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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà 2014 Journal of Siberian Federal University 7 (10) Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè Humanities & Social Sciences Редакционный совет: академик РАН Е.А. Ваганов академик РАН И.И. Гительзон академик РАН А.Г. Дегерменджи академик РАН В.Ф. Шабанов чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.Л. Миронов чл.-корр. РАН, д-р техн. наук Г.Л. Пашков чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В. Шайдуров чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук В.В. Зуев Editorial Advisory Board CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ Anton I. Pyzhev, Yulia I. Pyzheva and Evgeniya V. Zander Estimates of the Genuine Progress Indicator of Krasnoyarsk Krai – 1630 – Galina V. Panasenko and Tatiana V. Shendel System of Methods, Techniques and Means as a Condition of Success for Vocational Training of Manager Personality – 1638 – Chairman Eugene A. Vaganov Members: Josef J. Gitelzon Vasily F. Shabanov Andrey G. Degermendzhy Valery L. Mironov Gennady L. Pashkov Vladimir V. Shaidurov Vladimir V. Zuev Editorial Board: Editor-in-Chief Mikhail I. Gladyshev Anastasia V. Semkova Language Categorization of Prototypical Situation &Speech[ in Modern English – 1645 – Boris V. Tarev Functional Specifics of Mediatext in the System of Development of Intercultural Communicative Competence – 1653 – Founding Editor Vladimir I. Kolmakov Managing Editor Olga F. Alexandrova Executive Editor for Humanities & Social Sciences Natalia P. Koptseva Yulia E. Valkova Methods of Estrangement in Amos Oz’s A Tale of Love and Darkness – 1661 – Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой Подписано в печать 26.10.2014 г. Формат 84x108/16. Усл. печ. л. 14,3. Уч.-изд. л. 13,8. Бумага тип. Печать офсетная. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ 2785. Отпечатано в ПЦ БИК. 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 82а. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Consulting Editors for Humanities & Social Sciences: David Anderson – Professor, The University of Aberdeen, Scotland Gershons Breslavs – International Institute of Applied Psychology, Latvia Milan Damohorsky – Professor, Charles University in Prague Hans-Georg Dederer – Professor, Passau University, Germany Sergey Devyatkin – Associate Professor, Novgorod State University Sergey Drobyshevsky – Professor, Siberian Federal University Oleg Gotlib – Associate Professor, Irkutsk State Linguistic University Tapdyg Kerimov – Professor, Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg Boris Khasan – Professor, Siberian Federal University Galina Kopnina – Professor, Siberian Federal University Natalia Kovtoun – Professor, Siberian Federal University Alexander Kronik – Ph.D., LifeLook.Net, LLC, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Liudmila Kulikova – Professor, Siberian Federal University Suneel Kumar – Assistant Professor, Department of Strategic and Regional Studies, University of Jammu Liudmila Mayorova – Ph.D. Associate Professor, Siberian Federal University Pavel Mandryka – Associate Professor, Siberian Federal University Boris Markov – Professor, Saint-Petersburg State University Valentin Nemirovsky – Professor, Siberian Federal University Nicolay Pak – Professor, Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University named after V.P. Astafev Nicolay Parfentyev – Professor, Corresponding Member of the Peter the Great Academy of Sciences and Arts, Honoured Scientist of the Russian Federation, South Ural State University Natalia Parfentyeva – Professor, Member of the Composers of Russia, Corresponding Member of the Peter the Great Academy of Sciences and Arts, Honoured Arts Worker of the Russian Federation, South Ural State University Nicolai Petro – Professor, Rhode Island University, USA Daniel Pivovarov – Professor, Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg Muhammad Asim Measuring Public Opinion Regarding Peaceful Solution of Palestine Issue: an Experimental Study of University Students in Pakistan, Iran and United Arab Emirates – 1672 – Kirill V. Anisimov Literarity in Texts by Historian: 19th Century Siberian Travelogues and Nationalism Discourse (the Case of P.I. Nebolsin) – 1682 – Julia S. Zamaraeva What are Global Transformations Experienced by the Indigenous Peoples of the North? – 1705 – Julia G. Matushanskaya &Jewish Antiquities[ as Hellenistic Targum – 1719 – Antonina A. Vinokurova Philosophical Lyrics in the Poetry of Vasily Lebedev – 1734 – Sardana I. Sharina Some Features of the Language of Verkhnekolymsky Evens – 1738 – Alexandra Yu. Gil Features and Modern Trends in the Development of Museums within the System of Higher Education – 1743 – Larisa A. Korobeynikova Alternative Culture: Tradition and Innovation – 1751 – Valery A. Tolstikov Research on Motivation to do Boxing – 1760 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Igor Pyzhov – Associate Professor , Siberian Federal University Oyvind Ravna – Professor, University of Tromso – The Arctic University of Norway Irina Rubert – Professor, Saint-Petersburg State University of Economics Andrey Smirnov – Corresponding Member, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Philosophy RAS, Moscow Olga Smolyaninova – Professor, Siberian Federal University Vladimir Suprun – Professor, Institute of Philosophy and Law of SB RAS Viktor Suslov – Corresponding Member RAS, Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering of SB RAS Roman Svetlov – Professor, Saint-Petersburg State University Elena Tareva – Professor, Moscow City Pedagogical University Kristine Uzule – Ph.D. Baltic International Academy, Riga, Latvia Eugeniya Zunder – Professor, Siberian Federal University Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г. Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора и кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.) Valentin G. Nemirovskiy Dynamics of Social Well-Being of the Population of the Region in View of Emotional and Energy Indicators – 1765 – Yuriy B. Savelyev Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks for Social Inclusion – 1775 – Evgeny V. Kochkin and Srilata Sircar Temporary Migration in India: Findings from Statistical Data and Learnings from Case Studies – 1794 – Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1630-1637 ~~~ УДК 332.13 Estimates of the Genuine Progress Indicator of Krasnoyarsk Krai Anton I. Pyzhev*, Yulia I. Pyzheva and Evgeniya V. Zander Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia Received 16.07.2014, received in revised form 24.08.2014, accepted 06.09.2014 The aim of the paper is to give the preliminary estimate of the Genuine Progress Indicator of Krasnoyarsk Krai. First of all, we considered the theoretical framework of assessment of complex public welfare of countries and their regions. Then we suggested an approach to the measurement of social, economic and ecological well-being of Krasnoyarsk Krai based on the original methodology of the Genuine Progress Indicator estimation. The preliminary estimates of the GPI of Krasnoyarsk Krai in 2005–2011 were given using the data available from official public sources. Our analysis showed that the GPI is at least 30–35 % lower than traditional GRP. This work should be continued with the estimation of GPI for other Russian regions. Keywords: Genuine Progress Indicator, Gross Regional Product, public welfare, regional economics. The publication was prepared within the framework of the project no. 14-12-24003 supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities and Krasnoyarsk Krai Foundation for Support of Scientific and Technical Activity. Research area: 08.00.00 – economics. 1. Introduction The Gross Domestic Product could not be treated as a comprehensive measure for the wellbeing of nations, even though it is widely used as a unique and main indicator of the progress throughout the world since 1940s. Despite it is a good estimator of economic progress, but also not a comprehensive one, it cannot be used for measuring the social progress and, probably, regress. It is also obvious that the GDP does not account for ecological issues, which are getting more and * more important in recent time. On the contrary, a real ecological damage is reflected in the GDP as a positive outcome, since it always causes some economic activity intended for recovering of the consequences of such damage (Costanza et al., 2004). The same goes for other components of the true progress. In 1995 C. Cobb, T. Halstead and J. Rowe have developed the indicator being capable to measure the genuine progress in economic, social and ecological spheres of life in 1995 (Cobb et al., 1995). © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1630 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anton I. Pyzhev,Yulia I. Pyzheva… Estimates of the Genuine Progress Indicator of Krasnoyarsk Krai Over the last decades, the issue of establishing of a comprehensive indicator of the nations’ genuine progress became one of the main points of the current agenda even beyond the traditional field of economics. A recent work of Costanza et al. published in the famous and multidisciplinary journal Nature is the best proof (2014). The authors promote the excessive importance of replacement of traditional GDP by the GPI, Genuine Progress Indicator, which gives a rather richer image of what is really going on with economy, social sphere and natural environment on the specific territory (country or region). It is obvious that in the nearest future national and local governments should claim for the genuine progress measures. The problem of sustainable development is of a great importance for Russia, but only academic society and small-numbered public institutions within the country acknowledge it. It is worth to mention the work of S. N. Bobylev and his colleagues who assessed a lot of indicators of sustainable development (e.g., Bobylev et al., 2013). The ecological aspects of interregional inequality of Russian regions were studied by I. P. Glazyrina, I. A. Zabelina and E. A. Klevakina (Glazyrina et al., 2010; Zabelina and Klevakina, 2011; Klevakina and Zabelina, 2012). The official Russian government recognizes this problem only in long-run perspective, so their main focus is put on rent seeking aimed to fulfill the current tasks of social and economic development (Pyzhev et al., 2014). The situation tends to change during last years, because the successful model of economic development based on high prices of oil and gas, which form half of the Russian budget, seems to be exhausted, so one needs to find some new sources of the economic growth. We urge that before making of a well-proven economic policy for the next decades, it is critically needed to create a good instrument of assessment of genuine progress of all components of human well being in Russia. In this paper we’ll make the first step and propose a technique for such assessment on the regional scale that is based on the GPI methodology. Our study object is Krasnoyarsk Krai, a huge region in the center of Russia with highly developed industry of natural resources. Earlier we performed the assessment of the Genuine Savings indicator for Krasnoyarsk Krai in the second half of 2000s (Zander et al., 2010a, 2010b). 2. Theoretical Framework Since the GPI has been developed by the scholars and not by some official international institutions, there is no consistent and canonical methodology of its calculation. It is also important to mention that it’s not possible to establish a unified calculation technique for any country and regions, because all of them have sufficiently distinctive systems of statistical accounting. Despite that, there is a fluent literature presenting the results of calculation and comparison of GDP and GPI dynamics through countries (e.g., Jackson and McBride, 2005; Lawn and Clarke, 2008; Posner and Costanza, 2011) and within some specific regions (Hamilton, 1999; Costanza et al., 2004; Bagstad and Shammin, 2012). A meta-analysis of GPI and GDP dynamics across 17 major countries was performed by Kubiszewski et al. (2013). The only known study of post-soviet space countries genuine progress was made for Ukraine over time span between 2000 and 2007 (Danilishin and Vekilch, 2010). All of the cited studies used modifications of the previously formulated methodologies of GPI calculation depending on the data available for the specific country or region. It is crucially important to note that the currently acting statistical systems of postsoviet countries do not provide enough data for comprehensive evaluation of the GPI according to the techniques used in Western countries (Ibid). This means that part of indicators needs # 1631 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anton I. Pyzhev,Yulia I. Pyzheva… Estimates of the Genuine Progress Indicator of Krasnoyarsk Krai to be replaced by proxies, and some of them even excluded from the analysis. Undoubtedly, such assumptions decrease the quality of analysis, but in our opinion, even simplified GPI assessment could provide a useful knowledge of the real dynamics of genuine progress in Russia, its regions and neighbor countries. In our study we use the so-called "Redefining Progress" methodology (Talberth et al., 2006) that updates the original methodology (Cobb et al., 1995). The calculation technique for the GPI is rather simple than obtaining of particular indicators. The Genuine Progress Indicator is an algebraic sum of 26 indicators with different signs depending on whether this indicator contributes with benefits or losses to the welfare of region. It was mentioned earlier that Rosstat, the Russian Federal Service of National Statistics, provides not all indicators needed for GPI evaluation. We suggest the following techniques for assessing the components of the Genuine Progress Indicator for Krasnoyarsk Krai using the really available data (Table 1). The Personal Consumption (column B) and Income Distribution Index or Gini Index (column C) could be obtained directly from Rosstat statistics. It is assuming that one should calculate column C taking the least Gini Index as a base (100 %). The Weighted Personal Consumption indicator is calculated directly using the formula. Evaluation of indicators Value of Household Work and Parenting (column E) and Value of Higher Education (column F) is rather more complicated. The data needed to evaluate average time spent on household work and parenting is not included nor in official statistical collections, neither in survey questions list. It means that this indicator needs a further study for getting a reliable data on this topic. The higher education system suffers from soviet legacy leading to sufficient disproportions in structure of enrolment and the real requirements of labor market. The prices for education in quite prestigious universities are low (a full semester may cost one average month salary), so the higher education is accessible for almost everybody. As a result, almost all the high school graduates become the students of higher education institutions, but then work in totally different areas. In our opinion, for the time being it has no sense to evaluate the future value of higher education in Russia, because the students and their parents don’t treat it as a long-run investment with high yield coefficient. It is suggested to exclude the Value of Volunteer Work (column G), because such kind of social activity is not spread in Russia. The indicator Services of Consumer Durables (column H) could be assessed through expenditures on some basic consumer durables. We suggest accounting automobiles, TV sets, computers and washing machines, which are the most necessary durable goods for households. The corresponding data is directly available from Rosstat. The Central Bank of Russia provides the interest rate data. Hereinafter we accept the life time of the durables listed above equal to 5 years, so the depreciation rate is set to 20 %. The value of services of highways and streets (column I) is easily assessed using the data on annual expenditure of regional budget on road construction and maintenance. Since the data on net stock of road infrastructure is not available in Russia, then it is not needed to take the annual rates of depreciation of this asset. Consequently, the only adjustment one needs to make here is to take 75 % as benefit share of annual road services, assuming that 25 % of time spend on roads are for commuting (Ibid). Public cost of crime could be captured only partially, because of lack of data. Our suggestion is to include two components, regional budget expenditures on crime prevention and evaluation of cost of human life losses, into indicator Cost of Crime (column J). The first component data # 1632 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Table 1. Components of the Genuine Progress Indicator for the Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russian Federation Column Indicator Sign Calculation Technique B Personal Consumption Rosstat indicator C Income Distribution Index Gini index (Rosstat indicator) D Weighted Personal Consumption + B / C * 100 E Value of Household Work and Parenting + Needs further investigation F Value of Higher Education + Needs further investigation G Value of Volunteer Work + Excluded H Services of Consumer Durables K Loss of Leisure Time − [Sum of consumer expenditures on purchasing of consumer durables (automobiles, TV sets, computers and washing machines)] × ([Interest rate] + [Depreciation rate]) [Regional budget expenditures on road construction and maintenance] × 75 % [Regional budget expenditures on crime prevention] + [Number of crime victims] × [Estimate of human life value] Needs further investigation L Cost of Underemployment − Needs further investigation M Cost of Consumer Durables − Is not needed N Cost of Commuting + I Services of Highways and Streets J Cost of Crime + − − O Cost of Household Pollution Abatement P Cost of Automobile Accidents Q Cost of Water Pollution R Cost of Air Pollution − − − − [Average commuting trip time] × 2 × [Number of employed people] × [Number of workdays during a year] × [Hourly wage] Needs further investigation [Number of automobile accident victims] x [Estimate of human life value] [Regional budget expenditures on water protection and remediation] Needs further investigation S Cost of Noise Pollution − Needs further investigation T Loss of Wetlands − Needs further investigation U Loss of Farmland − Needs further investigation V X Loss of Primary Forests and Damage from Logging Roads Depletion of Nonrenewable Energy Resources Carbon Dioxide Emissions Damage Y Cost of Ozone Depletion Z Net Capital Investment W − − − − − [Change of forest land cover] × [Estimate of forest ecosystems services value] [Overall price of all treasures of the soil mined within the region] [Volume of carbon dioxide emission] × [Carbon Dioxide world market ton price] Needs further investigation [Net capital growth] − [Percent change in labor force] × [Stock of the capital of the previous year] Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anton I. Pyzhev,Yulia I. Pyzheva… Estimates of the Genuine Progress Indicator of Krasnoyarsk Krai is available from statistics, but the second one needs some additional assessment. There are a lot of approaches to the assessment of human life cost, but only a few could be applied in Russia. In our study we use a very simple technique for that, multiplying the number of crime victims by 2 mln rubles, a sum that is officially stated as the insurance money for a victim of aircraft or car accident in Russia. Last years, there are a lot of evidences of paying this sum to the victims of resonant disasters (Aganbegyan, 2014). The indicators Loss of Leisure Time (column K), Cost of Underemployment (column L) and Cost of Household Pollution Abatement (column O) could not be estimated, because they need additional sociological investigations of households. Cost of commuting (column N) may be roughly assessed using the data of the All-Russian survey of quality of life performed by Rosstat in 2011. The interviewees reported that they spend from 35 to 50 minutes for a one commuting trip. The average is 42.5 minutes, or 85 minutes per day. This value is multiplying by number of employed people within a region, number of working days during a calendar year and average hourly wage. Cost of automobile accidents (column P) may be assessed only partially. Theoretically, it consists of value of health damage and cost of wrecked or destroyed cars, but the only available data provide the information about number of victims of car accidents. We could use the same approach of human life evaluation discussed above. For the indicator Cost of water pollution (column Q) we suggest using the data on regional budget expenditures as a proxy. This estimate only reflects the direct expenditures on water pollution reduction. A more precise evaluation may be based on the approach developed by E. V. Ryumina, when data on structure of elements emitted in water bodies (2009). The interesting results concerning influence of water and air pollution on human health are found by V. M. Gilmundinov et al. (2011, 2012). Cost of noise pollution (column S) is quite difficult to assess, because no appropriate studies were conducted in this field in Russia. Losses of wetlands and farmlands (columns T, U) and cost of ozone depletion (column Y) are also difficult to be assessed, for the same reason. The indicator Loss of Primary Forests and Damage from Logging Roads (column V) could be quantified multiplying change of forestland cover by the estimate of forest ecosystems services value. The last value is derived from the study of R. Costanza et al. (1997) after the appropriate compounding. We use overall prices of all treasures of the soil mined within the region available in regional statistics as a proxy for the indicator Depletion of Nonrenewable Energy Resources (column W). Carbon dioxide emissions damage (column X) could be evaluated using the approach developed in (Zander et al., 2010a, 2010b). The indicator Net Capital Investment (column Z) is easy to assess using the original approach (Talberth, 2007). It is important to stress out that presented approach is universal and could be applied not only to specific region (e.g., Krasnoyarsk Krai), but also to any Russian territory. 3. Data The dataset of Krasnoyarsk Krai social, economic and environmental spheres indicators over time span between 2005 and 2012 has been used for testing of GPI calculation technique described above. The main part of indicators is obtained from collections (Regiony Rossii, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013). The budget expenditures on particular topics were derived directly from Krasnoyarsk Krai budget. # 1634 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anton I. Pyzhev,Yulia I. Pyzheva… Estimates of the Genuine Progress Indicator of Krasnoyarsk Krai Primary data was nominated in thousands of rubles. The GPI and GRP are calculated in billions of rubles, the prices were discounted to 2011 rubles. Despite of presence of components data for 2012, the GRP and personal consumption data for this years were missing for the moment of paper preparation, so we were ought to exclude it from the final results. The most comprehensive dataset covers period since 2009 when Rosstat started to observe a lot of new statistical indicators. 4. Results and Conclusion The results of our assessment of Krasnoyarsk Krai Genuine Progress Indicator are presented on Fig. 1. For the comparison of GPI and GRP dynamics we combined both rows on the same graph. GRP started from 782 bln rubles in 2005 and reached 1,188.7 bln rubles in 2011. Our GPI estimate is rather lower: from 222.1 bln rubles in 2005 to 378.6 bln rubles in 2011. It means that GPI is at least 30–35 % lower than GRP. Last years of our scope (2010 and 2011) GRP is about 20–25 % of GRP. Such a huge gap may be explained with a heavy ecological load of Krasnoyarsk Krai. Since GPI is methodologically preferable for the assessment of true progress of region’s well being, it’s really time to leave GRP (GDP) behind, as a title of recent work says (Costanza et al., 2014). It is important to note that our estimation of GPI seems to be lower than its actual value, because some of important indicators were missing or the data was not complete. Some estimates used for calculation were quite rough and need further justification. Major part of missing data covered the negatively impacting factors, so if they would have been accounted, the GPI will sufficiently decrease. For the time being, there are 10 indicators out of 26 used in original GPI methodology that can’t be assessed due to the lack of necessary data. We are confident that some of them, such as volumes of air and water pollutions, might be easily included into the current system of statistical observation, both on regional and federal levels. It is evident that the necessary primary data for their calculation is stored inside the Rosstat databases. The other part (underemployment surveys etc.) needs panel studies on some large samples, periodically revealed. Our main conclusion is that one needs to continue investigations of Genuine Progress Fig. 1. GPI vs. GRP dynamics of Krasnoyarsk Krai, 2005–2011 # 1635 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anton I. Pyzhev,Yulia I. Pyzheva… Estimates of the Genuine Progress Indicator of Krasnoyarsk Krai Indicator across the Russian regions. As far as there will be necessary data for accurate evaluation of GPI, it will allow deeply understand the nature of interregional inequality and provide an important information for policymakers. References 1. Aganbegyan, A. G. 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Ecological Economics, 93, 57–68. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013.04.019. # 1636 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anton I. Pyzhev,Yulia I. Pyzheva… Estimates of the Genuine Progress Indicator of Krasnoyarsk Krai 14. McDonald, G., Forgie, V., Zhang, Y., Andrew, R., & Smith, N. (2009). Genuine progress indicator for the Auckland region. Knowledgeauckland.org.Nz. Auckland Regional Council. 15. Rublev, A. N., Grigoriev, G. Y., Udalova, T. A., & Zhuravleva, T. B. (2010). Regression models for the estimation of carbon exchange in boreal forests. Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics, 23(2), 111– 117. doi:10.1134/S1024856010020053. 16. Ryumina, E. V. (2009). Economics analysis of environmental damage [Ekonomicheskii analiz uscherba ot ekologicheskih narushenii]. Moscow, Nauka. 17. Zabelina, I. A., & Klevakina, E. A. (2011). The assessment of ecological costs in produced gross regional product [Otsenka ekologitcheskikh zatrat v proizvdednnom valovom regional’nom produkte]. Region: Economics and Sociology [Region: Ekonomika i Sotsiologiya], (2), 223–232. 18. Zander, E. V., Pyzhev, A. I., & Startseva, Yu. I. (2010a). The assessment of development sustainability of ecological and economic system of region using the indicator "Genuine Savings" (by the example of Krasnoyarsk Krai) [Otsenka ustoichivosti razvitiya ekologo-ekonomicheskoi sistemy regiona pri pomoschi indikatora "Istinnykh sberezhenii" (na primere Krasnoyarskogo kraia)]. Natureuse Economics [Ekonomika Prirodopol’zovaniya], (2), 6–17. 19. Zander, E. V., Startseva, Yu. I., & Pyzhev, A. I. (2010a). Green GRP as a Macroeconomic Indicator of Economics Growth of a Region. Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences, (3), 382–387. Оценка истинного показателя прогресса Красноярского края А.И. Пыжев, Ю.И. Пыжева, Е.В. Зандер Сибирский федеральный университет Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Целью настоящей работы является предварительная оценка истинного показателя прогресса (Genuine Progress Indicator) для Красноярского края. Рассмотрены основные известные результаты ведущих исследовательских коллективов в области комплексной оценки общественного благосостояния стран и их регионов. Предложен подход к измерению социального, экономического и экологического благополучия Красноярского края, основанный на методологии оценки истинного показателя прогресса. Проведена апробация предложенного подхода для оценки ИПП Красноярского края в 2005–2011 гг. с помощью данных, размещенных в открытых официальных источниках. Анализ показал, что ИПП как минимум на 30–35 % ниже, чем соответствующие значения ВРП. Работу по оценке ИПП следует продолжать для других российских регионов. Ключевые слова: истинный показатель прогресса, валовый региональный продукт, региональная экономика, общественное благосостояние. Исследование выполнено при финансовой поддержке РГНФ и КГАУ "Красноярский краевой фонд поддержки научной и научно-технической деятельности" в рамках научного проекта № 14-12-24003 "Комплексное исследование устойчивости развития социо-экологоэкономической системы Красноярского края". Научная специальность: 08.00.00 – экономика. # 1637 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1638-1644 ~~~ УДК 378.018.46 + 377.4/5 + 005.963 System of Methods, Techniques and Means as a Condition of Success for Vocational Training of Manager Personality Galina V. Panasenko* and Tatiana V. Shendel Siberian State Technological University 82 Mira, Krasnoyarsk, Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia Received 30.06.2014, received in revised form 02.07.2014, accepted 17.09.2014 The subject of this study is a systematic analysis of methods, techniques and means of retraining the manager personality. The problem indicated in the article, concerns the social order of society for training specialists who meet new market demands. It required educational institutions to start training on the profile that is quite different from what a few years ago had their graduates. In particular, a need to retrain personnel managers who have knowledge and skills in the field of personnel management process, motivation, organizational culture, socio-psychological atmosphere, organizational behavior, organizational diagnosis and management processes, with special attention to the formation of leadership skills of the manager personality, his/her personal and professional qualities, team activities, etc. In the experimental part of the study the process of retraining of the manager personality in the course of the additional professional education program Personnel Management was examined. The expert evaluation was given to the program, according to the results of which the retraining has a high potential for management training of senior and middle levels. Keywords: HR Manager, professional retraining, additional educational programs, expert evaluation. Research area: 08.00.00 – economics. Introduction For the effective implementation of professional activity in modern society there are demanded specialists with not only knowledge and some experience but also skills that enable to adapt to modern technology, to successfully move from one activity to another, ready to educate themselves. This position is confirmed by the Concept of the Federal Target Program of Education for 2011-2015 years. It stresses that the developing society needs educated, * moral, enterprising people who can make their own management decisions in a choice situation, predicting the possible consequences, the ability to cooperate, differing mobility, dynamism, constructive, having a strong sense of responsibility for the future of the country. However, Russian society is important to continue to improve the acquired knowledge and skills, as well as build and develop the necessary personal and professional qualities, allowing to carry out professional activities © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: galina-panasienKo@mail.ru # 1638 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Galina V. Panasenko and Tatiana V. Shendel. System of Methods, Techniques and Means as a Condition of Success… more effectively. In this regard, relevant to talk about retraining managers of various levels of management to acquire additional knowledge and skills in educational programs, providing for the study of individual disciplines, sub-disciplines. Professional retraining is also carried out to expand the skills of professionals with a view to adapting to new economic and social conditions. The above mentioned requirements of modern society are associated with the economic instability and nonlinearity of the processes occurring in it and reflected in all development institutions. Government and commercial organizations of any ownership are interested in the full use of labor potential, overshadowing improving information, material and technical equipment and other technical features of organizations. In this regard, a significant role in any organization is given to the expert, to Human Resource Manager. Features of retraining at an additional educational program Human Resources Management The educational system is designed to realize the function of education of the individual in order to ensure its progressive development. Part of the general education advocates further professional education, "the demand for which is ‘updating and enriching’ the already established educational potential of the individual compensation of possible gaps in training, education and development" [2; p. 5]. Professional retraining is one of the areas of additional vocational training. According to the definition A.G. Kazakova, retraining is "getting additional knowledge and skills by managers or professionals" [2; p. 146], the development of the necessary qualities to perform professional work in the new environment. The professional retraining program Personnel Management is conducted in the High School of Business, Management and Psychology (HSBMP) at the Siberian State Technological University. Implementing the retraining program Personnel Management its developers seek to achieve the following objectives: 1. Development of leadership qualities of the manager personality. 2. Enhanced vision of business strategy. 3. Development of innovative and entrepreneurial skills. 4. Developing the ability to apply the old and newly acquired knowledge and experience in a variety of business situations. 5. Incitement to desire for learning throughout life and personal growth. 6. Developing communication skills and teamwork skills. 7. Organizing knowledge obtained on the basis of professional management experience. The program is built on five pillars: the system, pragmatist, modular, monitoring and synergetic. Let us consider each of them in detail. Systemic principle is in indissoluble connection of Sciences and Humanities, the formation of interdisciplinary connections, joining theory and practice, identifying new patterns in business management and staff organizations. The essence of the pragmatist principle is that the active implementation of the managerial abilities of the individual occurs during the formation of the group and team activities that occur in the process of retraining through active learning methods. The modular principle is the basis of the program. Module is a logical chain of cycles studied discipline, which is a formed body of knowledge and skills necessary for effective learning. The principle of monitoring is the measurement and analysis of the theoretical and # 1639 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Galina V. Panasenko and Tatiana V. Shendel. System of Methods, Techniques and Means as a Condition of Success… practical knowledge through professional tests and independent examination. Synergistic principle is that the management is a system integrated all the subsystems of the organization in the interaction with the environment and getting a new synergy effect. This principle is fundamental to the understanding of economic development processes. Note that the retraining program Human Resources Management is designed for a specific target audience. A umber of requirements exists for potential listeners: – voting age from 25 to 45 years; – higher education of any form of learning; – management experience of at least 2 years; – opportunity and ability to perform intensive curricula; – motivation for learning. In addition, prospective students are in the process of competitive selection, which consists of three stages. The first stage involves an interview, i.e. familiarity with the candidate. List of topics discussed: chain decision on admission to the program, motivation; business objectives in the near future; view of the future group; time-management; ability to work in a team; participation in business programs, reading business books; actions in case of failure in reception, etc. The second stage is the definition of existing knowledge in the field of economics, management and psychology, as well as organizational and managerial skills acquired in practical activities that allow you to build an effective learning group and adjust to develop additional professional educational program. Third stage includes psychodiagnostics of a candidate with drawing characteristics reflecting his personal and business qualities. Psychodiagnostics of a candidate performed using psycho-geometrical test, color test procedure by Luscher and multiple personality questionnaire by R. Cattell 16 PF (version A). The result of competitive selection of candidates is the formed study group of listeners, consisting of representatives of senior and middle management levels, who acquired management experience in an unstable economy, mastering many of the processes not in a classroom environment, but participating in the activities of the organizations. The process of retraining is based on additional professional education program, and intellectual innovations of teachers. Now we describe these structural elements of the process of retraining. Additional professional education program is a "document defining the content of education and enables in learning tasks set for retraining" [2; p. 146]. As noted earlier, additional professional education program Personnel Management has a modular training. Each module is relatively independent: Module 1 – Management Module 2 – Psychology Module 3 – Quality. The central figure in the educational process is the teacher. The key competences of the modern business school teacher are expressed as follows: "the balance of academic preparation, high real business knowledge and skills, based on a wealth of teaching experience and a serious methodological training" [1; p. 572]. Teachers involved in the process of retraining are creative teachers. They do not just have some degree of professors and associate professors of universities having a large enough experience of scientific and pedagogical work, but people who have knowledge of management disciplines and teaching experience combined with real practical experience as a part-time residence in management positions, consulting or applied research. # 1640 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Galina V. Panasenko and Tatiana V. Shendel. System of Methods, Techniques and Means as a Condition of Success… Particular interest is I the educational technologies that are used by teachers involved in the process of retraining. Among them it is worth noting the traditional learning technology in conjunction with the persona-oriented learning technology. Among the existing traditional technologies the preference is given to a lecture form, accompanied by presentations; practical exercises aimed at developing personal and business qualities of listeners and the qualifying paper workout. Among the persona-oriented learning technologies there is widely used cooperative learning, method of case study, discussions, role and business games. Thus, teachers use forms of group work. This method of personaoriented learning technology is aimed at direct regulation characteristics of the educational process, where the main task is to increase the level of knowledge and skills to make decisions independently and take responsibility for them. Mastering the material is not passive, but on the basis of active and exploratory learning methods. These technologies make it possible in the fi rst place, to identify the qualities of students as emotional involvement, activity, creativity, the ability to analyze quickly large amounts of information, decisionmaking under stress and uncertainty; and the second: if there is the absence or incomplete implementation of these qualities, so to develop them. Moreover, interaction with teachers and group-mates gives a synergistic effect and creates an efficient system of knowledge and practical skills. There is the formation of a cohesive team of people working in different areas of business, occupying the position of the heads of individual directions up to CEOs and business owners. Collaborative learning allows to expand business contacts and helps to solve many business issues. Despite the many advantages of group work methods, there is particular focusing on the individual work of students, which is expressed in the development of individual projects (business plan, presentation, organizational culture research, diagnosis motivational sphere, etc.) and their defense. The field training Team Building is of particular interest, it aims to exploring modalities for establishing a functioning, cohesive team. During the training, participants learn to: 1) understand: what is the team, how it works, and who is the team leader; 2) be aware of: the resources of personal influence, the need to motivate the team members need to distribute the functions of a team; 3) create a team to solve specific problems. There are successfully applied methodological innovation, particularly fiction and poetry. Using literary works for the discussion of the management problems there is some advantage: they accept some human features and let go beyond dry technical discussions. Appealing to folklore (fairy tales, legends) allows st5udents to understand the Russian business much better. The additional professional education program is completed by writing and defending of a thesis on topical issues of personnel management in modern organizations. As a result, students receive a diploma of vocational retraining in the Siberian State Technological University on Program Human Resources Management, certifying the right (the qualifications) for professional activity in this area. Expert evaluation of the additional professional education program Personnel Management effectiveness Having considered a system of methods, techniques and means of professional retraining # 1641 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Galina V. Panasenko and Tatiana V. Shendel. System of Methods, Techniques and Means as a Condition of Success… program Human Resources Management, there is held its expert evaluation to identify the ability and effectiveness of the program in the Russian conditions to prepare the administrative staff of higher and middle managers who are able to solve the problems of the present level in the management of organizations, their structural units. To improve the objectivity of the expert assessment it is carried out in a quantitative form (score) for the twelve scales: 1. Characteristic of the issued diplomas (licensing and accreditation). 2. Number of courses on MBA program. 3. Number of MBA programs graduators. 4. Number of issues of programs counterparts. 5. Number of graduates of the programs counterparts. 6. Scientific and methodological level of the curriculum. 7. The level of lectures and professors in the educational process. 8. Material and technical resources and educational-methodical base. 9. Foreign partners. 10. Participation in Presidential program. 11. Financing of the MBA programs (programs counterparts). 12. Promoting the careers of graduates. Each five-point scale provides an assessment of various characteristics of the program. "Each point corresponds to a certain level of program features. The highest score (5) is the maximum level of performance, the lowest score (1) is minimum. On the basis of the ratings the summary output characteristic readiness of the educational institutions to implement programs MBA by summing the scoring. The marks on the scales 2, 3 and 12 are multiplied by a factor of 2, and the characteristics of the programs counterparts (scale 4, 5) are multiplied by a factor of 1.5. If the educational institution provides both types of programs, in this case either MBA program (scale 2 and 3), or programs counterparts (scale 4 and 5) are taken into consideration to determine an average mark. The maximum score that can be got by an educational institution is 65 points" [1; Pp. 248-252]. The results of the expert evaluation of retraining program Human Resources Management are given in Table 1. The expert evaluation of retraining program Human Resources Management in HSBMP at SibSTU was 43 points out of 65 possible. This result suggests that retraining has a high potential for training senior and middle levels of management. Expert assessment has identified positive trends in the development of the program and also a number of problems. The existing HSBMP retraining program Human Resources Management is a program created in an educational institution, on its own initiative, having experience of practical implementation for the past ten years. Graduates mention its highest level, both in content and in the final result, which is undoubtedly a great achievement. It is important that training in the study program is possible after higher education (and Table 1. Expert evaluation of retraining program Human Resources Management in the HSBMP at the SibSTU Scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Assessment (score) 4 1 1 7,5 7,5 2 5 5 1 1 5 3 # 1642 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Galina V. Panasenko and Tatiana V. Shendel. System of Methods, Techniques and Means as a Condition of Success… not under it) with a diploma of supplementary (Higher) Education, which involves getting a second skill – the skill of personnel manager, claimed in modern Russia. The annual intake of students tends to be relatively small, which creates a framework for the implementation of individual approach and application of active learning methods. Professional retraining is breakeven financially. Through its implementing there is the process of extra budgetary funds from Russian business in the sphere of education, which beneficially affects the activities of an educational institution. The most important task of the program is maintaining a high quality of professional training. The performance of educational institutions in liaison with employers’ organizations, including on the basis of the creation of effective forms of employment and career development of graduates retraining should be improved. In order to eliminate shortcomings in administration of High School of Business, Management and Psychology it is necessary to organize work closely with alumni Human Resources Management. In this case we are talking about the creation of the Alumni Association of HSBMP SibSTU that will contribute to: – interaction between alumni and students; – participate in the creation and continuous updating of the knowledge base of the HSBMP graduates; – development of linkages with domestic public and educational organizations. It is advisable to revise the system of recruitment to vocational retraining program, to prevent unscrupulous marketing, distorting the actual situation in the educational institution, to introduce more stringent form of entrance examinations. In general, professional retraining program Human Resources Management is performed at a high level of educational methods. On the basis of some refinement and correction, subject to obtaining international accreditation (AACSB, efmd, AMBA) with the aim of integrating the Russian business education in the world of business and educational space High School of Business, Management and Psychology at the Siberian State Technological University is ready to implement the program of MBA (Master of Business Administration). The program has real value because it is realized at a highly professional level, which virtually guarantees the person entering the business elite or professional elite at the expense of acquiring new knowledge and skills, the development of key personal and business qualities. References 1. Biznes-obrazovaniye: spetsifika, programmy, tekhnologii, organizatsiya (Business education: specificity, programs, technology, organization) [Text] / V.V. Godin [i dr.]; pod obshch. red. S.R. Filonovicha. – M. : Izdatelskiy dom GU VShE, 2004. 690 s. 2. Kazakova, A.G. Sovremennyye pedagogicheskiye tekhnologii v dopolnitelnom professionalnom obrazovanii prepodavateley (Modern educational technology in additional professional education teachers) [Text] : dis. … doktora ped. nauk : 13.00.08 / A.G. Kazakova. Moskva, 2000. 377 s. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Galina V. Panasenko and Tatiana V. Shendel. System of Methods, Techniques and Means as a Condition of Success… Система методов, приемов и средств как условие успеха профессиональной переподготовки личности менеджера Г.В. Панасенко, Т.В. Шендель Сибирский государственный технологический университет Россия, 600049, Красноярск, пр. Мира, 82 Предметом исследования является системный анализ методов, приемов и средств профессиональной переподготовки личности менеджера. В статье обозначена проблема, выражающаяся в социальном заказе общества на подготовку специалистов, отвечающих новым требованиям современного рынка. Это потребовало от учебных заведений начать подготовку кадров по профилю, существенно отличному от того, каким еще несколько лет назад обладали их выпускники. В частности, возникла необходимость в переподготовке менеджеров по персоналу, имеющих знания, умения и навыки в области организации процесса управления персоналом, мотивации, организационной культуры, социально-психологической атмосферы, организационного поведения, диагностики организационно-управленческих процессов, где особое внимание уделяется формированию лидерских способностей личности менеджера, его личностным и деловым качествам, командной деятельности и др. В экспериментальной части статьи проанализирован процесс профессиональной переподготовки личности менеджера по дополнительной профессиональной образовательной программе "Управление персоналом". Дана экспертная оценка исследуемой программе, из результатов которой следует, что профессиональная переподготовка имеет высокий потенциал для подготовки управленческих кадров высшего и среднего звеньев. Ключевые слова: менеджер по управлению персоналом, профессиональная переподготовка, дополнительная образовательная программа, экспертная оценка. Научная специальность: 08.00.00 – экономика. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1645-1652 ~~~ УДК 81’367.5 Language Categorization of Prototypical Situation "Speech" in Modern English Anastasia V. Semkova* Mirny Polytechnic Institute (branch) of North-Eastern Federal University 5/1 ул. Tikhonov Str., Mirny, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), 678170, Russia Received 05.06.2014, received in revised form 04.07.2014, accepted 17.09.2014 The article deals with the problem of language categorization on the sentence level. A cognitive approach to the sentence study reveals polysemy of a sentence generally depends on the sentence possibility to categorize different variations of a prototypical situation. These variations stand on two basic factors. Firstly, great numbers of alike but not equivalent situations exist in real life. A person, since he / she is capable of categorizing, confines a situation to a certain category. Secondly, the speaker can differently interpret the same situation. The latter may focus attention on different dimensions of the situation at different time. As a result, some dimensions of the situation are highlighted and the others, on the contrary, recede to the background. Nonequivalence of the similar situations and different interpretation of the same situation determine semantic and syntactical structure of the sentence. The prototypical situation of speech has been chosen for analysis to manifest this statement. Keywords: prototypical situation, prototypical construction, categorization, dimension, figure, ground. Research area: 10.00.00 – philology. In cognitive grammar, construction is understood as unification of a cognitive model (conceptual structure) and a corresponding language form (Lakoff, 2008; Goldberg, 2003). Cognitive model or conceptual structure is often denoted as prototypical situation because the referent of any sentence is a real situation of the world, reflected in the speaker’s mind. Therefore, prototypical situation is not the real situation of the world itself, but its cognitive image (Kustova, * 2000: 108). In other words, prototypical situation is a piece of reality, represented in speaker’s mind and in the process of representation it gets peculiar features inherent to national conscience, specified by culture of the given folk. Each prototypical situation is characterized by a set of dimensions classified as obligatory (figure) and optional (ground) ones. In prototypical situation "speech" such dimensions as follows are observed: © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1645 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Semkova. Language Categorization of Prototypical Situation «Speech» in Modern English Obligatory (figure): 1. "agent" (the author of speech); 2. "process of speaking" (the speech act); 3. "addressee" (the one who perceives speech); 4. "information reported"; Optional (ground): 5. "manner of speech": а) "volume", b) "velocity / rapidity", c) "plenty / lack of emotions in the speech act"; 6. "aim of speech". As a rule, people are different from animals first of all in ability to think, to reason, to contemplate over the past, to criticize their actions and ideas, to make plans for the future, to dream and to speak. "Agent" is the author of speech or that one who speaks (performs a speech act). According to logic, that is a person, possessing brain capable of thinking or fulfilling an intellective function that makes a person speak. The author of speech in prototypical situation plays the only role: he / she speaks. In reality the role of speaking is hardly separable from the role of thinking as speaking is the process of turning thoughts into sentences and sentences into thoughts (Latin-English Dictionary of Philosophical Terms). Herewith the process of thinking in speaker’s mind is directed to speech producing. In spite of it, in an "unblended" prototypical situation of speech which can be also named a model that serves as a "reference point" (Lakoff, 2008: 359), the agent plays just the only role – he / she is the author of speech. Speech is traditionally recognized as the process of speaking itself (speech activity) (Arutiunova, 1990: 414). Speech activity is analogous to other activities of people. Therefore, when the agent speaks, he / she performs a certain act, a speech act, that is the second dimension of the prototypical situation. The third dimension of the prototypical situation is the "addressee", as in the situation there must be someone the speech act is directed to. Our supposition is supported by the analysis of the vocabulary entries to the verbs of speech. The definitions of these verbs contain the seme "indefinite animate addressee", e.g., to tell – to say something to someone, often giving them information or instructions (Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary). The result of speech is speech work, memorized or written down (Arutiunova, 1990: 414), in other words, "information reported". This is the information the speaker is willing to send the addressee – that is the next dimension in the prototypical situation of speech. In the process of language categorization one dimension of the prototypical situation "speech" is emphasized (highlighted) and another one recedes into the background. It depends on that how the speaker grasps the situation of real life. So, one can find obligatory (figure) dimensions as well as optional (ground) ones in any prototypical situation. The ground dimensions are the conditions that accompany the speech act: volume and velocity of speech, emotions of the speaker, the aim the speaker strives to achieve as a result of speaking. In the prototypical situation of speech these dimensions are found against a background. They are implicit. As it has been noted by linguists "figure – ground" principle represents the basic cognitive ability of a person to focus his / her attention on the most significant information (Furs, 2009: 290), and the peculiar feature of "figure – ground" mechanism in Gestalt Theory is that the figure is highlighted or explicit and the ground is against a background or implicit. In accord with G. Lakoff and M. Johnson’s theory prototypical situation is thought of as gestalt, in other words, as a set of characteristics actualized together. That, to their minds, is # 1646 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Semkova. Language Categorization of Prototypical Situation «Speech» in Modern English more important for our experience than a discrete manifestation of each characteristic feature (Lakoff, 1980: 71). In fact, prototypical situation is actualized by one or some of its manifestations in form of this or that construction, because in reality there is hardly such a construction that is able to verbalize the whole situation at once (Kovaleva, 2008: 82). The reason is that uniqueness of the event presupposes additionally marked sense units that are often non-verbalized in the sentence structure (Furs, 2009: 31). Constructions, categorizing the prototypical situation best of all and without the mixture of other characteristics, are called prototypical constructions. These constructions exist in speaker’s mind as ready-made forms to express prototypical situation (Lakoff, 1980: 70-72). Peculiar Features of the Prototypical Constructions for the Prototypical Situation of Speech Categorization It has been noticed that the prototypical situation "speech" is categorized best of all by the construction Nspeaker Vsay/speak/talk/tell Naddressee Ninformation. The optional or ground dimensions aren’t represented by the prototypical construction, as in the prototypical situation of speech they are implicit. The first dimension is verbalized by the actant Nspeaker. The latter is usually expressed by an animate noun or a personal pronoun. On the level of surface the second dimension "speech act" is actualized by the nuclear (dominant) verbs of speech: to say, to speak, to talk and to tell, as they are stylistically neutral and the seme "manner of speaking" isn’t found in their vocabulary entries. They immediately denote the speech act regardless the manner and the aim of speech. That allows keeping the optional dimensions implicit against the background of the situation and the situation of speech prototypical. For example, to say – "to pronounce words or sounds, to express a thought, opinion, or suggestion, or to state a fact or instruction" (Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary). Besides, the analysis of the empirical material reveals that constructions with the verbs to say, to speak, to talk and to tell are frequently used in speech. The third dimension is categorized in the construction by the actant Naddressee, which can be expressed by a personal pronoun in the objective case or an animate noun. It is necessary to note that the third dimension can be non-verbalized in the construction as mostly it coincides with the speaker. Actually the omission of this actant doesn’t impact the common semantic organization of the sentence and doesn’t change the meaning of the sentence, as it is always implied that the speech act addresses to a definite / indefinite person. The fourth obligatory dimension of the prototypical situation "information reported" is nominated on the surface level by the actant Ninformation, that, in its turn, can be expressed by an infinitive, inanimate noun, anaphoric pronoun it, or a subordinate objective clause. Variety of forms representing this actant is justified, in our opinion, by variety of reported information and its types. In the process of speech, the speaker is able to report any information: "a thought, opinion, or suggestion, or to state a fact or instruction" (Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary). Herewith, these constructions are not equivalent semantically. Constructions with a subordinate objective clause describe information reported by the speaker in detail, for example: (1) He fi nally told me why he was so upset (BNC). In this case, the figure dimension "information reported" is # 1647 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Semkova. Language Categorization of Prototypical Situation «Speech» in Modern English categorized by the subordinate objective clause that represents the essence of information. Constructions with inanimate nouns just mention the type of information: (2) She always tells stories to children (BNC). In the following sentence even the type of information isn’t pointed out: (3) She said it in the kitchen, on the Wednesday of that week, looking round from the Aga where she was frying bacon (BNC). Here information is represented implicitly by the pronoun it that fulfils an anaphoric function. Constructions with the infi nitive categorize such a situation where the agent encourages the addressee to act, appeals to him / her for following some instructions: (4) He says to close my eyes and rest quietly (BNC). The questions are raised: which of these constructions categorizes the prototypical situation best of all? Which of them is more prototypical? Constructions with the inanimate nouns and anaphoric pronoun it, categorizing the dimension "information reported", are not informative enough, as information itself isn’t represented. As far as constructions with the infi nitive are concerned the figure dimension "information reported" is semantically concretized, as some instruction for the addressee to follow is meant. A construction with the subordinate objective clause is defined as prototypical for categorization the prototypical situation of mental activity. The ground of that is as follows: naturally the verb of mental activity doesn’t predict temporal and modal character of the thought, therefore, the syntactical form of the predicate actant should be able to represent tense, aspect, mood, and so on. Such a form is the subordinate clause with the tense-aspect and modal forms of the finite verb (Kovaleva, 2008: 108). As far as speaking and thinking are inseparably connected, constructions with the subordinate objective clause are the best ones for the prototypical situation of speech categorization. Peculiar Features of the Non-Prototypical Constructions for the Prototypical Situation of Speech Categorization In figure-ground interrelation the figure is principal and the ground is against a background, even though the ground impacts the figure indirectly. The ground manages to enhance and to reduce the figure, and depending on situation, the ground turns into the figure and the figure makes the ground (Lakoff, 1981: 358). It happens when the speaker notices optional (ground) dimensions in real situation and verbalizes them. In this case the ground dimensions are categorized on the surface level, and the construction ceases to be prototypical and turns into non-prototypical one. In real life the speaker often pays attention to a manner and aim of speaking. Consequently, optional dimension "manner of speech" / "aim of speech" makes the figure and some obligatory dimensions recede into the background. In nonprototypical situation "manner of speech" / "aim of speech" are categorized either by the predicate or by different sirconstants. If the speaker’s attention focuses on the volume of speech act, he intuitively chooses a periphery verb of speech as a predicate: to whisper, to shout, to cry, to hiss, etc., because the seme "volume" is found in vocabulary entries to these verbs. For instance, to shout: "to express strong emotions in a loud voice" (Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary). Let us observe construction (5) Mother shouted for the children (BNC). The speaker and the agent of speech don’t coincide here. The speaker notices someone shouting. For the speaker it is more important to emphasize the manner of speech rather than the information itself (as we see, the dimension "information reported" isn’t categorized on # 1648 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Semkova. Language Categorization of Prototypical Situation «Speech» in Modern English the surface level at all). So, the dimension 5a "volume" is highlighted and becomes figure. Here the situation categorized is somewhat different from the prototypical one. It is semantically close to construction (6) He spoke in a barely audible, husky growl (BNC) in dimension 5a "volume", which is verbalized through the sirconstant of manner in a barely audible, husky growl. It is relevant for the speaker that the agent of speech could be hardly heard, but not what he says. Speaker’s attention can be paid not only to the volume of the speech producing, but also to the emotions, accompanying the process of agent’s speech: (7) Paul shouts angrily and loudly at smaller children who want to play with the toys he is using (BNC). In the situation categorized by this construction two dimensions are emphasized simultaneously. They are 5a "volume" and 5c "plenty of emotions in speech act". Firstly, the speaker subconsciously resorts to using the verb to shout as the seme "strong emotion" along with the seme "volume" is found in its vocabulary entry. Secondly, one can easily observe two sirconstants loudly and angrily, they signalize dimensions 5a "volume" and 5c "plenty of emotions in speech act" make figures in this situation. Construction (7) is semantically close to construction (8) My husband sometimes scolds loudly my stepson but more often blames my son (BNC) in dimensions "volume" and 5c "plenty of emotions in speech act". It is revealed through the sirconstant of volume loudly, as well as through the semantic structure of the main verb to scold – "to find fault noisily or angrily" (Merriam-Webster Dictionary). At the same time constructions (7) and (8) are semantically close to construction (9) Maybe she just said it in the heat of anger or whatever (BNC) (despite the main verb to say is unexpressive and stylistically neutral) in dimension 5c "plenty of emotions in speech act". The latter makes figure here as it is noticed and verbalized by the speaker through intensifier of emotions in the heat of anger. It proves that the speaker focuses his / her attention on the emotions expressed by the author of speech rather than on the information itself. In some situations the speaker notices the velocity of speech first of all but not the information reported, as extreme rapidity or slowness can keep the addressee from perceiving reported information. So, the dimension "velocity" is highlighted and turns into figure in the situation. On the surface level, the dimension "velocity" is mostly verbalized by the sirconstant of velocity, for example: (10) He said it in a rush, leaving Rachel staring at the door (BNC). The meaning of the sentence changes because the sirconstant of manner in a rush is employed. The dimension "velocity" becomes figure and the rest of the dimensions apart from the agent recede to the background. The speaker first of all pays attention to the agent producing his speech in one breath, in other words, to the manner of it. The next sentence (11) Nicolo muttered short fast phrases behind my back (BNC) is organized by the periphery verb to mutter. Its vocabulary entry contains the semes "quietly", and "in a low voice" on the one hand and "worried", "complaining" on the other hand that highlight such optional dimensions as "volume" and "plenty of emotions in speech act". The dimension "velocity" in its turn is verbalized by the sirconstant of velocity short fast. So, the three optional dimensions at once are noticed and categorized by the speaker. Moreover the obligatory dimension "information" recedes to the background as it isn’t even mentioned by the speaker. In construction (12) Unexpectedly he said this phrase with some effort (BNC) all the obligatory dimensions of the prototypical situation of speech except the "addressee" are verbalized. In fact its omission doesn’t influence the meaning of the sentence. Herewith this construction can be hardly regarded as prototypical one, because the dimension "velocity" is represented by the # 1649 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Semkova. Language Categorization of Prototypical Situation «Speech» in Modern English sirconstant of velocity with some efforts. The speaker understands that the agent’s speech is not dynamic, slow and that can impede information perception. The speaker pays attention mostly to the manner of speech but not to the information the agent is trying to tell on. Besides the vocabulary of the language contains such periphery verbs that represent the dimension "velocity": to jabber, to gibber, to rattle etc. So, when the dimension "velocity" is relevant for the speaker it is represented either by the sirconstant or by the predicate of speech in the sentence. These constructions are semantically close to each other in dimension "velocity". Dimension 6 "aim of speech" makes figure when the speaker pays his / her attention to the agent’s of speech intentions and to the objection of his / her speech act. The given dimension in non-prototypical construction can be represented either by the periphery verbs: to praise, to scold, to slander, to disgrace etc., or by the sirconstant of aim. Let us compare two constructions: (13) Mickey told that long coil of phrases in order to compliment her (BNC) and (14) George praises the hospitality and warmth of welcome extended by the Belgians (BNC). In construction (13) the dimension "aim of speech" is represented by the sirconstant of aim in order to compliment her. It proves the fact that the accent shifts to the aim of speaking, what the speaker utters his speech for. In construction (14) the same dimension makes figure as the sentence is headed by the periphery verb to praise. The lexical meaning of this verb is: "to express strong approval or admiration to someone especially in public" (Macmillan English Dictionary). The constructions are semantically closed in dimension 6. The aim of the utterances is to say something pleasant, to appreciate somebody. It is necessary to note that the dimension "addressee" is seldom represented in such constructions as the agent’s speech is immediately sent to more than one addressee, to public, in other words, to a "common addressee". The seme "common addressee" ("especially in public") is observed in the vocabulary entry of the periphery verbs, running the constructions. So, the constructions with the nuclear verbs to say, to tell, to speak, to talk and the sirconstants of aim are semantically close to the construction headed by the periphery verbs: to praise, to scold, to slander etc. in dimension "aim of speech". As it has been noticed, in the process of categorization of non-prototypical situations with the figure dimensions "volume", "velocity / rapidity", "plenty / lack of emotions in the speech act" and "aim of speech act" the speaker often resorts to using such lexical means that point out the type of the information reported or anaphoric pronoun it: (15) Cleo said this phrase in a penetrating voice (BNC); (16) Helen whispered that invocation very rapidly, being afraid to be heard (BNC). It signalizes that the dimension "information reported" recedes to the background of the situation, because the necessary information does not reach the addressee in full. He / she remember just the process of information reporting. An extreme rapidity of speech, low / loud voice and emotional state of the agent prevent the addressee from receiving what is being reported. Conclusion Therefore, as far as reality is rich and multifarious in comparison with forms of thinking and language expression (Gak, 2004: 466), such phenomenon as sentence polysemy exists in the language. Sentence polysemy reveals when constructions headed by the same verb categorize different variations of the same situation. However, there is something common that binds these constructions together. It allows # 1650 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Semkova. Language Categorization of Prototypical Situation «Speech» in Modern English observing their semantic likeness and confining them to the same category. This is some common idea that helps the speaker use a sentence under different conditions; intuitively adapt it to each concrete case. Since the sentences refer to a common abstract idea (one prototypical situation), they are semantically close to each other and build a paradigm, making a sense continuum, but they are not semantically equivalent. Prototypical and non-prototypical constructions possess their own peculiar features. They reflect the way the speaker grasps the situation, as in the process of categorization he / she pays more attention to some dimensions of the situation rather than to other ones. The dimensions highlighted by the speaker can be represented by the head verb of the sentence. It explains existence of the synonyms, denoting different manners and aims of speech in the language. The rest of the sentence parts together with the main verb form a semantic side of the sentence as the dimensions of the situations are represented by a main verb, actants, and sirconstants at once. References 1. Arutiunova N. (1990) Speech [Rech’]. Lingvisticheskii Entsiklopedicheskii Slovar’. gl. red. V. N. Iartseva. Linguistic Encyclopedic Dictionary. Moscow: Sovetskaia Entsiklopediia. P. 414-416. 2. British National Corpus, Available at: http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/ (accessed 5 July 2014) 3. Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Available at: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/ dictionary/british/go_2 (accessed 3 July 2014) 4. Gak V. (2004) Theoretical Grammar of the French Language [Teoreticheskaia Grammatika frantsuzskogo iazyka]. Moscow: Dobrosvet. 862 p. 5. Goldberg A. (2003) Constructions: a new theoretical approach to language. Trends in Cognitive Science 7(5). PP. 219-224. 6. Kovaleva L. (2008) English Grammar: sentence and word [Angliiskaia grammatika: predlozhenie i slovo]. Irkutsk: ISLU Publ. 397 p. 7. Kustova G. (2000) Cognitive Models of Semantic Derivations and System of Derived Meanings [Kognitivnye modeli semanticheckikh derivatsii i sistema proizvodnykh znachenii]. Voprosy Iazykoznaniia. Issues in Linguistics (4), 2000. P. 85-109. 8. Lakoff G., Johnson M. (1980) Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: The Univ. of Chicago Press. 242 p. 9. Lakoff G. (1981) Linguistic Gestalts [Lingvisticheskie geshtal’ty]. Novoe v zarubezhnoi lingvistike. New Trends in Foreign Linguistics. Moscow: Progress, 10, 1981. P. 350-368. 10. Lakoff G. (2008) Women, Fire and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. Chicago: The Univ. of Chicago Press. 792 p. 11. Latin-English Dictionary of Philosophical Terms, Available at: http://philosophy.ru/library/ aquino/vocabularium.html (accessed 1 July 2014). 12. Macmillan English Dictionary, Available at: http://www.macmillandictionary.com/search/ british/?q=go (accessed 3 July 2014). 13. Merriam-Webster Dictionary, Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/?bo ok=dictionary&va=go (accessed 3 July 2014). 14. Furs L. (2009) Conceptual Aspects of Syntax [Kontseptual’nye aspekty sintaksisa]. Kognitivnye issledovaniia iazyka. Kontseptualizatsiia mira v iazyke. Cognitive Study of Language. # 1651 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Anastasia V. Semkova. Language Categorization of Prototypical Situation «Speech» in Modern English World Conceptualization in Language. Moscow, Tambov: TSU named after Derzhavin Publ., 2009, (4). P. 278-301. 15. Furs L. (2009) Peculiarities of Cognitive Category in Syntax [Osobennosti kognitivnoi categorii v sintaksise]. Kognitivnye kategorii v sintaksise. Cognitive Categories in Syntax. Irkutsk: ISLU Publ., 2009. P. 21-50. Языковая категоризация прототипической ситуации "Речь" в современном английском языке А.В. Семкова Политехнический институт (филиал) ФГФОУ ВПО «Северо-Восточный федеральный университет имени М.К. Аммосова» в г. Мирном Россия, 678170, Республика Саха (Якутия), Мирный, ул. Тихонова, 5/1 Предметом анализа статьи является проблема языковой категоризации на уровне предложения. В рамках когнитивного подхода многозначность предложения связана со смыслом предложения в целом и заключается в том, что предложение категоризует разные вариации прототипической ситуации. Эти вариации связаны, во-первых, с наличием в реальной действительности огромного количества похожих, но не эквивалентных ситуаций, которые человек, в силу своей способности категоризовать, подводит под одну категорию, во-вторых, с различным пониманием говорящим одной и той же ситуации реальной действительности. Одна и та же ситуация может быть по-разному осмыслена говорящим, который акцентирует своё внимание то на одних параметрах ситуации, то на других. В связи с этим некоторые параметры ситуации могут выдвигаться на первый план, а другие, наоборот, – затемняться. Неидентичность похожих ситуаций реальной действительности, а также разное осмысление говорящим одной и той же ситуации реальной действительности влияет на семантическую и синтаксическую организацию предложения, что мы пытались продемонстрировать в ходе анализа на примере ситуации речи. Ключевые слова: прототипическая ситуация, прототипическая конструкция, категоризация, параметр, фигура, фон. Научная специальность: 10.00.00 – филология. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1653-1660 ~~~ УДК 37.046.14 Functional Specifics of Mediatext in the System of Development of Intercultural Communicative Competence Boris V. Tarev* National Research University Higher School of Economics 20 Myasnitskaya Str., Moscow, 101000, Russia Received 04.08.2014, received in revised form 17.09.2014, accepted 10.10.2014 The publication raises the question of the status and characteristics of a mediatext in the system of language training aimed at development of students’ intercultural communicative competence. The author represents the specific characteristics of mediatext as a component of media. The article discloses the classification of media texts, represents the selection criteria for language teaching purposes. Keywords: mediatext, intercultural approach to teaching, intercultural communicative competence, selection of mediatexts, didactical criteria of mediatexts, classification of mediatexts. Research area: 10.00.00 – philology. Introduction Learning foreign languages is now closely associated with the concept of intercultural communication. Increasing contacts with other cultures have a positive effect on students’ motivation to learn foreign languages. Knowledge of one or more foreign languages is considered to be the key to a successful career. But in reality it turns out that in the process of interaction between a specialist and his foreign friends and colleagues a good knowledge of a foreign language is not a guarantee of successful intercultural communication. Even recent graduates of linguistic universities for whom intercultural communication is an essential part of their professional activities, are not immuned * from the "cultural shock", i.e. from the possible rejection of culture, customs, traditions and ethics of the country of the studied language. Hence – the failures, difficulties and, as a consequence, the loss of a possible beneficial effect of business partnership. At present time the question of overcoming cultural barriers is raised by many researchers of language teaching theory and practices (I.I. Khaleeva, N.D. Galskova, K.N. Hitrik, G.V. Elizarova, S.G. Ter-Minasova, etc.). There exists a specific research area within which there is a development of theoretical and practical understanding of the ways of this problem solving. In Lingvodidactics the sphere of investigations that accounts for such studies © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1653 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris V. Tarev. Functional Specifics of Mediatext in the System of Development of Intercultural Communicative… is intercultural approach to teaching foreign languages. The researchers rightly claim the need to develop among foreign language learners some key competencies that allow for successful communication in the conditions of intercultural communication. They are, on the one hand, foreign language communicative competence, which implies a combination of knowledge and skills for successful use of a foreign language in situations of intercultural communication, on the other hand, intercultural communicative competence (ICC), which determines the comprehension of the worldview of another ethnical and social community, ability to see the similarities and differences between communicating cultures and apply them in the context of intercultural communication. The fundamental specific feature of intercultural communicative competence is the ability of an individual to rethink his native cultural identity, national and cultural identity, to recognize the facts of his native culture, which previously (before learning a foreign language) were not the subject of reflection and comparison (Tareva, 2011). Theoretical Framework Intercultural communicative competence is aimed at ensuring an interlocutor with most favorable conditions for conducting a conversation with his partner who represents a different culture. This kind of communication is being actively carried out not only directly, in real life, but also through different media that is in "mediareality". It is difficult to imagine modern human activities without daily processing of information flow, and, most of all information is produced and transmitted through a variety of media (printed media, television, radio, Internet). Nowadays 70% of the world population is involved in creation, processing and transfer of mediatexts; over 90% of the world population is active consumers of media products (Tareva, 2011). Thus, the media help to increase the pace of globalization. Media production, from the didactic perspective, has long been established as an effective means of formation of media education or media literacy (N.P. Ryzhikh, I.V. Chelisheva, A.A. Novikov). Modern literature differently treats the effects of active intervention of "mediareality" into daily life. At the same time it must be noted that access to mass media of the target language country provides a number of advantages when learning foreign language, and these benefits are substantial. Firstly, when learning a foreign language outside the country where it is a primary means of communication, media texts (printed matters and radio, television texts) are modern sources of written and spoken language of native speakers. Secondly, the media use "full", i.e. literary language norm, which is in the center of teaching a foreign language in a linguistic university. Thirdly, the texts of media faster than dictionaries, grammar references, etc., reflect lexical, grammatical, phonological, etc. changes that occur in the target language. Special attention in the context of learning a foreign language at universities with deeper penetration into foreign language learning is to be paid to foreign language radio texts and teletexts, as with their help, students can comprehend authentic speech, follow the articulation and gesticulation of native speakers. Fourth, of particular interest for foreign language learners are specific cultural media texts, giving an adequate reflection of regional geographic and culturally important aspects of life in the country of the studied language. Finally, depending on the age and interests of foreign language learners it is reasonable to select TV and radio programs in the target language that will promote intrinsic motivation for learning the foreign language. Thus, cognitive and educational value of media texts in the process # 1654 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris V. Tarev. Functional Specifics of Mediatext in the System of Development of Intercultural Communicative… of learning a foreign language is clear and indisputable. At present, mediameans (mainly printed matters) are widely used at foreign language classes as an authentic material for lessons of Speech Practice and for classes devoted to Media Language. It should be noted that the use of media texts is primarily aimed at the development of foreign language communicative competence, in particular, its linguistic component, because while working with media content, students memorize the most common clichés, grammatical structures, etc., in order to then use them in speech and writing. Statement of the problem Despite the success achieved in the study of application of media texts, not all their potential features are revealed deeply and thoroughly. In particular, the attention of scientists is outside the study of the role of media for the development of intercultural communicative competence. The term "mediameans" stands for traditional means, which are used for mass-communication such as movies, television, press, radio. The interpretation of this concept is necessary due to the fact that now in many theoretical papers we can see the tendency of correlation between the concept of "media", denoting a technical device for information representation, and the concept of "mass media", implying technology of relaying information to influence mass audience. In the first case, mediameans is represented by a computer, and in the second – mediameans are represented by TV, cinema, press, etc. Mediameans are used to broadcast mediatexts that are regarded as key product of mass-media. In the most general form a "mediatext" is defined as "the totality of oral and written texts (printed, audio, video), that make up the content of newspapers, magazines, television and radio broadcasts, Internet-sites of mass- media publications, various types of advertising, ads, labels and etc. " (Dobrosklonskaya, 2000: 5]. From the perspectives of Psycholinguistics mediatext is defined as a model of a situation or event, reflected through the prism of individual perception of the author, it is a special type of reality, being a product of human information activity, created through a set of texts in massmedia with specific characteristics imposed by media space and media time (Rogozina, 2003). We can conclude that mediatext redesignes according to special laws of media industry a "parallel" world, reflecting the vision of the world of a native speaker, his stereotypes and norms of behavior, simulating the real situation of communication between native speakers. From this point of view the special interest is represented by mediatexts that are formed on audiovisual level, i.e. the texts, which are broadcasted by means of TV. The texts of TVprograms, being media products in the studied language, provide distant immersion in the language and cultural environment. With regular use of authentic audiovisual media content foreign language students observe the behavior of native speakers, their cultural peculiarities, fixing difference and similarities with their own culture, which promotes dialogue between cultures. As a result, by the end of a certain period of learning a foreign language with application of media of the country of target language the learners have already got some experience of penetration in the foreign language culture that helps to avoid the phenomenon of "cultural shock" which may take place at the first direct interaction with other lingvoethnical community. Practical aspects: types of mediatexts If we regard the produce of foreign-language media from practical point of view, i.e. from the perspective of usage of media content in a # 1655 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris V. Tarev. Functional Specifics of Mediatext in the System of Development of Intercultural Communicative… foreign language classroom for the purpose of development of intercultural communicative competence, then the selection of material must be conducted with focus on the interests of foreign language learners and their level of foreign language communicative competence. The most difficult for audiovisual perception by language learners are News programs, which most fully realize the main function of the media – informative. On the one hand, a high level of repeatability of such mediatexts greatly facilitates the perception and use of the News by the audience that does not belong to the lingvocultural community, for example, students who study the foreign language and foreignlanguage media culture. On the other hand, due to the cultural specificity of News texts, students may not have the profound extra-linguistic background information needed to understand particular News items. Certain difficulty for perception of News texts may be caused by ideological component of foreign language texts and News media of other cultures. Nevertheless, the News mediatexts are especially valuable because they reflect culturally determined perception and reflection of the vision of the world by a certain cultural community. All that is exposed not only at the level of content, but also at the level of selection and presentation of media information by mass-media in different countries. Equally important for understanding the vision of the world by a representative of another culture is his interpretation of events. Consequently, that allows active introduction in the educational process the analysis of events, political commentaries, overviews, texts, that represent opinions and assessments. It is the information and analytical materials that represent differences in the perception of realities of social and political life due to specific cultural and ideological context. Different vision of reality is expressed in its turn through different ways of interpretation of this or that event. Interpretive function of mass communication is implemented by proper media technologies, and by linguistic means, and acquires influential properties. In terms of potential difficulties for students, information and analytical texts are generally less difficult for understanding than the News texts. This is explained by the fact that, firstly, the information and analytical programs last longer (on average 40 – 60 minutes) than the News (5 – 30 min.), but from the point of view of events, information and analytical texts are less saturated than News. On average, informationanalytical program contains 5-10 events, while newscasts – 10-15. In addition, the debatable nature of analytical reports allows students to more easily switch from one topic to another. These and many other features of mediatexts in a foreign language, of course, must be taken into account in the process of development of intercultural communicative competence. To achieve these goals of particular interest can be the topical broadcasts, which in British media are very aptly named by the term "features", representing the mediatexts on a variety of topics from pop music and sports to high life and high fashion. In the selection of authentic audiovisual media content should be paid attention to the fact that the topical mediatexts appeal to human interest, focusing the audience at the themes of ever interest (travel, music, hobbies, etc.). In comparison with the News and information and analytical texts, this type of media texts is more focused on impact, which greatly facilitates their perception and understanding by foreign language learners. Of great interest for foreign language learners are advertising texts. Like any media product, advertising texts represent a form of existence of a social environment, a fragment of national culture. To attract an audience advertising texts # 1656 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris V. Tarev. Functional Specifics of Mediatext in the System of Development of Intercultural Communicative… use national-cultural connotation that allows creating in advertising texts national and cultural linguistic image. Advertising texts are designed to encourage potential buyers – representatives of a particular language and culture – to buy a particular product. That is why they are filled with many allusions, associations, etc. Such factors of extralinguistic nature may partially or completely block for a representative of another culture the understanding of the mediatext if he has not been prepared for this. And we cannot ignore the text of advertising, because the ability to fully understand them serves as an evidence of a sufficiently high level of development of intercultural communicative competence. In addition to the said above, it should be noted that audiovisual mediatexts contribute to the intensification of the learning process, allowing reducing the number of hours required for study of a topic; increases the efficiency of acquisition of non-verbal means of expression specific for native speakers (Pressman, 1988). Practical aspects: selection of mediatexts Recognizing the undeniable role of mediatexts in the structure of system of development of intercultural communicative competence, it should be noted that their use is connected with a number of difficulties; one of the most complicated is the problem of selection of such training materials. Working with media materials, it is necessary to take into account the complexity and a huge variety of mediatexts. Nonsystematic use of media materials can backfire, i.e. reduce motivation and performance of students, in general, and worsen educational performance. To avoid this, the selection and integration of mediatexts in the process of development of intercultural communicative competence should be guided by a number of criteria relating to both objectives of foreign language education in general and the objectives of the development of intercultural competence in particular. Selection of specific mediatexts and methods of working with them depends on many factors, primarily on the level of students’ language proficiency. Most researchers rightly believe that mediatexts, in particular, newspaper texts as the most popular type of mediatexts used at foreign language lessons, can be used only with learners who are at the intermediate level and higher. A language learner with intermediate level of language proficiency already has a sufficient vocabulary and knowledge in grammar for understanding the text. Usually, at this stage, students work with informational mediatexts, such as notes or reports on political meetings and official events. These mediatexts are full of clichés and set phrases typical for journalistic style, and they lack jargon, slang, and other means of expressive language, which can obscure the students. With increasing of the level of student’s language proficiency it is possible to move on to more complex problematic mediatexts, such as information and analytical programs or essays. In this case, the main criterion for selection is the level of the text difficulty, i.e. mediatexts are selected on the basis of principle "from simple to difficult". In preparation for working with mediatexts it is also necessary to consider the age of students. The TV program about political system in the country of the target language may be interesting for seniors while freshmen will consider it boring. Students must be excited; the topics discussed in mediatexts must be designed with the aim to not only help to expand their life experiences, but also encourage them to collate their world with the world of native speakers. Selection and organization of mediatexts should be implemented so that students find connections # 1657 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris V. Tarev. Functional Specifics of Mediatext in the System of Development of Intercultural Communicative… with their experiences and ideas about their own and "the other" culture. If a teacher chooses a mediatext without consideration of the criterion of "matching students’ age", the consequences of using such an authentic media material can be negative, for example, it may cause a sharp rejection of the culture of the country, or "cultural shock" and demotivation of students. A teacher can prevent this if he finds out the range of his students’ interests (for example, through questionnaires) and invite students to consider those issues that affect their peers in the target language country. Students are likely to be concerned with the problems associated with the start of professional life, finding a job in the country of the target language, their peers’ leisure, etc. Thus, when reasonable approach to the selection and use of educational media content is implemented a teacher is able to increase the motivation of students and make a significant contribution to the development of their intercultural competence. As follows from the above, no less important criteria in the selection of mediatexts is the thematic variety of media material, as well as its clear thematic structuring, i.e. availability of topic, subtopics, situation. These criteria are provided by the variety of media texts. Of particular note are the so-called timeless texts. Basically, these are thematic TV-programs and articles about geography, history, world of animals, etc. Such media materials are relevant for a very long time (the criterion of "relevance of a time parameter"); these subjects almost always trigger students’ interest. Depending on the theme of the lesson, a teacher can select informative and interesting material that will be useful in terms of the development of intercultural competence of students. Media products that meet this criterion are produced, for example, by the Channel Discovery (series Travel and Living) and studio National Geographic. Speaking about mediatexts as texts for training purposes, it is necessary to mention that almost all mediatexts represent different types of pragmatic statements (information on facts, events, evaluation judgments, regulation of relations, etc.), as well as public attitudes, different norms of communication. Most intense in this regard are articles and social programs. In the selection of authentic mediatexts a teacher should not forget that in addition to the educational function of mediatexts (e.g., movies, programs about Arts, etc.) they are an excellent basis for the development of aesthetic perception of students, which should also become one of the landmarks when searching for authentic media material. And finally, one of the fundamental criteria in the selection of authentic material, including media material, is quality and functionality of the text appropriate to a certain type of speech activity. The mentioned above criteria allow to assess the quality of an authentic mediatext with consideration of basic didactic tasks for foreign language teaching accompanied by the process of development of intercultural communicative competence at all the stages of foreign language learning. When selecting media material, not only the quality of the text, but also the number of criteria that the given text matches is taken into consideration. Consequently, the preferred is the text that corresponds to six criteria rather than to three. To conclude, all the information is summarized in Table I, where the criteria are listed that should be applied at the process of selection of mediatexts, as well as types of mediatexts that match specific criteria. The Table below represents the correlation between criteria of selection and types of mediatexts. # 1658 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris V. Tarev. Functional Specifics of Mediatext in the System of Development of Intercultural Communicative… Table 1 CRITERIA TYPES OF MEDIATEXTS 1. Adequacy of complexity (from simple to difficult) From short topical broadcasts on well-known problems to the texts of daily News programs Topics and the manner of media materials presentation is varied depending on the age and interests of learners 2.Correspondence to age parameters 3. Topical variety (the repertoire of topics correlates with the demands of individuals, with Provided by all the types of mediatexts the educational objectives for the certain class of learners) 4.Topical structuring (topic, subtopic, situation, Certain topical broadcasts, mainly movies and vertically arranged context) TV-series) Thematic TV-programs on geography, history, 5.Time relevance culture, etc. 6. Availability of various types of pragmatic statements (information on facts, events, Provided by all the types of mediatexts evaluation judgments, regulation of relations, etc.) 7. Social and socio-cultural importance, mediatexts contain civil attitudes, beliefs, Information and analytical programs, reviews, positions; norms of the different types of socially oriented broadcasts communication Information and analytical programs and 8. Moral challenge articles, movies, and TV-series 9. Aesthetic parameter Movies, thematic texts (mediatexts on Arts) Mediatexts of everyday dialogic communication (interviews in News programs, thematic 10. Quality and functionality programs, information and analytical mediatexts, some texts of advertising) Conclusion Having examined specific features of mediameans, their didactic typology, as well as focusing on the principles of selection of modern mediatexts, it can be concluded that regular use of authentic mediatexts in target language provides immersion in the language and cultural environment of the studied language being an effective means of accumulation of experience in dealing with foreign-language culture and effective means of developing and improving intercultural communicative competence. References 1. Tareva E.G. Cross-Cultural Interpretation as the Strategy for Pre-Translation Text Analysis // Journal of Siberian Federal University. Krasnoyarsk, 2011. № 4 (10). P. 1473-1480. 2. Dobrosklonskaya T.G. Theory and Methods of Medialinguistics (on the material of the English language [Teoriya I metody medialingvistiki (na material angliiskogo yazyka)]: Abstract dis. … Doctor of Linguistics. (M., 2000). # 1659 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Boris V. Tarev. Functional Specifics of Mediatext in the System of Development of Intercultural Communicative… 3. Rogozina I.V. Media Presentation of the World: Cognitive and Semiotic Aspect [Media-kartina mira: kognitivno-cemioticheskiy aspect]: Abstract dis. … Doctor of Linguistics. (Barnaul, 2003). 4. Pressman L.P. The Basics of Application of Computer Aided Teaching [Osnovy metodiki primeneniya tekhnicheskikh sredstv obycheniya]. M: Prosveshchenie, 1988. 191 p. Медиатекст в системе формирования межкультурной коммуникативной компетенции студентов Б.В. Тарев Национальный исследовательский университет Высшая школа экономики Россия, 101000, Москва, ул. Мясницкая, 20 В публикации ставится вопрос о статусе и особенностях медиатекста в системе иноязычной подготовки студентов вуза с целью формирования у них межкультурной коммуникативной компетенции. Автором предлагается сущностная характеристика медиатекста как одного из компонентов системы медиасредств, приводится классификация медиатекстов, представлены лингводидактически обусловленные критерии отбора медиатекстов. Ключевые слова: медиатекст, межкультурный подход к обучению, межкультурная коммуникативная компетенция, отбор медиатекстов, критерии дидактизированных медиатекстов, классификация медиатекстов. Научная специальность: 10.00.00 – филология. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1661-1671 ~~~ УДК 821.411.16 Methods of Estrangement in Amos Oz’s A Tale of Love and Darkness Yulia E. Valkova* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia Received 18.07.2014, received in revised form 14.08.2014, accepted 07.09.2014 The present paper characterizes specific stylistic features of a distinguished Israeli author and scholar Amos Oz on the material of non-fiction A Tale of Love and Darkness. The analysis is focused on the method of estrangement in particular, since this stylistic device is of key importance for understanding the ambivalent connection of both the book and the author with European and especially Russian literature in the reflection of modern Hebrew literature. The method of estrangement is also considered as meaningful for equivalent and adequate translating. Keywords: Amos Oz, estrangement, A Tale of Love and Darkness, Israel, Hebrew, translation. Research area: 10.00.00 – philology. Introduction Amos Oz, being one of the most popular Israeli authors and at the same time recognized intellectual and a professor of literature at BenGurion University in Beer-Sheva, is a prominent novelist and his works deserve greater attention than currently in Russia. The research is oriented more on A Tale of Love and Darkness (2002), as this is a partly autobiographical and non-fiction novel, translated into 28 languages so far. One of the topical features of contemporary literature is balancing between two worlds – new and old, West and East, traditional and challenging. When globalization prevails, authors appear to have a temptation to leave far behind cultural roots and attune to cosmopolitan writing, which can be written and read everywhere. Still some rootedness is hard to get away from, especially when the * author attempts to write a biography, though it can turn out to be pseudobiography in the end. When the author starts to revive his childhood memories, he is trying to perceive them as happening again, this literary device is called estrangement. Estrangement concerns not only remembrance of the past, but revival of the things that have gone away, these are (for any Israeli author) – the times of galut (exile), native languages of the places where Jewish diaspora lived, trade and cultural connections of the past times, not to mention some subtle psychological patterns realized in writing novels. Estrangement is a vivid feature in all works of A. Oz and characteristically in A Tale of Love and Darkness. The further study will be concentrated on whether this estrangement is kept in translation and useful methods of translating estrangement or making up for it. © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1661 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yulia E. Valkova. Methods of Estrangement in Amos Oz’s a Tale of Love and Darkness Theoretical framework The present study follows mainly works of authors of Israeli origin and those Englishspeaking researchers who are interested in the modern Hebrew literature and its connection with the traditional one, which was written before the revival of the Hebrew language in the 20 th century. These works are based on peering at struggle for identity, on the idea of heterotopy of the narrator, which means a deviation from normal state; abnormal placement. A. Mendelson-Maoz also speaks about dialectical difference between aliyah (migration to Israel with the positive connotation) and immigration. Moreover, scientists note that A. Oz, being a member of the peace movement, while investigating the Jewish-Arab conflict tries to distance himself from both parties and fi nd some reconciliation. Researchers largely contrast works of A. Oz to the works of other authors of his age or fortune, such as to S. Yishar (Sh. E. Jelen, R. Omer-Sherman), Mary Antin (N. K. Miller), S.Y. Agnon, H. Bartov, A. Appelfeld, S. Michael, E. Amir (A. Mendelson-Maoz), A.B. Yehoshua, D. Grossman (H. Halkin), Y. Orpaz, M. Tammuz, D. Shahar (Sh. Peled), A. Cohen (K. Grumberg), A. Appelfeld, Y. Kaniuk, H. Gouri (G. Shaked), A. Camus, S. Yishar (G. Piterberg). A. Balaban speaking about panentheism and religious framework in The Trappist Monastery draws parallels between A. Oz, his literary contemporaries and predecessors and philosophers, including F.W. Schelling. The objective of this paper is to examine the realization of estrangement in A. Oz’s A Tale of Love and Darkness, so we have three tasks: to define what estrangement is, to observe the researchers’ approaches to estrangement in A. Oz’s works and to concentrate on the author’s application of estrangement on the material of the particular novel. Let us begin with the defi nition, which will be reviewed briefly as the wider and all-encompassing examination of the notion extends beyond the scope of the present paper. Estrangement here will be understood as the distancing effect (estrangement derives from estrange, which means: to cause someone to be no longer friendly or close to another person or group; to cause someone to be no longer involved or connected with something; to remove from customary environment or association; to arouse especially mutual enmity or indifference in where there had formerly been love, affection, or friendliness (MerriamWebster Dictionary). In another dictionary estrangement is the fact of no longer being on friendly terms or part of a social group; the fact of no longer living with one’s spouse or partner; separation (Oxford Dictionary). This distancing effect allows for unbiased, objective approach, especially necessary when the philological analysis deals with pseudobiography, which has both fictional and nonfictional nature. Estrangement in philological sense is close to the term "defamiliarization", which was introduced in 1917 by V. Shklovsky in his essay "Art as Technique"). To illustrate what he means by defamiliarization, V. Shklovsky uses examples from L. Tolstoy, whom he cites as using the technique throughout his works. The story "Kholstomer" is told as if anew, from the point of a horse. Defamiliarization also includes the use of foreign languages within a work. It is akin to automatization, but avoids over-automatization (for further details cf. C. Emerson). Moving forward a little, we will see that the use of different languages, languages of different cultures and automatization is a commonplace for A Tale of Love and Darkness. Estrangement from the viewpoint of psychology is state of increased distance from # 1662 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yulia E. Valkova. Methods of Estrangement in Amos Oz’s a Tale of Love and Darkness oneself of others; decrease in contact where close contact once occured (Psychology Dictionary). Again, later we will see the realization of these directions in the analyzed work. Though there is a number of both ambiguous terms for the phenomenon and different definitions of estrangement, the current purpose is not on the differentiating the terminology, rather on looking at specific examples narrowly. The next step on our way to examination of estrangement in A Tale of Love and Darkness is to refer to the already existing theoretical works devoted to estrangement either in the whole literary corpus of A. Oz, or letting into the topic of estrangement in A Tale of Love and Darkness in particular. Let us form a comprehensive list of reasons for estrangement before (in the following section) we will look for specific purposes of usage of estrangement. So scientists attribute A. Oz’s estrangement to • Leaving relatives, intellectualism, old and bookworm culture, as Sh. E. Jelen aptly articulates, his trajectory from Jerusalem to "Kibbutz" marked his own personal journey away from that which he considered a parochial Europeanism. Still, the heroes as other characters in A. Oz’s fiction feel uprooted and alienated in a new, unfamiliar place (Feldman, p. 395). Yet the recently written story, painfully revelatory "Little Boy" (2012), "reveals that even the kibbutz’s nativeborn sometimes endure traumatic estrangement" (R. Omer-Sherman, book review). • Attempt to create new literature in a new language (modern Hebrew is still new and lacks some words) • Attraction in the youth to the risky allures of the Gnostic defiance (Y.S. Feldman), which is hard to detach from # 1663 # • Rethinking of the past • Difficulty of self-identification • Failure of the parents’ generation to blend in (in particular, A. Mendelson-Maoz mentions it) • Connection with European origins, which hardens involvement into community "His experience in that moment appears to be an acceptance of his universe as distinctly nonindigenous" (Sh.J. Jelen, p.512). • Mixture of different cultures in Israel • "Absent memory" of Holocaust and other horrors, postmemory of the third generation. This absent memory brings pressure to young generation, which has not experienced the traumas of the World War II, but feels them as if phantom pains. The narrower meaning of the term concerns more private individualistic matters. M. McNay applies the notion of absent memory to the family secrets that underlie these narratives and reflect on questions raised by such secrets–and by incomplete narrative inheritances–for the children burdened with them (cf. M. McNay). • Trauma at the suicide of author’s mother, odd behavior of the mother "Fania’s nocturnal migrations from her room to that of her pubescent son are presented, from Amos’s perspective, without pity and with an admirable avoidance of retrospective commentary and diagnosis" (Carmy, p. 58). Ch. Schachan and K. Grumberg discuss it in the terms of spectropoetics introduced by Jacques Derrida. K. Grumberg also addresses Freud’s term "unheimlich" (uncanny) and the concept of exile as mingling of the homely and the unhomely (cf. K. Grumberg, p. 383). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yulia E. Valkova. Methods of Estrangement in Amos Oz’s a Tale of Love and Darkness • Individual expression fighting collective consciousness, objective versus subjective. "<…> a protagonist feels trapped or constrained by a public self that is not of his choosing" (Halkin, p.32). Ch. Schachan cites G. Shaked in regards that A.Oz iz primarily concerned with the collective subconscious (cf. Ch. Schachan, p. 327, 329). • Distinguishing between the positions of settler and colonialism. G. Piterberg alludes to A Tale of Love and Darkness, as "it so clearly conveys the forcefully demarcated fault-line, so rationalised and orderly, between settler and indigene (G. Piterberg, p.40). • Evasiveness of parents when asked to tell about their insufferable past (N.K. Miller, p.320) • Renaming "The choice of the Hebrew name to replace the European one represents both the deliberate turning away from the old, fetishized models of European Enlightenment culture and the journey toward the forging of a new world on new terms<…>" (N.K. Miller, p.322), Sh. Carmy writes about a repudiation of the previous name and resolution to adapt the Hebrew identity. • Inner migration within the identity (N.K. Miller) • Vexed position between secular and religious (Sh. Carmy, A. Balaban). A. Oz is pleading for the distancing of the biblical model from modern Israel, because if Israelis try to take after biblical heroes, this will result in "insecure individuals bewildered about their identity and heritage (N. Aschkenasy, p. 134). • The very geographical location of the setting, replete with biblical reminiscent spirit and archetypical landscapes. "<…> the desert serves potentially as a transformative space that lays bare the cracks in the individual’s commitment to national identity" (cf. R. Omer-Sherman developing the ideas of J. Cohen, p.53). • Personal experience of the author, including moves across the country and military service. "Having experienced Jerusalem as a divided city and served in a tank unit in the Six-Day War and the Yom Kippur War, A. Oz has an intimate understanding of the movement of Israeli society from a collectivist ethos to a socially critical and finally to an increasingly Americanized and, hence, individualistic culture" (R. OmerSherman, p.54). Even the earliest characters of A. Oz feel alienated from the environment. In the analysis of My Michael (1968) Sh. Peled discusses Hannah, protagonist, "representing a besieged sovereign who declares a state of exception, at once constituting the space surrounding her and perceiving it as a threat. She oscillates between representing the sovereign and being an individual character; interpretations fluctuate accordingly, unable to resolve this ambiguity" (Sh. Peled, p. 269). And later the researcher comments that A. Oz’s text "creates a system of exclusions that generates a constant sense of unease, a system of oppositions and distinctions that sustain a covert and threatening conflict, thus repressing the hybridity of the space (Ibid, p. 278). Ch. Schanan brings out the express intention of the protagonist in Longing (1976) of concentrating precisely on recording details of the place and the moment (Ch. Schachan, p. 328). So the narrator’s position throughout of the literary corpus of A. Oz is that of the outsider (cf. Sh. Carmy, p.57). All these above-stated reasons considered we will fix our attention more on the stylistic # 1664 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yulia E. Valkova. Methods of Estrangement in Amos Oz’s a Tale of Love and Darkness purposes of estrangement in the novel and its linking role for the whole work. Statement of the problem In A Tale of Love and Darkness A. Oz chronicles his childhood in Jerusalem at the end of the British Mandate for Palestine and the early years of the State of Israel, and his teenage years on kibbutz Hulda, where he escaped from highbrow environment in search of highly true Zionist ideals. Being a stranger in a completely new place, being a stranger to the values proclaimed there, he starts writing as if turning over a fresh leaf. Nonetheless, he could not quit his acquaintance with well-known figures in Israeli society, among them Shmuel Yosef Agnon, Shaul Tchernichovsky and David Ben-Gurion. One of his teachers was the Israeli poet Zelda. Joseph Klausner, one more considerable writer, was his great-uncle. Told in a non-linear fashion, A. Oz’s story is interwoven with tales of his family’s Eastern European roots. The family’s name was originally Klausner. By changing the name to a Hebrew one, A. Oz rebelled against that European background while affirming loyalty to the land of his birth. In the book, A. Oz’s father recalls how the walls in Europe were covered in graffiti saying "Jews, go to Palestine", but when he reached Palestine, the walls were scrawled with the words "Jews, get out of Palestine." This alienage, sense of not belonging to any of the worlds fully, running away from Jewish unconsciousness and V. Jabotinsky’s revisionism led to affluent estrangement in the works, among which A Tale of Love and Darkness stands aside with its recalling of the bygone childhood, revisiting which any writer perceives is as anew, so events are told as estranged, it is ineluctable. It needs to note that not only scholars, but also publicists assert this estrangement as interwoven in this memoir, about combination of anticipated intimacy and actual estrangement: "…the Hebrew nation returning to its homeland, a man in his sixties connecting the segments of his life before and after his mother’s suicide fifty years earlier, and the writer tangling with the many languages that shaped him and the Hebrew that he shaped in turn" (cf. M. Pomerantz and other). Methods For the present study philological analysis was used with attuning to identifying vivid examples of estrangement and establishing the purpose of each case. To ease the presentation of analysis the English translation of the novel will be cited in the following paragraph. To mine a literary text for any single case of estrangement is extravagant, so only few examples will be enlisted in this work, though estrangement permeates the whole novel. This paper quotes from the English translation: A Tale of Love and Darkness, trans. Nicholas de Lange (New York: Harcourt, Inc., 2004). Subsequent references will be given in parenthesis in the text, using the abbreviation LD. We will apply here the method of partial selection of the most significant examples, as the limitations of the paper size do not allow for scrutiny. For determining single cases of estrangement we will be guided by the dictionary definitions and approaches of A. Oz’s works’ researchers, which were analyzed in the previous section. The textual analysis of examples of estrangement and detecting estrangement in the context (not to mix it with another literary devices) will be carried out on the base of the linguistic organization of the text, mainly in its stylistics aspect. Stylistics serves to make formation or interpretation of estrangement explicit and retrievable. Apart from stylistics, we will see, but not range them the means of other levels of language, which are graphical, lexical and syntactic. All these means are designed to # 1665 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yulia E. Valkova. Methods of Estrangement in Amos Oz’s a Tale of Love and Darkness realize the whole idea of estrangement, which passes through the whole book. To prove the assumption that estrangement is a kind of a binding agent for this work, let us turn to discussion of different examples to see whether there is firm connection between and the number of examples of estrangement is big enough to extrapolate the idea of estrangement to the entire A Tale of Love and Darkness. Discussion To begin with, estrangement is essential for self-referential works, otherwise they may appear as apologetic. It is worth mentioning that A Tale of Love and Darkness is not an autobiography per se, so use of estrangement acquires here a fictional character as well. More of the examples derived here are of fictional character, not of documentary one. Such is the fi rst example, which narrates about switching on the light in the cold flat: I stared at it (switch) and watched the coil begin to glow. It lit up gradually: at fi rst you couldn’t see anything, you just heard a series of crackling sounds, as when you walk on grains of sugar, and after that a pale purplish gleam appeared at either end of the element and a hint of pink began to spread toward the center, like a faint blush on a shy cheek, which turned into a deep blush, which soon ran riot in a shameless display of naked yellow and lecherous lime green, until the glow reached the middle of the coil and glowed unstoppably, a red-hot fi re like a savage sun in a shiny metal dish of the reflector that you couldn’t look at without squinting, and the element was now incandescent, dazzling, unable to contain itself, any moment now it would melt and pour down on my Mediterranean Sea like an erupting volcano raising cascades of molten lava to destroy my flotilla of destroyers and submarines (LD, p.30). The passages of such length are characteristic of the whole oeuvre, which appears as a luminal, extraneous, heterogenous world, as though captured in a particular moment and frozen with all its peculiar characteristics. Hybridity and sensuality of the ordinary object in the fantastic reflection of a young narrator serve the purpose to immerse the reader in the state where common objects are precursors of rueful events. The imagination looks into the membrane of everyday routine, in which future events are "signalled, erupt, are set aside, returned to; for its style, a breathtaking conjunction of the large and small" (cf. S. Gee). Despite the length of any single description, A. Oz’s text is constructed from a collection of episodes, rather than appears as a consistent narrative. He states it as such: I am trying to reconstruct, or rather to guess, to conjure up, almost to create out of nothing: like those palaeontologists in the natural history museum who can reconstruct a whole dinosaur on the basis of two or three bones (LD, p. 281). Here again we see estrangement, which is presented as reconstruction which is due to an effort to distance the author from the narrator, and them both from the events described. The text breaks fabula by integrating different material such as testimonies, documents, postcards, literary criticism, memoirs from the standpoint of members of the family, all of which deviate from one clear voice, to create a chorus. The proclaimed scientific objectivity of the author assists creating a pluralistic approach. The next example also deals with reconstruction and is critical for understanding the use of estrangement in the text, encompasses pages 62-63 (description of Aunt and Uncle): I can see them standing there; at the end of the world’ on the edge of the wilderness, both very tender, like a pair of teddy bears, arm in arm’ # 1666 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yulia E. Valkova. Methods of Estrangement in Amos Oz’s a Tale of Love and Darkness with the evening breeze of Jerusalem blowing above their heads, the rustle of pine trees, and a bitter smell of geraniums floating on the clear dry air <…> On his lips floats a distracted, slightly bewildered smile’ like a man who knocks on the door of a house where he is a regular visitor and where he is used to being very warmly received, but when the door opens a stranger suddenly looks out at him and recoils in surprise, as though asking, Who are you sir and why exactly are you here? The defamiliarization here is aligned with estrangement in psychological rethinking of the destination. The purpose of estrangement is to reconsider the life path through remembrance of the relatives and ascribing to them the author’s own immediate thoughts, though the characters "like teddy bears" in the empty city are shown alienated and they are given their own voices to speak. The definition at http:// www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/estrangement deduces estrangement to "the feeling that you don’t belong, especially when you’re surrounded by other people. Estrangement happens when something – or someone – makes you feel like a stranger. It can describe a couple that’s split up or the alienation of a former friend. The meaning hasn’t changed much from its Latin root, extraneare, "treat as a stranger". Here the couple is alienated and the narrator as well. The characters of A. Oz "often flee homogeneous and complacent insularity" (R. Omer-Scherman, p. 54). Such is the character of Grandma, who lacks this insularity and intervenes into the narrator’s consciousness. The passage about hot bath at Grandma’s house shows how the narrator’s speech intermingles with the Grandma’s humming and becomes her voice. This soliloquizing stretches for two pages without any pause. The direct speech starts after "then Grandma told you to close your eyes as tight", and then the narrators stops thinking and the reader listens to Grandma’s voice only until the bath is over (LD, pp. 73-75). This strategy is implemented to grant the character, other than the narrator, right to outspeak their life positions. The author abundantly lets his characters speak from their own, such is the memories of Aunt Sonia (LD, pp.150-158) about some relatives. It is remarkable that the story finishes with the description of the estranged narrator: And you were such a serious little boy, a boy who couldn’t set the sunshine, too serious <…> I thought then that you would surely be much more of a Klausner than a Mussman. Today I am not so sure… Here and there the narrator appears as precocious child, lost in between two families. The purpose of estrangement is to see the family story in a different light. The disconnectedness of the narrator is partly inherited from parents who preferred a solitary life, in disunion, lack of unity with religion: <…> my mother found no sense or interest in Jerusalem <…> The synagogues and rabbinic academies, churches, convents and mosques all seemed much of a muchness to her, dreary and smelling of religious men who did not wash often enough. The foreignness in the life, separation from religion, politics, conversations with people other than small talks is the lineament of emotional dissociation or alienation. Estrangement arises out from a defensive operation aimed at coping with stress. The narrator may be telling of estrangement in an effort to be aware of it and prevent self-alienation in future. One more example shows estrangement of the narrator as a child from the world of grownups: I had a specific role in these conversations at the café. First of all I had to give polite, intelligent answers, just like a grown-up, <…>Secondly my # 1667 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yulia E. Valkova. Methods of Estrangement in Amos Oz’s a Tale of Love and Darkness task was not to get in the way. I had to be nonexistent, invisible (LD, p. 400). The invisibility of the spectator is useful for creating the verifiable objective narration of the outsider, which is a purposely chosen position of a writer: To this day I pickpocket in this way. Especially from strangers. Especially in busy public places. <…>Peeping and making up stories. <…> Nowadays I no longer stop in terror at the bedroom door: I float invisibly in.<…> I live in fear of being caught in the act and asked to explain myself.<…> Half a minute, and they’re caught in my invisible paparazzi camera (LD, p. 403). That is the trait of any single writer as to collect the stories from the observed objects, pretending that you are an independent, unaffected, all knowing creator with omnipotence to reconstruct the destiny from the appearance of the passer-byes. That is frequently applicable method – to show the main character’s life from the position of his/her relatives, the child’s revelations from the position of adults. One more extract in this string is the narrator’s father voice, when the narrator looks at the photo of his young father who utters: Don’t worry, pals, everything’s going to be alright, we shall overcome <…> (LD, p.99). Such mode of language is uncharacteristic of the narrator, so estrangement here is for hearing the voices of the past and "optimistic chums". These examples presented the point of people, but the author recurrently falls back upon personification of not live objects. Such is the description of the "amiable" and "most obedient" woolen dog (LD, pp. 105-106), which "had followed Klausners faithfully". Estrangement here is in effect for magic realism in real world setting. The use of direct speeches as if they are stenographed and not invented or remembered by the author provides a means for everyone to sound as real with drawbacks and inaccuracy of oral speech. The author starts, for instance: He had had his own unique brand of Hebrew, Grandpa Alexander, and he refused to be corrected (LD, pp. 113-114). Thus, the new scene with the new voice and new accent is easily introduced in the text. The mode of estrangement here is marked by italics; all the words which Grandpa pronounces incorrectly or in other than Hebrew languages are italicised, which is graphic (more seldom than the lexical or conceptual) way of showing estrangement. From the individual cases of estrangement let us turn to the key topic, which is in the very heading. The conceptual and adversarial opposition of love and darkness is also estranged. The next example of this method is about hovering over darkness because of the saddening memory of the past (absent memory inherited from the previous generations or own recollections of the past woes). For instance, Aunt Sonia recalls the mother’s rage, "which may have been the spark my mother’s life-force vainly trying to free itself from the darkness that was already beginning to enfold it". Being a child, the mother knows despite the curtained windows about the tragedies happening around but chooses a way not to notice them. The markers of estrangement we find in this passage: But all these things happened on the other side of the double glazing, outside the pleasant, illuminated circle of the Tarbuth school. None of them could break in and seriously harm the pleasantness of my mother’s childhood, which was apparently tinged with a hint of melancholy that did not mar but merely coloured and sweetened it (LD, p.207). Juxtaposition of love, vive de joie and darkness is also marked by book reviewers (cf. C. Messud in her review of Scenes from Village Life). Later in the passage the author tells about # 1668 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yulia E. Valkova. Methods of Estrangement in Amos Oz’s a Tale of Love and Darkness the mother’s anguishes that led her to suicide. The death is personified by the mother in the refraction of the narrator’s story as a lover, charlatan, piper, youthful prince, crafty hunter, etc. Thus, the mother is estranged from the reality and "associated muses with death". The pathological helplessness had its outcomes in exclusion of the mother from the world of material doers. Most examples of estrangement in the text are vivid, when the narrator describes selfhood, employs self-analysis, such as: What does my memory begins with? The very very first memory is a shoe… (LD, p. 209). Then the narrator develops his associations about his feelings and switches on to the way how his parents looked at this picture of smelling, i.e. the story continues in third person, the narrator is no longer I, but he: "the infant was also frightened and alarmed by the abundance of their attention, that he was too small to contain" (LD, p.210). The memory like this also includes reexperiencing an engendering unusual perceptions. While describing how the mother helped him to put the shoes on, the narrator makes a comparison: "as if she was a midwife helping the foetus of my tiny foot to travel down the virginal birth canal of my fragrant new shoe". The narrator confesses that to date every moment he strains the tight shoe he feels the same sensual pleasure, though it happens only in reliving memories. Memoir as reinvention: it can’t be anything else, though questions about verity are tempting. (cf. Pomerantz). Summing up, the author showed the narrator and other characters in the state of some disavowal of reflection and alienation followed by anxiety and insecurity. Are there any ways to overcome this alienation? One way to overcome it as speculated by the author is through adaptation, assimilation, conformity, imitation, mimicry: I therefore adopted a representative expression, and expressed the view that <…> Somehow, out of embarrassment or arrogance, I was talking to her not in my own Hebrew but in that of Father and his visitors: formal, polished. Like a donkey dressed up in a ballgown and highheeled shoes: convinced for some reason that this was the only proper way to speak to Arabs and girls. (I had hardly ever had an occasion to talk to a girl or an Arab, but I imagined that in both cases a special delicacy is required: you had to talk on tiptoe, as it were) (LD, p. 313). Here the theatricalism and assuming different masks help the author to pit Jews against Arabs, and oppose political relationships and children chitchatting. The contrasts are denuded especially from the standpoint of children as in the cited paragraph. The derived examples, which have been analyzed by partial selection, show indeed estrangement of characters, as if they are not living people but a set of persons dissected by the author. The characters at times feel strange to this world, which adds some tragedy to the story and predicts further calamities to the kin. Conclusion This paper observed some artistic peculiarities of A. Oz’s works, and of A Tale of Love and Darkness in particular. The aesthetic method of estrangement was studied in relation to this novel. A. Oz uses estrangement for many purposes which we can now establish. These purposes include: showing ambiguity of the child’s worldview, showing the life from different viewpoints and especially the narrator’s life from the standpoint of people around him; showing the world as reexperienced and re-invented. The narrower tasks done by the author to mark estrangement include, but not limited to: a) phonetic peculiarities of different characters; graphic marking (italics) of foreign or incorrectly pronounced words; b) use of specific words, accents, modes of speech; c) use of direct and reported speech; long passages # 1669 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yulia E. Valkova. Methods of Estrangement in Amos Oz’s a Tale of Love and Darkness without pauses; d) inner monologues; ideas of strangeness and alienation; use of different stylistic devices, such as prose, poetry, memoirs, simple notes and quotes. By doing so the author applies correspondingly the methods of graphic, lexical, syntactic and conceptual realization of estrangement. Estrangement in its essence is characterized by feeling uncomfortable and disconnected from other people, the world around, the absence of firm religious and moral values. The author of auto-biography appears as the author and the narrator, the whole story takes a form of onlooker’s observations, which is interesting for self-analysis. The further step is to see how this estrangement can be translated from Hebrew and kept as estrangement. References 1. Aschkenasy, N. (2001). Deconstructing the Metanarrative: Amos Oz’s Evolving Discourse with the Bible. Symposium (Fall 2001), pp. 123-140. 2. Balaban, A. (2002). Secularity and Religiosity in Contemporary Hebrew Literature. Middle Eastern Literatures, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2002, pp. 63-85. doi: 10.1080/14751790220103783 3. Carmy, Sh. (2005). Oz’s Israel. First Things, No. 8 (August/September 2005), pp. 54-59. 4. Emerson, C. (2005). Shklovsky’s ostranenie, Bakhtin’s vnenakhodimost’ (How Distance Serves an Aesthetics of Arousal Differently from an Aesthetics Based on Pain). Poetics Today, 26:4, Winter 2005, pp. 637-664. Slavic Languages and Literatures, Princeton. 5. Estrange. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Available at: http://www.merriam-webster. com/dictionary/estrange 6. Estrangement. Oxford Online Dictionary. Available at: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/ definition/english/estrangement 7. Estrangement. Psychology Online Dictionary. Available at: http://psychologydictionary.org/ estrangement/ 8. Feldman, Y.S. (2007). On the Cusp of Christianity: Virgin Sacrifice in Pseudo-Philo and Amos Oz. The Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. 97, No. 3 (Summer 2007), pp. 379-415. 9. Gee, S. Book of a lifetime: A Tale of Love and Darkness, By Amos Oz. Book Review. The Independent. 9 August 2013, available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/ reviews/book-of-a-lifetime-a-tale-of-love-and-darkness-by-amos-oz-8755005.html 10. Gertz, N., Chazan, M. (ed.) (2005). Amos Oz’s A Tale of Love and Darkness (Special Issue, Summaries). Israel. Studies in Zionism and the State of Israel. History, Society, Culture, 7, 13p. 11. Grumberg, K. (2010) Of Sons and (M)others: The Spectropoetics of Exile in Autobiographical Writing by Amos Oz and Albert Cohen. Prooftexts, 30 (Fall 2010), pp. 373-401. 12. Halkin, H. (2004). Politics and the Israeli Novel. Commentary (April 2004), pp. 29-36. 13. Jelen, Sh. E. (2010). Israeli Children in a European Theater: Amos Oz’s A Tale of Love and Darkness and S. Yizhar’s Preliminaries. The Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. 100, No. 3 (Summer 2010), pp. 504–518. 14. McNay, M. (2009). Absent Memory, Family Secrets, Narrative Inheritance. Qualitative Inquiry, Vol. 15, No. 7 (July 2009), pp. 1178-1188. doi: 10.1177/1077800409334236 15. Mendelson-Maoz, A. (2010). Amos Oz’s A Tale of Love and Darkness within the Framework of Immigration Narratives in Modern Hebrew Literature. Journal of Modern Jewish Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1 (March 2010), pp. 71–87. doi: 10.1080/14725880903263101 # 1670 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yulia E. Valkova. Methods of Estrangement in Amos Oz’s a Tale of Love and Darkness 16. Messud, C. Amos Oz’s Tales of Love and Darkness. Sunday Book Review. The New York Times. 3 November 2011, available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/06/books/review/scenes-fromvillage-life-by-amos-oztranslated-by-nicholas-de-lange-book-review.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 17. Miller, N. K. (2007). I Killed My Grandmother: Mary Antin, Amos Oz, and the Autobiography of a Name. Biography 30.3. Interdisciplinary Quartely (Summer 2007), pp. 319-333. 18. Omer-Sherman, R. (2005). Zionism and the Disenchanted: the Plight of the Citizen-Soldier in Amos Oz’s A Perfect Peace. Middle Eastern Literatures, Vol. 8, No. 1, January 2005, pp. 53-73. doi: 10.1080/1366616042000309184 19. Omer-Sherman, R. Journeying Back to the Land of Amos Oz. Book Review. The Jewish Daily Forward. Published September 26, 2013, issue of October 04, 2013.available at: http://forward. com/articles/184502/journeying-back-to-the-land-of-amos-oz/?p=all#ixzz36wY8XtXx 20. Oz, A. A Tale of Love and Darkness, trans. Nicholas de Lange. New York: Harcourt, Inc., 2004, p. 21. Peled, Sh. (2011). "Mastery Regained" – Israeli Jewish Sovereignty and Space in the Israeli Novel 197-1973. Journal of Modern Jewish Studies, Vol. 10, No. 2 (July 2011), pp. 263–284. doi: 10.1080/14725886.2011.580987 22. Piterberg, G. (2011). Literature of Settler Societies: Albert Camus, S. Yizhar and Amos Oz. Settler Colonial Studies, 1:2, pp. 1-52. doi: 10.1080/2201473X.2011.10648811 23. Shklovskij, V. Art as Technique. Literary Theory: An Anthology. Ed. Julie Rivkin and Michael Ryan. Malden: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 1998. 24. Pomerantz, M. The Land of Amos Oz. Book Review. The Arts Fuse. 20 December 2004. available at: http://artsfuse.org/150/fuse-book-reviewthe-land-of-amos-oz/ 25. Schachan, Ch. (1998). Novellas under the Blazing Light: Transformations in the Novella Writing of Amos Oz. Orbis Litterarum 53, No. 5, 1998, pp. 318-335. Способы создания остранения в "Повести о любви и тьме" Амоса Оза Ю.Е. Валькова Сибирский федеральный университет Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В статье описываются отдельные средства языковой выразительности в произведении автобиографического характера "Повесть о любви и тьме" известного израильского писателя и ученого Амоса Оза. Отдельное внимание уделено приему остранения как средству языковой выразительности, наиболее значимому в отражении неоднозначных связей произведения и автора с европейской и русской литературной традицией в частности. Остранение является частотным приемом для произведений, создаваемых на современном иврите, в особенности если они носят автобиографический или псевдоавтобиографический характер. Прием остранения рассмотрен также с точки зрения адекватной и эквивалентной передачи при переводе. Ключевые слова: Амос Оз, остранение, "Повесть о любви и тьме", Израиль, иврит, перевод. Научная специальность: 10.00.00 – филология. # 1671 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1672-1681 ~~~ УДК 327.56:316.485.6 Measuring Public Opinion Regarding Peaceful Solution of Palestine Issue: an Experimental Study of University Students in Pakistan, Iran and United Arab Emirates Muhammad Asim* College Asghar Mall Rawalpindi, Pakistan Received 12.06.2014, received in revised form 06.07.2014, accepted 12.09.2014 This study aimed to measure public opinion in the Pakistan, Iran and United Arab Emirates regarding peaceful solution of Palestine issue Data (N=276) was collected from two universities, one postgraduate college and one degree college in Pakistan, two universities in Iran and two universities in United Arab Emirates. Although, Pakistan and Iran have theocratic environment and we got anti-Israel replies but there were 77 Pakistani and 41 Emirati students who presented their rational views about peaceful solution of this conflict. There is a brief debate on One-State Solution, Two-States Solution, Three-States Solution and the status of Jerusalem. The plan of forming union among the territories of Israel and Palestine, single currency and Rail-Road plan for secular transportation from one region to another is also discussed in this study. During comparing such public opinion with other previous international proposals for resolving this issue, recommendations from the author are presented in the last. Keywords: UAE, I-P Union, Religiosity, EU, State of Judea. Research area: 10.00.00 – philology. Hypothesis Research Methodology Israel is a reality and formed under the light of UN resolution. Anti-Israel sentiments within the territories of Palestine or in the Muslim world are becoming a cause of Palestinian as well as neighboring countries’ destruction. And, only a peaceful solution can restore the Palestinians as a nation and a strong economy. This study is based on theoretically and historically descriptive, analytical, comparative and qualitative methods. The data is collected from books, research journals, newspapers, internet, interviews, results of different dissertations, and personal visit of universities in Pakistan, Iran and United Arab Emirates. A questionnaire was also designed for measuring public * © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1672 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Muhammad Asim. Measuring Public Opinion Regarding Peaceful Solution of Palestine Issue… opinion that was analyzed through statistical formulas. Introduction The basic aim of this study was to measure public opinion in Muslim society regarding fi nding peaceful solution of Palestine issue. For this purpose, three countries were selected in which Pakistan and Iran has theocratic culture while United Arab Emirates has liberal Muslim society (Coughlin, 2006, PP.89-159). Madrid Conference of 1991, Oslo Peace Accords 1993, Camp David Summit 2000 and different other proposals regarding resolving Palestine-Israel conflict became the reason of investigating public opinion in Muslim society on this issue. This was a pilot study conducted on a small sample of 180 students of Pakistan, 41 students of United Arab Emirates and the 55 students of Iran. This study was much more exploratory in kind to understand some core assumptions and to see whether the fi ndings could lead to the development of some better theoretical framework in order to do some large scale work in the future. To measure public opinion, firstly we have to highlight historical background of the PalestineIsrael Conflict. Historical Background Conflict among Israel and Palestine started from the declaration of the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. Arab countries considered it a threat for them and began ArabIsrael war of 1948 (Wolfman, 2007, PP.110112). In result, Israel captured more areas than the areas allocated in the declaration of its establishment. While, Jordan captured West bank and Egypt captured Gaza Strip where Palestine Government was declared by Arab league in September 22, 1948. But, these areas were captured by Israeli forces during Six Day War 1967 and Palestine Government fi rstly shifted in Jordan then Lebanon. In 1993, through Oslo Accords, Palestine Liberation Organization of Yasser Arafat allowed to establish its control over Gaza Strip and West Bank. So, Palestine National Authority was established (Ross, 2004, PP.06-10). This was the time of emerging new conflict within Palestine where Hamas and Fatah had different point of views. Hamas was strongly anti-Israel while Fatah was controlling Palestine National Authority. Conflict among both groups raised in 2005 when Hamas won the elections of Palestine National Authority. This victory became the reason of division among Palestine Government. Hamas is now governing in Gaza Strip while Fatah’s Palestinian National Authority is governing over West Bank (Schanzer, 2008, PP.50-53). Palestinian Authority tried to gain UN membership in 2011 as a sovereign state but failed. But, in 2012, United Nations declared it a non-member observer state. This time, State of Palestine is recognized by 134 countries (Boyl, 2013, PP.189-190). In 2011, Hebrew University conducted a survey of measuring public opinion regarding tow-state solution among Israelis and Palestinians. This plan was supported by 58 % Israelis and 50 % Palestinians. Similarly, 70 % Israelis and 63 % Palestinians supported an end of violence (The Jerusalem Post, August 25, 2013). This was one aspect but there are since several other plans like One-State Solution and Three-States Solution for resolving this issue. So, there was a plan to judge public opinion in other Muslim countries about this issue that what their educated population considers best. So, we choose students of different higher education institutions in Pakistan, Iran and United Arab Emirates. The basic purpose of choosing students of higher education institutions was to avoid uncivilized and immature answers. # 1673 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Muhammad Asim. Measuring Public Opinion Regarding Peaceful Solution of Palestine Issue… Sample The sample of the study (N= 276) consisted of Bachelor and Master Degree programs from two universities, one postgraduate college and one degree college in Pakistan, two universities in United Arab Emirates and two universities in Iran. Most of the study was mainly belonged to the disciplines of Political Science, History, Islamic Studies, Project Management, Business Administration, Education, Chinese Studies and Persian Studies. In Pakistan, there were 65 (23.5 %) students from Government Boys Degree College Lodhran, 25 (09 %) Students fron National University of Modern Language Islamabad, 50 (18 %) students from Sargodha University Bhakkar Campus and 40 (14.5 %) students from Government Postgraduate College Asghar Mall Rawalpindi. Similarly, in Iran, there were 44 (15.9 %) students from Al-Mustafa International University Qom and 11 (04 %) students from Research Center for Islamic Culture and Civilization Qom. At the same time in United Arab Emirates, there were 32 (11.6 %) students from British University in Dubai and 9 (03 %) students from Michigan State University Dubai Campus. Total number of Pakistani students was 180 while there were 55 Iranians and 41 Emirati students Instrument As Pakistan and Iran are theocratic societies while United Arab Emirates have liberal Islamic environment, firstly, it was decided to verbally ask the questions about status of Israel as an independent state individually to each student. This helped to differentiate among reactional and rational opinion. At this stage, there was a questionnaire for those who accepted Israel as an independent state and considered that war is no solution of any conflict. Their opinion was considered as rational opinion for the solution of this issue in peaceful meanings. So, the designed questionnaire was filled by these students for measuring public opinion regarding OneState Solution, two-state solution or three-state solution. Results During interview, 103 students in Pakistan and all the 55 students in Iran showed anti-Israel sentiments and gave reactional views against the status of the Israel as an independent state. On the other hand, there was no student in United Arab Emirates who found as an anti-Israel. Table given below is showing the percentage of students who had reactional views out of total 180 Pakistani, 55 Iranian and 41 Emirati students. Even these 103 Pakistani and 55 Iranian students directly or indirectly found war as a solution of this conflict but they could not reply of this question that which country will go for the war against Israel. There were ambiguity answers. Some says that all the Muslim world should united against Israel while some says that Israel-neighboring Arab countries should fight against Israel. They became again confused when a question was asked that how Israelneighboring Arab countries will go for a war REACTIONAL OPINION Pakistan Iran United Arab Emirates Israel is an illegal state. It should be eliminated through war. 63.1 % 100 % 0 Although Israel is an illegal state but if, it would return back to the position of 1967, we should accept it. Otherwise, it should be eliminated through war. 36.9 % 0 0 # 1674 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Muhammad Asim. Measuring Public Opinion Regarding Peaceful Solution of Palestine Issue… against Israel when they are militarily weak than Israel and most of the Arab countries have accepted Israel as an independent state. This was the reason that we called such opinion as reactional opinion. The remaining 77 Pakistani and all the 41 Emirati students accepted Israel as an independent state and considered that war is not a solution of any conflict. They argued that Israel is a reality and the problems of Palestinians are due to lack of unity and ideological differences among Hamas and Fatah. They also argue that we must find a solution of this conflict through mutual understanding of both the stake holders. This is a reason that their opinion can be considered as rational opinion. Data collected from these students was in favor of establishing one, two and three states within the territory of Israel and Palestine. The following table is showing percentage of their support. Among 25 (32.5 %) supports of One-State Solution, 16 (64 %) Pakistani students gave the name "Israel-Palestine Union or I-P Union" to new state while 09 (36 %) Pakistani students were called it "Federation of Israel and Palestine". They were in favor of three autonomous units of one state; Israel, Gaza Strip and West Bank. They said that there should be secular transportation with foreign relations, single currency and mutual defense with one army. Issues of governance, economy, trade, and domestic law and order situation should be separated for each unit. On the other hand, supporters of Two-States Solution wanted two states; Palestine and Israel where Palestine would have two administrative units; called Eastern Palestine (West Bank) and Western Palestine (Gaza Strip). There was the difference in opinion regarding administrating two units of Palestine. The following table is showing percentage of difference in opinion among 29 (37.7 %) Pakistani and 41 (100 %) Emirati students regarding political structure of these two units of Palestine. There were 23 (29.9 %) Pakistani students who were in favor of Three-States Solution. Their opinion is judging through following table given below. On question about status of Jerusalem to all the 77 Pakistani and 41 Emirati students who RATIONAL OPINION Pakistan United Arab Emirates One-State Solution 32.5 % 0 Two-States Solution 37.7 % 100 % Three-States Solution 29.9 % 0 Egyptian-Jordanian Solution 0% 0% Allon Plan 0% 0% OPINION OF THE SUPPORTERS OF TWO-STATES SOLUTION There should be two provinces. Each province should be governed by the provincial government. There should be unitary system and both units should be divided into districts. Each district should be governed by the district administration. # 1675 # Pakistan United Arab Emirates 72.4 % 68.3 % 27.6 % 31.7 % Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Muhammad Asim. Measuring Public Opinion Regarding Peaceful Solution of Palestine Issue… OPINION OF THE SUPPORTERS OF THREE-STATES SOLUTION Pakistan There should be three state; East Palestine (West Bank), West Palestine (Gaza Strip) and Israel. East Palestine (West Bank) should be a secular state due to Jewish, Muslim and Christian population East Palestine should also be a Muslim State. Muslim community will be happy with this decision. 100 % 69.6 % 39.1 % STATUS OF JERUSALEM It should be a neutral city state like Vatican City, having its own administration, political structure and security force. It should be a part of West Bank or Eastern Palestine. Eastern Jerusalem should be capital and part of Palestine while Western Jerusalem should be capital and part of Israel according to PLO’s current position. Pakistan United Arab Emirates 84 % 37 % 13 % 0% 03 % 63 % Pakistan United Arab Emirates 82 % 100 % 18 % 0% RAIL-ROAD PLAN There should be secular transportation among all the regions within the territory of Palestine and Israel. There should be separate transportation in each region to avoid any sociopolitical conflict. have rational opinion, we collected two different views. During discussion about political system in Palestine with the 29 (37.7 %) Pakistani supporters of Two-States Solution, 21 (72 %) argued that there should be two provinces, called Eastern Palestine and Western Palestine. On the other hand, 8 (28 %) students said that there should be unitary system and both the wings of Palestine should be divided into districts. But, all the other 23 (29.9 %) Pakistani supporters of Three-States Solution and 41 (100 %) Emirati supporters of Two-States Solution preferred unitary system in both the states; Eastern Palestine and Western Palestine. In case of two or three states solution, RAIL-ROAD PLAN was discussed with the students. This plan was designed to generate harmony among both the stake holders. And, this plan would be a cause of secular transportation among both or all the three wings within the territory of Palestine and Israel. The table below is highlighting views of all the 77 Pakistani and 41 Emirati students on this plan that had rational opinion. An idea of union among the territories of Israel and Palestine welcomed by all the 77 Pakistani and 41 Emirati students who had rational opinion. The table given below is showing their interest in this idea regarding betterment and welfare of the people within the territories of Israel and Palestine. During data collecting from the students of Al-Mustafa International University Qom, rather # 1676 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Muhammad Asim. Measuring Public Opinion Regarding Peaceful Solution of Palestine Issue… AN IDEA OF UNION AMONG THE TERRITORIES OF ISRAEL AND PALESTINE LIKE EUROPEAN UNION (EU) There should be a union of all the regions of Israel and Palestine like European Union (EU), either there will be two states, three states or three states and one city state. Union of Israel and Palestine will eliminate Islamic, Arab and Palestinian ideology because Israel is socially and culturally strong country. There should be single currency for all the regions of Israel and Palestine like Euro in European Union. It will facilitate to stabilize weak Palestinian economy and this region would become another emerging economy of the Middle East. There should be separate currency for each region but the currency of one region should be accepted in the other regions of the Israel and Palestine. There should be mutual defense and one army in case of foreign threats. But, each region should have its own police department. There should not be a single army or mutual defense because religiously and ideologically, there is a huge difference among both the nations. than the 44 Iranian students, we interviewed the 20 students of Somalia and 07 students of Uganda who were enrolled here. Their opinion was not different from any Iranian and they also did not accept the status of Israel as a legal state. All these students said that Israel is an illegal state and it must be wiped out from the world map through war. But, they are silent and confused on the question that who will fight against Israel. So, we can include this opinion also in the category of reactional opinion. Discussion This study was done in the Pakistan, Iran and United Arab Emirates mainly to investigate the public opinion about peaceful solution of Palestine issue without any war or militancy. During data analyzing, we mainly focused upon the opinion of those students who had rational views and dislike war or militancy. Therefore, questionnaire was filled by just 77 Pakistani and 41 Emirati students out of 276 students of Pakistan, Iran and United Arab Emirates. As Pakistan and Iran have theocratic environment, there are a lot of anti-Israel Pakistan United Arab Emirates 91 % 76 % 09 % 24 % 94 % 100 % 06 % 0% 78 % 0% 22 % 100 % sentiments. Even educated population has a rich dogmatic and militant attitude. The study of Liaqat (2012) showed very high dogmatic religiosity in the Pakistani sample and 87 % population is religiously conservative (Liaqat, 2012, P.147). Similarly, another study of Asim and Liaqat (2013) highlighted culturally conservatism and militant attitude in the Pakistani society. This study showed that 83 % population of Pakistan has militant attitude (Asim, 2013, PP.09-10). This is the reason that we got reactional views from the 103 Pakistani students. Similarly, anti-Israel sentiments are supported by state level in Iran. During prayers or any other religious ceremonies, Imam or host always raised the slogans against United States of America, United Kingdom and Israel like ()ﻝیﺉﺍﺭﺱﺍ ﺭﺏ گﺭﻡ. So, the views against Israel were as usual from the 55 Iranian students. As environment and culture effects thinking and philosophy, we should not be afraid from the views of other 20 students of Somalia and 07 students of Uganda who were studying in Iran. Their antiIsrael sentiments were due to two reasons. Firstly, they had been inspired by Iranian culture and # 1677 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Muhammad Asim. Measuring Public Opinion Regarding Peaceful Solution of Palestine Issue… theocratic environment. Secondly, Uganda and Somalia are also suffering from militancy and having conservative environment (Kumar, 2006, PP.97-98). On the other hand, United Arab Emirates is a gateway for West Asia and Africa. Its local population is just 1.4 million while there are 7.8 million foreigners. All the foreigners are usually here for business and trade but essentially associated with any Emirati citizen due to the law of United Arab Emirates. This is the reason that the "Badow" culture of the United Arab Emirates has converted into economic-oriented culture. This conversion also changed the thinking and attitude of the Emirati citizens (King, 2008, PP.135-139). Therefore, during collecting data, we found them religiously liberal and rational in their opinion. During judging rational opinion of the Pakistani and Emirati students, we came to know that Two-States Solution was preferred by majority of Pakistani and Emirati students. Similarly, majority was in favor of Jerusalem as a city state like Vatican City. On the other hand, Rail-Road Plan for secular transportation among the territories of Israel and Palestine was also appreciated by the majority. At the same time, an idea about EU-type union among the territories of Israel and Palestine with having single currency also got high value. Recommendations As this study is presenting several opinions regarding peaceful solution of Palestine conflict, we compared it with other peace proposals that have been presented before in different times. And, we concluded some recommendations as a solution of this conflict. These are as follows: 1) There are several plans like One-State Solution presented by Palestinian activist Edward Said in 1999, most popular Two-States Solution, Egyptian-Jordanian Solution 2009, Allon Plan presented by Yegal Allon after Six days war in June 1967 or Plan for establishing State of Judea (West Bank) in January 1989. But, there is a huge criticism on each plan. Opponents of OneState Solution argue that this solution will follow the Jewish rule over the Palestinian Muslims. Similarly, Opponents of Two-States Solution called that the two wings of a country cannot be administrated when there is a strong enemy in the middle. They highlight the example of Pakistan which had two wings since its formation in 1947; East Pakistan and West Pakistan. Both the wings have the distance of 1000 miles approximately and the territory of India was in the middle of the wings. Indian supported insurgency in the East Pakistan could not be controlled by the Pakistani Government which was stationed in the west wing and Bangladesh was formed in 1971. At the same time, opponents of Egyptian-Jordanian Solution argue that if Gaza Strip will be under control of Egypt and West Bank will be under control of Jordan, it will eliminate the Palestinian identity. Allon Plan is also opposed by the majority of Muslims in the world because it will legitimize Israeli occupations in most of the Palestinian territories. The plan of establishing State of Judea is even from the Jewish community which is illegally settled in the West Bank but some scholars are accepting this as a secular state. To observe these plans and to judge public opinion during this study, we concluded that there should be three sovereign states within the territories of Israel and Palestine. Gaza Strip should be called West Palestine while West Bank should be called East Palestine. Both the states should have their own political systems, foreign relations and defense army. This will also facilitate Palestinian people to get rid off from the internal conflicts of Al-Fatah and Hamas which is further destroying their lives. 2) Status of Jerusalem should be an Open city or city state like Vatican City with having # 1678 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Muhammad Asim. Measuring Public Opinion Regarding Peaceful Solution of Palestine Issue… its own political system, transport, security force, economy, foreign relations and citizenship. 3) There should be a union all the territories of Israel and Palestine like European Union even there are three states of Gaza Strip (called West Palestine), Israel and West Bank (East Palestine) and one city state of Jerusalem. And, this union should be linked through rail and road infrastructure. Although, there are several roads to travel from one region to another but there is a need of re-functional Palestinian Railway which is non-functional since 1948 (Cotterell, 1984, PP.10-11). There are several talks among Israel and Palestinian authority in 2004 for reviving old railway line from Gaza Strip to Tulkarm (West Bank) and constructing new railway line from Gaza Strip to Tarkumia (West bank near Israeli city of Hebron). And, all this transportation will be operated through using territories of Israel. If, this plan will be implemented, Palestinian territories can be linked through Israeli port of Ashdod. Similarly, there is another plan of reviving a branch line of Hejaz Railway from Afula (Israel) to Jenin (West Bank) (New Statesman, August 29, 2013). But, all this is useless until there will not be any agreement regarding secular transportation or formation of any union which also accept by the people of all the territories of Israel and Palestine. So, there is a solution of introducing single currency for all the territories of Israel and Palestine like EURO in the European Union. As single currency will facilitate economic development in the Palestinian territories, people of Palestinian territories will automatically be agreed for secular transportation from one region to another. Same impact will be generated on Israeli companies and they will prefer secular transportation for promoting their products and getting market access. Therefore, we can say that an agreement regarding union and single currency can generate harmony among the population of both the territories, And then, they can linked through rail-road infrastructure. 4) All the militant organizations should be banned in the territories of Palestine and Israel even there are Jewish organizations or Muslim Organizations. 5) There should be foreign investment in the territories of Palestine for stabilizing their economic conditions. A strong economy of any society always saves its population to adopting militant or aggressive attitude. This was a pilot study that basic aim was to measuring public opinion regarding peaceful solution of Palestine conflict and we presented all the ideas which we collected with respect and care. Moreover, this is an essential duty of international community, especially United Nations to establish peace in the Palestinian territories and find out the peaceful solution of this conflict with sincerity. Because, this is not an issue of occupying territories. This is a problem of humanity and innocent lives are most important than occupying any territory or formation any state. References 1. (n.d.). Retrieved August 25, 2013, from The Jerusalem Post: http://www.jpost.com/Diplomacyand-Politics/Poll-70-percent-of-Israelis-say-Israel-should-accept-UN-decision 2. (n.d.). Retrieved August 29, 2013, from New Statesman: http://www.newstatesman.com/ middle-east/2013/08/israel-palestine-forget-peace-talks-follow-rail-tracks 3. Asim, M. (2013). Relationship of Moral Judgment Competence with Cultural Conservatism, Basic Democratic Government Endorsement, Common Good Endorsement Test and National Militarism: A Case Study of Pakistan. Konstanz: KMDD Workshop in University of Konstanz. # 1679 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Muhammad Asim. Measuring Public Opinion Regarding Peaceful Solution of Palestine Issue… 4. Boyl, F. A. (2013). Palestine, Palestinians and International Law. London: SCB Distributors. 5. Cotterell, P. (1984). The Railways of Palestine and Israel. New York: Tourret Publishing. 6. Coughlin, K. M. (2006). Muslim Cultures Today: A Reference Guide. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group. 7. King, D. C. (2008). United Arab Emirates. New York: Marshall Cavendish. 8. Kumar, J. (2006). Terrorism and Militancy in Central Asia. New Delhi: Gyan Books. 9. Liaqat, W. (2012). Relationship Between Moral Judgment Competance and Religiosity in Pakistan. Islamabad: Islamic International University. 10. Ross, S. (2004). Causes and Consequences of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. London: Evans Brothers. 11. Schanzer, J. (2008). Hamas vs. Fatah: The Struggle For Palestine. Washington D.C: St. Martin’s Press. 12. Wolfman, M. (2007). Homeland: The Illustrated History of the State of Israel. Suite: Nachshon Press, LLC. Измерение общественного мнения относительно мирного разрешения Палестинского конфликта: экспериментальное изучение вопроса среди студентов университетов Пакистана, Ирана и Объединенных Арабских Эмиратов Мухаммад Асим Государственный колледж Асгар Молл Равальпинди, Пакистан Целью данного исследования является измерение общественного мнения в Пакистане, Иране и Объединенных Арабских Эмиратах относительно мирного разрешения Палестинского конфликта. Данные (N=276) были получены в двух университетах, одном колледже послевузовского образования и одном колледже базового университетского образования в Пакистане, двух университетах в Иране и двух университетах в Объединенных Арабских Эмиратах. Ввиду того что в Пакистане и Иране более теократическая среда, мы получили ответы против Израиля, но также были 77 студентов в Пакистане и 41 студент в Эмиратах, которые имеют достаточно рациональные взгляды на мирное разрешение данного конфликта. Приведена общая характеристика урегулирования конфликта одним государством, решения конфликта с участием двух государств, решения с участием трех государств и статуса Иерусалима. В статье обсуждается план формирования союза на территориях Израиля и Палестины, учреждения единой валюты и запуска железнодорожного сообщения из одного региона в другой. Автор также дает свои рекомендации по результатам сравнения данного # 1680 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Muhammad Asim. Measuring Public Opinion Regarding Peaceful Solution of Palestine Issue… общественного мнения и предыдущих международных предложений по урегулированию данного конфликта. Ключевые слова: ОАЭ, союз Палестины и Израиля, религиозность, ЕС, провинция Иудея. Научная специальность: 10.00.00 – филология. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1682-1689 ~~~ УДК 82-94 Literarity in Texts by Historian: 19th Century Siberian Travelogues and Nationalism Discourse (the Case of P.I. Nebolsin) Kirill V. Anisimov* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia Received 24.06.2014, received in revised form 14.08.2014, accepted 09.09.2014 The article investigates the role of intertextual borrowings in the poetics of the mid-19th century Eastern travelogues, a sub-genre which had been vigorously cultivated by many authors involved in the basic strategy of Russian nationalistic discourse to present the multiple and diverse imperial territories as an integral and homogenous space. A number of obstacles on the way of this approach were created by the popular imaginative perception of vast Siberian peripheries as faraway lands, a distant and almost surreal world, exotic from both social and ethnographic points of view. In terms of poetics and semiotics, the primary objective of the author was to describe the "unknown" as "known" and "remote" as "close". Within the studied period, the feature of "recognition strategy" typical of travelogues as a genre (correlating them with topoi of classical Greek and Roman geographies) attained a distinct literary aspect. As an example the article analyzes "Notes on the Way from St.-Petersburg to Barnaul" by Pavel Nebolsin, published in 1849. Describing the everyday life of Siberians, Nebolsin introduced a number of intertextual allusions taken from oeuvres by Karamzin, Pushkin and Gogol. Eventually, the reader was offered to recognize Siberia more as "literature" rather than "geography". The forming Russian tradition of literary classics became a poetic tool of "imagining" the Eastern periphery as the continuation of the whole national world. Keywords: P.I. Nebolsin, nationalism, travelogue, literarity, motif, intertextuality The research is supported by the Russian Fund for the Humanities, grant No. 14-14-24003. Research area: 10.00.00 – philology. Introduction to the research problem Travelling from Siberia to Sakhalin in the spring of the year 1890, A.P. Chekhov astutely associated historical conquering of the Russian East with the success of the national literature, * which could not boast of much popularity at that time. As he reached the Urals, Chekhov had already noticed that "in those parts" MaminSibiryak "was spoken of more, than Tolstoy" (Chekhov, 2009, 71), which meant that the "local" was, to the writer’s mind, more popular © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1682 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill V. Anisimov. Literarity in Texts by Historian: 19th Century Siberian Travelogues and Nationalism Discourse… than "generally Russian". By the Amur, the narrator reached ultimate alienation from the local environment, while it, in its turn, reached the peak of its separation from Russian culture. "...I feel something individual, non-Russian in everything. "…how far removed life here is from Russia!... While I was sailing down the Amur I really felt I wasn’t in Russia at all, but somewhere in Patagonia or Texas. Quite apart from the strange, un-Russian scenery, I constantly got the impression that our Russian way of life is completely alien to the old settlers on the Amur… and that we who come from Russia appear as foreigners" (Chekhov, 1978, 42). Theoretical grounds Then again, if the development of the remote regions’ cultural potential even seemed indefinite in its content and problematic as such (in his essays "From Siberia" Chekhov regretfully remarked: "Though the demand for art is high here, God does not send artists to these places" (Chekhov, 1978, 14)) , then, basically, nothing could prevent the national lore which was located, in accordance with the Russian social process logic, almost exclusively in the capitals, from "imagining" the country’s Eastern periphery with the wellestablished dictionary of their "native" motives and plots. Siberian "Patagonia" and "Texas" could integrate into the integrated Russian space not only in the rhetoric of a political declaration and / or within a series of military and economic deeds, but also due to the artistic language, when the transition of the forming classic tradition to the historical and cultural reality of the previously colonial world and currently developing national periphery began to play its special part. In this sense, the reader could have faced a renaming of some sort: being transferred from its regular chronotopos into a remote geographic venue, this or that well-known "Russian" story would make the circumstances, rules, conditions and everyday life scenery look familiar. Something distant and alien turned close and homely due to the recognition, the mediating role in which was played by literary intertext. This tendency may be opposed to another strategy in the geocultural world of the 19th century Russian literature. The authors of the most outstanding researches on the topic, Yu.M. Lotman and V.I. Tyupa, demonstrated significant semiotic intensification of the Siberian periphery concept, associatively and functionally linked with the motive of initiation, temporary capture of the protagonist in the underworld of the exile, suffering through ritual tortures, the pledge of the forthcoming "resurrection" (Lotman, 1997, 723-725; Tyupa, 2002). The nominative aspect of the plot revealed itself, for instance, in Yu.M. Lotman’s example of the exile to Kostroma Governorate being referred to as "Siberian" by the Decembrist Age contemporaries (Lotman, 1988, 173). The repression fact itself was trivial due to its frequency, though the reference to the punishment locus was distinctively extraordinary and culturally significant as the title determined the function of the place and, vice versa, the purpose of the locus was recognized from the name. Siberian travelogues: fiction vs. non-fiction However, irrespectively to literary mythmaking, the ideological mainstream of the 19th century was territorial integration of the imperial lands into the homogenizing national discourse (Remnev, 2004). An important role in the process was played by travelogues, a genre located on the borderline between fiction and science-like nonfiction. As long as the scientism of the text was closer to exotification (Siberian climate, nature, society with no manors of the nobility and simple peasants were characterized with their significant original features), fiction literature instruments # 1683 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill V. Anisimov. Literarity in Texts by Historian: 19th Century Siberian Travelogues and Nationalism Discourse… were mostly used to play the exactly opposite role, giving the reader an opportunity to find similarities with the Russia familiar to him, to recognize the familiar in something alien and remote. The fact of well-red Russian people’s not knowing their own Motherland beyond the capitals had become a key-note of opinion journalism back in the times of Belinsky, who inspired writers to create "physiologies" of different territorial and social worlds (Odinokov, 1990, 173-174). A special case of this true information vacuum was the absence of Russia guidebooks, analogies of popular Western printed guides. The lacuna was extremely significant: the small guidebooks gave the impression of "surrogated" travelogues; being the direct descendants of the ancient genres of periplus, periegeses, and itinerarium, they were also related to Russian genres of putnik, dorozhnik, and skaska. This problem was complained of by both foreign and Russian travellers. O. Finsch, the author of a large-scale work on the zoological expedition to Siberia in the year 1876, complained of the German scientists’ being burdened by the excessive reserves of food they had packed due to the seeming absence of decent taverns along the way. The latter, however, were frequent, but the researchers had nowhere to learn about them: "there are no guide books (like Norway guide by Bennett) which would point out or pay attention to the issues" (Finsch, 1882, 9). Before Finsch, the same problem was mentioned by the protagonist of a small essay by P.I. Nebolsin (1817-1893), a Russian historian, traveller and a very original explorer of Siberia. Having left Petersburg for Barnaul, meeting an experienced companion in a post carriage, he heard some annoyed complaints: even those territories located close to the capital turned out to be left out. "For pity’s sake! Who described it? And where? We have not a single "guide", and all the written information we find is also under doubt. No, I made up my mind not to believe a thing except for my own observations" (Nebolsin, 1849, volume 63, No.4, 220). Against the background of gaps even in the description of the nearby areas, Siberia looked like real terra incognita. Anticipating the analysis of works issued from P.I. Nebolsin’s pen, let us say a couple of words on the narrating strategy itself, aiming the reader at the recognition process. Of course, the 19th century writers were not pioneers in this. They modified the general concept of travelling to faraway lands, typical for European travel notes: one of them concerned the Moscow state, that since the 16th century had been a frequent object of literary and artistic reproductions by many European authors. So, in the eyes of Nicolae Milescu who, being on Russian service, was sent to China with diplomatic mission in 1675, Siberian taiga transformed into Erkinian woods ("in Hellenic, "Erkinios ili", in Latin "Ercinios silva", which means, Erkinian woods"), precious sable fur turned into the golden fleece, and the Ural range became Hyperborean mountains (Milescu, 1960, 40; 116; 37). A distinctive feature of such attributions is irresponsiveness of the author to the "voice" of the environment itself, which, without doubt, could provide him with names for all those realia. The author, acting in the name of some universal European mass of knowledge, presented himself as an intermediary connecting the old book terms with the "yet unnamed" object of the natural world. In keeping with M. Foucault, we are facing a phenomenon preceding the discoveries of rational thinking that replaced the search for similarities and symbolic analogues, typical of archaic forms of knowledge production, with a system of neutral classifying features (Foucault, 1994, 85-90). A perfect source for seeking the analogues is the classic of Greek and Roman land descriptions: the observed realia were nothing but the "echo" of such. It is curious that over the head of this # 1684 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill V. Anisimov. Literarity in Texts by Historian: 19th Century Siberian Travelogues and Nationalism Discourse… rational epoch that came up with new types of classifying unknown empirical units, such as tables, taxonomies, diagrams, the orientation on recognition manifested itself in the feature parts of the 19th century travelogue, where, instead of ancient geography samples, the reader was offered to "recognize" some well-known motives of national literature classics. Let us see some examples. Siberian travelogues by P.I. Nebolsin Nebolsin’s intellectual and aesthetic "discovery" of Siberia happened within two genres and narration strategies: fiction-style sketches of his own trip (Nebolsin, 1849) and scientific studies on Yermak’s conquest (Nebolsin, 1849a). This reference, both discursive and chronological (both texts refer to 1849) is no coincidental. Nebolsin was guided by both a rational purpose to eliminate the ignorance of the reading audience concerning the Eastern regions of the state1, which was compulsory within the context of natural school, and by romantic longing for exotic. At the same time, being very remote from sentimentalism, he could not but consider the latest achievements of Russian lore: the general initiatives to be "closer" "to nature" and to "discard the foreign theories" (Nebolsin, 1849a, 71) were supported by the evident connection to Radishchev, both on the ideological and on the narrative2 levels of his writings (not to mention the fact that the first part of the route is literal repetition of Radishchev’s journey from Saint Petersburg to Moscow). Not so long ago V.M. Zhivov demonstrated, how important for the historical and political purposes of social and territorial integration sentimental poetry was, though so alien to any sort of ideology (Zhivov, 2008). According to the scholar, sentimentalism could totally fulfill the requirements of national consolidation: historically determined differences of educational and cultural backgrounds (consequences of the forced modernization of the Peter the Great) were gotten over by the integrity of cordial impulsions, capable of destructing all artificial hierarchies (Zhivov, 2008, 119; 122). Within this tendency, the problem of the huge empire’s territorial non-uniformity could be solved in the same manner: "cordial" stories of Liza, Erast and their countless clones, created by the artistic lore, could be easily converted from social into geocultural aspect. Here is the first example of intertextuality, placed into the geocultural aspect for the achievement of ideological goals. To the East from the Ob, the traveller stopped by a station owned by an elderly Siberian called Arkhip Sysoich, living with his wife and twenty year old daughter Glasha. Sysoich was nothing like Samson Vytin, old, stout and smart; while Glasha was just as courageous as Dunya from the story by Pushkin. The encounter of the protagonist with the Siberian station master and the conversation in which he told the voyager of the iniquities frequent in the life beyond the Urals are framed with two "sentimental" scenes, where Glasha plays the key role. At first, she kisses the stranger traveller, and then, after her father’s stories, suggests that he stays "for a day or two" (Nebolsin, 1849, volume 64, No.6, 184), and later, that he runs away with her to the gold diggings where he was heading. The inverted Pushkin’s plot is combined here with the Karamzin-style stylistics: Glasha, for whom the"ugliest of the ugly" fiancé had been chosen by her parents, says to the traveller who tolerated her flirt: "Like stale bread, so cruel you are. But let Jesus be with you! Go… But tell me one thing… just one more thing. Will you ever remember this poor Glasha?" (Nebolsin, 1849, volume 64, No.6, 184). The goal was reached: four years after the protagonist remembered the girl he had met in the middle of Siberia. "Yes, there have been four years since that ordinary travelling adventure, # 1685 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill V. Anisimov. Literarity in Texts by Historian: 19th Century Siberian Travelogues and Nationalism Discourse… but pretty Glasha is still on my mind" (Nebolsin, 1849, volume 64, No.6, 184). The second example is a more sophisticated amalgam of motives, this time, adopted from Gogol, which is harder to identify as the evident intertextual dialogue from the previous example. Here we face more of a stylization, targeted at reviving the general atmosphere of the early Gogol’s "Ukrainian" prose in the reader’s mind. However, there was one factor which in Nebolsin’s story was equal to that in Gogol’s concept: the author of the travelogue demonstrates some "strange" events that happened on the exotic periphery. Though the things presented as true exotic by Gogol were presented by Nebolsin as "familiar", quasiexotic, referencing the reader not as much to the unknown Siberian "Ukraine" as to the wellknown poetics of "Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka". So, in the fi nal chapters of "Notes on the Way from St.-Petersburg to Barnaul" we encounter the following episode. At Voskresensky diggings, located deep in the Tomsk taiga, during Maslenitsa holiday the traveller met a man from Little Rus’, Mikhailo Koval. Mikhailo himself is presented to the reader as, first of all, an old Ukrainian songs’ performer. The folklore character of the image is a reference to Gogol’s narrators from "Evenings…", from Rudy Panko to the *** church deacon Foma Grigoryevich and his grandfather. But Mikhailo himself is a character with a special story the narrator gets to know. Mikhailo married a girl called Parasko for love, and after a short while they had a daughter, Marusya, both parents doted upon. However, "sometimes the mother, clasping the beloved daughter to her breast, was looking at her with the eyes misty of tears. "My dear child, by precious darling!" she thought, "What is awaiting you in this world? A misfortune awaits you!" Paraska "thought of her precious child’s fate more and more, more and more she was confused by the dreadful premonitions that her Marusen’ka may be miserable, that Marusen’ka might forget God, fall into sin and become a witch" (Nebolsin, 1849, volume 67, No.12, 287). Once, obsessed with her fears and premonitions, Paraska made up some fire and threw her girl into the oven. "The child was struggling, but the mother pressed her with a poker and waited for the end: the evil deed was committed…" (Nebolsin, 1849, volume 67, No.12, 287). The wife confessed to Mikhailo as soon as he came home; the investigation began, but in court Mikhailo tried to cover for the criminal, and, as a result, he found himself in Siberian exile, and Paraska died. Irrespectively to whether Nebolsin had based his story on any real facts or not, a thoughtful reader could not help recognizing Gogol style of the story. "The dreadful" located by the author of "Evenings…" near the Southern borders of Russia, was relocated to the North-Eastern border now, though keeping the literary "memory" of its Little Russian roots. More or less similar situations may be found in Gogol’s "The Eve of Ivan Kupala" and "A Terrible Vengeance", where in both cases the victim of magic powers is a child. In the first story it is a six year old boy named Ivas, the brother of the girl in love. The boy stolen by gypsies gets killed by Petrus in exchange for the money given to him by evil spirits for him to marry his love. In the second story the evil spirits’ victim is Katerina’s little son, murdered by her magus father right in the cradle. Evidently, the objective of the fragment with Glasha was to cut the psychological distance between the narrator and the realia described by him, thereby, due to the involvement effect, making him not only an analyst, but a participant of the local life’s events, introducing the simple reader into the everyday life of that remote world. The intense exotic of Mikhailo Koval story, despite its evident belonging to the collection # 1686 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill V. Anisimov. Literarity in Texts by Historian: 19th Century Siberian Travelogues and Nationalism Discourse… of myth-like stories of Siberian criminals, only partially served for the exotic effect. Referring the reader both to the "terrible" world of the real taiga diggings and to the fictional, but familiar world of Gogol’s motives, the story of a criminal from Little Russia is a way to see the remote province as if looking through the prism of a well-known book. In this sense, the verdict that "Pushkin and Gogol are incomprehensible, thus unneeded here" once issued by Chekhov was in advance argued with by the literary techniques of Nebolsin’s travel notes: no matter whether a Siberian had read Karamzin, Gogol and Pushkin, his world as such was reproduced through the artistic experience of the authors. Suggesting that later, inspired by his local self-conscience, a Siberian would wish to see Nebolsin’s books 1 2 referencing to his land, he would probably recognize the capital classics’ motives in the description of his provincial life. Conclusion So, if within the archaic recognition strategy framework the newly discovered lands were "included" into comprehension schemes as referents "claiming" for their signs, if in the rational epoch they were made the object for description with the abstract and principally "universal" language of science, then in the 19th century, as the examples prove, the instrument for signification is the national literature itself, reviving the image of a peripheral region, which is, gradually and heavily, parting with its status of a "far-away land". On the 1840-1850-s travelogue poetics that have transformed the journey sketch heritage into the modern essay ""physiology" see (Protsenko, 1984, 6; 8; 13). Let us mention a travelogue episode called "Diary of an Unknown Man", that is an intervention of an "another’s" text into the writer’s own, inspired by "Journey from Saint Petersburg to Moscow (Nebolsin, 1849, volume 64, No. 6, 185-193). Compare with "my friend’s papers" found by Radishchev’s traveller, containing the "Project in the future". Besides, let us remark the influence of Karamzin, whose story "Poor Liza" is mentioned on the pages of the travel diary (Nebolsin, 1849, volume 63, No.4, 238). References 1. Zhivov, V.M. (2008) Chuvstvitel’nyy natsionalizm: Karamzin, Rostopchin, natsional’nyy suverenitet i poiski natsional’noy identichnosti [Sensitive Nationalism: Karamzin, Rostopchin, National Sovereignty and Search for National Identity] // Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. No. 91(3). P. 114-140. 2. Lotman, Yu.M. (1988) Dekabrist v posvsednevnoy zhizni [Decembrist it His Everyday Life] // Lotman Yu.M. V shkole poeticheskogo slova: Pushkin. Lermontov. Gogol. Moscow: Prosveshchenie. P. 158-205. 3. Lotman, Yu.M. (1997) Syuzhetnoe prostranstvo russkogo romana XIX stoletiia [Narrative Space of Russian Novel of the 19th Century] // Lotman Yu.M. On Russian Literature. Saint Petersburg: Iskusstvo-SPb. P. 712-729. 4. Nebolsin, P. (1849) Zametki na puti iz Peterburga v Barnaul [Notes on the Way from St.Petersburg to Barnaul] // Otechestvennye zapiski. Volume 63. No.4; Volume 64. No.5; Volume 64. No.6; Volume 65. No.8; Volume 66. No.9; Volume 66. No.10; Volume 67. No.11; Volume 67. No.12. 5. Nebolsin, P (1849a) Pokorenie Sibiri. Istoricheskoe issledovanie [Conquest of Siberia. Historical Research]. Saint Petersburg: I. Glazunov and Co. Typography. 146 p. in the first pagination; 112 p. in the second pagination (appendices). # 1687 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill V. Anisimov. Literarity in Texts by Historian: 19th Century Siberian Travelogues and Nationalism Discourse… 6. Odinokov V.G. (1990) V.G. Belinsky i problema regional’nykh literatur [V.G. Belinsky and the Regional Literature Problem] // Odinokov V.G. Khudozhestvenno-istoricheskiy opyt v poetike russkikh pisateley. Novosibirsk: Nauka. P.169-181. 7. Protsenko, E.G. (1984) Literatura "puteshetviy" v Rossii v 1840-1850-e gody ["Travelling" Literature of Russia in the 1840-1850-s]. Author’s abstract of a thesis for the degree of a Candidate of Philology. Leningrad: Leningrad State University. 16 p. 8. Remnev A. (2004) Vdvinut’ Rossiiu v Sibir’. Imperiia i russkaia kolonizatsiia vtoroy poloviny XIX-nachala XX veka [Push Russia into Siberia. The Empire and Russian Colonization in the late 19th – Early 20th Centuries] // Novaia imperskaia istoriia postsovetskogo prostranstva. Kazan: Nationalism and Empire Research Centre. P. 223-242. 9. Milescu, Nicolae (1960) Sibir’ i Kitay [Siberia and China]. Chiэinău: "Kartia Moldoveniaske". 516 p. 10. Tyupa, V.I. (2002) Mifologema Sibiri: k voprosu o "sibirskom tekste" russkoy literatury [Siberian Mythologem: to the Issue of a "Siberian Text" of Russian Literature] // Sibirskiy filologicheskiy zhurnal. No.1. P. 27-35. 11. Finsch, O., Brem, A. (1882) Puteshestvie v Zapadnuiu Sibir’ [Travels in West Siberia] Moscow: M.N. Lavrov and Co. Typography. 578 p. 12. Foucault, M. (1994) Slova i veshchi [Order of Things]. Arkheologiia gumanitarnykh nauk. Moscow: A-cad Saint Petersburg, 406 p. 13. Chekhov, A.P. (1978) Poln. sobr. soch. i pisem [Complete works and letters] in 30 volumes. Volumes 14-15. Moscow: Nauka. 927 p. 14. Chekhov, A.P. (2009) Poln. sobr. soch. i pisem [Complete works and letters] in 30 volumes. 2nd edition, reprint. Volume 4. Letters. Moscow: Nauka. 655 p. "Литературность" в тексте историка: сибирские травелоги XIX века и националистический дискурс (случай П.И. Небольсина) К.В. Анисимов Сибирский федеральный университет Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 В статье исследуется роль интертекстуальных заимствований в поэтике восточного травелога середины XIX в., субжанра, развивавшегося в русле интеграционных стратегий русского национализма, одной из ключевых задач которого было создание образа гомогенного пространства, приходящего на смену картинам пестрого имперского мира. Существенную сложность на пути развития этого подхода представляли огромные сибирские окраины, типичные имперские владения, располагавшие немалой этнографической оригинальностью. В терминах поэтики и семиотики задача, стоящая перед автором, заключалась в том, чтобы описать "незнакомое" как "знакомое" и "далекое" как "близкое". Издавна присущая травелогу # 1688 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Kirill V. Anisimov. Literarity in Texts by Historian: 19th Century Siberian Travelogues and Nationalism Discourse… как жанру стратегия "узнавания" (та или иная новая локальность соотносилась европейским автором с топосами классических землеописаний) обретает в исследуемый период отчетливо художественный аспект. В качестве примера в статье рассматриваются опубликованные в 1849 г. историком П.И. Небольсиным "Заметки на пути из Петербурга в Барнаул". В своих зарисовках сибирского быта автор прибегает к коллажу интертекстуальных цитат из наследия Карамзина, Пушкина и Гоголя. В результате читателю предлагается "узнать" Сибирь не столько как "географию", сколько как "литературу". Формирующаяся литературная классика становится поэтическим инструментом "воображения" восточной окраины как продолжения целостного национального мира. Ключевые слова: П.И. Небольсин, национализм, травелог, литературность, мотив, интертекстуальность. Работа выполнена при финансовой поддержке Российского гуманитарного научного фонда (РГНФ), грант № 14-14-24003. Научная специальность: 10.00.00 – филология. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1705-1718 ~~~ УДК 304.444 What are Global Transformations Experienced by the Indigenous Peoples of the North? Julia S. Zamaraeva* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia Received 06.03.2014, received in revised form 20.05.2014, accepted 18.06.2014 The phenomenon of globalization in modern science is considered a priority trend in the world development. This article deals with the key aspects of the concept of "global transformations" and the study of the influence of global transformations in respect to the ethnic culture of the northern territories. In the study of the specificity of the indigenous peoples residing in the territories of the North, researchers of the last decade have identified the following important processes: environmental, social, cultural and political. Economic processes remain "on the sideline" due to the lack of private industry and professional specialization. The wave of research interest is due to the desire to know the unique cultural traditions of the indigenous peoples of the North in the modern world; to develop strategies for the protection of the northern territories in order to preserve biological and cultural diversity; to find out the path of economic and political development of international cooperation with the leading countries to provide existence of the circumpolar ethnic culture and population of the northern territories. Keywords: global transformations, indigenous peoples of the North, ethnic culture. Research area: 24.00.00 – culture studies. Point The concept of "global transformations" first appeared in the works of French and American authors in the 60s of the 20th century. It marked the transition from the modern to the latest phase of globalization, when the wave of global flows and relationships significantly increased and qualitatively changed the basic forms of social activities (political, economic and cultural). In the 90s of the 20th century, scientists identified this concept as an epistemological "pick-lock" in understanding the processes of modernity (cognition of structurally similar phenomena * in the global society and culture), placing it in the successive chain: modernization (1970), postmodernism, (1980s) and globalization (1990s). Theoretically, this concept was elaborated only in the 90s (1987 to 1997) in some conceptual works on globalization by Robert Robertson, Samir Amin, Anthony Giddens, Paul Hirst and Graham Thompson, Robert Gilpin, was systematically analyzed in the works by Malcolm Waters, Leslie Sklair and Ulrich Beck. In these and other works, the concept of "globalization" has different definitions: "compression of space and time" (David Harvey), "a network society © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1705 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia S. Zamaraeva. What are Global Transformations Experienced by the Indigenous Peoples of the North? and informationalism" (Manuel Castells), "an increasing interdependence in international politics" (Robert Keohane), "a polycentric world arising under the influence of transnational actors" (James Rosenau), "strengthening of the state in industrialized countries" (Michael Mann), "deterritorialization of loyalties" (Arjun Appadurai). The most modern and well-grounded theoretical work is the book by British scientists, "Global Transformation: Politics, Economics, and Culture" (D.Held, D.Goldblatt, A. McGrew, J. Perraton), where the main existing approaches to understanding the process of globalization are identified and systematized, a clear definition of this process in its historical and contemporary development is given, the fields of global transformations of contemporary societies are stated. The scientists understand the concept of "global transformation" as the crystallization of the specifics of the "deep globalization" present stage (intensive and extensive), characterized by high intensity, high speed and high impact in all areas or aspects of public life, from economic to cultural. The scientists believe that globalization is not a unique and linear process, it is a differentiated phenomenon, which is composed of certain areas and cooperation: political, economic and cultural. In this regard, the processes of global transformations become the processes of expansion, deepening and acceleration (redoing) of global cooperation, affecting all aspects of contemporary social life. In Russian scientific literature over the last decade among the scientists engaged in the issues of global transformations are R.Ia. Tsibrienko, Iu.A. Uzlov, T.A. Iashkov, L.N. Klepatskii, T.M. Kononov, V. Mironov, V.V. Tevlin, T.I. Zaslavskaia and V.A. Iadov. In these works, the concept of "global transformations" has predominantly one direction and can be understood in the "broad" and "narrow" meaning. The narrow meaning of "global transformations" is defined as significant structural changes (changes and transformations) in the contemporary post-industrial informational (via the Internet, the media) and real (cultural, economic, political) world dimension between different countries. In the broad meaning, "global transformations" are the process of real system social, cultural, economic and political (and legal) changes (up to the radical reorganization of the world model), dynamically developing in the period from the second half of the 20th –beginning of the 21st century in the relations between various national states. One of the possible risks of global transformations becomes the inevitability of confrontation between the leading countries of the world for the world’s resources, geopolitical influence and economic dominance. In general, global transformations are intended: to determine the quality of the main trends of the globalization process (currently these are the trends of integration and disintegration adjustable by the rules of tolerance and proneness to conflicts) and to show the quality of modifications of the basic structural areas; to facilitate the integration of relations between the leading developed and lagging developing countries (to show the priority trends of development in the era of globalization), while maintaining the cultural values of each of them; to update the processes of localization or acculturation of cultural values in the multicultural world community (avoiding unification and universalization); to show the primary and the secondary priorities of protection and vulnerability in each country. As the process of globalization is global, global transformations occur simultaneously at the local, regional, national and global levels. For determining the specificity of the notion, real processes should be considered, which are explained in the process of global transformations. The main issues are as follows: what are the constraints and opportunities established by # 1706 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia S. Zamaraeva. What are Global Transformations Experienced by the Indigenous Peoples of the North? global transformations for social processes? What changes and what becomes "the points of vulnerability" in political, economic and cultural organization in the context of globalization? Global transformations of political organization. According to researchers, contemporary global politics differs by transformation of the foundations of the world order through reconstruction of traditional forms of national statehood and international political relations. The "core" of contemporary global politics is efficient government (operating at the national, regional and international levels) and territoriality of each national state (and region) under condition of participation in the solution of the "border" and "cross-border" issues of the political community. In the recent period of globalization, the first global transformation has occurred with the concept of "national government", now it is not the focus of political power. In local sense, the national state is not able to gain independence, as the fundamental forces and processes are beyond the boundaries of individual national states. The system of national political communities is linked today to complex economic, organizational, administrative, legal, and cultural processes and structures that limit it and check it for efficiency. The second global transformation has occurred with the concept of "democratic political community". On the one hand, more and more countries are willing to have their national democracy. But it is impossible, since today the basic processes (social, cultural, economic, environmental) go beyond national states. On the other hand, the "quality" of democracy is determined by how the process of political decision-making depends on the citizens of the society in the process of discussing adoption of certain decisions by the state. Today it is generally accepted that the "quality" of democracy depends on complex processes through which citizens have or do not have access to resources and mechanisms of the political sphere – access, which reflects a complex model consisting of economic factors, cultural processes and participation in social life. The third global transformation that has happened in the field of the "idea of a government or a state" (democratic or non-democratic) can not be protected only as an idea applied to an isolated political community or a national state anymore. Understanding of the political community with one destiny as an idea of a selfdetermining community cannot be determined within the borders of one state-nation in whatever significant way. Some of important powers and processes defining the type of life opportunities inside political communities are now beyond the sphere of influence of national states. The system of national political communities, of course, continues to exist, but today it is being understood and gets new understanding within complicated economic, organizational, management, legal and cultural processes and structures, which limit and restrict its efficiency. If these processes and structures are not approved and not introduced into the political sphere, then they tend to ignore or somehow avoid traditional mechanisms of political reporting and regulation. While the national government cannot be acknowledged as the "locus" of the efficient political management anymore, the efficient government is formed and changed under the influence of different powers and factors at the national, regional and global levels, which fight for it. In other words, political government is repositioned, recontectualized and transformed to a significant extent under the influence of the increasing importance of other less territorially conditioned government systems. An undeniable advantage of global transformations is transformation of human activities organization consolidating and broadening these activities in such a way that it forms a framework of # 1707 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia S. Zamaraeva. What are Global Transformations Experienced by the Indigenous Peoples of the North? interregional and intercontinental changes and development. A disadvantage is the possible risk of global transformation that accelerating globalization can generate and worsen conflicts between countries, while each country wants to protect its interests in the conditions of world "neighborhood". Fragmentation of the world into nations, regions, cultures and communities can cut down the opportunities of the transcultural basis for global democratic policy. Global transformations of economic organization. Currently, global transformations have occurred in almost all "components" of the economy: trade, finance and industrial production. These areas are the "core" of the global economy and create conditions that allow countries not only to exist as a national state, but also to participate in the construction of the global economy. Changes in trade globalization have been systematized in the collective study of British scientists. In terms of extensiveness, almost all countries in the world participate in trade and are closely connected with each other; high intensity (GDP related levels are unprecedented; trade share in gross domestic product is higher than ever before); high speed (rapid changes in technology and global competition); high degree of influence (trade is a significant part of the economy, income from it is growing, it affects the structure of production); price reduction that has begun earlier continues, and extraordinary progress in communication technology facilitates service trade; in terms of institutionalization, the World Trade Organization has been increasingly playing the role of a global institution, establishing common trade rules and standards for the world to deepen the process of liberalization; the largest volume of trade by stratification still accounts for OECD countries (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), but concentration of trade is becoming weaker; the role of other countries in the hierarchy increases: first, the role of petroleum exporting countries, and gradually the role of newly industrialized countries. Deepening differentiation of trade is irregular, for some countries it is the basis for economic growth, for others it is the reason for their marginalization. Development of global trade is undoubtedly a great virtue, because there are many global markets for goods and services due to the world transport and communication infrastructure; economy becomes more open, and national markets are increasingly intertwined with each other (as intra international trade is included in the global competition that goes beyond national boundaries). National (domestic) economies, which must adapt to the changes in the macroeconomy affecting all countries without exception, become a vulnerable spot in trade relations. Consequently, the national economy should be more sensitive to fluctuations in international demand and commodity prices, to be able to have a flexible macroeconomic policy. Modern trade has changed the idea of the independence of the state and caused changes in government policies. Therefore, the subsequent development of countries and regions will depend entirely on the dynamics of global trade. Thus, the current global financial structure has many advantages for both developed and less developed countries, because it creates a process of financial accumulation in which some economies can isolate themselves from the everyday effects of global financial markets. At the same time, the global financial system creates some risks associated with the highly institutionalized infrastructure. Changes in industrial production are marked by global competition and deindustrialization. Global competition has arisen in connection with specialization of different countries (developed and newly industrialized) in the process of development of global markets; with the development of new technologies and the # 1708 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia S. Zamaraeva. What are Global Transformations Experienced by the Indigenous Peoples of the North? emergence of producers of goods with lower prices. Global transformations of cultural organization. Major changes of cultural globalization occur in the field of cultural identity and system of values at the ethno-cultural, national and global levels. The key question remains – what changes in the culture of identity and what is vulnerable in the global transformation of the culture. Current research indicates that cultural globalization changes the context in which the production and reproduction of national cultures occurs. In this section, we will first consider the model of contemporary cultural globalization and particular forms of cultural globalization at the present stage (proposed by British scientists), and then we will try to understand the specifics of cultural transformations in international and national research. Model of modern cultural globalization: new global infrastructures of an unprecedented size, providing great opportunities for penetration of the elements of culture across borders and reduction of the cost of their use; the increase in intensity, volume and speed of cultural exchange and communication of all kinds; spreading of Western mass culture and the increase of communication in cultural business as the main content of the global cultural interaction; predominance of multinational cultural industry in creation and ownership of infrastructures and institutions for the production and distribution of cultural goods; shift in the geography of global cultural interaction significantly mismatching with the geography of the global order that had existed before World War II. The main driving forces of cultural globalization are: major public and private media, tourism, transport and communication corporations; transnational society ideologies and society science, global expert structures; the main motives are the pursuit of profit and/or entertainment. Other cultural structures that play a key role are: national states and nationalism that have engulfed almost the entire world. British scientists believe that at the current stage of globalization the cultural context of the concept "national identity" has been transformed. On the one hand, many countries are more and more influenced by other cultures, and gradual changing of national identity is inevitable (through acculturation). On the other hand, scientists see the vulnerability of national identity: "there are serious reasons to believe that the modern world experiences the process of separation of national cultures (by location) ... along with the facts of local resistance there are more organized efforts to stop the flow of imported images to revitalize and restore the ‘peripheral’ cultures". Therefore, the transformation of cultural globalization has occurred rather in creation of new technologies and infrastructures, but has not provided alternative answers to the issues of national identity preservation measures. Furthermore, the scientists see a real threat to national identity, if the transformation leads to "cultural cosmopolitanism that can abandon the idea of the nation as the primary political and cultural community and require the transfer of power into the hands of institutions of different kinds rather than the national state". Other international and national scientists believe that global cultural transformation can not dramatically change (transform) national identity, since each person determines the nature of his/her existence at the background of ethnic identity. Herewith, it is necessary to specify the question: what changes in ethnic identity (in unity and community of ethnic cultures) in the conditions of global cultural transformation? Firstly, the scientists think that globalization can be accompanied by the loss of ethnic differences and diversity of cultures (deformation of ethnic values), therefore it is necessary to give # 1709 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia S. Zamaraeva. What are Global Transformations Experienced by the Indigenous Peoples of the North? impetus to the struggle for revival of ethnic culture. Modern transformations become a risk of "locking" the borders of ethnic communities and open zero tolerance for values and traditions of each other (‘friend’/ ‘foe’). Among the consequences the following can be outlined: expansion/popularization of individual national cultures, phenomenon of mass culture. A.I. Shchendrik is also categorical in the formation of the idea about the negative beginning of globalism: it is a loss of cultural diversity, locking of cultural borders, unification of cultural worlds (destruction of basic values of national cultures), aggravation of the crisis of national-cultural identity leading to destabilization; lowering of the status of national languages (destruction of language structures). Iu.A. Uzlov believes that ethnic-cultural values in the modern civilization mean the transformation of individual and social identification, perception of group identity. These processes do not imply weakening of primordial ties and total rationalization of the human thought, and are likely to lead to the development process of actualization of ethnic identity necessary for each person. A multicultural society is inherently less stable and more prone to ethnic problems than an ethnically homogeneous society. The essence of the issue boils down to how to maintain the balance of interests of all nations and nationalities living in the same territory. Under these circumstances, the problem of elaborating such a national policy, in which special attention is paid to the formation of general civil consciousness of the population, which should dominate over the local ethno-cultural differences, becomes more apparent. Cultural diversity (multinationality) is less vulnerable. Secondly, in order to preserve ethnic identity in terms of cultural globalization, it is necessary to preserve the diversity of the ethnic language as the basis of every culture, because the consequences of the destruction of language differences are the most dangerous and exclusive of all others. Language as an instrument for expression of values and the only reality that allows to define ethnic interaction directly, may be one of the greatest troubles of our time. T.M. Kononova believes that expansion of English in the global information space caused sociocultural transformations "under the influence of so-called" global English "that has engulfed the whole world, business contacts have got intensified; Internet – technology has "erased" the borders; English is today not only the language of business and business correspondence, but also the language of education, sports, arts; borrowings of translations from one language to another using translational transformations such as a combination of transcription and transliteration, calque have firmly settled in other languages, they are implemented extensively in everyday use". Therefore, the author considers the impact of the European culture, which, through the global implementation of its ethnic language transforms other ethnic cultures to be an obvious risk. Globalization establishes cultural expansion as the only way of cultural interaction. But the advantage of global cultural transformation is the emergence of cultural universals, which are understood as "superstructural" values around the basic ones, and promote inter-ethnic and international acculturation: such interaction of all kinds of rituals, interinfluence of holidays in different countries, the impact of sport around the world, the interdependence of education on the global scale. Thirdly, the global cultural transformation defi ned the principle of multiculturalism as a fundamental principle of existence of different cultures. In recent studies, this model has negative and positive reviews that evinces the dual nature of globalization. On the one hand, the idea of multiculturalism not only denies the idea of the equality of cultures (leads to # 1710 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia S. Zamaraeva. What are Global Transformations Experienced by the Indigenous Peoples of the North? fragmentation, locality), but also promotes cultural homogeneity. Multiculturalism means bringing all existing diversity to a monoculture (many call the American culture as dominative while it is actively transmitted on the Internet). Transformation can lead to harmonization and standardization (development of a universal culture of a philistine nature in multi-ethnic communities) – the phenomenon of "postethnicity". On the other hand, many researchers see positive results in this model of development: peaceful coexistence of variative ethnocultural groups in one country intensifies intercultural integration, consolidation of interethnic communication and interaction; development of a number of equivalent systems, getting rid of the estimated relationship to the cultures, changing value systems of thinking; there is a dialogue of cultures in which all parties have equal rights to express their positions. Multiculturalism leads to the phenomenon of renaissance of national cultures, communities through ongoing ethnic identity – the phenomenon of "universal ethnicity". A.I. Shchendrik notes the special role of the "positive" aspects of globalization: it contributes to the cultural universalization (human talents have been getting the opportunity for their growth regardless of ethnic, geographic, economic etc. belonging); it satisfies the need to form ideas about other cultures; it becomes a way to maintain multiracial groups, i.e. to preserve all ethnic cultures. In short, globalization is the ability of international integration (as a stage of social evolution). This path seems to be the most difficult one. But it will be beneficial to ensure social stability, will allow to solve the problem of economic and social development effectively. Therefore, the transformation of cultural globalization has occurred through the development of information technology (the scientists believe the 21st century to be the century of visual culture), which has updated the national and ethnic identity. Many cultural groups have faced an acute dilemma: to continue their local existence in order to preserve the uniqueness of their culture in history, or to dissolve in a multicultural social community for the sake of new wholes improved by the synthesis. Contemporary context of cultural transformations is that the problems of identification (national or ethno-cultural) must be resolved by maintaining the ethnic language of each culture as a basic value, but at the same time by adaption of cultural universals ("superstructure" values) as the possibility to take part in the construction of the universal whole (global culture). Conclusions Global transformations are a process of real change in the economic, political and cultural organization at the regional, national and global levels. Priority trends of this process are the emergence of cooperation among countries at the macro level by deepening linkage of the countries in various fields, and the development of adequate compromising coordinated decisions for co-existence of developed, developing and least developed countries. The main risks are structural changes in the conditions of globalization, which, according to the scientific world, could destabilize the state and the national political situation because of the uncertainty of the "future" world (international) economy, lead to the unification of the existing diversity of national and ethnic identities. Circumpolar territories have their unique economy, political sphere, infrastructure, natural resources, climatic features, long history and folk traditions. In this regard, the current level of political, economic and sociocultural development of these areas and their geographical position necessitate the increasing importance in inter-regional, federal economic # 1711 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia S. Zamaraeva. What are Global Transformations Experienced by the Indigenous Peoples of the North? cooperation, as well as the importance of going to the level of international cooperation. The priority development trends are considered internal and external investments in economic development, development of industrial production and infrastructure (engineering, transport and social), quality education and academic mobility, development of international relations, preservation of ethnic cultures as the basic values and stability of the multicultural world in the context of globalization, preserving the unique experience of practical farming in polar regions, environmental friendliness to the nature of unique natural complexes. In the era of global transformations, the Russian prospect of future in the industrial use of resources in the areas of indigenous peoples’ residence is the development of fuel industry, energy production, non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical industry; timber, woodworking and pulp and paper industry, agriculture and agricultural imports from other regions. Compared with the global challenges shaping the future development of Russian circumpolar territories, the objectives of Canada and the U.S. are different. The main objective is to strengthen Canada’s own position in the industrial leadership and the continuation of trade and economic relations in the United States. The United States determine the industrial use in order to maintain high level economies of the states, research, technological production of transnational companies in engineering and computer technology. References 1. Barbashin, M.Iu. (2005). Sovremennye sotsiologicheskie podkhody v izuchenii etnichnosti [Modern Sociological Approaches in Ethnicity Study]. Sotsiogumanitarnoe znanie, (4), 167 – 180. 2. Berger, Peter L., Huntington, Samuel P. Many Globalizations: Cultural Diversity in the Contemporary World. Oxford University Press, 2002, 374 p. 3. 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Etnicheskoe obozrenie, (4), 3-26. 69. Vorobyeva, I.A. Sotsiokul’turnye usloviia razvitiia kornnykh malochislennykh narodov Taimyra [Social and Cultural Conditions for the Development of the Small Indigenous Peoples of Taymyr]: Thesis of the Ph.D. in Pedagogics: 13.00.05. – Moscow: Regional State Library, 2006. 128 p. 70. Zamaraeva, Iu.S. Znachenie prikladnykh issledovanii s pozitsii sovremennoi kul’tury. [Value of Applied Research from the Position of Modern Culture]. Kul’tura korennykh i malochislennykh narodov Severa v usloviiakh global’nykh transformatsii [Culture of Small Indeginous Peoples of the North in the Conditions of Global Transformations]. Collective Monograph (executive editor N.P. Koptseva). Saint Petersburg: Eidos, 2011, Р. 54–62. 71. Zaslavskaia, T.I., Iadov, V.A. Sotsial’nye transformatsii v Rossii v epokhu global’nykh izmenenii [Social Transformations in Russia in the Epoch of Global Transformations] (Materialy Tretyego Vserossiiskogo sotsiologicheskogo kongressa [Materials of the Third All-Russian Sociological Congress]). Moscow, 2008, рр. 245-267. 72. Ziemer U. (2011). Minority youth, everyday racism and public spaces in contemporary russia. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 14 (2), 229-242. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia S. Zamaraeva. What are Global Transformations Experienced by the Indigenous Peoples of the North? Что такое глобальные трансформации, которые переживают индигенные народы севера? Ю.С. Замараева Сибирский федеральный университет Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Феномен глобализации в современной научной проблематике значится приоритетной тенденцией в мировом развитии. Данная статья посвящена рассмотрению ключевых аспектов понятия "глобальные трансформации" и исследованию влияния глобальных трансформаций в отношении этнокультуры северных территорий. В изучении специфики территорий проживания индигенных народов Севера исследователями последнего десятилетия выявлены следующие значимые процессы: экологические, социальные, культурные и политические. Экономические процессы пока остаются "в стороне" в силу отсутствия собственной промышленности и профессиональной специализации. Волна исследовательского интереса объясняется желанием познать уникальные культурные традиции коренных малочисленных народов Севера в современном мире; выработать стратегии охраны северных территорий с целью сохранения биологического и культурного разнообразия; выяснить пути развития экономического и политического международного сотрудничества с ведущими странами с целью жизнеобеспечения циркумполярной этнокультуры и населения северных территорий. Ключевые слова: глобальные трансформации, индигенные народы Севера, этнокультура. Научная специальность: 24.00.00 – культурология. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1719-1733 ~~~ УДК 140.8 "Jewish Antiquities" as Hellenistic Targum Julia G. Matushanskaya* Kazan National Research Technological University 68 K. Marx Str., Kazan, 420015, Russia Received 26.07.2014, received in revised form 05.08.2014, accepted 19.09.2014 In this article author researches the specific of the text of ancient Jewish Historian Josephus Flavius (1 А.D.) "Jewish Antiquities" in comparison with other ancient texts such as The Bible, Midrash, Talmud, texts of Greek and Roman writers The purpose of the work is analysis of structure of Josephus’ text with its historical-cultural context. Author has chosen culturological, philosophic and linguistic analysis of text of "Jewish Antiquities" as method of research. In results the author revealed interrelation between method of presenting of material in this book and tradition of rabbinic commented translation (Targum). However translation itself meets the rules and norms of antique historiography, which gives premise to classify "Jewish Antiquities" by Josephus as "Hellenistic Targum". Keywords: The Bible, Targum, Josephus Flavius, Midrash, Mishnah. Research area: 24.00.00 – culture studies. 1. Value of traditional texts for understanding of the historical concept of Josephus Flavius and for culture as a whole. It is necessary to emphasize importance of traditional religious texts for culture. This article is devoted to the analysis of synthesis of Judaic religious thought and Hellenistic culture in Josephus’ works. This synthesis has resulted further in Christianity and consequently in forming of the mentality of the Medieval West which has affected all modern world civilization. Josephus writes that his attitude to the material presented by the Scriptures is an attitude of respect, "adding nothing and nothing diminishing". However, it is not always so. Many authors had discussed this subject1, and it seems to be the common approach of writers * in antiquity. By such statements, the various writers apparently wanted to tell their readers that they would not repeat in verbally. Since Josephus regarded himself as a commentator, the changes he made in the text are still no more than reliable presentation of the tradition2. An interesting polemic on this question can be seen in the editions of Kazan Theological Academy. According to the teacher of Kazan Theological Academy professor A.Smirnov, in the manner of Josephus the features of following of Scripture letter are reflected. Palestinian exegetics, unlike the Alexandrian exegetics, were based not on allegorical interpretation, but on literal understanding of the Bible text3. Other teacher of Kazan Theological Academy, the ordinary professor P.Yungerov had disagreed © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1719 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. «Jewish Antiquities» as Hellenistic Targum with this opinion, believing that an allegory is also presented in Josephus’ interpretation4. However, according to A.Smirnov, the tradition of Palestinian exegetics highly appreciated value of the text of Torah which, according to rabbis of that time, meant much more, than its simple sense. That has led to creation of Haggadah5. Let’s consider more in detail how had Josephus interprete the Bible in "Jewish Antiquities". Josephus’ opinion on some facts frequent coincides with the Talmud version. So, Josephus tried to attribute to the Jews the majority of gains of civilization. He writes that Abraham had imparted to Egyptians the knowledge on arithmetic and astrology, being the intermediary between the impudent persons possessing this knowledge, and Egypt (Josephus, Ant. Jud.I,8,2; Baba Batra 16 b). The report of "Jewish Antiquities" about high intellectual development of three-years old Moses is also present in the Talmud (Yalkut,I,166). Josephus’ moral estimation of Saul’s modesty also corresponds to Tosefta (Josephus, Ant.Jud.IV,4,5-6). Josephus, besides, adds the enthusiastic story about his military valor that made this king greater in the opinion of Romans. From these examples it is obvious that, most likely, Josephus’ deviations from the Bible text should be put into the category of the exegetic stratifications which had been wide spread in the I century A.D. which have something in common with philosophical world view of epoch of postmodern, when the person is affirmed in the world of the text by means of doubt and returning. In that case the Bible text continues to exist in culture by itself, separately from religious context, and becomes a space of the human freedom reflected in interpretations by Josephus. 2. Targum as a genre of Rabbinic literature. The perception of the world based on traditional texts is archetypical and is implicitly present in the Jewish culture. Since Age of II Temple in the Jewish literature there had been a genre of the Bible paraphrase – Targum. The fragments of books of Leviticus (4Q156) and Job (4Q157), found in Qumran, are actually Targums. They were literal translations from Hebrew to Aramaic. In the end of Age of II Temple the Jews practically didn’t speak Hebrew 6. Тargum was used during service in synagogue. After fragment of the Bible text had been read aloud, the translator explained meaning of it (Megillah 23b-25b). Most often the known translations were used, such as Targum of Onkelos. Targum of Onkelos became an official Targum of Babylonian rabbinic school. It has been written and edited in the 3rd century A.D. and is ascribed to proselyte Onkelos (Megillah. 3а). Targum of Onkelos is the most literal of all known Torah translations. Nevertheless numerous cases are known when the text of Targum doesn’t coincide with the original. Sometimes translation is replaced with retelling, and the places where literal translation is impossible according to the translator’s opinion (especially places with anthropomorphic description of God) are stated allegorically. In Haggadah and Halakha sections of Targum of Onkelos we can see influence of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbis from Babylon named Onkelos’ Targum "our Targum". In 1949 Targum Neophyte I (Biblioteca dei Neofiti) has been found out in Rome in library of Vatican. Its paraphrases considerably differ from Targum of Onkelos. The whole sections are added. Targum Neophyte I is called Palestinian Aramaic, while Targum of Onkelos is Babylonian Aramaic. Both Targums are created at the same time. The latest translation of Torah in Targum Neophyte I is Targum Pseudo-Jonathan. In many cases it supplies translation of verse of Torah with midrashes. Moreover, Targum PseudoJonathan is supplied by the explanatory which makes reverse work, translating Targum to # 1720 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. «Jewish Antiquities» as Hellenistic Targum Hebrew and supplying it with small notes. The names of the wife and daughter of Muhammad in Targum Pseudo-Jonathan (in connection with Gen.21:21) show that the last edition has been carried out after VII century. Targum Neophyte I and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan are connected with fragmentary Targums from Cairo Genizah. Initially they were a part of fuller works of VII and XI centuries. By form they are close to Palestinian Aramaic Targums. Paraphrases of books of Prophets we can see in Targum Pseudo-Jonathan. Traditionally it is ascribed to Jonathan ben Uziel (Megillah 3a), though it contains fragments which precisely correspond to the paraphrases ascribed to Joseph bar Hiyya, Rabbi of IV century. Thus, in Targum Isaiah we can see the signs of nationalistic eschatology of the times of Jewish War, implicitly containing in later monuments of the Jewish culture. Targum Iona is the result of editorial work of Tannaim and Amoraim. After the completing of Targum Jonathan the fragmentary Targums have been created. They are reflected in the Reichlin Code (Codex Reuchlinianus) of 1105. Targum on Parables is a paraphrase of the Syrian Bible translation – Peshita, and Targum on the book of Esther is directly intended for Purim7. Thus, the Bible paraphrases are the traditional form of rabbinic literature. We will consider, how Targum method is reflected in Josephus’ works. Paraphrases in Targum are created by the use of oral tradition, construction of author’s own etymology, commenting of difficult places in order that the edited text would be more clear to audience. In our opinion, "Jewish Antiquities" by Josephus can also be called Targum because, according to Targum tradition, Josephus intertwines the Bible narration with rabbinic comment, that allows to consider "Jewish Antiquities" as a monument not only of GreekRoman culture, but also of Jewish one. 3. "Jewish Antiquities" as Targum The analysis of the method of text by Josephus was made by many authors. So, for example, T. Loeni describes all the works of the Hebrew author8 in details. In this article "Jewish Antiquites" will be considered as Hellenistic Targum. To find out whether "Jewish Antiquities" by Josephus is actually Targum, we will consider one of Josephus’ numerous comments. In Gen. 10:2 in Massoreth text it is written: "Sons of Iafet: the Homere, Magog, Mada, Iavan, Fuval, Mesheh and Firas" in Targum Pseudo-Jonathan this text is : "Sons of Iafet: the Homere, Magog, Mada, Iavan, Fuval, Mesheh and Firas, and names of their areas are Phrygia, Germany, the Midia, Macedonia, Bithynia, Asia and Thrace" In Josephus’ text the paraphrase is even more detailed: # 1721 # "Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tansis, and along Europe to Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names. For Gomer founded those whom the Greeks now call Galatians, [Galls,] but were then called Gomerites. Magog founded those that from him were named Magogites, but who are by the Greeks called Scythians. Now as to Javan and Madai, the sons of Japhet; from Madai came the Madeans, who are called Medes, by the Greeks; but from Javan, Ionia, and all the Grecians, are derived. Thobel founded the Thobelites, who are now called Iberes; and the Mosocheni were founded by Mosoch; now they are Cappadocians. There is also a mark of their ancient denomination still to be shown; for there is even now among them a city called Mazaca, which may Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. «Jewish Antiquities» as Hellenistic Targum inform those that are able to understand, that so was the entire nation once called. Thiras also called those whom he ruled over Thirasians; but the Greeks changed the name into Thracians. And so many were the countries that had the children of Japhet for their inhabitants. Of the three sons of Gomer, Aschanax founded the Aschanaxians, who are now called by the Greeks Rheginians. So did Riphath found the Ripheans, now called Paphlagonians; and Thrugramma the Thrugrammeans, who, as the Greeks resolved, were named Phrygians. Of the three sons of Javan also, the son of Japhet, Elisa gave name to the Eliseans, who were his subjects; they are now the Aeolians. Tharsus to the Tharsians, for so was Cilicia of old called; the sign of which is this, that the noblest city they have, and a metropolis also, is Tarsus, the tau being by change put for the theta. Cethimus possessed the island Cethima: it is now called Cyprus; and from that it is that all islands, and the greatest part of the sea-coasts, are named Cethim by the Hebrews: and one city there is in Cyprus that has been able to preserve its denomination; it has been called Citius by those who use the language of the Greeks, and has not, by the use of that dialect, escaped the name of Cethim" (Josephus, Ant.Jud.I,6,1). It would be possible to name such a comment "midrash", a classical for Judaic religious philosophy method of interpretation of the Bible. According to L.Feldman, the use of defi nition "midrash" for not-rabbinic exegetics isn’t absolutely correct, because it implies too close connection between rabbinic and an earlier form of interpretation of Scriptures9. However if we should consider the given text typologically, it comes under the defi nition of midrash, which in turn is the basic method of writing of Targum. Midrash had been used as a sacred way for textual engagement. Also, in the case of homiletic text, in offers a narration for the Jews revealing relevant, true meaning of God. Rabbinic text referred to Egyptian cultural icons, which served to demarcate rabbinic Judaism from Egyptian and other non-Jewish cultures and religion10. Josephus gives great attention to the philological analysis of the text of the Bible. So, Josephus writes that the word "Pharaoh" is never mentioned in the Bible after mentioning Solomon’s father-in-law (Josephus, Ant.Jud. VIII,2,5). Also Josephus gives etymology of the name of Moses, as "rescued from the water" (Josephus, Ant.Jud. II, 9,6). The name of land Mar Josephus connects with bad quality of water, from a word ( רמbitterness) (Josephus, Ant.Jud. III,1,1). Josephus also gives the detailed description with interpretation of the construction of Tabernacle (Josephus, Ant.Jud. III, 6 cp.) and of clothes of the high priest (Josephus, Ant.Jud. III, 7 cp.). An origin of the word "manna" Josephus deduces from a question ( הצ המWhat is it?) (Josephus, Ant.Jud. III,1,6). Josephus, according to the principles of the writing of Targum, gives his own etymology of words from the Bible text. The problem of Josephus’ silence concerning some Biblical scenes and subjects is important. Joseph had been excluded from the Bible text some stories which could present the Jews disparagingly to reader’s audience. Here we see a consequence of collisions in the situation of meeting of Greek-Roman and Jewish cultures. A lacuna is a unit possessing following signs: incomprehensibility, unusualness, strangeness, discrepancy or an inaccuracy. All nationalspecific elements of culture in which the text is created, are lacunas. Coming into contact to another culture, the recipient estimates it in codes of his own culture that leads to inadequate # 1722 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. «Jewish Antiquities» as Hellenistic Targum interpretation of features of another’s culture. To avoid this and in conformity with Targum method of interpretation of the Bible text, Josephus gives his own etymology of words from the original text. However he not only adds the comment to the Bible text, but also doesn’t retell some moments. So, sale of primogeniture by Esau (Gen. 25:29-33) was excluded from Josephus’ narration. It is obvious that cunning of Jacob couldn’t be pleasant to the Romans who were well-known for their frankness. Also Josephus keeps silence about the episode with circumcision of inhabitants of Shechem with capture of this city by Simeon and Levy. Instead Josephus writes that there was a celebration and townsmen were drunk, therefore brothers captured the city with easiness (Josephus, Ant.Jud.I,21,1). Failure to mention the circumcision of the inhabitants of Shechem had several causes. According to Josephus when God had promised that Abraham and Sarah would have the son, he had wished that the Jews wouldn’t mix up with other nations and would make the circumcision of newborns on the eighth day (Josephus, Ant.Jud.I,10,5). Negative interpretation of this phenomenon is given by Tacitus. He writes that Jews: "When the Jews had traveled a six days’ journey, they had buboes in their groins; and that on this account it was that they rested on the seventh day, as having got safely to that country which is now called Judea; that then they preserved the language of the Egyptians, and called that day the Sabbath (σαββω), for that malady of buboes on their groin was named Sabbatosis (σαββαττωσις) by by the Egyptians" (Josephus, C.Ap. II, 20-21, 25). M. Sheller states that σαββαττωσις - is "designation of illness when the sick person has characteristic ulcers in groin"11. In general negative attitude to Judaic religion prevailed in Rome, since for such greatest representatives of Antique civilization as Сiсero it was no more than "barbara superstitio". Juvenal expressed the blames of Romans concerning Jews most distinctly. In the satire devoted to problem of bad influence of parents’ vices on children he writes: Quidam sortiti metuentem sabbata patrem Nil praeter nubes et caeli numen adorant, Nes distare putant humana carne suillam, Qua pater abstinuit, mox et praeputia ponunt; "share neither food, nor bed with others; Romans autem soliti contemnere leges being a tribe extremely lewd, they abstain Iudaicum ediscunt et servsnt ac metuunt from communications with alien women; ius, between themselves everything is allowed; Tradidit arcano quodcumque volumine to be different from strangers, they have Moyses: entered circumcision" (Tacitus, Historiae, Non monstrare vias eadem nisi sacra V,5,2). colenti, Hence, circumcision for Romans was the evidence of particularism of Jews, and actually regarded as a mean, contemptible sign. Here we see socio-cultural collisions of civilization and cultural values. It is because of negative attitude to circumcision anti-semite Apion of Alexandria interprets the origin of a word "Sabbath". Josephus writes: Quaesitum ad fontem solos deducere veros. Sed pater in causa, cui septima quaeque fuit lux Ignava et partem vitae non attigit ullam.12 The proselytes which have completely accepted Judaism differed from semi-proselytes ("reverent of God") who didn’t adhere to Judaic # 1723 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. «Jewish Antiquities» as Hellenistic Targum tradition in everything, for example, didn’t do circumcision. Augustine in the context of Romans’ discontent of Judaic missionary work results known expression: victi victoribus leges dederunt ("The won gave the law to the winners") (Augustinus, De Civitate Dei, VI, 11). That’s why the circumcision of inhabitant of Shechem could be seen as the expansion of the Judaism which has ended with punishment over neophytes. From the point of view of postmodernistic interpretation of the event the given text of the Bible in intertext of the Greek-Roman culture was read distinctly from the Jewish interpretation. Therefore Josephus has decided to keep silent about the given fragment. There is one more reason of keeping silence about circumcision of inhabitants of Shechem. At the time of Joseph Shechem was inhabited by Samaritans who had departed from traditional Judaism. Therefore in the Last Will of Levy Shechem is called as "a city of fools". In the same text it is told that men from Shechem intended to steal Sarah, exhausted Abraham and in general were extremely inhospitable that contradicted statements of Samaritans hostile to the Jews13. Josephus writes about Samaritans: "when the Jews are in adversity, they deny that they are of kin to them, and then they confess the truth" (Josephus, Ant.Jud.XI,8,6). Therefore the story of circumcision which makes Shechemites almost coreligionists of the Jews, not only would discredit the Jews in the opinion of other nations, but also would cause undesirable hints on historical and cultural realities contemporary to Josephus. Stories about slaying of an Egyptian by Moses (Ex. 2:12) and worshipping the Golden Calf (Ex. 32:1-6) are also excluded from Josephus’ narration. Probably, it is connected with two blames to the Jews from the Alexandrian anti-Semites. In Roman Empire the opinion about xenophobia of the Jews became a platitude. Tacitus wrote: "Among their own people fidelity is unshakeable and readiness for compassion is invariable, but they hate all other people as enemies"(Tacitus, Historiae, V,5,1). The most terrible charge was that (according to the stories of Alexandrian anti-Semite Apion) Antiochus IV Epiphanes had found a Greek prepared for sacrifice in the Jerusalem Temple (Josephus, C.Ap.II,8), which became a prototype of all subsequent blames of the Jews in human sacrifices. Therefore Josephus avoids a mention of this murder and explains flight of Moses by envy of Egyptians to him after his victorious campaign to Ethiopia (Josephus, Ant.Jud.II,10,2-11,1). According to Josephus the founder of the Jewish religion shouldn’t be the murderer whereas the authors of the Bible told about both virtues and sins of the heroes. Worshiping the Golden Calf is excluded by Josephus since it causes hints on charges of Posidonius, Apollonius Molon and Apion that the same Antiochus IV Epiphanes has found a golden statue of an asinine head in the Temple (Josephus, C.Ap.II,7). Josephus in every possible way tries to take away from the Jews the charge in worshipping the idols. However among commandments of Moses he mentions also that one which didn’t exist in the Bible "Let no one blaspheme those gods which other cities esteem such" (Josephus, Ant.Jud.IV,8,10). That is, he lets know that Hellenes, worshipping their gods, don’t offend religious feeling of the Jews, since they are gods of other state, while the Jews trust in the Most High. As a result in the story about the ascension of Moses to Sinai the narration develops in such a way, that Jews don’t do anything reprehensible and Moses in turn doesn’t break the tables, but shows them to the people (Josephus, Ant.Jud. II,5,8). Some episodes in Josephus’ paraphrase of the Bible have been modified by him just a little. So, Jacob doesn’t rebuke Joseph but rejoices to the dream about the future position of his son (Josephus, Ant.Jud.I,2,3), Rahab (who had helped Jews at the capture of Jericho) was not the loose woman but the mistress of a hotel (Josephus, # 1724 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. «Jewish Antiquities» as Hellenistic Targum Ant.Jud.V,1,2), and Benjamites in Gibeah have demanded for the entertainments the wife of the Levite which has come to their city, instead of the Levite himself (Josephus, Ant.Jud.V,2,8).We see in this case how Josephus puts the Bible narration into Hellenistic cultural context. The Rabbinic tradition of reading or translating of certain confusing places of the Bible holds the opinion that in synagogues it is necessary to read some places, but not to translate them14. It has to do with the case when Ruben had the intercourse with the concubine of the father (Gen. 35:22) and with the second story of the Golden Calf (Ex. 32:21-25; Megillah 4:10). It is especially amazing that the blessing of priests ( Numb. 6:24-27), the relationships of David and Bathsheba and the beginning of story of Amnon and Thamar (2 Sam. 11:2-17) should not be not only translated but even read (Megillah 4:10). Along with this the event of intercourse of Judah and Thamar (Gen. 38) and the first story about the Golden Calf (Ex. 32:1-20) are to be read and translated, but Josephus omits both. The authors of Gemara (Megillah 25a-b) add to the list of passages, which should be both read and translated, the narration of creation (Gen.1), story of Lot and his daughters (Gen. 19:31-38), curses and blessings to Israel (Lev.26, Deut. 27), the story of the concubine in Gibeah (Jud. 1920), the passage from Ezekiel (Ez. 16:1) about abominations of Jerusalem and the continuation of situation of Amnon and Thamar (2 Kings 13:2-22). Hence, Josephus follows the pattern of reading and translation of Torah in synagogues also in the aspect of keeping silence about some events. Therefore the work "Jewish Antiquities" can be called Targum, and it is a monument of the Jewish traditional culture. According to S. Rappoport, Josephus in his comments to the Bible exclusively depended on written sources.15 L.Feldman states that it is impossible to define one or another midrash. Though it is quite possible that Josephus really had access to written down midrashes in spite of the fact that the majority of exegetic comments in Synagogue Targum, in sermons or in Academies in the days of Josephus still were oral in essence16. For finding out of the sources of Josephus the cases of deviation from the Bible text L.Ranke compared his narration to a narration of the Antique Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria and with oral Torah. Both Josephus and Philo of Alexandria made deviations from the Bible text, and in those deviations both have divergence and similarity. For example, under a name of the first king Josephus as well as Talmud assumes a new dynasty in Egypt, and the cause of the slay of the Jewish boys he sees as a prophecy about the birth of a child who will shake the kingdom of Egypt (Sanhedrin, 101b). In addition to Josephus the Antique Jewish philosopher Philo informs that the Pharaoh had only one daughter who was infertilе, and she worried that the kingdom would pass to enemies. Therefore she gladly picks up Moses. The same we see in Talmud. Comparison with Philo helps us to distinguish two independent legends added to the Bible in Josephus’ narration. One of them has the Alexandrian origin, and another has Palestinian one. In Josephus’ narration there is a characteristic difference both from the Bible and from Philo. It is the originality of the political combinations considering the person and activity of Moses from the point of view of predetermination and his overthrow of power of Egypt over the Jews. This originality of Josephus’ text is the author’s style. The assumption that Josephus was acquainted with the Palestinian oral tradition is confirmed by the fact that Josephus gives certain names to unnamed Biblical characters. For example, the name of the person who has inspired others for construction of the Babel tower is Nimrod (Josephus, Ant.Jud.I,1,4); the name of Pharaoh’s daughter who adopted Moses 17 # 1725 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. «Jewish Antiquities» as Hellenistic Targum is Phermuphis (Josephus, Ant.Jud. I,9,5) and the name of a prophet who rebuked Ahab for deliverance of Ben-Hadad is Micah (Josephus, Ant.Jud.VIII,15,4). Probably those names are taken from Rabbinic Midrashes. But the fact that details of such kind also can be found in scrolls of the Dead Sea and in Samaritan texts 18 shows that we are dealing with Palestinian and not just Rabbinic tradition. The assumption that Josephus used an oral form of legend is confirmed by the fact that many texts of Haggadah had been written down by him for the first time. A.Shinan19 tells that Josephus was the first who recorded Haggadah version of the birth of Moses. He comes to this conclusion оn the basis of coincidence of records of Josephus with the Babylonian Talmud (Sotah 12a). The story about Solomon’s magic power (Josephus, Ant.Jud.VIII,2,5) came into the text of "Jewish Antiquities" from Haggadah. The legend about Moses’ throwing down of Kushites is present both in Judaic (Sotah 57,7) and in Muslim legends20. A.Shinan asserts that the description of war with Kushites Josephus took from writings of Hellenistic Jewish writer Artapan.21 Moreover, S.Rappaport shows 299 examples where Josephus gives parallels of Midrash legends which haven’t been written down earlier, and they are written much later.22 Thus we can see that Josephus used the oral tradition. Haggadah texts are present in Jewish culture archetypically. We have noticed that in the majority of texts of Josephus it is possible to track the influence of Haggadah just according to one phrase inserted by Josephus in the Bible text. So, for example, in "Jewish Antiquities" Josephus writes: all the heavenly bodies" (Josephus, Ant. Jud.I,7,1). 23 Let’s compare this text with Haggadah: "(Abraham had been hidden by his parents in the cave from the wrath of King Nimrod until he was 3 years old) Then he arose and walked about, and he left the cave, and went along the edge of the valley. When the sun sank, and the stars came forth, he said, "These are the gods!" But the dawn came, and the stars could be seen no longer, and then he said, "I will not pay worship to these, for they are no gods." Thereupon the sun came forth, and he spoke, "This is my god, him will I extol." But again the sun set, and he said, "He is no god," and beholding the moon, he called her his god to whom he would pay Divine homage. Then the moon was obscured, and he cried out: "This, too, is no god! There is One who sets them all in motion" (Bereshit Rabbah 38.13). 24 Haggadah story which we can see is much more colourful and more detailed than Josephus’ dry message which, nevertheless, is based on folklore text significant for the Jewish culture. It is interesting to compare the colorful Haggadah story about King Og and the reserved description of this legend by Josephus. In the Bible this event is described without too many details. It is written only that God gave the army of Og into hands of the Jews (Numb. 21:33-36; Deut. 3). Og himself is not described. He is just said to be the last of Rephaim (who had been the giants according to legend). Here is the version of Haggadah: "On the following morning, however, barely at gray dawn, Moses arose and prepared "This his (Abraham’s) opinion (that the to attack the city, but looking toward the One God rules the Universe. – J. M.) was city wall, he cried in amazement, "Behold, derived from the irregular phenomena that in the night they have built up a new wall were visible both at land and sea, as well as about the city!" Moses did not see clearly in those that happen to the sun, and moon, and the misty morning, for there was no wall, # 1726 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. «Jewish Antiquities» as Hellenistic Targum but only the giant Og who sat upon the wall with his feet touching the ground below. Og met his death in the following fashion. When he discovered that Israel’s camp was three parasangs in circumference, he said: "I shall now tear up a mountain of three parasangs, and cast it upon Israel’s camp, and crush them". He did as he had planned, pulled up a mountain of three parasangs, laid it upon his head, and came marching in the direction of the Israelite camp, to hurl it upon them. But what did God do? He caused ants to perforate the mountain, so that is slipped from Og’s head down upon his neck, and when he attempted to shake it off, he teeth pushed out and extended to left and right, and did not let the mountain pass, so that he now stood there with the mountain, unable to throw it from him. When Moses saw this, he took an axe twelve cubits long, leaped ten cubits into the air, and dealt a blow to Og’s ankle, which caused the giant’s death" (Bereshit Rabbah. 54; Niddah 24)25. Haggadah story is much more colorful, expressive and fabulous, than Biblical narrative. It is unknown whether Josephus used this legend or some very similar one, but his narrative is: "Og, the king of Gilead and Gaulanitis, fell upon the Israelites… …did he resolve still to come and fight the Hebrews, supposing he should be too hard for them, and being desirous to try their valor; but failing of his hope, he was both himself slain in the battle, and all his army was destroyed… Now Og had very few equals, either in the largeness of his body, or handsomeness of his appearance. He was also a man of great activity in the use of his hands, so that his actions were not unequal to the vast largeness and handsome appearance of his body" (Josephus, Ant.Jud.III,5,3)26. If classic Targum with the help of Haggadah legends widens the Bible text, Josephus compresses Haggadah legend to one or two phrases and returns it in such compressed form back to the Bible narration. It reminds a Talmudic method, so-called "remez", implicitly containing in texts of Judaic religious culture. Probably Josephus didn’t consider Haggadah stories as equally reliable to the facts taken from the canonic text of the Bible. Therefore he makes only a hint at Haggadah. Since the judgments of Haggadah are not so carefully verified, the discussion is conducted in more metaphoric, poetic form. Many things mentioned in Haggadah actually have symbolical meaning, where the unequivocal understanding is impossible. However the use of Haggadah plots makes the text of "Jewish Antiquities" close to Targum, as to the text traditional for the Jewish culture, by the methods of interpretation of the Bible. Josephus’ comments are not always made in Rabbinic manner. Josephus’ explanation of Jewish concept shows that his work "Life" had been intended to be read mainly by non-Jewish readers, and, moreover, that he wished to be seen as a positive public figure, as a person who fits the standards prevailing in their society27. So, in order to deserve the trust of contemporaries, Josephus in "Jewish Antiquities" tried to avoid the description of miracles in the Bible stories. At the fi rst sight, doing so, he follows the traditions of the Greek-Roman intellectual culture. According to Lucian, it is possible to include a myth in a text, but it is not necessary to trust it undoubtedly; it is better if the author would not solve this question himself, and let everyone judge as he or she wants (Lucianus,Quo Modo Hist.Sit Cons.,60). So, Josephus compares the transition of the Jews through the Red Sea to Alexander the Great’s transition through the Pamphilite sea and adds: "However, in this respect everyone can have his own opinion" # 1727 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. «Jewish Antiquities» as Hellenistic Targum (Josephus, Ant.Jud.II,16,5). Thereby, giving his own explanation of the miracle, Josephus remains in the course of ancient culture. However this is not only one possible explanation of the reason of the exclusion of miracles from the Bible paraphrase. For the further research of the description of miracles in Josephus’ works it is necessary to define, what is miracle in the Bible. According to Y.Kaufman28 the miracles which are made in the Bible resemble the technical magic of Egyptians. However, unlike pagan ideas, there is no mythological basis in this magic. For religious consciousness a miracle is the work of "the right hand of God". Theologically the Bible miracles can be divided into three kinds. These are miracles as a matter of fact, in their essence (quoad substantian), which have nothing in common with forces of the nature. These miracles are present at Josephus’ narration indirectly, it is difficult to track their presence. In this connection it is possible to mention creation of the world by God, which the book "Jewish Antiquities" begins with (Josephus, Ant.Jud.I,1,1). The miracles of second kind are the actions accessible to forces of the nature, but not in the given subject (quoad subjectum). Josephus tries to avoid this kind of miracles. For example, the sign given by God to Gideon (Jud. 6) is omitted, because it can’t be explained rationally. Also Josephus doesn’t write about raising from the dead of the widow’s son by prophet Elisha (2 Kings 4:32-36). Also about the rapture of prophet Elijah to Heaven Josephus writes: Now at this time it was that Elijah disappeared from among men, and no one knows of his death to this very day29. And indeed, as to Elijah, and as to Enoch, who was before the deluge, it is written in the sacred books that they disappeared, but so that nobody knew that they died" (Josephus, Ant.Jud.IX,2,2). Josephus tries not to confuse the reader belonging to Hellenistic culture by the description of miracles inexplicable from the point of view of physiophilosophy of that time. The third kind of miracles includes actions possible for the nature, but not in such a way (quoad modum). Transition of the Jews through the Red Sea, already mentioned by us, belongs to the given kind of miracles (Josephus, Ant.Jud.II,16,5). The Plagues of Egypt which also can be regarded as miracles of the given kind, are described as acts of nature (Josephus, Ant.Jud. XIV). Telling about one more miracle with manna, Josephus writes that "even now, in all, that place, this manna comes down in rain" (Josephus, Ant.Jud. III,1,6).30 At transition of the Jordan by Joshua the river, according to Josephus, hadn’t parted as in the Bible text (Joshua 3:13), but shoaled (Josephus, Ant.Jud.V,2,3). The hailstones at Joshua’s battle at Gibeon were not stone but simply very large ones. And instead of telling according to the Bible how Joshua had stopped movement of the Sun over Gibeon, Josephus writes that God had prolonged daytime (Josephus, Ant.Jud.V,1,17). So Josephus tells about only those miracles which could occur naturally, and he rationalizes explanations of the phenomena described in the Bible. Rational interpretation is put by him in lips of the Bible heroes (Josephus, Ant.Jud.VI,1,2). Josephus refers to the Jewish original when it is impossible to give any rational interpretation to miracles (Josephus, Ant.Jud.III,5,2). Inclusion of certain miracle in Josephus’ work is connected with its perception in culture of Roman Empire of the I century AD. So, for example, in a case of Daniel, Josephus emphasizes that the lions didn’t begin to eat the prophet because of wonderful intervention of the Lord, but not because of their satiety. In our opinion, the specification occurs because the inhabitants of the Empire had possibility to observe gladiatorial fights with lions, who, according to rules, should # 1728 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. «Jewish Antiquities» as Hellenistic Targum be hungry. To survive in this situation was a miracle. It was important for Josephus to make the text of "Jewish Antiquities" clear for the Roman audience and causing their sympathy. Other interesting aspect in the description of miracles by Josephus we can see in the episodes connected with fire. A case of burning and not burning down bush from which The Most High spoke to Moses (Josephus, Ant.Jud.I,9,1), competition of the prophet Elijah with the priests of Baal in process of which the Lord sends fire from heaven on the sacrifice offered by the Jewish prophet and covered with water (Josephus, Ant.Jud.VIII,13,5), and also the episode with surviving of Daniel’s friends in the heated furnace (Josephus, Ant.Jud.X,10,5) are given by Josephus without essential changes. It is possible to make the conclusion that the supernatural phenomenon connected with fire couldn’t confuse readers. It is known that Nero patronized to Mazdaistic cult, and at the time of Josephus’ staying in Rome the Persian religion, anyhow connected with worship to fire, was known in the upper class of Empire.31 In this context it is interesting to notice the absence of any mentioning of Hanukah miracle. An episode when ritually pure oil burned eight days instead of one (it should suffice only for one day) isn’t included in texts of Josephus’ work, because of reason mentioned above. Rationalistic interpretation of miracles is focused on a Hellenistic reader. Similar change is made by Josephus in order to make the Bible text clear to non-Jews. It closes the text of "Jewish Antiquities" to Targum. If Aramaic Targums made the Bible text clear to Babylonian Jews, Josephus tries to make the text understandable to representatives of the Greek-Roman culture. The full publication of the scrolls from the Judean Desert has given impetus to reflections on the history and development of the biblical text during the period of Second Temple Judaism. Hans Debel critically reviews the major contributions to the debate and finally makes a plea to extent Ulrich’s hermeneutical model32 to some Septuagint text that are usually not included into his "variant literary editions". His main argument, that these texts are the evidence of the same dynamic process of the interpretational tradition, merely because they are not written in Hebrew, reveals an unwarranted bias towards the Masoreth Text33. Considerable deviations from Massoreth Text (in an explanation of certain words, a transcription of the proper names and the chronological data) and Hellenistic coloring of narration of "Jewish Antiquities" lead to thought that Josephus had a copy of the Septuagint before his eyes. It is Hellenistic coloring which distinguishes "Jewish Antiquities" from Targums of Onkelos or PseudoJonathan. Josephus was not the first one who wrote in Hellenistic tradition. So, Ezekiel writes tragedies in the style of Euripides, Philo the Senior writes epic poems34, Demetrius and Eupolemes write secular history of Jews, Aristobulus and Apollos have found their place in Hellenistic philosophies35. However only philosopher Philo of Alexandria and Josephus Flavius have taken a worthy place both in Hellenistic and in later Christian culture of the West. Resume Josephus Flavius in "Jewish Antiquities" retells the Bible text according to Rabbinic traditions, but adapts it in some places for the Antique civilization of gentile Roman Empire. Josephus’ text by its content does not always correspond to the original. By its form "Jewish Antiquities" resemble Targum (Bible paraphrases in Aramaic language which was used during service in synagogues). The fragments of books Leviticus and Job, which has been found out in Qumran, are actually Targums. The most known Targum is Targum of Onkelos. It the most literal of all known translations of Torah. Targum Neophyte I considerably differs from # 1729 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. «Jewish Antiquities» as Hellenistic Targum Targum of Onkelos because the whole sections are added to it. The latest translation of Torah is Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, and after finishing of it fragmentary Targums have been created. Thus Targum is a traditional form of Rabbinic literature, and its technique of interpretation of the text is used by Josephus, that makes his works the heritage of the Jewish culture. There are signs which unite all writings of Targum genre. Paraphrases of the Bible text in them are created by the use of oral tradition, construction of author’s own etymology, commenting of difficult places in order that the edited text would be more clear to audience. "Jewish Antiquities" by Josephus Flavius also can be called Targum. We are lead to this conclusion by the following observation. Josephus intertwines the text of the Bible with the Rabbinistic comment. It is possible to name such a comment "midrash". In conformity with Targum method of interpretation of the Bible text, Josephus gives his own etymology of words from the original text. However he not only adds the comment to the Bible text, but also doesn’t retell some moments. So, Josephus had excluded from the Bible text the stories which could present Jews disparagingly. For example, he had kept silence about circumcision of inhabitants of Shechem. It is connected both with negative attitude of Romans to tradition of circumcision and with Josephus’ unwillingness to cause undesirable hints on contemporary historical and cultural realities concerning the relation of the Jews and Samaritans. The slaying by Moses of the Egyptian and worshiping the Golden Calf, which are connected with anti-Semitic charges in idolatry and human sacrifices, are also excluded from Josephus’s narration. Some episodes in the Bible paraphrase have been modified by Joseph just a little. All this is connected with the fact that Josephus in the aspect of keeping silence follows the pattern of reading and translation of Torah in synagogues, where, according to cultural norms of the Age of the Second Temple, some fragments of the Bible weren’t subject to reading or translation. Josephus’ narration has characteristic difference not only from the Bible texts, but also from the texts of Philo of Alexandria. It indicates not only that Josephus had his own style of narration, but also that he was acquainted with Palestinian oral tradition. It is confirmed by the fact that many texts of Haggadah had been written down by him for the first time. In the majority of texts of Josephus it is possible to track the influence of Haggadah just by one phrase inserted in the Bible context. The use of Haggadah plots makes the text of "Jewish Antiquities" close to Targum by its methods of interpretation of the Bible. However Josephus’ comments do not always have Rabbinic character. He tried to avoid the description of miracles in the Bible stories. Theologically the Bible miracles can be divided into three kinds. These are miracles as a matter of fact, in their essence (quoad substantian), which have nothing in common with forces of the nature. These miracles are present at Josephus’ narration indirectly, it is difficult to track their presence. The miracles of second kind are the actions accessible to forces of the nature, but not in the given subject (quoad subjectum). Josephus tries to avoid this kind of miracles. The third kind of miracles includes actions possible for the nature, but not in such a way (quoad modum). It is this kind of miracles which Josephus describes in his text, and he rationalizes the Bible miracles. Inclusion of certain miracle in "Jewish Antiquities" is connected with perception of it in culture of Roman society. The miracles of only one kind, which Josephus doesn’t exclude and doesn’t modify, are the miracles with fire. It is connected with spreading of cult of Mitra in Rome. # 1730 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. «Jewish Antiquities» as Hellenistic Targum Josephus wrote "Jewish Antiquities" according to Hellenistic tradition. Hence, Josephus tries to make the text of "Jewish Antiquities" clear to a Hellenistic reader. This 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 fact lets us classify "Jewish Antiquities" as a "Hellenistic Targum". In that way Josephus tried to reconcile traditions of Greek-Roman and Jewish cultures. See Feldman L. H. Josephus’ Interpretation of the Bible. Detroit, 1996; Inowlowsky S. (2005). Neither adding nor omitting anything’: Josephus’ Promise not to modify the Scriptures in Greek and Latin context, JJS 56, 48-65. Avios M. (2008). Josephus’ Rewriting of 1 Samuel 25, JJS 59, 71-85. Smirnov A. Messianskie ozhidaniia I verovaniia iudeev okolo vrem’en Iisusa Khrista (ot Makkaveiskikh voin do razrusheniia Ierusalima riml’anami. [Messianic expectations and beliefs of Jews of times of Jesus Christ (from Maccabean wars before destruction of Jerusalem by Romans)].Kazan, 1899, 171. Yungerov P. Otzyv o sochinenii protoiereia Alekseia Smirnovapod zaglaviiem "Messianskie ozhidaniia I verovaniia iudeev okolo vrem’en Iisusa Khrista (ot Makkaveiskikh voin do razrusheniia Ierusalima riml’anami" [Review of the composition of Protoierei Alexey Smirnov under the title "Messianic expectations and beliefs of Jews of times of Jesus Christ (from Maccabean wars before destruction of Jerusalem by Romans)"]. Kazan, 1899. Smirnov, 175. Shinan A. The World of Aggadah. Tel-Aviv, 1990, 103, Alexander P.S. (1988). Aramaic translations of Hebrew Scripture, Mikra. 7, 217-253. Bowker J. The Targums and Rabbinic Literature: An Introduction to Jewish Interpretation of Scripture. Cambridge, 1969; Chester A.N. (1986) Divine Revelation an Divine Titles in the Pentateuchal Targumim, Texte und Studien zum Antiken Judentum (Tubingen). Leoni T. (2009).The text of Josephus’s works: an Overview, JSJ 40, 149-184. Feldman, 67 Ulmer R. (2010). The Egyptian Gods in Midrashic Text, HTR103:2, 181-204. Scheller M. Clotta. XXXIV. Berlin, 1955, 298 sq; Lewy J. (1946). Latomus σαββω und σαββαττωσις, Zion 5, 339 sq. Some who have had a father who reveres the Sabbath, worship nothing but the clouds, and the divinity of the heavens, and see no difference between eating swine’s flesh, from which their father abstained, and that of man; and in time they take to circumcision. Having been wont to flout the laws of Rome, they learn and practice and revere the Jewish law, and all that Moses committed to his secret tome, forbidding to point out the way to any not worshipping the same rites, and conducting none but the circumcised to the desired fountain. For all which the father was to blame, who gave up every seventh day to idleness, keeping it apart from all the concerns of life. (Juvenalus, Saturae, XIV, 96-106) (Translated by G. G. Ramsay) Bickerman E.J. The Jews in the Greek Age. London, 1988, 208. Feldman, 69-74 Rappaport S. Haggadah und Exegese bei Flavius Josephus. Wien, 1930 Feldman, 69-74 Ranke L. Weltgeschichte. Leipzig, 1883, III, 15-18. Feldman, 69-74. Shinan, 49. Geiger A. Was hat Mahammed aus dem Judenthum aufgenommen? Leipzig, 1900, 157. Shinan, 52-54. Rappaport, 1-71 Translated by William Whiston Ginzberg L. The Legends of the Jews. Philadelphia, 1968,I,189. Ginzberg, 345-346 Translated by William Whiston Stern P. (2010). "Life of Josephus" : The Autobiography of Flavius Josephus’, JSJ 41, 63-93. Kaufman Y. Religiia Drevnego Izrailia.[Religion of ancient Israel]. Bibleiskie issledovaniia. Sbornik statei. Sostavitel B. Shwarts. [Bible researches. The collection of articles. Comp. B.Schwarz]. Moscow, 1997, 63-64 In spite of the fact that Josephus knows the text of 2 Kings 2:11 Translated by William Whiston Cumont F. Die Misterien des Mitra. Darmstadt, 1963, 76-94. Ulrich E.C. The Qumran Scrolls and the Biblical text, Dead Sea Scroll Fifty Years after Their Discovery: Proceeding of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997 .Jerusalem: The Israel Exploration Society, 2000. Debel H. (2010) Greek "Variant Literary Editions" to the Hebrew Bible?, JJS 41, 161-190 See German translations of Philon and Ezekiil in Philipson L.M. Ezechiel und Philo.Berlin, 1830. See German translations of fragments in Fredenthal J. Alexander Poligistor und die von ihm erhaltene erste judischer Geschichtwerke. Breslau, 1874-1875. References 1. Alexander P.S. (1988). Aramaic translations of Hebrew Scripture, Mikra. 7, 217-253. 2. Avios M. (2008). Josephus’ Rewriting of 1 Samuel 25, JJS 59, 71-85. # 1731 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. «Jewish Antiquities» as Hellenistic Targum 3. Bickerman E.J. The Jews in the Greek Age. London, 1988. 4. Bowker J. The Targums and Rabbinic Literature: An Introduction to Jewish Interpretation of Scripture. Cambridge, 1969. 5. Chester A.N. (1986) Divine Revelation an Divine Titles in the Pentateuchal Targumim, Texte und Studien zum Antiken Judentum (Tubingen). 6. Cumont F. Die Misterien des Mitra. Darmstadt, 1963. 7. Debel H. (2010) Greek "Variant Literary Editions" to the Hebrew Bible?, JJS 41, 161-190. 8. Feldman L. H. Josephus’ Interpretation of the Bible. Detroit, 1996. 9. Fredenthal J. Alexander Poligistor und die von ihm erhaltene erste jüdischer Geschichtswerke. Breslau, 1874-1875. 10. Geiger A. Was hat Mahammed aus dem Judenthum aufgenommen? Leipzig, 1900. 11. Ginzberg L. The Legends of the Jews. Philadelphia, 1968. 12. Inowlowsky S. (2005). Neither adding nor omitting anything’: Josephus’ Promise not to modify the Scriptures in Greek and Latin context, JJS 56, 48-65 13. Kaufman Y. Religiia Drevnego Izrailia.[Religion of ancient Israel]. Bibleiskie issledovaniia. Sbornik statei. Sostavitel B. Shwarts. [Bible researches. The collection of articles. Comp. B.Schwarz]. Moscow, 1997. 14. Leoni T. (2009).The text of Josephus’s works: an Overview, JSJ 40, 149-184. 15. Lewy J. (1946). Latomus σαββω und σαββαττωσις, Zion 5. 16. Philipson L.M. Ezechiel und Philo. Berlin, 1830. 17. Ranke L. Weltgeschichte. Leipzig, 1883. 18. Rappaport S. Haggadah und Exegese bei Flavius Josephus. Wien, 1930. 19. Scheller M. Clotta. XXXIV. Berlin, 1955. 20. Shinan A. The World of Aggadah. Tel-Aviv, 1990. 21. Smirnov A. Messianskie ozhidaniia I verovaniia iudeev okolo vrem’en Iisusa Khrista (ot Makkaveiskikh voin do razrusheniia Ierusalima riml’anami. [Messianic expectations and beliefs of Jews of times of Jesus Christ (from Maccabean wars before destruction of Jerusalem by Romans)]. Kazan, 1899. 22. Stern P. (2010). "Life of Josephus": The Autobiography of Flavius Josephus’, JSJ 41, 63-93. 23. Ulmer R. (2010). The Egyptian Gods in Midrashic Text, HTR103:2, 181-204. 24. Ulrich E.C. The Qumran Scrolls and the Biblical text, Dead Sea Scroll Fifty Years after Their Discovery: Proceeding of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997 .Jerusalem: The Israel Exploration Society, 2000. 25. Yungerov P. Otzyv o sochinenii protoiereia Alekseia Smirnovapod zaglaviiem "Messianskie ozhidaniia I verovaniia iudeev okolo vrem’en Iisusa Khrista (ot Makkaveiskikh voin do razrusheniia Ierusalima riml’anami" [Review of the composition of Protoierei Alexey Smirnov under the title Messianic expectations and beliefs of Jews of times of Jesus Christ (from Maccabean wars before destruction of Jerusalem by Romans)]. Kazan, 1899. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Julia G. Matushanskaya. «Jewish Antiquities» as Hellenistic Targum "Иудейские древности" как эллинистический таргум Ю.Г. Матушанская Казанский национальный инновационный технологический университет Россия, 420015, Казань, ул. К. Маркса, 60 В данной статье автор исследует специфику текста древнееврейского историка Иосифа Флавия (I в. н. э.) "Иудейские древности" в сравнении с другими древними текстами, такими как Библия, Мидраши, Талмуд, тексты древнегреческих и римских авторов. Цель работы – проанализировать взаимосвязь структуры текста Иосифа Флавия с его историкокультурным контекстом. В качестве метода работы автор избрал культурологический, философский и лингвистический анализ текста "Иудейских древностей". В результате автор выявил взаимосвязь метода подачи материала в данной книге с традицией раввинистического комментированного перевода (таргума). Однако сам комментарий соответствует правилам и нормам античной историографии, что позволяет классифицировать "Иудейские древности" Иосифа Флавия как "эллинистический таргум". Ключевые слова: таргум, Иосиф Флавий, Мидраш, Мишна, Библия. Научная специальность: 24.00.00 – культурология. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1734-1737 ~~~ УДК 82-14 Philosophical Lyrics in the Poetry of Vasily Lebedev Antonina A. Vinokurova* North-Eastern Federal University in Yakutsk 58 Belinskiy Str, Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), 677980, Russia Received 24.03.2014, received in revised form 18.04.2014, accepted 19.08.2014 This article analyzes the philosophical lyrics of Lebedev’s poems. Lebedev’s poems are imbued with philosophical thoughts. In the creative work of Lebedev we have identified about 20 poems of philosophical lyrics, the themes of which are very diverse: in these verses the poet reflects on life, the past, the future, the purpose of life, death. Keywors: philosophical lyrics, poetry, Vasily Lebedev, the life, the death, the image. Research area: 24.00.00 – culture studies. Studying the peculiarities of the creative process and the product of creation, Iu.B. Borev distinguishes the following components: reality – author – creative process; text- artistic reality and semantics (art concept) – reception [1; 456]. Among lyrical genres, researchers distinguish civil, philosophical, intimate and pastoral poetry, insisting on the fact that different forms of the lyric genre are mainly based on the "thematic principle". L. Bodrova, L. Timofeev and A. Bandura use the term "genre" to refer to a literature class. In his theory of poetry, G.N. Pospelov considers the ratio of the expressive and imitative origins to be the leading principle of classification of lyric genres [7, 108]. Vasily Lebedev was recognized and became famous as an outstanding Even poet. His multifaceted creative personality was vividly revealed in the field of science. He made it into history * of the native people, as the first Even scientist, candidate (Ph.D.) of philological sciences. The originality of the artistic worldview of the indigenous peoples of the North is their firm belief that not only bodies of family and friends contain human life, but also all things created by the human. Vasily Lebedev’s poetics demonstrates this syncretism in the native language with great artistic expression. For example, in the poem "Unta" (Mukluks), the girl’s footwear is endowed with special beauty: Хэрэчэлкэн, нисалкан Beaded Осал унтав тэттыди  Mukluks out of skins, dressed D.E. Vasil’eva, considering Lebedev’s poetry, wrote that "the lyrical protagonist in the works by Vasily Lebedev is diverse and extensive. He is a man with active life position, not a common contemplator. His reflections on the meaning © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1734 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Antonina A. Vinokurova. Philosophical Lyrics in the Poetry of Vasily Lebedev of life, the high destiny of the human, the place of the poet in the labour ranks are deep and philosophical" [2, 82]. The young years pass, as the winds, the poet compares these years to the season, calling them spring. The lyrical protagonist reflects on his past life and asks himself what else he can do: Хатарнюн Мэргэму илэ-вул My thoughts Нөсэгчэн бидеку инэңил Аркакан ңэринчин. Get brighter My young days, Хунңэгчин дэгникэн ңэнрисэн Like the wind, have passed by. Бининву нэлкэнин тачин-да елтэнни, My life-spring is over Яв-дакич онңаву эмэнин. How much do I still have to do? Хи, хунңэ, дэтлэди он эчэс хорукан, Wind, why have not you taken away Тэгэлэ өгэски он эчэс хөрукэн? To the faraway aether, why have not you taken with you? Төгэми биниву нэлкэнин елтэнни [ 3]. Thus my life-spring has passed. [А.V.] The author reflects on the years of his childhood overcoming the cold, he uses metaphorical images "have tasted the icy cold": куңарапу елтэнни, / Анңанил ңэнритэн/ Иңэньси гилсиван/ Амтаникан исурив. The bygone life of the Evens, according to the thoughts of Vasily Lebedev, got stuck in the rocks: өси бини тэгэлгэн/ кадаралдула набганча. Thoughts about the days gone by, we find in the poems "Анңанил" (Years), "Хупкучэк уркэлэн" (At the door of the school), "Дэтлэлкэн инэңил" (Winged Days), «Тинив би» (Yesterday I). Through the prism of native wildlife, Vasily Lebedev reveals his state of soul. The lyrical protagonist in the poem "Хоч хинмач" (Very Fast) has the opposite feelings, when a pine branch gets interwoven with the darkness, then it's hard for him to think about anything, and when the star shines in the sky, then his soul brightens. Мэргэму Дёмкаттай ургэлрэн. Өгилэ Осикат хурамран. Тэгэлэ With darkness My thoughts Have got heavier Somewherer up high A star is twinkling Somewhere faraway In his work «Колата гөндэтэн» (Let Them Say That I Drink) we observe conflicting opinions about the essence of life: колата, кэнели гөндэтэн, биниву дюлдэлэв, хирэңчин гиркуттэн – let them say that I drink, I'm bad, there are obstacles waiting for ahead in life, ай бэй, як аин гөндэтэн, бэй-нюн-дэ гэрбэлэн төр ойдун тэгэтчим – let them say that I'm good, I'm the best, I will live this life with dignity. Vasily Lebedev’s favorite landscape is his native Verkhoyansk Mountains, therefore, thinking about life, he compares бинив удян – his life: нөкикэңчин ңунэнчин – with a tight arrow, мавуткаңчин хумбуңчин – with the movement of the lasso, горла хордин,/ даваччин,/ асундакит гуду тору ойчияччин- obstacles of life – with the mountains. S.M. Petrova in her reflection on the poem "Этикэр" (Old Men), writes that "the old men have got close with the nature around them and have become a part of it" [6, 70]. Here the poet shows the life of a man on land in a peculiar way. Youth is fast as the wind, and old age means respect, and therefore the poet describes the old men with great respect. Philosophical comprehension is accompanied by a leisurely pace, the author uses repetition; description of peace the poet transmits using the word хумкэттэ – whisper, they whisper to the forest, to the mountain top, to the coloured meadows, to the blue flowers, to the white swans, to the sky, to the sun. The theme of fortitude is demonstrated in the poem "Иңэнь төр бэиңдин" (If You Think You # 1735 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Antonina A. Vinokurova. Philosophical Lyrics in the Poetry of Vasily Lebedev Are a Northerner). Using an annular construction of the strophe, Vasily Lebedev draws attention to the fact, how to live this life with dignity: be persistent, like a rock – кадар урэмэк маң били, your thoughts should be transparent, like a spring flower – кунтэк ойлан герси нөчэ/ Урэмэкэн дёлбэр оли, as a stream from which a bird is drinking – чивкачан колаңкан/ биракчан мөгчинни. The poet in his works shares his thoughts of being, of human destiny. Poet asks the eternal philosophical questions in his poem "Як гэрбэн тэгэлгэн?" (What Is Life?). Here we see the argument about life, about his own experiences, how to live this life. The poem consists of 9 equal triplets, each first line begins with a question, every second line contains an answer and the third one contains an imperative sentence. For example: Як гэрбэн тэгэлгэн? What is life? Эвикэ. A game. in Lebedev’s poems. In the poem "Ок ут-та төр долан ирэку" (Once Upon a Time I Will Be in the Ground), we see a kind of attitude to passing away ок-ут-та төр долан ирэку – by that time, when I will be in the ground. The lyrical protagonist reflects on how young people will be asking what he has written about, after reading the poem? The protagonist of the poem gives the answer to this question being confident that his life is truly reflected in his works. Ок-ут-та төр долан ирэку Once upon a time I will be in the ground Гөндэну төрэму Дуктаңнав эмэбдин. And the words I said Will remain written down. Нөсэгчэр дукатлав After reading my poems Таңникан улгимдир: Young people will ask: -Ями-тка адыкун бичэмдэс, -His life Бидэкен тэгэлгэн Он эсни ичумсэ, Seems insufficient As if we don't see everything Хаван-кка дяйча-гу, яча-гу? Таракам, хотэлрэ хоч аич! Seems like he has hidden something? Then have a lot of fun with it! Often we find thoughts about enlightened life. For example, in the poem "Хупкутчэ" (Knowledge): хупкуттэй эдэй би одамса, нөлтэнкэ ңэримэн эрэгэр бодамсам – I want to continue to learn, to laways follow the bright sunbeams. Meditations devoted to eternity, are frequent. For example, in the poem "Музейла" (At the Museum) the protagonist reflects on the future: тэгэлгэн бинивэн гөниклэн/ хояв би унуңа туркурэм – when I think about life / there is much I don’t understand; Мин бинив удярман хакурин одакан мингэчин урална туркудир – тачикан горалдин – when the road of my life will end / other like me will also think about eternity. In lyrical and philosophical interpretation of the world, an important place is occupied by the theme of death, which is deeply national Таракам Later on Бисиву тэгэлгэн The life I’ve lived Битлэдув барагдин илканди . Will truly anser for me. [А. V.] Turning to the shaman theme in Lebedev’s works demonstrates religious views of the people. Thus, the protagonist of the poem "Миргилан" – shaman Gurguli – during his shamanistic has a flight through three worlds and the author depicts it with the following words «дэ5сэн бисни ньааниндулин" – his wings have touched the Heaven, "hяңан олда оодьиди/ наманьдялбу давлиндан" – having turned into a burbot/ he swam across seas, "кадарал-да, куунтэкэл/ дьээрэлникэн еелтэңчир" – rocks and meadows we passed by. Vasily Lebedev combined the originality of thinking of a scientist and the imagery of a poet. # 1736 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Antonina A. Vinokurova. Philosophical Lyrics in the Poetry of Vasily Lebedev The latter spiritualized the fi rst one. Therefore, his translations from his native language into Russian were peculiar due to the poetic features and scientific preciseness at the same time. The analysis of the poet’s philosophical poetry leads us to the conclusion that Vasily Lebedev is a poet-thinker, in his poetry various philosophical categories are originally interpreted. Joyous philosophical poetry of the poet helps the reader to hope for the best, to fill his/her life with the spirit of dignity, pride, courage, nobility. It should be noted, that in Lebedev’s philosophical lyrics the issue of environmental and ethical-moral relationship between the human, environment and society is disclosed. References 1. Borev, Iu.B. Teoriia literatury. Tom IV. Literaturnyi protsess [Theory of Literature. Volume IV. Literary process]. Moscow, Institute of World Literature RAS, "Nasledie", 2001. 624 p. 2. Vasil’eva, D.E. Sviaz’ vremen. Sbornik statei [Connection of Times. Collection of Articles] / illustrations by Skiabin S.S. Yakutsk: Publishing House, 1991. 120 p. 3. Lebedev, V. Омчэни: Дентур/ V. Lebedev. Yakutsk: Нека торэнэн книга издательстван, 1963. 68 p. 4. Lebedev, V. Хиги огални/ V. Lebedev. Yakutsk: Нека төрэңэн книга издательстван, 1965. 88 p. 5. Lebedev, V. Дялбу төрэңнэтэн/ V. Lebedev. Yakutsk: Нека торэнэн книга издательстван, 1968. 64 p. 6. Petrova, S.M. Evenkiiskaia literature v shkolakh Respubliki Sakha (Iakutii) [The Even Literature in Schools of the Republic Sakha (Yakutia)]. Textbook – Saint Petersburg: Department of the Publishing house "Prosveshchenie", 1994. P. 66-84. 7. Pospelov, G.N. Teoriia literatury: uchebnik dlia studentov [Theory of Literature: Textbook for Students] / G.N. Pospelov, 1983. 112 p. Философская лирика в поэзии В. Лебедева А.А. Винокурова Северо-Восточный федеральный университет имени М.К. Аммосова Россия, 677000, Республика Саха (Якутия), Якутск, ул. Белинского, 58 В данной статье анализируется философская лирика поэзии В. Лебедева. Лебедевские стихи пронизаны философскими раздумьями. В творчестве В. Лебедева нами выявлено около 20 стихотворений философской лирики, тематика которой весьма разнообразна: в этих стихах поэт размышляет о жизни, о прошлом, о будущем, о предназначении жизни, о смерти. Ключевые слова: философская лирика, поэзия, Василий Лебедев, жизнь, смерть, образ. Научная специальность: 24.00.00 – культурология. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1738-1742 ~~~ УДК 811.512.212 Some Features of the Language of Verkhnekolymsky Evens Sardana I. Sharina* North-Eastern Federal University in Yakutsk 58 Belinskiy Str, Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), 677980, Russia Received 05.04.2014, received in revised form 21.05.2014, accepted 17.08.2014 The paper attempts to identify some of the features of the language of the Verkhnekolymsky Even people, which have not been previously described in the scientific publications. Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect demonstrates along with the typical for western sub-dialects differences some peculiar grammatical features that are not typical for other Even dialects. This fact should be taken into account when this sub-dialect is attributed to certain dialects. Keywords: the Even language, dialects and sub-dialects, Verkhnekolymsky subdialect, features. Research area: 24.00.00 – culture studies. Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect is spoken by the Evens living in Verkhnekolymsky District of Yakutia. In existing classifications this linguistic formation was first distinguished as individual one only in 2004 by A.A. Burykin, who gave it the name "Verkhnekolymsky dialect" (Burykin: 76). Verkhnekolymsky District has still not been thoroughly examined by Even studies researchers, specialists in dialectology. Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect is not observed in the Even language studies and no publication has referred to any texts and samples of everyday speech, or has contained at least the materials in the form of illustrative examples, characteristic for Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect. In March 2014 the author participated in the expedition of the Institute of Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North * SB RAS (Yakutsk) and was able to work in Verkhnekolymsky ulus of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The main purpose of the expedition was to collect materials of Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect of the Even language, and, if it was possible, to record the Even folklore, typical of this region of Yakutia. During the expedition there were recorded samples of everyday speech, dialogue, narrative texts; there were made records of lexical items and phrasal examples with them; there was clarified the meaning of individual word forms. Unfortunately, it turned out not possible to fix the folklore materials. The informants, with whom the expedition worked, were old and elderly people: the youngest of the native language speakers was over 60 years old, the oldest – was about 80. The young © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1738 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sardana I. Sharina. Some Features of the Language of Verkhnekolymsky Evens Evens do not speak and are not able to speak and understand their mother tongue. Total 4715 people live in Verkhnekolymsky District, the number of the Even people there is 72 (1.5 % of the total population). According to our informants, in Verkhnekolymsky District the Even language is spoken only by about 10 people (13.8 %). The Even language as a subject is taught in 2 schools, where 23 pupils study the Even language. During the sampling survey conducted in March 2014, the author revealed the following results. The main language used by the respondents for communication was the Yakut language. However, the majority of respondents stressed out that in their preschool years the Even language also was their language of communication. The participants evaluate the degree of their Even language skills ambiguously, pointing out the absence of language environment, lack of knowledge of folklore and so on. Thus, Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect belongs from a sociolinguistic point to one of the most disadvantaged dialects of the Even language. Therefore, the documentation of its materials is strikingly important for linguistic sciences. The results of the work with the informants, Verkhnekolymsky District residents, allow making conclusions about the main characteristic features of Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect. The main phonetic features of Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect include the following peculiarities: 1) There were spotted partly spirant sounds, a lack of such a sound-type as [c] and a presence of pharyngeal consonant [h] in some words: уhи "rope", биhитэн "are situated", эhэм утулда "I don’t understand". However, the speech of informants revealed also the contrary fact, the middle and the end parts of some words save the sound-type [c]: аси "a woman", бисэн "is situated", көсчидэй "to pasture deer", далси "tasty", авса "a bag", hас "you know". The Western subdialects demonstrate the full spirant character in all positions of the pharyngeal consonant [h]. 2) There was recorded a very interesting final metathesis of -с and a vowel in a last syllable: бөксэ "ice", эксэ "fish scales" (the Eastern subdialects have correspondingly: бөкэс, экэс, the Western: бөhкэ, эhкэ). This option was not found in other dialects and sub-dialects. 3) As typical of all Western dialects, there was noted the coronal sound [d] after sonorant consonants: улдэ (in Eastern sub-dialects – улрэ) "meat", нанда (in Eastern sub-dialects – нанра) "animal skin". 4) The described dialect, as other subdialects of Yakutia Evens, exhibits a very bright reduction ("ы" pronunciation) of vowels [а], [э]. According to our data, in Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect the reduced vowels [ǎ] and [ě] are characterized by the fact that the vowel [э] has a more frontal articulation than the back [а], i.e. leading factor here is the position of the tongue in the back or in the front: Verkhnekolymsky Literary Meaning амǎн амън father гиркǎддǎн гиркаддън steps тарǎкǎм таракъм then The vowel [э] as pronounced in Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect sounds in all positions as ы mixed vowel. Verkhnekolymsky Literary Meaning ěмěр эмър sharp ěрěгěр эрэгър always бěргě бэргъ greasy 5) The sub-dialect shows coming out (syncope) and falling (apocope) short vowels in non-initial syllables. This is due to the formation of simple and compound words such as: оран "a deer" – ор½ич "from a deer", муран "a horse" – мур½ич "from a horse", тэти "a coat" – тэттэй "to put on a coat". The apocope is observed in the # 1739 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sardana I. Sharina. Some Features of the Language of Verkhnekolymsky Evens formation of compound words: эррөчин "yonder" from эр "this" + урэчин "similar"). In the morphological area this sub-dialect is also characterized by certain features. The most remarkable morphological peculiarity is the only one form of the first person plural мут "we" (so this is in all Western subdialects). The next peculiarity is the absence of separate forms of possessive pronouns of the first and second persons, instead of which the personal pronouns are used, as in the example: Би абагабу аманни, энинни иланмяр оралкан нулгибатти эбэн бэилни бичэл. "A father, a mother of my grandfather were nomadic Evens with thirty deer". hи гяс нёка гу? "Is your husband a Yakut?" The plural forms of the word stem types оран, муран are co-accompanied by truncation of the final [н] in the stem: ора-л "deer", мура-л "horses". In the sub-dialect allative-locative case and allative-prosecutive cases are uncommon, instead of them postposition constructions are used: Оралчим½ал окат hолилин нулгуччэл. "Once deer herders roamed along the river bank". Typical of some Western sub-dialects metathesis for possessive forms of the second and third person plural –hын~-hнын, – тын ~ тнын were not found in this sub-dialect. This sub-dialect presents both determinative forms бэйди and мэнкэн "myself, ourselves", displaying personal excluding meaning, indicating a direct participation in the action of the speaker. However, in the speech of the informants the first form was the most often, for example: Би бэйди hа½анаддам. "I saw myself". Би бэйди мэлэ хэдеврэм. "I just sing хэде myself". Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect there was detected a model of the second ten numerals containing postposition ойдун "over". The model is constructed as follows: мян ойдун өмэн "eleven" (literally "ten, over one"); мян ойдун дöр "twelve" (literally "ten, over two"); мян ойдун илан "thirteen" (literally "ten, over three"), etc. This method of forming the second ten numerals is characteristic of the dialects in Indigirka River Basin (Western dialects). The sub-dialect registers augmentative and diminutive forms of collective numerals, which are used for additional estimation of the objects being counted: илничэмэн "all three", илниндевэн "whole three", дыгничэмэн "all four", дыгниндеван "whole four" and so on and so forth. Distributive numerals together with conventional forms as илатал "in three, by three", дыгэтэл "in four, by four" have additional forms of илаталди, дигэтэлди. The second person singular verbs of present and future tenses in the Even language have a personal suffix -нри, in Verkhnekolymsky subdialect this personal suffix has the form of -нни, for example: о½анни "you will become", бисинни "you are". In this dialect the second person plural verbs of present and future tenses are formed by means of a personal suffix -c, for example: hа-с "you know", hөр-ди-с "you will leave", whereas in Western sub-dialects instead of [с] sound type the pharyngeal consonant [h] is used. In Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect the verb has the following features. In this sub-dialect the predominant expression of the past tense is in the forms of the past participle with the suffix -ча-/-чэ- and personal possessive suffixes, at the same time the forms of the third person singular and plural have no personal indicators and plural forms have the suffix of number –л, as in the example: эмчэс "you (sg) came", эмчэлсэн "you (pl) came", эмчэ "he came", эмчэл "they came". In the informants’ speech there were also such forms of the past tense, ending on –ри: улэлэрив "I worked", мудакрив "I finished", эмритэн "they arrived". # 1740 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sardana I. Sharina. Some Features of the Language of Verkhnekolymsky Evens The present tense third person singular from the word stems ending with the vowel makes a form бөн "gives" (in Eastern dialects бөрэн), the past tense – бөчэ "gave". In the second person singular forms of the fi rst imperative mood of the verb with the fi nal consonant -н the consonant of the word stem is omitted, as in the example: гө-ли "tell", cf. и-ли "enter". Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect has the fi rst person plural forms of the fi rst imperative mood of the verb with the suffi x -галда/-гэлдэ, e.g.: hэдегэлдэ "let’s dance хэде", некэлдэ "let’s do". The second person plural forms of the fi rst imperative mood of the verb have two parallel variations -лда/-лдэ and -лилда/-лилдэ, e.g., гөлдэ and гөлилдэ "tell!". Despite this, two given variations do not have any semantic difference. The mediopassive voice forms, which are formed from the verb by adding the suffix -б-//-п, e.g., бэридэй "to lose" – бэриптэй "to get lost", бактай "to find" – бакаптай "to be found", эмэндэй "to leave" – эмэптэй "to be left" are used more actively than the similar forms in Eastern dialects, besides the mediopassive voice forms are presented not only in the personal forms of verbs, but also in participle and adverbial forms. Among the forms of duration/repetition of action in the dialect active the forms -гра-/грэ-//-гара-/-гэрэ-//-½ра-/½рэ- are particularly common: укчэндэй "to tell once" – укчэнгэрэдэй "to tell repeatedly", хэдедэй "to dance once" – хэденгэрэдэй "to dance repeatedly". The examples are: Хэйэк улдэвэн эстэ дебгэрэр. "Bear meat is not eaten". Чукачан икэмутэн долчими, би hоч – hоч өрэ½чигрэрэм. "Listening to bird singing, I admire very very much". Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect, unlike other Western dialects has rather frequent forms expressing conventional action and ending with –ват/-вэт: нюмариваттам "I am (usually) ashamed of", төрэвэттэ "they (usually) say". Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect has the form –йат/-йэт, close in its meaning to the suffix of the usual form –ват/-вэт, but expressing some kind of emotion, showing sympathy for the subject of the performed action. This form was not observed in the grammatical descriptions and special studies, but according to our observations, it is found in the sub-dialects of both Eastern and Western dialects (Sharina: 66). Let’s draw an example: Э½эе, ай бэй о½анни гөникэн hиргэчэл, гудеил, тарит hөрйатчал. "You will be a rich, good man, saying, they wished some blessings, poor, then left". Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect has also rather frequent form of simultaneous adverbial with the suffix -никан/-никэн. In the sub-dialect this adverbial does not tend to distinguish between the forms of number, functioning in the singular form in the status of uninfected adverbials. The reason for this phenomenon is not completely clear, but we can assume that it may be due to the influence of the Yakut language, for example: Уйбаан эньми нямичаман туhут hэпкэниди, бөчэ. "Ivan (lured) caught mother-deer with salt, and gave". Анипчал улдэ½ур инникан hөрдэвур бэлэмнэччэл. "(Their) presented meat, leaving, prepared to wear on the back". Moreover, Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect has form of simultaneous different subject adverbial with the suffix -½си-, e.g.: Ку½а би½сиву эвэдыт төрэгрэрив. "When I was a child, I spoke Even". Дялбу биhи½ситэн нулгэни½сит. "When the parents were alive, they roamed". Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect does not trace the participle of (passé immédiat) past tense with the sufix -мат/-мэт and the participle of the past perfect tense with the suffix -тла/-тлэ. Any particular features of adverbs as parts of speech are not discernible in this sub-dialect. Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect does not contain dialectisms in its lexicon, found in farWestern dialects, however, the speech of some # 1741 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Sardana I. Sharina. Some Features of the Language of Verkhnekolymsky Evens informants had the word нолима "sled". There were also used words that are not marked in dictionaries, for example: дянтан "burns". In addition, Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect has quite many borrowings from the Yakut language. Thus, judging by the sources of the material one can notice that Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect of the Even language shows some differences from those linguistic formations, which are known in the literature as Eastern and Western dialects. The above mentioned differences and peculiarities are as if between Eastern and Western dialects, and must be taken into account when this sub-dialect is attributed to the linguistic formation under the name "the middle sub-dialect". Further research here can give new, more comprehensive and reliable data, not only in relation to the sub-dialect spread, but also for the existing classification. References 1. Burykin, A.A. Iazyk malochislennogo naroda v ego pis’mennoi forme (na materiale evenskogo iazyka) [The language of small-numbered peoples in its writing form (on the material of the Even language)]. St. Petersburg: Peterbugskoe Vostokovedenie, 2004, 384 p. 2. Dutkin, Kh.I. Allaikhovskii govor evenov Iakutii [Allaikhovsky sub-dialect of the Evens in Yakutia]. St. Petersburg: Nauka, 1995, 144 p. 3. Kuz’mina, R.P. Iazyk lamunkhiskikh evenov [The language of the Lamunhinsky Evens]. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2010, 113 p. 4. Lebedev, V.D. Iazyk evenov Iakutii [The language of the Evens in Yakutia]. Leningrad: Nauka, 1978, 208 p. 5. Sharina, S.I. Kategoriia kolichestvennosti v evenskom iazyke [The quantitative category in the Even language]. St. Petersburg: Publishing House of St. Petersburg University, 1999, 115 p. Некоторые особенности языка верхнеколымских эвенов С.И. Шарина Северо-Восточный федеральный университет имени М.К. Аммосова Россия, 677000, Республика Саха (Якутия), Якутск, ул. Белинского, 58 В статье предпринята попытка выявления некоторых особенностей языка верхнеколымских эвенов, которые не были отмечены ранее в публикациях исследователей. Наряду с характерными для говоров западного наречия отличиями при детальном рассмотрении обнаруживаются и грамматические особенности, нетипичные для других эвенских диалектов, что должно быть учтено при отнесении данного говора к определенным наречиям. Ключевые слова: эвенский язык, диалекты и говоры, верхнеколымский говор, особенности. Научная специальность: 24.00.00 – культурология. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1743-1750 ~~~ УДК 304.4 Features and Modern Trends in the Development of Museums within the System of Higher Education Alexandra Yu. Gil* National Research Tomsk State University 36 Lenin, Tomsk, 634050, Russia Received 10.04.2014, received in revised form 21.05.2014, accepted 21.08.2014 The specificity of museums within the system of higher education lies in a unique combination of museum functions in conjunction with the scientific problems of a research institution. The absence of a clear boundary between the process of learning, the research process and the actual activities of the museum is a unique factor in the process of preparing highly qualified specialists of high school. As an important part of the educational and scientific process museums of higher education have an impact on the socio-cultural development of the region, bringing science to society, culture, and historical interpretation, acquiring the value of a multi-level learning space, a community center with the interaction of various spheres of cultural life. There are enough emerging large-scale projects and programs based on new communication and management technologies that are supported at the national level, but striving to go beyond a certain state in order to improve access to the cultural heritage stored in the collections of university museums around the world. An example is the interdisciplinary study of the collections of university museums in Germany, web organization – POMUI in Italy, a system of regular updates of relevant scientific data and replicating the videos in various educational institutions (USA). Another vector of the modern development of the university museum gives direction to work with visitors, covering interests of various categories and groups, the principle of a multi-layer display. Today, university museums, which are inextricably geographically and ideologically linked with universities, go beyond the campus environment through the use of modern information and technology expositions. In this context, the university museum is unique in its versatility and availability of space for research and education. Keywords: museum, network organization, multifunctionality of university museums, informational support, new means of communication, management technologies. Research area: 24.00.00 – culture studies. Today, when the world community is transforming social and cultural space with the introduction of new means of communication into the everyday reality, the social significance of museums of higher education is being redefined * in the light of the training of specialists in various fields of activity. As museums occupy a significant place in the system of higher education, being an important part of the educational and scientific process, they create prerequisites for © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org # 1743 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra Yu. Gil. Features and Modern Trends in the Development of Museums within the System of Higher Education the development of a network of university museums, as well as contribute to the awareness of the need of interaction between museums. In addition, the relevance of the inter-museum university space is conditioned by the factor of growing influence of university museums in the academic and scientific processes of society, as well as the definition and the impact of space on the socio-cultural development of the region as a whole. The specificity of university museums lies in the synthesis of museum functions in conjunction with scientific problems of a research institution. The result is that there is a new knowledge based on empirical evidence of the seriousness of the theoretical basis. The uniqueness of this synthesis is that this knowledge gives a true (not distorted) perception of the object of study, excludes fraud and falsification of facts, historical interpretation in terms of education and scientific research. This feature is most relevant in the era of dominance of large amounts of information of different levels and content. Understanding of the subject matter of the collection, its interconnections, theoretical training of a museum worker carries a great level of responsibility on the employees and managers of the modern university museums for safety, quality and contextual description of the cultural heritage to an audience of young researchers, the scientific community and the ordinary visitor. Another feature of the university museum is the lack of a clear boundary between the process of learning, the research process and the actual activities of the museum. This specificity has historical roots. The first information on the establishment of the university museum refers to 1685, when the Oxford Ashmolean Museum opened a permanent exhibition to the public. Ashmolean Museum was the first successful model of the museum-laboratory, which gained acceptance in almost every university in Europe. Collections, which served as the basis for its creation, including the naturalist John Tradescant collection, were donated to the University by Elias Ashmole in 1677. Receiving the gift of armchair collections, antiques, coins and other antiquities was typical of universities and colleges up to the 17th century. The formation of such gifts of systematic collections related to specific disciplines, laid the foundation for the later establishment of a number of major university museums, which served not only the training function, but also had value for research. These include Sedgwick Museum, University of Cambridge (1727), The Hunterian Museum at the University of Glasgow (1807), Manchester Museum (1888), and numerous less significant collections. European universities were the fi rst to establish their own museums. In this case, the impetus for their creation was the necessity for teaching and research collections, which can be used in various fields, especially in the natural sciences, anthropology and classical archeology. Over the centuries of its existence, many old museums, as well as younger universities around the world have collected tens of millions of items. These rich collections are usually stored in special facilities and are not only priceless heritage of world culture, but actively working and constantly growing database that allows you to organize the training of highly qualified personnel in different areas of knowledge. Support and openness of the database depends on the university museum: an established cooperation between the universities and museums, based on the rich experience of cooperation, expressed itself in the implementation of joint training, research, exhibitions and other projects, the availability of qualified personnel able to provide training, the presence of the university skilled and material resources for the teaching # 1744 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra Yu. Gil. Features and Modern Trends in the Development of Museums within the System of Higher Education of foreign languages, information technology, management, marketing and other necessary modern specialist subjects, the presence of unique museum exhibits and conditions for practical mastering the fundamentals of a particular field of activity. Accordingly, a high school museum is an educational and scientific, research and educational unit of the university, whose main task – taking part in the training of specialists and to improve the forms and methods of teaching and research and education work that promotes the transfer of knowledge concentrated in the expositions, forming a world view of the researcher. As a result educational work becomes an essential element of the modern museum communication. The openness of the modern educational system, a variety of educational programs can be used in an educational museum during non-traditional forms and methods of teaching, to introduce the study of individual disciplines within the framework of a supplementary and basic education. Given the specificity of educational programs, university museums are seamlessly integrated into the educational structure and have the opportunity to represent and develop new courses and forms of learning that not only reflect the results of scientific research, but also for skilled expositions can learn a variety of opinions and approaches, interpretations, discussion points and alternative hypotheses. Prospects for the development of museums of higher education are closely related to changes in the image of museums, with their transformation into a social institution that stores and provides the necessary information. Computerization of museum activities can be a powerful factor in the preservation of cultural and historical heritage of the individual provinces and regions. It is able to improve some aspects of university museums, improve their social status in general, and to strengthen the teaching and educational function in the training of specialists in various fields of science. Current trends and priorities for the development of museums in higher education are the development of innovative methods of work, which include: the introduction of computer and information technologies in the museum space, professional publishing work, the publication of scientific catalogs that allow for greater access to the historical and cultural heritage of the region, the integration into a single science museums and educational space on the basis of regional historical, cultural and natural components. New ways of working are designed to direct the activities of the modern museum in the mainstream of contemporary social and cultural changes in society. As the modern understanding of the functions of the museum is complemented by new forms of museum communication, which do not preclude its traditional components. The museum activities are being expanded, using new means of communication and control, allowing to be plunged into the wonderful world of real things, "reviving" the history and culture of the new target audience, consolidating its status as a laboratory for scientists, apprentices for teachers, modern museum for the visitor. The need to use new forms of communication and presentation of collections for different target audiences, for both: the scientific community and the ordinary visitor, is dictated by trends in the global cultural space. The involvement of university museums in this process is the most relevant, because they contain unique socio-cultural artifacts and scientific activities. Museum collections at universities reflect existing in the school research directions and tutorials. The result is that certain university museums have collections that are beginning to excel similar gatherings of other museums in their entirety and the scientific component. For example, the University of Pavia (Italy) contains # 1745 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra Yu. Gil. Features and Modern Trends in the Development of Museums within the System of Higher Education a collection on physics, collected by Professor Alessandro Volta. The University of Amsterdam has a medical collection gathered by professors of Vrolik family. At the University of Oklahoma there is a collection on the history of science, which is part of the library of the University, which houses 87 thousand volumes published since the 15th century to the present day. In this collection there are also biographies of scientists and various illustrative materials on the history of science and reprint reproductions of original research papers. Taking into account the importance of university museums for scientific, historical, cultural community there is a need for the development of programs and projects based mainly on international partner relationships. The improvement of digital technologies is essential for the growth of the cooperation that can bring substantial benefits to many university museums. At the national level, such a partnership is considered to be a priority in improving the accessibility of cultural heritage and in many European countries, supported by the government, which has the potential to universities and mutually beneficial contacts, including local administrative structures, schools and colleges, as well as providing financial support, which in itself is a powerful incentive for the establishment of various partnerships. In addition, in support of this activity of university museums special foundation organizations are being created for joint projects involving research collections, structuring, and promotion of scholarship. Thus, the project of the exhibition from the collection of Petrie Museum became successful in cooperation between the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, and two museums in Croydon and Glasgow. It was a mutually beneficial endeavor for all the parties. The special program gave these museums a unique opportunity to expand the audience through advertisements, marketing and media responses. As a result, a collection of littleknown university was seen by more than ninety thousand people. In addition, in the last decade there is enough large-scale projects and programs through the use of new means of communication and management technologies that are supported at the national level, but striving to go beyond a certain state in order to improve access to the cultural heritage stored in the collections of university museums around the world. An example is the interdisciplinary study of the collections of university museums in Germany. In 2004, a small group of researchers of the Helmholtz Center, Kulturtechniken interdisciplinary center of the Humboldt University in Berlin, created a project of interdisciplinary research of university collections in Germany . This is the ordering of records and documents of three-dimensional models of the German academic collections and their presentation by means of public Internet multimedia databases. The purpose of this project was to catalog and collect data on university collections, as well as to form the basis for research on the history and origin of collections, the history of science and the material culture of the universities. The project was officially completed in 2009. It resulted in a publicly available database, which has free access to more than thousands of university collections in Germany, as well as providing information on the various groups of objects existing in the collections: chemical material, geological, animals, plants, human remains, artifacts, etc. But after that it was followed by a new project "Material models in teaching and research: indexing, documentation and analysis of the models in the collections of universities" (2010) . This project aims at the development and completion of on-line information system that provides information to researchers at the exhibits from various universities and specialties. # 1746 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra Yu. Gil. Features and Modern Trends in the Development of Museums within the System of Higher Education Ordering, registration and documentation of museum objects that are part of the scientific collections, as well as their performance over a public Internet multimedia database is making a constructive contribution to the scientific study of material culture. This model is integrated into an already created information system of university museums and collections in Germany, which gives rise to the creators of the project to identify new targets for the implementation of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of museum objects, and in particular it is planned: by means of the electronic system to provide public access to the cultural heritage stored in private collections; to create a standardized thematic dictionaries for different groups of objects; the development of an integrated information system aimed at a single collection, which will help the museum staff to reduce the time to describe the same type of objects housed in various museums, the creation of an on-line information system connected to the European database (for example, in Europeana, a multi-lingual on-line server with millions of digitized items from European museums, libraries, archives and multi-media collections ). An example of the creation and support of networking based on other principles than in Germany, is a new web organization in Italy – POMUI , which brings together all of the existing web portals and websites of Italian university museums and creates a new connection between them in order to improve their general availability. It is intended to serve as a vehicle for information, knowledge and services, emphasizing the uniqueness of each university, presenting its museums on the Internet. The creators of this project noted the need to transform outdated models of museum communication and the need to comply with the current trends of the information society and globalization, as well as a competitive advantage in the representation of heritage in the use of new means of communication and network organization in the museum industry. According to Italian researchers network cooperation is facilitating access to cultural heritage, as well as to the knowledge and services in the field of culture. Creating a digital network of Italian university museums is relatively simple and practical way to overcome their differences and to promote inter-museum exchanges. POMUI project aims to solve these problems as a horizontal portal, addressed to a wide audience: employees of the museum, museum professionals, students, researchers, scientists, the general public. POMUI serves as a system of access to the cultural heritage of Italy, the collections of university museums, offering participants to create a network of cooperation, dissemination and exchange of historical and cultural, scientific resources intended for the research community. Moreover, POMUI represents a communicative network, as a meeting place for teachers, professors, students, leaders of scientific and cultural institutions, social services. POMUI, a web portal of Italian university museums, creates links between individual institutions and the virtual structure, which is characterized by the uniqueness of the material presented, as well as the ordering of images and centralization of action on the provision of cultural and scientific artifacts. The POMUI creators consider this project as a step towards the creation of a number of interactions across Europe, in particular in the project MICHAEL , which is designed to provide quick and easy access to the digital collections of museums, libraries and archives from different European countries, as well as the project Europeana, which gives the opportunity to explore the digital resources of Europe’s museums, libraries, archives and audio-visual collections and promotes networking in a multilingual space. # 1747 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra Yu. Gil. Features and Modern Trends in the Development of Museums within the System of Higher Education The creation and implementation of such network and electronic projects is being done in many states and countries at different levels. But it is worth noting that the projects are in progress, are being corrected and adjusted. Hence it seems to be promising to develop cooperation and networking between museums communication with the aim of providing access to the world cultural heritage, hidden in university museums. Another vector of the modern development of the university museum gives direction to work with visitors, covering the needs of different categories of the population. Managers of the modern museums are trying to create a special opportunity to interpret the collection, which consists of various formats that meet different level and type of education of people, the exposure gives the impression of something multi-layered and multi-faceted in order to allow the visitor advance from one level to another. Creativity in the use of advanced information and communication technologies creates conditions that ensure the availability of the museum wider audience. The museum not only opens from the point of view of science and education, but shows the formation of culture and the dialogue of cultures. In search of a new model of representation of its rich collections, the staff of the university museums adjusts principles of exposure and selection of a thematic approach. The exposure technology in the information society is connected with the modernization of methods, techniques, methods of museum work on the basis of variability, flexibility, openness to innovation. At the same time, the principle of the need for flexibility in pre-given optimal combination of traditional and innovative elements of the museum in contemporary culture. A specificity of the museum’s form of communication is that the museum exhibition as a model of reality through concrete museum objects conveys not only the facts, but statements, views and attitudes. The present level of exposure as the main form of interaction with the visitor determines the need for new, more effective approaches to improve it, which are shown: a change in the methodology of exposure, based on the so-called conceptual approach or "scenarios", involves the development of both scientific and artistic concept of the submitted material, the active use of audiovisual media in the exhibition, which is a method to enhance the emotional impact that helps a modern human, in everyday life of whom similar agents are actively involved and are accustomed, to adapt to the historical and cultural space of the museum. With rich collections and related exposition centers, having a staff of trained museum educators, natural history museums of universities today are involved in the creation of thematic (system) series of education and training videos. It is therefore sufficient perspective view of their activity (within the association) in the future may be a system for regular updating of relevant scientific data and relevant video information (such systems already exist in the U.S., consumers have access to them by subscription and free). Later the footage which was shot at "museum" studios can be replicated in a variety of educational institutions, as well as used in popular educational television programs. University museums on the basis of their exhibitions actively create traveling exhibits and printed materials, participate in the formation of permanent columns in local papers and special collections of the museum, museum workers conduct educational activities as lectures and teaching, and research work. Today, university museums are inextricably linked geographically and ideologically with universities beyond the campus environment through the use of modern information and technology expositions. Museums in universities acquire not only the status of the scientific # 1748 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra Yu. Gil. Features and Modern Trends in the Development of Museums within the System of Higher Education institution, but also actively participate in the social processes, bringing science to society, culture, and historical interpretation, gaining the value of a multi-layer learning space, community center with the interaction of various spheres of cultural life. In this context, the university museum is unique in its versatility and availability of space for research and education. References 1. Cornelia Weber (2010). Material models as recorders of academic communities: A new project on university collections in Germany University Museums and Collections as Recorders of Cultural and Natural Communities Worldwide. Proceedings of the 10th Conference of the International Committee of ICOM for Universitiy Museaum and Collections (UMAC), Shanghai, China, 7th – 12th November 2010, pp. 65-72. 2. Universitätssammlungen in Deutschland (2012), Available at: www.universitaetssammlungen. de/modelle (accessed 10.09.2012). 3. Evropeana think culture (2012), Available at: www.europeana.eu/portal/ (accessed 10.09.2012). 4. Elena Corradini POMUI. The web portal of Italian university museums. University Museums and Collections as Recorders of Cultural and Natural Communities Worldwide. Proceedings of the 10th Conference of the International Committee of ICOM for Universitiy Museaum and Collections (UMAC), Shanghai, China, 7th – 12th November 2010, pp. 77-84. 5. Michal-culture (2012), Available at: www.michael-culture.org (accessed 12.06.2012). Особенности и современные тенденции в развитии музеев системы высшего образования А.Ю. Гиль Национальный исследовательский Томский государственный университет Россия, 634050, Томск, пр. Ленина, 36 Особенность музеев системы высшего образования заключается в уникальном сочетании музейных функций в совокупности с научной проблематикой научно-исследовательского учреждения. Отсутствие четкой границы между процессом обучения, процессом исследования и собственно музейной деятельностью является уникальным фактором, влияющим на процесс подготовки высококвалифицированных специалистов высшей школы. Являясь важной частью учебного и научного процесса, музеи высшей школы оказывают влияние на социокультурное развитие региона, привнося в развитие общества науку, культуру, историческую интерпретацию, приобретая значение многоуровневого учебного пространства, общественного центра, где происходит взаимодействие различных сфер культурной жизни. Появляются достаточно масштабные проекты и программы на основе использования новых средств коммуникации и управленческих технологий, поддерживаемые на национальном уровне, но стремящиеся выйти за пределы определенного государства с целью повышения доступности культурного наследия, хранящегося в фондах университетских музеев по всему миру. Примером может послужить междисциплинарное # 1749 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Alexandra Yu. Gil. Features and Modern Trends in the Development of Museums within the System of Higher Education исследование коллекций университетских музеев в Германии, веб-организация – POMUI в Италии, система регулярного обновления профильных научных данных и тиражирование видеоматериалов в различные учебные заведения (США). Еще один вектор современного развития университетского музея задает направление в работе с посетителями, охватывающее интересы различных категорий и групп населения, принцип многослойности экспозиции. Сегодня университетские музеи, неразрывно связанные и территориально, и идеологически с университетами, выходят за пределы университетской среды за счет использования современных информационных и экспозиционных технологий. В таком контексте университетский музей становится уникальным по своей многофункциональности и доступности местом для исследовательской и просветительской работы. Ключевые слова: музей, сетевая организация, полифункциональность университетских музеев, информатизация, новые средства коммуникации, управленческие технологии. Научная специальность: 24.00.00 – культурология. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1751-1759 ~~~ УДК 32 Alternative Culture: Tradition and Innovation Larisa A. Korobeynikova* National Research Tomsk State University 36 Lenin, Tomsk, 634050, Russia Received 21.03.2014, received in revised form 16.04.2014, accepted 18.05.2014 Modern knowledge of culture is characterized by a turn to the studying of alternatives of cultural development, forming a plurality of contemporary cultural concepts. The philosophy of cultural alternativism uses the ideas of structural anthropology (M. Foucault). The alternative program requires a change of the development paradigm generated by the scientist culture, declaring the foundation of the cultural project, the future rehabilitation of spontaneity. Environmental ethics, romantic utopia and the technological myth act as a source of utopian and futuristic constructions, therefore in the alternative concepts we may single out three types of constructions: environmental, romantic utopia and technological futurological projects. The ecophilosophy proposes a new type of spirituality, the symbol of which is the "dancing Shiva", a symbol of the deployment of life recreating itself, the integrity of the universe. In the romantic utopias, the idea of the future culture is focused on creating a new type of the culture with an aesthetic-erotic orientation. Technological futurological projects appear in the theory of alternativism not as a continuation of the scientist culture, but as an alternative to the abnormal development of modern science and technology. We are talking about the possibility of a radical change of the civilization and culture as a result of a scientific and technological leap, qualitatively different from the modern scientific and technological development. Keywords: culture, alternative concepts of culture, philosophy of culture. Research area: 24.00.00 – culture studies. Introduction to the Subject Matter of Research pluralist (20–21st centuries) paradigms of cultural European philosophy traditionally distinguishes biological evolution from culture, which is reflected by the opposition of nature and culture (the concept of J. Herder is an exception). The culture is studied as a phenomenon, interrelated with the development of society or civilization that in the theoretical aspect was reflected in the rationalist (18–19), cyclic (end of the 19th century – early 20th century), and * research. The rationalist paradigm (J. Herder, A. Turgot, I. Kant, F. Schelling, G. Hegel) captures the process of linear growth of the culture (in the form of stages, phases, images) related to the complexity of progressive-onward social development. The cyclical approach is based on the concept of non-linearity and discontinuity of historical and cultural processes and interprets the development of socio-cultural formations in the form of a cycle similar to the © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1751 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Korobeynikova. Alternative Culture: Tradition and Innovation development of a living organism. Despite the biological analogy, culture acts as an artificial cyclical structure opposite to nature. In the 20–21 centuries knowledge of the culture evolved from a unified universal monological reconstruction of the cultural universe to the paradigm of varieties. Culture is studied from different perspectives: philosophy of life (W. Dilthey, G. Simmel), phenomenology (E. Husserl), hermeneutics (M. Heidegger, H.-G. Gadamer, J. Habermas, P. Ricoeur), psychoanalysis and post-freudianism (S. Freud, K. Jung, A. Adler, E. Fromm), structuralism and post-structuralism (C. LeviStrauss, M. Foucault, R. Barthes, J. Lacan), symbolism (E. Cassirer, S. Langer), anthropology (M. Scheler) and others. The turn of modern knowledge of the culture to the study of alternatives of the cultural development forms the pluralism of modern cultural concepts. The specificity of modern culture understanding lies not in the examining its existence under the guise of change, but lies in the revealing the essence of the changes. Criticism of the Modernist Culture within Alternativism Modern culture has been criticized from different standpoints. In traditional romantic and socialist concepts, its essence is revealed as something mercantile. Alternativism rests on another opposition: artificially organized and natural (spontaneous) existence. We can distinguish two points of criticism of the modernist culture in alternative concepts: understanding the technical way of being in the world as something universal and as a characteristic of ideological humanitarian knowledge as a source of the coercive organization of modern life. The first point includes the scientism of modern European culture as the object of main criticism, the history of which appears to be a result of a mistake of the mind, the wrong orientation chosen initially. The core part of history of "madness of reason" (as defined by the theorists of the Frankfurt School) is the explication of totalitarian potentialities hidden in the logical rationality. The myth, which is the beginning and end of the bourgeois civilization, approved alienation of nature as a fact of reality, which is the essence of overwhelming rationality, oppressive scientificity, and bourgeois education, initially chosen the wrong direction, implemented in a failed civilization. The myth and science do not know any other way of understanding reality other than mastery and domination over it, which turns into the exploitation of man-by-man. From the point of view of G. Marcuse, science and technology serve as suppression of not only external nature, but also of the internal one (the person), "In the modern era technological reality intrudes into private space and nullifies it" (G., 1994)1. The Faustian reality principle, based on the suppression of vital instincts of the person, is identified by alternativists as a principle of rationality and scientificity and is regarded as a fundamental principle of the class-oppressive society as a whole. The second point of criticism of the modernist culture in alternativism lies in its negative assessment as a global socio-cultural revolution, the transition from natural to artificial organized forms of life that occurred, contrary to popular belief, not in the material and spiritual production: in universities, where the program was formed by the scientific organization of consciousness. Industrial technologism pulled man away from nature, socio-cultural technologism separates man and the natural environment, which is manifested in such mechanistic features of modern European culture, as recycling, the manufacturing principle of organization, its usage as a fundamental principle of human engineering, a setting for a perspective, the influence of mass cultural production on changes in the world. This results in a repressive culture: on one side stands a mass # 1752 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Korobeynikova. Alternative Culture: Tradition and Innovation system of cultural production, which emanates prescriptions to another, devoid of self-reliance, "mosaic" civilian life, combinable and mounted according to various technological projects. Science provides dominance in two ways: as a productive force, it establishes the dominance of society over nature and as a tool for objective knowledge; it appeals to the world of objects of the man, i.e. to its own creation, to itself. In all cases, it guarantees the consolidation of a certain type of dominance over the man, and the forces that dominate the late capitalist world do not need an external imposition of their will: it is enough to appeal to the common sense of people beforehand closed between the "scientified" world and all its copies, or to the subconscious. This implies limitless possibilities of manipulating people. Despite the radical anti-scientism, the criticism of modernist culture by the alternativists contains a number of positive aspects: consideration of rationality and science as an integrated cultural and historical phenomenon that develops a certain type of civilization; characteristic of the development of science as a global socio-cultural process; shifting the focus on the individual, the need for its liberation from the yoke of a repressive culture. Origins of Alternativism Philosophy The philosophy of alternative culture uses the ideas of structural anthropology (M. Foucault), considering the emergence of capitalism as a replacement of those abilities that produce resistance to the rising rationalist functionalism. The alternative program requires changes of the development paradigm generated by the scientist culture. At the heart of the cultural project of the future goes a certain anthropological principle: rehabilitation of spontaneity. Extension of this principle to the center of alternative studies is conditioned by the state of crisis of modern culture. Alternativism theorists consider the modern culture by analogy with the interpretation of modernity according to J. Baudrillard as an era of total simulation. A wide range of social phenomena shows its simulation character in the modern era. Power acts as a simulation of power and resistance to it cannot but be simulative as well. Information does not make sense, but plays it, substituting communication by the simulation of communication. Simulation is located on the other side of true and false, on the other side of the equivalent, beyond the rational distinctions, which operate in any social phenomenon. Reality as a whole is replaced by the simulation and becomes hyper reality. Simulation as a form of fixation of non-fixable contradictions opens the horizon of an event on one side of which lies the deadly and fierce determination of the supposedly objective and immanent sense of the event, and on the other lies blindness, which is the result of an illusion of the meaning. The discourse of power stands for all cultural phenomena found, all-penetrating ability of which allows it to cross, coordinate, interrupt any structure that gave G. Deleuze a reason to talk about tree-likeness of the power. Language, which symbolizes all forms of power, functions as a treelike structure. Modern debates on governmental issues focus their attention on the fact that within the boundaries of the global economic space arises global political space in which the state loses its competence, legitimacy and power that are typical of the leading agent in world relations, and gives its way to a more comprehensive "postinternationalist universe that is characterized by diversity in politics"2. The post-international universe is characterized by the formation of problems of global power and global responsibility. The researchers (K. Brown, J. Baudrillard, J. Lacan, F. Guattari) discuss the changing nature of power in the moment: the power is transformed into a network, it becomes rhizomatic, rather than # 1753 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Korobeynikova. Alternative Culture: Tradition and Innovation hierarchical, created and maintained not by such attributes as violence, military power, economic production, but by people working and consuming in the global economy. Due to the changing nature of power, a modern empire is different from the hierarchical empire of the Victorian era. "In this empire the military power of the United States is very important in conjunction with the civil authorities, provided corporate capital elites, many of whom are American, but it is not a specifically American empire in the conventional sense of the term, it is not America as a state. You can hold a key analogy with the Roman Empire, a network whose power was based on the Roman legions"3. Power, understood in this sense, does not have a location and cannot be controlled, it is ubiquitous, and creates an empire consisting of non-hierarchical networks. The upcoming transformation of culture is impossible without creating a new metaphysics, a new picture of the world and a new view of human nature, as the internal freedom of the individual implies the possibility of the evolution of culture in different directions. Alternativists believe materialism to be the kernel of the obsolete worldview; they identify it as the commitment to material progress, possession of things and domination over nature. It is necessary to develop an alternative metaphysical worldview, which can give an opportunity to comprehend the full impact of scientific and technological progress in the future. A crisis of values occurs when any particular type of culture gives way to another, gives rise to various utopian concepts, and therefore the utopianism and futurology are important components of the system of alternativism. The sources of utopian and futuristic constructions lie in environmental ethics, romantic utopia and technological myth, so the alternative concepts are the three types of constructions: environmental, romantic utopia and technological futurological projects. Alternative Concepts of Culture In E. Fromm`s way of thinking the conflict between the individual and nature has an ability to be renewed with each new generation, and therefore cannot be eliminated in the future. "Environmental tortures of the earth" (T. Roszak) manifest themselves in a person’s life through a radical transformation of the sense of being identical to nature. Thus the myth of human`s falling out of nature`s integrity is born. From the standpoint of H. Skolimowski, on the contrary, the environmental crisis will not last forever: it is due to the principles of relationship with the world underlying Western civilization; the principles were formed in the culture of modern times. The automated alienated environmental consciousness, which has replaced the religious one, generates the eschatology of consumption whereas the latter replaces the sacred values. The alternativists believe that there is a way out, which they are looking for in a new dialogue with nature, which becomes the basis of various evolving theories of alternative development, focused mainly on two areas: the practical-transformative and enlightening. Under the first component in the concept of ecological materialism, they study the ecological transformation of earth in a new world order based on the principles of ecoenergy: a decentralized economy of small communities, operating on renewable, non-polluting forms of energy. An alternative project offered in ecosocialism is based on the formation of a new environmental culture: on the principles of limiting the consumption of resources and centralization of all spheres of public life. The program of ecosocialism (A. Gorts, O. Ulrich, I. Illich) provides for the refusal of economic rationalism, the development of civic consciousness, a change in the distribution of wealth. Another escape from the ecological crisis is the development of educational projects. It implies a way of changes # 1754 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Korobeynikova. Alternative Culture: Tradition and Innovation outside the system of socio-cultural relations, which leads to the creation of anthropological theories of personal changes of man. The root of the ecological crisis lies in a crisis of the inner man himself. The environmental ethics can facilitate the transition from the old to the new values. H. Skolimowski offers a conception of the spiritual world orientation, which can make an alternative development of human culture. In his scheme, the religious consciousness is the thesis, the technological one is the antithesis, the environmental one is synthesis, since the latter overcomes the one-sidedness of the religious consciousness, marking the return of spirituality without subordination of religion, and removes one-sidedness of the technological consciousness, since the value of environmental consciousness is focused on the universe and life. In ecophilosophy, a new type of spirituality emerges, the symbol of which is the "dancing Shiva", a symbol of the deployment life recreating itself, the integrity of the universe. Modern romantic conceptions of culture are heterogeneous; they have different traditions, in Europe starting from the Enlightenment (Rousseau), in America – from the transcendentalists (Thoreau). Now ideas of the romantics are perceived through the prism of theories put forward by N. Brown, P. Goodman, H. Marcuse, and other philosophers who criticized modern civilization and culture, and made an attempt to formulate an alternative that reduces the justification of the need to move to a new type of culture: for example, Apokatastasia (a new utopia) by T. Roszak, the sensual culture of H. Marcuse. If the development of mankind chose the direction of formation of sensual culture, the production would not depend on the principle of rational use, and socially necessary labor would be aimed at creating an aesthetic rather than a repressive environment, at the creation of recreation areas, and not mass entertainment and relaxation, which would put forward the aesthetic principle as a form of reality. In the romantic perception of utopias, the idea of a future culture is focused on creating a new type of culture with an aesthetic-erotic orientation. Technological futurological projects appear in the theory of alternativism not as a continuation of the scientist culture, and as an alternative to the abnormal development of modern science and technology. We are talking about the possibility of a radical change in the civilization and culture as a result of a scientific and technological leap, qualitatively different from the modern scientific and technological development. The rational model of progress leads to a deadlock. True optimism does not lie in an effort to protect it by all means, but to find a replacement that would deprive it of a future. The works of post-industrialists contain an attempt to soften the primitive technodeterminism of previous theories, which fatally predetermined the further development of culture. The future culture is portrayed as something multivariate. The post-industrialism theorists explain the crisis of modern society and culture by the gap between the principles of highlyindustrialized economy (efficiency, lowest cost of goods sold, profit maximization, rationality) and the orientation of the contemporary culture on hedonism, irrational behavior, antiintellectualism. The culture of the future is based on different principles. Its formation is due to the transition from an industrial to a service society, the crucial codified scientific knowledge for the implementation of technological innovation, the transformation of a new intellectual technology "is crucial point in theoretical analysis and decisionmaking" (D. Bell). The fact, that the technological issues were moved to the focus of research of postindustrial culture, is associated with the gap between the rapid growth and its minimal progress in the socio-cultural organization and # 1755 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Korobeynikova. Alternative Culture: Tradition and Innovation the person controlling his own products. In order to bridge this gap we need to work out a new type of technology: combinatorial, divided into three classes – the new information technology, serving for the processing and transmission of alphanumeric information; a new biotechnology; and new materials. By the mid of the 21st century biotechnologies are going to come to the forefront. Based on their development, bioethics is going to be developed as a new culture; its man task is biological justification of moral values that are adequate to the conditions of the new mobile society. The adoption of such a culture will ensure harmony and humanism in the continuous technological progress. The representatives of post-industrialism consider the renaissance of the technocratic culture to be a positive sign, not to mention the artistic application of new technologies. Now humanity is approaching the understanding of the technology as an art. The development of technology requires to place it in a broader perspective, namely in the framework of the social (or cultural) mutation. J.-P. Quentin emphasizes that it would be more accurate to speak not about replacing the technoculture by a social culture but about a progressive transition to a new stage of civilization, which becomes the leading social culture. It is a global innovation, with all its components. In the information society, knowledge and information will act as key agents of the social and cultural change, ensuring the transformation of modern culture into a new type, which will be a key element in the production of information, which in its importance exceeds tangible products, energy and services. The self-expansion of information will replace the self-expansion of capital. The informational dimension of culture is comparable to such epoch-making processes as industrialization and book printing, which had their impact on working knowledge, psychology, and styles of thinking. Culture as a system of symbolic means is a natural object of storing and transmitting information. The principal difference of the information technology from previous ones is that its objects are not material, but mental. In culture, the challenge is to reach a new level of human participation in creative activities through the creation of new forms of cultural life. In the course of the information revolution, an objective technological possibility of open access to any array of human knowledge for all people for the first time was carried out. Conditions of the information revolution go as follows: guaranteed access to information for all citizens, awareness of the primacy of the personal aspect, a new stage in the treatment of human knowledge. The emergence of the common global information market, stimulated by the development of telecommunications, is now already leading to the emergence of a new culture that is changing the very meaning and social status of information. Now it is difficult to assess the culture in terms of the information shock, but you can understand how great its role is4. The information covers all aspects of social life, creating an information infrastructure. Theorists of the information society emphasize the ambiguity and poly-alternativeness of the future culture. Different ideas about the future culture are determined not only by regional and national traditions, but also research oriented searches in reliance on traditionalism, rational attempt to incorporate new technical inventions in the cultural system, the experience of designing a new social reality with a particular style of life and a level of cultural consumption. The researchers point out that the modern technology can lead to a complete degeneration of man and the environment, so it is necessary to protect the value of human culture. Humanitarian culture has become outdated. With the emergence of mass media the structure # 1756 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Korobeynikova. Alternative Culture: Tradition and Innovation of culture is undergoing profound changes. The integrated system of knowledge is replaced by a set of short-term facilities, distributed through the media. The concept of a mosaic culture rather than a humanitarian one is being formed. The main distinctive feature of the new cultural situation is its incessant variability. The information culture theorists speak of a new cultural paradigm. Accumulation of technical capabilities inevitably leads to a qualitative leap. New, unusual in its capabilities means of mass communication appear. The future culture is a culture based on the technological development of high reliability. Similar to computers, developing and improving, regenerating and forming new generations, the culture based on communication devices of one generation is supposed be qualitatively different from a culture based on a communication technology of the next generation. Only when technical machines of communication have taken their final place in the system of mass communication, and have received their aesthetic content, we can say that the end of the first generation of communication tools is close. Cultural development in the future will enable the genesis of man as a new species (through the computer). As voluntary civic information networks are formed by new means of communication and human with the help of robots becomes free from direct participation in productive work, the conditions for the genesis of a new type of human, the knowledgeable person, take their shape. Anatomically speaking, this type will not possess any special properties. The new man is a man of high intelligence. The people of the new type are going to build a civilization, radically different from the one built by the person reasonable. Society and culture of the new type are going to be intelligent. Information forms the basis of intellectual performance, completely different from the material values in the following respects: inexhaustibility, non-transferability, the cumulative effect. Conclusion Alternativists offer a new interpretation of the traditional values of modern European culture of rationalism, individualism, humanism. The basic principle of the emerging rationalism is pluralism. The modernist rational thinking has lost its vitality. A. Etzioni stresses that the ideal of modern society the quality of life is an alternative vision and legitimizing principle, which does not expand, but displaces rationality5. The necessity of the emergence of an alternative reason, which acquires the potential to ensure the stability of the system "biosphere – man". The resulting collective intelligence gives the person a certain chance to save himself in the biosphere. The search for alternative values of individualism leads to the assertion of a special kind, purified from pragmatism, utilitarianism, egoism and intricately fused with the humanistic and democratic values. Alternativists believe that it is necessary to develop humanism of the posttechnological era that would transform the gleaned from past principles and norms and contributed to the emergence of new values, restoring the balance of man. In the new system of values the "life mind" (H. Ortega-y-Gasset) by its very presence must displace all the others. "The theme of our time is to give the mind vitality in biological localization of reasoning, in its submission to the spontaneous" 6 (p.29). New humanism is not nothing else but a real human revolution, the meaning of which is the moral education of man, in the awakening of his humanistic conscience, in an attempt to give a heart to the heartless world. A new view of the world implies the approval of ecological humanism. Alternativism theorists are aware of indivisible integrity of the world: for my existence, I need the existence of the whole. In this regard, natural appearance of globalism is a # 1757 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Korobeynikova. Alternative Culture: Tradition and Innovation step approximating to the cosmic consciousness. Theorists of post-industrial and information culture are trying to portray the development of knowledge and information as a process, which is not an extension of interpretation of the scientistoriented culture, but rather an opposite one. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Based on this framework we see an attempt to consider the future technologies as an art and a desire to evaluate the informational dimension of culture as the third revolution in the history of modern European culture (after industrialization and book printing). Marcuse G. (1994). Dimensional man, 14. Politics. History’s Revenge and Future Shock. Val. H. (2004). Brown C. (2004). Do Great Powers Have Great Responsibilities? Great Power and Moral Agency. Global Society Vol.18, №1.Jan, 14-15. Toffler A. (1997). Futuroshok, 464. Etzioni A. (August, 2011). Behavioral Economics: Towards a New Paradigm. American Behavioral Scientist. 55:8, 10991119. Ortega-y-Gasset H. (1991). The theme of our time. What is philosоphy? References 1. Brown C. (2004). Do Great Powers Have Great Responsibilities? Great Power and Moral Agency. Global Society Vol.18, №1.Jan. 2. Etzioni A. (August, 2011). Behavioral. Economics: Towards a New Paradigm. American Behavioral Scientist. 55:8, 1099-1119. 3. 4. 5. 6. Marcuse G. (1994). Dimensional man. Ortega-y-Gasset H. (1991). The theme of our time. What is philosоphy? Remapping Global Politics. History’s Revenge and Future Shock. (2004). Toffler A. (1997). Futuroshok, 464. Альтернативная культура: традиции и инновации Л.А. Коробейникова Национальный исследовательский Томский государственный университет Россия, 634050, Томск, пр. Ленина, 36 Современное знание о культуре характеризуется поворотом к исследованию альтернативных вариантов развития культуры, формируя плюрализм современных культурологических концепций. Философия культуры альтернативизма использует идеи структуралистской антропологии (М. Фуко). Альтернативная программа требует смены самой парадигмы развития, порожденной сциентистской культурой, провозглашая основой культурного проекта будущего реабилитацию спонтанности. Источником утопических и футурологических построений выступают экологическая этика, романтические утопии и технологический миф, поэтому в альтернативных концепциях можно выделить три типа построений: экологические, романтические утопии и технологические футурологические проекты. В экофилософии формируется новый тип духовности, символом которой выступает "танцующий Шива", символ развертывания жизни, воссоздания самого себя, целостности универсума. В романтических утопиях представление о будущей культуре # 1758 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Larisa A. Korobeynikova. Alternative Culture: Tradition and Innovation ориентировано на создание нового типа культуры с эстетически-эротической ориентацией. Технологические футурологические проекты появляются в теории альтернативизма не как продолжение развития сциентистской культуры, а как альтернатива неправильному развитию современной науки и техники. Речь идет о возможности коренного изменения цивилизации и культуры в результате научно-технического скачка, качественно отличного от современного научно-технического развития. Ключевые слова: культура, альтернативные концепции культуры, философия культуры. Научная специальность: 24.00.00 – культурология. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1760-1764 ~~~ УДК 316.628.2:796.83 Research on Motivation to do Boxing Valery A. Tolstikov* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia Received 16.07.2014, received in revised form 20.08.2014, accepted 16.09.2014 Students are a labour resource of this country, they are future parents and a base for a healthy and successful nation. Boxing helps to improve general physical condition, meets demands for movement, develops one’s body fit, increases social status and communicational skills. Keywords: students, motivation, boxing, social importance, health, constitution, need for movement. Research area: 24.00.00 – culture studies. Students are the most vulnerable part of the young population, especially at their initial stage of learning process, since they have to cope with a number of difficulties coming from study load increase, low-level of physical activity, comparative freedom in campus life and challenges in social and personal communication. Todays students are considered to be a basic labour reserve in this country; besides, they are future parents and their health condition and general wellbeing pave the way to a healthy and successful nation. Due to this fact there is a great role of researches dedicated to studies of motives, interests and demands of youngsters for physical trainings (Vilenkii M., 1990). There is a number of potential motives for students to take up doing sport suggested by R.S. Nagovitsin (Nagovitsin R., 2011): 1) recreational (i.e. those which give an opportunity to improve health condition) * © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1760 # 2) motor and activity motives (i.e. need for movements) 3) competitional and competitive motives (i.e. sport achievements) 4) aesthetic ( i.e. body build improvement and plasticity) 5) communicational (i.e. activities according to interests: recreational run, tourism, cycling, sport games, etc.) 6) informative and skills-oriented motives (i.e. an opportunity to learn about one’s organism and improve it) 7) creative motives (i.e. search for new potentials in physical development) 8) professionally oriented motives (i.e. development of skills needed in future profession) 9) managerial (i.e. exams and final tests pass) 10) psychologically relevant motives (i.e. gaining of self-confidence) Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery A. Tolstikov. Research on Motivation to do Boxing 11) educational (i.e. self-paced training, selfcontrol, insistence skills development) 12) high – status motives (i.e. improvement of an ability to resist in extreme and personal conflicts) 13) cultural (i.e. influence of cultural environment, society and "group" rules). The analysis of students’ attitude towards these motives performed by R.S. Nagovitsin showed that most students follow managerial motives (59 %) while only 1 % of respondents put a priority on professionally orientated motives, which are closely connected with professional skills development. While boxing, one can combine several motives at a time, for example, motor and activity motive with competetitional, communicational, informative, skillsoriented, creative, psychological, high-status and cultural motives. In other words, boxing creates the environment for sport achievements as well as opportunities for body building and communication. In the course of boxing students can learn about their organisms and improve themselves. Besides, it provides a good atmosphere for creative activity. This kind of sport helps to increase the level of selfconfidence, and aiming at sport results has a great educational importance, i.e. selfpaced training, self-control, insistence skills development. Boxing improves the ability to resist in extreme and personal confl icts. Besides, we should not forget about influence of cultural environment, society and group rules. All these motives for boxing in universities are supported by managerial motive, i.e. a necessity to pass exams and final tests in physical education. However, by taking up boxing students (not without highly qualified teaching) gain additional motives. Here we decided to prove the statement by conducting a student survey showed in Table 1 below. As the table shows, the average performance (12,32±5,68 %) of motivated responses measured in % is the lowest in the most numerous group (n=102) among students not involved in boxing at all. Significantly higher (Р<0,05) this performance (35,44±6,66 %) in the group of students (n=12) who just want to take up boxing. Most probable motives for students who are not engaged in sport activity to take up boxing are the following: Those students who were in group (n=102) put a priority on "managerial" motive (89 %) as they have to pass their final tests. Physical education is a credit subject and passing final tests at the appropriate time as well as avoiding conflicts with teachers and administration of the University motivate people to do physical training consequently. Other motives are connected with public views on boxing, i.e. fi rstly, it is quite the thing today and secondly, infi rm or vulnerable people start doing boxing for self protection. In peer groups boxing students get positive attitude, as boxers are usually held in respect. In this way, boxing increases personal status if any of conflict situations resolved by physical actions occurs; besides, being engaged in any kind of sport is a good opportunity to develop one’s willpower. In this group students fi nd it doubtful to improve their health condition in addition to existing low demand in movement. Therefore, there are almost no motives for taking up boxing in this group. Quite another situation we see in group (n=12) where students have chosen boxing as a course in physical education (see Table 3). They come at training to meet their demands in movements (100 %). Most of them consider trainings to be a good opportunity to relieve from negative emotions, pass final tests in physical education # 1761 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Table 1. Question form "Potential motives for taking up boxing in Institutions of Higher Education" You have become a student at the University where physical education is a credit course. This means that if you can not pass final tests in this discipline you would not be admitted to exams. To acquire the subject you are offered to take up boxing. If you chose boxing how would you explain your choice? Before (%) the After th experiment MOTIVES FOR BOXING( %, opinion) experiment (%) n = 112 – students who are not involved in sport activity n =12 – students before boxing and a year on boxing activity n=102 n=12 n=12 1 2 3 4 1. There is a demand for movement 2. There is an opportunity to improve health condition 3. I want to achieve a concrete sport result 4. I want to improve appearance and impression on other people…. 5. I want to improve my body 7. I want to learn and improve my organism and abilities 8. I want to perform in physical and sport activity 9. I want to develop professional skills 10. I have to take my final tests 11. I want to become more self-confident 12. I want to achieve high-status in conflicts 13. I want to control myself in stress situations and conditions 14 I want to abstract from horrid ideas 15. I want to relieve from mental strain 16. I want to improve the level of hardiness 17. I want to relieve from negative emotions 18. I want to improve self-control and self-development skills 19. I want to develop moral and willpower characteristics 20. I want to rise the feeling of civic spirit and patriotism p = 12 15 7 6 6 3 2 1 89 27 32 2 0 0 2 0 7 23 0 12,32 100 33 58 41 17 8 8 8 66 50 58 17 8 0 17 75 33 41 0 35,44 100 58 66 50 41 8 42 66 17 100 100 91 58 66 75 91 100 100 91 69,47 ±5,68 ±6,66 ±5,88 m= Significance of differences between n=102 and n=12 before the experiment Significance of differences before and after the experiment (n=12) Р<0,05 Table 2. Most probable motives for boxing among students not involved in sport activity (n=102) 1. I have to pass final test in physical education 2. I want to get high status in conflict situations 3. I want to become more self confident 4. I want to develop my moral and will-power characteristics 5. There is an opportunity to improve my health condition 6. I need to move actively 89 % 32 % 27 % 23 % 15 % 12 % Table 3. Most popular motives among those students who want to do boxing (n=12) 1. There is a demand in movement 2. I can relieve from negative emotions 3. I have to pass final test in physical education 4. I want to achieve a concrete sport result 5. I want to get a high personal status in conflict situations 100 % 75 % 66 % 58 % 58 % Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery A. Tolstikov. Research on Motivation to do Boxing Table 4. Motives for those students who do boxing (n=12) 1. There is a demand in movement 2. Adaptation of self-control and self-development skills 3. I want to develop my moral and will-power characteristics 4. I want to become more self confident 5. I want to get a high personal status in conflict situations with honor, increase their personal status in conflicts and, moreover, they want to achieve high sport results. This group has significantly high (Р<0,001) motivation performance of those students who want to choose boxing and others – who have already taken up training (69,47±5,88 %). In the process of training their opinion about advantages of boxing has increased (see Table 4). By doing exercises they meet all demands for movement, improve their self-discipline by mastering self-control and self-development skills, bearing physical fatigue, developing their moral and will-power characteristics, becoming more self-confident and gaining personal status in confl ict situations. Basically, educational motives can not be considered as an attractive idea for young people to take up sport activity. We try to answer why so? The matter is that, education and selfdependence are two crucially different items. Self-dependence, to say more directly, is a freedom to do what exactly you want in this very moment (for example, a baby has this instinct). On the other side, education is closely connected with control over one’s behavior (limitation of freedom). As often as not, some people separate the process of education from the process of re-education (here we can say about jails as a place where one’s freedom is restricted and a person undergoes re-education). To put it simply, education is the process of personal qualities formation and development (i.e. education starts 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % from the ground up in comparison with reeducation), whereas re-education means working with a person who has already been formed. We develop each other. Parents bring up their children, children, in their turn, say something new to their parents. A good husband develop his wife, so a good wife does the same. A good employer trains their employees and they respond in the same way. As a rule, we prefer bringing up somebody, but not being brought up (Psychologos…, 2014). Quite often young girls are keen on getting married to be more independent in their behavior. However, boxing is a teaching process and limitation of acquired skills performance (competitions rules and social environment), i.e. the process of education. Future sportsman wants to take up boxing and as a result, finds himself involved in this process. In the course of trainings educational results have showed up (see Table 4). Boxing helps to relieve from negative emotions (91 %) and develop professional skills (66 %). It is quite significant, that according to their opinions boxing rise the feeling of patriotism and civic spirit (91 %). In this way we conclude the following: 1. Students are the most vulnerable part of the young population, especially at their initial stage of learning process, since they have to cope with a number of difficulties coming from study load increase, low-level of physical activity, comparative freedom in campus life and challenges in social and personal communication. Todays students are considered as a base labour reserve; they are future parents and their health # 1763 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valery A. Tolstikov. Research on Motivation to do Boxing condition and general wellbeing pave the way to healthy and successful nation. 2. Boxing helps to improve one’s health, meets demands for active life, creates an appropriate environment for sport results achievements, opportunities to master one’s fit and to communicate with other people. In the course of boxing students can learn about their organisms and improve themselves. Besides it provides a good atmosphere for a creative activity. This kind of sport helps to increase the level of self-confidence and aiming at sport results has a great educational importance, i.e. selfpaced training, self-control, insistence skills development. Boxing improves the ability to resist in extreme and personal conflicts. Besides, we should not forget about influence of cultural environment, society and group rules. 3. To be more precise, boxing is a teaching process and limitation of acquired skills performance (competitions rules and social environment), i.e. the process of education. Future sportsman wants to take up boxing and as a result, finds himself involved in this process. In the course of trainings educational results have showed up (see Table 4). Boxing helps to relieve from negative emotions (91 %) and develop professional skills (66 %). It is quite significant, that according to their opinions boxing rise the feeling of patriotism and civic spirit (91 %). References 1. Vilenkii M., Formation of physical culture of a teacher in the process of their professional development//Doctoral dissertation, EdD. Moscow, 1990. 84 p. 2. Nagovitsin R., Motivation of students to do physical education in universities // Fundamental researches. 2011. V. 8. Pp. 293. 3. Psychologos, Encyclopedia of Experimental Psychology. Online resource: http://www. psychologos.ru/articles/view/vospitanie Accessed date 20.01.2014 Исследования мотивации занятий боксом В.А. Толстиков Сибирский федеральный университет Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Студенты – трудовой резерв страны, будущие родители, залог здоровья и благополучия нации. Занятия боксом укрепляют здоровье, удовлетворяют потребность в движении, совершенствуют телосложение, расширяют социальную значимость и коммуникативные возможности. Ключевые слова: студенты, мотивация, телосложение, потребность в движении. бокс, Научная специальность: 24.00.00 – культурология. социальная значимость, здоровье, Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1765-1774 ~~~ УДК 316.752 Dynamics of Social Well-Being of the Population of the Region in View of Emotional and Energy Indicators Valentin G. Nemirovskiy* Siberian Federal University 79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia Received 22.06.2014, received in revised form 30.07.2014, accepted 17.09.2014 The article investigates the dynamics of social well-being of inhabitants of the Krasnoyarsk Territory (2010-2014 years). To perform the analysis the author applied a method developed in the framework of the "socio-cultural portrait of the region" by N.I. Lapin and L.A. Belyaeva; that method was complemented with a scale of self-assessment of the level of life energy of the respondent.This allowed to show a more adequate representation of the emotional-energy component of social well-being of the respondents. The empirical basis of the study were representative surveys of the population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory in 2010 and 2014 through the method of formal interviews, as well as a study with the method we had developed; the study was conducted in accordance with a similar methodology in 2011. It wasfound that in terms of all of the indicators that were used there was a significant improvement of the social well-being of the population of the region. Such a phenomenon is typical for many regions of Siberia. It was concluded that one maymisjudge the significant improvement of social well-being of the population in the region in recent years as a uniquely positive phenomenon. It can be caused not only by the improvement in living conditions and by the increase in the effectiveness of social policies in the region, but also by other poorly understood factors. These include, for example, the involvement into an active social life of the representatives of new age cohorts, which internalized modern social norms and values, or by intensive migration of social actors who are dissatisfied with life in the region to Moscow and to foreign countries. As a result, there is an outflow of human capital from the active population of Siberia.In addition,the elderly people leave this life in a natural way, and it was this group of population that often had showed a negative social well-being. Therefore, the improving social well-being of the population may mask some negative processes. Hence, there is a need for a better understanding of the factors infl uencing the change in social well-being of the population of the Siberian region. Keywords: social well-being, sociology of region, sociology of emotions. The study was accomplished with the financial support of Russian State Fund for Humanities, the project "Dynamics of Socio-Cultural Processes in the East Siberian region in the Context of Contemporary Modernization of Russia (based on materials of sociological research in the Krasnoyarsk Territory), № 13-03-00379. Research area: 22.00.00 – sociology. * © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1765 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentin G. Nemirovskiy. Dynamics of Social Well-Being of the Population of the Region in View of Emotional… Social well-being of the populationis one of the most important characteristics of sociocultural and socio-economic processes in any region, as well as in larger social and territorial communities. There are different approaches to its measurement described in the domestic and foreign literature. For all its variety, the most widely spread approach, first of all, takes into account such social and emotional phenomena as overall life satisfaction of the respondent, the level of social optimism and security against a variety of risks (Lapin, 2006). In our view, the feeling of being safe from all dangers is certainly an emotional phenomenon, the opposite to the sense of fear (Nemirovsky, Nemirovskaya, 2012: 119). Accordingly, the sense of fear is one of the elements of social well-being. Therefore, it is difficult not to agree with D.N. Barinov that the changes in the repertoire of social fears, and their objects show the impact on social well-being of the objective conditions of life of people, and these conditions are determined by macrosocial factors (Barinov, 2008:169). It is not a coincidence that the analysis of the sense (emotion) of fear in the structure of social wellbeing of the population has a long tradition. Moreover, the very notion of social well-being is determined by socio-emotional categories. For example, one has to agree with the opinion of N.V. Doolina (Doolina, 2009: 89), who stipulates that when defining "social well-being" we need to mention the fact that this is really functioning social consciousness and behavior, "which reveal the emotionally comfortable assessment of individuals, social groups and the population ... attributed to the level of satisfaction of their social needs, as well as its position in comparison with other individuals, social groups ..." (Burko, 2000: 56). Thus, we can safely say that the social well-being of the individual is largely relates to the problematic field of sociology of emotions (Barbalet, 1999). So, we come to such an important indicator of social well-being as general life satisfaction. Some authors identify the various aspects of the satisfaction with their human life. This kind of tradition has a long history. It is not a coincidence that more than 20 years ago an American scholar A. Campbell revealed the following representations of the respondents about the good life: economic stability, good family relationships, strong and tough character, loyal friends, outwardly attractive environment (Campbell, 1981). Indicators, which measure social well-being of the population, are often combined in special indexes, special tests are developed. For example, famous Ukrainian scientists E.I. Golovakha, N.V. Panina, A.P. Gorbachik some time ago developed the sociological test "Integral index of social well-being". There were two modified versions of the test created: 44-line version of the questionnaire (IISS-44), designed for in-depth studies of social wellbeing, and 20-line version (IISS-20), designed for monitoring, comparative and operational research. The authors` methods make it possible to measure the level of social well-being of the population. In addition, it allows to evaluate the effectiveness of social policies (Golovakha, Panina, Gorbachik, 1998: 45-72). The method developed by N.I. Lapin and L.A. Belyaeva applies the interview to measure "... three components of social well-being of the population: the degree of feeling protected against 10 social risks; the degree of satisfaction with their lives in general; the degree of social optimism – a comparison of living standards with the previous year, the expectations in the coming year, confidence in the future. Using them as a basis, the authors developed the comprehensive index of social well-being (ISS)" (Lapin, Belyaeva, 2010). In our opinion, for a more holistic description of the phenomenon of "social well-being" its indicators should be complemented by indicators # 1766 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentin G. Nemirovskiy. Dynamics of Social Well-Being of the Population of the Region in View of Emotional… of its emotional and energetic elements. We support the view of N. L. Batalova, who assumes that "the energy component expresses the level of implementation of vital forces of a personality or a social group as an ability to play and improve their lives in different areas, showing the social subjectivity ..." (Batalova, 2009: 8). This author introduced an additional index: the coefficient of socio-energy potential to the toolkit which had previously been elaborated by N.I. Lapin and L.A. Belyaeva. The coefficient reflects the level of actual and potential social activity of a young man. This indicator is based on how the respondent himself (herself) estimates his (her) state of health, as well as on the degree of social activity" (Batalova, 2009: 11). In this study human vitality was measured according to the four-point scale; its variants of assessments and judgments for describing the energy level of a human are shown in Fig. 1. We relied on the data from a survey of the population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory (2014), which was carried out by formal interviews at the place of residence of respondents, on stratified, multi-zoned, quota samples represented by sex, age and level of education. The respondents were selected randomly. Representativeness of the sample is provided by keeping the proportions between the population living in 28 settlements of various types (areas of large cities, medium and small cities and rural areas), gender and age and educational structure of the adult population of the region. The study was conducted within the project "Socio-cultural evolution of Russia and its regions" (supervisors N.I. Lapin, L.A. Belyaeva). On the whole there were 1300 residents interviewed, living in the Krasnoyarsk Territory. For comparison, we also used the data from a similar survey conducted in the region in 2011 (n = 1100). The feeling of being protected from a variety of risks in the standard procedure "Socio-cultural portrait of the region" includes ten indicators characterizing corresponding types of social danger. We can combine them into two main groups of types of danger and, accordingly, "... a feeling of insecurity / security from them on the basis of separation of the two main sources of such risks (threats): firstly, the external objective conditions that an individual would like to change, to be isolated from them, etc. Second, internal, subjective characteristics of the person that he (she) cannot change or does not want to change because they, for example, can destroy his (her) social and cultural identity, self-consciousness, the inner "Ego". The first group includes: • environmental threat; • arbitrariness of officials; • arbitrariness of law enforcement bodies; • poverty; • loneliness and abandonment; • crime. The second includes: • harassment because of age or sex; • infringement because of nationality; • harassment for their religious beliefs; • persecution for their political beliefs « (Nemirovsky, Nemirovskaya, 2012: 120121). Let us see the changes that have occurred in the perception of these threats by the inhabitants of the region over the past 4 years (Table 1). We shall analyze the answers "Protected + probably protected". Let us consider the first group of threats. Thus, the fear of the environmental threat has decreased by 2.5 times, the arbitrariness of officials, respectively – by 2.0 times, the arbitrariness of law enforcement bodies – 1.5 times, poverty – 1.3 times, crime – 1, 9 times, loneliness and abandonment remained the same. With respect to the second group of threats we shall mention: the fear of harassment # 1767 # 25,1 33,6 31,9 33,3 27,5 41,0 32,1 25,7 20,1 10,2 18,0 39,7 43,1 47,1 68,6 73,5 25,2 12,4 17,8 Environmental threat Arbitrariness of officials Arbitrariness of law enforcement bodies Loneliness and abandonment Persecution for political beliefs Harassment because of age or gender Harassment for their religious beliefs Infringement due to nationality 10,9 Poverty 6,4 5,7 20,8 15,9 32,8 48,7 57,9 54,0 57,0 64,0 Do not feel protected (unsafe) Krasnoyarsk Kray, 2010 Feel protected (safe); probably It is hard to say protected Crime Types of danger 70,1 70,6 53,2 39,5 38,5 19,6 13,0 16,6 19,4 13,4 22,1 23,2 26,3 40,8 23,6 34,0 30,0 27,3 21,2 23,4 Feel protected (safe); probably It is hard to say protected 7,8 6,2 20,5 19,7 38,0 46,5 57,1 56,1 59,4 63,2 Do not feel protected (unsafe) Krasnoyarsk Kray, 2012 Table 1. Residents of Krasnoyarsk Kray on Their Protection from Social Dangers ( % of respondents) 68,9 66,2 57 41,3 40,5 26,4 20,3 30,7 23,9 21,2 23,7 23,9 28,1 36,2 25,3 35,8 31,1 29,0 28,0 24,4 Feel protected (safe); probably It is hard to say protected 7,4 9,9 14,9 22,5 34,2 37,8 48,5 40,3 48 54,3 Do not feel protected (unsafe) Krasnoyarsk Kray, 2014 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentin G. Nemirovskiy. Dynamics of Social Well-Being of the Population of the Region in View of Emotional… because of age or sex has decreased by 1.2 times, harassment due nationality decreased by 0.9 times, the harassment and persecution for political beliefs, as well as for religious beliefs, in practice, remained at the same level. It can be concluded that for the period 2010 – 2014 in the Krasnoyarsk Territory the sense of insecurity (fear) of respondents over external objective factors and threats generated by them has decreased by two times on average. This is, in part, can be explained by the improvement of living conditions in the region and in the country as a whole. In other words, taking into account the socio-economic and socio-cultural factors, life in the region became more comfortable. In the second group, fears that extend beyond the social level have decreased slightly. That is the level of protection against the dangers ascribed to this group actually remained the same. This looks logical: the existence of these fears is largely determined by the microenvironment of the individual, which is characterized by greater inertia. Satisfaction of the individual with his (her) life serves as an essential element of social wellbeing. Consider the evaluation of polar groups of respondents. According to the results of our studies (Table 2), the percentage of respondents who are "totally of satisfied" with their lives, in the Krasnoyarsk Territory from 2010 to 2014 has increased by 2.2 times. And in rural areas it is higher than in urban territory: respectively, by 2.5 and 2.1 times. This may indicate the progress made in a number of public and regional programs aimed at improving life in rural areas and the development of agriculture. In general, the proportion of "not very satisfied" with their lives over the years in the region decreased by 1.9 times, "not satisfied" – 3 times. As you can see, the indicator of social well-being of its residents of the region shows its improvement over the past four years. Analysis of the level of confidence of the respondents about their future as an indicator of social optimism of the region’s population shows a similar pattern (Table 3). The share of people in the region, who are "quite confident" about their future, increased by 1.9 times, "completely confident" – decreased by 1.5 times. In many ways, social well-being of people is determined by their degree of optimism, social expectations (Table. 4). Now we shall consider the polar groups of respondents. The share of respondents who expressed the opinion that we "are going to live much better" for four years has grown by 2.1 times. In contrast, the proportion of response noted "we are going to live somewhat worse" decreased by 1.9 times, "are going to live much worse" increased by 1.2 times and amounted to only 1.7 %. Thus, the social expectations of the population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory reveal a high degree of optimism. Table 2. Satisfaction of Residents of Krasnoyarsk Kray with Their Life in General ( % of respondents) Types of answer Krasnoyarsk Kray, 2010 город село Krasnoyarsk Kray, 2012 всего город село всего город село Fully satisfied 9,2 8,4 9,0 11,1 13,1 11,6 Rather satisfied 40,4 41,2 40,6 43,5 37,8 42,1 Difficult to say exactly 17,0 17,2 17,1 14,8 11,9 14,1 Not very satisfied 28,6 29,4 28,8 26,7 34,0 28,5 Not satisfied at all 4,8 3,8 4,5 3,9 3,2 3,7 # 1769 # Krasnoyarsk Kray, 2014 19,7 Russia, 2010 всего 21,0 20,0 12,5 47,3 38,9 45,3 46,5 16,8 20,6 17,7 14,2 14,5 18,3 15,4 21,0 1,7 1,2 1,6 5,8 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentin G. Nemirovskiy. Dynamics of Social Well-Being of the Population of the Region in View of Emotional… Table 3. The Degree of Confidence of Residents of Krasnoyarsk Kray about Their Future ( % of respondents) Types of answer Krasnoyarsk Kray, 2010 urban rural total Krasnoyarsk Kray, 2012 urban rural total Krasnoyarsk Kray, 2014 urban rural Russia, 2010 total Quite confident 11,1 10,2 10,8 16,6 12,8 15,7 19,4 23,5 20,4 13,9 Is likely to be confident than not 25,7 28,5 26,4 31,0 26,3 29,8 33,3 28,5 32,1 36,5 Cannot say for sure 34,5 38,7 35,5 28,7 29,2 28,8 33,1 31,3 31,8 21,2 Is unlikely to be confident 21,3 16,2 20,1 18,4 23,4 19,5 11,2 10,0 10,9 18,2 Completely not confident 7,4 6,4 7,2 5,3 8,3 6,0 4,8 5,0 4,8 10,2 Source: the results of survey (2010, 2012, 2014, question № 17) Table 4. Expectations in the coming year (Answers to the question "Do you think that in the coming year you and your family will live better than today, or worse?") ( % of respondents) Types of answer 2010 2012 2014 9,7 11,9 19,9 We are going to live a bit better 20,8 20,3 26,4 Nothing is going to change 30,3 33,3 27,3 We are going to live a bit worse 8,2 7,8 4,4 We are going to live much better We are going to live much worse 1,4 2,3 1,7 Don`t know 29,6 24,4 20,3 Table 5. The Dynamics of the Components of Social Well-Being and Its Index (2010 -2014) Krasnoyarsk Kray, 2010 Krasnoyarsk Kray, 2012 Krasnoyarsk Kray, 2014 Russia, 2010 Protection from hazards (Kz) 0,60 0,60 0,63 0,59 Satisfaction with life in general (Kuzh) 0,66 0,66 0,73 0,68 social optimism (Ko) 0,63 0,66 0,67 0,62 The index of social well-being (Iss) 0,62 0,64 0,68 0,63 Components of well-being, its index The index of social well-being of the population, calculated by the method developed under the supervision of N.I. Lapin (Lapin, 2006) (Table 5) increased significantly: from 0.62 in 2010 to 0.68 in 2014. Most have increased "Satisfaction with life in general (Kuzh)" and "Social optimism (Ko.)". According to the research, over four years (2011-2014) Respondents' assessment of any indicators that characterize their high vitality, increased, for example, "almost always feel": a huge burst of energy, inspiration, respectively, 14 % and 24 %, the state peace and harmony – 15 % and 25 % (see Fig. 1). On the contrary, with regard to the indicators reflecting the decline of vital energy, they decreased or remained unchanged: the answer is "almost always feel": special energy is not observed, but there is a # 1770 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentin G. Nemirovskiy. Dynamics of Social Well-Being of the Population of the Region in View of Emotional… desire to change the situation: 24 % and 19 %; the answer is "sometimes": strength is not enough, feel tired – 38 % and 31 %, special energy is not observed, but there is a desire to make a difference – 45 % and 37 %. As you can see, the respondents in the region in the three years have revealed an increase in the indicators characterizing their vitality. In other words, improved emotional and social wellbeing in terms of energy component of the region's residents. The reasons for this phenomenon, in our opinion, require further study. But it is impossible to do without resorting to heuristic sociology of emotions (Nemirovsky, Nemirovskaya, 2012). Similar processes occur in most regions of the Siberian Federal District. According to "the results of the third well-being ranking of regions of Russia, composed by the Fund of Development of Civil Society in assistance and support of the Fund "Obschestvennoe Mnenie" (Public Opinion), just five Siberian territories were included in the group with a very high rating. Thus, the most satisfied with their lives are residents of Kuzbass (87 points), Khakassia (72, previously 68 points), Tuva (67, previously 71 points), Buryatia and the Novosibirsk region (66 points). In this case, the Kemerovo region improved its position compared with previous survey immediately by 13 points. The second group with high ranking includes two Siberian region – The Altai Republic (64, previously 61 points) and the Krasnoyarsk Territory, preserved rating of 58 points" (Novosibirsk, 2014). As you can see, the improvement of social well-being of the population took place in very different in terms of socio-economic development and quality of life regions of Siberia. It can be assumed that improving the social well-being of the population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory in all analyzed indicators related not only to the general improvement of the living conditions in the region. Obviously, Fig. 1. The Dynamics of Vital Forces of the Residents of Krasnoyarsk Kray in 2011-2014 years # 1771 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentin G. Nemirovskiy. Dynamics of Social Well-Being of the Population of the Region in View of Emotional… the important role was played by socio-cultural and socio-psychological factors. On the one hand, on the social arena came the age cohorts of the population, representatives of which are deeply internalized by currently existing in society social norms and values. During the 23 years that have passed since the collapse of the period of our great country, not only a new generation of Siberians has appeared, but also older people en masse have managed to adapt to the changing conditions of life. We also cannot ignore the fact that a large proportion of those who are dissatisfied with the conditions of life in the Siberian region, especially the young, migrate to the western regions of the country in the fi rst place – to Moscow, as well as abroad. In other words, there is a leak of the most qualified and motivated people in the region. In contrast, the population of Siberia "diluted" by migrants of various nationalities of the other CIS states, some of which obtain local citizenship. Conditions of life in this region for them seem much better than where they lived before. Therefore, it would be wrong to assess the dramatic improvement of the social well-being of the population in the region of Siberia (as well as other regions of the country) as a uniquely positive phenomenon associated exclusively with the improvement of living standards, reducing social tensions, effective social policies in the region. In reality, it is a complex phenomenon influenced by various subordinate processes and factors, which are not always taken into account by researchers. In our opinion, it is advisable to refer to the studies in related disciplines such as cultural studies, which can contribute significantly to the explanation of these processes (Koptseva, Luzan, 2012; Koptseva, Zamaraeva, 2011). References 1. Barinov D.N. Regional’naya spetsifika sotsial’noy trevozhnosti [Regional specificity of social anxiety]. Herald of the Chelyabinsk State University. Series: Philosophy. Sociology. Cultural Studies (Vestnik Chelyabinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Filosofiya. Sotsiologiya. Kul’turologiya.). №. 8. 2008. P. 165-169. 2. Batalova N.L. Sotsial’noye samochuvstviye molodezhi v usloviyakh izmenyayushchegosya obshchestva (regional’nyy aspekt) Social well-being of young people in a changing society (regional aspect) abstract of dissertation. Tyumen, 2009. P. 8. 3. Burko V.A. Interpretation of the indicator of "social wellbeing" // Sociology and Society. Abstracts of the First All-Russian Congress of Sociology, "Society and Sociology: new realities and new ideas" St. Petersburg .: Publisher "Scythia", 2000. P. 56. 4. In Siberia, the most satisfied with their lives Kuzbass residents: FoRGO // Novosibirsk. City News Latest Asia. June 23, 2014. URL: http://novosibirsk.bezformata.ru/listnews/dovolni-zhiznyuzhiteli-kuzbassa/21354948/ 5. Golovakha E.I., Panina N.V., Gorbachik A.P. Measurement of social well-being // Sociology: 4M. № 10. 1998. С. 45-72. 6. Doolina N.V. Social well-being of the population as one of the criteria for the evaluation of the regional power base // Sociocultural strategy of regional development of Russia: Materials of AllRussian scientific and practical conference on the program «The socio-cultural evolution of Russia and its regions.» Smolensk, October 6-9, 2009 The Smolensk: «The Universe», 2009. P. 89. 7. Koptseva N.P., Luzan V.S. State cultural policy in the Siberian Federal District: concepts, issues and research: a monograph. Krasnoyarsk: SibFU , 2012. 160 p. # 1772 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentin G. Nemirovskiy. Dynamics of Social Well-Being of the Population of the Region in View of Emotional… 8. Koptseva N.P., Zamaraeva J.S., Sertakova E.A. Sociocultural Research of the Cultural Requirements of the Residents of the Krasnoyarsk City. Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences. № 4. 2011. P. 1577-1588. 9. Lapin N.I. Region kak pole sotsial’nogo samochuvstviya rossiyan I ikh otnosheniya k Institutam vlasti [Region as a field of social wellbeing of Russians and their relationship to government institutions] Opyt aprobatsii tipovoy metodiki"Sotsiologicheskiy portret regiona" (Experience testing standard method "Sociological Portrait of the region".Part II). Tyumen State University, 2006. 10. Lapin N.I., Belyaeva L.A. Program and standard tools "Sociocultural Portrait of the Region of Russia" (Modification 2010). M.: IFRAN, 2010. 11. Nemirovsky V.G., Nemirovskaya A.V. Chuvstvo nezashchishchennosti ot sotsial’nykh opasnostey kak osnova tipologizatsii regionov [Feeling of insecurity from the social dangers as a basis of typology of regions]. Po materialam sotsiologicheskikh issledovaniy v Vostochnoyi Zapadnoy Sibiri (based on sociological research in Western and Eastern Siberia). Monitoring of public opinion. № 1 (107). 2012 pp. 113-127. URL: http://wciom.ru/fileadmin/Monitoring/107/2012_107_15_Nemirovsky. pdf 12. Barbalet J.M. Emotion, Social Theory and Social Structure: A Macro-sociological Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 210 p. 13. Campbell A. The Sense of Well-being in America: Recent Patterns and Trends. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1981. Динамика социального самочувствия населения региона с учётом эмоционально-энергетических показателей В.Г. Немировский Сибирский федеральный университет Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79 Статья посвящена исследованию динамики социального самочувствия жителей Красноярского края (2010–2014 гг.). Для анализа использована методика, разработанная в рамках «Социокультурного портрета региона» Н.И. Лапина и Л.А. Беляевой, впервые дополненная нами шкалой самооценки уровня жизненной энергии респондента. Это позволило более адекватно представить эмоционально-энергетическую составляющую социального самочувствия респондентов. Эмпирической базой исследования являются репрезентативные опросы населения Красноярского края в 2010 и 2014 гг. методом формализованного интервью, а также исследование по созданной нами методике, проведённое аналогичным методом в 2011 г. Установлено, что по всем используемым индикаторам произошло значительное улучшение социального самочувствия населения региона. Подобное явление характерно для многих регионов Сибири. Делается вывод, что неверно оценивать существенный рост социального самочувствия населения региона в последние годы как однозначно позитивное явление. Оно может быть вызвано не только улучшением условий жизни и повышением эффективности социальной политики в регионе, но и другими малоизученными факторами. К их числу, например, можно # 1773 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Valentin G. Nemirovskiy. Dynamics of Social Well-Being of the Population of the Region in View of Emotional… отнести приход к активной социальной жизни представителей новых возрастных когорт, интернализировавших современные социальные нормы и ценности. Или интенсивную миграцию социальных акторов, недовольных жизнью в регионе, в Москву и за рубеж страны. В результате происходит отток активного человеческого капитала из Сибири. Также естественным путём уходят из жизни пожилые люди, которые тоже зачастую проявляли негативное социальное самочувствие. Поэтому повышение социального самочувствия населения может скрывать некоторые негативные процессы. Отсюда вытекает необходимость более глубокого изучения факторов, влияющих на изменение социального самочувствия населения сибирского региона. Ключевые слова: социальное самочувствие, социология региона, социология эмоций. Исследование выполнено при финансовой поддержке РГНФ, проект «Динамика социокультурных процессов в Восточно-Сибирском регионе в контексте современной модернизации России (на материалах социологических исследований в Красноярском крае)», № 13-03-00379. Научная специальность: 22.00.00 – социология. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1775-1793 ~~~ УДК 316.4 Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks for Social Inclusion Yuriy B. Savelyev* National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv 60 Volodymyrska Str., Kyiv, 01601, Ukraine Received 11.03.2014, received in revised form 16.05.2014, accepted 17.09.2014 The capability approach has emphasized human freedom and possibility of choice over various alternatives as a person’s capability set (Foster and Sen, 1997). Consequently, a rise of capabilities is a core of human development (Sen, 1999) and essential part of modernization process (Welzel, Inglehart and Klingemann, 2003). The paper suggests the capabilities model of social inclusion and attempts to use such an approach to gauge human development of a modernizing society as well as reveal hidden risks for inclusion. It is argued that despite rapid economic growth, the actual increase of real disposable income per capita and improvement of Human Development Index in Ukraine since the end of the 1990’s, the capabilities of its citizens have been seriously jeopardized. Ukraine fails to keep pace with other societies of the region (except Moldova) although the levels of development of Eastern European countries were very similar 20 years ago. This implies the growing gap in social actors’ capabilities between the national states within the region. Keywords: social inclusion, modernization, human development, capabilities, Eastern Europe, Ukraine. Research area: 22.00.00 – sociology. Introduction In present-day global world Eastern European societies are too small to be considered important on an international scale, while social scientists’ attention is concentrated on the big rising powers of the former ‘third-world’. However, much of the profound changes that have occurred in the world during last two decades were triggered by the region. It is exactly Central and Eastern Europe where the epicentre of transformation was located and social movements emerged that undermined socialist regimes 25 years ago. The Eastern Bloc * collapsed which ended the age of a bipolar world, boosted globalization and eventually led to the contemporary global state of play. Those changes were immediately reflected by sociologists. At that time theories of neomodernization of post-socialist societies became the mainstream idea along with an optimistic project of transformation of Eastern European countries into Western like democratic market economy society. Nevertheless, despite institutional and cultural similarity, a developmental track in the region was apparently different which resulted © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org # 1775 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy B. Savelyev. Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks… into different economic levels and quality of life which were achieved by various countries. This experience of Eastern Europe raises once again a question of plausibility of modernization and possible ways towards modernity. Contemporary sociology lacks modernization theory which would provide a tool to find an adequate answer. As W.Knöbl noted ‘there is no stable, empirically grounded theory… All there is… some sort of modernization discourse, some vague ideas about possible developmental paths of contemporary societies.’ (Knöbl, 2003: 105) This paper suggests using a modernization model based on the capability approach to gauge human development of a modernizing society in Eastern Europe. The capability approach has emphasized human freedom and possibility of choice over various alternatives as a person’s capability set and the actual functioning combination (Foster and Sen, 1997). Within the approach the increase of capabilities is a core of human development process (Anand and Sen, 1994; Sen, 1999). However, this also implies that even in the situation of equal rights and opportunities not all people may be able to choose options of which they are capable. Therefore, modernization can be considered a process that increases capabilities and enhances inclusion of social actors. Using the capability approach to assess modernization of a society would reveal hidden risks for exclusion and explicate indicators of inequality. First, the paper provides an overview of problems of post-socialist development and modernization in Eastern Europe in the past two decades. Human development is considered a benchmark of modernization. Based on threeelement modernization and human development model suggested by Welzel, Inglehart and Klingemann (2003) I argue that social inclusion is related to both the options application, which is the freedom to choose in the capability approach, and the choice application, which is the actually chosen, is important dimension of modernization. Such a theoretical framework of social inclusion may be a contribution into application of the capability approach in sociology to expose developmental problems, inequality and exclusion which would enhance the assessment of the needs of the vulnerable groups. Second, the paper focuses on Ukraine as a case of the post-socialist modernizing society. It is asserted that an optimistic prospect, which appeared after social and economic disruption of the 1990’s in Eastern Europe, was not uniformly distributed for different countries. Compared to the region, Ukraine fails to keep pace with either Eastern or Western neighbours except Moldova although the levels of development of most Eastern European countries were very similar 20 years ago and Ukraine used to have the median of regional human development value. This implies the growing gap in capabilities between the national states within the region. Third, the research demonstrates limitations of indicators of official statistics, data from traditional surveys and Human Development Index (HDI) linking these indicators data to the set of capabilities. I will show that despite positive dynamic in economic growth, average income and human development in Ukraine in the 2000’s, capabilities of the vast majority of its citizens have been jeopardized. In particular, the capability for housing, which was still very poor in 1998, dramatically plunged in the 2000’s. As a method of research I use original as well as secondary data analysis comparing trends of various existing indicators including HDI, GDP PPP per capita, Gini index, national and regional income and housing statistics, monthly average wages, price trends on the secondary residential market, self-reported data from the surveys of the Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine. The sources of # 1776 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy B. Savelyev. Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks… the study comprise statistical data of the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, United Nations Human Development Reports, the International Monetary Fund data, Association of Real Estate Specialists of Ukraine (ASNU), annual surveys of the Institute of Sociology of the NAS of Ukraine ‘Ukrainian Society: Sociological Monitoring 1994–2010’. Problem background and theoretical framework Sociologists (Esping-Andersen, 2007) and development economists (Yusuf et al., 2009; Sachs, 2008) emphasize that a critical problem for contemporary society is inequality, which persists and even has been growing in various countries as well as in the global system overall. A challenging question for social scientists is about varieties of social existence and alternatives of social, economic and cultural development (ISA, 2006). If modernity emerged in Western (NorthernAtlantic) civilization and is spontaneous in terms of its culture and societal evolution, Ukraine and many other post-socialist countries are societies with ‘catching-up development’ which determines numerous problems of their growth and makes an issue of inequality more acute. Since the Eastern Bloc collapsed, theories of neo-modernization of post-socialist countries became the mainstream idea. An optimistic project of transformation of post-socialist societies into western capitalist liberal model was conceived. P.Sztompka pointed out that since 1989 theory of modernization has focused on post-communist countries attempts to ‘return to Europe’, join the modern Western civilization (Sztompka, 1996: 101). Subsequently there has been criticism on modernization of post-communist countries (Allardt, 2002; Kapustin, 2003). It wasn’t a smooth process and in a number of cases desired modernization turned into ‘the unprecedented demodernization of a twentieth-century country’ when society was pulled ‘backward to a premodern era’ (Cohen, 2001: 45, 169). However, despite common difficulties there are apparent differences in the paths of development of former socialist countries in the region. After the collapse of Eastern Bloc and the Soviet Union in the beginning of the 1990’s Central and Eastern Europe fell into two clusters with different development tracks. While three former Soviet Republics (Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine) were involved into post-soviet integration project (CIS) maintained by Russian Federation, the other three former Soviet republics (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) with the rest of Central and Eastern European societies became determined to complete European integration. Since the middle of the 1990’s modernization of Central and Eastern Europe has been ‘predominantly understood in terms of a gradual incorporation of the post-communist societies into the European project. This process is then mostly read as convergence in legal, institutional, and political terms’ (Blokker, 2005: 515). This has redefined Eastern Europe radically. Recent enlargements of the European Union have left three Eastern European countries – Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine – in a specific zone that presently embodies European civilization borderland. Those countries share the same features: they used to be a part of imperia (Russian, Austro-Hungarian and then Soviet) and may be considered as post-colonial societies; they were involved in the Communist project of accelerated modernization that was an alternative to the Western one; nowadays they are located between the EU and Russian Federation and experience integrative process from both sides. After the EU enlargements Eastern Europe doesn’t even exist as an integral region. A criterion of belonging to the European project is much more important than geographic vicinity. # 1777 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy B. Savelyev. Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks… Present-day Eastern Europe, definition of which has always had connotation of a peripheral region, basically narrowed to three countries only: Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine. At this point of time there are two peripheral regions in Europe as a civilization. The first is mentioned above Eastern Europe (or what has left from it), the second – ‘Western Balkans’ (Croatia, FYR Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia including Kosovo).1 Nevertheless, these two regions differ significantly. While societies of Western Balkans committed to integration process and either have been granted candidate country status or recognized as potential candidate countries (European Commission, 2007), Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine are very far from that. Moreover, the region of Western Balkans is radically different from Eastern Europe. Western Balkans countries are located on the frontiers of contemporary European project which has been expanding its spatial body. Those societies do not have an alternative to integration. Very probably, sooner or later they will be incorporated to the project. This is a just a matter of their readiness that simply requires time. In contrast to them, Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine are the borderland which is located between European Union, which represents integration on the basis of common liberal values Western post-industrial marketeconomy democracy, and Russian Federation, which often claims itself to be exceptional ‘Eurasian’ way of development. Therefore, in the case of Eastern Europe there is an alternative to integration. There are three possible ways of development for Eastern European borderland: one of integration options will be implemented (either European or Russian), the region will be conserved as the borderland which is utilized as a buffer from both sides. After disruption of the 1990’s a period of rapid economic growth began in the region which gave an optimistic prospect. However, Moldova and Ukraine (Belarus has better performance close to recent EU members Bulgaria and Romania) still have the lowest ranks of GDP per capita and Human Development Index (HDI) in Europe (Human Development Report, 2011). Russian Federation and Belarus have not succeeded in development of democratic institutions. Ukrainian democracy is flawed. More recently Russian and Ukrainian political leaders claimed a specific (alternative to Western model that other Eastern European societies are trying to follow) way of development emphasizing technical modernization and economy based on innovations.2 The question is whether such a way of modernization can be efficient. Hence, it is important to gauge development beyond economic growth (Stiglitz, Sen, Fitoussi, 2009). Since 1990 HDI has been widely used for this purpose. However, since it was introduced, HDI has been criticized as ‘conceptually weak and empirically unsound, involving serious problems of non-comparability over time and space’ measure (Srinivasan, 1994: 241). R.Sugden (1993) questioned HDI as an operational tool. In recent 20 years HDI methodology has been advanced and significant contributions into conceptual development and operationalization have been made (e.g. Nussbaum and Sen, 1993; Martinetti, 2000; Kuklys, 2005; Comim et al., 2008). HDI is rooted in the capability approach that besides cross-country comparisons allows deeper understanding of a process and factors of modernization focusing on the increase of capabilities as a core of human development. Employing the capability approach, Welzel, Inglehart and Klingemann (2003) suggested three-element modernization model comprising individual resources (objective means of choice), emancipative cultural values (motives of choice) and institutional rules (effective rights to human # 1778 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy B. Savelyev. Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks… choice). In this model the focus is set, first, on the increasing role of emancipative and selfexpression values due to the growth of resources, second, on the linkage of emancipative values as the motives of choice to effective freedom rights and efficient democratic institutions. The model, however, is limited to the linear relationships of resources and values. It does not reveal differences in the access to the resources, participation and the ways of securing the access and choice. According to A.Sen, the increase of capabilities is a twofold set comprising the options application, which is the freedom to choose, and the choice application, which is the actually chosen (Foster and Sen 1997). Ways and means of securing human freedom and possibility of choice are crucial and require various forms of involvement of social actors in life of society, i.e. their social inclusion. A rise in capabilities is not possible without inclusion of social actors, for it accounts for their choice application. That is why social inclusion is considered a crucial means of human development (Andjelkovič et al., Анджелкович 2011). On the other hand, lack of social inclusion also limits freedom to choose. Therefore, an elaborated model of human development and modernization should embrace a dimension of social inclusion. Theoretical contributions (Parsons, 1966; 1977; Alexander, 1980; Wilson, 2006; Lamont, 2009; Acemoglu and Robinson, 2012) clearly demonstrate that social inclusion is related to integration of social system, to social institutions, social and cultural capital and ultimately to various forms of incorporation of different social groups into a core society. Social inclusion does not exclusively refer to particular deprived groups but is an important aspect which ‘makes societies successful’ (Lamont, 2009: 151). Social relationships of various types are built on relative capabilities allocated for social agents and groups which determine their actual choices. The capabilities model of social inclusion may be an analytical tool in understanding the ways of securing human freedom and possibility of choice, and, consequently, development of a society and modernization. This model comprises: 1. The means of providing choice (the capabilities set) and securing access to the resources; fair and efficient system of redistribution of resources (Dworkin, 2002). 2. Recognition, which determines social esteem of ‘abilities and activities’ and eventually ‘contribution to social reproduction’ of different social groups (Honneth, 2001: 54-55). 3. Participation which reflects the capabilities for social interaction (Fraser, 2007). 4. Values as motives of action and choice (Schwartz et al., 2001; Welzel, Inglehart and Klingemann, 2003). 5. Effective democracy and rights as institutional means of securing choice (Welzel, Inglehart and Klingemann, 2003). The combination of all elements accounts for the options application as well as for the choice application. Consequently, modernization is a process that expands capabilities and enhances social inclusion. In this paper we focus on the issue of the relative access to the resources studying the case of a modernizing society in Eastern Europe in comparative perspective with an attempt to reveal hidden risks for inclusion and assess human development via selected specific aspect of the capabilities set. Trends of Human Development in Eastern Europe This section aims to investigate the trends of human development in Eastern European # 1779 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy B. Savelyev. Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks… countries and identify possible differences in capabilities between the national states within the region and, in particular, between Ukraine and its neighbour countries. If we look at human development and economic growth of Ukraine in recent 20 years, we will see that decline in 1990’s followed by rapid and persistent growth since 1999 till global economic crisis in 2008. Such growth is supposed to increase the capabilities of social agents. However, estimation of such an increase would be more informative if it is related to the context of societies with similar development path and corresponding level of the capabilities in the initial point of comparison. In 1990 Central and Eastern European countries could be divided into 4 clusters by two dimensions. However, if ignore a factor of location, which is important because Soviet republics didn’t have many institutions of an independent state and experienced deeper crisis in 1990’s, all 13 countries fall into 2 groups of less developed (4 countries) and more developed (9 countries) based on UNDP criterion HDI equals 0.800 or above. Five out of nine countries in a more developed cluster were the part of the Soviet Union. Before the collapse of the Eastern block in 1990 there was no significant difference in HDI value between Ukraine and the majority of Eastern European countries. In fact, Ukraine’s HDI value of 0,809 matched the median in the selected set of 13 countries.3 As it follows from Table 1, six countries had higher value than Ukraine and six lower. Ukraine’s value was even slightly above the mean of 0,806 in the set. However, Slovenia and Czech Republic, which historically had been closer to more developed core of European civilization, had higher level of development among others (0,851 and 0,845). Among Soviet countries Lithuania demonstrated better performance with the value of 0,827. Estonia, Russian Federation, Ukraine and Latvia were approximately at the same level with Poland and Hungary. Soviet Belarus, Bulgaria and Romania constituted a cluster of less developed societies. Moldova had the lowest HDI (0,740) and was considerably behind. Table 1. HDI of Central and Eastern European countries in 1990 – 2005 HDI Rank 2005 Country 1990 1995 2000 2005 27 Slovenia 0,851 0,857 0,891 0,917 32 Czech Republic 0,845 0,854 0,866 0,891 36 Hungary 0,813 0,817 0,845 0,874 37 Poland 0,806 0,822 0,852 0,870 43 Lithuania 0,827 0,791 0,831 0,862 44 Estonia 0,813 0,792 0,829 0,860 45 Latvia 0,804 0,771 0,817 0,855 53 Bulgaria 0,794 0,785 0,800 0,824 60 Romania 0,777 0,772 0,780 0,813 64 Belarus 0,790 0,755 0,778 0,804 67 Russian Federation 0,815 0,771 0,782 0,802 76 Ukraine 0,809 0,756 0,761 0,788 111 Moldova 0,740 0,684 0,683 0,708 Source: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2007/2008. Р. 229-230 # 1780 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy B. Savelyev. Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks… Table 2. Clusters of Central and Eastern European countries in 1990. Location/HDI More developed (HDI ≥ 0,800) Soviet Less developed (HDI < 0,800) Total number of countries 2 Belarus, Moldova 7 2 Bulgaria, Romania 6 4 13 5 Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Russian Federation, Ukraine 4 Slovenia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland Non-Soviet Overall 9 0,880 0,870 0,860 0,850 0,840 0,830 0,820 0,810 0,800 0,790 0,780 0,770 0,760 0,750 1990 Ukraine Latvia Poland Romania 1995 2000 Russian Federation Estonia Belarus 2005 Bulgaria Lithuania Hungary Fig. 1. HDI trends for 10 Central and Eastern European countries in 1990-2005 Figure 1 demonstrates dynamic in human development of post-socialist countries in Eastern European region. The Figure doesn’t include Slovenia and Czech Republic that are above the mainstream and Moldova that is much lower. Moldova constitutes a separate case; it was an agricultural republic of the Soviet Union. In addition due to separatist movement it lost the most developed part Transnistria (Pridnestrovie) in the beginning of the 1990’s. That is why even compared to other post-soviet countries that were pulled backward after the USSR collapsed Moldova can be estimated at a very low level of development – 111 HDI rank (Human Development Report, 2005). The Fig. 1 shows that Poland and Hungary didn’t experience such a fall in contrast to postsoviet countries. Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia did # 1781 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy B. Savelyev. Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks… have a drop as well as other Post-Soviet countries. However, they quickly recover after 1995. Latvia experienced a huge HDI slump in the middle of 1990’s but developed progressively. Bulgaria and Romania had moderate decrease from 1990 till 1995. Their HDI trends were very similar to the HDI trends of Russian federation and Belarus from 1995 till 2000, but from 2000 HDI began growing much faster so that even Romania passed Belarus and Russian Federation by 2005. In contrast to 1990, Ukraine’s HDI value in 2005 (0,788) was much lower of median of the set of 13 countries (0,855) and even lower of the 1st quartile (0,836). Ukraine had the largest slump and is backward except Moldova which is not in the Figure because of the extremely low HDI value. Notably, both Ukraine and Belarus had virtually identical minimum of HDI in 1995, unlike Ukraine Belarus experienced much faster increase of HDI which approached the value of 1990 in 2000 and exceeded it considerably in 2005. Belarus also improved its relative position in the country set from 1990 to 2005. Figure 2 shows the difference between six post-soviet countries clearly. Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia were by HDI at the same level of development with Russian Federation and Ukraine in 1990. HDI dropped dramatically for all countries by 1995. By 2005 six countries formed two distinct clusters. Three Baltic States which are involved in the European project have considerably higher HDI. Among three Post-Soviet states Ukraine demonstrates a typical pattern. Russian Federation’s HDI progress is predominantly a result of growing GDP per capita. The latter is maintained increasingly by fuel and energy industry. Belarus has better performance than 0,86 0,85 0,84 0,83 0,82 0,81 0,8 0,79 0,78 0,77 0,76 0,75 1990 1995 2000 2005 Ukraine Russian Federation Latvia Estonia Lithuania Belarus Source: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2007/2008. Р. 229-230 Fig. 2. HDI trends for 6 Post-Soviet countries in 1990-2005 # 1782 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy B. Savelyev. Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks… Ukraine and Russian Federation since 1995. This is the only country among these three that exceeded HDI value of 1990. It can be explained by existing efforts of authoritarian regime. Such a regime is capable of mobilizing resources for a certain period of time. Above we considered HDI trends of selected societies that gave the opportunity to draw comparisons. However, it is more important to analyze development of Central and Eastern European countries in the broader context to understand their developmental track. The US development is suggested to be a scale for changes in the modern world. The US is the largest Western society with the biggest economy. It fully embodies values and principles of market-economy democracy. Nonetheless the US doesn’t have the highest HDI among the most developed countries. Below data will present HDI trends of selected countries compared against US HDI trend between 1990 and 2005. This also allows finding relative development shift for each society taking into account initial country’s position in 1990. All Central and Eastern European countries that are the EU member-states (EU8) demonstrate positive dynamics in relation to the US. They all improved their HDI ratio. The biggest improvement demonstrate Slovenia (3,82 %) and Poland (3,78 %). Latvia demonstrates the best relative result among post-soviet A8 countries (2,42 %), although its absolute HDI value is the smallest. Bulgaria and Romania also have HDI growing better that the US. Although improvement is less significant: 0,25 % and 0,94 % accordingly. Bulgaria has the lowest value among all ten Central and Eastern European countries. Overall three countries have relative change range below 1 % (Bulgaria, Romania and Lithuania). Adding Bulgaria and Romania to the aggregate list of EU8 and EU2 makes the mean of relative range value a bit smaller – 0,0211, σ2 = 0,0002. The state of affairs in the post-soviet societies is absolutely different. All countries as well as Russian Federation have negative dynamic in relation to the US. Table 3. Relative HDI change in Central and Eastern European countries (EU8) in 1990/2005 Country’s HDI/United States’ HDI ratio 1990 Country’s HDI/United States’ HDI ratio 2005 Relative change range 1990/2005 0,951 1,000 1,000 0,0000 0,851 0,917 0,926 0,964 0,0382 0,845 0,891 0,919 0,937 0,0174 0,813 0,874 0,885 0,919 0,0344 0,806 0,870 0,877 0,915 0,0378 0,827 0,862 0,900 0,906 0,0065 Estonia 0,813 0,860 0,885 0,904 0,0197 Latvia 0,804 0,855 0,875 0,899 0,0242 HDI HDI original value original value 1990 2005 HDI Rank 2005 Country 12 Point of reference (US) 0,919 27 Slovenia 32 Czech Republic 36 Hungary 37 Poland 43 Lithuania 44 45 Μean = 0,0255; σ2 = 0,0001 Source: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2007/2008. Р. 229-230 # 1783 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy B. Savelyev. Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks… Table 4. Relative HDI change in Bulgaria and Romania (EU2) in 1990/2005 Country’s HDI/United States’ HDI ratio 1990 Country’s HDI/United States’ HDI ratio 2005 Relative change range 1990/2005 0,951 1,000 1,000 0,0000 0,794 0,824 0,864 0,866 0,0025 0,777 0,813 0,845 0,855 0,0094 HDI HDI original value original value 1990 2005 HDI Rank 2005 Country 12 Point of reference (US) 0,919 53 Bulgaria 60 Romania Source: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2007/2008. Р. 229-230 Table 5. Relative HDI change in Borderland societies and Russian Federation in 1990/2005 Country’s HDI/United States’ HDI ratio 1990 Country’s HDI/United States’ HDI ratio 2005 Relative change range 1990/2005 0,951 1,000 1,000 0,0000 0,790 0,804 0,860 0,845 -0,0142 0,815 0,802 0,887 0,843 -0,0435 Ukraine 0,809 0,788 0,880 0,829 -0,0517 Moldova 0,740 0,708 0,805 0,744 -0,0607 HDI HDI original value original value 1990 2005 HDI Rank 2005 Country 12 Point of reference (US) 0,919 64 Belarus 67 Russian Federation 76 111 Μean = – 0,0425; σ2 = 0,0003 Source: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2007/2008. Р. 229-230 Belarus has better result (-1,42 %). The worst situation is in Moldova (-6,07 %). Russian Federation, which is close to Belarus by original HDI value (0,843 against 0,845), is more than 3 times worse by relative to the US shift. The mean of relative range value for four post-soviet societies equals -0,0425, σ2 = 0,0003. (For three borderland societies Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine it equals -0,0422). The difference with the mean of Central and Eastern European countries that are the EU members is 0,0636 and 0,068 with EU8. Thus, Eastern Europe was radically reshaped after 15 years of modernization. Different clusters formed in the region by 2005. Poland, Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia were by HDI at the same level of development with Bulgaria and Romania (EU2) remain in the same cell, but they are approaching the cluster of more developed societies Russian Federation and Ukraine in 1990 had considerably higher HDI in 2005. Bulgaria and Romania (EU2), which had lower level of development that Ukraine in 1990, approached the cluster of more developed societies. Notably, all old EU member-states (EU15) countries displayed positive dynamic in relation to the US. HDI grew more than in the US with the mean of relative range value – 0,0204, σ2 = 0,0001. If in 1990 none of the countries had HDI as high as in the US, in 2005 five the EU members exceeded that level. # 1784 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy B. Savelyev. Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks… United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) changed calculation of HDI and classification parameters of Human development in 2010. Since we use HDI calculated based on 2008 methodology to capture data for 1990’s period for several post-soviet countries, it would be logical to keep the former UNDP criterion, according to which High human development should be recognized with the HDI value of 0.800 or above. (Human Development Report, 2008) Following this classification, Belarus and Russian Federation fall into a group of countries of High human development, while only Ukraine and Moldova among selected countries go into a group of Medium human development. However, if one wants to find real differentiation in Central and Eastern Europe, another working criterion should be employed. It was suggested using UNDP estimation for initial point in 1990 to define clusters showed in Table 1. HDI value of 0,800 equalled 0,8705 of the US HDI in 1990. Apparently, the same value of 0,800 is smaller part of US HDI in 2005 because the latter has increased (in fact, the ratio is 0,841). If to keep the same ratio of 0,870 as a benchmark for defining more developed societies as it was in 1990, absolute HDI value would be 0,827 in 2005. Based on these calculations we can see from Table 6 that all EU8 members fall into a group of more developed societies, while all the rest post-soviet countries concentrate in a cluster of less developed societies. Russian Federation and Ukraine lost their positions and switched to the latter cluster. There are no non-EU countries in the former. Bulgaria and Romania (EU2) remain in the same cell, but they are approaching the cluster of more developed societies. Therefore, despite the actual growth since 1995, if related to the other societies of the region Ukraine is drastically behind which may lead to the gap in capabilities on the national states scale within Eastern Europe. Assessment of capabilities and a risk for inclusion in Ukraine Comparison with a regional or a group of countries trends is one possible way to assess human development in a modernizing society. Another tool is measurement of the capabilities. Traditional statistical measures often can not be indicative of the actual capabilities and risks for inclusion. As it follows from Table 7, inequality indicators in Ukraine are stable over 8 years and the situation is slightly improving. However, the average monthly wage statistics demonstrate rising inequality between Table 6. Differentiation of Central and Eastern Europe in 2005. Status/HDI More developed (HDI ≥ 0,827) Less developed (HDI < 0,827) Total number of countries Non-EU members 0 6 Belarus, Russian Federation, Ukraine Moldova, Bulgaria, Romania 6 EU members 7 Slovenia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia 0 7 Overall 7 6 13 Countries that accessed the EU in 2007 and are approaching a cluster of more developed countries are in italics. # 1785 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy B. Savelyev. Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks… Table 7. Inequality measures in Ukraine in 1999-2010 Year Share of income or consumption % Poorest 10 % Richest 10 % Richest 10 % to poorest 10 % Gini index 1999 3,7 23,2 6,4 29,0 2007 3,8 22,5 6,0 28,2 2000 – 2010 - - - 27,6 Source: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2003. Р. 283; HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2009. Р. 196. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2010. Ukrainian regions and the City of Kyiv (Table 8). The gap between all regions and the capital of Ukraine is growing and 13 of 25 regions therein had an average wage less than 50 % of Kyiv’s value (Ukraine’s capital) in 2008 (0 – in 1995). National value compared to Kyiv decreased for 14,25 % between 1995 and 2008. The biggest difference for this period have experienced Donetska region – 31,45 %, Dnipropetrovska – 29,97 %, Zaporizka – 25,05 %. The smallest changes occurred in Zakarpatska region – 2,73 %, Volynska – 8,11 %, Khmelnytska – 8,51 %. Although the latter regions have average wage less than half of Kyiv’s. Remarkably, only 3 regions of 24 (excluding the City of Kyiv and Kyivska region) had the average monthly wages above the national average in 2008. From a resources perspective the capabilities can be estimated by availability of assets and actual access to them. Even if, for instance, inhabitants of Kyiv have higher wages than population in other regions it doesn’t necessarily mean their greater capabilities, for assets can be harder to access in Kyiv because of their higher relative value. According to the official state statistics, in the last decade Ukrainians obtained on average more fi nancial resources than in the previous period, which implies increase in capabilities. Based on reports of the State Committee of Statistics of Ukraine we calculated that between 1998 and 2008 real salaries in Ukraine grew 309 % (nominal salary increased 1176 %). Real disposable income since 2001 till 2008 has grown 263,5 %. Number of population with average per capita total income under subsistence minimum dropped over 4 and a half times from 39,2 million (80,2 % of the overall population) in 2001 to 8,1 million (18,1 % of the population) in 2008 (official size of subsistence minimum was raised by 231,8 %) (State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, 2010). These objective statistics indicators are also supported by subjective self-assessment of the population shown in the national representative surveys. Number of people who felt satisfied with their overall position in society increased during 8 years almost 3 times from 7 % in 1998 to 20,2 % in 2006 (Panina et al., 2006). These data makes to assume that in average the capabilities of the population in Ukraine improved. However, this assumption may not embrace all set of the capabilities. As an example, we will explore such a vital capability as housing. In 2001 according to the survey of the Institute of Sociology of NAS of Ukraine 36,7 % of the respondents lived in a private apartment owned by their families and 35,6 % lived in a private house (part of the house) which were in possession of their families (Panina et al., 2006). Hence, over 72 % of Ukrainians could feel secure with regard to their access to housing. # 1786 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy B. Savelyev. Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks… Table 8. National and regional average monthly wages as percentage of the City of Kyiv average monthly wage in 1995-2008 1995 1998 2003 2008 Ukraine 73,00 61,94 60,71 58,75 Autonomous Republic of Crimea 70,00 57,89 56,90 52,34 Vinnytska 58,00 46,56 43,89 45,67 Volynska 53,00 42,51 41,92 44,89 Dnipropetrovska 91,00 76,52 69,12 61,03 Donetska 97,00 78,95 72,27 65,55 Zhytomyrska 61,00 47,77 43,89 45,67 Zakarpatska 50,00 43,72 49,80 47,27 Zaporizka 84,00 74,09 71,09 58,95 Ivano-Frankivska 65,00 48,58 52,83 50,20 Kyivska 78,00 61,13 61,76 60,25 Kirovogradska 58,00 48,18 46,39 46,45 Luganska 82,00 65,99 62,29 57,55 Lvivska 62,00 53,44 55,06 51,07 Mykolayvska 68,00 58,70 61,76 52,73 Odeska 66,00 59,11 59,66 53,12 Poltavska 76,00 60,73 57,42 54,03 Rivnenska 61,00 48,58 51,25 49,54 Sumska 66,00 52,63 49,80 47,89 Ternopilska 53,00 42,11 39,95 42,71 Kharkivska 72,00 64,37 59,79 54,62 Khersonska 59,00 50,61 46,78 44,73 Khmelnytska 55,00 46,15 42,44 46,49 Cherkaska 63,00 51,42 45,99 47,46 Chernivetska 55,00 42,91 45,20 45,61 Chernigivska 57,00 49,39 44,94 44,57 City of Kyiv 100,00 100,00 100,00 100,00 Source: State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, 2010. (Wage accruals per pay-roll, UAH) Percentages calculated by the author. The State Statistics Committee of Ukraine has reported that since 2000 till 2008 overall 672 thousand apartments have been put into service with total size of 68 753 sq. m and number of apartments built per 1000 population have risen from 1,3 in 2000 to 2,0 in 2008; there were 22,8 sq. m average per 1 inhabitant in 2008 compared to 20,2 sq. m in 1998 (State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, 2010). Average room number for a dwelling was 2,8 in 2006 compared to 2,6 in 1998, and in average a room was shared by 1,7 inhabitants in 2006 compared to 2,0 in 1998 (Panina et al., 2006). Number of families and single persons registered as requiring municipal or cooperative accommodations declined from 2 million and 29 thousand in 1998 to 1 million and 216 thousand in 2008 (State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, # 1787 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy B. Savelyev. Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks… 2010). Notably, that during the same period there were only 245 thousand families and single persons who obtained municipal or cooperative accommodations (State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, 2010). These official statistics and the survey data depict the situation with housing for Ukrainians as stable and slightly improving. But what is the capability for a common Ukrainian to acquire their own housing during life? We calculate such capability as number of years needed for a family of two fulltime working persons to earn an amount to purchase a 50 sq. m apartment for a current market price on the secondary residential market in a particular region. Number of years is calculated based on the average monthly wage for a particular region assuming that the whole wage amount before paying taxes of one family member is intended for the purchase. Table 9 demonstrates that in Desnianskyi district of the City of Kyiv, which has had the lowest prices on the secondary residential market in Kyiv persistently over decade, capability to purchase a modest apartment implies saving the whole monthly wage (without even paying taxes) for virtually the same period of 12 years in 1998 and 2003. This period became almost one and a half time longer at the beginning of 2008 and reached 17 years. Meanwhile, the average monthly wage in Kyiv increased over 3 times between 1998 and 2003 and more than 4 times between 2003 and 2008. The actual situation with housing capabilities in Kyiv is even more constrained. We calculated the price of a 50 sq. m apartment based on an average price of 1 sq. m in the district. However, smaller apartments normally have higher price for a 1 sq. m on the residential market. Besides, we selected the district with the price minimum in the city. Table 10 presents calculations for Sviatoshinskyi district, in which prices of 1 sq. m were close to median for Kyiv in the considered interval. The period needed to earn a required amount was with some fluctuation about 13 years in 1998 and 2003. But it exceeded 19 years in 2008. The difference with the district with the minimal price became more significant – over two years. According to SVDevelopment consulting company database the mean price for 1 sq. m in 2008 for the City of Kyiv was 3523 USD. Consequently, an apartment for the mean price would demand over 23 years of earnings. Table 9. Market prices for a sq. m on the secondary residential market, average monthly wages and number of years expected to purchase a 50 sq. m apartment in Desnianskyi district of the City of Kyiv in 1998-2008 January 1998 January 2003 January 2008 Sq. m price in USD 366 UAH/USD official exchange rate 414 2 490 1,91 5,33 5,05 Sq. m price in UAH 699,06 2206,62 12574,5 Calculated price of 50 sq. m apartment in UAH Monthly wage in the City of Kyiv (Wage accruals per pay-roll, UAH) 34953 110331 628725 247 761 3074 11,8 12,0 17,0 Number of years expected to purchase an apartment Sources: Association of Real Estate Specialists of Ukraine (ASNU, 2010), State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, 2010, National Bank of Ukraine. Calculations made by the author. # 1788 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy B. Savelyev. Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks… Table 10. Market prices for a sq. m on the secondary residential market, average monthly wages and number of years expected to purchase a 50 sq. m apartment in Sviatoshinskyi district of the City of Kyiv in 1998-2008 January 1998 January 2003 January 2008 Sq. m price in USD 411 441 2810 UAH/USD official exchange rate 1,91 5,33 5,05 Sq. m price in UAH 785,01 2350,53 14190,5 Calculated price of 50 sq. m apartment in UAH Monthly wage in the City of Kyiv (Wage accruals per pay-roll, UAH) 39250,5 117526,5 709525 247 761 3074 13,2 12,9 19,2 Number of years expected to purchase an apartment Sources: Association of Real Estate Specialists of Ukraine (ASNU, 2010), State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, 2010, National Bank of Ukraine. Calculations made by the author. 380 101270 Donetsk 550 2015 400 106600 Lviv 419 1570 488 130052 Odesa 454 1633 480 127920 Kharkiv 455 1679 341 90876,5 Number of years expected to purchase an apartment 2008 1876 Calculated price of 50 sq. m apartment in UAH 2008 526 Sq. m price in USD 2008 Calculated price of 50 sq. m apartment in UAH 2003 Dnipropetrovsk Number of years expected to purchase an apartment 2003 2008 Monthly wage (Wage accruals per pay-roll, UAH) 2003 Sq. m price in USD 2003 Table 11. Average monthly wages, market prices for a sq. m on the secondary residential market and number of years expected to purchase a 50 sq. m apartment in five Ukrainian cities in 2003-2008 16,0 2365 597162,5 26,5 16,2 2451 618877,5 25,6 25,9 3020 762550 40,5 23,5 2992 755480 38,6 16,6 2120 535300 26,6 Sources: State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, 2010, National Bank of Ukraine, SVDevelopment Consulting Company Database. Calculations made by the author. With the mean price of 568 USD for 1 sq. m it was 16,5 years in 2003. Since there is the lack of data on real estate prices in Ukrainians regions, it was possible to calculate the index for several big cities only and for a shorter period. Table 11 shows that despite lower prices on the secondary residential market comparing to the City of Kyiv, the capability to purchase own apartment became poorer in all big Ukrainian regional cities in 2008. However, it is possible to divide them in two clusters by the indicator of years expected to purchase an apartment. The first one embraces three cities – Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk and Kharkiv which with the City of Kyiv (16,5 years) fell within range from 16 to 16,6 years in 2003. The values increased by 9,4 – 10,5 years by 2008 with the range 25,6 – 26,6 years. Remarkably, the value in Kyiv (23 years) was lower by 2,6 years than in Donetsk and 3,6 than in Kharkiv in 2008. The second cluster of cities Odesa and Lviv had considerably higher values of 23,5 –and 25,9 years in 2003 (one third longer period than in the first cluster). In 2008 they reached point of 38,6 and 40,5 years accordingly. (The difference of # 1789 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy B. Savelyev. Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks… approximately one third with the other cluster was kept. The difference with Kyiv grew to over 40 %.) Although prices on the secondary residential market in the regional cities from both clusters were very similar: mean 417,8 (USD per 1 sq. m), standard deviation 57,3 and the coefficient of variation 0,137 in 2003; and mean 2589,6 (USD per 1 sq. m), standard deviation 357,03 and the coefficient of variation 0,138 in 2008, disparity in the capability indicator was determined by lower monthly wages in Lviv and Odesa regions which concurred with relatively more expensive housing. Thus, foregoing calculations demonstrate the actual and significant decrease of the capability to acquire own housing in the biggest Ukrainian cities including the national capital. Meanwhile other relevant statistical indicators and survey self-reports failed to reveal the negative trend in housing capabilities. was already very poor in 1998, dramatically worsened in the 2000’s. The study is focused on the selected case of the relative access to the resources in the period of economic growth in conjunction with comparison of developmental tracks in Eastern Europe based on conventional HDI methodology. It unveils limitations of indicators of official statistics and available data from traditional surveys. The capabilities model can supplement existing methods of measurement of social development in sociology. The capabilities, which are allocated for social actors and groups, determine their actual choices. The choice application requires social inclusion of actors. Relative access to the resources, recognition, participation, values as motives of action and choice, and institutional means of securing choice can be considered dimensions of modernization which induces a gain in capabilities. Conclusion This study provides a critical observation of development of Ukraine as a modernizing East European society in comparative perspective. Employing the capability approach to social inclusion allows assessment of the access to the resources, hidden risks for inclusion and implicit indicators of inequality. From this perspective social inclusion is an important factor in human development which embraces the means of providing and securing human choice. This paper shows that despite the actual growth of GDP per capita, real disposable income and Human Development Index since 1995, if compared to other societies of the region that had similar level of development Ukraine is significantly behind which implies the growing lag in capabilities on the national states scale within Eastern Europe. In particular, within a decade the access to housing in Ukraine, which Acknowledgements Research for this article was supported in part by the Carnegie Research Fellowship Program, which is administered by the National Council for Eurasian and East European Research (NCEEER). The opinions expressed herein are the author’s own and do not necessarily express the views of either the Carnegie Corporation of New York or NCEEER. A version of this paper was presented at 81st Annual Meeting of Eastern Sociological Society (ESS), Philadelphia, USA, 24–27 February 2011 and some materials were used in a paper "European Integration and Trends of Development of Eastern European Borderland", Proceedings of National University of "Kyiv-Mohyla Academy", Vol. 122, 2011. The author is grateful to Dr. Brian Gareau (Boston College, USA) for his valuable comments. # 1790 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy B. Savelyev. Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks… 1 2 3 Relation Turkey to European civilization is under discussion that is omitted in this paper. Russian Federation has a special position that will be discussed below. Modernization rhetoric was used in official documents and presidents’ addresses of both countries, e.g.: Послание Президента Федеральному Собранию Российской Федерации. – 12 ноября 2009 года, Москва, Большой Кремлёвский дворец. – Available at: http://news.kremlin.ru/transcripts/5979; Послание Президента Федеральному Собранию Российской Федерации. – 22 декабря 2011 года, Москва, Кремль. – Available at: http://news.kremlin.ru/ news/14088; Модернізація України – наш стратегічний вибір : Щорічне Послання Президента України до Верховної Ради України. – К., 2011. – 416 с.– Available at:http://www.president.gov.ua/docs/Poslannya_sborka.pdf; Тільки глибока модернізація України сприятиме її швидкому розвитку : Виступ Президента України на урочистостях з нагоди відзначення 80-річчя утворення Дніпропетровської області. – 24.02.2012. – Available at: http://www.president.gov. ua/news/23092.html Slovakia was excluded because of lack of the data. Russian Federation was added as a point of reference. 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Available at: http://www.undp.tj/files/Regional_Human_ Development_Report__Beyond_transition__towards_inclusive_societies_RUS.pdf 6. ASNU (2010) Assotsiatsiya spetsialistov po nedvizhimosti (rieltorov) Ukrainy (ASNU) [Association of real estate professionals (realtors) Ukraine] Available at http://www.asnu.net/ analitica08-1.php 7. Blokker P. (2005) Post-Communist Modernization, Transition Studies, and Diversity. Europe European Journal of Social Theory 8(4): 503–525. 8. Cohen S. F. (2001) Failed Crusade: America and the Tragedy of Post-Communist Russia. New York: W.W.Norton & Co. 9. Comim F. et al. (2008) The Capability Approach: Concepts, Measures and Applications. Cambridge University Press. 10. Dworkin R. (2002) Sovereign Virtue: The Theory and Practice of Equality. Harvard University Press. 11. Esping-Andersen G. (2007) Sociological Explanations of Changing Income Distributions. American Behavioral Scientist 50: 639-658. 12. European Commission (2007) Official web site. 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(2003) Modernity’s Failure/Post-modernity’s Predicament: The Case of Russia. Critical Horizons 4: 99-145. 22. Knöbl W. (2003) Theories That Won’t Pass Away: The Never-ending Story of Modernization Theory: In Gerard Delaty and Engin F. Isin (eds) Handbook of Historical Sociology. London: Sage Publications: 96-107. 23. Kuklys W. (2005) Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach: Theoretical Insights and Empirical Applications. Springer. 24. Lamont M. (2009) Responses to Racism, Health, and Social Inclusion as a Dimension of Successful Societies: In Peter A. Hall, Michele Lamont (eds.) Successful Societies: How Institutions and Culture Affect Health. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 151-168. 25. Martinetti E.C. (2000) A multidimensional assessment of well-being based on Sen’s functioning approach. Revista Internazionale di Scienze Social 108: 207–239. 26. National Bank of Ukraine. Available at http://www.bank.gov.ua/KURS/last_kurs1.htm 27. Nussbaum M, Sen A. (eds.) (1993) The Quality of Life. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. 28. Panina N. et al. (2006) Українське сусільство: соціологічний моніторинг 1994–2006 / За ред. Н.В.Паніної. – К.: Інститут соціоло-гії НАН України / Ukrainian Society: Sociological Monitoring 1994–2006. – Kiev: Institute of Sociology of NAS of Ukraine, 2006. 29. Parsons T. (1966) Societies: evolutionary and comparative perspectives. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. 30. Parsons T. (1977) The evolution of societies. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. 31. Sachs J.D. (2008) Common Wealth: Economics for a Crowded Planet. London: Penguin Books. 32. Schwartz et al. (2001) Extending the Cross-Cultural Validity of the Theory of Basic Human Values with a Different Method of Measurement. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology September 32 (5): 519-542. 33. Sen A. (1999) Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 34. Srinivasan T. N. (1994) Human development: A new paradigm or reinvention of the wheel? The American Economic Review. 84(2): 238-243. 35. State Statistics Committee of Ukraine (2010). Date of the Last modifications: 19/01/2010. Available at http://ukrstat.gov.ua/ 36. Stiglitz J., Sen A., Fitoussi J-P. (2009) Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress. Available at: http://www.stiglitz-sen-fitoussi.fr/documents/ rapport_anglais.pdf 37. Sugden R. (1993) Welfare, resources, and capabilities: A review of Inequality Re-examined by Amartya Sen. Journal of Economic Literature 31 (4): 1947-1962. # 1792 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Yuriy B. Savelyev. Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe: Latent Risks… 38. SVDevelopment consulting company. Available at http://www.svdevelopment.com/ru/web/ flat_costs/ 39. Sztompka P. (1996) Sotsiologia sotsialnyh izmenenii [Sociology of social change]. Translated from English, ed. by V.A. Yadov. M.: Aspect Press, 1996. 416 p. 40. Welzel C., Inglehart R., Klingemann H-D. (2003) The theory of human development: A crosscultural analysis. European Journal of Political Research. 42: 341-379. 41. Wilson L. (2006) Developing a Model for the Measurement of Social Inclusion and Social Capital in Regional Australia. Social Indicators Research. 75(3): 335-360. 42. Yusuf S. et al. (2009) Development economics through the decades: a critical look at 30 years of the world development. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Критическая оценка развития модернизирующегося общества в Восточной Европе: скрытые риски для социальной включенности Ю.Б. Савельев Киевский национальный университет им. Т. Шевченко Украина, 01601, Киев, ул. Володимирская, 60 Возможностный подход предложил понимать человеческую свободу как возможность выбора различных альтернативных вариантов (Foster and Sen, 1997). Рост возможностей является основой развития человеческого потенциала (Sen, 1999) и важнейшей частью процесса модернизации (Welzel, Inglehart and Klingemann, 2003). В статье предлагается возможностная модель социальной включенности, которая используется для оценки человеческого развития модернизирующегося общества. Она также позволяет выявить скрытые риски неравенства и эксклюзии. Обосновывается, что, несмотря на быстрый экономический рост, фактическое увеличение реальных доходов на душу населения и улучшение индекса развития человеческого потенциала в Украине с конца 1990-х до середины 2000-х годов, возможности граждан были под серьезной угрозой. Украина отставала в развитии от других обществ региона (за исключением Молдовы ), хотя уровни развития стран Восточной Европы были очень похожи в начале 1990-х годов. Используемый подход демонстрирует растущий разрыв в возможностях социальных акторов в регионе. Ключевые слова: социальная включенность (инклюзия), модернизация, развитие, возможности, Восточная Европа, Украина. Научная специальность: 22.00.00 – социология. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1794-1802 ~~~ УДК 314.727 Temporary Migration in India: Findings from Statistical Data and Learnings from Case Studies Evgeny V. Kochkina* and Srilata Sircarb The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration 82 Vernadskogo, Moscow, 119571, Russia b Lund University 12 Sölvegatan, 62 Lund, SE-223, Sweden a Received 18.06.2014, received in revised form 02.07.2014, accepted 17.09.2014 The subject of rural-urban migration in India and its close association with the question of rural development has been studied over a long period of time. Official data suggests that short-term migration is a rare phenomenon in India while several case studies from across the country reveal quite the opposite. This paper has attempted to identify some loopholes in the official data. It has further reviewed the existing literature and case studies to identify informal indebtedness as a prime motivation for temporary migration. On the whole, the paper seeks to explore the arenas and potential for future research on the theme of temporary rural-urban labour migration in the context of India. Keywords: temporary migration, rural-urban linkages, rural development, India. Research area: 22.00.00 – sociology. 1. Introduction The subject of rural-urban migration and its close association with the question of rural development has been studied over a long period of time. The discussion over this phenomenon has largely been framed by the theory of urban bias in development policies and strategies; and migration has on many instances been seen as merely the spatial transfer of poverty from rural to urban areas without having any significant positive impact on income poverty and overall living conditions. However the form of migration that has been dominant in academic interest * is long-term or permanent migration. Internal temporary migration is a relatively less studied phenomenon that has evoked interest only in the recent times. The aim of the paper is to discuss trends, causes and consequences of this type of migration in present day India. The paper is divided into three parts. It begins with a review of literature on different aspects of temporary migration in India. In the second part, using statistical data from the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) report on Migration in India1 we will attempt to illustrate key features of the phenomena. In particular, we made an attempt © Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved Corresponding author E-mail address: email@example.com # 1794 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeny V. Kochkin and Srilata Sircar. Temporary Migration in India: Findings from Statistical Data and Learnings… to estimate what social groups tend to choose this kind of migration, what differences in trend in temporary migration might be detected between states/regions of India, and what factors motivate temporary migration. We attempt to fill the gaps in learning arising from this data through case studies by independent researchers available in the existing literature. The final part of the paper is a detailed discussion of our main findings where we reflect on the ramification of temporary migration on income poverty, terms of labour and overall rural development. 2. Literature Review Recent studies conducted in different developing countries have shown that internal labor migration is growing considerably year by year. The biggest part of migrating population is temporary migrants. Frequently, there are poor rural people with low level of education and other assets who leave their family behind to search for a temporary job as constructions or manual workers in rural towns and big cities. According to different estimations, about 20 million Indians join this track each year (Deshingkar 2005:30). The phenomenon of growing temporary migration in India has been stated in many recent village studies. Since the Constitution of India safeguards the fundamental right to live and work in any part of the country without registering ether at the place of origin or at the place of staying, it is difficult to quantify the flows of migrants in the context of the country as a whole. A survey by Banerjee and Duflo (2007) carried out in rural areas of Udaipur shows that “60 percent of the poorest households report that someone from their family had lived outside for a part of the year to obtain work” (Banerjee & Duflo 2007:153). Similar survey conducted by an UN team in the rural areas of Madhya Pradesh has shown that more than 50 % of households in studied villages had at least one family member who was a temporary migrant (Deshingkar & Akter 2009:55). The percent was even higher (75 %) in the most remote and hilly tribal villages (ibid). A study carried out by Dayal and Karan in 12 villages of Jharkhand has demonstrated an analogous trend; in particular, 30 % of rural households have at least one temporary migrant (Deshingkar 2005:31). The amount of temporary migrants again was significantly higher among the poorest of the poor; among migrants from the area, 80 % were landless and 88 % were illiterate (ibid). There are only a few examples of studies that have been completed on the topic; however, a common finding is that the rate of temporary migration is significantly higher than permanent migration and the poorest social groups or people from the poorest areas tend to join temporary migration. Apart from these features, these studies pointed out some other important characteristics of temporary migration in India. It has been shown that usually the head of the household is the person who migrates to find a job, migrants typically do several trips in a year, and the median length of a trip is not longer than one month (Rogaly1998; Banergee & Duflo 2007; Deshingkar & Akter 2009). Reasons which motivate people to migrate temporarily from rural areas to towns and cities seem to be the most debated aspect of the issue of temporary migration in India. The “push-pull” model dominates the existing literature on the topic. According to the literature, households make a rational decision to send some of their members to work away in an attempt to “minimize risks of various market failures such as drought, flood, or drop in prices” (Haberfeld et al. 1999:474). In other words temporary migration makes household income more stable. The second important reason which is widely discussed in the literature is scarcity of land. This factor is said to be the most important motivation to migrate for such social groups of Indian society as Scheduled Tribes and # 1795 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeny V. Kochkin and Srilata Sircar. Temporary Migration in India: Findings from Statistical Data and Learnings… Castes (Haberfeld et al. 1999:474; Deshingkar 2005). The third factor pointed out by several authors is economical diversity among different Indian regions caused by differential industrial and agricultural development. For example, ”workers from backward states like Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan routinely travel to the developed “green revolution” states of Maharashtra, Punjab and Gujarat”(Deshingkar 2005:30). Scholars interested in temporary migration flows in India argue that apart from significant amount of drawing forces which motivate people to migrate, there are several institutional factors that make people migrate not permanently, but temporary. In particular, we can mention such factors as diversity of languages, caste loyalty, traditions to marry at the young age, the importance of living within household, high cost of travel and information, close social connections of people with their families and communities etc (Haberfeld et al. 1999; Banerjee & Duflo 2007). Because of these factors it is less desirable for people to migrate from one area to another permanently. Thus, describing the reasons why people migrate only for short periods of time Banerjee and Duflo mentioned that “making more money is not a huge priority, or at least not a large enough priority to experience several months of living alone and often sleeping on the ground in or around the work premises”(Banerjee & Duflo 2007:165). How profitable is temporary migration for rural households? The question has been raised and discussed by many scholars. Taking into account the fact that people from the poorest social groups usually join the process, temporary migration can be seen as an effective instrument to fight rural poverty. However, it must be mentioned that this type of migration does not change the financial situation of rural households considerably enough. In particular, temporary migrants in India working as construction or manual workers are prone to frequently changing their jobs (Banerjee & Duflo 2007:153). In this situation, it is quite difficult for them to accumulate new skills and contacts. In other words, frequently the only possible job opportunity for this type of migrants is manual, badly paid, low status work (Rogaly 1998:22). 3. Results 3.1. Who Are the Temporary Migrants2 in India and How Many Are They? The NSSO report on Migration in India (2007-08) defines a migrant as any member of a household “whose last usual place of residence (UPR), at any time in the past, was different from the current place of enumeration” (NSSO 2007-08: 11). In contrast, the definition of shortterm migration did not involve change of UPR at all. Any member of a household who had stayed away from his current place of enumeration for a period of one month or more but less than six months within the last 365 days, for the purpose of employment or in search of employment, was counted as a short-term migrant (ibid). This definition of short-term migration is significant because it takes into account the purpose behind such temporary movement i.e. employment or search of employment. Unlike the category of permanent migrants which includes women who migrate due to marriage, this category focuses specifically on migration induced mainly by economic factors. This should be an important consideration while evaluating the numbers that the NSSO reports. According to the report, short-term migration did not form a significant part of the study of migration in India because the rate of shortterm migration was only 1.7 % in rural areas and negligible (less than one per cent) in urban areas (ibid: H-iii). However these rates are calculated as proportion of entire population. Since the definition # 1796 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeny V. Kochkin and Srilata Sircar. Temporary Migration in India: Findings from Statistical Data and Learnings… itself takes into account the purpose of migration, the rates should be calculated as proportion of the workforce (population between the ages of 15 and 59)3. Since the report concentrates only on data from rural areas the same has to be done in this paper hereafter. Although the NSSO study is not a census, the sampling size and strategy are aimed at making generalization of the findings reliable (ibid: 1). On the basis of these facts, the following deductions can be made: the absolute number of short-term migrants in rural areas is 1.7 % of the total rural population which is approximately 14.5 million individuals4, this number when seen as a proportion of the rural workforce5 constitutes 3 % of the total rural workforce. Despite being large in absolute terms, the figure is still quite small as compared to the proportions revealed by some other small-scale studies by independent researchers quoted in the prior sections. One of the reasons for this could be the fact that the NSSO study is a household based study rather than an individual based one. It is likely that many short-term migrants may be living as individuals rather than as part of households. While the Census regards such individuals as households in their own right, the same is not true of the NSSO study. Moreover, short-term migrants are not counted in the outmigrants category which makes the estimation of their exact number further difficult. Even with all these limitations in mind, the socio-economic profile of the short-term migrant thrown up by the data from the NSSO study is quite telling. First of all, for every 28 male short-term migrants, there were only 5 female short-term migrants indicating that short-term migration is nearly six times more prevalent among males than among females (NSSO 200708: Table15 Appendix A). Secondly, when the sample was divided into deciles on the basis of Monthly Per Capita Expenditure (MPCE) the incidence of short-term migration was seen to be increasing in deciles of decreasing MPCE with highest concentration in the two lowest deciles (ibid: 94). Since the data was not disaggregated on the basis of caste and religion, it is difficult to profile the short-term migrants on these bases. But on the basis of existing studies it can be safely argued that short-term migration is a strategy of the poorest income groups which are most often constituted by marginalized groups such as Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and religious minorities such as Muslims. Further corroboration of this can be found in the qualitative studies that explore the motivations behind short-term migration. 3.2. What Motivates Short-term Migration in India? The NSSO report states that 51 % of male short-term migrants migrated within the state of their usual residence while 72 % of them migrated to urban areas. For female short-term migrants, migration within the state was higher at 69 % but migration to urban areas was lower at 42 %. While the definition already takes into account the purpose of employment or search of employment, the usual principal activity status of these migrants further corroborates this. According to the report construction, agriculture and low-skill manufacturing together constituted 80 % of the usual principal activity of short-term migrants, with construction engaging 43 % of males and agriculture engaging 45 % of female migrants. These figures make it abundantly clear that employment is the prime motivation behind undertaking short-term migration but also brings forth the observation that the forms of employment of the short-term migrants are not such that are expected to be high-income or capable of upward social mobility. This leads to the question why some sections of the rural population are migrating seasonally to find employment in activities that are not apparently # 1797 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeny V. Kochkin and Srilata Sircar. Temporary Migration in India: Findings from Statistical Data and Learnings… economically or socially uplifting. The answer to this can be found in some specific case focused studies conducted by various scholars. Several articles in the volume titled India’s Unfree Workforce: Of Bondage Old and New (Bremen et al 2009) associate the issue of indebtedness to seasonal migration and informal employment. Srivastava (2009 cited in Bremen et al 2009) points out that in the absence of formal sources of credit many vulnerable sections in rural areas are forced to enter into “voluntary, informal debt relations” that are marked by high rates of interest and power relations shaped by caste affiliations. Seasonal migration is often resorted to as a means to repay debt rather than merely to enhance income. Other studies (Heuze & Guerin cited in Bremen et al 2009) emphasize on the role of intermediaries and the network of middlemen involved in recruiting seasonal migrant labour in both agriculture and rural nonfarm sectors. Studies based in the brick kilns of West Bengal and Tamil Nadu (Shah 2006) have revealed that the recruiters often pay advances to the workers which enables them to repay their debts but simultaneously keeps them tied to the informal low wage jobs for which payment is made at the end of the season. This payment then goes into repaying the advances of the recruiters thus generating a vicious cycle of permanent indebtedness. It has been argued that in such cases, familial, caste and kinship ties further reinforce dependency and consequent bondage rather than acting as empowering forces. For instance, David Picherit’s (2009 cited in Bremen et al 2009) ethnographic study of the hierarchy of middlemen in migration processes in villages of Andhra Pradesh revealed that migrants belonging to the same caste as the recruiters were more vulnerable to informal bondage and obligatory informal employment than those belonging to other castes. It also led to a tendency among the migrants to aspire to rise within the hierarchy of recruiters thus replicating the process over time and keeping the community tied to the system. In this regard the construction of identity becomes another important source of motivation for seasonal migrants (Rogaly et al 2003, Shah 2006). A study of the recruitment process for migrant workers in rice cultivation in West Bengal (Rogaly et al 2003) involved ‘upper caste’ employers having to visit, accept hospitality from and establish familiarity with Scheduled Tribes, which they did grudgingly in the absence of an alternative. This process not only enabled the work-seekers to evaluate which employer was more trustworthy but also gave a boost to their selfesteem and image as a community. A similar study of seasonal workers from Jharkhand migrating to brick kilns in other states (Shah 2006) showed that this was seen as an opportunity by the young workers to escape the supervision of parents at home and explore a new place and opportunities for prohibited amorous relationships (:93). Thus this seasonal migration acted as a source of liberation that paved the way for young workers to acquire their own independent sense of self. 3.3. What trends in temporary migration might be detected between states? According to NSSO data the rate of permanent migration is significantly higher in India than rates of temporary migration. Thus, only 5 % of all migrants from Indian rural areas are migrating temporarily. However, if we estimate the rate among different states and genders within those states, we can see significant differences (see Fig. 1). For instance, the rate of temporary migration is very high from rural areas of such states as Manipur (92 % of all migrants migrate temporarily), Arunachal Pradesh (80 %), Nagaland (62 %), and Lakshadweep (56 %). By contrast, the lowest rates of temporary migration # 1798 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeny V. Kochkin and Srilata Sircar. Temporary Migration in India: Findings from Statistical Data and Learnings… Fig. 1. The figure was generated by authors of the paper based on NSSO data (NSSO 2007-08: 54-56). It describes percentage of temporary migrants among all migrants from different Indian states. It is important to mention that the figure shows rates of temporary migration only from rural areas occur in such states as Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Jharkhand, Daman & Diu – temporary migrants constitute only 1-2 % of all migration flows from rural areas of these states. Taking into account such factors as gender we can see that the highest rate of male temporary migration again occur in such states as Manipur (98 % of all male migrants migrate temporary), Arunachal Pradesh (92 %), Nagaland (84 %), Lakshadweep (60 %). The highest rate of female temporary migration is found in rural regions of the same four states Manipur (83 % of all female migrants migrate temporary), Arunachal Pradesh (47 %), Nagaland (47 %), Lakshadweep (60 %). The lowest rate of male temporary migration was found in 4 states: Daman & Diu (1 %) Mizoram (6 %), Haryana (11 %), Madhya Pradesh (14 %). It should be mentioned that in twenty states, the percentage of female temporary migration is not higher than 5 %. The lowest rate of such migration was found in rural area of four states: Jharkhand, Assam, Daman & Diu, Madhya Pradesh – in all these states the percentage of females who migrate temporarily among all female migrants is less than 2 %. It is important to mention that rates of female and male temporary migration significantly and quite strongly correlate to each other (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0,825; p<0.01). The implications of these findings have been discussed in the following section. 4. Discussion of Results It is evident that there are serious gaps in the official data concerning short-term migration in India. There are great discrepancies in the rate of temporary migration estimated by region specific case studies and that projected by the NSSO study. This may be due to the fact that temporary migration is concentrated in certain regions and in certain income groups which may have had restricted representation in the sample. For instance, data from the north-east states of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and Nagaland reflect very high rates of temporary migration although they may have had low representation in the sample due to their low share in total population of the country. Similarly, social groups like Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes which # 1799 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeny V. Kochkin and Srilata Sircar. Temporary Migration in India: Findings from Statistical Data and Learnings… are repeatedly referred to in several case studies are minorities in terms of their representation in the population. Thus there needs to be a statistical study specifically focused on measuring shortterm migration in the country. This brings us to the issue of trends and patterns, which fi nds passing mention in the report. State-wise disaggregation reveals that despite limitations of sampling etc temporary migration seems to be a regional phenomenon. The north-east seems to be the hot-bed of temporary migration. This is not surprising since Scheduled Tribes constitute a large part of the population of this region and they have been identified in the case studies as a group vulnerable to short-term migration. The region is also backward in terms of both agricultural production and industrial development. Thus the overt reason of employment or search of employment is logically applicable to temporary migrants from these states. It will be interesting to fi nd data on the destination of these temporary migrants and analyse if they fi nd employment within the respective state or outside. The report does not disaggregate data on destinations at the state level but considering the overall high proportion of in-state temporary migration, some speculations can be made about the destinations. What the report fails to take into account is the issue of indebtedness that figures large in all the recent case studies. Since much of the indebtedness is through informal arrangements, there seems to be a large gap in the official data in this regard. In fact, the data on remittances and the use of remittances does not take into account remittances from short-term migration thus making a blanket assumption that the motivation behind this form 1 2 of migration is merely income enhancement. It is possible that a more in-depth study would reveal the use of short-term remittances for payment of informal debts and would also reveal a mechanism of continuous debt creation that keeps specific social groups trapped in the cycle of temporary migration and debt payment. This has serious implications for policies of social security and rural financial inclusion. As the case studies suggest, indebtedness reduces the potential of short-term migration to alleviate income poverty and the network of moneylenders, recruiters and employers may have damaging implications for the terms of labour. 5. Conclusion To summarise the key findings of the paper, official data suggests that short-term migration is a rare phenomenon in India while several case studies from across the country reveal quite the opposite. The paper has attempted to identify some loopholes in the official data. There is consensus in all studies over the fact that shortterm migration is concentrated in lowest income groups and is most prevalent among weaker social groups such as Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Indebtedness is brought up as a major motivation for temporary migration in the case studies but in the absence of official data on informal indebtedness, it is difficult to analyse the relationship between these two phenomena. This in turn makes it difficult to estimate the potential of temporary migration for poverty reduction and income enhancement. Thus on the whole, short-term migration in India has tremendous potential for future research that can shed light on policy solutions for important aspects of rural development. The NSSO is under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Govt. of India. It is the only official source of national level household data in India apart from the census. Data for this report was collected during the 64th Round of NSS from July 2007 to June 2008. The report was published in June 2010. ‘Temporary Migration’ and ‘Short-term Migration’ are used interchangeably in this paper. # 1800 # Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeny V. Kochkin and Srilata Sircar. Temporary Migration in India: Findings from Statistical Data and Learnings… 3 4 5 Workforce in the Census of India 2001 is defi ned as the population between the ages of 15 and 59 who are either employed or are willing to be employed. Due to absence of data and purposes of simplification here it is taken to be all population within the age-group of 15 to 59. The population of India is 1.2 billion of which 72 % or 850 million is rural population. 1.7 % of this is 14.5 million. See Census of India, 2001 available at http://censusindia.gov.in/ 57 % is the national average for population in this age group and the numerical equivalent for rural population would be 485 million. References 1. Badiani, R. and Safir,A. (2008). “Coping with Aggregate Shocks: Temporary Migration and Other Labor Responses to Climatic Shocks in Rural India”. Working paper, available at http://www. espe.conference-services.net/resources/321/1533/pdf/ESPE2009_0392_paper.pdf 22.03.2011. 2. Banerjee, A. and Duflo, E. (2007). “The Economic Lives of the Poor”. Journal of Economic Perspective, 21(1):141–167. 3. Bremen, J et al (2009). India’s Unfree Workforce: Of Bondage Old and New, Oxford University Press, Delhi. 4. Chant, S. (1998). “Households, gender and rural-urban migration: reflections on linkages and considerations for policy”. Environment and Urbanization, 10(1): 5-21. 5. Deshingkar, P. (2005). “Maximising the Benefits of Internal Migration for Development”. IOM Background Paper. Available at http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/1606.pdf, 30.04.2011 6. Deshingkar, P. and Akter, S.(2009). “Migration and Human Development in India”. United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Reports, Research Paper 2009/13. 7. Haberfeld, Y. et al. (1999). “Seasonal migration of rural labor in India”. Population Research and Policy Review ,18: 473–489. 8. Hasan, Arif (2010). “Migration, small towns and social transformation in Pakistan”. Environment and Urbanization, 22(33): 33-50. 9. Kandel ,W. and Kao, G.(2001). “The Impact of Temporary Labor Migration on Mexican Children’s Educational Aspirations and Performance”. International Migration Review, 35(4): 12051231. 10. Neve, G (2010). “Book Review: India’s Unfree Workforce: Of Bondage Old and New, Bremen, J et al (2009)”. Journal of Agrarian Change, 10(4): 588-591. 11. Rogaly, B. (1998). “Workers on the Move: Seasonal Migration and Changing Social Relations in Rural India”. Gender and Development, 6(1): 21-29. 12. Rogaly, B et al (2003). “Seasonal Migration, Employer-Worker Interaction and Shifting Ethnic Identities in Contemporary West Bengal”. Contributions to Indian Sociology, 37 (1&2): 281-310. 13. Shah, A (2006). “The Labour of Love: Seasonal Migration from Jharkhand to the Brick Kilns of other States in India”. Contributions to Indian Sociology, 40 (1):91-118. 14. IFAD (2011). Rural Poverty Report 2011, International Fund for Agricultural Development, Rome, Italy, available from: http://www.ifad.org/rpr2011, 21.02.2011. 15. NSSO (2010): Migration in India: 2007-08, NSS Report No. 533, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Delhi. Available at http://www.mospi.nic.in/rept %20_ %20pubn/430_ final.pdf, 21.02.2011. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис» Evgeny V. Kochkin and Srilata Sircar. Temporary Migration in India: Findings from Statistical Data and Learnings… Временная миграция в Индии: анализ кейсов и статистических данных Е.В. Кочкина, Шрилата Сиркарб а Российская академия народного хозяйства и государственной службы при Президенте РФ Россия, 119571, Москва, пр. Вернадского, 82 б Университет Люнда SE-223 62, Швеция, Люнд, Солвегатен, 12 Предмет внутренней миграции из села в город изучался в Индии на протяжении долгого времени. Согласно официальным данным, временная миграция из села в город очень редка в условиях современной Индии. Однако изучение отдельных кейсов из различных районов страны показывает совершенно обратную картину. Цель данной работы – пролить свет на недостающую информацию в официальной статистике. А именно в статье рассматриваются следующие аспекты внутренней миграции в условиях современной Индии: объемы внутренней миграции по различным штатам; социальные группы, которые с большей вероятностью отправляются во временную миграцию; факторы, мотивирующие людей выбирать временную миграцию как форму заработка для своего домохозяйства. Ключевые слова: внутренняя миграция, социальные связи между городом и селом, миграция из села в город, Индия. Научная специальность: 22.00.00 – социология.