role of Entrepreneurs in Transition Economies”. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Volume 16, No. 3 (Summer 2002): 153–170, at 156-159. See the legal foundations of East German and Polish corporate privatization in Bolton Patrick, Gerard Roland, John Vickers, and Michael Burda. “Privatization Policies in Central and Eastern Europe”, Economic Policy Vol. 7, No. 15, (October 1992): 275-309. For a good account of the reasons why privatization and industrial transition may not conincide see Brada Josef C. “Privatization is Transition--Or is it?” The Journal of Economic Perspectives Vol. 10, No. 2, (Spring 1996): 67-86. Debande Olivier and Guido Friebel. “A positive theory of give-away privatization”, International Journal of Industrial Organization 22 (2004): 1309– 1325, at 1321-1323. Meyer Klaus E. “Management challenges in privatization acquisitions in transition economies”. Journal of World Business, 37 (2002): 266-276, at 267-268. Ibid, at 269-274. Michel Jeffrey H. “Status and Impacts of the German Lignite Industry”, Air Pollution and Climate Series 18, The Swedish NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain, at 10. Ibid, at 34. Ibid, at 35-36; Hansen Ulf. “Restructuring the East German energy system”. Energy Policy Vol. 24. No. 6: 553-562. 1996, at 556. Michel Jeffrey H. “Status and Impacts of the German Lignite Industry”, Air Pollution and Climate Series 18, The Swedish NGO Secretariat on Acid Rain, at 38. Lehmbruch Gerhard (1994). “The process of regime change in East Germany: An institutionalist scenario for German unification”, Journal of European Public Policy 1:1, 115-141, at 138-139. For a thorough account on the creation and enforcement of property rights in post-socialism, see Rapaczynski Andrzej. “The Roles of the State and the Market in Establishing Property Rights”, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 10, No. 2, (Spring 1996): 87-103. Hughes Gordon. “The Energy Sector and Problems of Energy Policy in Eastern Europe”, Oxford Review for Economic Policy Vol. 7, No. 2, at 78-81. Economic Report. “The East German Industrial Sector in 1990”. 1991: 10-13. Hansen Ulf. “Restructuring the East German energy system”. Energy Policy Vol. 24. No. 6: 553-562. 1996, at 553-556; See also Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft EV. Dateien. Essen und Koeln, Januar 2009, Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen. Webber Douglas. “The decline and resurgence of the German model': The Treuhandanstalt and Privatization politics in East Germany”, Journal of European Public Policy 1:2, 1994, 151-175, at 154-160. Estrin Saul. “Competition and Corporate Governance in Transition”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 16, No. 1, winter 2002: 101-124, at 108-110. In Kettler Hannah E. (1997). “The Emergence of Concentrated Ownership Structures in East Germany: the implications for enterprise restructuring”. Review of Political Economy 9 (2): 139-142 I fi nd a useful analysis of the reasoning behind the takeover of East German corporate entities by leading West German fi rms. An interesting theoretical approach on Treuhand’s failure to boost sustainable competition combined with a minor application in the energy sector is also offered by Dale Gareth “More shock than therapy: Why there has been no “miracle” in Eastern Germany”, Socialism and Democracy, (2002): 108-115 and 121; For a more moderate evaluation of Treuhand’s politics see Priewe Jan. “Privatisation of the industrial sector: the function and activities of the Treuhandanstalt”, Cambridge Journal of Economics 1993, 17: 333-348. I propose the name Bonnhand instead of Treuhand; My take is in contrast with Schütte Tjark (1993). “Bad debt problems and enterprise restructuring in Eastern Germany”, Post-Communist Economies, 5 (2): 161-185. Roesler Jorg. “Privatisation in Eastern Germany. Experience with the Treuhand”, Europe-Asia Studies Vol. 46, No. 3, (1994): 505-517, at 508. Brezinski Horst. “Privatization in East Germany”, Moct-Most, N. 1, 1992: 11 and 18. Joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program. “Poland: Energy Sector Restructuring Program, Volume I”, Report No. 153/93: Annex 1. Joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program. “Poland: Energy Sector Restructuring Program, Volume I”, Report No. 153/93: Main Report; The Polish administrative bodies involved in the energy restructuring process were the Ministries of Industry and Trade, Environment and Natural Resources, Finance, Local Government, and Privatization. Naimski Petr. “Energy diversification strategy for Poland”, Columbia University, September 17th 2007, at 4-7. Kaminski Jacek. Energy sector overview in Poland. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences. Mantorski Zbigniew. “Polish electric energy sector just before accessing European Union”, Int. J. Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Vol. 6, Nos. 1/2, 2006, at 53-57; See also Ministerstwo Gospodarki. “The Citizen, Market and Competition: Organisational, Structural and Structure of Ownership Transformations in the Fuel and Energy Sector”, Appendix 3. # 420 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany… 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 Squires Meaney Constance. “Foreign Experts, Capitalists, and Competing Agendas: Privatization in Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary”. Comparative Political Studies 1995, 28; 275, at 286-291. Blaszczyk Barbara. “Privatization and Company Restructuring in Poland”. Working Paper No. 18, CASE Reports, Center for Economic and Social Research, March 1999, at 11-15 and 45-46. Ibid, at 23. Kenway Peter. “The role of the state in privatization in Poland and Czechoslovakia”, Moct-Most, N. 2, 1993, at 67-69. Kitson Michael, Ron Martin and Frank Wilkinson. “Labor Markets, Social Justice and Economic Efficiency”. Cambridge Journal of Economics 2000, 24, 631-641. Cremer Helmuth and Pierre Pestieu. “Distributive Taxation and Social Insurance”. International Tax and Public Finance, 3:281-295 (1996), at 292-293. Wolfgang Franz, and Viktor Steiner. “Wages in the East German Transition Process: Facts and Explanations”. German Economic Review 1 (3): 241-269, at 246-247, and 256-264; Bispinck Reinhard. “Collective Bargaining in East Germany: Between Economic Constraints and Political Regulations”. Cambridge Journal of Economics 1993, 17: 309-331. Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft EV. Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2006. Essen und Koeln, November 2007. Schleiniger Reto. “Energy tax reform with exceptions for the energy-intensive export sector”. Working Paper No. 73, Institute of Empirical Economics, University of Zurich, February 2001, at 10-15. For an interesting take on the interaction between market regulation and social distribution in East Germany see Solga Heike and Martin Diewald. “The East German Labor Market After German Unification: A Study of Structural Change and Occupational Matching”, Work, Employment & Society, Vol. 15, No. 1: 95–126. Freund Caroline and Christine Wallich. “Public-Sector Price Reforms in Transition Economies: Who Gains? Who Loses? The Case of Household Energy Prices in Poland”. Economic Development and Cultural Change 1997: 35-59, University of Chicago University Press, at 46-47 and 52-55. Benabou Roland and Efe A. Ok. “Social Mobility and the Demand for Distribution: The POUM Hypothesis”. Quarterly Journal of Economics May 2001: 447-487, at 447-453. Milewski Roman. “The Effects of Privatization of SOEs in Poland and East Germany”. Research Support Scheme Open Society Institute, May 1999, at 18-19. Falkinger Josef. “Social Instability and Distribution of Income”. European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 15 (1999): 35–51, at 49-50. Moene Karl Ove and Michael Wallerstein. “Inequality, Social Insurance and Distribution”. American Political Science Review Vol. 95, No. 4 (December 2001): 860-874, at 863-865. Verdery Katherine. “A Prologue to the Transition”, American Ethnologist, Vol. 18, No. 3, Representations of Europe; Transforming State, Society and Identity, (August 1991): 419-439, at 434. Titmuss Richard. “The Role of Distribution in Social Policy”, Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 20, 1965: 14-20, at 14-15. Rittel Horst W. J. and Melvin M. Webber. “Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning”, Policy Sciences, Vol. 4, 1973: 155-169, at 167-169. Nee Victor. “A Theory of Market Transition: From Distribution to Markets in State Socialism”, American Sociological Review, Vol. 54, No. 5, (October 1989): 663-689, at 678-679. V. References Aghion Philippe and Olivier J. Blanchard. “On privatization methods in Eastern Europe and their implications”. Economics of Transition, Volume 6 (I), 1998: 87-99. Barrel Ray and Dawn Holland. “Foreign Direct Investment and Enterprise Restructuring in Central Europe”. Economics of Transition, Vol. 8 (2) 2000: 477-504. Benabou Roland and Efe A. Ok. “Social Mobility and the Demand for Distribution: The POUM Hypothesis”. Quarterly Journal of Economics May 2001: 447-487. Bispinck Reinhard. “Collective Bargaining in East Germany: Between Economic Constraints and Political Regulations”. Cambridge Journal of Economics 1993, 17: 309-331. Blaszczyk Barbara. “Privatization and Company Restructuring in Poland”. Working Paper No. 18, CASE Reports, Center for Economic and Social Research, March 1999. Bolton Patrick, Gerard Roland, John Vickers, Michael Burda. “Privatization Policies in Central and Eastern Europe”, Economic Policy Vol. 7, No. 15, (Oct., 1992): 275-309. Bonin John P. and Bozena Leven. (2001). “Can State-owned Banks Promote Enterprise Restructuring? Evidence from One Polish Bank's Experience”, Post-Communist Economies, 13:4, 431-443. # 421 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany… Brada Josef C. “Privatization is Transition--Or is it?” The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 10, No. 2, (Spring 1996): 67-86. Brezinski Horst. “Privatization in East Germany”, Moct-Most, N. 1, 1992. Carlin Wendy, Colin Mayer, Hans-Werner Sinn, and Vittorio Grilli. “Restructuring Enterprises in Eastern Europe”, Economic Policy, Vol. 7, No. 15, (October 1992): 312-352. Craig Gordon. “The End of Prussia”. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 124, No. 2, (Apr. 29, 1980): 97-99. Cremer Helmuth and Pierre Pestieu. “Distributive Taxation and Social Insurance”. International Tax and Public Finance, 3:281-295 (1996). Dale Gareth “More shock than therapy: Why there has been no “miracle” in Eastern Germany”, Socialism and Democracy, (2002): 93-136. Debande Olivier and Guido Friebel. “A positive theory of give-away privatization”, International Journal of Industrial Organization 22 (2004): 1309– 1325. Economic Report. “The East German Industrial Sector in 1990”. 1991: 10-13. Estrin Saul. “Competition and Corporate Governance in Transition”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 16, No. 1, winter 2002: 101-124. Falkinger Josef. “Social Instability and Distribution of Income”. European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 15 (1999): 35–51. Franz Wolfgang and Viktor Steiner. “Wages in the East German Transition Process: Facts and Explanations”. German Economic Review 1 (3): 241-269. Freund Caroline and Christine Wallich. “Public-Sector Price Reforms in Transition Economies: Who Gains? Who Loses? The Case of Household Energy Prices in Poland”. Economic Development and Cultural Change 1997: 35-59, University of Chicago University Press. Gray Cheryl W. “In search of owners: Privatization and corporate governance in transition economies”, The World Sank Research Observer, Vol. 11, No. 2 (August 1996): 179-97. Hall John and Udo Ludwig. “German unification and the market adoption hypothesis”. Cambridge Journal of Economics 1995, 19, 491-507. Hansen Ulf. “Restructuring the East German energy system”. Energy Policy Vol. 24. No. 6: 553562. 1996. Headey Bruce, Peter Krause, and Roland Habich. “East Germany: Rising Incomes, Unchanged Inequality and the Impact of Distributive Government 1990-92”. The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 46, No. 2, (June 1995): 225-243. Horst Siebert. “The integration of Germany: Real economic adjustment”. European Economic Review 35 (1991): 591-602. Hughes Gordon. “The Energy Sector and Problems of Energy Policy in Eastern Europe”, Oxford Review for Economic Policy Vol. 7, No. 2. Joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Program. “Poland: Energy Sector Restructuring Program, Volume I”, Report No. 153/93. Kaminski Jacek. Energy sector overview in Poland. Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences. Kaufmann D., Kraay A., & Zoido-Lobaton P. (1999). Aggregating governance indicators (Policy Research Working Paper No. 2195). Washington, DC: World Bank. # 422 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Theocharis N. Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany… Kenway Peter. “The role of the state in privatization in Poland and Czechoslovakia”, Moct-Most, N. 2, 1993 Kettler Hannah E. (1997). “The Emergence of Concentrated Ownership Structures in East Germany: the implications for enterprise restructuring”. Review of Political Economy 9 (2): 117-149. Kitson Michael, Ron Martin and Frank Wilkinson. “Labor Markets, Social Justice and Economic Efficiency”. Cambridge Journal of Economics 2000, 24, 631-641. Kočenda Evžen and Štěpán Čábelka. “Liberalization in the Energy Sector: Transition and Growth”, Manuscript 1998. Lehmbruch Gerhard (1994). “The process of regime change in East Germany: An institutionalist scenario for German unification”, Journal of European Public Policy 1:1, 115-141. Lill Bruno. Energy Sector in Poland. Center for Markets in Transition, HSE, October 2001. Mantorski Zbigniew. “Polish electric energy sector just before accessing European Union”, Int. J. Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Vol. 6, Nos. 1/2, 2006. McMillan John and Christopher Woodruff. “The Central Role of Entrepreneurs in Transition Economies”. 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Grigoriadis. Energy Restructuring and Social Distribution in the Transition Economies of East Germany… Реструктуризация энергетического сектора и социальное распределение в переходных экономиках Восточной Германии и Польши Т.Н. Григориадис Греческий Фонд Европейских и Внешнеполитических Исследований, Греция 10676, Афины, Проспект Вас. Софияс, 49 В статье анализируются политические и экономические аспекты реструктуризации энергетического сектора в Восточной Германии и Польше с точки зрения социального распределения. Ее цель двояка: с одной стороны, она обеспечивает аналитическую дихотомию между регулирующей и процедурной реструктуризацией, с другой – между горизонтальной и иерархической. Таким образом, можно объяснить различные пути реформирования энергетических отраслей Восточной Германии и Польши. Замена центрального и законного правительства Тройхандом в Восточной Германии, а также центральная координирующая роль правительства в случае Польши являются ключевыми показателями этих концептуальных отличий. Постсоциалистические энергетические компании рассматриваются как механизмы социального распределения, реструктуризация которых определяется минимумом общественной собственности. Вопреки Тройханду, который стал институциональной основой для передачи энергетического сектора бывшей ГДР на множество дочерних западногерманских корпораций, польское министерство приватизации предпочло поддерживать экономическую справедливость, а не разрешить проведение полной приватизации в энергетической отрасли страны. Кажется, частные организации или государственные институты, которые связаны с корпоративными интересами, имеют меньше стимулов для сохранения этого минимума общественной собственности, чем центральное правительство. В энергетических секторах переходных экономик, сохранение минимума общественной собственности, а не полная приватизация является необходимым условием социального распределения. Ключевые слова: энергетика, реструктуризация, приватизация, социальное распределение, Восточная Германия, Польша, Tройханд, минимум общественной собственности. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 3 (2011 4) 426-465 ~~~ УДК 378.2 Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010 «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist for the Sphere of Culture and Arts» Natalya P. Koptseva* Siberian Federal University 82 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia 1 Received 4.03.2011, received in revised form 11.03.2011, accepted 18.03.2011 The results of expert seminar for the problem of formation of the graduate of new generation in art and culture sphere are presented. The leader of seminar is Koptzeva N.P. The following experts were presented as the leader specialists in art and culture sphere in Krasnoyarsk region: humanity scientists and professors of Siberian Federal University, professors of Krasnoyarsk State Art institute, the professors of Krasnoyarsk State Academy of music and theatre, the scientists of Siberian State technological institute and representatives of ministry of culture of Krasnoyarsk region. One of the main problem was discussed during the seminar. The problem is about the best strategy of formation of modern specialist in art and culture sphere in Krasnoyarsk region. What kind of specialists will be demanded in the future for the development of culture in Krasnoyarsk region? Taking into account the fact that the region probably will stay industrial region in priority. The start for the discussion was the valuable statistic information about the structure and the system of functioning of 2-level system of education in modern universities (bachelor and master); the structure and perspectives of development of educational system for art in culture in leader universities in Krasnoyarsk. On the one hand, during the seminar the fundamental questions about world view and system of mind of specialist in culture are discussed. On the other hand, the range of specifi c applied and real problems and challenges that lie ahead the cultural specialists on Krasnoyarsk territory in the near future are outlined. One of the reports of the expert seminar is directly focused on specifi c requests which put the regional administration put forward to the professionals who are responsible for the development of culture in the region. In addition, during the expert seminar it was specifi cally discussed the development prospects of the regional component in education of cultural specialist and principles of teaching of natural sciences for students of creative disciplines. Keywords: Krasnoyarsk region, education in art and culture sphere, world view of culture specialist, applied tasks of culture specialist, the image of graduate for culture sphere for future, the system of education in art and culture sphere in Krasnoyarsk region, the leading universities in Krasnoyarsk region in art and culture sphere, regional additive for education of culture specialist in Krasnoyarsk region, natural sciences in education of cultural specialist, the model of graduate of new generation for art and cultural sphere, the government order for cultural specialist in Krasnoyarsk region. * 1 Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved # 426 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… Expert Seminar was organized by the faculty of art theory and cultural studies of the Humanitarian Institute of the SFU within the frames of the scientific project «ScientificMethodological Provision of the Highest Qualification Personnel’s Training for the Sphere of Culture and Arts in the Krasnoyarsk Region», which was supported by the grant of the Krasnoyarsk Regional Fond of Support of Scientific and Scientific-Technical Activity in 2010. Targeted audience of the seminar – representatives of the organs of power in the sphere of social policy, culture and arts, prorectors, heads of departments, tutors of higher institutions, maintaining the highest qualification personnel’s training for the sphere of culture and arts, scientists, project executors. Expert Seminar was organized in the form of a focus-group discussion. Participants: Natalya P. Koptseva, Doctor of Philosophic Sciences, Professor, the Head of the Cultural Studies Department, the Dean of the art theory and cultural studies faculty of the Humanitarian Institute of the SFU Irina A. Panteleeva, Candidate of Philosophic Sciences, Docent of the Department of Marketing and Social-cultural activity of the art theory and cultural studies faculty of the Humanitarian Institute of the SFU Sergey I. Pochekutov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Docent of the Department of materials science and technology of construction materials of the Polytechnic Institute of the SFU Nikolay V. Sosnin, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Docent, the Head of the Engineering and Computer Graphics Department of the Institute of Psychology, Teachers’ Training and Sociology of the SFU Ivan A. Pfanenshtil, Doctor of Philosophic Sciences, Professor, the Head of the Philosophy department of the Institute of the Fundamental Training of the SFU Victoria L. Pfanenshtil, Aspirant of the Philosophy department of the Institute of the Fundamental Training of the SFU Natalya V. Malashyuk, the Head of the Krasnoyarsk Chief Administration of Culture Irina A. Skuratova, the Leading Specialist of the Krasnoyarsk Chief Administration of Culture Olga Y. Kolpetskaya, Candidate of the Art Theory, pro-rector of the scientific work of the FSEI HPE «Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre» Svetlana G. Voitkevich, Candidate of the Art Theory, pro-rector of the artistic work of the FSEI HPE «Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre» Elena N. Pavlyuchenkova, Professor, the first pro-rector of the FSEI HPE «Krasnoyarsk State Arts Institute» Elena Y. Khudonogova, Candidate of the Art Theory, Docent, the Head of the World Artistic Culture and Social Disciplines of the FSEI HPE «Krasnoyarsk State Arts Institute» Elena A. Yershova, Candidate of Pedagogic Sciences, the Head of the Quality Management Department of the FSEI HPE «Krasnoyarsk State Arts Institute» Victoria V. Dubich, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Docent of the Modern Natural Sciences Department of the Institute of the Fundamental Training of the SFU Denis A. Antonov, Candidate of Philosophic Sciences, deputy administrator of the Social Policy Department of the Krasnoyarsk Administration, Docent of the Social Work and Sociology Department of the Siberian State Technological University Dmitri Y. Grigorenko, Docent of the Philosophy and Social Sciences Department of # 427 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… the Siberian State Aero-Cosmic University n.a. M.F. Reshetnev Yekaterina V. Karelina, Candidate of Philosophic Sciences, Docent of the Philosophy and History Department of the Humanitarian Institute of the SFU Olga V. Letunova, Candidate of Philosophic Sciences, Docent of the Philosophy and Social Sciences Department of the Siberian State Aero-Cosmic University n.a. M.F. Reshetnev Irina S. Lyisenko, Assistant of the Philosophy and Social Sciences Department of the Siberian State Aero-Cosmic University n.a. M.F. Reshetnev Natalya N. Libakova, the Head Tutor of the Art Theory Department of the Humanitarian Institute of the SFU Yekaterina A. Sertakova, Apirant of the Art Theory Department of the Humanitarian Institute of the FSEI HPE «Siberian Federal University» Natalya P. Koptseva, Doctor of Philosophic Sciences, Professor, the Head of the Cultural Studies Department, the Dean of the art theory and cultural studies faculty of the Humanitarian Institute of the SFU: Introduction: We are glad to see you at the fi rst seminar, which is dedicated to the formation of a new generation model for the sphere of culture and arts. This year, we are planning to carry out two more seminars on the given problematics and we hope to see at the forthcoming meetings as experienced experts, participating at the seminar, as we have today. These seminars are dedicated to the scientific project, which is called «Scientific-Methodological Provision of the Highest Qualification Personnel’s Training for the Sphere of Culture and Arts in the Krasnoyarsk Region». We would like to invite you, our dear experts, to participate in our project, aimed to scientific-methodological provision of the highest qualification personnel in the sphere of culture and arts. Moreover, in the course of the project realization it is supposed to prepare some educational programs for international accreditation procedure. But it is not the main aim, we are going to reach. The main target is improvement of personnel qualification and development such a package of scientific-methodological ware, which would become highly demanded in all the higher education institutions of the Krasnoyarsk Region and, possibly, in other regions. Publications in the scientific journal of SFU, in the series «Humanitarian Sciences» will be also a sort of results of the project. This journal is included in the list of pre-reviewed journals, being recommended by the State Commission for Academic Degrees and Titles for publishing of the main results of the scientific activity. I suppose, that all the present scientists, and higher institutions’ tutors will be interested in this proposal. Our journal is targeted to the international academician society. At present time, the journal undergoes the expertise, which concerns the journal’s acceptance into the international scientific quoting system “Web of Science” and “Scopus”. The Journal of SFU is presented on the web-site of the Russian Electronic Library and is included into the Google quoting system. It is also included into the Russian Institute of Publications’ Quoting; and citing of the articles, which are published in the Journal, is taken into consideration in the course of scientific activity results calculations. Taking into account all the mentioned, the articles in the journal, including the materials of the present seminar, are published in the English language. # 428 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… The scientific project «Scientific-Methodological Provision of the Highest Qualification Personnel’s Training for the Sphere of Culture and Arts in the Krasnoyarsk Region» is realized under the aegis of the Higher Education Intuitions Rectors’ Board of the Krasnoyarsk Region. Preliminary, technical specification of the project has undergone a very serious expertise. The Rectors’ Board of the Krasnoyarsk Region has brought significant remarks and observations in the process of the project approval to a focus. For example, remarks on the question what highest qualification is? We supposed that we were talking about higher education, or about the second level of higher education – Master’s degree. Experts from the Rectors’ Board have come to the conclusion that the matter is, first of all, about post-graduate education – aspirant and doctoral candidacies. In fact, we are ready to discuss all the levels – as 2-level personnel training for the sphere of culture and arts of the Krasnoyarsk Region, so Master’s degree and its programs, and so future education and our possibilities within its frames. Report: Now, I shall tell you about the possibilities, which SFU possesses for the targets, having been put in the project. At present time, there are three specialists’ preparing departments on the basis of the art theory and cultural studies faculty of the Humanitarian Institute. Two of the departments of «Humanitarian sciences» have licenses: - Cultural studies, this department has been teaching students for 4 years. We have not accredited it yet. But this procedure is planned for the nearest future, and we hope that we shall be a success. For the given branch, we have chosen specialization «Culture of the Asian-Pacific Region Countries (APR)», it has been done according to the request of A.G. Khloponin, the Gubernator of the Krasnoyarsk Region, and also because of the fact that the APR countries are our close economical partners. The Krasnoyarsk Region is interested in the projects, which would study the mentioned region. Thereat, we understand that specialization is a dynamic phenomenon and there are a lot of possibilities in the sphere of sociocultural development, and that is why we may develop new specializations in the branch of Cultural studies. For four years we have been observing a very serious competition to enter the course, high quality of prospective students, and, correspondingly, good students. - Second department, which we are developing in the sphere of Humanitarian sciences along with the Cultural studies, is Theory of Art. We have got accreditations for Bachelor’s Degree (history of art according to its forms), and Specialist Diploma (Theory of Art). And just a week ago we got the Order of the Ministry of Education of RF that the second level of our program of Theory of Art – Magistracy was licensed. Thus, we have got the whole spectrum of possibilities for development of any Magistracy program for narrow-focused specialists. Having licensed our Magistracy program, we have got an opportunity to create various magistracy programs and prepare Art Theory Magistrates of most various Magistracy specializations just by the decision of our Board. We may get orders for training of one-two students – specialists, for most peculiar demands of our City and Region. We have got managers for development of such concrete programs and their realization. For the time being, our tutors are finishing the cycle, which is connected with the Higher School Teacher Diploma. And as their diploma projects, they have suggested their Magistracy programs, connected, for example with the artistic criticism in the Krasnoyarsk Region. Our specialists have suggested their own plan for the discipline, which is highly required. Elena Y. Khudonogova is one of rear specialists of this sphere and can confirm that we have plenty of work in the Krasnoyarsk Region, in the projects of culture and art. # 429 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… Ten years ago, in Gubernator Lebed’s time, there was raised a topical problem of auditing of the Cultural department of the Krasnoyarsk Region. And it was found out that, only 25% specialists, working in the Cultural department of the Region, had at least some higher education. And then, by the direct order of the gubernator, we developed a new specialty «Socio-cultural activity». The Moscow State University of Culture and Arts had much supported us. We chose organization (management) of the Socio-cultural sphere, as a specialization, meeting the requirements of the Krasnoyarsk Region. So, now it is already 10 years, as we have been preparing specialists – managers of sociocultural activity by the External Degree Program (the educational program is planned for 6 years). The Administration of the Krasnoyarsk Region was the ordering party of many of our students. And for most of them it was the only chance to get special education and a document certifying their higher legal education. In spite of the fact that they had been working in this sphere for many years, it was very difficult for them to be enrolled in our faculty. Three courses of students of the Cultural department have gone home to their regions, where now they are working as managers. It is a pity that our collaboration with the Administration has been stopped according to objective reasons, but nevertheless, we still continue to enroll students for this specialty (external form of education), and the competition for it is rather steady. We have got license for the Bachelor’s degree program «Sociocultural activity» (external and intramural forms) and this year, for the fi rst time, there appeared a full-time education form with 8 budget places. And we also preserve 10 budget places of the external education form. For the present time, this is the situation that concerns higher education in the sphere of culture and arts in the SFU. In 2003, when the Krasnoyarsk State University was undergoing attestations and accreditations, we used the opportunity and branched out post-graduate education according to the program 17.00.09 «Theory and History of Art». At that time, we even formed a nonrecurring dissertation board and managed to defend two dissertations. Besides, we had a working post-graduate education program by specialty 24.00.04 «Theory and History of Art». As far as we know in the Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Art and also in other higher education institutions of the region there is a post-graduate education program by another specialty 17.00.04 – «Depictive, Decorative and Applied Art and Architecture». We have got an idea to form a regional dissertation board by specialty 17.00.04. It becomes possible if there is such a license at higher education institutions, which can be united into one conversional dissertation board. Just a week ago, we received a license of the program 17.00.04 «Depictive, Decorative and Applied Art and Architecture». And we opened this specialty only in order to create such a conversional dissertation board. We would like to work for the benefit of the Region and the City, in order our scientists could get Candidate’s and Doctor’s Degrees in the sphere of Art Theory, not leaving the Krasnoyarsk Region. So, generally, we have finished 15-years’ work of creation of regulatory and legal framework in the sphere of Art Theory. A package of documents for creation of the dissertation board for consideration of the post-graduate education of theory of art and cultural studies has been already sent to the State Commission for Academic Degrees and Titles. And we hope so much that the Tyva State University will help and will much contribute to this project. Administration of the Tyva State University has written a whole row of letters of support to various echelons, as far as they also wish such a board to be formed. And if it happens, then the highest qualification specialist’s model for the sphere of culture and arts will be fully completed in the Krasnoyarsk Region. # 430 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… On the other hand, the Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Arts and the Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre have also their own specifics, which is difficult to be understood. And we may only venerate the mysteries of creation. But we are to know the details, as it is very important for our project target’s achievement. Traditions of theory of art, theory of music, cultural studies, and creative education are very strong in the Krasnoyarsk Region, and it is one of the seven whales, which the Earth rests on. And within the frames of this project, I would like to integrate our efforts. There is a lot of work concerning realization of this project and we would like other higher education institutions of the Krasnoyarsk Region to take this opportunity. On one hand, administration needs concrete orders for scientific work and preparation of specialists, and that is why, our task is evidently to prepare specialists according to a certain order and it must be realized. But, on the other hand, if science is not freely developed, as a personal initiative of the scientist, then it will be impossible to solve any of application tasks. The sphere of culture and arts is surely targeted to salvation of application tasks of the region, but if creative work does not have a peculiar and independent character, then it can disappear at all. That is why the suggested project is of so much importance. We are to come to a scientific agreement, to get the access to the integrated resources, in order we shall be able to prepare highly-qualified specialists, not bothering each other and not ignoring our own specifics. And what concerns the possibility of our direct participation in the mentioned project, then, here first of all, we are interested in your experience, analogues in the past and the present, and forecasts for the future. Collected achievements will allow us to obtain a realistic picture of the present and to chose correctly the strategy against such «bogeyman stories», as «Andropov’s desert», development of the region by the method of shifts, petroleum pipeline as a priority of the region, and complete absence and needlessness of arts theory scientists, dances and artists. This awful scenario should be always born in mind. And fi nally, I would like to tell you a fairy-tale – a Jataka, connected to the life of Buddha. Once upon a time there was a marsh with frogs in the midst of the forest. And one day a heron flew to them and told them: «you all live here and do not know that not far from here there is a lake, much more comfortable for your life. The water there is warmer and there is much more food». Frogs were very interested in the new place of living, but did not know how to get there. Then, to everyone’s joy, the heron told them that it was going to help them and would do everything by itself to move the frogs to the lake. So, it took the frogs one by one and carried away from the marsh in its beak. And when it came to take the last frog, the frog began to reject. It said that it would go nowhere from its house, as far as it liked its house. The heron became angry and said that it would make the frog leave the marsh by force and caught it quickly by the head. The frog, in its turn, caught the heron by the neck and began to strangle it by its small paws with all its strength. Never give up – this is the main idea of this Jataka. The only thing, which is still left unclear, is what the role of Buddha was in this story – was he a brave frog, a heron, or a tree, at which roots there was the mentioned lake? That is why we shall not give up as well. Three powerful higher education institutions are going to join their efforts in order to prepare the best specialists in the region – this is the picture of the project that I see. For the time being, we need analogues in the Region, in Russia and abroad. Experience of your and other HE institutions in the sphere of highly qualified personnel’s training is very valuable. We need your help in order to address concrete methods and to give strategic forecast of the development # 431 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… of the sphere of culture and arts, as far as education and graduates of the creative HE institutions are absolutely unique. Ivan A. Pfanenshtil: Natalya Petrovna, as far as I have understood, today’s seminar is dedicated to consideration of specialties, their becoming, and to the models of graduates in the sphere of arts and culture. Natalya P. Koptseva: yes, you are right. Nikolay V. Sosnin: I suppose, the scheme, which I am going to suggest will help us. If there is a project, there should be concrete tasks and targets. We are to write down the tasks, distribute them among the people, taking into consideration their labor content. When we know the possibilities of all the participants, their suggestions, then we shall form a working group. Otherwise, the matter will not be productive. Though, your opinion may differ. Natalya P. Koptseva: yes, I see it differently. First of all, everything, what is said here, is very important. You are all really experts. Secondly, all the present are the participants of a sort of a focusgroup discussion of the experts. And experience of these experts and their thoughts concerning the given problematics are highly important already on this very stage. Elena Y. Khudonogova: as far as I understand, this group has been gathered here in order to speak over the situation, where we are in, and afterwards we shall seek a strategic way out of it, some solutions, which could be right in a far perspective. In comparison with the technical specialties, humanitarians are very scattered in the region. There are few of them. And if we speak of the tasks, having been mentioned by Natalya Petrovna, they are very important and serious. Sergey I. Pochekutov: as one of the participants of this project, I would like to introduce you Nikolay V. Sosnin, whom I have invited in connection with the fact that for today new federal state educational standards have been accepted. These standards are based on a competence-based approach, according to which we shall review all the educational process. Nikolay V. Sosnin is exactly the specialist in the given sphere, and soon he is planning to defend doctorial dissertation on the given problematics. In his work, he considers the competence-based approach and the way we are to go to it. I think Nikolay V. Sosnin will make a short report, where he will tell us about some methodological foundation. The way, how real competences should be realized in a HE Institution, taking into account the new standards. Natalya P. Koptseva: I have seen the structure of competences, which suggests Nikolay V. Sosnin. It will be interesting for us. Please tell us about it in detail. Nikolay V. Sosnin: The competence-based approach is a very large theme. It includes a lot of aspects. I can give you just some part of it – formation of competences in the model of the graduate of engineering specialties and tell you where we should start and where to go in this matter, taking into account our new educational programs. Ivan A. Pfanenshtil: what a luck that you have dealt with the model of preparation of an engineer. On the whole, we are speaking about just the same thing. How to prepare a specialist? On what basis? How should the specialist in the sphere of culture and arts look like? What kind of competences should he possess? Here, we are to join our efforts and to understand what sort of philosophical basis we must use, for example, is it possible to use here the philosophy of Russian cosmism. What type of specialist would we like to have at the end – cosmopolitan or Russian, or for some specific region, for example, # 432 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… for the Krasnoyarsk Krai? If we need just a Russian specialist, then we are to bring him up basing on the Russian philosophy and national culture. Natalya P. Koptseva: We are to bring up Russian identity in him. Ivan A. Pfanenshtil: Surely. We are to choose the approach and form the model of the specialist, proceeding from it. We need a conception. How should this model of the specialist look like? How shall we monitor it? How shall we control that he becomes the specialist that we have planed? We are to be responsible for those, we are teaching. We are to render them the competences, being necessary for their future activity. Natalya Petrovna has presented the problem so strongly, that I have begun to be beware of it and understand it. So, let us start our discussion, at least from the model of the specialistengineer. Natalya P. Koptseva: the matter is that there are formal things and there are conceptual things. Nikolay Sosnin is a specialist in form, in universal technologies and logics. That is why, we would like to listen to his report at the very beginning, in order to decide about the form, and then we shall fill it with some content. Nikolay V. Sosnin, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Docent, the Head of the Engineering and Computer Graphics Department of the Institute of Psychology, Teachers’ Training and Sociology of the SFU Report «FSEI HPE Competence-Based Format»: The mankind enters a new epoch of its existence – informational society causes far-reaching changes in policy, economy, culture, labor and in personal life of every person. In connection with it, systems of education all over the world have faced a serious problem – to reform drastically their targets, contents, forms, methods, means and all their organization in correspondence with the demands of the time. Unfortunately, global reforms in the sphere of education have gone not by the way of humanization, but by the economical way. And the determining role in formation of new education requirements is played by the market. In the modern circumstances, transition to the market is acceptance of market categories: competition, competitiveness, competency, competences and others. One can observe as market categories are included into educational processes and they play external role in relation to the system of education itself. Precisely this circumstance reflects the global shift in the system of Higher Professional Education (HPE) to the market. It is a fact that today and, first of all, it is observed in the higher school, innovations are considered not as a realization of anthropological and philosophic conceptions of man and culture, but as a balanced response to the demands of the time, taking into consideration the demands of the market economy. Though, we must not allow that HE institutions become the subjects of exclusively market relations, rendering educational services. System of education and HE Institutions has a more socially significant mission – to raise educational level of the nation, its intellectual, cultural, spiritual and moral potential. Now, local system of the higher professional education undergoes the next stage of modernization. In the course of searching for the adequate educational model, which would meet the modern demands, they use stipulations of the Bologna declaration, and take in to consideration the experience of other countries. In the circumstances of transition to the new generation standards of HPE, the problem of # 433 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… educational programs projecting at the local levels (right in HEIs) becomes more and more topical. But before we start projecting an educational program, considering the format, being set by the standards, we are to decide – how does the new model of educational process differ from the traditional one. FSEI HPE of the new generation sets the model of education and teaching, which significantly differs from the traditional model. In traditional curriculums, the subject-content model of the process is precisely fixed – the number of subjects, their content and structure, didactic description, characteristics of labor intensity, temporal parameters and other structural-content parameters of the process. The new standard is a standard of anther type, where the subject of standardization is not oriented to the resource parameters of the process, but to its results. The standard regulates the development of the basic 2-level educational programs on the ground of the competence-based approach and with the help of the credit system of education content and labor intensity accounting. Competence-based and credit format of the standard presupposes a new projecting of the results of education. And this is the principal innovation of the educational standard of the new generation. That means that they set the transition from the model, which is oriented to the quantitative (resource) parameters of the educational process, to the model, which is oriented to the result. The competence-based approach means a significant shift from the subject differentiation to inter-subject integration. Obviously, the competence-based approach can contribute to the overcoming of traditional cognitive orientations of the higher education and leads to a new vision of the educational content, of its methods and technologies. While in the traditional model, theoretical and practical education is just oriented to the industrial reality and models it with the help of symbolic systems, in the new model we are to transfer to the systematic professional education. It is one of the leading lines of the competence-based approach – enforcement of the practical orientation of education, of its pragmatic, subject-professional aspect. That is why we are to underline the following contradiction, which demands to be solved. The higher European education and the local system of HPE go by different ways of assimilation of the competence-based approach. In Europe with its academic values, there has been a necessity of development by the way of the market economy, of practical orientation, which is understood and accepted by the employer. Our local professional education has always been competency oriented. The practical component, especially what concerns technical education of the narrow-focused specialties, has been quite strong. That is why we have got other tasks in our HPE system – we are to get rid of the fixed linear regulation, we must give freedom to the person in his self-development and selfdefinition in the market under the new conditions, in the new economical situation. The competencebased approach is appealed to solve this problem in the educational process, which is still not solved within the frames of the existing educational model up to the present moment. Introduction of the competence-based approach in to the native system of education will allow us to realize to a large extent the personal-oriented, activity and practical-oriented approaches in to the educational process. Thus, the targets of education in the new standard are set by the competence-based model of the graduate – these are sets of competencies, expressing what precisely the graduate must know, understand and be able to do at the end of the process of education. Thereat, we fix the changing of the accent in the formulation of educational targets – it is not the formation of a set of students’ knowledge and skills in the spheres of certain disciplines, but formation of such a system and structure of thinking, practical and moral activity, that will allow our students to work and to act independently # 434 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… in the more and more growing flow of educational and scientific information, to assimilate freely in the rapidly changing social-economical and technological conditions. In the process of the educational programs projecting we face difficulty in selection of working definitions of competences from the position of the competence-based approach. According to its definition – competences and competencies is a new method of setting (describing) targets of the educational process. Competence is a summation of interconnected personal qualities (knowledge, skills, and types of activity), which are set in relation to a certain number of objects and processes and which are necessary in order to act qualitatively and productively in relation to these objects and processes. Competency is a man’s possession, grasp of a corresponding competence, including his personal attitude towards it and to the object of his activity. While speaking about the system of education, we are to divide these two notions, meaning under the word competence a fore-set requirement (norm) to the educational readiness of the graduate, and under the word competency – one’s already formed personal quality (summation of qualities) and minimal experience in the given sphere’s activity. Let us consider, what the place of these construct in the educational process is. Competences, a set of competences are a starting position for the educational program projecting. Such a set describes the qualities of the worker, being already prepared for a certain professional activity and fulfilling this activity. First of all we form this set (the model of the specialist’s competences can be determined by some professional standard), then we form a competence-based model of the graduate on its basis, and further we plan the results of education by its stages, we project a content structure (courses units and cycles, disciplines and modules, practice and educational-research work). Competency of the student presupposes a whole spectrum of his personal qualities. The notion of competency includes in itself not only cognitive and operational-technological components, but also motivating, ethic, social and behavioral. In other words, competency is always personally determined by the qualities of a certain concrete person, starting from meaningful and world outlook qualities (for example, what do we need this competence for?) to reflexive-axiological (how much successful do I apply it in my Life? Now, let us analyze if it makes any sense for educational projecting and process realization the fact, which one of the considered notions is chosen for a final result. If we put the accent on the competences in results of education, then we get a precise mind-set for mastering in a concrete profession (a precisely fixed volume of skills, knowledge, necessary experience, meta-professional qualities and so on) and we observe a sort of «training» for a concrete set of man’s competences in a chosen profession. In this case we need special circumstances, a concrete working place for revelation and demonstration of competences. It is difficult to create such circumstances and to organize real professional activity in the walls of a HE institution. For example, we may take the preparation to a working specialty in the system of primary and additional professional education – it is an example of such a scheme of educational process. Though, for example, universitarian education is something larger than mastering of competences of whatever concrete profession. If competency of the graduate is taken as a result of education, then it is a fixation of personal achievements of the student or the graduate at every stage of his course of study (integrative qualities, skills, knowledge, values, and experience), being necessary for fulfillment of these or those generalized # 435 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… types of activity for some field of professional activity. In this case, specialists’ preparation is run not in accordance to a concrete profession, but in accordance to a certain branch labor market. In order to reveal the competencies we should take some life situations, occasions from profession; i.e. in the process of education it is necessary to create circumstances, simulating professional activity in this or that sphere. So, we come the conclusion, the question about competences and competencies is a question about targets and results of education. Hence, we use verbs, denoting perfection of the process. Competence is mastering (assimilation). Competency is formation. A competence-based model of HPE leads to projecting of a content, wherein constructs are variously included into the process. Competences are technological elements of the common target (a competence-based model of the specialist in the professional sphere). Competency is an integral characteristic of personality; it is a technological element of person’s evaluation on various stages of preparation and at the very end. In the process of new model assimilation, they often make a mistake in appliance of the notions «competence», «competency», while describing the results of education, and consequently in the projecting of the whole process of education. We are speaking about those cases, when they take the process, its content, being made in traditional format – disciplinary, and then they add the competencebased approach to the description of the results as in separate disciplines, so in the final attestation. In summary, they get a sort of passive model: the students have been taught and taught some subjects, and at the end of education we start revealing – what kinds of competences and competencies have been formed and what is missing. In such cases, the main problem is misunderstanding of inter-disciplinary, integrative and transsubject essence of the notions «competence», «competency». Complex preparation, inter-disciplinary knowledge and skills, readiness to professional activity – all these demands of the competence-based model cannot be formed in the process of traditional «teaching» on the subject-content level. Having such a disciplinarity, it is impossible to «divide» competences and competencies according to the disciplines. Competences formation cannot be inscribed into the traditional understanding of the education process organization, as far as it is not the consequence of the volume of information, having been learnt by the graduate of a HEI in concrete disciplines. Competence-based format of FSEI HPE needs new approaches to projecting of the educational process in HEI. That is why, the first position, which has been announced by you, is absolutely correct. If we form the process of education, then we should obviously start from formation of a model of the specialist. What is cultural specialist? What does he do, what is he responsible for? What is the sphere of his power? First of all, we must depict a capacious model of the specialist, and afterwards, we must cut it up to its key professional competences – in order it could be diagnosed and we could understand what should be added. It will be our working scheme. Ivan A. Pfanenshtil: to my mind, the model of the specialist, which is adequate to the economy and market, is not at all adequate to the humane nature. As far as we know, even Russian engineer is sufistic and thinking. And cultural specialist is much more of it. We are of other spiritual culture than the West. And we should orient to that atmosphere, which exists in the faculty. We are to think of the specialists and those courses, which will be delivered to them. Then we shall speak not of some abstract model of the graduate, but of the real one. # 436 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… Nikolay V. Sosnin: I agree with you that technical education in Russia has been developed in some other way than it has been abroad. Our knowledge has been originated from handicrafts. This tradition has been brought by Peter I. It has always been very applicative engineering. And now, basing on our technical education, we must decide, what kind of model we shall use for specialists’ preparation – the Bologna model (English-Saxon) or the American one. When we make the decision, we shall understand how we shall form the model of the graduate not preceding from the Ministry’s order, but preceding from the demands of our professional society. Ivan A. Pfanenshtil, Doctor of Philosophic Sciences, Professor, the Head of the Philosophy department of the Institute of the Fundamental Training of the SFU Victoria L. Pfanenshtil, Aspirant of the Philosophy department of the Institute of the Fundamental Training of the SFU Report: «Anent the Formation of a Specialist Model for the Sphere of Culture and Arts» Topicality of the target of the expert seminar «Formation of the New Generation Specialist Model for the Sphere of Culture and Arts», having been presented by the project leader, the dean of the faculty of art theory and cultural studies, Professor N.P. Koptseva together with Natalya V. Malashyuk, the Head of the Krasnoyarsk Chief Administration of Culture, is impossible to overestimate. And in reality, in the modern conditions of globalization of economy, culture and education, the Siberian Federal University, as an innovative HEI, and the faculty of art theory and cultural studies, in particular, faces the task of the new generation graduate model formation, which would meet the requirements of the international level. It must be a young creative specialist, having competences, knowledge and skills, which are not out-of-touch, and which allow him to orient and to assimilate to rapidly-changing circumstances of socio-cultural existence. Hence, we face a new problem in education and teaching – we are to change their content and model: from the one reproducing (reproductive) the sum of knowledge – to formation of creative skills of learning, to assimilation of the system of teaching, modern methods (methods and methodologies) and socio-cultural project technologies. The epoch of cultural and art-theory scientist is over; it is being changed by the epoch of cultural-methodologist, who researches, and creatively projects socio-cultural harmonious systems in correspondence with natural laws and demands of the informational society of 21 century. Achievement of the set target and creation of a new model of the specialist requires innovative reforms in the following spheres: 1. In the process and the content of the specialist preparation, his fundamentalization; 2. Methods and methodologies; 3. Modern socio-cultural technologies; 4. Program-objective approaches including individualization and independent work; 5. Methodic retraining of the teachers on the basis of the highest expression of the Russian culture of 19-20 centuries, including Russian cosmism, binding altogether all the existing sociocultural phenomena through the prism of cosmological values. # 437 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… To our mind, the mentioned problem should be not only theoretically thought over, but also practically solved and politically controlled and motivated, if we take into consideration today’s situation in the country, in the University and in the society. Natalya P. Koptseva: though, administrative order is very important in the given case. And today one of our guests is Natalya V. Malashyuk, the Head of the Krasnoyarsk Chief Administration of Culture. She has prepared a report just concerning the given problematics. Natalya V. Malashyuk, the Head of the Krasnoyarsk Chief Administration of Culture Report «New Requirements of the Service Receiver of Krasnoyarsk Municipal Cultural Institutions as a Vector of the Branch Personnel Potential Formation»: At the beginning, l would like to mention that I am myself a student of SFU and study the specialty «socio-cultural activity». l would like to begin from the kind of senses I have realized in the course of our meeting and concerning the fact, that democratic state gives a person a wide range of possibilities for the search, which has been mentioned by Natalya P. Koptseva. For us (for administration) this search and right of choice are also important and needed. We are also interested in the notions of competence and competency, as far as there is a competition. Private organizations are more competent in providing services, they professionally advertise themselves. And we must change something in ourselves. The theme of the seminar raises topical, but quite solvable questions. And to my settled conviction, the main condition of the competent specialist formation in the higher education institutions is a timely changing of the educational program and consideration of demands of the practical sphere. And it is possible only under the systematic monitoring of the service receiver’s opinion of that sphere of activity, of that branch, which is chosen by the future specialist. In my report, I make an attempt to represent briefly the existing experience of management of development processes of the branch of Culture, processes which are aimed to the services’ quality improvement in the Krasnoyarsk municipal institutions, taking into account opinion of the citizens, in order to transfer to those knowledge and skills, which are necessary not only for the officials of the institutions or specialists of the apparatus, but also for every employee of the branch institutions. I shall remind you of the qualitative-quantitative characteristics of the net of cultural institutions of Krasnoyarsk, including regional institutions, situated on the territory of our city: 50 libraries, 20 club institutions (including 5 Houses of Culture and centralized club system, containing 13 filiations, the amateur theatre «Our theatre» and «Creative experimental center»), 7 museums, 17 Municipal Educational Institutions of additional children’s education, 5 Municipal creative collectives, 5 theatres, 2 municipal cinema-halls, the Krasnoyarsk Park of Flora and Fauna «Royev’s Spring». The city of Krasnoyarsk needs new perspective projects, targeted to improvement of life quality of its citizens. in collaboration with commercial and non-commercial organizations, the city administration shows practically its exclusive interest in formation of comfortable living city environment, which is revealed not only in creation of the attractive image of Krasnoyarsk, but also in its striving for solving the problem of quality of the mentioned environment by means of innovative reforms of the existing system of city management, which motto is: «the city of quality, responsibility and collaboration!». The target of these changes is improvement of quality of services, being rendered to the population by the municipal administration. # 438 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… At present time, finding resultative and efficient methods of provision of population with the services of corresponding quality and affordable level, formation of strategic directions of realization of the city social policy in the sphere of guaranteed social services, and creation of a reasonable system of regulation measures (as a factor of population’s life quality improvement) in the of sphere of social services become of crucial importance. Analysis of the regulatory base allows singling out three blocks of indicators (criteria) of the quality of services, which are oriented to the result: 1) Indicators of resources exploitation (statistic, sociological and other report data, Characterizing the volume and the quality of the social service and other report data, Characterizing the volume and the quality of the social service, and also the volume of organizations’ activity (organization, which represents them); 2) Indicators of the immediate result (volume of the used resources in its natural and monetary terms, qualitative characteristics and technology of usage in the process of the service provision under the fixed budget limitations and with the aim of achieving of the targeted indicators of the immediate result) 3) Indicators of the final socio-economical effect of services' rendering (condition and changing of the object of the service rendering). There can be several indicators in every block. For example, in the process of serving, the client is influenced by a whole system of factors, directed from the executor’s side. Service quality criteria of the first block are the following main indicators of quality estimation of social service: Indicators of the external environment quality: comfort of the rooms, esthetic attractiveness of the personnel, appearance of the personnel, office and room design. Indicators of service quality criteria of the social sphere: timely social service; time of the service expectation; time of the service provision. Indicators of effective functioning of social service: adequacy of the service forms, technologies, and methods used by the executor. Indicators of professional mastership of the service provider: professional qualification, special training, practical experience. Indicators of the service provider’s motivation: executor’s motivational readiness, interest in the client’s problem salvation. Indicators of accessibility: accessibility of the service and of the procedure of its receiving; accessibility of the personnel, providing social services: accessibility of the personnel by phone, in the institution of the social sphere at the moment of the service requirement; accessibility of the personnel by electronic resource (forum in the Internet, electronic mail), possibility of the service provision at home (for disabled and old people). Indicators of the equal right status of the customer and the service executor: equal right partnership in the course of the service providing. Communicative indicator: executor’s ability to listen and to communicate, absence of communicative barriers in the course of communication with clients, And all these criteria demand presence of the sense of responsibility, the skill of appliance of perfection action, and, if it is necessary, appliance of cyclicality of typical actions. Special role is given to the knowledge and effective appliance of psychology and pedagogics bases. # 439 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… Among the criteria of the immediate result (the second block of indicators), we can single out the following: Presence of the documents, with which correspondence the institution is functioning (presence of organization charter and local acts; license; certification of the state accreditation) Complete stuffing level of specialists of necessary qualification (staff completeness). Presence of special techniques and facilities in the institution (equipment, instruments, apparatuses and so on.). Information about the institution, its regulations and rules of services provision. Existence of the inner (own) and outer systems of control of the institution activity. Reliable information of the service provision includes in itself: A list of essential services; characteristics of the service and time consumption for its provision; conditions of services provision and its cost; possibilities to obtain the estimation of quality from consumer’s part; timely and fully-fledged provision of budget services, achievement of final results, which are defined by the budgetary assignment of the chief controller of the budget funds. Undoubtedly, in order to fulfill the given standards the specialist must know and do the following: • Know how to analyze and to perform a comparative characteristic, • To reveal the main criteria and indicators of the current activity, • Know economical disciplines, fundamentals of the workflow management and culture of speech, have skills of text compilation under the given conditions (and consequently, the specialist must know not only the theory, but know how to apply the bases of stylistics, vocabulary, grammar and many other disciplines). • These skills are also important for organization and promotion of the services, i.e. informational support in the course of public opinion formation (PR). Since 2007, in Krasnoyarsk they have been carrying out a Week of Quality, within which frames and summarizing its results they have been running a row of actions, studying citizens’ satisfaction with the quality of cultural services. This action is also run in the institutions of the cultural branch. They have also organized «the days of open doors», informational exhibitions, round tables, educational seminars, parents’ conferences, presentations of cultural services, sociological inquiries. There has been organized and is still working «a hot telephone line» in the Krasnoyarsk Chief Administration of Culture. Everyone may call by it and has a possibility to leave his feedback concerning the work of cultural institutions. Analysis of the annual sociological inquiry of visitors of the cultural institutions, which are subordinated to the Chief Administration of Culture, has revealed the following tendencies: • In spite of the fact that the most part of the visitors has been satisfied by all the factors, the weakest point (most unsatisfactory opinion) is the technical support of institutions; • The second factor according to the visitors’ discontent is the factor of information awareness of the institutions’ activity; • The inquiry has also revealed a demand of the visitors of municipal houses of culture to widen the number of events, involving the people of senior ages and professional colleges’ students, necessity to organize more service clubs, including women clubs for 45-years-old people and senior; # 440 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… • Among the visitors of libraries the main discontent has been caused by the librarians’ lack of skills of finding necessary information in the internet system (and, certainly, this item is closely connected with the first item of the given table) • The visitors of museums have marked that there is a lack of new, non-standard (unique) services, motivating people to mass visitation of museums – first of all, attracting the youth and teenagers. Now, I am not going to linger on the implementation methods of corrections, I shall only say that they have created separate plans for every item, but the main problem of their realization is absence of institution officials’ flexibility in making administrative decisions and disability to change their traditional approaches in the sphere of personnel activities, first of all it concerns the employees, who have worked for more than 10 years at one and the same place. And all this is caused by the lack of knowledge and application of this knowledge in the sphere of management and self-management. Organization of work in institutions, the work, which is targeted to improvement of the service quality, customer- and result-oriented presupposes a new, modern quality, a new level of training and a new spectrum of professional competences of the cultural institutions’ employees, competences, which go far beyond the boarder of their occupational work, which has been taught in their educational institution. Today, cultural institution’s employee – it can be a librarian, a teacher of the school of arts, a service club manager or a specialist of the flora and fauna park «Royev Spring» – must simultaneously know the bases of management, project culture, technology of program-objective planning, must have a developed strategic thinking and must certainly know the basis of historical dynamics of the sociocultural processes of the city, the region, the country, and of the world. Thereat, he should possess a full spectrum of special knowledge. We should mark that at present time and up to 2020 in the strategy of the Krasnoyarsk branch of culture, they are going to make an accent on the development and support of cultural and creative industries, which will allow to put into action an innovative socially-oriented type of branch development with a new spectrum of cultural services and goods for the Krasnoyarsk citizens. It presupposes formation of special conditions and maximally attractive environment for creative people. And today, many an institution of Krasnoyarsk includes in its program educational courses, forming creative competences of the future specialists in the sphere of culture and arts. Today, the theme of creative industries development is rather topical in Krasnoyarsk, and in connection with this fact, on 24.04.2010 within the frames of the III Municipal Assembly «Krasnoyarsk. Technologies of the Future. The First Stage of Modernization» the Chief Administration of Culture organized and carried out a discussion with elements of presentation «creative industries: city resources, conditions of realization». In the protocol of intentions, participants of the given discussion marked that we needed specialists of new competences, and we were to train them in all the educational institutions of all the stages of preparation, beginning probably even from the preschool education. At present time, in the branch of culture they have organized work in various directions, which have influence on development of the personnel potential of the branch, which are the following: • Improvement of the project culture in order to receive budget funds because of participation in grant programs and collaboration with sponsors; • collaboration with institutions employees for searching of new formats of service quality improvement on the basis of research activity; also including the work with parental # 441 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… collectives in Municipal Educational Institutions of Additional Children’s Education, Houses of Culture; • Interaction with the Humanitarian Institute of SFU in joint researches of socio-cultural processes and organization of students’ practice in cultural institutions of Krasnoyarsk, all this contributes to the newest approaches to earlier non-demanded practical skills of the branch employees. For example: we have already positive experience of SFU students’ participation in surveying of the objects of cultural heritage, creation of the web-site of MIC «Krasnoyarsk Artistic Museum n.a. V.I. Surikov» and MIC «V.I. Surikov’s Museum-Mansion», presenting their funds and halls in 3D-format. Such an interchange of knowledge and skills is a sort of master-class for both parts of the joint activity – a very perspective and resultative direction in the course of formation of a new personnel potential of the branch. One more source of mutual enrichment of students and employees of the cultural branch could be students’ practice and scientific researches, being run by the students of SFU, KSTTU, SSAU and other HEIs in the institutions of the branch by the following specializations: socio-cultural activity, sociology, industrial civil engineering, organizations’ management, record management and archivistics, architecture and design,. We suggest the following research directions: • Mapping of the Krasnoyarsk creative industries’ resources; • Researching of the existent and creation of new practices, being able to form Krasnoyarsk brands, including the brand «Siberian Character»; • Monitoring of evaluation of customers’ satisfaction by the services of cultural institutions (sociological research, there is a possibility of methodologies of information collection and processing); • Inspection of technical conditions of the tasks, given by the Chief Administration of Culture; • Development of paid services in the autonomic institutions; • Development of HR service activity and usage of the method of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA); • Development of electronic catalogues for the Archive Files Administration (creation of electronic data-base); and so on and so forth. Certainly, in order to carry out the announced researches we shall render maximum assistance in selection of the practical materials, in provision of the existing regulatory and legal framework, in searching of experts, we shall provide systematic consulting assistance, and if it is necessary – shall fulfi ll the role of a scientific supervisor. And consequently, theory and practice, topicality of diploma works will prove the main tasks of development of the SFU, and newly-issued specialists will be interested in address choice of their working places for their future activity, and this is already in the interests of the branch. Surely, we shall be glad to recruit the best student assistants at their graduation of the HEI or in the course of their study. We consider that in order to reveal the most professionally-interested students, we must have a reserve data-base, which would contain all the information about the graduates, who have shown prominent results in the course of their practice. We are sure that in the nearest 3 years the salaries of the cultural branch employees will be raised, and consequently – the youth will be motivated to choose these very specialties and will gladly # 442 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… participate in salvation of the cultural branch problems, using their new knowledge and new unique competences. One of the main criteria, expressed in the requirements, which is faced by the cultural specialist of the new generation, is the following: 1. Efficient participation of the specialists in realization of Krasnoyarsk cultural projects and programs, including development and realization of their own events, running of their own separate programs within the frames of municipal projects, organization of students’ participation in the projects and competitions (for teachers and conductors of creative amateur collectives). 2. Application of topical and innovative methods in their work (sociological, project, marketing, computer, educational methods): - Organization of the work with visitors of various age and social groups (orphans, disabled people, families with many children, people of senior age and others); - Application of methodologies and forms of work, allowing to attract visitors and to improve the quality of the rendering services; - Participation in grant competitions and programs of various levels; - Organization of scientific-research, experimental activity (first of all for museums’ personnel and librarians); - Organization of the work with students’ parents (for the teachers of children’s schools of arts). 3. Exchange of experience on the municipal and (or) regional level: - Development of their own methodical materials; - Development of modified and authorial educational programs (for the teachers of children’s schools of arts); - Public reporting and speaking at round tables, seminars, conferences and forums (carrying out consultations, master-classes) and so on; - Organization of interaction work with various creative teams, institutions of various types (educational, including schools and higher schools, museums, creative teams and others), with non-commercial organizations and units (interdepartmental interaction); - Publications in mass media (articles in print publications, plots and TV programs). 4. Participation in competitions of professional skills and knowledge and creative competitions and festivals. 5. Systematic improvement of professional skills by means of qualification improvement (professional re-training). These are the criteria of participants’ evaluation of the competition «The best employee of the municipal cultural institutions of Krasnoyarsk», which has been held by us already for three years. Annually, we choose the most deserved representatives according to five categories (5 main activity directions of the net of institutions). And consequently, there are specialists, who are able to meet all those demands, which are required by the modern life, by our spectator, our listener, and our partner. Of course, we need a precisely-formulated competence-based model of the specialist for efficient interuniversity interaction concerning educational programs compilation. And for that purpose, we need to gather already right now all the characteristics, and describe our expectations and necessities. Nonstandard educational approaches will also be needed, for example, a transition to the system of modules, which allows to study not only the module of a concrete topic, but also to run plunges of # 443 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… the students into the practical activity in the given topic, while teachers get an opportunity to estimate quickly the quality of students’ mastering of new theoretical and practical knowledge. I am sure that our co-joint survey for the instruments of the new generation specialist’s preparation in the sphere of «culture and arts» will become an interesting and unique project with equally interesting and unique results! Natalya P. Koptseva: Natalya Valeryevna, and the main question, which torches me, as you know, what the Russian state is. It seems to me that there is a contradiction. The Russian state is a unique state, which would like to embrace everything, including culture and arts as well. How can the state in the face of the Chief Administration of Culture or of the Regional Ministry cover by itself such wonderful phenomena as culture and arts? Recently, I have got to know with cultural anthropology, and there is such a theme – national character’s study. They have run certain researches and found out that we all are anarchists deep inside. On one hand, we are constantly trying to run away from the state – we move to Siberia, to Far East, run to our country houses, and thereat, we are constantly waiting for something from our state (diplomas, merit certificates, bonuses, and ranks). It is a remarkable feature of our national character. And you act somewhere here, using this very contradiction. Do you agree with this? We would like to work creatively, but at the same time we would like to have many sanctions from the state. And one more thing, it is interesting, what your budget is? Natalya V. Malashyuk: what concerns the contradiction – yes, I agree with you. It is really the feature of our character, and on the other hand, it is our Russian Siberian character that helps us to go on and not to lose our heart, as far as cultural budget is the smallest one. And we are trying to hold the bar mainly by means of our work with partners, arts patronage, and merchantry. That is why we must bring up those ones, who will understand us and will support us. Natalya P. Koptseva: this way, the state support of the cultural branch will not disappear, won’t it? Natalya V. Malashyuk: Certainly, everybody sees and understands the necessity of these tasks and strategic salvations. But there are other directions. People are constantly complaining about awful conditions of our roads. Hence, the priorities are changing, and it does not mainly depend on us. That is why, we are also to bring up our own deputes, who would hear us and understand our problems. And answering to your question, I say – yes, the state understands that the branch of culture and art is needed, but they do not know how to develop it. It is very difficult to hear the customer and to be in step with the times. Natalya P. Koptseva: and what does the Chief Administration of Culture think about the transition of some organizations to the autonomic existence? Natalya V. Malashyuk: we do need autonomic institutions. In 2012 году our government will issue a document, according to which organizations and institutions will be divided into governmental, budget, and autonomic. At present time, Krasnoyarsk has tried only autonomic institutions. Nobody, who has changed the status (and there are a lot of institutions, which have done so – for example music schools), has yet regretted it. Though, many people are afraid of the fact that they take the risk of losing of their academician beginning. But the transformation has also a lot of advantages. If the director is ready to become a businessman, to make decisions in a mobile way, to provide the customer such services, which he won’t be able to refuse from – his organization will develop and will always have a good budget. # 444 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… Natalya P. Koptseva: let us speak about creative higher education institutions. As far as precisely these kind of institutions are going to prepare highest qualification personnel in the sphere of culture and arts. Today, we have two guests – two pro-rectors of the Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre. We would like to know how the things are in the academy concerning the transition to the two-leveled system of education. Olga Y. Kolpetskaya, Candidate of the Theory of Art, pro-rector of the scientific work of the FSEI HPE «Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre» Svetlana G. Voitkevich, Candidate of the Theory of Art, pro-rector of the artistic work of the FSEI HPE «Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre» Report: «The Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre: peculiarities of the music education and difficulties of the transition to the new educational standards»: The Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Art was opened in accordance of resolution № 529 of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR d.d. 19 October, 1977 within the system of the Ministry of Culture of the RSFSR. Later, by order №675 of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation d.d. 13.11.2000, the Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Art was renamed into the State Educational Institution «Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre». And then, by order №569 of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation d.d. 25.04.2003, the State Educational Institution «Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre» was renamed into the Federal State Educational Institution of the Higher Professional Education «Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre». There are three faculties in the Academy: musical, theatrical and extra-mural. Obviously, we should mention about our structural organizational unit – musical college, which is administered by A.D. Yakobson. In the academy, HR training is run according to the programs of higher education, secondary professional, post-graduate and additional education (pre-higher education training, qualification upgrading). Thereat, the process of education is carried out in both intra-mural and extramural forms, as by means of the federal budget funds, so under the contract conditions, which means full compensation of educational expenditures. On 01.10.2009, the total number of students was 652 people. The Academy performed specialists’ training in eight specialties of higher professional education in the sphere of culture and arts: 070101 65 Instrumental performances (according to the types of instruments): Fortepiano, orchestra string instruments, orchestra brass and drum instruments, orchestra folk instruments. 070103 65 Vocal arts (according to the types of vocal): academic singing; 070105 65 Conducting (types): academic choir conducting; folk choir conducting. 070107 65 Composition. 070111 65 Theory of Music. 070201 65 Dramatic arts: Drama theatre and cinema actor 070208 65 Audio engineering of theatricalized performances and events. # 445 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… 070304 65 Pedagogics of ballet (qualification – ballet dance teacher). By the way, the Krasnoyarsk State Academy of Music and Theatre is the only specialized higher education institution on the territory of East Siberia, which prepares specialists in the sphere of music and theatrical arts. Natalya P. Koptseva: and so, you prepare scientific personnel, do you have a post-graduate centre? Olga Y. Kolpetskaya: yes, sure. We have had the post-graduate centre (of scientific profi le) in the Academy since 1994. Accompanists and tutors of the Academy, specialists from various music educational institutions and schools of Russia have raised and continue raising their scientificpedagogical qualification. In our post-graduate centre we study the following specialty 17.00.02 – Musical art on the basis of the acting legislation concerning the post-graduate education and in correspondence with aspirants’ individual plans, which are approved by the academic council of the Academy. Annually, during the last five years, the Academy post-graduate centre has been receiving from 2 to 3 specialists on the basis of the state order. Teaching of aspirants is also realized on the basis of direct contracts with organizations, being interested in their employees’ qualification upgrading, and also on the basis of individual contracts. Among our aspirants there are specialists from Novosibirsk and other cities of Siberia (for example, from Kemerovo, Abakan, Bratsk, Tomsk, Omsk, Tyiva, Buryatia). Perspectives of the post-graduate centre development are determined, fi rstly, by the necessity to accelerate and to broaden the preparation of candidates of science, and secondly, by the growing demand in personnel preparation for HEIs of arts of the Siberian region. Natalya P. Koptseva: the Academy of Music and Theatre is a creative HEI, which is firstly wellknown by its musicians and actors. Which departments do they most actively lead their scientificresearch works at? Olga Y. Kolpetskaya: the major part of the Academy’s scientific-research works is done at the departments of history of music, theory of music and composing, humanitarian and social sciences, choir conducting, and chamber ensemble. We create inter-departmental groups, in order to solve local and perspective scientific problems. The printing and publication department plays the leading role in scientific-research and methodological work results implementation. And all the departments take part in making of annual and perspective plans of the institution’s scientific and methodological work, which is later approved by the academic council. In the Academy, there is a wide and varied spectrum of directions, which correspond to the profiles of the disciplines, representing spheres of musical science. The following directions are the most significant: 1. Poetics of the native musical theatre; 2. Theory, methodology and practice of performatory art; 3. Musical regional study; 4. Philosophic-esthetic problems of culture and arts. All the mentioned directions have been formed in correspondence with the profile of specialists’ preparation, prior directions of the modern humanitarian knowledge development, and specific tasks of the Academy as a Siberian musical higher education institution. In the scientific-research activity of the Academy we should underline its orientation to natural scientific fundamentalization of musical knowledge, musical and theatrical education. # 446 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… Natalya P. Koptseva: and what is the specific of your training of graduates? What kind of difficulties do you face? Svetlana G. Voitkevich: when we are speaking of a new model of the specialist, then representatives of creative professions experience a lot of difficulties. First of all, it concerns musicians and actors, as far as the volume of one’s talent, of one’s gift, and abilities is impossible to measure by the generally accepted frameworks. Speaking about our graduates, we must bear in mind that they are all exclusive, and it is impossible to measure them by the general criteria. Experience of centuries and generations proves that a talented person often turns out to be absolutely helpless in his everyday life, routine questions, usually he is not good at modern technologies, is not able to advertise himself with a profit, and these qualities have always been and still are of much necessity, as everyone here understands. All the more it is revealed in this century! That is why pains and hopes of the teacher and strivings of the students themselves are very often broken by the reality. If we are speaking of a model of the new generation specialist, then we mean under it such a person, who equally possesses both talent and necessary complex of professional knowledge and skills to organize projects, which are directed to his creative potential realization. Natalya P. Koptseva: will you please tell us, if there is a competition among your prospective students to be enrolled in your HEI? Olga Y. Kolpetskaya: yes, there are specialties, where the competition is traditionally unvarying. These are theatrical faculty and a new specialty «Audio engineering of theatricalized performances and events», which is highly demanded because of active development of new technologies. At the musical faculty, the competition is smaller and smaller from year to year. It is the impact of the demographic «gap», and also the decreasing of the specialty prestige. But the main thing is certainly the state policy and that cultural space, which dictates new conditions and devaluates the value of education. What for to study vocal in the course of 9 years, if, having some minor talent, one can take part in some show program and take a chance of making «easy» money? It is a pity, but nobody shows «the other side» of such «elevations» to the young generation. Natalya P. Koptseva: why does the system of musical education resist the introduction of the 3-d generation standard? Svetlana G. Voitkevich: specifics of education in a creative HEI is in the following: our students are «piece-goods». Sometimes, there are only 5-6 people in the group. In the course of two centuries we have got a steady system in the musical education: school – college – HEI. Except academic vocal, all the rest performance and research specialties presuppose future students’ training in musical schools and colleges. Moreover, there is a whole complex of disciplines, which are connected exclusively with individual education. There are no as much individual lessons in the curriculum of any institution, as there is in the Academy. In the developed 3-d generation standards all the specialties are «fractionized». And sometimes the complex of announced disciplines does not correspond to that, what is necessary. And what is the last drop – creative probations, which are the main examination for evaluation of the potential students of our specifics, are ascribed to the row of «additional» ones! In other words, any person, who has passed the Russian and literature USE, has a right to be enrolled in to the creative HEI to the chosen specialty, having just performed a piece of a primary-music-school level. And such important qualities as staginess, good ear, sense of rhythm, intoning skill, flexibility, emotionality and musicality will be hardly taken into consideration. # 447 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… Natalya P. Koptseva: how much are the graduates of your HEI demanded? Olga Y. Kolpetskaya, Svetlana G. Voitkevich: today, our former students represent our region on the vast territory of Russia and work in central drama and musical theatres and also abroad. Such names as Dmitry Khvorostovskiy, Nikolay Putilin, Alexander Bogdanov, Vera Baranova, and Valery Mikitskiy are well-known all over the world. Graduates from our Academy amount from 40 to 70 % of the creative collectives of the city and the region, of culture and arts institutions. On the basis of the Academy, they have formed the following collectives, which still exist and are working in the municipal status: Choir Ensemble of Soloists «Singing to you» (Artistic Director, Honored Artist of RF К. Yakobson) and Krasnoyarsk Chamber Orchestra (Artistic Director, Honored Artist of RF M. Benumov). Moreover, it has become a tradition that orchestras of the Academy take part in the celebration events, which are organized by the municipal and regional administrations. They are the symphonic orchestra (Artistic Director, Laureate of the All-Russian competition V. Shelepov), the brass orchestra (Artistic Director, Honored man of art of the Tyva Republic P. Kazimir), the folk orchestra (Artistic Director, R. Antipinsky); the Choir of Academy students (Artistic Director, Honored woman of art of RF L. Krayevaya), and the folk ensemble «Svetlitsa» (Artistic Director, Honored man of art of the RF N. Shulpekov). Since 2005, thanks to the activity of our Students’ theatre, our citizens have got an opportunity to watch performances of the graduates of our theatrical faculty. Our Academy is open to cooperation. Organization and running of seminars, similar to this one, will help to find those common themes, which will allow to enrich our graduates and to make them more able to meet competition under such complicated modern circumstances. Nikolay V. Sosnin: it has become a revelation for me that specifics of musicians’ teaching does not at all correlate with the competence-based approach and even contradicts it. And how are you going to built it in the frames of the competence-based approach, if you prepare the students so exclusively and individually? Olga Y. Kolpetskaya: yes, Nikolay, here you are right. There is a whole row of contradictions. And we hope that we will be able to solve this contradiction that way that our system of high qualification specialists’ preparation, which has been formed for centuries, won’t suffer. And we also hope that such kind of seminars will be of much help for us. Natalya P. Koptseva: I would like to introduce you one more HEI, which issue specialists of creative specialties, people of practice – the Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Arts. How do you manage to implement the requirements of the competence-based approach along with the specifics of your specialties? Elena Y. Khudonogova, Candidate of Art Theory, Docent, the Head of the World Artistic Culture and Social Disciplines of the FSEI HPE «Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Arts » Report «Modern artistic education: its tendencies and tasks»: Today, in Russia we observe how slowly, but inevitably the system of the modern arts is forming. Hence, there appears a whole list of problems, being connected to the artistic society, system role of the artist, market system of the arts functioning and so on. In such a situation, education is the leading beginning, is the basis of the system of arts, which guarantees its reproduction and perspective. # 448 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… Artistic education can be efficient only in case it turns out to be ready to transformations along with the others, transformations, which will be synchronous to the changing of the artistic process itself. That is why, now, we may observe a growing interest to educational concepts of various type, including the experience of Bauhaus and BXYTEMAC. One of the basic tasks of the classic education – to teach how to think, to cultivate practical skills, – becomes secondary in the given situation. We are to develop the ability to conduct a dialogue, to teach to function within the system, to assimilate to the modern processes of the artistic market. Today, the artistic market is presented not only by separate artists and museums, but also by galleries, private customers, and, on the other side, by independent creative groups. We are to divide the notions of commercial and creative success, as far as creation of «another world» becomes an alternative of the existing system for young people. We observe an active interest towards anti-academic systems and inclination to form independent private or commercial schools. The new format of school is absence of any kind of pressure on talented students, free development of skills and abilities in this or that direction, appliance of the modern technologies, work with various techniques and materials. This is precisely what the academic education is lacking. Artistic institutions are closed in themselves and they are practically not ready to take the challenge of the time. That is why there is a conflict between the traditional and the creative, new. As a consequence – we lose potential students, loose the quality of our new comers and talents become rear, those, who are able to independent creative thinking. Activity and creativity of the students are very low. At present time, expansion of the cultural and social spheres demands reviewing of the educational programs of artistic specialties. The student should not «be old» and reproduce the patterns of the past. Teaching process should be formed that way that it helps the student «to disclose himself», to strive to create something new. Most dynamic young people try to find such an educational institution, which will allow them to develop themselves in the freest way, and to be successful and creative in the system of education. Or, the second variant – it will give them an opportunity to master their craft in the fullest volume, in future it will allow them to master the skills of drawing and picturing, and to create remarkable technique imitations of the saloon academic school (as an example, it obviously prevails in the market). Educational program of the modern student of creative faculties must form his activity and the skill of dialogue leading, and his readiness to agues and discussions. There is a necessity in the social exchange «school» → society, and also exchange with the professional society, critics and masters. We can teach to think only in such a context. Exactness of the idea of artistic expression is very important in the modern art. Author’s position, communicability and activity are the basis of the creative education. Today, advance guard is a position, defending a new social role of art, its place in the society and in new social systems. Here, the traditional mechanism of knowledge transference does not work. It is necessary to work out the system of collaboration teacher-pupil. Dialogue, ability to defend one’s ideas, and here, the main link is artistic criticism. Active involvement into the modern cultural situation demands a certain shock. Shocking education is the most efficient today. It is impossible to educate somebody, one can do it only himself. It is impossible to teach, one can only study. And the task of teaching is not to obtain a quick result, but to provoke as maximally as possible and give a possibility to be ready to take the challenge of various situations. The man should get a sum of knowledge, the system of # 449 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… reacting. Difficulties in socialization are one of the main reasons of absence of demand and disability to adaptation in the professional sphere, to galleries, to the market. So, there is only one way left– to a cheep commercial saloon, to the shop, to the mixed systemless exhibitions. And in such a variant, professional prestige becomes absolutely low. The system of artistic education persistently demands crucial changes. Expansion of the row of specialties and much more flexible involvement into the educational process, where there will be no such a leading principle as preparation «according to the types», and universality of the professional education will run the show, when the student will freely master «the language» of art in various techniques, materials, including modern technologies as well. Such training is highly demanded in the modern society and will allow the graduate of creative faculties to find his professional place in the society. Natalya P. Koptseva: what is the dynamics of potential students’ and of the first-year students’ quality? Elena Y. Khudonogova: in the last 20 year, the cultural sphere of Krasnoyarsk has much shrink. Since the time, when P.S. Fedirko announced that there was «High Culture» in Siberia, the situation has drastically changed. Precisely at that very time they open the Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Art. It gave Siberia the artists with high education. Earlier there had been just few of them. Now, we have quite many professional painters and all of them are moving away all over Russia and abroad. Firstly, it allows other cities to open these specialties in common universities, and it influences our institute’s enrollment competition. And secondly, we observe weakening of the professional level. Earlier, we have had competition of15-20 persons per a place, today it is only 1-2. What concerns the specialty «sculpture», the situation is still worse. Sometimes, there is a lack of students for the first year of study. And if we take into account, that the percentage of students’ expelling is rather high, so then only few of them get their diplomas. And thirdly, in comparison with musicians, it is very difficult to find job for painters in the city. After they graduate from the institute, all of them are in a sort of a free flight. And our system of education is unique, individual. The entire institute is only 280 people. It is the smallest institute. Though, teacher-painters are themselves in the same situation. This problem is highly topical at the present moment and it must be solved as soon as possible. Moreover, I would like to add, that I am very glad, that such a project has appeared, the project, which, being on the basis of the SFU, will allow joining the efforts of the HEIs, preparing the specialists for the sphere of culture and arts, in order to change the formed situation. On the other hand, I think, that communication with the representatives of technical sciences, with the so-called technocrats is very important for our disciplines development. They are very good at setting the goals and defining the tasks. Elena A. Yershova, Candidate of Pedagogic Sciences, the Head of the Quality Management Department of the FSEI HPE «Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Arts » Report: «Usage of Informational Technologies at the Self-Presentation of a Student of. the Creative HEI» Those problems, which have been mentioned in the course of Elena Y. Khudonogova’s report, do really have a negative impact on the successfulness of our Institute’s graduates. In my report I would # 450 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… like to look at these global problems in detail, and to look at them just in one aspect – in the aspect of the creative institute student’s self-presentation. Humanitarian education is targeted not only to give the students the sum of knowledge and skills in a certain sphere, but also to widen their horizon, to develop their creative thinking, abilities of self-education, to give them understanding of inter-disciplinary links, and also to form humanistic values. Precisely these very parameters make up the specifics of the competencebased approach. For the student of the Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Arts the way to professional mastery passes through the development of professional competences, which the future painter carriers through all his life and which motivate him to a constant self-perfection in his profession. The following components from the basis of the artistic education content, which is oriented to the competence-based approach realization: cognitive personal experience, emotional personal experience, experience of creation and experience of practical activity. All the given components become not only the basis for artistic activity realization, but they themselves are being formed in the course of this activity. Indication of the student’s growth as an artistic person is his constant formation of his portfolio in the course of his education. Many artists made their creative works’ portfolio even in the previous centuries. It was a collection of works, which demonstrated the style of the artist and his possibilities. In the educational process of the Institute, we consider the student’s portfolio as a sum of educational and professional achievements, their presentation and demonstration of the best individual achievements. Portfolio is a self-presentation of the student’s educational achievements, which he records timely by himself. There are 6 educational programs, which are realized in the Krasnoyarsk State Institute of Arts. They are: 0707901.65 «Pictorial art» 070902.65 «Graphics» 070903.65 «Sculpture»» 070603.65 «Interior» 070801.65 «Decorative and applied arts» 070601.65 «Design» Since first year of study, the students of the institute take an active part in various exhibitions, competitions, conferences, plain-airs and so on. That is why the student’s portfolio also fulfills the functions of self-presentation, job placement. Portfolio can be of various forms: a paper variant, an electronic version or a presentation in the website (web-portfolio). Portfolio paper variant contains the main information about its author, documents, certifying his educational achievements, annotations of his project and creative work results and so on. But, this type of portfolio is quite archaic; it does not provide an effective presentation and can be just an addition to the electronic portfolio, and best of all – a portfolio in the web-site. Various scientific schools have different approaches to portfolio characteristics. Out of the whole variety of characteristics, we may single out the following three: • The main sense of educational portfolio is to show everything, what the student is capable of, to demonstrate his strongest points and to reveal most fully his creative potential. # 451 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… • To teach and to bring up the skills of the student’s activity analysis, self-organization, selfcontrol, self-evaluation, and also positive attitude to somebody’s critics of his activity; • Self-conscious and self-feeling of one’s own results and understanding of the results’ dynamics. In the curriculum of all the specialties, within the frames of the discipline «Informational Technologies» the students study programs which can be used as an electronic presentation, and which allow to perform digital image processing, and create WEB – resources. Students get to know to post their creative achievements on the Internet on various WEB – portals, dedicated to creative activity (for example artlib.ru). Electronic portfolio contains of two main parts: 1. Portfolio of documents is a set of certified (documented) individual educational achievements. The main requirement of this component is validity of these documents. In the paper variant all the certificates, merit letters and diplomas are verified by the signatures of responsible executives and by the stamp of organization, which has issued the document. 2. Portfolio of works is a collection of various creative, project and research works of the student. The given part of the electronic portfolio does not almost differ from the paper variant. Any document, being set in the traditional paper portfolio, can be easily transferred into the electronic format. At present time, publication of electronic portfolios of the students of KSIA is done on the individual electronic media, on the local computer net resources and we are planning to create such a resource on the web-site of KSIA. Denis A. Antonov, Candidate of Philosophic Sciences, deputy administrator of the Social Policy Department of the Krasnoyarsk Administration, Docent of the Social Work and Sociology Department of the Siberian State Technological University Report: «Specialists’ training for the sphere of culture and arts in the context of the problem of social identity» The pathos of my report is in the following: the process of the highest qualification specialists’ preparation for the sphere of culture and arts must be adequate to the historically-formed peculiarities of the native system of education and must serve to the cause of preservation of the Russian society’s identity. Every society asserts itself in special objective conditions, and taking into account that there are specific subjective factors , we see that in the result of all these there are formed certain peculiar features and characteristics of the society and in their integrity they form a certain definiteness of the society, its specifics and recognizability in the existing variety of societies. This definiteness is precisely the identity of the society. Consequently, every society has its own definiteness and, retaining its definiteness, it keeps its viability. In this respect, the system of education gains a special status, as far as it is a historically formed social institute, being not only one of the elements of society’s identity, but also, and it is especially important, a system of society’ identity reproduction, including its key component – its culture. The given statement is also reflected in the researches of S.G. Kara-Murza, who marks, that «the Russian # 452 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… system of the higher education has been formed for almost 300 years. It is one of the most complicated and the richest products of the native culture, but the fact that it is a matrix, wherein our culture is reproduced, is even more important». That is why, being within the frames of the Russian higher education school, training of the highest qualification specialists for the sphere of culture and arts must be run not under the influence of the borrowed quality standards of higher education, but considering the necessity, firstly, of the further development of the native education system’s productivity, secondly, of preservation of society’s identity, formation of personnel potential, being able to solve topical problems in the sphere of culture and art. Such an approach presupposes a constructive perception of the formed western system of education, i.e. it accepts its substantiality and viability under the living conditions of the western societies, and also allows to escape the imitation of the western educational system, being so harmful as for the Russian education identity, so for identity of the Russian society on the whole. Natalya P. Koptseva: at the beginning of the seminar, I have already told you about the directions and specialties, being realized at the art theory and cultural studies faculty of the SFU and also about the necessity to reconstruct the educational process in correspondence with the federal state educational standards of the 3-d generation, having been formed in accordance with the competence-based approach, and also about the necessity to take into account our regional specifics of the specialists’ training. Irina A. Panteleeva and Sergey I. Pochekutov have worked upon the formation of the graduate’s model of the direction «socio-cultural activity» within the frames of the competence-based approach and taking into account our regional specifics. Irina A. Panteleeva, Candidate of Philosophic Sciences, Docent of the Department of Marketing and Social-cultural activity of the art theory and cultural studies faculty of the Humanitarian Institute of the SFU Sergey I. Pochekutov, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Docent of the Department of materials science and technology of construction materials of the Polytechnic Institute of the SFU Report: «Model of the Graduate of the Direction «Socio-Cultural Activity» of the Siberian Federal University with respect of the regional competences»: At present time, improvement of the quality of the higher education institution’s graduate is a topical problem not only for Russia, but also for the whole world. And salvation of this problem is directly connected with modernization of the higher education content, in particular, with the transition to the new educational standards, optimization of educational process methods and technologies and rethinking of the final result of the higher education. Today, the modern Russian education is on the stage of a crisis, which, on one hand, is determined by a certain «detachment» of the education from the quickly changing demands of the modern market of labor and its requirements to new specialists and, on the other hand, because of Russia’s entering into the Bologna process and its inevitable transference to the two-leveled system of education. # 453 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… This problem is especially severe in the sphere of culture and arts, where the system of education (primary, high, and higher) has been formed not simply for years, but for decades, if not for centuries. Several modern scientists have substantiated the competence-based approach as a basis for the crisis overcoming: • the competence-based approach gives answers to the requests of the industrial sphere (Т.М. Kovaljeva); • the competence-based approach reveals itself as a renewing of the educational content in response to the changing socio-economical reality (I.D. Frumin); • the competence-based approach is a generalized condition of the person’s ability to act efficiently beyond the boarders of educational plots and situations (V.A. Bolotov); • Competency seems to be radical means of modernization (B.D. Elkonin); • Competency is characterized by the possibility of abilities transition into the conditions, being different from those, upon which this competency has been originally formed (V.V. Bashev). Implementation of the competence-based approach into the modern Russian higher education is inevitable, as far as it is caused by the world-wide tendency of integration, by globalization in the sphere of economy, education and culture, and, to the opinion of A.N. Afanasjev, it is «a starting point of integration of Russia and Europe» (Afanasjev, 2003. P. 54). In connection with all the mentioned, it seems to be topical to create a model of the graduate of the new generation in the sphere of culture and arts, which would take into consideration all the modern socio-economical and cultural realities, and precisely on the basis of the competence-based approach. And as a representative, we suggest the direction «socio-cultural activity». Since 2000, the art theory and cultural studies faculty of the Siberian Federal University has been enrolling the students on the specialty «socio-cultural activity», which is included into the general group «culture and arts» and is the only classic university, which prepares students in the given direction. Specialty «socio-cultural activity» has been opened according to the order of the Krasnoyarsk Region Administration because of a huge deficit of specialists-managers of socio-cultural activity in the region. Less than 20% of managers in the sphere of culture and arts in the Krasnoyarsk Region had had higher education and only some part of them had education in the sphere of culture and arts. The need in the graduates of the given specialty is still urgent. Since 2010 the faculty has been enrolling students for the specialty «socio-cultural activity» in accordance with the given planned figures of enrollment. Federal educational standard of the direction «socio-cultural activity» includes in itself general cultural and professional competences. General cultural competences (GC), which are necessary for the graduate, presuppose to possess the culture of thinking, the skill to speak and to write logically and correctly, with necessary arguments, the skill to work in the team, the ability to work with information in global computer nets, knowledge of one of the foreign languages and so on. (Federal State.., 2010). Professional competences (PC) of the graduate of the direction «socio-cultural activity» are given in FSES and divided according to the types of activity (creative-industrial activity, organizationmanagement activity, artistic direction of the cultural institution’s activity, scientific-methodical activity, project activity, pedagogical activity) and includes in itself 29 competences (Federal State.., 2010). # 454 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… As far as the direction «socio-cultural activity», being realized in the art theory and cultural studies faculty of the Humanitarian Faculty of the SFU, has been originally conceived as the one, being oriented to the demands of the region; general cultural and professional competences, written in FSES, need to be added in the part of professional competences for the sphere of culture and arts of the Krasnoyarsk region. Within the frames of the educational conception, the graduate of the direction «socio-cultural activity» of the art theory and cultural studies faculty must: - be ready to run his own professional activity on the basis of his knowledge of cultures and the peoples, living on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk region; - to be able to take into consideration specifics of cultures of the native small-numbered nations of the Krasnoyarsk region on the basis of the notion of peculiarities of their lives, living conditions, traditional occupations, religious notions and artistic and decorative-applied creative activity; - To work in accordance with the cultural legislation fundamentals of the Krasnoyarsk region and other normative documents, determining the specifics of socio-cultural activity in the region; - to be ready to run professional activity on the basis of one’s knowledge in the sphere of cultural policy of the Krasnoyarsk region on the whole and of its separate municipal institutions; to be able to realization of the regional policy positions in practice and its content modernization in connection with the changing realties; - To be able to formation of creative products in the socio-cultural sphere, which are targeted to development of tolerance in the poly-cultural space of the Krasnoyarsk region; - To be ready to assimilation and communication in the poly-cultural space of separate kinds of ethnos and on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk region; able to management activity in the sociocultural sphere with due respect to a concrete ethno-cultural and territorial situation; - To be ready to the scientific researches carriage, to development and realization of creative projects, targeted to promotion of the positive image of the Krasnoyarsk region in the Russian Federation and all over the world. At present time, they develop a basic education program in the direction «socio-cultural activity», which is based on Federal Educational Standard 071800 «Socio-Cultural Activity» dated January 2010. In connection with all this, they continue to define the groups of competences, which take into account the Krasnoyarsk region’s specifics and which will be included into the variable part of the educational program. References: Federal State Educational Standard of the Higher Professional Education 071800 in the direction «Socio-Cultural Activity» (qualification (degree) «Bachelor». Accepted by the Ministry of Education and Science of RF, dated January 13, 2010, № 16. A.N. Afanasjev. The Bologna Process in Germany / A.N. Afanasjev / / Higher Education of Today. – 2003. – № 5. – P. 54-57. Natalya P. Koptseva: this report is very topical; especially what concerns the aspect of the problematics, being studied at the faculty. And in continuation of it, we shall listen to the following report, which discloses the modern requirements to the specialists in the sphere of culture and arts in the respect of inter-ethnical relations. # 455 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… Irina S. Lyisenko, Assistant of the Philosophy and Social Sciences Department of the Siberian State Aero-Cosmic University n.a. M.F. Reshetnev Report: «Inter-Ethnical Relations: Modern Requirements to the Specialists in the Sphere of Culture and Arts» At present time, inter-ethnical relations become more urgent. It is caused by the processes of globalization, which also involve active migratory movements. Unsatisfactory economical situation, social and ethnical conflicts in the former republics of the USSR contribute only to the growth of labor migration as to the territory of Russia, so to the territory of the Krasnoyarsk region. Inter-ethnical relations are very topical for Russia not only because of the labor migration, but also because of centuries-old historical experience of existence of representatives of multi-ethnical communities on its territory. At present time, ethnical activity can be observed in various spheres of the Krasnoyarsk region (economy, education, culture, sports) and in various forms, thus creating the conditions for inter-ethnical contacts. For example, in the sphere of culture, ethnical activity is revealed in the activity of nationalcultural (NCU) unions and ethno-cultural youth movements, which organize and run public national holidays and actions, connected to ethnical traditions. In the Krasnoyarsk region there are more than 30 national-cultural unions, which are registered in the Ministry of justice of the Krasnoyarsk region. Introduction to the traditions of various nations is an important factor of the peaceful inter-ethnical co-existence. Thus, the given idea is taken as a basis of quite a many educational projects, which are targeted to give children an opportunity to get acquainted to various cultural traditions. This idea is taken as a basis of many cultural institutions’ activity (museums, palaces of culture, various esthetic centers and sports clubs). Though, addressing to cultures, to traditions of various nations and organization of events of the given thematic direction demands theoretical knowledge and thinking over. For example, to the given knowledge we can refer the material about ethno-psychological peculiarities of the nations, about history of culture and arts of separate nations, the material concerning the theory of ethno-conflicts. General interest of the specialist himself to historical and modern events from the sphere of interethnical relations also plays an important role. Professional knowledge of the sphere of inter-ethnical relations can be needed not only in collaboration of the cultural institution with the institutions of the civil society (including NCIs), but can be also useful in the course of work with the historical heritage of Russia. For example, activity of these or those ethnic communities on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk region can influence the choice of this or that ethnic content of the cultural project. Integration approach to the work with the participants of cultural projects can be also referred to one of the demands to the specialists of the sphere of culture and arts in the course of work with ethnoprojects. At the same time, it is one more mechanism of formation of peace-loving inter-ethnic relations. In this case, the integration approach presupposes appliance of the inter-disciplinary approach, as far as knowledge itself of the inter-ethnic relations is already inter-disciplinary, including the material of psychology, history, cultural studies and sociology. To our opinion, we should also refer evaluation of efficiency of projects functioning (projects, which are targeted to formation, development and fortification of inter-ethnic relations) to professional # 456 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… requirements. Project work efficiency is revealed in fi xation of specifics of the customer’s relation to the content and sense, being translated outwards. To our mind, it is fi xation of this relation, what allows the specialist of the sphere of culture and arts to perform the analysis of ethno-project efficiency. And attitude towards representatives of a certain nation depends on to what extend correctly and professionally they translate the traditions of various ethnoses by means of cultural projects. Interest to cultural peculiarities also forms a positive attitude towards the ethnos itself. Positive images of the ethnos are formed by means of its culture. At present time, culture represents by itself an important instrument of formation, development and fortification of the inter-ethnic positive relations. Thus, professionalism of the specialists of the sphere of culture and arts, working with the projects of ethnic content, depends to a certain degree on the condition of the inter-ethnic relations. Anatoly V. Brilkov, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor of the Modern Natural Sciences Department of the Institute of the Fundamental Training of the SFU, Victoria V. Dubich, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Docent of the Modern Natural Sciences Department of the Institute of the Fundamental Training of the SFU Oleg A. Zolotov, Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Docent of the Modern Natural Sciences Department of the Institute of the Fundamental Training of the SFU, Yury Y. Loginov, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor of the Modern Natural Sciences Department of the Institute of the Fundamental Training of the SFU, Zoja G. Kholostova, Docent of the Modern Natural Sciences Department of the Institute of the Fundamental Training of the SFU. Report: «The Main Conceptions of Natural Scientific Education of the Specialists in the Sphere of Culture and Arts» The modern humanity lives in the world of dynamically developing technologies, very often opposing them. This antagonism is possibly the main challenge of the civilization of our time. And it is apparent that precisely the specialists in the sphere of culture and art are right on the verge of this opposition. From this point of view, conceptions of the modern natural science are presented as an indispensable part of the sphere of education of such specialists. Moreover, if we speak about methodological skills of specialists of humanitarian directions, about their «skill of thinking», then we should say that humanitarian style of thinking must be dialectically completed by the natural-scientific way of thinking. # 457 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… And finally, in the modern world of high-technology, it is impossible to imagine a modern young specialist (Master, Bachelor) simply without the skill of utilitarian usage of modern technologies in his professional activity. And as far as modern technologies are very dynamic, then in the course of specialists’ teaching it is necessary not so to teach certain techniques, as to bring up technological culture and to make them understand basic conceptions. To the mind of the authors, salvation of the mentioned above tasks is the main target of the discipline «conception of the modern natural science (CMNS)», which is given to the future specialists in the sphere of culture and arts. The main task of the discipline is to contribute to formation of the wide basic higher education, which will in its turn contribute to farther development of the person. In the course of the study, we are to give a panorama of the most universal methods and laws of the modern natural science, demonstrate the specifics of the rational method of cognition of the surrounding world. In the process of the discipline study, the students obtain the following competences. Instrumental competences: 1. Mastering of scientific methods of nature cognition; 2. Learning of fundamental laws of the modern natural science; 3. Adoption of the skills and methods of concrete applied problems’ salvation, being dictated by the demands of the modern world; 4. Skills of working with the modern research devices and equipment, study of mathematical methods of experimental results’ processing, questionnaire surveys; 5. Formation of natural science world outlook and modern thinking. The students will use the skills and knowledge, having been obtained in the course of their study, as a theoretical natural scientific basis in the process of their professional activity in the sphere of culture and arts. Professional competences: 1. to possess scientific methods of cognition and to know how to apply them in the professional activity in the sphere of culture and arts; 2. to have a notion of the main achievements and perspectives of the natural science development as a fundamentals of science-intensive technologies; 3. to know fundamental laws and research methods of the modern natural science, which are lying in the basis of progressive branch technologies; 4. to possess an instrumental basis of the modern natural science and methods of processing of measurement results or questionnaire surveys in respect of the specifics of culture and arts; 5. to know how to apply the basic conceptions of the modern natural science for creation of progressive technological processes; 6. To possess scientific knowledge of healthy way of living, have skills and knowledge for selfperfection. The main target of the discipline “conception of the modern natural science” is to acquaint humanitarian specialties student with an indispensable component of the integral culture – natural science, and to form an integral world outlook. Moreover, nowadays it is necessary as far as rational # 458 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… natural-scientific method is penetrating into the humanitarian sphere, takes part in the society’s conscious formation and, along with it, acquires more universal language, being adequate to philosophy, psychology, social sciences and even arts. Today, we may observe the appearance of the tendency of harmonious synthesis of two components of culture, having been traditionally opposing each other, and this tendency reflects the necessity of the society in the integral world outlook and underlines the topicality of the suggested discipline. The idea of the course is in the following: to transfer the elements of natural scientific knowledge, notions of fundamental conceptions of various natural sciences, making up an integral picture of the world, to humanitarian specialists. In spite of the fact that there are all the necessary elements of history and philosophy, the main content of the discipline presupposes to contain integral descriptions of nature and man (as a part of nature) on the basis of scientific achievements, changes of methodologies, conceptions and paradigms, in the general cultural and historical contexts. Acquaintance of the students with the basic theoretical statements in the sphere of modern natural science forms general notions of tendencies and directions of natural sciences development. The students are presented a harmonious system of knowledge concerning the origination, organization and development of organic and inorganic nature. It is necessary to make students be sure in a right understanding and necessary application of natural laws in their everyday life. At the present course, significant attention is paid to ecological problems for ecological education development. Since the beginning of CMNS teaching in the HEIs of the country there have been published a lot of educational books and guidances on the modern natural science conceptions. They differ from the old ones by the selection of material, by the structure and by the level of the material presentation. And to our point of view, none of them satisfies to full extend the existing state standard (the second one) of this discipline. The course structure and the order of the main topics’ presentation play the leading role in realization of the targets of teaching of the discipline «conception of the modern natural science». Introduction to the course is the theme «scientific method of the world cognition and specifics of its appearance in natural science». In the process of its existence, the mankind has worked out a lot of methods of world cognition: artistic, mythological, religious, scientific, technical, and others. Each of them has its own bases to be considered to be the right one. They concern the choice of problems, being solved, the choice of methods of their salvation and the choice of evaluation of the gained results. At present time, scientific method of world cognition dominates. Though, we should not forget that only all of them together provide human life-sustaining activity. Whatever the level of science and technology development of the society is, the man has to live, to act and to make serious decisions on the boarder of science and other ways of world cognition. The man has to pass this boarder a lot of times and consequently, he has to know where the science is and where it ends. Here, we should pay attention to the fact that scientific knowledge is essential, generalized, substantiated, and proved, and every stage of science development generates its own norms and mind sets, science is guided by the integral system of methodological approaches. A very important theme is about scientific methods. In this theme we disclose peculiarities of the modern natural scientific observation and experiment, including elemental presentation of the experiment theory. It is also necessary to consider general objective laws of the natural science development: questions of integration of fundamental and applied research works in the modern # 459 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… natural science, the role of mathematics in natural sciences, natural science development as a change of paradigms, and succession in the natural science development. The main parts of the CMNS course are fundamental ideas and principles of physics, chemistry, biology, synergetic paradigm, origination and evolution of the Universe, and global evolutionism. It is important that in the course of CMNS study, the students would understand not only the material itself, but also the logics of its presentation. Thus, the course “conception of the modern natural science” has been conceived as an interdisciplinary dynamic description of the basic phenomena and laws of nature and those scientific inventions, which have given a way to revolutionary changes in technologies, social world outlook and conscious. For that purpose it has been required a strict selection of the main scientific factors, representing each branch of the natural sciences. Methodology of the course consists of the ascension along the organizational stages of the developing material world up to a man as a bio-psycho-social being, and then to interaction of the biosphere and civilization. The practical aim of the course is not only to bring up students’ natural scientific culture of thinking, but also to teach them a correct attitude to nature and all the living beings, which can be called a basic ecological culture. The given discipline is a product of inter-disciplinary synthesis. That is why its teaching is possible only on the basis of appliance of the general evolutionary-synergetic paradigm, which is able to unite both components of culture. This way, we can illustrate the objective law of scientific knowledge development, inevitability of rotations of scientific rationality types and paradigms of natural science, and we can explain the need in integral culture in our critical time. In connection with all the mentioned, in the course of natural science lectures delivering we are to pay attention to those moments, which raise the questions of scientific-technological progress before every member of civilized society. New technologies, informatization and ecologization have actually overwhelmed most of the spheres of human activity, which concern as professional duties, so our every day life. To our mind, the task of the natural sciences course is in the following: to teach the student to understand the tendencies of the further development of scientific-technological progress, to know the role of natural science disciplines in that progress, to apply them in every day life, if it is possible. Now, it is obvious, that teaching of the specialist of the highest qualification, who has to live and to work in the third century, is impossible without harmonious knowledge of origination, organization and processes of nature development. References: V.K. Voronov, M.V. Grechneva, R.Z. Sagdeev «Fundamentals of the Modern Natural Science», Moscow: Higher School, 1999. – 247 p. T.Y Dubnishjeva, «Conceptions of the Modern Natural Science», Moscow: Academy, 2006. – 608 p. S.H. Karpenkov, «Conceptions of the Modern Natural Science», Moscow: Higher School, 2003. – 488 p. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… Dmitri Y. Grigorenko, Docent of the Philosophy and Social Sciences Department of the Siberian State Aero-Cosmic University n.a. M.F. Reshetnev Report: «Specialist of the New Generation as the Best Representative of the Modern Society». Working out of the model of the specialist for the sphere of culture and arts demands theoretical understanding of criteria, which allow revealing the main definitions of his personal-professional image. As far as culture is directed, first of all, to man’s perfection, and the specialist in the given sphere must possess certain qualities of personal perfection. This statement has been mainly developed in the native philosophic tradition. From the times of ancient Russ, Russian philosophers has been researching the problem of social advance guard, within which frames the following questions have been solved: who should be in its rows, what are the qualities of the representative of the social advance guard, what is the specifics of its activity and so on. The problem of the social advance guard has been concentrated with in the frames of the principle «the power of the best». Reproducing aristocratic beliefs of Plato and Aristotle, the given principle has been represented in the following idea: representatives of the social advance guard must play the leading role in the religious and cultural enlightenment of the people. In this respect, F.M. Dostoevsky marked: «People’s, national teacher is made by centuries, kept by legends, and by innumerable experience». (Dostoevsky, 1980). The great thinker says in the given statement that the specialist in the sphere of culture is formed on the basis of historical national tradition and, correspondingly, carries in his personal image the best definitions of the national spirit. In confirmation of the thesis, we can recollect a statement of another eminent theoretic of the idea of aristocracy – N.A. Berdyaev: «Aristocratic idea demands real dominance of the best … aristocracy, as government and dominance of the best, as a requirement of qualitative selection, remains to be the highest principle of the social life …find a person, who is the most talented in the given country, appoint him to as high position as possible, esteem him steadily and you will get quite a perfect government …». (Berdyaev, 2006) This way, only the best representatives of the people may govern the cultural sphere of the society – this is the imperative of the national philosophical tradition of all the times. The given idea presupposes a dual-unity of principles of aristocratism and conciliarism in governance of the society, when one can observe the dialectics of management and self-management (when the best ones managing, but they are chosen by the people, subordinated to and controlled by the people). References: F.M. Dostoevsky. The writer’s dairy. 1883. Full collection of works in 30 volumes. V. 21. Moscow. Science, 1980. P. 93. N.A. Berdyaev. Philosophy of Inequality. / N.A. Berdyaev. Moscow.: Ast, 2006. P. 145-146. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… Yekaterina V. Karelina, Candidate of Philosophic Sciences, Docent of the Philosophy and History Department of the Humanitarian Institute of the SFU Report: «The Model of «the Perfect Man» is the Basis of the Modern Society Development» Russian philosophy is one of the important stages of development of the world philosophical thought, as far as in this period they analyze the question of man’s spiritual perfection, which, to the mind of Russian thinkers, appears to be the basis of successful existence and development of the society and is expressed in the ideas of conciliarism, pan-unity, and dual-unity. The given question is discussed in the teachings of N.O. Lossky, L.P. Krasavin, N.N. Alekseev. To the opinion of these philosophers, man’s spiritual perfection is the basis for person’s formation and development. In his work «Value and existence», N.O. Lossky supposes, that in practical activity, positive results can be achieved by means of man’s perfection on the basis of religious knowledge, by the idea of conciliarism, and with the help of upbringing of the feeling of love to the world and to God. N.O. Lossky describes the ideas of conciliarism, of man’s spiritual perfection by means of God cognition in his book «The World as an Organic Entirety». To the mind of N.O. Lossky, the main factor, which contributes to perfection of the man and society, is building of the Kingdom of Harmony, which is characterized by the commonness of human existence. L.P. Krasavin expresses the idea of man’s perfection in his work «Fundamentals of the Politics», discussing the specifics of the perfect and non-perfect person. Person’s perfection is realized in his integrity with God. Non-perfect conciliar person stops and closes in his becoming, and neither wish and nor achieve the fullness of unity and fullness of multitude. Man’s perfection is possible by means of God cognition (the Good, Beauty, and the Truth) and also in the process of study and thinking over of the religious-moral principals and ideals. In his work «Anent the Person», L.P. Krasavin analyses the peculiarity of the perfect person and underlines that multitude’s unity is such in the perfect person, that unity is not weaker than the multitude, while in the non-perfect person we can observe a non-full unity, as far as there is irresistibility of the multitude. The thinker describes specifics of Divine Humanity, which includes integrity of God and man., self-perfection and creation of Divine Humanity (the true and perfect dual-unity of God and man) take place by means of God cognition. In his work «From the Past of the Russian Thought» G.V. Florovsky characterizes the idea of perfection through the project of perfect (ideal) society, the idea of conciliarism. Perfect society is expressed by the completed fullness of perfection (an ideal condition). Analyzing the perfect society, G.V. Florovsky writes about a universal mission of the Church, as far as the good, being carried by It, is spread over all the society, all the humanity. The Church unites people; it is the one conciliar organism, which carries the good, the blessing and the true faith to people. So, we should conclude: the model of «perfect man», which bases are the ideas of: conciliarism, pan-unity, dual-unity, is the fundamental for the development of man and society, as far as it is targeted # 462 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… to perfection of individual and social principles, because it is the necessary point in person’s becoming and upbringing. Olga V. Letunova, Candidate of Philosophic Sciences, Docent of the Philosophy and Social Sciences Department of the Siberian State Aero-Cosmic University n.a. M.F. Reshetnev Report: «Formation of the Adequate Type of Thinking of the Specialists of the Sphere of Culture and Arts» When we speak about humanitarian specialists’ training in the socio-cultural, economical and political spheres in the modern system of higher education, there is a lack of attention to the questions of philosophical fundamentals, and in the result of it, the students are mainly targeted to foreign theories study. Though, future specialists need to understand not only the peculiarities of all the spheres of the western social life, but also of the life of Russia, including the spheres of culture and arts as well. At present time, the fact raises already no doubts that humanitarian disciplines study according to the western recourses brings to the loss of cultural, economical and political identity of the Russian society. We should mark that various philosophical problems are considered from the point of view of dialectics and metaphysics. Thereat, both methodology of dialectics and methodology of metaphysics, each in its own way, are quite productive and allow to understand the logics of thinking as of Russian theoreticians of the former centuries, so the logics of the western researchers’ surveys, and what is more, the culture of this country, and the culture of the western countries reveal different ways of the social life development. The given circumstance seems to be very important in the course of substantiation of the practical significance of philosophical bases of humanitarian sciences, and it is out of the question that it must be reflected in teaching of philosophy in order to form an adequate type of thinking of the future specialists. Formation of this or that type of thinking defines the character of individual behavior, also including the sphere of culture and arts. To our mind, it is important to differentiate metaphysical and dialectical methodologies and the types of thinking, being adequate to them. Dialectical type of thinking is revealed in accordance with the principle of the world integrity and general connection of all the phenomena. Thereat, the theory of cognition comes into effect as a theory of reflection, within which frames the image and the prototype are inseparable from each other. And in this connection, thinking, which is revealed as reflection of reality, cannot be separated from reality and acts as a process of reflection of objective reality. Knowledge is directed to obtention of objective truths, having subjective parts: absoluteness and relativity, abstractness and concreteness of one and the same truth. The truth is one, and it is expressed by an image – existence of reality essence. Images of reality are the starting points of the dialectic logics, which content is the principle of general connection of all the phenomena. Thinking, which is realized according to the dialectical principal, is a dialectical type of thinking and is adequate to the standards of the Russian society’s sociality. Metaphysical type of thinking is revealed in accordance with the principles of dual-unity and anthropocentrism, which are the fundamental principals of the western society’s development. # 463 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… According to the principle of anthropocentrism they arbitrarily formulate the language, axioms and systems of proofs as the starting points of formal logics. What concerns the formal logics, knowledge is considered to be relative, imageless, as far as thinking does not reflect what exists in reality, but just represents it. And as far as the starting points of formal logics are formulated liberally, so they act as representatives, which double the reality. Correspondingly, the theory of cognition is actualized as the theory of representations. Thus, humanitarian specialists’ training in the sphere of culture and arts requires differentiation of that fact, that formation of the type of thinking can be realized according to the laws of formal logics or to the laws of dialectic logic. And the type of thinking must be adequate to the peculiarities of development and functioning of all the spheres of social life, including the social–cultural one. Natalya P. Koptseva: Dear colleagues, we have had a very contextually-rich dialogue, it has been a real expert seminar, which will be surely published in the SFU Scientific Journal. You have generated a whole row of ideas, which demand consideration and theoretical and practical development. We invite you all to further collaboration in our work on the project «Scientific-methodological Support of the Highest Qualification Specialists’ training for the Sphere of Culture and Arts of the Krasnoyarsk Region». Joining of our efforts will make it possible to solve a whole row of problems, which are faced today by the higher educational institutions, realizing specialists’ training in the sphere of culture and arts. Материалы экспертного семинара «Формирование модели специалиста нового поколения для сферы культуры и искусства» Н.П. Копцева, Сибирский федеральный университет Россия 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Представлены результаты экспертного семинара по проблеме формирования выпускника нового поколения в сфере культуры и искусства. Модератор семинара – Копцева Н.П. В качестве экспертов на семинаре выступают ведущие специалисты в сфере культуры и искусства в Красноярске: ученые-гуманитарии и преподаватели Сибирского федерального университета, специалисты Красноярского государственного художественного института, Красноярской государственной Академии музыки и театра, ученые Сибирского государственного технологического института, ведущие представители министерства культуры Красноярского края и специалисты иных областей. Один из ключевых вопросов семинара – обсуждение стратегии подготовки современного специалиста в сфере культуры для Красноярского региона, который будет востребован на территории края, который в перспективе, возможно, сохранит свою приоритетно промышленную направленность. Отправной точкой для дискуссии выступает блок ценной статической и аналитической информации: новая двухуровневая система университетского образования (бакалавриат и магистратура), ее структура и система функционирования; организация и перспективы образовательной системы в ведущих вузах Красноярска, # 464 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Natalya P. Koptseva. Expert Seminar dated 29.06.2010. «Formation of the Model of a New-Generation Specialist… занимающихся подготовкой специалистов в сфере культуры. В ходе семинара, с одной стороны, обсуждаются фундаментальные теоретические проблемы образования специалиста в области культуры для будущего – такие, как специфика мировоззрения и мышления идеального специалиста, проблемы ответственности и обязанности подобного рода специалиста. С другой стороны, очерчивается круг конкретных прикладных проблем и задач, которые предстоит решать в культуре Красноярского края в ближайшем будущем. Один из докладов экспертного семинара напрямую посвящен конкретным запросам, выдвигаемым администрацией края к специалисту, отвечающему за развитие культуры в регионе. Помимо этого, в ходе экспертного семинара специально обсуждается перспектива развития регионального компонента в образовании специалиста по культуре, а также принципы изучения естественно-научных дисциплин студентами творческих специальностей. Ключевые слова: Красноярский край; образование в сфере культуры и искусства; мировоззрение специалиста в области культуры; прикладные задачи специалиста в области культуры; образ выпускника будущего в сфере культуры и искусства; система образования в сфере культуры и искусства; ведущие вузы Красноярского края в сфере культуры и искусства; региональный компонент в образовании специалиста в области культуры; естественные науки для специалиста в области культуры; модель выпускника нового типа в сфере культуры и искусства; государственный заказ к специалисту в области культуры в Красноярском крае.