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64.Журнал Сибирского федерального университета. Сер. Гуманитарные науки №10 2014

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Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Æóðíàë Ñèáèðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà
2014
Journal of Siberian Federal University
7 (10)
Ãóìàíèòàðíûå íàóêè
Humanities & Social Sciences
Редакционный совет:
академик РАН Е.А. Ваганов
академик РАН И.И. Гительзон
академик РАН А.Г. Дегерменджи
академик РАН В.Ф. Шабанов
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.Л. Миронов
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р техн. наук
Г.Л. Пашков
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В. Шайдуров
чл.-корр. РАН, д-р физ.-мат. наук
В.В. Зуев
Editorial Advisory Board
CONTENTS / ÑÎÄÅÐÆÀÍÈÅ
Anton I. Pyzhev,
Yulia I. Pyzheva and Evgeniya V. Zander
Estimates of the Genuine Progress Indicator of Krasnoyarsk
Krai
– 1630 –
Galina V. Panasenko and Tatiana V. Shendel
System of Methods, Techniques and Means as a Condition of
Success for Vocational Training of Manager Personality
– 1638 –
Chairman
Eugene A. Vaganov
Members:
Josef J. Gitelzon
Vasily F. Shabanov
Andrey G. Degermendzhy
Valery L. Mironov
Gennady L. Pashkov
Vladimir V. Shaidurov
Vladimir V. Zuev
Editorial Board:
Editor-in-Chief
Mikhail I. Gladyshev
Anastasia V. Semkova
Language Categorization of Prototypical Situation &Speech[ in
Modern English
– 1645 –
Boris V. Tarev
Functional Specifics of Mediatext in the System of Development
of Intercultural Communicative Competence
– 1653 –
Founding Editor
Vladimir I. Kolmakov
Managing Editor
Olga F. Alexandrova
Executive Editor
for Humanities & Social Sciences
Natalia P. Koptseva
Yulia E. Valkova
Methods of Estrangement in Amos Oz’s A Tale of Love and
Darkness
– 1661 –
Компьютерная верстка Е.В. Гревцовой
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Consulting Editors
for Humanities & Social Sciences:
David Anderson – Professor, The University
of Aberdeen, Scotland
Gershons Breslavs – International Institute
of Applied Psychology, Latvia
Milan Damohorsky – Professor, Charles
University in Prague
Hans-Georg Dederer – Professor, Passau
University, Germany
Sergey Devyatkin – Associate Professor,
Novgorod State University
Sergey Drobyshevsky – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Oleg Gotlib – Associate Professor, Irkutsk
State Linguistic University
Tapdyg Kerimov – Professor, Ural Federal
University named after the first President
of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg
Boris Khasan – Professor, Siberian Federal
University
Galina Kopnina – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Natalia Kovtoun – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Alexander Kronik – Ph.D., LifeLook.Net,
LLC, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
Liudmila Kulikova – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Suneel Kumar – Assistant Professor,
Department of Strategic and Regional
Studies, University of Jammu
Liudmila Mayorova – Ph.D. Associate
Professor, Siberian Federal University
Pavel Mandryka – Associate Professor,
Siberian Federal University
Boris Markov – Professor, Saint-Petersburg
State University
Valentin Nemirovsky – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Nicolay Pak – Professor, Krasnoyarsk State
Pedagogical University named after
V.P. Astafev
Nicolay
Parfentyev
–
Professor,
Corresponding Member of the Peter
the Great Academy of Sciences and
Arts, Honoured Scientist of the Russian
Federation, South Ural State University
Natalia Parfentyeva – Professor, Member of
the Composers of Russia, Corresponding
Member of the Peter the Great Academy
of Sciences and Arts, Honoured Arts
Worker of the Russian Federation,
South Ural State University
Nicolai Petro – Professor, Rhode Island
University, USA
Daniel Pivovarov – Professor, Ural Federal
University named after the first President
of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg
Muhammad Asim
Measuring Public Opinion Regarding Peaceful Solution of Palestine Issue: an Experimental Study of University Students in
Pakistan, Iran and United Arab Emirates
– 1672 –
Kirill V. Anisimov
Literarity in Texts by Historian: 19th Century Siberian Travelogues and Nationalism Discourse (the Case of P.I. Nebolsin)
– 1682 –
Julia S. Zamaraeva
What are Global Transformations Experienced by the Indigenous
Peoples of the North?
– 1705 –
Julia G. Matushanskaya
&Jewish Antiquities[ as Hellenistic Targum
– 1719 –
Antonina A. Vinokurova
Philosophical Lyrics in the Poetry of Vasily Lebedev
– 1734 –
Sardana I. Sharina
Some Features of the Language of Verkhnekolymsky Evens
– 1738 –
Alexandra Yu. Gil
Features and Modern Trends in the Development of Museums
within the System of Higher Education
– 1743 –
Larisa A. Korobeynikova
Alternative Culture: Tradition and Innovation
– 1751 –
Valery A. Tolstikov
Research on Motivation to do Boxing
– 1760 –
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Igor Pyzhov – Associate Professor , Siberian
Federal University
Oyvind Ravna – Professor, University of
Tromso – The Arctic University of
Norway
Irina Rubert – Professor, Saint-Petersburg
State University of Economics
Andrey Smirnov – Corresponding Member,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute
of Philosophy RAS, Moscow
Olga Smolyaninova – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Vladimir Suprun – Professor, Institute of
Philosophy and Law of SB RAS
Viktor Suslov – Corresponding Member
RAS, Institute of Economics and
Industrial Engineering of SB RAS
Roman Svetlov – Professor, Saint-Petersburg
State University
Elena Tareva – Professor, Moscow City
Pedagogical University
Kristine Uzule – Ph.D. Baltic International
Academy, Riga, Latvia
Eugeniya Zunder – Professor, Siberian
Federal University
Свидетельство о регистрации СМИ
ПИ № ФС77-28-723 от 29.06.2007 г.
Серия включена в «Перечень ведущих рецензируемых научных журналов и изданий, в которых должны
быть опубликованы основные научные результаты диссертации на
соискание ученой степени доктора и
кандидата наук» (редакция 2010 г.)
Valentin G. Nemirovskiy
Dynamics of Social Well-Being of the Population of the Region
in View of Emotional and Energy Indicators
– 1765 –
Yuriy B. Savelyev
Critical Assessment of Development of a Modernizing Society in
Eastern Europe: Latent Risks for Social Inclusion
– 1775 –
Evgeny V. Kochkin and Srilata Sircar
Temporary Migration in India: Findings from Statistical Data
and Learnings from Case Studies
– 1794 –
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1630-1637
~~~
УДК 332.13
Estimates of the Genuine Progress Indicator
of Krasnoyarsk Krai
Anton I. Pyzhev*,
Yulia I. Pyzheva and Evgeniya V. Zander
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 16.07.2014, received in revised form 24.08.2014, accepted 06.09.2014
The aim of the paper is to give the preliminary estimate of the Genuine Progress Indicator of
Krasnoyarsk Krai. First of all, we considered the theoretical framework of assessment of complex
public welfare of countries and their regions. Then we suggested an approach to the measurement of
social, economic and ecological well-being of Krasnoyarsk Krai based on the original methodology of
the Genuine Progress Indicator estimation. The preliminary estimates of the GPI of Krasnoyarsk Krai
in 2005–2011 were given using the data available from official public sources. Our analysis showed
that the GPI is at least 30–35 % lower than traditional GRP. This work should be continued with the
estimation of GPI for other Russian regions.
Keywords: Genuine Progress Indicator, Gross Regional Product, public welfare, regional
economics.
The publication was prepared within the framework of the project no. 14-12-24003 supported by the
Russian Foundation for Humanities and Krasnoyarsk Krai Foundation for Support of Scientific and
Technical Activity.
Research area: 08.00.00 – economics.
1. Introduction
The Gross Domestic Product could not
be treated as a comprehensive measure for the
wellbeing of nations, even though it is widely
used as a unique and main indicator of the
progress throughout the world since 1940s.
Despite it is a good estimator of economic
progress, but also not a comprehensive one,
it cannot be used for measuring the social
progress and, probably, regress. It is also
obvious that the GDP does not account for
ecological issues, which are getting more and
*
more important in recent time. On the contrary,
a real ecological damage is reflected in the
GDP as a positive outcome, since it always
causes some economic activity intended for
recovering of the consequences of such damage
(Costanza et al., 2004). The same goes for other
components of the true progress.
In 1995 C. Cobb, T. Halstead and J. Rowe
have developed the indicator being capable to
measure the genuine progress in economic, social
and ecological spheres of life in 1995 (Cobb et
al., 1995).
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: pyanist@ya.ru
# 1630 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Anton I. Pyzhev,Yulia I. Pyzheva… Estimates of the Genuine Progress Indicator of Krasnoyarsk Krai
Over the last decades, the issue of establishing
of a comprehensive indicator of the nations’
genuine progress became one of the main points
of the current agenda even beyond the traditional
field of economics. A recent work of Costanza et
al. published in the famous and multidisciplinary
journal Nature is the best proof (2014). The authors
promote the excessive importance of replacement
of traditional GDP by the GPI, Genuine Progress
Indicator, which gives a rather richer image of
what is really going on with economy, social
sphere and natural environment on the specific
territory (country or region). It is obvious that in
the nearest future national and local governments
should claim for the genuine progress measures.
The problem of sustainable development
is of a great importance for Russia, but only
academic society and small-numbered public
institutions within the country acknowledge it. It
is worth to mention the work of S. N. Bobylev and
his colleagues who assessed a lot of indicators
of sustainable development (e.g., Bobylev et al.,
2013). The ecological aspects of interregional
inequality of Russian regions were studied by
I. P. Glazyrina, I. A. Zabelina and E. A. Klevakina
(Glazyrina et al., 2010; Zabelina and Klevakina,
2011; Klevakina and Zabelina, 2012). The official
Russian government recognizes this problem only
in long-run perspective, so their main focus is put
on rent seeking aimed to fulfill the current tasks
of social and economic development (Pyzhev et
al., 2014). The situation tends to change during
last years, because the successful model of
economic development based on high prices of oil
and gas, which form half of the Russian budget,
seems to be exhausted, so one needs to find some
new sources of the economic growth. We urge
that before making of a well-proven economic
policy for the next decades, it is critically needed
to create a good instrument of assessment of
genuine progress of all components of human
well being in Russia. In this paper we’ll make
the first step and propose a technique for such
assessment on the regional scale that is based
on the GPI methodology. Our study object is
Krasnoyarsk Krai, a huge region in the center of
Russia with highly developed industry of natural
resources. Earlier we performed the assessment
of the Genuine Savings indicator for Krasnoyarsk
Krai in the second half of 2000s (Zander et al.,
2010a, 2010b).
2. Theoretical Framework
Since the GPI has been developed by the
scholars and not by some official international
institutions, there is no consistent and canonical
methodology of its calculation. It is also important
to mention that it’s not possible to establish a
unified calculation technique for any country
and regions, because all of them have sufficiently
distinctive systems of statistical accounting.
Despite that, there is a fluent literature presenting
the results of calculation and comparison of
GDP and GPI dynamics through countries (e.g.,
Jackson and McBride, 2005; Lawn and Clarke,
2008; Posner and Costanza, 2011) and within
some specific regions (Hamilton, 1999; Costanza
et al., 2004; Bagstad and Shammin, 2012). A
meta-analysis of GPI and GDP dynamics across
17 major countries was performed by Kubiszewski
et al. (2013). The only known study of post-soviet
space countries genuine progress was made for
Ukraine over time span between 2000 and 2007
(Danilishin and Vekilch, 2010). All of the cited
studies used modifications of the previously
formulated methodologies of GPI calculation
depending on the data available for the specific
country or region.
It is crucially important to note that the
currently acting statistical systems of postsoviet countries do not provide enough data for
comprehensive evaluation of the GPI according
to the techniques used in Western countries
(Ibid). This means that part of indicators needs
# 1631 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Anton I. Pyzhev,Yulia I. Pyzheva… Estimates of the Genuine Progress Indicator of Krasnoyarsk Krai
to be replaced by proxies, and some of them even
excluded from the analysis. Undoubtedly, such
assumptions decrease the quality of analysis, but
in our opinion, even simplified GPI assessment
could provide a useful knowledge of the real
dynamics of genuine progress in Russia, its
regions and neighbor countries.
In our study we use the so-called "Redefining
Progress" methodology (Talberth et al., 2006)
that updates the original methodology (Cobb
et al., 1995). The calculation technique for the
GPI is rather simple than obtaining of particular
indicators. The Genuine Progress Indicator is an
algebraic sum of 26 indicators with different signs
depending on whether this indicator contributes
with benefits or losses to the welfare of region.
It was mentioned earlier that Rosstat, the
Russian Federal Service of National Statistics,
provides not all indicators needed for GPI
evaluation. We suggest the following techniques
for assessing the components of the Genuine
Progress Indicator for Krasnoyarsk Krai using
the really available data (Table 1).
The Personal Consumption (column B) and
Income Distribution Index or Gini Index (column
C) could be obtained directly from Rosstat
statistics. It is assuming that one should calculate
column C taking the least Gini Index as a base
(100 %). The Weighted Personal Consumption
indicator is calculated directly using the formula.
Evaluation of indicators Value of Household
Work and Parenting (column E) and Value of
Higher Education (column F) is rather more
complicated. The data needed to evaluate average
time spent on household work and parenting is
not included nor in official statistical collections,
neither in survey questions list. It means that this
indicator needs a further study for getting a reliable
data on this topic. The higher education system
suffers from soviet legacy leading to sufficient
disproportions in structure of enrolment and the
real requirements of labor market. The prices for
education in quite prestigious universities are
low (a full semester may cost one average month
salary), so the higher education is accessible for
almost everybody. As a result, almost all the high
school graduates become the students of higher
education institutions, but then work in totally
different areas. In our opinion, for the time being
it has no sense to evaluate the future value of
higher education in Russia, because the students
and their parents don’t treat it as a long-run
investment with high yield coefficient.
It is suggested to exclude the Value of
Volunteer Work (column G), because such kind of
social activity is not spread in Russia.
The indicator Services of Consumer
Durables (column H) could be assessed through
expenditures on some basic consumer durables.
We suggest accounting automobiles, TV sets,
computers and washing machines, which are the
most necessary durable goods for households.
The corresponding data is directly available from
Rosstat. The Central Bank of Russia provides the
interest rate data. Hereinafter we accept the life
time of the durables listed above equal to 5 years,
so the depreciation rate is set to 20 %.
The value of services of highways and streets
(column I) is easily assessed using the data on
annual expenditure of regional budget on road
construction and maintenance. Since the data on
net stock of road infrastructure is not available
in Russia, then it is not needed to take the annual
rates of depreciation of this asset. Consequently,
the only adjustment one needs to make here is to
take 75 % as benefit share of annual road services,
assuming that 25 % of time spend on roads are for
commuting (Ibid).
Public cost of crime could be captured only
partially, because of lack of data. Our suggestion
is to include two components, regional budget
expenditures on crime prevention and evaluation
of cost of human life losses, into indicator Cost
of Crime (column J). The first component data
# 1632 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Table 1. Components of the Genuine Progress Indicator for the Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russian Federation
Column
Indicator
Sign
Calculation Technique
B
Personal Consumption
Rosstat indicator
C
Income Distribution Index
Gini index (Rosstat indicator)
D
Weighted Personal Consumption
+
B / C * 100
E
Value of Household Work and Parenting
+
Needs further investigation
F
Value of Higher Education
+
Needs further investigation
G
Value of Volunteer Work
+
Excluded
H
Services of Consumer Durables
K
Loss of Leisure Time
−
[Sum of consumer expenditures on
purchasing of consumer durables
(automobiles, TV sets, computers and
washing machines)] × ([Interest rate] +
[Depreciation rate])
[Regional budget expenditures on road
construction and maintenance] × 75 %
[Regional budget expenditures on crime
prevention] + [Number of crime victims] ×
[Estimate of human life value]
Needs further investigation
L
Cost of Underemployment
−
Needs further investigation
M
Cost of Consumer Durables
−
Is not needed
N
Cost of Commuting
+
I
Services of Highways and Streets
J
Cost of Crime
+
−
−
O
Cost of Household Pollution Abatement
P
Cost of Automobile Accidents
Q
Cost of Water Pollution
R
Cost of Air Pollution
−
−
−
−
[Average commuting trip time] × 2 ×
[Number of employed people] × [Number
of workdays during a year] × [Hourly
wage]
Needs further investigation
[Number of automobile accident victims]
x [Estimate of human life value]
[Regional budget expenditures on water
protection and remediation]
Needs further investigation
S
Cost of Noise Pollution
−
Needs further investigation
T
Loss of Wetlands
−
Needs further investigation
U
Loss of Farmland
−
Needs further investigation
V
X
Loss of Primary Forests and Damage from
Logging Roads
Depletion of Nonrenewable Energy
Resources
Carbon Dioxide Emissions Damage
Y
Cost of Ozone Depletion
Z
Net Capital Investment
W
−
−
−
−
−
[Change of forest land cover] × [Estimate
of forest ecosystems services value]
[Overall price of all treasures of the soil
mined within the region]
[Volume of carbon dioxide emission] ×
[Carbon Dioxide world market ton price]
Needs further investigation
[Net capital growth] − [Percent change in
labor force] × [Stock of the capital of the
previous year]
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Anton I. Pyzhev,Yulia I. Pyzheva… Estimates of the Genuine Progress Indicator of Krasnoyarsk Krai
is available from statistics, but the second one
needs some additional assessment. There are a
lot of approaches to the assessment of human life
cost, but only a few could be applied in Russia.
In our study we use a very simple technique for
that, multiplying the number of crime victims by
2 mln rubles, a sum that is officially stated as the
insurance money for a victim of aircraft or car
accident in Russia. Last years, there are a lot of
evidences of paying this sum to the victims of
resonant disasters (Aganbegyan, 2014).
The indicators Loss of Leisure Time
(column K), Cost of Underemployment (column L)
and Cost of Household Pollution Abatement
(column O) could not be estimated, because they
need additional sociological investigations of
households.
Cost of commuting (column N) may be
roughly assessed using the data of the All-Russian
survey of quality of life performed by Rosstat in
2011. The interviewees reported that they spend
from 35 to 50 minutes for a one commuting
trip. The average is 42.5 minutes, or 85 minutes
per day. This value is multiplying by number
of employed people within a region, number of
working days during a calendar year and average
hourly wage.
Cost of automobile accidents (column P)
may be assessed only partially. Theoretically, it
consists of value of health damage and cost of
wrecked or destroyed cars, but the only available
data provide the information about number of
victims of car accidents. We could use the same
approach of human life evaluation discussed
above.
For the indicator Cost of water pollution
(column Q) we suggest using the data on regional
budget expenditures as a proxy. This estimate
only reflects the direct expenditures on water
pollution reduction. A more precise evaluation
may be based on the approach developed by
E. V. Ryumina, when data on structure of
elements emitted in water bodies (2009). The
interesting results concerning influence of water
and air pollution on human health are found by
V. M. Gilmundinov et al. (2011, 2012).
Cost of noise pollution (column S) is quite
difficult to assess, because no appropriate studies
were conducted in this field in Russia. Losses of
wetlands and farmlands (columns T, U) and cost
of ozone depletion (column Y) are also difficult to
be assessed, for the same reason.
The indicator Loss of Primary Forests and
Damage from Logging Roads (column V) could
be quantified multiplying change of forestland
cover by the estimate of forest ecosystems
services value. The last value is derived from
the study of R. Costanza et al. (1997) after the
appropriate compounding.
We use overall prices of all treasures of the
soil mined within the region available in regional
statistics as a proxy for the indicator Depletion of
Nonrenewable Energy Resources (column W).
Carbon dioxide emissions damage (column
X) could be evaluated using the approach
developed in (Zander et al., 2010a, 2010b).
The indicator Net Capital Investment
(column Z) is easy to assess using the original
approach (Talberth, 2007).
It is important to stress out that presented
approach is universal and could be applied not
only to specific region (e.g., Krasnoyarsk Krai),
but also to any Russian territory.
3. Data
The dataset of Krasnoyarsk Krai social,
economic and environmental spheres indicators
over time span between 2005 and 2012 has been
used for testing of GPI calculation technique
described above. The main part of indicators is
obtained from collections (Regiony Rossii, 2006,
2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013). The
budget expenditures on particular topics were
derived directly from Krasnoyarsk Krai budget.
# 1634 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Anton I. Pyzhev,Yulia I. Pyzheva… Estimates of the Genuine Progress Indicator of Krasnoyarsk Krai
Primary data was nominated in thousands
of rubles. The GPI and GRP are calculated in
billions of rubles, the prices were discounted to
2011 rubles. Despite of presence of components
data for 2012, the GRP and personal consumption
data for this years were missing for the moment
of paper preparation, so we were ought to exclude
it from the final results.
The most comprehensive dataset covers
period since 2009 when Rosstat started to observe
a lot of new statistical indicators.
4. Results and Conclusion
The results of our assessment of Krasnoyarsk
Krai Genuine Progress Indicator are presented
on Fig. 1. For the comparison of GPI and GRP
dynamics we combined both rows on the same
graph. GRP started from 782 bln rubles in 2005
and reached 1,188.7 bln rubles in 2011. Our GPI
estimate is rather lower: from 222.1 bln rubles in
2005 to 378.6 bln rubles in 2011. It means that GPI
is at least 30–35 % lower than GRP. Last years of
our scope (2010 and 2011) GRP is about 20–25 %
of GRP. Such a huge gap may be explained with
a heavy ecological load of Krasnoyarsk Krai.
Since GPI is methodologically preferable for the
assessment of true progress of region’s well being,
it’s really time to leave GRP (GDP) behind, as a
title of recent work says (Costanza et al., 2014).
It is important to note that our estimation
of GPI seems to be lower than its actual value,
because some of important indicators were
missing or the data was not complete. Some
estimates used for calculation were quite rough
and need further justification. Major part of
missing data covered the negatively impacting
factors, so if they would have been accounted, the
GPI will sufficiently decrease.
For the time being, there are 10 indicators out
of 26 used in original GPI methodology that can’t
be assessed due to the lack of necessary data. We
are confident that some of them, such as volumes
of air and water pollutions, might be easily
included into the current system of statistical
observation, both on regional and federal levels.
It is evident that the necessary primary data
for their calculation is stored inside the Rosstat
databases. The other part (underemployment
surveys etc.) needs panel studies on some large
samples, periodically revealed.
Our main conclusion is that one needs to
continue investigations of Genuine Progress
Fig. 1. GPI vs. GRP dynamics of Krasnoyarsk Krai, 2005–2011
# 1635 #
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Anton I. Pyzhev,Yulia I. Pyzheva… Estimates of the Genuine Progress Indicator of Krasnoyarsk Krai
Indicator across the Russian regions. As far
as there will be necessary data for accurate
evaluation of GPI, it will allow deeply understand
the nature of interregional inequality and
provide an important information for policymakers.
References
1. Aganbegyan, A. G. (2014). How much does the human life cost? [Skol’ko stoit zhizn’
cheloveka?] Economic Policy [Ekonomicheskaya politika], (1), 54–66.
2. Bagstad, K. J., & Shammin, M. R. (2012). Can the Genuine Progress Indicator better inform
sustainable regional progress?–A case study for Northeast Ohio. Ecological Indicators, 18, 330–341.
doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.11.026.
3. Bobylev, S. N., Solovieva, S. V., & Sitkina, K. S. (2013). Indicators of sustainable development
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Anton I. Pyzhev,Yulia I. Pyzheva… Estimates of the Genuine Progress Indicator of Krasnoyarsk Krai
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Indicator of Economics Growth of a Region. Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities &
Social Sciences, (3), 382–387.
Оценка истинного показателя прогресса
Красноярского края
А.И. Пыжев, Ю.И. Пыжева, Е.В. Зандер
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Целью настоящей работы является предварительная оценка истинного показателя
прогресса (Genuine Progress Indicator) для Красноярского края. Рассмотрены основные
известные результаты ведущих исследовательских коллективов в области комплексной
оценки общественного благосостояния стран и их регионов. Предложен подход к измерению
социального, экономического и экологического благополучия Красноярского края, основанный
на методологии оценки истинного показателя прогресса. Проведена апробация предложенного
подхода для оценки ИПП Красноярского края в 2005–2011 гг. с помощью данных, размещенных
в открытых официальных источниках. Анализ показал, что ИПП как минимум на 30–35 %
ниже, чем соответствующие значения ВРП. Работу по оценке ИПП следует продолжать для
других российских регионов.
Ключевые слова: истинный показатель прогресса, валовый региональный продукт, региональная
экономика, общественное благосостояние.
Исследование выполнено при финансовой поддержке РГНФ и КГАУ "Красноярский краевой
фонд поддержки научной и научно-технической деятельности" в рамках научного проекта
№ 14-12-24003 "Комплексное исследование устойчивости развития социо-экологоэкономической системы Красноярского края".
Научная специальность: 08.00.00 – экономика.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1638-1644
~~~
УДК 378.018.46 + 377.4/5 + 005.963
System of Methods, Techniques and Means
as a Condition of Success for Vocational Training
of Manager Personality
Galina V. Panasenko* and Tatiana V. Shendel
Siberian State Technological University
82 Mira, Krasnoyarsk, Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia
Received 30.06.2014, received in revised form 02.07.2014, accepted 17.09.2014
The subject of this study is a systematic analysis of methods, techniques and means of retraining
the manager personality. The problem indicated in the article, concerns the social order of society
for training specialists who meet new market demands. It required educational institutions to
start training on the profile that is quite different from what a few years ago had their graduates.
In particular, a need to retrain personnel managers who have knowledge and skills in the field of
personnel management process, motivation, organizational culture, socio-psychological atmosphere,
organizational behavior, organizational diagnosis and management processes, with special attention
to the formation of leadership skills of the manager personality, his/her personal and professional
qualities, team activities, etc. In the experimental part of the study the process of retraining of the
manager personality in the course of the additional professional education program Personnel
Management was examined. The expert evaluation was given to the program, according to the results
of which the retraining has a high potential for management training of senior and middle levels.
Keywords: HR Manager, professional retraining, additional educational programs, expert
evaluation.
Research area: 08.00.00 – economics.
Introduction
For the effective implementation of
professional activity in modern society there are
demanded specialists with not only knowledge
and some experience but also skills that enable
to adapt to modern technology, to successfully
move from one activity to another, ready to
educate themselves. This position is confirmed
by the Concept of the Federal Target Program
of Education for 2011-2015 years. It stresses
that the developing society needs educated,
*
moral, enterprising people who can make
their own management decisions in a choice
situation, predicting the possible consequences,
the ability to cooperate, differing mobility,
dynamism, constructive, having a strong sense of
responsibility for the future of the country.
However, Russian society is important to
continue to improve the acquired knowledge
and skills, as well as build and develop the
necessary personal and professional qualities,
allowing to carry out professional activities
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: galina-panasienKo@mail.ru
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more effectively. In this regard, relevant to talk
about retraining managers of various levels of
management to acquire additional knowledge and
skills in educational programs, providing for the
study of individual disciplines, sub-disciplines.
Professional retraining is also carried out to
expand the skills of professionals with a view to
adapting to new economic and social conditions.
The above mentioned requirements of
modern society are associated with the economic
instability and nonlinearity of the processes
occurring in it and reflected in all development
institutions. Government and commercial
organizations of any ownership are interested
in the full use of labor potential, overshadowing
improving information, material and technical
equipment and other technical features of
organizations. In this regard, a significant role in
any organization is given to the expert, to Human
Resource Manager.
Features of retraining
at an additional educational program
Human Resources Management
The educational system is designed to
realize the function of education of the individual
in order to ensure its progressive development.
Part of the general education advocates further
professional education, "the demand for
which is ‘updating and enriching’ the already
established educational potential of the individual
compensation of possible gaps in training,
education and development" [2; p. 5].
Professional retraining is one of the areas of
additional vocational training. According to the
definition A.G. Kazakova, retraining is "getting
additional knowledge and skills by managers
or professionals" [2; p. 146], the development of
the necessary qualities to perform professional
work in the new environment. The professional
retraining program Personnel Management
is conducted in the High School of Business,
Management and Psychology (HSBMP) at the
Siberian State Technological University.
Implementing the retraining program
Personnel Management its developers seek to
achieve the following objectives:
1. Development of leadership qualities of
the manager personality.
2. Enhanced vision of business strategy.
3. Development of innovative and
entrepreneurial skills.
4. Developing the ability to apply the old
and newly acquired knowledge and experience in
a variety of business situations.
5. Incitement to desire for learning
throughout life and personal growth.
6. Developing communication skills and
teamwork skills.
7. Organizing knowledge obtained on the
basis of professional management experience.
The program is built on five pillars: the
system, pragmatist, modular, monitoring and
synergetic. Let us consider each of them in
detail.
Systemic principle is in indissoluble
connection of Sciences and Humanities, the
formation of interdisciplinary connections,
joining theory and practice, identifying new
patterns in business management and staff
organizations.
The essence of the pragmatist principle is
that the active implementation of the managerial
abilities of the individual occurs during the
formation of the group and team activities that
occur in the process of retraining through active
learning methods.
The modular principle is the basis of the
program. Module is a logical chain of cycles
studied discipline, which is a formed body of
knowledge and skills necessary for effective
learning.
The principle of monitoring is the
measurement and analysis of the theoretical and
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practical knowledge through professional tests
and independent examination.
Synergistic principle is that the management
is a system integrated all the subsystems of
the organization in the interaction with the
environment and getting a new synergy effect.
This principle is fundamental to the understanding
of economic development processes.
Note that the retraining program Human
Resources Management is designed for a specific
target audience. A umber of requirements exists
for potential listeners:
– voting age from 25 to 45 years;
– higher education of any form of learning;
– management experience of at least 2
years;
– opportunity and ability to perform
intensive curricula;
– motivation for learning.
In addition, prospective students are in the
process of competitive selection, which consists
of three stages. The first stage involves an
interview, i.e. familiarity with the candidate. List
of topics discussed: chain decision on admission
to the program, motivation; business objectives
in the near future; view of the future group;
time-management; ability to work in a team;
participation in business programs, reading
business books; actions in case of failure in
reception, etc.
The second stage is the definition of existing
knowledge in the field of economics, management
and psychology, as well as organizational and
managerial skills acquired in practical activities
that allow you to build an effective learning group
and adjust to develop additional professional
educational program.
Third stage includes psychodiagnostics
of a candidate with drawing characteristics
reflecting his personal and business qualities.
Psychodiagnostics of a candidate performed using
psycho-geometrical test, color test procedure by
Luscher and multiple personality questionnaire
by R. Cattell 16 PF (version A).
The result of competitive selection of
candidates is the formed study group of listeners,
consisting of representatives of senior and middle
management levels, who acquired management
experience in an unstable economy, mastering
many of the processes not in a classroom
environment, but participating in the activities of
the organizations.
The process of retraining is based on
additional professional education program, and
intellectual innovations of teachers.
Now we describe these structural elements
of the process of retraining.
Additional professional education program
is a "document defining the content of education
and enables in learning tasks set for retraining" [2;
p. 146]. As noted earlier, additional professional
education program Personnel Management has
a modular training. Each module is relatively
independent:
Module 1 – Management
Module 2 – Psychology
Module 3 – Quality.
The central figure in the educational
process is the teacher. The key competences
of the modern business school teacher are
expressed as follows: "the balance of academic
preparation, high real business knowledge and
skills, based on a wealth of teaching experience
and a serious methodological training" [1; p. 572].
Teachers involved in the process of retraining are
creative teachers. They do not just have some
degree of professors and associate professors of
universities having a large enough experience
of scientific and pedagogical work, but people
who have knowledge of management disciplines
and teaching experience combined with real
practical experience as a part-time residence in
management positions, consulting or applied
research.
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Particular interest is I the educational
technologies that are used by teachers involved
in the process of retraining. Among them it is
worth noting the traditional learning technology
in conjunction with the persona-oriented learning
technology.
Among the existing traditional technologies
the preference is given to a lecture form,
accompanied by presentations; practical exercises
aimed at developing personal and business
qualities of listeners and the qualifying paper
workout.
Among the persona-oriented learning
technologies there is widely used cooperative
learning, method of case study, discussions,
role and business games. Thus, teachers use
forms of group work. This method of personaoriented learning technology is aimed at direct
regulation characteristics of the educational
process, where the main task is to increase the
level of knowledge and skills to make decisions
independently and take responsibility for them.
Mastering the material is not passive, but on
the basis of active and exploratory learning
methods. These technologies make it possible
in the fi rst place, to identify the qualities of
students as emotional involvement, activity,
creativity, the ability to analyze quickly
large amounts of information, decisionmaking under stress and uncertainty; and the
second: if there is the absence or incomplete
implementation of these qualities, so to develop
them. Moreover, interaction with teachers and
group-mates gives a synergistic effect and
creates an efficient system of knowledge and
practical skills. There is the formation of a
cohesive team of people working in different
areas of business, occupying the position of the
heads of individual directions up to CEOs and
business owners. Collaborative learning allows
to expand business contacts and helps to solve
many business issues.
Despite the many advantages of group work
methods, there is particular focusing on the
individual work of students, which is expressed in
the development of individual projects (business
plan, presentation, organizational culture
research, diagnosis motivational sphere, etc.) and
their defense.
The field training Team Building is of
particular interest, it aims to exploring modalities
for establishing a functioning, cohesive team.
During the training, participants learn to:
1) understand: what is the team, how it
works, and who is the team leader;
2) be aware of: the resources of personal
influence, the need to motivate the team members
need to distribute the functions of a team;
3) create a team to solve specific problems.
There
are
successfully
applied
methodological
innovation,
particularly
fiction and poetry. Using literary works for
the discussion of the management problems
there is some advantage: they accept some
human features and let go beyond dry technical
discussions. Appealing to folklore (fairy tales,
legends) allows st5udents to understand the
Russian business much better.
The additional professional education
program is completed by writing and defending of
a thesis on topical issues of personnel management
in modern organizations. As a result, students
receive a diploma of vocational retraining in
the Siberian State Technological University
on Program Human Resources Management,
certifying the right (the qualifications) for
professional activity in this area.
Expert evaluation
of the additional professional
education program
Personnel Management effectiveness
Having considered a system of methods,
techniques and means of professional retraining
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program Human Resources Management, there
is held its expert evaluation to identify the ability
and effectiveness of the program in the Russian
conditions to prepare the administrative staff
of higher and middle managers who are able to
solve the problems of the present level in the
management of organizations, their structural
units.
To improve the objectivity of the expert
assessment it is carried out in a quantitative form
(score) for the twelve scales:
1. Characteristic of the issued diplomas
(licensing and accreditation).
2. Number of courses on MBA program.
3. Number of MBA programs graduators.
4. Number of issues of programs
counterparts.
5. Number of graduates of the programs
counterparts.
6. Scientific and methodological level of
the curriculum.
7. The level of lectures and professors in
the educational process.
8. Material and technical resources and
educational-methodical base.
9. Foreign partners.
10. Participation in Presidential program.
11. Financing of the MBA programs
(programs counterparts).
12. Promoting the careers of graduates.
Each five-point scale provides an assessment
of various characteristics of the program. "Each
point corresponds to a certain level of program
features. The highest score (5) is the maximum
level of performance, the lowest score (1) is
minimum. On the basis of the ratings the summary
output characteristic readiness of the educational
institutions to implement programs MBA by
summing the scoring. The marks on the scales
2, 3 and 12 are multiplied by a factor of 2, and
the characteristics of the programs counterparts
(scale 4, 5) are multiplied by a factor of 1.5. If
the educational institution provides both types
of programs, in this case either MBA program
(scale 2 and 3), or programs counterparts (scale 4
and 5) are taken into consideration to determine
an average mark. The maximum score that can be
got by an educational institution is 65 points" [1;
Pp. 248-252].
The results of the expert evaluation
of retraining program Human Resources
Management are given in Table 1.
The expert evaluation of retraining program
Human Resources Management in HSBMP
at SibSTU was 43 points out of 65 possible.
This result suggests that retraining has a high
potential for training senior and middle levels of
management.
Expert assessment has identified positive
trends in the development of the program
and also a number of problems. The existing
HSBMP retraining program Human Resources
Management is a program created in an
educational institution, on its own initiative,
having experience of practical implementation for
the past ten years. Graduates mention its highest
level, both in content and in the final result, which
is undoubtedly a great achievement.
It is important that training in the study
program is possible after higher education (and
Table 1. Expert evaluation of retraining program Human Resources Management in the HSBMP at the SibSTU
Scale
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Assessment
(score)
4
1
1
7,5
7,5
2
5
5
1
1
5
3
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not under it) with a diploma of supplementary
(Higher) Education, which involves getting a
second skill – the skill of personnel manager,
claimed in modern Russia.
The annual intake of students tends to be
relatively small, which creates a framework for
the implementation of individual approach and
application of active learning methods.
Professional retraining is breakeven
financially. Through its implementing there is the
process of extra budgetary funds from Russian
business in the sphere of education, which
beneficially affects the activities of an educational
institution.
The most important task of the program is
maintaining a high quality of professional training.
The performance of educational institutions in
liaison with employers’ organizations, including
on the basis of the creation of effective forms of
employment and career development of graduates
retraining should be improved. In order to
eliminate shortcomings in administration of High
School of Business, Management and Psychology
it is necessary to organize work closely with
alumni Human Resources Management. In this
case we are talking about the creation of the
Alumni Association of HSBMP SibSTU that will
contribute to:
– interaction between alumni and students;
– participate in the creation and continuous
updating of the knowledge base of the
HSBMP graduates;
– development of linkages with domestic
public and educational organizations.
It is advisable to revise the system of
recruitment to vocational retraining program, to
prevent unscrupulous marketing, distorting the
actual situation in the educational institution,
to introduce more stringent form of entrance
examinations.
In general, professional retraining program
Human Resources Management is performed at
a high level of educational methods. On the basis
of some refinement and correction, subject to
obtaining international accreditation (AACSB,
efmd, AMBA) with the aim of integrating the
Russian business education in the world of
business and educational space High School of
Business, Management and Psychology at the
Siberian State Technological University is ready
to implement the program of MBA (Master of
Business Administration).
The program has real value because it is realized
at a highly professional level, which virtually
guarantees the person entering the business elite
or professional elite at the expense of acquiring
new knowledge and skills, the development of key
personal and business qualities.
References
1. Biznes-obrazovaniye: spetsifika, programmy, tekhnologii, organizatsiya (Business
education: specificity, programs, technology, organization) [Text] / V.V. Godin [i dr.]; pod obshch. red.
S.R. Filonovicha. – M. : Izdatelskiy dom GU VShE, 2004. 690 s.
2. Kazakova, A.G. Sovremennyye pedagogicheskiye tekhnologii v dopolnitelnom professionalnom
obrazovanii prepodavateley (Modern educational technology in additional professional education
teachers) [Text] : dis. … doktora ped. nauk : 13.00.08 / A.G. Kazakova. Moskva, 2000. 377 s.
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Система методов, приемов и средств
как условие успеха профессиональной
переподготовки личности менеджера
Г.В. Панасенко, Т.В. Шендель
Сибирский государственный технологический университет
Россия, 600049, Красноярск, пр. Мира, 82
Предметом исследования является системный анализ методов, приемов и средств
профессиональной переподготовки личности менеджера. В статье обозначена проблема,
выражающаяся в социальном заказе общества на подготовку специалистов, отвечающих
новым требованиям современного рынка. Это потребовало от учебных заведений начать
подготовку кадров по профилю, существенно отличному от того, каким еще несколько лет
назад обладали их выпускники. В частности, возникла необходимость в переподготовке
менеджеров по персоналу, имеющих знания, умения и навыки в области организации процесса
управления персоналом, мотивации, организационной культуры, социально-психологической
атмосферы, организационного поведения, диагностики организационно-управленческих
процессов, где особое внимание уделяется формированию лидерских способностей
личности менеджера, его личностным и деловым качествам, командной деятельности
и др. В экспериментальной части статьи проанализирован процесс профессиональной
переподготовки личности менеджера по дополнительной профессиональной образовательной
программе "Управление персоналом". Дана экспертная оценка исследуемой программе, из
результатов которой следует, что профессиональная переподготовка имеет высокий
потенциал для подготовки управленческих кадров высшего и среднего звеньев.
Ключевые слова: менеджер по управлению персоналом, профессиональная переподготовка,
дополнительная образовательная программа, экспертная оценка.
Научная специальность: 08.00.00 – экономика.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1645-1652
~~~
УДК 81’367.5
Language Categorization
of Prototypical Situation "Speech"
in Modern English
Anastasia V. Semkova*
Mirny Polytechnic Institute (branch)
of North-Eastern Federal University
5/1 ул. Tikhonov Str., Mirny,
Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), 678170, Russia
Received 05.06.2014, received in revised form 04.07.2014, accepted 17.09.2014
The article deals with the problem of language categorization on the sentence level. A cognitive
approach to the sentence study reveals polysemy of a sentence generally depends on the sentence
possibility to categorize different variations of a prototypical situation. These variations stand on
two basic factors. Firstly, great numbers of alike but not equivalent situations exist in real life. A
person, since he / she is capable of categorizing, confines a situation to a certain category. Secondly,
the speaker can differently interpret the same situation. The latter may focus attention on different
dimensions of the situation at different time. As a result, some dimensions of the situation are
highlighted and the others, on the contrary, recede to the background. Nonequivalence of the similar
situations and different interpretation of the same situation determine semantic and syntactical
structure of the sentence. The prototypical situation of speech has been chosen for analysis to
manifest this statement.
Keywords: prototypical situation, prototypical construction, categorization, dimension, figure,
ground.
Research area: 10.00.00 – philology.
In cognitive grammar, construction is
understood as unification of a cognitive model
(conceptual structure) and a corresponding
language form (Lakoff, 2008; Goldberg, 2003).
Cognitive model or conceptual structure is often
denoted as prototypical situation because the
referent of any sentence is a real situation of the
world, reflected in the speaker’s mind. Therefore,
prototypical situation is not the real situation of
the world itself, but its cognitive image (Kustova,
*
2000: 108). In other words, prototypical situation
is a piece of reality, represented in speaker’s
mind and in the process of representation it gets
peculiar features inherent to national conscience,
specified by culture of the given folk. Each
prototypical situation is characterized by a set of
dimensions classified as obligatory (figure) and
optional (ground) ones.
In prototypical situation "speech" such
dimensions as follows are observed:
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: semkova1@rambler.ru
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Obligatory (figure):
1. "agent" (the author of speech);
2. "process of speaking" (the speech act);
3. "addressee" (the one who perceives
speech);
4. "information reported";
Optional (ground):
5. "manner of speech":
а) "volume",
b) "velocity / rapidity",
c) "plenty / lack of emotions in the speech
act";
6. "aim of speech".
As a rule, people are different from
animals first of all in ability to think, to reason,
to contemplate over the past, to criticize their
actions and ideas, to make plans for the future,
to dream and to speak. "Agent" is the author
of speech or that one who speaks (performs a
speech act). According to logic, that is a person,
possessing brain capable of thinking or fulfilling
an intellective function that makes a person speak.
The author of speech in prototypical situation
plays the only role: he / she speaks. In reality
the role of speaking is hardly separable from
the role of thinking as speaking is the process
of turning thoughts into sentences and sentences
into thoughts (Latin-English Dictionary of
Philosophical Terms). Herewith the process of
thinking in speaker’s mind is directed to speech
producing. In spite of it, in an "unblended"
prototypical situation of speech which can be also
named a model that serves as a "reference point"
(Lakoff, 2008: 359), the agent plays just the only
role – he / she is the author of speech.
Speech is traditionally recognized as the
process of speaking itself (speech activity)
(Arutiunova, 1990: 414). Speech activity is
analogous to other activities of people. Therefore,
when the agent speaks, he / she performs a certain
act, a speech act, that is the second dimension of
the prototypical situation.
The third dimension of the prototypical
situation is the "addressee", as in the situation
there must be someone the speech act is directed
to. Our supposition is supported by the analysis
of the vocabulary entries to the verbs of speech.
The definitions of these verbs contain the seme
"indefinite animate addressee", e.g., to tell – to
say something to someone, often giving them
information or instructions (Cambridge Advanced
Learner’s Dictionary).
The result of speech is speech work,
memorized or written down (Arutiunova, 1990:
414), in other words, "information reported". This
is the information the speaker is willing to send
the addressee – that is the next dimension in the
prototypical situation of speech.
In the process of language categorization one
dimension of the prototypical situation "speech"
is emphasized (highlighted) and another one
recedes into the background. It depends on that
how the speaker grasps the situation of real life.
So, one can find obligatory (figure) dimensions
as well as optional (ground) ones in any
prototypical situation. The ground dimensions
are the conditions that accompany the speech act:
volume and velocity of speech, emotions of the
speaker, the aim the speaker strives to achieve as
a result of speaking. In the prototypical situation
of speech these dimensions are found against a
background. They are implicit. As it has been
noted by linguists "figure – ground" principle
represents the basic cognitive ability of a person
to focus his / her attention on the most significant
information (Furs, 2009: 290), and the peculiar
feature of "figure – ground" mechanism in
Gestalt Theory is that the figure is highlighted or
explicit and the ground is against a background
or implicit.
In accord with G. Lakoff and M. Johnson’s
theory prototypical situation is thought of as
gestalt, in other words, as a set of characteristics
actualized together. That, to their minds, is
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more important for our experience than a
discrete manifestation of each characteristic
feature (Lakoff, 1980: 71). In fact, prototypical
situation is actualized by one or some of
its manifestations in form of this or that
construction, because in reality there is hardly
such a construction that is able to verbalize
the whole situation at once (Kovaleva, 2008:
82). The reason is that uniqueness of the event
presupposes additionally marked sense units
that are often non-verbalized in the sentence
structure (Furs, 2009: 31).
Constructions, categorizing the prototypical
situation best of all and without the mixture of
other characteristics, are called prototypical
constructions. These constructions exist in
speaker’s mind as ready-made forms to express
prototypical situation (Lakoff, 1980: 70-72).
Peculiar Features
of the Prototypical Constructions
for the Prototypical Situation
of Speech Categorization
It has been noticed that the prototypical
situation "speech" is categorized best of all by the
construction
Nspeaker Vsay/speak/talk/tell Naddressee Ninformation.
The optional or ground dimensions aren’t
represented by the prototypical construction, as
in the prototypical situation of speech they are
implicit. The first dimension is verbalized by the
actant Nspeaker. The latter is usually expressed by
an animate noun or a personal pronoun.
On the level of surface the second dimension
"speech act" is actualized by the nuclear
(dominant) verbs of speech: to say, to speak, to
talk and to tell, as they are stylistically neutral
and the seme "manner of speaking" isn’t found
in their vocabulary entries. They immediately
denote the speech act regardless the manner
and the aim of speech. That allows keeping
the optional dimensions implicit against the
background of the situation and the situation
of speech prototypical. For example, to say –
"to pronounce words or sounds, to express a
thought, opinion, or suggestion, or to state a fact
or instruction" (Cambridge Advanced Learner’s
Dictionary). Besides, the analysis of the empirical
material reveals that constructions with the verbs
to say, to speak, to talk and to tell are frequently
used in speech.
The third dimension is categorized in the
construction by the actant Naddressee, which can be
expressed by a personal pronoun in the objective
case or an animate noun. It is necessary to note
that the third dimension can be non-verbalized
in the construction as mostly it coincides with
the speaker. Actually the omission of this actant
doesn’t impact the common semantic organization
of the sentence and doesn’t change the meaning
of the sentence, as it is always implied that the
speech act addresses to a definite / indefinite
person.
The fourth obligatory dimension of the
prototypical situation "information reported"
is nominated on the surface level by the actant
Ninformation, that, in its turn, can be expressed by
an infinitive, inanimate noun, anaphoric pronoun
it, or a subordinate objective clause. Variety of
forms representing this actant is justified, in our
opinion, by variety of reported information and its
types. In the process of speech, the speaker is able
to report any information: "a thought, opinion,
or suggestion, or to state a fact or instruction"
(Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary).
Herewith, these constructions are not equivalent
semantically.
Constructions with a subordinate objective
clause describe information reported by the
speaker in detail, for example: (1) He fi nally told
me why he was so upset (BNC). In this case,
the figure dimension "information reported" is
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categorized by the subordinate objective clause
that represents the essence of information.
Constructions with inanimate nouns just
mention the type of information: (2) She always
tells stories to children (BNC). In the following
sentence even the type of information isn’t
pointed out: (3) She said it in the kitchen, on the
Wednesday of that week, looking round from
the Aga where she was frying bacon (BNC).
Here information is represented implicitly by
the pronoun it that fulfils an anaphoric function.
Constructions with the infi nitive categorize
such a situation where the agent encourages
the addressee to act, appeals to him / her for
following some instructions: (4) He says to close
my eyes and rest quietly (BNC).
The questions are raised: which of these
constructions categorizes the prototypical
situation best of all? Which of them is more
prototypical?
Constructions with the inanimate nouns
and anaphoric pronoun it, categorizing the
dimension "information reported", are not
informative enough, as information itself isn’t
represented. As far as constructions with the
infi nitive are concerned the figure dimension
"information
reported"
is
semantically
concretized, as some instruction for the
addressee to follow is meant.
A construction with the subordinate objective
clause is defined as prototypical for categorization
the prototypical situation of mental activity. The
ground of that is as follows: naturally the verb
of mental activity doesn’t predict temporal and
modal character of the thought, therefore, the
syntactical form of the predicate actant should
be able to represent tense, aspect, mood, and so
on. Such a form is the subordinate clause with the
tense-aspect and modal forms of the finite verb
(Kovaleva, 2008: 108). As far as speaking and
thinking are inseparably connected, constructions
with the subordinate objective clause are the best
ones for the prototypical situation of speech
categorization.
Peculiar Features
of the Non-Prototypical Constructions
for the Prototypical Situation
of Speech Categorization
In figure-ground interrelation the figure is
principal and the ground is against a background,
even though the ground impacts the figure
indirectly. The ground manages to enhance and to
reduce the figure, and depending on situation, the
ground turns into the figure and the figure makes
the ground (Lakoff, 1981: 358). It happens when
the speaker notices optional (ground) dimensions
in real situation and verbalizes them. In this case
the ground dimensions are categorized on the
surface level, and the construction ceases to be
prototypical and turns into non-prototypical one.
In real life the speaker often pays attention
to a manner and aim of speaking. Consequently,
optional dimension "manner of speech" / "aim of
speech" makes the figure and some obligatory
dimensions recede into the background. In nonprototypical situation "manner of speech" / "aim
of speech" are categorized either by the predicate
or by different sirconstants.
If the speaker’s attention focuses on the
volume of speech act, he intuitively chooses
a periphery verb of speech as a predicate: to
whisper, to shout, to cry, to hiss, etc., because the
seme "volume" is found in vocabulary entries to
these verbs. For instance, to shout: "to express
strong emotions in a loud voice" (Cambridge
Advanced Learner’s Dictionary). Let us observe
construction (5) Mother shouted for the children
(BNC). The speaker and the agent of speech
don’t coincide here. The speaker notices someone
shouting. For the speaker it is more important
to emphasize the manner of speech rather than
the information itself (as we see, the dimension
"information reported" isn’t categorized on
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the surface level at all). So, the dimension 5a
"volume" is highlighted and becomes figure. Here
the situation categorized is somewhat different
from the prototypical one. It is semantically close
to construction (6) He spoke in a barely audible,
husky growl (BNC) in dimension 5a "volume",
which is verbalized through the sirconstant of
manner in a barely audible, husky growl. It is
relevant for the speaker that the agent of speech
could be hardly heard, but not what he says.
Speaker’s attention can be paid not only
to the volume of the speech producing, but also
to the emotions, accompanying the process of
agent’s speech: (7) Paul shouts angrily and loudly
at smaller children who want to play with the toys
he is using (BNC). In the situation categorized by
this construction two dimensions are emphasized
simultaneously. They are 5a "volume" and 5c
"plenty of emotions in speech act". Firstly, the
speaker subconsciously resorts to using the verb to
shout as the seme "strong emotion" along with the
seme "volume" is found in its vocabulary entry.
Secondly, one can easily observe two sirconstants
loudly and angrily, they signalize dimensions 5a
"volume" and 5c "plenty of emotions in speech
act" make figures in this situation. Construction
(7) is semantically close to construction (8) My
husband sometimes scolds loudly my stepson but
more often blames my son (BNC) in dimensions
"volume" and 5c "plenty of emotions in speech
act". It is revealed through the sirconstant of
volume loudly, as well as through the semantic
structure of the main verb to scold – "to find fault
noisily or angrily" (Merriam-Webster Dictionary).
At the same time constructions (7) and (8) are
semantically close to construction (9) Maybe she
just said it in the heat of anger or whatever (BNC)
(despite the main verb to say is unexpressive and
stylistically neutral) in dimension 5c "plenty of
emotions in speech act". The latter makes figure
here as it is noticed and verbalized by the speaker
through intensifier of emotions in the heat of
anger. It proves that the speaker focuses his / her
attention on the emotions expressed by the author
of speech rather than on the information itself.
In some situations the speaker notices
the velocity of speech first of all but not the
information reported, as extreme rapidity or
slowness can keep the addressee from perceiving
reported information. So, the dimension
"velocity" is highlighted and turns into figure in
the situation. On the surface level, the dimension
"velocity" is mostly verbalized by the sirconstant
of velocity, for example: (10) He said it in a rush,
leaving Rachel staring at the door (BNC). The
meaning of the sentence changes because the
sirconstant of manner in a rush is employed. The
dimension "velocity" becomes figure and the rest
of the dimensions apart from the agent recede
to the background. The speaker first of all pays
attention to the agent producing his speech in
one breath, in other words, to the manner of it.
The next sentence (11) Nicolo muttered short fast
phrases behind my back (BNC) is organized by
the periphery verb to mutter. Its vocabulary entry
contains the semes "quietly", and "in a low voice"
on the one hand and "worried", "complaining"
on the other hand that highlight such optional
dimensions as "volume" and "plenty of emotions
in speech act". The dimension "velocity" in its turn
is verbalized by the sirconstant of velocity short
fast. So, the three optional dimensions at once are
noticed and categorized by the speaker. Moreover
the obligatory dimension "information" recedes
to the background as it isn’t even mentioned by
the speaker.
In construction (12) Unexpectedly he
said this phrase with some effort (BNC) all the
obligatory dimensions of the prototypical situation
of speech except the "addressee" are verbalized.
In fact its omission doesn’t influence the meaning
of the sentence. Herewith this construction can
be hardly regarded as prototypical one, because
the dimension "velocity" is represented by the
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sirconstant of velocity with some efforts. The
speaker understands that the agent’s speech is not
dynamic, slow and that can impede information
perception. The speaker pays attention mostly to
the manner of speech but not to the information
the agent is trying to tell on.
Besides the vocabulary of the language
contains such periphery verbs that represent the
dimension "velocity": to jabber, to gibber, to
rattle etc.
So, when the dimension "velocity" is relevant
for the speaker it is represented either by the
sirconstant or by the predicate of speech in the
sentence. These constructions are semantically
close to each other in dimension "velocity".
Dimension 6 "aim of speech" makes figure
when the speaker pays his / her attention to the
agent’s of speech intentions and to the objection
of his / her speech act. The given dimension in
non-prototypical construction can be represented
either by the periphery verbs: to praise, to scold,
to slander, to disgrace etc., or by the sirconstant
of aim. Let us compare two constructions: (13)
Mickey told that long coil of phrases in order to
compliment her (BNC) and (14) George praises
the hospitality and warmth of welcome extended
by the Belgians (BNC). In construction (13) the
dimension "aim of speech" is represented by the
sirconstant of aim in order to compliment her. It
proves the fact that the accent shifts to the aim of
speaking, what the speaker utters his speech for.
In construction (14) the same dimension makes
figure as the sentence is headed by the periphery
verb to praise. The lexical meaning of this verb
is: "to express strong approval or admiration
to someone especially in public" (Macmillan
English Dictionary). The constructions are
semantically closed in dimension 6. The aim of
the utterances is to say something pleasant, to
appreciate somebody. It is necessary to note that
the dimension "addressee" is seldom represented
in such constructions as the agent’s speech is
immediately sent to more than one addressee, to
public, in other words, to a "common addressee".
The seme "common addressee" ("especially in
public") is observed in the vocabulary entry of
the periphery verbs, running the constructions.
So, the constructions with the nuclear
verbs to say, to tell, to speak, to talk and the
sirconstants of aim are semantically close to the
construction headed by the periphery verbs: to
praise, to scold, to slander etc. in dimension
"aim of speech".
As it has been noticed, in the process of
categorization of non-prototypical situations
with the figure dimensions "volume", "velocity /
rapidity", "plenty / lack of emotions in the speech
act" and "aim of speech act" the speaker often
resorts to using such lexical means that point out
the type of the information reported or anaphoric
pronoun it:
(15) Cleo said this phrase in a penetrating
voice (BNC);
(16) Helen whispered that invocation very
rapidly, being afraid to be heard (BNC).
It signalizes that the dimension "information
reported" recedes to the background of the
situation, because the necessary information does
not reach the addressee in full. He / she remember
just the process of information reporting. An
extreme rapidity of speech, low / loud voice and
emotional state of the agent prevent the addressee
from receiving what is being reported.
Conclusion
Therefore, as far as reality is rich and
multifarious in comparison with forms of thinking
and language expression (Gak, 2004: 466), such
phenomenon as sentence polysemy exists in
the language. Sentence polysemy reveals when
constructions headed by the same verb categorize
different variations of the same situation.
However, there is something common that
binds these constructions together. It allows
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observing their semantic likeness and confining
them to the same category. This is some common
idea that helps the speaker use a sentence under
different conditions; intuitively adapt it to each
concrete case.
Since the sentences refer to a common
abstract idea (one prototypical situation), they
are semantically close to each other and build a
paradigm, making a sense continuum, but they
are not semantically equivalent. Prototypical
and non-prototypical constructions possess their
own peculiar features. They reflect the way the
speaker grasps the situation, as in the process
of categorization he / she pays more attention to
some dimensions of the situation rather than to
other ones.
The dimensions highlighted by the speaker
can be represented by the head verb of the
sentence. It explains existence of the synonyms,
denoting different manners and aims of speech in
the language.
The rest of the sentence parts together
with the main verb form a semantic side of the
sentence as the dimensions of the situations
are represented by a main verb, actants, and
sirconstants at once.
References
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Языковая категоризация
прототипической ситуации "Речь"
в современном английском языке
А.В. Семкова
Политехнический институт (филиал) ФГФОУ ВПО
«Северо-Восточный федеральный университет
имени М.К. Аммосова» в г. Мирном
Россия, 678170, Республика Саха (Якутия),
Мирный, ул. Тихонова, 5/1
Предметом анализа статьи является проблема языковой категоризации на уровне
предложения. В рамках когнитивного подхода многозначность предложения связана со
смыслом предложения в целом и заключается в том, что предложение категоризует разные
вариации прототипической ситуации. Эти вариации связаны, во-первых, с наличием в реальной
действительности огромного количества похожих, но не эквивалентных ситуаций, которые
человек, в силу своей способности категоризовать, подводит под одну категорию, во-вторых,
с различным пониманием говорящим одной и той же ситуации реальной действительности.
Одна и та же ситуация может быть по-разному осмыслена говорящим, который акцентирует
своё внимание то на одних параметрах ситуации, то на других. В связи с этим некоторые
параметры ситуации могут выдвигаться на первый план, а другие, наоборот, – затемняться.
Неидентичность похожих ситуаций реальной действительности, а также разное осмысление
говорящим одной и той же ситуации реальной действительности влияет на семантическую
и синтаксическую организацию предложения, что мы пытались продемонстрировать в ходе
анализа на примере ситуации речи.
Ключевые слова: прототипическая ситуация, прототипическая конструкция, категоризация,
параметр, фигура, фон.
Научная специальность: 10.00.00 – филология.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1653-1660
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УДК 37.046.14
Functional Specifics of Mediatext in
the System of Development
of Intercultural Communicative Competence
Boris V. Tarev*
National Research University
Higher School of Economics
20 Myasnitskaya Str., Moscow, 101000, Russia
Received 04.08.2014, received in revised form 17.09.2014, accepted 10.10.2014
The publication raises the question of the status and characteristics of a mediatext in the system
of language training aimed at development of students’ intercultural communicative competence.
The author represents the specific characteristics of mediatext as a component of media. The article
discloses the classification of media texts, represents the selection criteria for language teaching
purposes.
Keywords: mediatext, intercultural approach to teaching, intercultural communicative competence,
selection of mediatexts, didactical criteria of mediatexts, classification of mediatexts.
Research area: 10.00.00 – philology.
Introduction
Learning foreign languages is now closely
associated with the concept of intercultural
communication. Increasing contacts with other
cultures have a positive effect on students’
motivation to learn foreign languages.
Knowledge of one or more foreign languages is
considered to be the key to a successful career.
But in reality it turns out that in the process of
interaction between a specialist and his foreign
friends and colleagues a good knowledge of a
foreign language is not a guarantee of successful
intercultural communication. Even recent
graduates of linguistic universities for whom
intercultural communication is an essential part
of their professional activities, are not immuned
*
from the "cultural shock", i.e. from the possible
rejection of culture, customs, traditions and ethics
of the country of the studied language. Hence –
the failures, difficulties and, as a consequence,
the loss of a possible beneficial effect of business
partnership.
At present time the question of overcoming
cultural barriers is raised by many researchers
of language teaching theory and practices
(I.I. Khaleeva, N.D. Galskova, K.N. Hitrik,
G.V. Elizarova, S.G. Ter-Minasova, etc.). There
exists a specific research area within which
there is a development of theoretical and
practical understanding of the ways of this
problem solving. In Lingvodidactics the sphere
of investigations that accounts for such studies
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: boristarev@mail.ru
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is intercultural approach to teaching foreign
languages. The researchers rightly claim the
need to develop among foreign language learners
some key competencies that allow for successful
communication in the conditions of intercultural
communication. They are, on the one hand, foreign
language communicative competence, which
implies a combination of knowledge and skills for
successful use of a foreign language in situations
of intercultural communication, on the other
hand, intercultural communicative competence
(ICC), which determines the comprehension
of the worldview of another ethnical and social
community, ability to see the similarities and
differences between communicating cultures
and apply them in the context of intercultural
communication. The fundamental specific feature
of intercultural communicative competence is
the ability of an individual to rethink his native
cultural identity, national and cultural identity, to
recognize the facts of his native culture, which
previously (before learning a foreign language)
were not the subject of reflection and comparison
(Tareva, 2011).
Theoretical Framework
Intercultural communicative competence
is aimed at ensuring an interlocutor with
most favorable conditions for conducting a
conversation with his partner who represents a
different culture. This kind of communication is
being actively carried out not only directly, in real
life, but also through different media that is in
"mediareality". It is difficult to imagine modern
human activities without daily processing of
information flow, and, most of all information
is produced and transmitted through a variety
of media (printed media, television, radio,
Internet). Nowadays 70% of the world population
is involved in creation, processing and transfer
of mediatexts; over 90% of the world population
is active consumers of media products (Tareva,
2011). Thus, the media help to increase the pace
of globalization.
Media production, from the didactic
perspective, has long been established as an
effective means of formation of media education
or media literacy (N.P. Ryzhikh, I.V. Chelisheva,
A.A. Novikov). Modern literature differently
treats the effects of active intervention of
"mediareality" into daily life. At the same time
it must be noted that access to mass media of
the target language country provides a number
of advantages when learning foreign language,
and these benefits are substantial. Firstly, when
learning a foreign language outside the country
where it is a primary means of communication,
media texts (printed matters and radio, television
texts) are modern sources of written and spoken
language of native speakers. Secondly, the
media use "full", i.e. literary language norm,
which is in the center of teaching a foreign
language in a linguistic university. Thirdly, the
texts of media faster than dictionaries, grammar
references, etc., reflect lexical, grammatical,
phonological, etc. changes that occur in the
target language. Special attention in the context
of learning a foreign language at universities
with deeper penetration into foreign language
learning is to be paid to foreign language radio
texts and teletexts, as with their help, students
can comprehend authentic speech, follow the
articulation and gesticulation of native speakers.
Fourth, of particular interest for foreign language
learners are specific cultural media texts, giving
an adequate reflection of regional geographic
and culturally important aspects of life in
the country of the studied language. Finally,
depending on the age and interests of foreign
language learners it is reasonable to select TV
and radio programs in the target language that
will promote intrinsic motivation for learning
the foreign language. Thus, cognitive and
educational value of media texts in the process
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of learning a foreign language is clear and
indisputable.
At present, mediameans (mainly printed
matters) are widely used at foreign language
classes as an authentic material for lessons of
Speech Practice and for classes devoted to Media
Language. It should be noted that the use of media
texts is primarily aimed at the development of
foreign language communicative competence,
in particular, its linguistic component, because
while working with media content, students
memorize the most common clichés, grammatical
structures, etc., in order to then use them in
speech and writing.
Statement of the problem
Despite the success achieved in the study of
application of media texts, not all their potential
features are revealed deeply and thoroughly. In
particular, the attention of scientists is outside the
study of the role of media for the development of
intercultural communicative competence.
The term "mediameans" stands for traditional
means, which are used for mass-communication
such as movies, television, press, radio. The
interpretation of this concept is necessary due
to the fact that now in many theoretical papers
we can see the tendency of correlation between
the concept of "media", denoting a technical
device for information representation, and the
concept of "mass media", implying technology of
relaying information to influence mass audience.
In the first case, mediameans is represented by a
computer, and in the second – mediameans are
represented by TV, cinema, press, etc.
Mediameans are used to broadcast
mediatexts that are regarded as key product
of mass-media. In the most general form a
"mediatext" is defined as "the totality of oral and
written texts (printed, audio, video), that make up
the content of newspapers, magazines, television
and radio broadcasts, Internet-sites of mass-
media publications, various types of advertising,
ads, labels and etc. " (Dobrosklonskaya, 2000:
5]. From the perspectives of Psycholinguistics
mediatext is defined as a model of a situation or
event, reflected through the prism of individual
perception of the author, it is a special type of
reality, being a product of human information
activity, created through a set of texts in massmedia with specific characteristics imposed by
media space and media time (Rogozina, 2003).
We can conclude that mediatext redesignes
according to special laws of media industry a
"parallel" world, reflecting the vision of the world
of a native speaker, his stereotypes and norms
of behavior, simulating the real situation of
communication between native speakers.
From this point of view the special interest
is represented by mediatexts that are formed
on audiovisual level, i.e. the texts, which are
broadcasted by means of TV. The texts of TVprograms, being media products in the studied
language, provide distant immersion in the
language and cultural environment. With regular
use of authentic audiovisual media content
foreign language students observe the behavior of
native speakers, their cultural peculiarities, fixing
difference and similarities with their own culture,
which promotes dialogue between cultures. As a
result, by the end of a certain period of learning
a foreign language with application of media of
the country of target language the learners have
already got some experience of penetration in
the foreign language culture that helps to avoid
the phenomenon of "cultural shock" which may
take place at the first direct interaction with other
lingvoethnical community.
Practical aspects:
types of mediatexts
If we regard the produce of foreign-language
media from practical point of view, i.e. from
the perspective of usage of media content in a
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foreign language classroom for the purpose of
development of intercultural communicative
competence, then the selection of material
must be conducted with focus on the interests
of foreign language learners and their level of
foreign language communicative competence.
The most difficult for audiovisual perception
by language learners are News programs, which
most fully realize the main function of the
media – informative. On the one hand, a high
level of repeatability of such mediatexts greatly
facilitates the perception and use of the News
by the audience that does not belong to the
lingvocultural community, for example, students
who study the foreign language and foreignlanguage media culture. On the other hand, due to
the cultural specificity of News texts, students may
not have the profound extra-linguistic background
information needed to understand particular News
items. Certain difficulty for perception of News
texts may be caused by ideological component of
foreign language texts and News media of other
cultures. Nevertheless, the News mediatexts are
especially valuable because they reflect culturally
determined perception and reflection of the vision
of the world by a certain cultural community. All
that is exposed not only at the level of content,
but also at the level of selection and presentation
of media information by mass-media in different
countries.
Equally important for understanding
the vision of the world by a representative of
another culture is his interpretation of events.
Consequently, that allows active introduction in
the educational process the analysis of events,
political commentaries, overviews, texts,
that represent opinions and assessments. It is
the information and analytical materials that
represent differences in the perception of realities
of social and political life due to specific cultural
and ideological context. Different vision of reality
is expressed in its turn through different ways of
interpretation of this or that event. Interpretive
function of mass communication is implemented
by proper media technologies, and by linguistic
means, and acquires influential properties.
In terms of potential difficulties for students,
information and analytical texts are generally
less difficult for understanding than the News
texts. This is explained by the fact that, firstly,
the information and analytical programs last
longer (on average 40 – 60 minutes) than the
News (5 – 30 min.), but from the point of view of
events, information and analytical texts are less
saturated than News. On average, informationanalytical program contains 5-10 events, while
newscasts – 10-15. In addition, the debatable
nature of analytical reports allows students to
more easily switch from one topic to another.
These and many other features of mediatexts
in a foreign language, of course, must be taken
into account in the process of development of
intercultural communicative competence.
To achieve these goals of particular interest
can be the topical broadcasts, which in British
media are very aptly named by the term "features",
representing the mediatexts on a variety of topics
from pop music and sports to high life and high
fashion.
In the selection of authentic audiovisual
media content should be paid attention to the
fact that the topical mediatexts appeal to human
interest, focusing the audience at the themes
of ever interest (travel, music, hobbies, etc.). In
comparison with the News and information and
analytical texts, this type of media texts is more
focused on impact, which greatly facilitates
their perception and understanding by foreign
language learners.
Of great interest for foreign language learners
are advertising texts. Like any media product,
advertising texts represent a form of existence
of a social environment, a fragment of national
culture. To attract an audience advertising texts
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use national-cultural connotation that allows
creating in advertising texts national and cultural
linguistic image. Advertising texts are designed
to encourage potential buyers – representatives
of a particular language and culture – to buy a
particular product. That is why they are filled
with many allusions, associations, etc. Such
factors of extralinguistic nature may partially or
completely block for a representative of another
culture the understanding of the mediatext if he
has not been prepared for this. And we cannot
ignore the text of advertising, because the ability
to fully understand them serves as an evidence
of a sufficiently high level of development of
intercultural communicative competence.
In addition to the said above, it should be
noted that audiovisual mediatexts contribute
to the intensification of the learning process,
allowing reducing the number of hours required
for study of a topic; increases the efficiency of
acquisition of non-verbal means of expression
specific for native speakers (Pressman, 1988).
Practical aspects:
selection of mediatexts
Recognizing the undeniable role of
mediatexts in the structure of system of
development of intercultural communicative
competence, it should be noted that their use is
connected with a number of difficulties; one of
the most complicated is the problem of selection
of such training materials. Working with media
materials, it is necessary to take into account
the complexity and a huge variety of mediatexts.
Nonsystematic use of media materials can
backfire, i.e. reduce motivation and performance
of students, in general, and worsen educational
performance. To avoid this, the selection and
integration of mediatexts in the process of
development of intercultural communicative
competence should be guided by a number of
criteria relating to both objectives of foreign
language education in general and the objectives
of the development of intercultural competence
in particular.
Selection of specific mediatexts and methods
of working with them depends on many factors,
primarily on the level of students’ language
proficiency. Most researchers rightly believe
that mediatexts, in particular, newspaper texts
as the most popular type of mediatexts used at
foreign language lessons, can be used only with
learners who are at the intermediate level and
higher. A language learner with intermediate
level of language proficiency already has a
sufficient vocabulary and knowledge in grammar
for understanding the text. Usually, at this stage,
students work with informational mediatexts,
such as notes or reports on political meetings
and official events. These mediatexts are full of
clichés and set phrases typical for journalistic
style, and they lack jargon, slang, and other
means of expressive language, which can obscure
the students.
With increasing of the level of student’s
language proficiency it is possible to move on to
more complex problematic mediatexts, such as
information and analytical programs or essays.
In this case, the main criterion for selection is
the level of the text difficulty, i.e. mediatexts are
selected on the basis of principle "from simple to
difficult".
In preparation for working with mediatexts
it is also necessary to consider the age of
students. The TV program about political system
in the country of the target language may be
interesting for seniors while freshmen will
consider it boring. Students must be excited; the
topics discussed in mediatexts must be designed
with the aim to not only help to expand their life
experiences, but also encourage them to collate
their world with the world of native speakers.
Selection and organization of mediatexts should
be implemented so that students find connections
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with their experiences and ideas about their own
and "the other" culture. If a teacher chooses a
mediatext without consideration of the criterion
of "matching students’ age", the consequences
of using such an authentic media material can
be negative, for example, it may cause a sharp
rejection of the culture of the country, or "cultural
shock" and demotivation of students.
A teacher can prevent this if he finds out
the range of his students’ interests (for example,
through questionnaires) and invite students to
consider those issues that affect their peers in
the target language country. Students are likely
to be concerned with the problems associated
with the start of professional life, finding a job
in the country of the target language, their peers’
leisure, etc. Thus, when reasonable approach
to the selection and use of educational media
content is implemented a teacher is able to
increase the motivation of students and make a
significant contribution to the development of
their intercultural competence.
As follows from the above, no less important
criteria in the selection of mediatexts is the
thematic variety of media material, as well as
its clear thematic structuring, i.e. availability
of topic, subtopics, situation. These criteria are
provided by the variety of media texts.
Of particular note are the so-called timeless
texts. Basically, these are thematic TV-programs
and articles about geography, history, world of
animals, etc. Such media materials are relevant
for a very long time (the criterion of "relevance of
a time parameter"); these subjects almost always
trigger students’ interest. Depending on the theme
of the lesson, a teacher can select informative and
interesting material that will be useful in terms of
the development of intercultural competence of
students. Media products that meet this criterion
are produced, for example, by the Channel
Discovery (series Travel and Living) and studio
National Geographic.
Speaking about mediatexts as texts for
training purposes, it is necessary to mention
that almost all mediatexts represent different
types of pragmatic statements (information on
facts, events, evaluation judgments, regulation
of relations, etc.), as well as public attitudes,
different norms of communication. Most
intense in this regard are articles and social
programs.
In the selection of authentic mediatexts a
teacher should not forget that in addition to the
educational function of mediatexts (e.g., movies,
programs about Arts, etc.) they are an excellent
basis for the development of aesthetic perception
of students, which should also become one of the
landmarks when searching for authentic media
material.
And finally, one of the fundamental criteria
in the selection of authentic material, including
media material, is quality and functionality of
the text appropriate to a certain type of speech
activity.
The mentioned above criteria allow to
assess the quality of an authentic mediatext with
consideration of basic didactic tasks for foreign
language teaching accompanied by the process
of development of intercultural communicative
competence at all the stages of foreign language
learning. When selecting media material, not
only the quality of the text, but also the number
of criteria that the given text matches is taken into
consideration. Consequently, the preferred is the
text that corresponds to six criteria rather than to
three.
To conclude, all the information is
summarized in Table I, where the criteria are listed
that should be applied at the process of selection
of mediatexts, as well as types of mediatexts that
match specific criteria.
The Table below represents the correlation
between criteria of selection and types of
mediatexts.
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Table 1
CRITERIA
TYPES OF MEDIATEXTS
1. Adequacy of complexity (from simple to
difficult)
From short topical broadcasts on well-known
problems to the texts of daily News programs
Topics and the manner of media materials
presentation is varied depending on the age and
interests of learners
2.Correspondence to age parameters
3. Topical variety (the repertoire of topics
correlates with the demands of individuals, with
Provided by all the types of mediatexts
the educational objectives for the certain class of
learners)
4.Topical structuring (topic, subtopic, situation, Certain topical broadcasts, mainly movies and
vertically arranged context)
TV-series)
Thematic TV-programs on geography, history,
5.Time relevance
culture, etc.
6. Availability of various types of pragmatic
statements (information on facts, events,
Provided by all the types of mediatexts
evaluation judgments, regulation of relations,
etc.)
7. Social and socio-cultural importance,
mediatexts contain civil attitudes, beliefs,
Information and analytical programs, reviews,
positions; norms of the different types of
socially oriented broadcasts
communication
Information and analytical programs and
8. Moral challenge
articles, movies, and TV-series
9. Aesthetic parameter
Movies, thematic texts (mediatexts on Arts)
Mediatexts of everyday dialogic communication
(interviews in News programs, thematic
10. Quality and functionality
programs, information and analytical mediatexts,
some texts of advertising)
Conclusion
Having examined specific features of
mediameans, their didactic typology, as well as
focusing on the principles of selection of modern
mediatexts, it can be concluded that regular
use of authentic mediatexts in target language
provides immersion in the language and cultural
environment of the studied language being an
effective means of accumulation of experience
in dealing with foreign-language culture and
effective means of developing and improving
intercultural communicative competence.
References
1. Tareva E.G. Cross-Cultural Interpretation as the Strategy for Pre-Translation Text Analysis //
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Krasnoyarsk, 2011. № 4 (10). P. 1473-1480.
2. Dobrosklonskaya T.G. Theory and Methods of Medialinguistics (on the material of the
English language [Teoriya I metody medialingvistiki (na material angliiskogo yazyka)]: Abstract dis.
… Doctor of Linguistics. (M., 2000).
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3. Rogozina I.V. Media Presentation of the World: Cognitive and Semiotic Aspect [Media-kartina
mira: kognitivno-cemioticheskiy aspect]: Abstract dis. … Doctor of Linguistics. (Barnaul, 2003).
4. Pressman L.P. The Basics of Application of Computer Aided Teaching [Osnovy metodiki
primeneniya tekhnicheskikh sredstv obycheniya]. M: Prosveshchenie, 1988. 191 p.
Медиатекст в системе формирования
межкультурной коммуникативной
компетенции студентов
Б.В. Тарев
Национальный исследовательский университет
Высшая школа экономики
Россия, 101000, Москва, ул. Мясницкая, 20
В публикации ставится вопрос о статусе и особенностях медиатекста в системе иноязычной
подготовки студентов вуза с целью формирования у них межкультурной коммуникативной
компетенции. Автором предлагается сущностная характеристика медиатекста как
одного из компонентов системы медиасредств, приводится классификация медиатекстов,
представлены лингводидактически обусловленные критерии отбора медиатекстов.
Ключевые слова: медиатекст, межкультурный подход к обучению, межкультурная
коммуникативная компетенция, отбор медиатекстов, критерии дидактизированных
медиатекстов, классификация медиатекстов.
Научная специальность: 10.00.00 – филология.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1661-1671
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УДК 821.411.16
Methods of Estrangement
in Amos Oz’s A Tale of Love and Darkness
Yulia E. Valkova*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 18.07.2014, received in revised form 14.08.2014, accepted 07.09.2014
The present paper characterizes specific stylistic features of a distinguished Israeli author and scholar
Amos Oz on the material of non-fiction A Tale of Love and Darkness. The analysis is focused on the
method of estrangement in particular, since this stylistic device is of key importance for understanding
the ambivalent connection of both the book and the author with European and especially Russian
literature in the reflection of modern Hebrew literature. The method of estrangement is also considered
as meaningful for equivalent and adequate translating.
Keywords: Amos Oz, estrangement, A Tale of Love and Darkness, Israel, Hebrew, translation.
Research area: 10.00.00 – philology.
Introduction
Amos Oz, being one of the most popular
Israeli authors and at the same time recognized
intellectual and a professor of literature at BenGurion University in Beer-Sheva, is a prominent
novelist and his works deserve greater attention
than currently in Russia. The research is oriented
more on A Tale of Love and Darkness (2002), as
this is a partly autobiographical and non-fiction
novel, translated into 28 languages so far. One
of the topical features of contemporary literature
is balancing between two worlds – new and old,
West and East, traditional and challenging. When
globalization prevails, authors appear to have a
temptation to leave far behind cultural roots and
attune to cosmopolitan writing, which can be
written and read everywhere. Still some rootedness
is hard to get away from, especially when the
*
author attempts to write a biography, though it can
turn out to be pseudobiography in the end. When
the author starts to revive his childhood memories,
he is trying to perceive them as happening again,
this literary device is called estrangement.
Estrangement concerns not only remembrance of
the past, but revival of the things that have gone
away, these are (for any Israeli author) – the times
of galut (exile), native languages of the places
where Jewish diaspora lived, trade and cultural
connections of the past times, not to mention
some subtle psychological patterns realized in
writing novels. Estrangement is a vivid feature in
all works of A. Oz and characteristically in A Tale
of Love and Darkness. The further study will be
concentrated on whether this estrangement is kept
in translation and useful methods of translating
estrangement or making up for it.
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: mutlulukcik@rambler.ru
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Theoretical framework
The present study follows mainly works
of authors of Israeli origin and those Englishspeaking researchers who are interested in the
modern Hebrew literature and its connection
with the traditional one, which was written
before the revival of the Hebrew language in the
20 th century. These works are based on peering
at struggle for identity, on the idea of heterotopy
of the narrator, which means a deviation
from normal state; abnormal placement.
A. Mendelson-Maoz also speaks about
dialectical difference between aliyah (migration
to Israel with the positive connotation) and
immigration. Moreover, scientists note that
A. Oz, being a member of the peace movement,
while investigating the Jewish-Arab conflict
tries to distance himself from both parties and
fi nd some reconciliation.
Researchers largely contrast works of
A. Oz to the works of other authors of his age
or fortune, such as to S. Yishar (Sh. E. Jelen,
R. Omer-Sherman), Mary Antin (N. K. Miller),
S.Y. Agnon, H. Bartov, A. Appelfeld, S. Michael,
E. Amir (A. Mendelson-Maoz), A.B. Yehoshua,
D. Grossman (H. Halkin), Y. Orpaz, M. Tammuz,
D. Shahar (Sh. Peled), A. Cohen (K. Grumberg),
A. Appelfeld, Y. Kaniuk, H. Gouri (G. Shaked),
A. Camus, S. Yishar (G. Piterberg). A. Balaban
speaking about panentheism and religious
framework in The Trappist Monastery
draws parallels between A. Oz, his literary
contemporaries
and
predecessors
and
philosophers, including F.W. Schelling.
The objective of this paper is to examine
the realization of estrangement in A. Oz’s A Tale
of Love and Darkness, so we have three tasks:
to define what estrangement is, to observe the
researchers’ approaches to estrangement in
A. Oz’s works and to concentrate on the author’s
application of estrangement on the material of the
particular novel.
Let us begin with the defi nition, which
will be reviewed briefly as the wider and
all-encompassing examination of the notion
extends beyond the scope of the present paper.
Estrangement here will be understood as the
distancing effect (estrangement derives from
estrange, which means: to cause someone
to be no longer friendly or close to another
person or group; to cause someone to be no
longer involved or connected with something;
to remove from customary environment or
association; to arouse especially mutual enmity
or indifference in where there had formerly
been love, affection, or friendliness (MerriamWebster Dictionary). In another dictionary
estrangement is the fact of no longer being
on friendly terms or part of a social group;
the fact of no longer living with one’s spouse
or partner; separation (Oxford Dictionary).
This distancing effect allows for unbiased,
objective approach, especially necessary when
the philological analysis deals with pseudobiography, which has both fictional and nonfictional nature.
Estrangement in philological sense is
close to the term "defamiliarization", which
was introduced in 1917 by V. Shklovsky in his
essay "Art as Technique"). To illustrate what he
means by defamiliarization, V. Shklovsky uses
examples from L. Tolstoy, whom he cites as using
the technique throughout his works. The story
"Kholstomer" is told as if anew, from the point of
a horse. Defamiliarization also includes the use
of foreign languages within a work. It is akin to
automatization, but avoids over-automatization
(for further details cf. C. Emerson). Moving
forward a little, we will see that the use of
different languages, languages of different
cultures and automatization is a commonplace
for A Tale of Love and Darkness.
Estrangement from the viewpoint of
psychology is state of increased distance from
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oneself of others; decrease in contact where close
contact once occured (Psychology Dictionary).
Again, later we will see the realization of these
directions in the analyzed work.
Though there is a number of both ambiguous
terms for the phenomenon and different definitions
of estrangement, the current purpose is not on the
differentiating the terminology, rather on looking
at specific examples narrowly.
The next step on our way to examination of
estrangement in A Tale of Love and Darkness is
to refer to the already existing theoretical works
devoted to estrangement either in the whole
literary corpus of A. Oz, or letting into the topic
of estrangement in A Tale of Love and Darkness
in particular. Let us form a comprehensive list of
reasons for estrangement before (in the following
section) we will look for specific purposes of
usage of estrangement.
So scientists attribute A. Oz’s estrangement
to
• Leaving relatives, intellectualism, old
and bookworm culture, as Sh. E. Jelen
aptly articulates, his trajectory from
Jerusalem to "Kibbutz" marked his own
personal journey away from that which
he considered a parochial Europeanism.
Still, the heroes as other characters in
A. Oz’s fiction feel uprooted and alienated
in a new, unfamiliar place (Feldman,
p. 395). Yet the recently written story,
painfully revelatory "Little Boy" (2012),
"reveals that even the kibbutz’s nativeborn sometimes endure traumatic
estrangement" (R. Omer-Sherman, book
review).
• Attempt to create new literature in a new
language (modern Hebrew is still new
and lacks some words)
• Attraction in the youth to the risky allures
of the Gnostic defiance (Y.S. Feldman),
which is hard to detach from
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• Rethinking of the past
• Difficulty of self-identification
• Failure of the parents’ generation to blend
in (in particular, A. Mendelson-Maoz
mentions it)
• Connection with European origins, which
hardens involvement into community
"His experience in that moment appears
to be an acceptance of his universe as
distinctly nonindigenous" (Sh.J. Jelen,
p.512).
• Mixture of different cultures in Israel
• "Absent memory" of Holocaust and
other horrors, postmemory of the third
generation. This absent memory brings
pressure to young generation, which has
not experienced the traumas of the World
War II, but feels them as if phantom
pains. The narrower meaning of the term
concerns more private individualistic
matters. M. McNay applies the notion
of absent memory to the family secrets
that underlie these narratives and reflect
on questions raised by such secrets–and
by incomplete narrative inheritances–for
the children burdened with them (cf.
M. McNay).
• Trauma at the suicide of author’s mother,
odd behavior of the mother "Fania’s
nocturnal migrations from her room to
that of her pubescent son are presented,
from Amos’s perspective, without pity
and with an admirable avoidance of
retrospective commentary and diagnosis"
(Carmy, p. 58). Ch. Schachan and
K. Grumberg discuss it in the terms of
spectropoetics introduced by Jacques
Derrida. K. Grumberg also addresses
Freud’s term "unheimlich" (uncanny)
and the concept of exile as mingling
of the homely and the unhomely (cf.
K. Grumberg, p. 383).
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• Individual expression fighting collective
consciousness,
objective
versus
subjective. "<…> a protagonist feels
trapped or constrained by a public self
that is not of his choosing" (Halkin, p.32).
Ch. Schachan cites G. Shaked in regards
that A.Oz iz primarily concerned with the
collective subconscious (cf. Ch. Schachan,
p. 327, 329).
• Distinguishing between the positions
of settler and colonialism. G. Piterberg
alludes to A Tale of Love and Darkness,
as "it so clearly conveys the forcefully
demarcated fault-line, so rationalised
and orderly, between settler and indigene
(G. Piterberg, p.40).
• Evasiveness of parents when asked to tell
about their insufferable past (N.K. Miller,
p.320)
• Renaming "The choice of the Hebrew
name to replace the European one
represents both the deliberate turning
away from the old, fetishized models of
European Enlightenment culture and the
journey toward the forging of a new world
on new terms<…>" (N.K. Miller, p.322),
Sh. Carmy writes about a repudiation of
the previous name and resolution to adapt
the Hebrew identity.
• Inner migration within the identity
(N.K. Miller)
• Vexed position between secular and
religious (Sh. Carmy, A. Balaban). A. Oz is
pleading for the distancing of the biblical
model from modern Israel, because if
Israelis try to take after biblical heroes,
this will result in "insecure individuals
bewildered about their identity and
heritage (N. Aschkenasy, p. 134).
• The very geographical location of the
setting, replete with biblical reminiscent
spirit and archetypical landscapes.
"<…> the desert serves potentially as a
transformative space that lays bare the
cracks in the individual’s commitment to
national identity" (cf. R. Omer-Sherman
developing the ideas of J. Cohen, p.53).
• Personal experience of the author,
including moves across the country and
military service. "Having experienced
Jerusalem as a divided city and served
in a tank unit in the Six-Day War and
the Yom Kippur War, A. Oz has an
intimate understanding of the movement
of Israeli society from a collectivist
ethos to a socially critical and finally
to an increasingly Americanized and,
hence, individualistic culture" (R. OmerSherman, p.54).
Even the earliest characters of A. Oz feel
alienated from the environment. In the analysis
of My Michael (1968) Sh. Peled discusses
Hannah, protagonist, "representing a besieged
sovereign who declares a state of exception,
at once constituting the space surrounding her
and perceiving it as a threat. She oscillates
between representing the sovereign and being
an individual character; interpretations fluctuate
accordingly, unable to resolve this ambiguity"
(Sh. Peled, p. 269). And later the researcher
comments that A. Oz’s text "creates a system
of exclusions that generates a constant sense of
unease, a system of oppositions and distinctions
that sustain a covert and threatening conflict,
thus repressing the hybridity of the space (Ibid,
p. 278). Ch. Schanan brings out the express
intention of the protagonist in Longing (1976)
of concentrating precisely on recording details
of the place and the moment (Ch. Schachan, p.
328). So the narrator’s position throughout of the
literary corpus of A. Oz is that of the outsider
(cf. Sh. Carmy, p.57).
All these above-stated reasons considered
we will fix our attention more on the stylistic
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purposes of estrangement in the novel and its
linking role for the whole work.
Statement of the problem
In A Tale of Love and Darkness A. Oz
chronicles his childhood in Jerusalem at the end
of the British Mandate for Palestine and the
early years of the State of Israel, and his teenage
years on kibbutz Hulda, where he escaped from
highbrow environment in search of highly true
Zionist ideals. Being a stranger in a completely
new place, being a stranger to the values
proclaimed there, he starts writing as if turning
over a fresh leaf. Nonetheless, he could not quit his
acquaintance with well-known figures in Israeli
society, among them Shmuel Yosef Agnon, Shaul
Tchernichovsky and David Ben-Gurion. One of
his teachers was the Israeli poet Zelda. Joseph
Klausner, one more considerable writer, was
his great-uncle. Told in a non-linear fashion,
A. Oz’s story is interwoven with tales of his
family’s Eastern European roots. The family’s
name was originally Klausner. By changing the
name to a Hebrew one, A. Oz rebelled against that
European background while affirming loyalty to
the land of his birth. In the book, A. Oz’s father
recalls how the walls in Europe were covered in
graffiti saying "Jews, go to Palestine", but when
he reached Palestine, the walls were scrawled
with the words "Jews, get out of Palestine."
This alienage, sense of not belonging to any of
the worlds fully, running away from Jewish
unconsciousness and V. Jabotinsky’s revisionism
led to affluent estrangement in the works, among
which A Tale of Love and Darkness stands
aside with its recalling of the bygone childhood,
revisiting which any writer perceives is as anew,
so events are told as estranged, it is ineluctable.
It needs to note that not only scholars, but also
publicists assert this estrangement as interwoven
in this memoir, about combination of anticipated
intimacy and actual estrangement: "…the Hebrew
nation returning to its homeland, a man in his
sixties connecting the segments of his life before
and after his mother’s suicide fifty years earlier,
and the writer tangling with the many languages
that shaped him and the Hebrew that he shaped in
turn" (cf. M. Pomerantz and other).
Methods
For the present study philological analysis
was used with attuning to identifying vivid
examples of estrangement and establishing the
purpose of each case. To ease the presentation of
analysis the English translation of the novel will
be cited in the following paragraph. To mine a
literary text for any single case of estrangement is
extravagant, so only few examples will be enlisted
in this work, though estrangement permeates the
whole novel.
This paper quotes from the English
translation: A Tale of Love and Darkness, trans.
Nicholas de Lange (New York: Harcourt, Inc.,
2004). Subsequent references will be given in
parenthesis in the text, using the abbreviation
LD. We will apply here the method of partial
selection of the most significant examples, as
the limitations of the paper size do not allow for
scrutiny.
For determining single cases of estrangement
we will be guided by the dictionary definitions
and approaches of A. Oz’s works’ researchers,
which were analyzed in the previous section.
The textual analysis of examples of
estrangement and detecting estrangement in
the context (not to mix it with another literary
devices) will be carried out on the base of the
linguistic organization of the text, mainly in
its stylistics aspect. Stylistics serves to make
formation or interpretation of estrangement
explicit and retrievable. Apart from stylistics, we
will see, but not range them the means of other
levels of language, which are graphical, lexical
and syntactic. All these means are designed to
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realize the whole idea of estrangement, which
passes through the whole book. To prove the
assumption that estrangement is a kind of a binding
agent for this work, let us turn to discussion of
different examples to see whether there is firm
connection between and the number of examples
of estrangement is big enough to extrapolate the
idea of estrangement to the entire A Tale of Love
and Darkness.
Discussion
To begin with, estrangement is essential
for self-referential works, otherwise they may
appear as apologetic. It is worth mentioning
that A Tale of Love and Darkness is not an
autobiography per se, so use of estrangement
acquires here a fictional character as well. More
of the examples derived here are of fictional
character, not of documentary one. Such is the
fi rst example, which narrates about switching on
the light in the cold flat:
I stared at it (switch) and watched the coil
begin to glow. It lit up gradually: at fi rst you
couldn’t see anything, you just heard a series
of crackling sounds, as when you walk on
grains of sugar, and after that a pale purplish
gleam appeared at either end of the element
and a hint of pink began to spread toward the
center, like a faint blush on a shy cheek, which
turned into a deep blush, which soon ran riot
in a shameless display of naked yellow and
lecherous lime green, until the glow reached
the middle of the coil and glowed unstoppably,
a red-hot fi re like a savage sun in a shiny metal
dish of the reflector that you couldn’t look at
without squinting, and the element was now
incandescent, dazzling, unable to contain
itself, any moment now it would melt and
pour down on my Mediterranean Sea like an
erupting volcano raising cascades of molten
lava to destroy my flotilla of destroyers and
submarines (LD, p.30).
The passages of such length are characteristic
of the whole oeuvre, which appears as a luminal,
extraneous, heterogenous world, as though
captured in a particular moment and frozen
with all its peculiar characteristics. Hybridity
and sensuality of the ordinary object in the
fantastic reflection of a young narrator serve
the purpose to immerse the reader in the state
where common objects are precursors of rueful
events. The imagination looks into the membrane
of everyday routine, in which future events are
"signalled, erupt, are set aside, returned to; for its
style, a breathtaking conjunction of the large and
small" (cf. S. Gee).
Despite the length of any single description,
A. Oz’s text is constructed from a collection of
episodes, rather than appears as a consistent
narrative. He states it as such:
I am trying to reconstruct, or rather to
guess, to conjure up, almost to create out of
nothing: like those palaeontologists in the
natural history museum who can reconstruct
a whole dinosaur on the basis of two or three
bones (LD, p. 281).
Here again we see estrangement, which is
presented as reconstruction which is due to an
effort to distance the author from the narrator,
and them both from the events described. The text
breaks fabula by integrating different material
such as testimonies, documents, postcards,
literary criticism, memoirs from the standpoint
of members of the family, all of which deviate
from one clear voice, to create a chorus. The
proclaimed scientific objectivity of the author
assists creating a pluralistic approach.
The next example also deals with
reconstruction and is critical for understanding
the use of estrangement in the text, encompasses
pages 62-63 (description of Aunt and Uncle):
I can see them standing there; at the end of
the world’ on the edge of the wilderness, both
very tender, like a pair of teddy bears, arm in arm’
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with the evening breeze of Jerusalem blowing
above their heads, the rustle of pine trees, and a
bitter smell of geraniums floating on the clear dry
air <…> On his lips floats a distracted, slightly
bewildered smile’ like a man who knocks on the
door of a house where he is a regular visitor and
where he is used to being very warmly received,
but when the door opens a stranger suddenly
looks out at him and recoils in surprise, as though
asking, Who are you sir and why exactly are you
here?
The defamiliarization here is aligned with
estrangement in psychological rethinking of the
destination. The purpose of estrangement is to
reconsider the life path through remembrance
of the relatives and ascribing to them the
author’s own immediate thoughts, though the
characters "like teddy bears" in the empty city
are shown alienated and they are given their
own voices to speak. The definition at http://
www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/estrangement
deduces estrangement to "the feeling that you
don’t belong, especially when you’re surrounded
by other people. Estrangement happens when
something – or someone – makes you feel like
a stranger. It can describe a couple that’s split
up or the alienation of a former friend. The
meaning hasn’t changed much from its Latin
root, extraneare, "treat as a stranger". Here the
couple is alienated and the narrator as well. The
characters of A. Oz "often flee homogeneous
and complacent insularity" (R. Omer-Scherman,
p. 54).
Such is the character of Grandma, who lacks
this insularity and intervenes into the narrator’s
consciousness. The passage about hot bath at
Grandma’s house shows how the narrator’s speech
intermingles with the Grandma’s humming
and becomes her voice. This soliloquizing
stretches for two pages without any pause. The
direct speech starts after "then Grandma told
you to close your eyes as tight", and then the
narrators stops thinking and the reader listens to
Grandma’s voice only until the bath is over (LD,
pp. 73-75). This strategy is implemented to grant
the character, other than the narrator, right to
outspeak their life positions.
The author abundantly lets his characters
speak from their own, such is the memories of
Aunt Sonia (LD, pp.150-158) about some relatives.
It is remarkable that the story finishes with the
description of the estranged narrator:
And you were such a serious little boy, a boy
who couldn’t set the sunshine, too serious <…> I
thought then that you would surely be much more
of a Klausner than a Mussman. Today I am not
so sure…
Here and there the narrator appears as
precocious child, lost in between two families.
The purpose of estrangement is to see the family
story in a different light.
The disconnectedness of the narrator is partly
inherited from parents who preferred a solitary
life, in disunion, lack of unity with religion:
<…> my mother found no sense or interest
in Jerusalem <…> The synagogues and rabbinic
academies, churches, convents and mosques all
seemed much of a muchness to her, dreary and
smelling of religious men who did not wash often
enough.
The foreignness in the life, separation from
religion, politics, conversations with people other
than small talks is the lineament of emotional
dissociation or alienation. Estrangement arises
out from a defensive operation aimed at coping
with stress. The narrator may be telling of
estrangement in an effort to be aware of it and
prevent self-alienation in future.
One more example shows estrangement of
the narrator as a child from the world of grownups:
I had a specific role in these conversations at
the café. First of all I had to give polite, intelligent
answers, just like a grown-up, <…>Secondly my
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task was not to get in the way. I had to be nonexistent, invisible (LD, p. 400).
The invisibility of the spectator is useful for
creating the verifiable objective narration of the
outsider, which is a purposely chosen position of
a writer:
To this day I pickpocket in this way.
Especially from strangers. Especially in busy
public places. <…>Peeping and making up stories.
<…> Nowadays I no longer stop in terror at the
bedroom door: I float invisibly in.<…> I live in
fear of being caught in the act and asked to explain
myself.<…> Half a minute, and they’re caught in
my invisible paparazzi camera (LD, p. 403).
That is the trait of any single writer as to
collect the stories from the observed objects,
pretending that you are an independent,
unaffected, all knowing creator with omnipotence
to reconstruct the destiny from the appearance of
the passer-byes.
That is frequently applicable method – to
show the main character’s life from the position
of his/her relatives, the child’s revelations from
the position of adults. One more extract in this
string is the narrator’s father voice, when the
narrator looks at the photo of his young father
who utters:
Don’t worry, pals, everything’s going to be
alright, we shall overcome <…> (LD, p.99).
Such mode of language is uncharacteristic of
the narrator, so estrangement here is for hearing
the voices of the past and "optimistic chums".
These examples presented the point of
people, but the author recurrently falls back upon
personification of not live objects. Such is the
description of the "amiable" and "most obedient"
woolen dog (LD, pp. 105-106), which "had
followed Klausners faithfully". Estrangement
here is in effect for magic realism in real world
setting.
The use of direct speeches as if they are
stenographed and not invented or remembered
by the author provides a means for everyone to
sound as real with drawbacks and inaccuracy of
oral speech. The author starts, for instance:
He had had his own unique brand of
Hebrew, Grandpa Alexander, and he refused to
be corrected (LD, pp. 113-114).
Thus, the new scene with the new voice and
new accent is easily introduced in the text. The
mode of estrangement here is marked by italics; all
the words which Grandpa pronounces incorrectly
or in other than Hebrew languages are italicised,
which is graphic (more seldom than the lexical or
conceptual) way of showing estrangement.
From the individual cases of estrangement
let us turn to the key topic, which is in the
very heading. The conceptual and adversarial
opposition of love and darkness is also estranged.
The next example of this method is about hovering
over darkness because of the saddening memory
of the past (absent memory inherited from the
previous generations or own recollections of the
past woes). For instance, Aunt Sonia recalls the
mother’s rage, "which may have been the spark
my mother’s life-force vainly trying to free itself
from the darkness that was already beginning
to enfold it". Being a child, the mother knows
despite the curtained windows about the tragedies
happening around but chooses a way not to notice
them. The markers of estrangement we find in
this passage:
But all these things happened on the other
side of the double glazing, outside the pleasant,
illuminated circle of the Tarbuth school. None
of them could break in and seriously harm the
pleasantness of my mother’s childhood, which was
apparently tinged with a hint of melancholy that
did not mar but merely coloured and sweetened it
(LD, p.207).
Juxtaposition of love, vive de joie and
darkness is also marked by book reviewers (cf.
C. Messud in her review of Scenes from Village
Life). Later in the passage the author tells about
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the mother’s anguishes that led her to suicide. The
death is personified by the mother in the refraction
of the narrator’s story as a lover, charlatan,
piper, youthful prince, crafty hunter, etc. Thus,
the mother is estranged from the reality and
"associated muses with death". The pathological
helplessness had its outcomes in exclusion of the
mother from the world of material doers.
Most examples of estrangement in the text
are vivid, when the narrator describes selfhood,
employs self-analysis, such as:
What does my memory begins with? The
very very first memory is a shoe… (LD, p. 209).
Then the narrator develops his associations about
his feelings and switches on to the way how his
parents looked at this picture of smelling, i.e. the
story continues in third person, the narrator is no
longer I, but he: "the infant was also frightened
and alarmed by the abundance of their attention,
that he was too small to contain" (LD, p.210).
The memory like this also includes reexperiencing an engendering unusual perceptions.
While describing how the mother helped him to
put the shoes on, the narrator makes a comparison:
"as if she was a midwife helping the foetus of
my tiny foot to travel down the virginal birth
canal of my fragrant new shoe". The narrator
confesses that to date every moment he strains
the tight shoe he feels the same sensual pleasure,
though it happens only in reliving memories.
Memoir as reinvention: it can’t be anything else,
though questions about verity are tempting. (cf.
Pomerantz).
Summing up, the author showed the
narrator and other characters in the state of some
disavowal of reflection and alienation followed
by anxiety and insecurity. Are there any ways to
overcome this alienation? One way to overcome it
as speculated by the author is through adaptation,
assimilation, conformity, imitation, mimicry:
I therefore adopted a representative
expression, and expressed the view that <…>
Somehow, out of embarrassment or arrogance, I
was talking to her not in my own Hebrew but in
that of Father and his visitors: formal, polished.
Like a donkey dressed up in a ballgown and highheeled shoes: convinced for some reason that this
was the only proper way to speak to Arabs and
girls. (I had hardly ever had an occasion to talk to
a girl or an Arab, but I imagined that in both cases
a special delicacy is required: you had to talk on
tiptoe, as it were) (LD, p. 313).
Here the theatricalism and assuming
different masks help the author to pit Jews against
Arabs, and oppose political relationships and
children chitchatting. The contrasts are denuded
especially from the standpoint of children as in
the cited paragraph.
The derived examples, which have been
analyzed by partial selection, show indeed
estrangement of characters, as if they are not
living people but a set of persons dissected by the
author. The characters at times feel strange to this
world, which adds some tragedy to the story and
predicts further calamities to the kin.
Conclusion
This paper observed some artistic peculiarities
of A. Oz’s works, and of A Tale of Love and
Darkness in particular. The aesthetic method of
estrangement was studied in relation to this novel.
A. Oz uses estrangement for many purposes which
we can now establish. These purposes include:
showing ambiguity of the child’s worldview,
showing the life from different viewpoints and
especially the narrator’s life from the standpoint
of people around him; showing the world as reexperienced and re-invented. The narrower tasks
done by the author to mark estrangement include,
but not limited to: a) phonetic peculiarities of
different characters; graphic marking (italics) of
foreign or incorrectly pronounced words; b) use
of specific words, accents, modes of speech; c)
use of direct and reported speech; long passages
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without pauses; d) inner monologues; ideas
of strangeness and alienation; use of different
stylistic devices, such as prose, poetry, memoirs,
simple notes and quotes. By doing so the author
applies correspondingly the methods of graphic,
lexical, syntactic and conceptual realization
of estrangement. Estrangement in its essence
is characterized by feeling uncomfortable and
disconnected from other people, the world
around, the absence of firm religious and moral
values. The author of auto-biography appears
as the author and the narrator, the whole story
takes a form of onlooker’s observations, which is
interesting for self-analysis. The further step is to
see how this estrangement can be translated from
Hebrew and kept as estrangement.
References
1. Aschkenasy, N. (2001). Deconstructing the Metanarrative: Amos Oz’s Evolving Discourse
with the Bible. Symposium (Fall 2001), pp. 123-140.
2. Balaban, A. (2002). Secularity and Religiosity in Contemporary Hebrew Literature. Middle
Eastern Literatures, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2002, pp. 63-85. doi: 10.1080/14751790220103783
3. Carmy, Sh. (2005). Oz’s Israel. First Things, No. 8 (August/September 2005), pp. 54-59.
4. Emerson, C. (2005). Shklovsky’s ostranenie, Bakhtin’s vnenakhodimost’ (How Distance
Serves an Aesthetics of Arousal Differently from an Aesthetics Based on Pain). Poetics Today, 26:4,
Winter 2005, pp. 637-664. Slavic Languages and Literatures, Princeton.
5. Estrange. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.
com/dictionary/estrange
6. Estrangement. Oxford Online Dictionary. Available at: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/
definition/english/estrangement
7. Estrangement. Psychology Online Dictionary. Available at: http://psychologydictionary.org/
estrangement/
8. Feldman, Y.S. (2007). On the Cusp of Christianity: Virgin Sacrifice in Pseudo-Philo and
Amos Oz. The Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. 97, No. 3 (Summer 2007), pp. 379-415.
9. Gee, S. Book of a lifetime: A Tale of Love and Darkness, By Amos Oz. Book Review. The
Independent. 9 August 2013, available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/
reviews/book-of-a-lifetime-a-tale-of-love-and-darkness-by-amos-oz-8755005.html
10. Gertz, N., Chazan, M. (ed.) (2005). Amos Oz’s A Tale of Love and Darkness (Special Issue,
Summaries). Israel. Studies in Zionism and the State of Israel. History, Society, Culture, 7, 13p.
11. Grumberg, K. (2010) Of Sons and (M)others: The Spectropoetics of Exile in Autobiographical
Writing by Amos Oz and Albert Cohen. Prooftexts, 30 (Fall 2010), pp. 373-401.
12. Halkin, H. (2004). Politics and the Israeli Novel. Commentary (April 2004), pp. 29-36.
13. Jelen, Sh. E. (2010). Israeli Children in a European Theater: Amos Oz’s A Tale of Love and
Darkness and S. Yizhar’s Preliminaries. The Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. 100, No. 3 (Summer 2010),
pp. 504–518.
14. McNay, M. (2009). Absent Memory, Family Secrets, Narrative Inheritance. Qualitative
Inquiry, Vol. 15, No. 7 (July 2009), pp. 1178-1188. doi: 10.1177/1077800409334236
15. Mendelson-Maoz, A. (2010). Amos Oz’s A Tale of Love and Darkness within the Framework
of Immigration Narratives in Modern Hebrew Literature. Journal of Modern Jewish Studies, Vol. 9,
No. 1 (March 2010), pp. 71–87. doi: 10.1080/14725880903263101
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16. Messud, C. Amos Oz’s Tales of Love and Darkness. Sunday Book Review. The New York
Times. 3 November 2011, available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/06/books/review/scenes-fromvillage-life-by-amos-oztranslated-by-nicholas-de-lange-book-review.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
17. Miller, N. K. (2007). I Killed My Grandmother: Mary Antin, Amos Oz, and the Autobiography
of a Name. Biography 30.3. Interdisciplinary Quartely (Summer 2007), pp. 319-333.
18. Omer-Sherman, R. (2005). Zionism and the Disenchanted: the Plight of the Citizen-Soldier in
Amos Oz’s A Perfect Peace. Middle Eastern Literatures, Vol. 8, No. 1, January 2005, pp. 53-73. doi:
10.1080/1366616042000309184
19. Omer-Sherman, R. Journeying Back to the Land of Amos Oz. Book Review. The Jewish
Daily Forward. Published September 26, 2013, issue of October 04, 2013.available at: http://forward.
com/articles/184502/journeying-back-to-the-land-of-amos-oz/?p=all#ixzz36wY8XtXx
20. Oz, A. A Tale of Love and Darkness, trans. Nicholas de Lange. New York: Harcourt, Inc., 2004, p.
21. Peled, Sh. (2011). "Mastery Regained" – Israeli Jewish Sovereignty and Space in the Israeli
Novel 197-1973. Journal of Modern Jewish Studies, Vol. 10, No. 2 (July 2011), pp. 263–284. doi:
10.1080/14725886.2011.580987
22. Piterberg, G. (2011). Literature of Settler Societies: Albert Camus, S. Yizhar and Amos
Oz. Settler Colonial Studies, 1:2, pp. 1-52. doi: 10.1080/2201473X.2011.10648811
23. Shklovskij, V. Art as Technique. Literary Theory: An Anthology. Ed. Julie Rivkin and Michael
Ryan. Malden: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 1998.
24. Pomerantz, M. The Land of Amos Oz. Book Review. The Arts Fuse. 20 December 2004.
available at: http://artsfuse.org/150/fuse-book-reviewthe-land-of-amos-oz/
25. Schachan, Ch. (1998). Novellas under the Blazing Light: Transformations in the Novella
Writing of Amos Oz. Orbis Litterarum 53, No. 5, 1998, pp. 318-335.
Способы создания остранения
в "Повести о любви и тьме" Амоса Оза
Ю.Е. Валькова
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье описываются отдельные средства языковой выразительности в произведении
автобиографического характера "Повесть о любви и тьме" известного израильского писателя
и ученого Амоса Оза. Отдельное внимание уделено приему остранения как средству языковой
выразительности, наиболее значимому в отражении неоднозначных связей произведения и
автора с европейской и русской литературной традицией в частности. Остранение является
частотным приемом для произведений, создаваемых на современном иврите, в особенности
если они носят автобиографический или псевдоавтобиографический характер. Прием
остранения рассмотрен также с точки зрения адекватной и эквивалентной передачи при
переводе.
Ключевые слова: Амос Оз, остранение, "Повесть о любви и тьме", Израиль, иврит, перевод.
Научная специальность: 10.00.00 – филология.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1672-1681
~~~
УДК 327.56:316.485.6
Measuring Public
Opinion Regarding Peaceful Solution
of Palestine Issue: an Experimental Study
of University Students in Pakistan,
Iran and United Arab Emirates
Muhammad Asim*
College Asghar Mall
Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Received 12.06.2014, received in revised form 06.07.2014, accepted 12.09.2014
This study aimed to measure public opinion in the Pakistan, Iran and United Arab Emirates regarding
peaceful solution of Palestine issue Data (N=276) was collected from two universities, one postgraduate
college and one degree college in Pakistan, two universities in Iran and two universities in United Arab
Emirates. Although, Pakistan and Iran have theocratic environment and we got anti-Israel replies but
there were 77 Pakistani and 41 Emirati students who presented their rational views about peaceful
solution of this conflict.
There is a brief debate on One-State Solution, Two-States Solution, Three-States Solution and
the status of Jerusalem. The plan of forming union among the territories of Israel and Palestine,
single currency and Rail-Road plan for secular transportation from one region to another is also
discussed in this study. During comparing such public opinion with other previous international
proposals for resolving this issue, recommendations from the author are presented in the
last.
Keywords: UAE, I-P Union, Religiosity, EU, State of Judea.
Research area: 10.00.00 – philology.
Hypothesis
Research Methodology
Israel is a reality and formed under the
light of UN resolution. Anti-Israel sentiments
within the territories of Palestine or in the
Muslim world are becoming a cause of
Palestinian as well as neighboring countries’
destruction. And, only a peaceful solution can
restore the Palestinians as a nation and a strong
economy.
This study is based on theoretically and
historically descriptive, analytical, comparative
and qualitative methods. The data is collected from
books, research journals, newspapers, internet,
interviews, results of different dissertations,
and personal visit of universities in Pakistan,
Iran and United Arab Emirates. A questionnaire
was also designed for measuring public
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: asimsheikh62@yahoo.com
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opinion that was analyzed through statistical
formulas.
Introduction
The basic aim of this study was to measure
public opinion in Muslim society regarding
fi nding peaceful solution of Palestine issue. For
this purpose, three countries were selected in
which Pakistan and Iran has theocratic culture
while United Arab Emirates has liberal Muslim
society (Coughlin, 2006, PP.89-159). Madrid
Conference of 1991, Oslo Peace Accords 1993,
Camp David Summit 2000 and different other
proposals regarding resolving Palestine-Israel
conflict became the reason of investigating
public opinion in Muslim society on this issue.
This was a pilot study conducted on a small
sample of 180 students of Pakistan, 41 students
of United Arab Emirates and the 55 students of
Iran. This study was much more exploratory
in kind to understand some core assumptions
and to see whether the fi ndings could lead to
the development of some better theoretical
framework in order to do some large scale work
in the future.
To measure public opinion, firstly we have to
highlight historical background of the PalestineIsrael Conflict.
Historical Background
Conflict among Israel and Palestine started
from the declaration of the establishment of
the State of Israel in 1948. Arab countries
considered it a threat for them and began ArabIsrael war of 1948 (Wolfman, 2007, PP.110112). In result, Israel captured more areas than
the areas allocated in the declaration of its
establishment. While, Jordan captured West
bank and Egypt captured Gaza Strip where
Palestine Government was declared by Arab
league in September 22, 1948. But, these areas
were captured by Israeli forces during Six Day
War 1967 and Palestine Government fi rstly
shifted in Jordan then Lebanon. In 1993, through
Oslo Accords, Palestine Liberation Organization
of Yasser Arafat allowed to establish its control
over Gaza Strip and West Bank. So, Palestine
National Authority was established (Ross, 2004,
PP.06-10). This was the time of emerging new
conflict within Palestine where Hamas and Fatah
had different point of views. Hamas was strongly
anti-Israel while Fatah was controlling Palestine
National Authority. Conflict among both groups
raised in 2005 when Hamas won the elections
of Palestine National Authority. This victory
became the reason of division among Palestine
Government. Hamas is now governing in Gaza
Strip while Fatah’s Palestinian National Authority
is governing over West Bank (Schanzer, 2008,
PP.50-53). Palestinian Authority tried to gain
UN membership in 2011 as a sovereign state but
failed. But, in 2012, United Nations declared it a
non-member observer state. This time, State of
Palestine is recognized by 134 countries (Boyl,
2013, PP.189-190).
In 2011, Hebrew University conducted a
survey of measuring public opinion regarding
tow-state solution among Israelis and
Palestinians. This plan was supported by 58 %
Israelis and 50 % Palestinians. Similarly, 70 %
Israelis and 63 % Palestinians supported an end
of violence (The Jerusalem Post, August 25,
2013). This was one aspect but there are since
several other plans like One-State Solution and
Three-States Solution for resolving this issue.
So, there was a plan to judge public opinion
in other Muslim countries about this issue
that what their educated population considers
best. So, we choose students of different higher
education institutions in Pakistan, Iran and
United Arab Emirates. The basic purpose
of choosing students of higher education
institutions was to avoid uncivilized and
immature answers.
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Sample
The sample of the study (N= 276) consisted
of Bachelor and Master Degree programs from
two universities, one postgraduate college and
one degree college in Pakistan, two universities
in United Arab Emirates and two universities
in Iran. Most of the study was mainly belonged
to the disciplines of Political Science, History,
Islamic Studies, Project Management, Business
Administration, Education, Chinese Studies
and Persian Studies. In Pakistan, there were
65 (23.5 %) students from Government Boys
Degree College Lodhran, 25 (09 %) Students
fron National University of Modern Language
Islamabad, 50 (18 %) students from Sargodha
University Bhakkar Campus and 40 (14.5 %)
students from Government Postgraduate College
Asghar Mall Rawalpindi. Similarly, in Iran,
there were 44 (15.9 %) students from Al-Mustafa
International University Qom and 11 (04 %)
students from Research Center for Islamic Culture
and Civilization Qom. At the same time in United
Arab Emirates, there were 32 (11.6 %) students
from British University in Dubai and 9 (03 %)
students from Michigan State University Dubai
Campus. Total number of Pakistani students was
180 while there were 55 Iranians and 41 Emirati
students
Instrument
As Pakistan and Iran are theocratic societies
while United Arab Emirates have liberal Islamic
environment, firstly, it was decided to verbally
ask the questions about status of Israel as an
independent state individually to each student.
This helped to differentiate among reactional
and rational opinion. At this stage, there was a
questionnaire for those who accepted Israel as
an independent state and considered that war is
no solution of any conflict. Their opinion was
considered as rational opinion for the solution of
this issue in peaceful meanings. So, the designed
questionnaire was filled by these students
for measuring public opinion regarding OneState Solution, two-state solution or three-state
solution.
Results
During interview, 103 students in Pakistan
and all the 55 students in Iran showed anti-Israel
sentiments and gave reactional views against the
status of the Israel as an independent state. On the
other hand, there was no student in United Arab
Emirates who found as an anti-Israel. Table given
below is showing the percentage of students who
had reactional views out of total 180 Pakistani, 55
Iranian and 41 Emirati students.
Even these 103 Pakistani and 55 Iranian
students directly or indirectly found war as a
solution of this conflict but they could not reply
of this question that which country will go for
the war against Israel. There were ambiguity
answers. Some says that all the Muslim world
should united against Israel while some says that
Israel-neighboring Arab countries should fight
against Israel. They became again confused
when a question was asked that how Israelneighboring Arab countries will go for a war
REACTIONAL OPINION
Pakistan
Iran
United Arab
Emirates
Israel is an illegal state. It should be eliminated through war.
63.1 %
100 %
0
Although Israel is an illegal state but if, it would return back to
the position of 1967, we should accept it. Otherwise, it should
be eliminated through war.
36.9 %
0
0
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against Israel when they are militarily weak
than Israel and most of the Arab countries have
accepted Israel as an independent state. This
was the reason that we called such opinion as
reactional opinion.
The remaining 77 Pakistani and all the 41
Emirati students accepted Israel as an independent
state and considered that war is not a solution of
any conflict. They argued that Israel is a reality
and the problems of Palestinians are due to
lack of unity and ideological differences among
Hamas and Fatah. They also argue that we must
find a solution of this conflict through mutual
understanding of both the stake holders. This is
a reason that their opinion can be considered as
rational opinion.
Data collected from these students was in
favor of establishing one, two and three states
within the territory of Israel and Palestine. The
following table is showing percentage of their
support.
Among 25 (32.5 %) supports of One-State
Solution, 16 (64 %) Pakistani students gave the
name "Israel-Palestine Union or I-P Union" to
new state while 09 (36 %) Pakistani students were
called it "Federation of Israel and Palestine".
They were in favor of three autonomous units of
one state; Israel, Gaza Strip and West Bank. They
said that there should be secular transportation
with foreign relations, single currency and mutual
defense with one army. Issues of governance,
economy, trade, and domestic law and order
situation should be separated for each unit. On
the other hand, supporters of Two-States Solution
wanted two states; Palestine and Israel where
Palestine would have two administrative units;
called Eastern Palestine (West Bank) and Western
Palestine (Gaza Strip).
There was the difference in opinion
regarding administrating two units of Palestine.
The following table is showing percentage of
difference in opinion among 29 (37.7 %) Pakistani
and 41 (100 %) Emirati students regarding
political structure of these two units of Palestine.
There were 23 (29.9 %) Pakistani students
who were in favor of Three-States Solution. Their
opinion is judging through following table given
below.
On question about status of Jerusalem to
all the 77 Pakistani and 41 Emirati students who
RATIONAL OPINION
Pakistan
United Arab Emirates
One-State Solution
32.5 %
0
Two-States Solution
37.7 %
100 %
Three-States Solution
29.9 %
0
Egyptian-Jordanian Solution
0%
0%
Allon Plan
0%
0%
OPINION OF THE SUPPORTERS OF TWO-STATES SOLUTION
There should be two provinces. Each province should be governed by the
provincial government.
There should be unitary system and both units should be divided into districts.
Each district should be governed by the district administration.
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Pakistan
United Arab
Emirates
72.4 %
68.3 %
27.6 %
31.7 %
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Muhammad Asim. Measuring Public Opinion Regarding Peaceful Solution of Palestine Issue…
OPINION OF THE SUPPORTERS OF THREE-STATES SOLUTION
Pakistan
There should be three state; East Palestine (West Bank), West Palestine (Gaza Strip) and Israel.
East Palestine (West Bank) should be a secular state due to Jewish, Muslim and Christian
population
East Palestine should also be a Muslim State. Muslim community will be happy with this
decision.
100 %
69.6 %
39.1 %
STATUS OF JERUSALEM
It should be a neutral city state like Vatican City, having its own
administration, political structure and security force.
It should be a part of West Bank or Eastern Palestine.
Eastern Jerusalem should be capital and part of Palestine while Western
Jerusalem should be capital and part of Israel according to PLO’s current
position.
Pakistan
United Arab
Emirates
84 %
37 %
13 %
0%
03 %
63 %
Pakistan
United Arab
Emirates
82 %
100 %
18 %
0%
RAIL-ROAD PLAN
There should be secular transportation among all the regions within the
territory of Palestine and Israel.
There should be separate transportation in each region to avoid any sociopolitical conflict.
have rational opinion, we collected two different
views.
During discussion about political system in
Palestine with the 29 (37.7 %) Pakistani supporters
of Two-States Solution, 21 (72 %) argued that
there should be two provinces, called Eastern
Palestine and Western Palestine. On the other
hand, 8 (28 %) students said that there should be
unitary system and both the wings of Palestine
should be divided into districts. But, all the other
23 (29.9 %) Pakistani supporters of Three-States
Solution and 41 (100 %) Emirati supporters of
Two-States Solution preferred unitary system in
both the states; Eastern Palestine and Western
Palestine.
In case of two or three states solution,
RAIL-ROAD PLAN was discussed with the
students. This plan was designed to generate
harmony among both the stake holders. And, this
plan would be a cause of secular transportation
among both or all the three wings within the
territory of Palestine and Israel. The table below
is highlighting views of all the 77 Pakistani and
41 Emirati students on this plan that had rational
opinion.
An idea of union among the territories
of Israel and Palestine welcomed by all the 77
Pakistani and 41 Emirati students who had
rational opinion. The table given below is showing
their interest in this idea regarding betterment
and welfare of the people within the territories of
Israel and Palestine.
During data collecting from the students of
Al-Mustafa International University Qom, rather
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AN IDEA OF UNION AMONG THE TERRITORIES OF ISRAEL
AND PALESTINE LIKE EUROPEAN UNION (EU)
There should be a union of all the regions of Israel and Palestine like European
Union (EU), either there will be two states, three states or three states and one
city state.
Union of Israel and Palestine will eliminate Islamic, Arab and Palestinian
ideology because Israel is socially and culturally strong country.
There should be single currency for all the regions of Israel and Palestine
like Euro in European Union. It will facilitate to stabilize weak Palestinian
economy and this region would become another emerging economy of the
Middle East.
There should be separate currency for each region but the currency of one
region should be accepted in the other regions of the Israel and Palestine.
There should be mutual defense and one army in case of foreign threats. But,
each region should have its own police department.
There should not be a single army or mutual defense because religiously and
ideologically, there is a huge difference among both the nations.
than the 44 Iranian students, we interviewed the
20 students of Somalia and 07 students of Uganda
who were enrolled here. Their opinion was not
different from any Iranian and they also did not
accept the status of Israel as a legal state. All
these students said that Israel is an illegal state
and it must be wiped out from the world map
through war. But, they are silent and confused on
the question that who will fight against Israel. So,
we can include this opinion also in the category
of reactional opinion.
Discussion
This study was done in the Pakistan, Iran
and United Arab Emirates mainly to investigate
the public opinion about peaceful solution of
Palestine issue without any war or militancy.
During data analyzing, we mainly focused upon
the opinion of those students who had rational
views and dislike war or militancy. Therefore,
questionnaire was filled by just 77 Pakistani
and 41 Emirati students out of 276 students of
Pakistan, Iran and United Arab Emirates.
As Pakistan and Iran have theocratic
environment, there are a lot of anti-Israel
Pakistan
United Arab
Emirates
91 %
76 %
09 %
24 %
94 %
100 %
06 %
0%
78 %
0%
22 %
100 %
sentiments. Even educated population has a
rich dogmatic and militant attitude. The study
of Liaqat (2012) showed very high dogmatic
religiosity in the Pakistani sample and 87 %
population is religiously conservative (Liaqat,
2012, P.147). Similarly, another study of Asim and
Liaqat (2013) highlighted culturally conservatism
and militant attitude in the Pakistani society. This
study showed that 83 % population of Pakistan
has militant attitude (Asim, 2013, PP.09-10). This
is the reason that we got reactional views from
the 103 Pakistani students.
Similarly, anti-Israel sentiments are
supported by state level in Iran. During prayers
or any other religious ceremonies, Imam or host
always raised the slogans against United States
of America, United Kingdom and Israel like
(‫)ﻝیﺉﺍﺭﺱﺍ ﺭﺏ گﺭﻡ‬. So, the views against Israel
were as usual from the 55 Iranian students. As
environment and culture effects thinking and
philosophy, we should not be afraid from the views
of other 20 students of Somalia and 07 students of
Uganda who were studying in Iran. Their antiIsrael sentiments were due to two reasons. Firstly,
they had been inspired by Iranian culture and
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theocratic environment. Secondly, Uganda and
Somalia are also suffering from militancy and
having conservative environment (Kumar, 2006,
PP.97-98).
On the other hand, United Arab Emirates
is a gateway for West Asia and Africa. Its local
population is just 1.4 million while there are
7.8 million foreigners. All the foreigners are
usually here for business and trade but essentially
associated with any Emirati citizen due to the law
of United Arab Emirates. This is the reason that
the "Badow" culture of the United Arab Emirates
has converted into economic-oriented culture.
This conversion also changed the thinking and
attitude of the Emirati citizens (King, 2008,
PP.135-139). Therefore, during collecting data,
we found them religiously liberal and rational in
their opinion.
During judging rational opinion of the
Pakistani and Emirati students, we came to
know that Two-States Solution was preferred
by majority of Pakistani and Emirati students.
Similarly, majority was in favor of Jerusalem as
a city state like Vatican City. On the other hand,
Rail-Road Plan for secular transportation among
the territories of Israel and Palestine was also
appreciated by the majority. At the same time, an
idea about EU-type union among the territories of
Israel and Palestine with having single currency
also got high value.
Recommendations
As this study is presenting several opinions
regarding peaceful solution of Palestine conflict,
we compared it with other peace proposals that
have been presented before in different times.
And, we concluded some recommendations as a
solution of this conflict. These are as follows:
1) There are several plans like One-State
Solution presented by Palestinian activist Edward
Said in 1999, most popular Two-States Solution,
Egyptian-Jordanian Solution 2009, Allon Plan
presented by Yegal Allon after Six days war in
June 1967 or Plan for establishing State of Judea
(West Bank) in January 1989. But, there is a
huge criticism on each plan. Opponents of OneState Solution argue that this solution will follow
the Jewish rule over the Palestinian Muslims.
Similarly, Opponents of Two-States Solution
called that the two wings of a country cannot be
administrated when there is a strong enemy in the
middle. They highlight the example of Pakistan
which had two wings since its formation in 1947;
East Pakistan and West Pakistan. Both the wings
have the distance of 1000 miles approximately
and the territory of India was in the middle of the
wings. Indian supported insurgency in the East
Pakistan could not be controlled by the Pakistani
Government which was stationed in the west wing
and Bangladesh was formed in 1971. At the same
time, opponents of Egyptian-Jordanian Solution
argue that if Gaza Strip will be under control of
Egypt and West Bank will be under control of
Jordan, it will eliminate the Palestinian identity.
Allon Plan is also opposed by the majority of
Muslims in the world because it will legitimize
Israeli occupations in most of the Palestinian
territories. The plan of establishing State of
Judea is even from the Jewish community which
is illegally settled in the West Bank but some
scholars are accepting this as a secular state. To
observe these plans and to judge public opinion
during this study, we concluded that there should
be three sovereign states within the territories of
Israel and Palestine. Gaza Strip should be called
West Palestine while West Bank should be called
East Palestine. Both the states should have their
own political systems, foreign relations and
defense army. This will also facilitate Palestinian
people to get rid off from the internal conflicts of
Al-Fatah and Hamas which is further destroying
their lives.
2) Status of Jerusalem should be an Open
city or city state like Vatican City with having
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its own political system, transport, security force,
economy, foreign relations and citizenship.
3) There should be a union all the
territories of Israel and Palestine like European
Union even there are three states of Gaza Strip
(called West Palestine), Israel and West Bank
(East Palestine) and one city state of Jerusalem.
And, this union should be linked through rail
and road infrastructure. Although, there are
several roads to travel from one region to another
but there is a need of re-functional Palestinian
Railway which is non-functional since 1948
(Cotterell, 1984, PP.10-11). There are several
talks among Israel and Palestinian authority in
2004 for reviving old railway line from Gaza
Strip to Tulkarm (West Bank) and constructing
new railway line from Gaza Strip to Tarkumia
(West bank near Israeli city of Hebron). And,
all this transportation will be operated through
using territories of Israel. If, this plan will be
implemented, Palestinian territories can be
linked through Israeli port of Ashdod. Similarly,
there is another plan of reviving a branch line
of Hejaz Railway from Afula (Israel) to Jenin
(West Bank) (New Statesman, August 29, 2013).
But, all this is useless until there will not be
any agreement regarding secular transportation
or formation of any union which also accept
by the people of all the territories of Israel and
Palestine. So, there is a solution of introducing
single currency for all the territories of Israel
and Palestine like EURO in the European Union.
As single currency will facilitate economic
development in the Palestinian territories, people
of Palestinian territories will automatically
be agreed for secular transportation from one
region to another. Same impact will be generated
on Israeli companies and they will prefer secular
transportation for promoting their products and
getting market access. Therefore, we can say
that an agreement regarding union and single
currency can generate harmony among the
population of both the territories, And then, they
can linked through rail-road infrastructure.
4) All the militant organizations should be
banned in the territories of Palestine and Israel
even there are Jewish organizations or Muslim
Organizations.
5) There should be foreign investment in
the territories of Palestine for stabilizing their
economic conditions. A strong economy of any
society always saves its population to adopting
militant or aggressive attitude.
This was a pilot study that basic aim was
to measuring public opinion regarding peaceful
solution of Palestine conflict and we presented
all the ideas which we collected with respect
and care. Moreover, this is an essential duty of
international community, especially United
Nations to establish peace in the Palestinian
territories and find out the peaceful solution of
this conflict with sincerity. Because, this is not an
issue of occupying territories. This is a problem of
humanity and innocent lives are most important
than occupying any territory or formation any
state.
References
1. (n.d.). Retrieved August 25, 2013, from The Jerusalem Post: http://www.jpost.com/Diplomacyand-Politics/Poll-70-percent-of-Israelis-say-Israel-should-accept-UN-decision
2. (n.d.). Retrieved August 29, 2013, from New Statesman: http://www.newstatesman.com/
middle-east/2013/08/israel-palestine-forget-peace-talks-follow-rail-tracks
3. Asim, M. (2013). Relationship of Moral Judgment Competence with Cultural Conservatism,
Basic Democratic Government Endorsement, Common Good Endorsement Test and National
Militarism: A Case Study of Pakistan. Konstanz: KMDD Workshop in University of Konstanz.
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4. Boyl, F. A. (2013). Palestine, Palestinians and International Law. London: SCB
Distributors.
5. Cotterell, P. (1984). The Railways of Palestine and Israel. New York: Tourret
Publishing.
6. Coughlin, K. M. (2006). Muslim Cultures Today: A Reference Guide. New York: Greenwood
Publishing Group.
7. King, D. C. (2008). United Arab Emirates. New York: Marshall Cavendish.
8. Kumar, J. (2006). Terrorism and Militancy in Central Asia. New Delhi: Gyan Books.
9. Liaqat, W. (2012). Relationship Between Moral Judgment Competance and Religiosity in
Pakistan. Islamabad: Islamic International University.
10. Ross, S. (2004). Causes and Consequences of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. London: Evans
Brothers.
11. Schanzer, J. (2008). Hamas vs. Fatah: The Struggle For Palestine. Washington D.C: St.
Martin’s Press.
12. Wolfman, M. (2007). Homeland: The Illustrated History of the State of Israel. Suite: Nachshon
Press, LLC.
Измерение общественного мнения
относительно мирного разрешения
Палестинского конфликта:
экспериментальное изучение вопроса
среди студентов университетов Пакистана,
Ирана и Объединенных Арабских Эмиратов
Мухаммад Асим
Государственный колледж Асгар Молл
Равальпинди, Пакистан
Целью данного исследования является измерение общественного мнения в Пакистане, Иране
и Объединенных Арабских Эмиратах относительно мирного разрешения Палестинского
конфликта. Данные (N=276) были получены в двух университетах, одном колледже
послевузовского образования и одном колледже базового университетского образования
в Пакистане, двух университетах в Иране и двух университетах в Объединенных Арабских
Эмиратах. Ввиду того что в Пакистане и Иране более теократическая среда, мы получили
ответы против Израиля, но также были 77 студентов в Пакистане и 41 студент в
Эмиратах, которые имеют достаточно рациональные взгляды на мирное разрешение данного
конфликта.
Приведена общая характеристика урегулирования конфликта одним государством, решения
конфликта с участием двух государств, решения с участием трех государств и статуса
Иерусалима. В статье обсуждается план формирования союза на территориях Израиля и
Палестины, учреждения единой валюты и запуска железнодорожного сообщения из одного
региона в другой. Автор также дает свои рекомендации по результатам сравнения данного
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общественного мнения и предыдущих международных предложений по урегулированию
данного конфликта.
Ключевые слова: ОАЭ, союз Палестины и Израиля, религиозность, ЕС, провинция Иудея.
Научная специальность: 10.00.00 – филология.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1682-1689
~~~
УДК 82-94
Literarity in Texts by Historian:
19th Century Siberian Travelogues
and Nationalism Discourse
(the Case of P.I. Nebolsin)
Kirill V. Anisimov*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 24.06.2014, received in revised form 14.08.2014, accepted 09.09.2014
The article investigates the role of intertextual borrowings in the poetics of the mid-19th century
Eastern travelogues, a sub-genre which had been vigorously cultivated by many authors involved
in the basic strategy of Russian nationalistic discourse to present the multiple and diverse imperial
territories as an integral and homogenous space. A number of obstacles on the way of this approach
were created by the popular imaginative perception of vast Siberian peripheries as faraway lands,
a distant and almost surreal world, exotic from both social and ethnographic points of view. In
terms of poetics and semiotics, the primary objective of the author was to describe the "unknown"
as "known" and "remote" as "close". Within the studied period, the feature of "recognition
strategy" typical of travelogues as a genre (correlating them with topoi of classical Greek and
Roman geographies) attained a distinct literary aspect. As an example the article analyzes "Notes
on the Way from St.-Petersburg to Barnaul" by Pavel Nebolsin, published in 1849. Describing
the everyday life of Siberians, Nebolsin introduced a number of intertextual allusions taken from
oeuvres by Karamzin, Pushkin and Gogol. Eventually, the reader was offered to recognize Siberia
more as "literature" rather than "geography". The forming Russian tradition of literary classics
became a poetic tool of "imagining" the Eastern periphery as the continuation of the whole national
world.
Keywords: P.I. Nebolsin, nationalism, travelogue, literarity, motif, intertextuality
The research is supported by the Russian Fund for the Humanities, grant No. 14-14-24003.
Research area: 10.00.00 – philology.
Introduction
to the research problem
Travelling from Siberia to Sakhalin in the
spring of the year 1890, A.P. Chekhov astutely
associated historical conquering of the Russian
East with the success of the national literature,
*
which could not boast of much popularity at that
time. As he reached the Urals, Chekhov had
already noticed that "in those parts" MaminSibiryak "was spoken of more, than Tolstoy"
(Chekhov, 2009, 71), which meant that the
"local" was, to the writer’s mind, more popular
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: kianisimov2009@yandex.ru
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than "generally Russian". By the Amur, the
narrator reached ultimate alienation from the
local environment, while it, in its turn, reached
the peak of its separation from Russian culture.
"...I feel something individual, non-Russian in
everything. "…how far removed life here is from
Russia!... While I was sailing down the Amur I
really felt I wasn’t in Russia at all, but somewhere
in Patagonia or Texas. Quite apart from the
strange, un-Russian scenery, I constantly got
the impression that our Russian way of life is
completely alien to the old settlers on the Amur…
and that we who come from Russia appear as
foreigners" (Chekhov, 1978, 42).
Theoretical grounds
Then again, if the development of the remote
regions’ cultural potential even seemed indefinite
in its content and problematic as such (in his essays
"From Siberia" Chekhov regretfully remarked:
"Though the demand for art is high here, God
does not send artists to these places" (Chekhov,
1978, 14)) , then, basically, nothing could prevent
the national lore which was located, in accordance
with the Russian social process logic, almost
exclusively in the capitals, from "imagining"
the country’s Eastern periphery with the wellestablished dictionary of their "native" motives
and plots. Siberian "Patagonia" and "Texas"
could integrate into the integrated Russian space
not only in the rhetoric of a political declaration
and / or within a series of military and economic
deeds, but also due to the artistic language, when
the transition of the forming classic tradition to
the historical and cultural reality of the previously
colonial world and currently developing national
periphery began to play its special part. In this
sense, the reader could have faced a renaming
of some sort: being transferred from its regular
chronotopos into a remote geographic venue,
this or that well-known "Russian" story would
make the circumstances, rules, conditions and
everyday life scenery look familiar. Something
distant and alien turned close and homely due to
the recognition, the mediating role in which was
played by literary intertext. This tendency may
be opposed to another strategy in the geocultural
world of the 19th century Russian literature.
The authors of the most outstanding
researches on the topic, Yu.M. Lotman and
V.I. Tyupa, demonstrated significant semiotic
intensification of the Siberian periphery concept,
associatively and functionally linked with the
motive of initiation, temporary capture of the
protagonist in the underworld of the exile,
suffering through ritual tortures, the pledge of
the forthcoming "resurrection" (Lotman, 1997,
723-725; Tyupa, 2002). The nominative aspect
of the plot revealed itself, for instance, in Yu.M.
Lotman’s example of the exile to Kostroma
Governorate being referred to as "Siberian" by
the Decembrist Age contemporaries (Lotman,
1988, 173). The repression fact itself was trivial
due to its frequency, though the reference to the
punishment locus was distinctively extraordinary
and culturally significant as the title determined
the function of the place and, vice versa, the
purpose of the locus was recognized from the
name.
Siberian travelogues:
fiction vs. non-fiction
However, irrespectively to literary mythmaking, the ideological mainstream of the 19th
century was territorial integration of the imperial
lands into the homogenizing national discourse
(Remnev, 2004). An important role in the process
was played by travelogues, a genre located on the
borderline between fiction and science-like nonfiction. As long as the scientism of the text was
closer to exotification (Siberian climate, nature,
society with no manors of the nobility and simple
peasants were characterized with their significant
original features), fiction literature instruments
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were mostly used to play the exactly opposite
role, giving the reader an opportunity to find
similarities with the Russia familiar to him, to
recognize the familiar in something alien and
remote. The fact of well-red Russian people’s not
knowing their own Motherland beyond the capitals
had become a key-note of opinion journalism back
in the times of Belinsky, who inspired writers to
create "physiologies" of different territorial and
social worlds (Odinokov, 1990, 173-174).
A special case of this true information
vacuum was the absence of Russia guidebooks,
analogies of popular Western printed guides.
The lacuna was extremely significant: the small
guidebooks gave the impression of "surrogated"
travelogues; being the direct descendants of
the ancient genres of periplus, periegeses, and
itinerarium, they were also related to Russian
genres of putnik, dorozhnik, and skaska. This
problem was complained of by both foreign
and Russian travellers. O. Finsch, the author of
a large-scale work on the zoological expedition
to Siberia in the year 1876, complained of
the German scientists’ being burdened by the
excessive reserves of food they had packed due
to the seeming absence of decent taverns along
the way. The latter, however, were frequent, but
the researchers had nowhere to learn about them:
"there are no guide books (like Norway guide by
Bennett) which would point out or pay attention
to the issues" (Finsch, 1882, 9). Before Finsch, the
same problem was mentioned by the protagonist
of a small essay by P.I. Nebolsin (1817-1893), a
Russian historian, traveller and a very original
explorer of Siberia.
Having left Petersburg for Barnaul, meeting
an experienced companion in a post carriage,
he heard some annoyed complaints: even those
territories located close to the capital turned out
to be left out. "For pity’s sake! Who described it?
And where? We have not a single "guide", and
all the written information we find is also under
doubt. No, I made up my mind not to believe a thing
except for my own observations" (Nebolsin, 1849,
volume 63, No.4, 220). Against the background of
gaps even in the description of the nearby areas,
Siberia looked like real terra incognita.
Anticipating the analysis of works issued
from P.I. Nebolsin’s pen, let us say a couple of
words on the narrating strategy itself, aiming the
reader at the recognition process. Of course, the
19th century writers were not pioneers in this.
They modified the general concept of travelling
to faraway lands, typical for European travel
notes: one of them concerned the Moscow state,
that since the 16th century had been a frequent
object of literary and artistic reproductions by
many European authors. So, in the eyes of Nicolae
Milescu who, being on Russian service, was
sent to China with diplomatic mission in 1675,
Siberian taiga transformed into Erkinian woods
("in Hellenic, "Erkinios ili", in Latin "Ercinios
silva", which means, Erkinian woods"), precious
sable fur turned into the golden fleece, and the
Ural range became Hyperborean mountains
(Milescu, 1960, 40; 116; 37). A distinctive feature
of such attributions is irresponsiveness of the
author to the "voice" of the environment itself,
which, without doubt, could provide him with
names for all those realia. The author, acting in
the name of some universal European mass of
knowledge, presented himself as an intermediary
connecting the old book terms with the "yet
unnamed" object of the natural world. In keeping
with M. Foucault, we are facing a phenomenon
preceding the discoveries of rational thinking
that replaced the search for similarities and
symbolic analogues, typical of archaic forms of
knowledge production, with a system of neutral
classifying features (Foucault, 1994, 85-90). A
perfect source for seeking the analogues is the
classic of Greek and Roman land descriptions:
the observed realia were nothing but the "echo"
of such. It is curious that over the head of this
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rational epoch that came up with new types of
classifying unknown empirical units, such as
tables, taxonomies, diagrams, the orientation on
recognition manifested itself in the feature parts
of the 19th century travelogue, where, instead
of ancient geography samples, the reader was
offered to "recognize" some well-known motives
of national literature classics. Let us see some
examples.
Siberian travelogues by P.I. Nebolsin
Nebolsin’s intellectual and aesthetic
"discovery" of Siberia happened within two genres
and narration strategies: fiction-style sketches
of his own trip (Nebolsin, 1849) and scientific
studies on Yermak’s conquest (Nebolsin, 1849a).
This reference, both discursive and chronological
(both texts refer to 1849) is no coincidental.
Nebolsin was guided by both a rational purpose
to eliminate the ignorance of the reading
audience concerning the Eastern regions of the
state1, which was compulsory within the context
of natural school, and by romantic longing for
exotic. At the same time, being very remote from
sentimentalism, he could not but consider the
latest achievements of Russian lore: the general
initiatives to be "closer" "to nature" and to
"discard the foreign theories" (Nebolsin, 1849a,
71) were supported by the evident connection to
Radishchev, both on the ideological and on the
narrative2 levels of his writings (not to mention
the fact that the first part of the route is literal
repetition of Radishchev’s journey from Saint
Petersburg to Moscow).
Not so long ago V.M. Zhivov demonstrated,
how important for the historical and political
purposes of social and territorial integration
sentimental poetry was, though so alien to any
sort of ideology (Zhivov, 2008). According to
the scholar, sentimentalism could totally fulfill
the requirements of national consolidation:
historically determined differences of educational
and cultural backgrounds (consequences of the
forced modernization of the Peter the Great)
were gotten over by the integrity of cordial
impulsions, capable of destructing all artificial
hierarchies (Zhivov, 2008, 119; 122). Within
this tendency, the problem of the huge empire’s
territorial non-uniformity could be solved in the
same manner: "cordial" stories of Liza, Erast
and their countless clones, created by the artistic
lore, could be easily converted from social into
geocultural aspect.
Here is the first example of intertextuality,
placed into the geocultural aspect for the
achievement of ideological goals. To the East from
the Ob, the traveller stopped by a station owned
by an elderly Siberian called Arkhip Sysoich,
living with his wife and twenty year old daughter
Glasha. Sysoich was nothing like Samson Vytin,
old, stout and smart; while Glasha was just as
courageous as Dunya from the story by Pushkin.
The encounter of the protagonist with the Siberian
station master and the conversation in which
he told the voyager of the iniquities frequent in
the life beyond the Urals are framed with two
"sentimental" scenes, where Glasha plays the key
role. At first, she kisses the stranger traveller, and
then, after her father’s stories, suggests that he
stays "for a day or two" (Nebolsin, 1849, volume
64, No.6, 184), and later, that he runs away with
her to the gold diggings where he was heading.
The inverted Pushkin’s plot is combined here with
the Karamzin-style stylistics: Glasha, for whom
the"ugliest of the ugly" fiancé had been chosen by
her parents, says to the traveller who tolerated her
flirt: "Like stale bread, so cruel you are. But let
Jesus be with you! Go… But tell me one thing…
just one more thing. Will you ever remember this
poor Glasha?" (Nebolsin, 1849, volume 64, No.6,
184). The goal was reached: four years after the
protagonist remembered the girl he had met in
the middle of Siberia. "Yes, there have been four
years since that ordinary travelling adventure,
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but pretty Glasha is still on my mind" (Nebolsin,
1849, volume 64, No.6, 184).
The second example is a more sophisticated
amalgam of motives, this time, adopted from
Gogol, which is harder to identify as the
evident intertextual dialogue from the previous
example. Here we face more of a stylization,
targeted at reviving the general atmosphere
of the early Gogol’s "Ukrainian" prose in the
reader’s mind. However, there was one factor
which in Nebolsin’s story was equal to that in
Gogol’s concept: the author of the travelogue
demonstrates some "strange" events that
happened on the exotic periphery. Though the
things presented as true exotic by Gogol were
presented by Nebolsin as "familiar", quasiexotic, referencing the reader not as much to
the unknown Siberian "Ukraine" as to the wellknown poetics of "Evenings on a Farm Near
Dikanka". So, in the fi nal chapters of "Notes
on the Way from St.-Petersburg to Barnaul" we
encounter the following episode.
At Voskresensky diggings, located deep in
the Tomsk taiga, during Maslenitsa holiday the
traveller met a man from Little Rus’, Mikhailo
Koval. Mikhailo himself is presented to the reader
as, first of all, an old Ukrainian songs’ performer.
The folklore character of the image is a reference
to Gogol’s narrators from "Evenings…", from
Rudy Panko to the *** church deacon Foma
Grigoryevich and his grandfather. But Mikhailo
himself is a character with a special story the
narrator gets to know. Mikhailo married a girl
called Parasko for love, and after a short while
they had a daughter, Marusya, both parents doted
upon. However, "sometimes the mother, clasping
the beloved daughter to her breast, was looking
at her with the eyes misty of tears. "My dear
child, by precious darling!" she thought, "What
is awaiting you in this world? A misfortune
awaits you!" Paraska "thought of her precious
child’s fate more and more, more and more
she was confused by the dreadful premonitions
that her Marusen’ka may be miserable, that
Marusen’ka might forget God, fall into sin and
become a witch" (Nebolsin, 1849, volume 67,
No.12, 287). Once, obsessed with her fears and
premonitions, Paraska made up some fire and
threw her girl into the oven. "The child was
struggling, but the mother pressed her with a
poker and waited for the end: the evil deed was
committed…" (Nebolsin, 1849, volume 67, No.12,
287). The wife confessed to Mikhailo as soon as
he came home; the investigation began, but in
court Mikhailo tried to cover for the criminal,
and, as a result, he found himself in Siberian
exile, and Paraska died.
Irrespectively to whether Nebolsin had based
his story on any real facts or not, a thoughtful
reader could not help recognizing Gogol style of
the story. "The dreadful" located by the author of
"Evenings…" near the Southern borders of Russia,
was relocated to the North-Eastern border now,
though keeping the literary "memory" of its Little
Russian roots. More or less similar situations may
be found in Gogol’s "The Eve of Ivan Kupala" and
"A Terrible Vengeance", where in both cases the
victim of magic powers is a child. In the first story
it is a six year old boy named Ivas, the brother
of the girl in love. The boy stolen by gypsies
gets killed by Petrus in exchange for the money
given to him by evil spirits for him to marry his
love. In the second story the evil spirits’ victim
is Katerina’s little son, murdered by her magus
father right in the cradle.
Evidently, the objective of the fragment with
Glasha was to cut the psychological distance
between the narrator and the realia described
by him, thereby, due to the involvement effect,
making him not only an analyst, but a participant
of the local life’s events, introducing the simple
reader into the everyday life of that remote world.
The intense exotic of Mikhailo Koval story,
despite its evident belonging to the collection
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of myth-like stories of Siberian criminals, only
partially served for the exotic effect. Referring
the reader both to the "terrible" world of the real
taiga diggings and to the fictional, but familiar
world of Gogol’s motives, the story of a criminal
from Little Russia is a way to see the remote
province as if looking through the prism of a
well-known book. In this sense, the verdict that
"Pushkin and Gogol are incomprehensible, thus
unneeded here" once issued by Chekhov was in
advance argued with by the literary techniques
of Nebolsin’s travel notes: no matter whether a
Siberian had read Karamzin, Gogol and Pushkin,
his world as such was reproduced through the
artistic experience of the authors. Suggesting
that later, inspired by his local self-conscience,
a Siberian would wish to see Nebolsin’s books
1
2
referencing to his land, he would probably
recognize the capital classics’ motives in the
description of his provincial life.
Conclusion
So, if within the archaic recognition
strategy framework the newly discovered lands
were "included" into comprehension schemes
as referents "claiming" for their signs, if in the
rational epoch they were made the object for
description with the abstract and principally
"universal" language of science, then in the 19th
century, as the examples prove, the instrument
for signification is the national literature itself,
reviving the image of a peripheral region, which
is, gradually and heavily, parting with its status
of a "far-away land".
On the 1840-1850-s travelogue poetics that have transformed the journey sketch heritage into the modern essay ""physiology" see (Protsenko, 1984, 6; 8; 13).
Let us mention a travelogue episode called "Diary of an Unknown Man", that is an intervention of an "another’s" text into
the writer’s own, inspired by "Journey from Saint Petersburg to Moscow (Nebolsin, 1849, volume 64, No. 6, 185-193).
Compare with "my friend’s papers" found by Radishchev’s traveller, containing the "Project in the future". Besides, let us
remark the influence of Karamzin, whose story "Poor Liza" is mentioned on the pages of the travel diary (Nebolsin, 1849,
volume 63, No.4, 238).
References
1. Zhivov, V.M. (2008) Chuvstvitel’nyy natsionalizm: Karamzin, Rostopchin, natsional’nyy
suverenitet i poiski natsional’noy identichnosti [Sensitive Nationalism: Karamzin, Rostopchin,
National Sovereignty and Search for National Identity] // Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie. No. 91(3). P.
114-140.
2. Lotman, Yu.M. (1988) Dekabrist v posvsednevnoy zhizni [Decembrist it His Everyday Life] //
Lotman Yu.M. V shkole poeticheskogo slova: Pushkin. Lermontov. Gogol. Moscow: Prosveshchenie.
P. 158-205.
3. Lotman, Yu.M. (1997) Syuzhetnoe prostranstvo russkogo romana XIX stoletiia [Narrative
Space of Russian Novel of the 19th Century] // Lotman Yu.M. On Russian Literature. Saint Petersburg:
Iskusstvo-SPb. P. 712-729.
4. Nebolsin, P. (1849) Zametki na puti iz Peterburga v Barnaul [Notes on the Way from St.Petersburg to Barnaul] // Otechestvennye zapiski. Volume 63. No.4; Volume 64. No.5; Volume
64. No.6; Volume 65. No.8; Volume 66. No.9; Volume 66. No.10; Volume 67. No.11; Volume 67.
No.12.
5. Nebolsin, P (1849a) Pokorenie Sibiri. Istoricheskoe issledovanie [Conquest of Siberia.
Historical Research]. Saint Petersburg: I. Glazunov and Co. Typography. 146 p. in the first pagination;
112 p. in the second pagination (appendices).
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6. Odinokov V.G. (1990) V.G. Belinsky i problema regional’nykh literatur [V.G. Belinsky and
the Regional Literature Problem] // Odinokov V.G. Khudozhestvenno-istoricheskiy opyt v poetike
russkikh pisateley. Novosibirsk: Nauka. P.169-181.
7. Protsenko, E.G. (1984) Literatura "puteshetviy" v Rossii v 1840-1850-e gody ["Travelling"
Literature of Russia in the 1840-1850-s]. Author’s abstract of a thesis for the degree of a Candidate of
Philology. Leningrad: Leningrad State University. 16 p.
8. Remnev A. (2004) Vdvinut’ Rossiiu v Sibir’. Imperiia i russkaia kolonizatsiia vtoroy poloviny
XIX-nachala XX veka [Push Russia into Siberia. The Empire and Russian Colonization in the late 19th –
Early 20th Centuries] // Novaia imperskaia istoriia postsovetskogo prostranstva. Kazan: Nationalism
and Empire Research Centre. P. 223-242.
9. Milescu, Nicolae (1960) Sibir’ i Kitay [Siberia and China]. Chiэinău: "Kartia Moldoveniaske".
516 p.
10. Tyupa, V.I. (2002) Mifologema Sibiri: k voprosu o "sibirskom tekste" russkoy literatury
[Siberian Mythologem: to the Issue of a "Siberian Text" of Russian Literature] // Sibirskiy filologicheskiy
zhurnal. No.1. P. 27-35.
11. Finsch, O., Brem, A. (1882) Puteshestvie v Zapadnuiu Sibir’ [Travels in West Siberia] Moscow:
M.N. Lavrov and Co. Typography. 578 p.
12. Foucault, M. (1994) Slova i veshchi [Order of Things]. Arkheologiia gumanitarnykh nauk.
Moscow: A-cad Saint Petersburg, 406 p.
13. Chekhov, A.P. (1978) Poln. sobr. soch. i pisem [Complete works and letters] in 30 volumes.
Volumes 14-15. Moscow: Nauka. 927 p.
14. Chekhov, A.P. (2009) Poln. sobr. soch. i pisem [Complete works and letters] in 30 volumes.
2nd edition, reprint. Volume 4. Letters. Moscow: Nauka. 655 p.
"Литературность" в тексте историка:
сибирские травелоги XIX века
и националистический дискурс
(случай П.И. Небольсина)
К.В. Анисимов
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
В статье исследуется роль интертекстуальных заимствований в поэтике восточного
травелога середины XIX в., субжанра, развивавшегося в русле интеграционных стратегий
русского национализма, одной из ключевых задач которого было создание образа гомогенного
пространства, приходящего на смену картинам пестрого имперского мира. Существенную
сложность на пути развития этого подхода представляли огромные сибирские окраины,
типичные имперские владения, располагавшие немалой этнографической оригинальностью. В
терминах поэтики и семиотики задача, стоящая перед автором, заключалась в том, чтобы
описать "незнакомое" как "знакомое" и "далекое" как "близкое". Издавна присущая травелогу
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как жанру стратегия "узнавания" (та или иная новая локальность соотносилась европейским
автором с топосами классических землеописаний) обретает в исследуемый период отчетливо
художественный аспект. В качестве примера в статье рассматриваются опубликованные
в 1849 г. историком П.И. Небольсиным "Заметки на пути из Петербурга в Барнаул". В своих
зарисовках сибирского быта автор прибегает к коллажу интертекстуальных цитат из
наследия Карамзина, Пушкина и Гоголя. В результате читателю предлагается "узнать"
Сибирь не столько как "географию", сколько как "литературу". Формирующаяся литературная
классика становится поэтическим инструментом "воображения" восточной окраины как
продолжения целостного национального мира.
Ключевые слова: П.И. Небольсин, национализм, травелог, литературность, мотив,
интертекстуальность.
Работа выполнена при финансовой поддержке Российского гуманитарного научного фонда
(РГНФ), грант № 14-14-24003.
Научная специальность: 10.00.00 – филология.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1705-1718
~~~
УДК 304.444
What are Global Transformations Experienced
by the Indigenous Peoples of the North?
Julia S. Zamaraeva*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 06.03.2014, received in revised form 20.05.2014, accepted 18.06.2014
The phenomenon of globalization in modern science is considered a priority trend in the world
development. This article deals with the key aspects of the concept of "global transformations" and
the study of the influence of global transformations in respect to the ethnic culture of the northern
territories. In the study of the specificity of the indigenous peoples residing in the territories of the
North, researchers of the last decade have identified the following important processes: environmental,
social, cultural and political. Economic processes remain "on the sideline" due to the lack of private
industry and professional specialization. The wave of research interest is due to the desire to know
the unique cultural traditions of the indigenous peoples of the North in the modern world; to develop
strategies for the protection of the northern territories in order to preserve biological and cultural
diversity; to find out the path of economic and political development of international cooperation with
the leading countries to provide existence of the circumpolar ethnic culture and population of the
northern territories.
Keywords: global transformations, indigenous peoples of the North, ethnic culture.
Research area: 24.00.00 – culture studies.
Point
The concept of "global transformations" first
appeared in the works of French and American
authors in the 60s of the 20th century. It marked
the transition from the modern to the latest phase
of globalization, when the wave of global flows
and relationships significantly increased and
qualitatively changed the basic forms of social
activities (political, economic and cultural). In
the 90s of the 20th century, scientists identified
this concept as an epistemological "pick-lock"
in understanding the processes of modernity
(cognition of structurally similar phenomena
*
in the global society and culture), placing it in
the successive chain: modernization (1970),
postmodernism, (1980s) and globalization
(1990s). Theoretically, this concept was
elaborated only in the 90s (1987 to 1997) in some
conceptual works on globalization by Robert
Robertson, Samir Amin, Anthony Giddens, Paul
Hirst and Graham Thompson, Robert Gilpin, was
systematically analyzed in the works by Malcolm
Waters, Leslie Sklair and Ulrich Beck. In these
and other works, the concept of "globalization"
has different definitions: "compression of space
and time" (David Harvey), "a network society
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: rybka08@bk.ru
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and informationalism" (Manuel Castells), "an
increasing interdependence in international
politics" (Robert Keohane), "a polycentric world
arising under the influence of transnational
actors" (James Rosenau), "strengthening of
the state in industrialized countries" (Michael
Mann), "deterritorialization of loyalties" (Arjun
Appadurai).
The most modern and well-grounded
theoretical work is the book by British scientists,
"Global Transformation: Politics, Economics,
and Culture" (D.Held, D.Goldblatt, A. McGrew,
J. Perraton), where the main existing approaches
to understanding the process of globalization are
identified and systematized, a clear definition of
this process in its historical and contemporary
development is given, the fields of global
transformations of contemporary societies are
stated. The scientists understand the concept of
"global transformation" as the crystallization of
the specifics of the "deep globalization" present
stage (intensive and extensive), characterized
by high intensity, high speed and high impact
in all areas or aspects of public life, from
economic to cultural. The scientists believe that
globalization is not a unique and linear process,
it is a differentiated phenomenon, which is
composed of certain areas and cooperation:
political, economic and cultural. In this regard,
the processes of global transformations become
the processes of expansion, deepening and
acceleration (redoing) of global cooperation,
affecting all aspects of contemporary social
life. In Russian scientific literature over the last
decade among the scientists engaged in the issues
of global transformations are R.Ia. Tsibrienko,
Iu.A. Uzlov, T.A. Iashkov, L.N. Klepatskii, T.M.
Kononov, V. Mironov, V.V. Tevlin, T.I. Zaslavskaia
and V.A. Iadov. In these works, the concept of
"global transformations" has predominantly one
direction and can be understood in the "broad"
and "narrow" meaning. The narrow meaning of
"global transformations" is defined as significant
structural changes (changes and transformations)
in the contemporary post-industrial informational
(via the Internet, the media) and real (cultural,
economic, political) world dimension between
different countries. In the broad meaning, "global
transformations" are the process of real system
social, cultural, economic and political (and
legal) changes (up to the radical reorganization of
the world model), dynamically developing in the
period from the second half of the 20th –beginning
of the 21st century in the relations between various
national states. One of the possible risks of global
transformations becomes the inevitability of
confrontation between the leading countries of
the world for the world’s resources, geopolitical
influence and economic dominance.
In general, global transformations are
intended: to determine the quality of the main
trends of the globalization process (currently these
are the trends of integration and disintegration
adjustable by the rules of tolerance and proneness to
conflicts) and to show the quality of modifications
of the basic structural areas; to facilitate the
integration of relations between the leading
developed and lagging developing countries (to
show the priority trends of development in the era
of globalization), while maintaining the cultural
values of each of them; to update the processes
of localization or acculturation of cultural values
in the multicultural world community (avoiding
unification and universalization); to show the
primary and the secondary priorities of protection
and vulnerability in each country. As the process
of globalization is global, global transformations
occur simultaneously at the local, regional,
national and global levels.
For determining the specificity of the notion,
real processes should be considered, which are
explained in the process of global transformations.
The main issues are as follows: what are the
constraints and opportunities established by
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global transformations for social processes?
What changes and what becomes "the points of
vulnerability" in political, economic and cultural
organization in the context of globalization?
Global
transformations
of
political
organization.
According
to
researchers,
contemporary global politics differs by
transformation of the foundations of the world
order through reconstruction of traditional forms
of national statehood and international political
relations. The "core" of contemporary global
politics is efficient government (operating at the
national, regional and international levels) and
territoriality of each national state (and region)
under condition of participation in the solution
of the "border" and "cross-border" issues of the
political community.
In the recent period of globalization, the
first global transformation has occurred with the
concept of "national government", now it is not
the focus of political power. In local sense, the
national state is not able to gain independence, as
the fundamental forces and processes are beyond
the boundaries of individual national states. The
system of national political communities is linked
today to complex economic, organizational,
administrative, legal, and cultural processes and
structures that limit it and check it for efficiency.
The second global transformation has
occurred with the concept of "democratic
political community". On the one hand, more and
more countries are willing to have their national
democracy. But it is impossible, since today
the basic processes (social, cultural, economic,
environmental) go beyond national states. On
the other hand, the "quality" of democracy is
determined by how the process of political
decision-making depends on the citizens of the
society in the process of discussing adoption of
certain decisions by the state. Today it is generally
accepted that the "quality" of democracy depends
on complex processes through which citizens
have or do not have access to resources and
mechanisms of the political sphere – access, which
reflects a complex model consisting of economic
factors, cultural processes and participation in
social life.
The third global transformation that has
happened in the field of the "idea of a government
or a state" (democratic or non-democratic)
can not be protected only as an idea applied to
an isolated political community or a national
state anymore. Understanding of the political
community with one destiny as an idea of a selfdetermining community cannot be determined
within the borders of one state-nation in whatever
significant way. Some of important powers and
processes defining the type of life opportunities
inside political communities are now beyond the
sphere of influence of national states. The system
of national political communities, of course,
continues to exist, but today it is being understood
and gets new understanding within complicated
economic, organizational, management, legal
and cultural processes and structures, which limit
and restrict its efficiency. If these processes and
structures are not approved and not introduced
into the political sphere, then they tend to ignore
or somehow avoid traditional mechanisms of
political reporting and regulation. While the
national government cannot be acknowledged as
the "locus" of the efficient political management
anymore, the efficient government is formed and
changed under the influence of different powers
and factors at the national, regional and global
levels, which fight for it. In other words, political
government is repositioned, recontectualized
and transformed to a significant extent under the
influence of the increasing importance of other less
territorially conditioned government systems. An
undeniable advantage of global transformations is
transformation of human activities organization
consolidating and broadening these activities
in such a way that it forms a framework of
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interregional and intercontinental changes and
development. A disadvantage is the possible
risk of global transformation that accelerating
globalization can generate and worsen conflicts
between countries, while each country wants to
protect its interests in the conditions of world
"neighborhood". Fragmentation of the world into
nations, regions, cultures and communities can
cut down the opportunities of the transcultural
basis for global democratic policy.
Global transformations of economic
organization. Currently, global transformations
have occurred in almost all "components" of
the economy: trade, finance and industrial
production. These areas are the "core" of the
global economy and create conditions that allow
countries not only to exist as a national state,
but also to participate in the construction of the
global economy. Changes in trade globalization
have been systematized in the collective study of
British scientists. In terms of extensiveness, almost
all countries in the world participate in trade
and are closely connected with each other; high
intensity (GDP related levels are unprecedented;
trade share in gross domestic product is higher
than ever before); high speed (rapid changes in
technology and global competition); high degree
of influence (trade is a significant part of the
economy, income from it is growing, it affects
the structure of production); price reduction that
has begun earlier continues, and extraordinary
progress in communication technology facilitates
service trade; in terms of institutionalization, the
World Trade Organization has been increasingly
playing the role of a global institution, establishing
common trade rules and standards for the world
to deepen the process of liberalization; the
largest volume of trade by stratification still
accounts for OECD countries (Organization for
Economic Cooperation and Development), but
concentration of trade is becoming weaker; the
role of other countries in the hierarchy increases:
first, the role of petroleum exporting countries,
and gradually the role of newly industrialized
countries. Deepening differentiation of trade is
irregular, for some countries it is the basis for
economic growth, for others it is the reason for
their marginalization.
Development of global trade is undoubtedly
a great virtue, because there are many global
markets for goods and services due to the world
transport and communication infrastructure;
economy becomes more open, and national
markets are increasingly intertwined with each
other (as intra international trade is included
in the global competition that goes beyond
national boundaries). National (domestic)
economies, which must adapt to the changes
in the macroeconomy affecting all countries
without exception, become a vulnerable spot
in trade relations. Consequently, the national
economy should be more sensitive to fluctuations
in international demand and commodity prices,
to be able to have a flexible macroeconomic
policy. Modern trade has changed the idea of the
independence of the state and caused changes in
government policies. Therefore, the subsequent
development of countries and regions will depend
entirely on the dynamics of global trade. Thus,
the current global financial structure has many
advantages for both developed and less developed
countries, because it creates a process of financial
accumulation in which some economies can isolate
themselves from the everyday effects of global
financial markets. At the same time, the global
financial system creates some risks associated
with the highly institutionalized infrastructure.
Changes in industrial production are marked
by global competition and deindustrialization.
Global competition has arisen in connection
with specialization of different countries
(developed and newly industrialized) in the
process of development of global markets; with
the development of new technologies and the
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emergence of producers of goods with lower
prices.
Global
transformations
of
cultural
organization. Major changes of cultural
globalization occur in the field of cultural identity
and system of values at the ethno-cultural, national
and global levels. The key question remains –
what changes in the culture of identity and what
is vulnerable in the global transformation of the
culture. Current research indicates that cultural
globalization changes the context in which the
production and reproduction of national cultures
occurs. In this section, we will first consider the
model of contemporary cultural globalization
and particular forms of cultural globalization at
the present stage (proposed by British scientists),
and then we will try to understand the specifics
of cultural transformations in international and
national research.
Model of modern cultural globalization: new
global infrastructures of an unprecedented size,
providing great opportunities for penetration
of the elements of culture across borders and
reduction of the cost of their use; the increase in
intensity, volume and speed of cultural exchange
and communication of all kinds; spreading
of Western mass culture and the increase of
communication in cultural business as the
main content of the global cultural interaction;
predominance of multinational cultural industry
in creation and ownership of infrastructures and
institutions for the production and distribution of
cultural goods; shift in the geography of global
cultural interaction significantly mismatching
with the geography of the global order that had
existed before World War II.
The main driving forces of cultural
globalization are: major public and private
media, tourism, transport and communication
corporations; transnational society ideologies
and society science, global expert structures;
the main motives are the pursuit of profit and/or
entertainment. Other cultural structures that play
a key role are: national states and nationalism that
have engulfed almost the entire world.
British scientists believe that at the current
stage of globalization the cultural context of the
concept "national identity" has been transformed.
On the one hand, many countries are more and
more influenced by other cultures, and gradual
changing of national identity is inevitable (through
acculturation). On the other hand, scientists see
the vulnerability of national identity: "there are
serious reasons to believe that the modern world
experiences the process of separation of national
cultures (by location) ... along with the facts of
local resistance there are more organized efforts
to stop the flow of imported images to revitalize
and restore the ‘peripheral’ cultures". Therefore,
the transformation of cultural globalization has
occurred rather in creation of new technologies
and infrastructures, but has not provided
alternative answers to the issues of national
identity preservation measures. Furthermore,
the scientists see a real threat to national
identity, if the transformation leads to "cultural
cosmopolitanism that can abandon the idea of
the nation as the primary political and cultural
community and require the transfer of power into
the hands of institutions of different kinds rather
than the national state".
Other international and national scientists
believe that global cultural transformation can
not dramatically change (transform) national
identity, since each person determines the nature
of his/her existence at the background of ethnic
identity. Herewith, it is necessary to specify the
question: what changes in ethnic identity (in
unity and community of ethnic cultures) in the
conditions of global cultural transformation?
Firstly, the scientists think that globalization
can be accompanied by the loss of ethnic
differences and diversity of cultures (deformation
of ethnic values), therefore it is necessary to give
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impetus to the struggle for revival of ethnic
culture. Modern transformations become a risk
of "locking" the borders of ethnic communities
and open zero tolerance for values and traditions
of each other (‘friend’/ ‘foe’). Among the
consequences the following can be outlined:
expansion/popularization of individual national
cultures, phenomenon of mass culture. A.I.
Shchendrik is also categorical in the formation
of the idea about the negative beginning of
globalism: it is a loss of cultural diversity, locking
of cultural borders, unification of cultural worlds
(destruction of basic values of national cultures),
aggravation of the crisis of national-cultural
identity leading to destabilization; lowering of
the status of national languages (destruction of
language structures). Iu.A. Uzlov believes that
ethnic-cultural values in the modern civilization
mean the transformation of individual and social
identification, perception of group identity. These
processes do not imply weakening of primordial
ties and total rationalization of the human thought,
and are likely to lead to the development process
of actualization of ethnic identity necessary for
each person. A multicultural society is inherently
less stable and more prone to ethnic problems than
an ethnically homogeneous society. The essence
of the issue boils down to how to maintain the
balance of interests of all nations and nationalities
living in the same territory. Under these
circumstances, the problem of elaborating such a
national policy, in which special attention is paid
to the formation of general civil consciousness of
the population, which should dominate over the
local ethno-cultural differences, becomes more
apparent. Cultural diversity (multinationality) is
less vulnerable.
Secondly, in order to preserve ethnic
identity in terms of cultural globalization, it is
necessary to preserve the diversity of the ethnic
language as the basis of every culture, because
the consequences of the destruction of language
differences are the most dangerous and exclusive
of all others. Language as an instrument for
expression of values and the only reality that
allows to define ethnic interaction directly, may
be one of the greatest troubles of our time. T.M.
Kononova believes that expansion of English
in the global information space caused sociocultural transformations "under the influence
of so-called" global English "that has engulfed
the whole world, business contacts have got
intensified; Internet – technology has "erased" the
borders; English is today not only the language
of business and business correspondence, but
also the language of education, sports, arts;
borrowings of translations from one language
to another using translational transformations
such as a combination of transcription and
transliteration, calque have firmly settled in other
languages, they are implemented extensively in
everyday use". Therefore, the author considers the
impact of the European culture, which, through
the global implementation of its ethnic language
transforms other ethnic cultures to be an obvious
risk. Globalization establishes cultural expansion
as the only way of cultural interaction. But the
advantage of global cultural transformation is
the emergence of cultural universals, which are
understood as "superstructural" values around
the basic ones, and promote inter-ethnic and
international acculturation: such interaction of
all kinds of rituals, interinfluence of holidays in
different countries, the impact of sport around
the world, the interdependence of education on
the global scale.
Thirdly, the global cultural transformation
defi ned the principle of multiculturalism as a
fundamental principle of existence of different
cultures. In recent studies, this model has
negative and positive reviews that evinces the
dual nature of globalization. On the one hand,
the idea of multiculturalism not only denies
the idea of the equality of cultures (leads to
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fragmentation, locality), but also promotes
cultural homogeneity. Multiculturalism means
bringing all existing diversity to a monoculture
(many call the American culture as dominative
while it is actively transmitted on the Internet).
Transformation can lead to harmonization and
standardization (development of a universal
culture of a philistine nature in multi-ethnic
communities) – the phenomenon of "postethnicity". On the other hand, many researchers
see positive results in this model of development:
peaceful coexistence of variative ethnocultural
groups in one country intensifies intercultural
integration, consolidation of interethnic
communication and interaction; development of
a number of equivalent systems, getting rid of the
estimated relationship to the cultures, changing
value systems of thinking; there is a dialogue of
cultures in which all parties have equal rights to
express their positions. Multiculturalism leads
to the phenomenon of renaissance of national
cultures, communities through ongoing ethnic
identity – the phenomenon of "universal
ethnicity". A.I. Shchendrik notes the special
role of the "positive" aspects of globalization:
it contributes to the cultural universalization
(human talents have been getting the opportunity
for their growth regardless of ethnic, geographic,
economic etc. belonging); it satisfies the need to
form ideas about other cultures; it becomes a way
to maintain multiracial groups, i.e. to preserve
all ethnic cultures. In short, globalization is the
ability of international integration (as a stage
of social evolution). This path seems to be the
most difficult one. But it will be beneficial to
ensure social stability, will allow to solve the
problem of economic and social development
effectively.
Therefore, the transformation of cultural
globalization has occurred through the
development of information technology (the
scientists believe the 21st century to be the
century of visual culture), which has updated
the national and ethnic identity. Many cultural
groups have faced an acute dilemma: to continue
their local existence in order to preserve the
uniqueness of their culture in history, or to
dissolve in a multicultural social community for
the sake of new wholes improved by the synthesis.
Contemporary context of cultural transformations
is that the problems of identification (national or
ethno-cultural) must be resolved by maintaining
the ethnic language of each culture as a basic
value, but at the same time by adaption of
cultural universals ("superstructure" values) as
the possibility to take part in the construction of
the universal whole (global culture).
Conclusions
Global transformations are a process of real
change in the economic, political and cultural
organization at the regional, national and global
levels. Priority trends of this process are the
emergence of cooperation among countries at
the macro level by deepening linkage of the
countries in various fields, and the development
of adequate compromising coordinated
decisions for co-existence of developed,
developing and least developed countries.
The main risks are structural changes in the
conditions of globalization, which, according to
the scientific world, could destabilize the state
and the national political situation because of the
uncertainty of the "future" world (international)
economy, lead to the unification of the existing
diversity of national and ethnic identities.
Circumpolar territories have their unique
economy, political sphere, infrastructure,
natural resources, climatic features, long
history and folk traditions. In this regard, the
current level of political, economic and sociocultural development of these areas and their
geographical position necessitate the increasing
importance in inter-regional, federal economic
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cooperation, as well as the importance of going
to the level of international cooperation. The
priority development trends are considered
internal and external investments in economic
development, development of industrial
production and infrastructure (engineering,
transport and social), quality education and
academic mobility, development of international
relations, preservation of ethnic cultures as the
basic values and stability of the multicultural
world in the context of globalization, preserving
the unique experience of practical farming in
polar regions, environmental friendliness to the
nature of unique natural complexes.
In the era of global transformations, the
Russian prospect of future in the industrial use
of resources in the areas of indigenous peoples’
residence is the development of fuel industry,
energy production, non-ferrous metallurgy,
chemical industry; timber, woodworking
and pulp and paper industry, agriculture
and agricultural imports from other regions.
Compared with the global challenges shaping
the future development of Russian circumpolar
territories, the objectives of Canada and the U.S.
are different. The main objective is to strengthen
Canada’s own position in the industrial
leadership and the continuation of trade and
economic relations in the United States. The
United States determine the industrial use in
order to maintain high level economies of the
states, research, technological production of
transnational companies in engineering and
computer technology.
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Tretyego Vserossiiskogo sotsiologicheskogo kongressa [Materials of the Third All-Russian Sociological
Congress]). Moscow, 2008, рр. 245-267.
72. Ziemer U. (2011). Minority youth, everyday racism and public spaces in contemporary russia.
European Journal of Cultural Studies, 14 (2), 229-242.
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Julia S. Zamaraeva. What are Global Transformations Experienced by the Indigenous Peoples of the North?
Что такое глобальные трансформации,
которые переживают
индигенные народы севера?
Ю.С. Замараева
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Феномен глобализации в современной научной проблематике значится приоритетной
тенденцией в мировом развитии. Данная статья посвящена рассмотрению ключевых аспектов
понятия "глобальные трансформации" и исследованию влияния глобальных трансформаций
в отношении этнокультуры северных территорий. В изучении специфики территорий
проживания индигенных народов Севера исследователями последнего десятилетия выявлены
следующие значимые процессы: экологические, социальные, культурные и политические.
Экономические процессы пока остаются "в стороне" в силу отсутствия собственной
промышленности и профессиональной специализации. Волна исследовательского интереса
объясняется желанием познать уникальные культурные традиции коренных малочисленных
народов Севера в современном мире; выработать стратегии охраны северных территорий
с целью сохранения биологического и культурного разнообразия; выяснить пути развития
экономического и политического международного сотрудничества с ведущими странами с
целью жизнеобеспечения циркумполярной этнокультуры и населения северных территорий.
Ключевые слова: глобальные трансформации, индигенные народы Севера, этнокультура.
Научная специальность: 24.00.00 – культурология.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1719-1733
~~~
УДК 140.8
"Jewish Antiquities"
as Hellenistic Targum
Julia G. Matushanskaya*
Kazan National Research Technological University
68 K. Marx Str., Kazan, 420015, Russia
Received 26.07.2014, received in revised form 05.08.2014, accepted 19.09.2014
In this article author researches the specific of the text of ancient Jewish Historian Josephus Flavius (1
А.D.) "Jewish Antiquities" in comparison with other ancient texts such as The Bible, Midrash, Talmud,
texts of Greek and Roman writers The purpose of the work is analysis of structure of Josephus’ text with
its historical-cultural context. Author has chosen culturological, philosophic and linguistic analysis
of text of "Jewish Antiquities" as method of research. In results the author revealed interrelation
between method of presenting of material in this book and tradition of rabbinic commented translation
(Targum). However translation itself meets the rules and norms of antique historiography, which gives
premise to classify "Jewish Antiquities" by Josephus as "Hellenistic Targum".
Keywords: The Bible, Targum, Josephus Flavius, Midrash, Mishnah.
Research area: 24.00.00 – culture studies.
1. Value of traditional texts for
understanding of the historical concept of
Josephus Flavius and for culture as a whole.
It is necessary to emphasize importance of
traditional religious texts for culture. This
article is devoted to the analysis of synthesis of
Judaic religious thought and Hellenistic culture
in Josephus’ works. This synthesis has resulted
further in Christianity and consequently in
forming of the mentality of the Medieval West
which has affected all modern world civilization.
Josephus writes that his attitude to the
material presented by the Scriptures is an
attitude of respect, "adding nothing and nothing
diminishing". However, it is not always so.
Many authors had discussed this subject1,
and it seems to be the common approach of writers
*
in antiquity. By such statements, the various
writers apparently wanted to tell their readers
that they would not repeat in verbally. Since
Josephus regarded himself as a commentator,
the changes he made in the text are still no
more than reliable presentation of the tradition2.
An interesting polemic on this question can
be seen in the editions of Kazan Theological
Academy. According to the teacher of Kazan
Theological Academy professor A.Smirnov, in
the manner of Josephus the features of following
of Scripture letter are reflected. Palestinian
exegetics, unlike the Alexandrian exegetics,
were based not on allegorical interpretation,
but on literal understanding of the Bible text3.
Other teacher of Kazan Theological Academy,
the ordinary professor P.Yungerov had disagreed
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: jgm2007@yandex.ru
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with this opinion, believing that an allegory
is also presented in Josephus’ interpretation4.
However, according to A.Smirnov, the tradition
of Palestinian exegetics highly appreciated value
of the text of Torah which, according to rabbis
of that time, meant much more, than its simple
sense. That has led to creation of Haggadah5.
Let’s consider more in detail how had Josephus
interprete the Bible in "Jewish Antiquities".
Josephus’ opinion on some facts frequent
coincides with the Talmud version. So, Josephus
tried to attribute to the Jews the majority of
gains of civilization. He writes that Abraham
had imparted to Egyptians the knowledge on
arithmetic and astrology, being the intermediary
between the impudent persons possessing
this knowledge, and Egypt (Josephus, Ant.
Jud.I,8,2; Baba Batra 16 b). The report of "Jewish
Antiquities" about high intellectual development
of three-years old Moses is also present in
the Talmud (Yalkut,I,166). Josephus’ moral
estimation of Saul’s modesty also corresponds to
Tosefta (Josephus, Ant.Jud.IV,4,5-6). Josephus,
besides, adds the enthusiastic story about his
military valor that made this king greater in the
opinion of Romans. From these examples it is
obvious that, most likely, Josephus’ deviations
from the Bible text should be put into the category
of the exegetic stratifications which had been
wide spread in the I century A.D. which have
something in common with philosophical world
view of epoch of postmodern, when the person
is affirmed in the world of the text by means of
doubt and returning. In that case the Bible text
continues to exist in culture by itself, separately
from religious context, and becomes a space of
the human freedom reflected in interpretations by
Josephus.
2. Targum as a genre of Rabbinic
literature. The perception of the world based on
traditional texts is archetypical and is implicitly
present in the Jewish culture. Since Age of II
Temple in the Jewish literature there had been
a genre of the Bible paraphrase – Targum. The
fragments of books of Leviticus (4Q156) and Job
(4Q157), found in Qumran, are actually Targums.
They were literal translations from Hebrew
to Aramaic. In the end of Age of II Temple the
Jews practically didn’t speak Hebrew 6. Тargum
was used during service in synagogue. After
fragment of the Bible text had been read aloud,
the translator explained meaning of it (Megillah
23b-25b). Most often the known translations were
used, such as Targum of Onkelos.
Targum of Onkelos became an official
Targum of Babylonian rabbinic school. It has
been written and edited in the 3rd century A.D.
and is ascribed to proselyte Onkelos (Megillah.
3а). Targum of Onkelos is the most literal of
all known Torah translations. Nevertheless
numerous cases are known when the text of
Targum doesn’t coincide with the original.
Sometimes translation is replaced with retelling,
and the places where literal translation is
impossible according to the translator’s opinion
(especially places with anthropomorphic
description of God) are stated allegorically. In
Haggadah and Halakha sections of Targum of
Onkelos we can see influence of Rabbi Akiva.
Rabbis from Babylon named Onkelos’ Targum
"our Targum". In 1949 Targum Neophyte I
(Biblioteca dei Neofiti) has been found out in
Rome in library of Vatican. Its paraphrases
considerably differ from Targum of Onkelos.
The whole sections are added. Targum Neophyte
I is called Palestinian Aramaic, while Targum of
Onkelos is Babylonian Aramaic. Both Targums
are created at the same time.
The latest translation of Torah in Targum
Neophyte I is Targum Pseudo-Jonathan. In many
cases it supplies translation of verse of Torah
with midrashes. Moreover, Targum PseudoJonathan is supplied by the explanatory which
makes reverse work, translating Targum to
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Hebrew and supplying it with small notes. The
names of the wife and daughter of Muhammad
in Targum Pseudo-Jonathan (in connection with
Gen.21:21) show that the last edition has been
carried out after VII century. Targum Neophyte
I and Targum Pseudo-Jonathan are connected
with fragmentary Targums from Cairo Genizah.
Initially they were a part of fuller works of
VII and XI centuries. By form they are close
to Palestinian Aramaic Targums. Paraphrases
of books of Prophets we can see in Targum
Pseudo-Jonathan. Traditionally it is ascribed
to Jonathan ben Uziel (Megillah 3a), though it
contains fragments which precisely correspond
to the paraphrases ascribed to Joseph bar Hiyya,
Rabbi of IV century. Thus, in Targum Isaiah we
can see the signs of nationalistic eschatology of
the times of Jewish War, implicitly containing in
later monuments of the Jewish culture. Targum
Iona is the result of editorial work of Tannaim and
Amoraim.
After the completing of Targum Jonathan
the fragmentary Targums have been created.
They are reflected in the Reichlin Code (Codex
Reuchlinianus) of 1105. Targum on Parables is
a paraphrase of the Syrian Bible translation –
Peshita, and Targum on the book of Esther is
directly intended for Purim7. Thus, the Bible
paraphrases are the traditional form of rabbinic
literature. We will consider, how Targum method
is reflected in Josephus’ works.
Paraphrases in Targum are created by the
use of oral tradition, construction of author’s
own etymology, commenting of difficult places
in order that the edited text would be more clear
to audience. In our opinion, "Jewish Antiquities"
by Josephus can also be called Targum because,
according to Targum tradition, Josephus
intertwines the Bible narration with rabbinic
comment, that allows to consider "Jewish
Antiquities" as a monument not only of GreekRoman culture, but also of Jewish one.
3. "Jewish Antiquities" as Targum
The analysis of the method of text by
Josephus was made by many authors. So, for
example, T. Loeni describes all the works of the
Hebrew author8 in details. In this article "Jewish
Antiquites" will be considered as Hellenistic
Targum.
To find out whether "Jewish Antiquities" by
Josephus is actually Targum, we will consider
one of Josephus’ numerous comments. In Gen.
10:2 in Massoreth text it is written: "Sons of Iafet:
the Homere, Magog, Mada, Iavan, Fuval, Mesheh
and Firas" in Targum Pseudo-Jonathan this text is
: "Sons of Iafet: the Homere, Magog, Mada, Iavan,
Fuval, Mesheh and Firas, and names of their areas
are Phrygia, Germany, the Midia, Macedonia,
Bithynia, Asia and Thrace" In Josephus’ text the
paraphrase is even more detailed:
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"Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons:
they inhabited so, that, beginning at the
mountains Taurus and Amanus, they
proceeded along Asia, as far as the river
Tansis, and along Europe to Cadiz; and
settling themselves on the lands which
they light upon, which none had inhabited
before, they called the nations by their own
names. For Gomer founded those whom
the Greeks now call Galatians, [Galls,]
but were then called Gomerites. Magog
founded those that from him were named
Magogites, but who are by the Greeks called
Scythians. Now as to Javan and Madai,
the sons of Japhet; from Madai came the
Madeans, who are called Medes, by the
Greeks; but from Javan, Ionia, and all the
Grecians, are derived. Thobel founded the
Thobelites, who are now called Iberes; and
the Mosocheni were founded by Mosoch;
now they are Cappadocians. There is also
a mark of their ancient denomination still
to be shown; for there is even now among
them a city called Mazaca, which may
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inform those that are able to understand,
that so was the entire nation once called.
Thiras also called those whom he ruled
over Thirasians; but the Greeks changed
the name into Thracians. And so many
were the countries that had the children of
Japhet for their inhabitants. Of the three
sons of Gomer, Aschanax founded the
Aschanaxians, who are now called by the
Greeks Rheginians. So did Riphath found
the Ripheans, now called Paphlagonians;
and Thrugramma the Thrugrammeans,
who, as the Greeks resolved, were named
Phrygians. Of the three sons of Javan
also, the son of Japhet, Elisa gave name
to the Eliseans, who were his subjects;
they are now the Aeolians. Tharsus to the
Tharsians, for so was Cilicia of old called;
the sign of which is this, that the noblest
city they have, and a metropolis also, is
Tarsus, the tau being by change put for
the theta. Cethimus possessed the island
Cethima: it is now called Cyprus; and from
that it is that all islands, and the greatest
part of the sea-coasts, are named Cethim
by the Hebrews: and one city there is in
Cyprus that has been able to preserve its
denomination; it has been called Citius by
those who use the language of the Greeks,
and has not, by the use of that dialect,
escaped the name of Cethim" (Josephus,
Ant.Jud.I,6,1).
It would be possible to name such a
comment "midrash", a classical for Judaic
religious philosophy method of interpretation
of the Bible. According to L.Feldman, the use of
defi nition "midrash" for not-rabbinic exegetics
isn’t absolutely correct, because it implies
too close connection between rabbinic and an
earlier form of interpretation of Scriptures9.
However if we should consider the given text
typologically, it comes under the defi nition of
midrash, which in turn is the basic method of
writing of Targum.
Midrash had been used as a sacred way for
textual engagement. Also, in the case of homiletic
text, in offers a narration for the Jews revealing
relevant, true meaning of God. Rabbinic text
referred to Egyptian cultural icons, which served
to demarcate rabbinic Judaism from Egyptian
and other non-Jewish cultures and religion10.
Josephus gives great attention to the
philological analysis of the text of the Bible.
So, Josephus writes that the word "Pharaoh" is
never mentioned in the Bible after mentioning
Solomon’s father-in-law (Josephus, Ant.Jud.
VIII,2,5). Also Josephus gives etymology of
the name of Moses, as "rescued from the water"
(Josephus, Ant.Jud. II, 9,6). The name of land Mar
Josephus connects with bad quality of water, from
a word ‫( רמ‬bitterness) (Josephus, Ant.Jud. III,1,1).
Josephus also gives the detailed description with
interpretation of the construction of Tabernacle
(Josephus, Ant.Jud. III, 6 cp.) and of clothes of
the high priest (Josephus, Ant.Jud. III, 7 cp.). An
origin of the word "manna" Josephus deduces from
a question ‫( הצ המ‬What is it?) (Josephus, Ant.Jud.
III,1,6). Josephus, according to the principles of
the writing of Targum, gives his own etymology
of words from the Bible text.
The problem of Josephus’ silence concerning
some Biblical scenes and subjects is important.
Joseph had been excluded from the Bible text
some stories which could present the Jews
disparagingly to reader’s audience. Here we see
a consequence of collisions in the situation of
meeting of Greek-Roman and Jewish cultures.
A lacuna is a unit possessing following signs:
incomprehensibility, unusualness, strangeness,
discrepancy or an inaccuracy. All nationalspecific elements of culture in which the text
is created, are lacunas. Coming into contact
to another culture, the recipient estimates it in
codes of his own culture that leads to inadequate
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interpretation of features of another’s culture. To
avoid this and in conformity with Targum method
of interpretation of the Bible text, Josephus gives
his own etymology of words from the original
text. However he not only adds the comment
to the Bible text, but also doesn’t retell some
moments. So, sale of primogeniture by Esau (Gen.
25:29-33) was excluded from Josephus’ narration.
It is obvious that cunning of Jacob couldn’t be
pleasant to the Romans who were well-known
for their frankness. Also Josephus keeps silence
about the episode with circumcision of inhabitants
of Shechem with capture of this city by Simeon
and Levy. Instead Josephus writes that there
was a celebration and townsmen were drunk,
therefore brothers captured the city with easiness
(Josephus, Ant.Jud.I,21,1). Failure to mention the
circumcision of the inhabitants of Shechem had
several causes.
According to Josephus when God had
promised that Abraham and Sarah would have
the son, he had wished that the Jews wouldn’t
mix up with other nations and would make the
circumcision of newborns on the eighth day
(Josephus, Ant.Jud.I,10,5). Negative interpretation
of this phenomenon is given by Tacitus. He writes
that Jews:
"When the Jews had traveled a six days’
journey, they had buboes in their groins; and
that on this account it was that they rested
on the seventh day, as having got safely to
that country which is now called Judea; that
then they preserved the language of the
Egyptians, and called that day the Sabbath
(σαββω), for that malady of buboes on their
groin was named Sabbatosis (σαββαττωσις)
by by the Egyptians" (Josephus, C.Ap. II,
20-21, 25).
M. Sheller states that σαββαττωσις - is
"designation of illness when the sick person
has characteristic ulcers in groin"11. In general
negative attitude to Judaic religion prevailed in
Rome, since for such greatest representatives of
Antique civilization as Сiсero it was no more
than "barbara superstitio".
Juvenal expressed the blames of Romans
concerning Jews most distinctly. In the satire
devoted to problem of bad influence of parents’
vices on children he writes:
Quidam sortiti metuentem sabbata patrem
Nil praeter nubes et caeli numen adorant,
Nes distare putant humana carne suillam,
Qua pater abstinuit, mox et praeputia
ponunt;
"share neither food, nor bed with others;
Romans autem soliti contemnere leges
being a tribe extremely lewd, they abstain
Iudaicum ediscunt et servsnt ac metuunt
from communications with alien women;
ius,
between themselves everything is allowed;
Tradidit arcano quodcumque volumine
to be different from strangers, they have
Moyses:
entered circumcision" (Tacitus, Historiae,
Non monstrare vias eadem nisi sacra
V,5,2).
colenti,
Hence, circumcision for Romans was the
evidence of particularism of Jews, and actually
regarded as a mean, contemptible sign. Here we
see socio-cultural collisions of civilization and
cultural values. It is because of negative attitude
to circumcision anti-semite Apion of Alexandria
interprets the origin of a word "Sabbath". Josephus
writes:
Quaesitum ad fontem solos deducere
veros.
Sed pater in causa, cui septima quaeque fuit
lux
Ignava et partem vitae non attigit ullam.12
The proselytes which have completely
accepted Judaism differed from semi-proselytes
("reverent of God") who didn’t adhere to Judaic
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tradition in everything, for example, didn’t
do circumcision. Augustine in the context of
Romans’ discontent of Judaic missionary work
results known expression: victi victoribus leges
dederunt ("The won gave the law to the winners")
(Augustinus, De Civitate Dei, VI, 11). That’s why
the circumcision of inhabitant of Shechem could
be seen as the expansion of the Judaism which has
ended with punishment over neophytes. From the
point of view of postmodernistic interpretation of
the event the given text of the Bible in intertext of
the Greek-Roman culture was read distinctly from
the Jewish interpretation. Therefore Josephus has
decided to keep silent about the given fragment.
There is one more reason of keeping silence
about circumcision of inhabitants of Shechem.
At the time of Joseph Shechem was inhabited by
Samaritans who had departed from traditional
Judaism. Therefore in the Last Will of Levy
Shechem is called as "a city of fools". In the same
text it is told that men from Shechem intended to
steal Sarah, exhausted Abraham and in general
were extremely inhospitable that contradicted
statements of Samaritans hostile to the Jews13.
Josephus writes about Samaritans: "when the
Jews are in adversity, they deny that they are
of kin to them, and then they confess the truth"
(Josephus, Ant.Jud.XI,8,6). Therefore the story of
circumcision which makes Shechemites almost
coreligionists of the Jews, not only would discredit
the Jews in the opinion of other nations, but also
would cause undesirable hints on historical and
cultural realities contemporary to Josephus.
Stories about slaying of an Egyptian by
Moses (Ex. 2:12) and worshipping the Golden
Calf (Ex. 32:1-6) are also excluded from Josephus’
narration. Probably, it is connected with two blames
to the Jews from the Alexandrian anti-Semites.
In Roman Empire the opinion about xenophobia
of the Jews became a platitude. Tacitus wrote:
"Among their own people fidelity is unshakeable
and readiness for compassion is invariable, but
they hate all other people as enemies"(Tacitus,
Historiae, V,5,1). The most terrible charge was
that (according to the stories of Alexandrian
anti-Semite Apion) Antiochus IV Epiphanes
had found a Greek prepared for sacrifice in the
Jerusalem Temple (Josephus, C.Ap.II,8), which
became a prototype of all subsequent blames of
the Jews in human sacrifices. Therefore Josephus
avoids a mention of this murder and explains
flight of Moses by envy of Egyptians to him after
his victorious campaign to Ethiopia (Josephus,
Ant.Jud.II,10,2-11,1). According to Josephus the
founder of the Jewish religion shouldn’t be the
murderer whereas the authors of the Bible told
about both virtues and sins of the heroes.
Worshiping the Golden Calf is excluded
by Josephus since it causes hints on charges of
Posidonius, Apollonius Molon and Apion that
the same Antiochus IV Epiphanes has found a
golden statue of an asinine head in the Temple
(Josephus, C.Ap.II,7). Josephus in every possible
way tries to take away from the Jews the charge
in worshipping the idols. However among
commandments of Moses he mentions also that
one which didn’t exist in the Bible "Let no one
blaspheme those gods which other cities esteem
such" (Josephus, Ant.Jud.IV,8,10). That is, he lets
know that Hellenes, worshipping their gods, don’t
offend religious feeling of the Jews, since they are
gods of other state, while the Jews trust in the Most
High. As a result in the story about the ascension
of Moses to Sinai the narration develops in such
a way, that Jews don’t do anything reprehensible
and Moses in turn doesn’t break the tables, but
shows them to the people (Josephus, Ant.Jud.
II,5,8). Some episodes in Josephus’ paraphrase of
the Bible have been modified by him just a little.
So, Jacob doesn’t rebuke Joseph but rejoices to
the dream about the future position of his son
(Josephus, Ant.Jud.I,2,3), Rahab (who had helped
Jews at the capture of Jericho) was not the loose
woman but the mistress of a hotel (Josephus,
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Ant.Jud.V,1,2), and Benjamites in Gibeah have
demanded for the entertainments the wife of the
Levite which has come to their city, instead of the
Levite himself (Josephus, Ant.Jud.V,2,8).We see
in this case how Josephus puts the Bible narration
into Hellenistic cultural context.
The Rabbinic tradition of reading or
translating of certain confusing places of the
Bible holds the opinion that in synagogues it is
necessary to read some places, but not to translate
them14. It has to do with the case when Ruben had
the intercourse with the concubine of the father
(Gen. 35:22) and with the second story of the
Golden Calf (Ex. 32:21-25; Megillah 4:10). It is
especially amazing that the blessing of priests
(
Numb. 6:24-27), the relationships of David and
Bathsheba and the beginning of story of Amnon
and Thamar (2 Sam. 11:2-17) should not be not
only translated but even read (Megillah 4:10).
Along with this the event of intercourse of
Judah and Thamar (Gen. 38) and the first story
about the Golden Calf (Ex. 32:1-20) are to be
read and translated, but Josephus omits both.
The authors of Gemara (Megillah 25a-b) add to
the list of passages, which should be both read
and translated, the narration of creation (Gen.1),
story of Lot and his daughters (Gen. 19:31-38),
curses and blessings to Israel (Lev.26, Deut. 27),
the story of the concubine in Gibeah (Jud. 1920), the passage from Ezekiel (Ez. 16:1) about
abominations of Jerusalem and the continuation
of situation of Amnon and Thamar (2 Kings
13:2-22). Hence, Josephus follows the pattern of
reading and translation of Torah in synagogues
also in the aspect of keeping silence about some
events. Therefore the work "Jewish Antiquities"
can be called Targum, and it is a monument of the
Jewish traditional culture.
According to S. Rappoport, Josephus in
his comments to the Bible exclusively depended
on written sources.15 L.Feldman states that it is
impossible to define one or another midrash.
Though it is quite possible that Josephus really
had access to written down midrashes in spite of
the fact that the majority of exegetic comments in
Synagogue Targum, in sermons or in Academies
in the days of Josephus still were oral in essence16.
For finding out of the sources of Josephus the
cases of deviation from the Bible text L.Ranke
compared his narration to a narration of the
Antique Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria
and with oral Torah. Both Josephus and Philo of
Alexandria made deviations from the Bible text,
and in those deviations both have divergence and
similarity. For example, under a name of the first
king Josephus as well as Talmud assumes a new
dynasty in Egypt, and the cause of the slay of
the Jewish boys he sees as a prophecy about the
birth of a child who will shake the kingdom of
Egypt (Sanhedrin, 101b). In addition to Josephus
the Antique Jewish philosopher Philo informs
that the Pharaoh had only one daughter who was
infertilе, and she worried that the kingdom would
pass to enemies. Therefore she gladly picks up
Moses. The same we see in Talmud. Comparison
with Philo helps us to distinguish two independent
legends added to the Bible in Josephus’ narration.
One of them has the Alexandrian origin, and
another has Palestinian one. In Josephus’
narration there is a characteristic difference both
from the Bible and from Philo. It is the originality
of the political combinations considering the
person and activity of Moses from the point of
view of predetermination and his overthrow of
power of Egypt over the Jews. This originality of
Josephus’ text is the author’s style.
The assumption that Josephus was
acquainted with the Palestinian oral tradition
is confirmed by the fact that Josephus gives
certain names to unnamed Biblical characters.
For example, the name of the person who has
inspired others for construction of the Babel
tower is Nimrod (Josephus, Ant.Jud.I,1,4); the
name of Pharaoh’s daughter who adopted Moses
17
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is Phermuphis (Josephus, Ant.Jud. I,9,5) and
the name of a prophet who rebuked Ahab for
deliverance of Ben-Hadad is Micah (Josephus,
Ant.Jud.VIII,15,4). Probably those names are
taken from Rabbinic Midrashes. But the fact that
details of such kind also can be found in scrolls
of the Dead Sea and in Samaritan texts 18 shows
that we are dealing with Palestinian and not just
Rabbinic tradition.
The assumption that Josephus used an oral
form of legend is confirmed by the fact that many
texts of Haggadah had been written down by him
for the first time. A.Shinan19 tells that Josephus
was the first who recorded Haggadah version of
the birth of Moses. He comes to this conclusion
оn the basis of coincidence of records of Josephus
with the Babylonian Talmud (Sotah 12a). The
story about Solomon’s magic power (Josephus,
Ant.Jud.VIII,2,5) came into the text of "Jewish
Antiquities" from Haggadah. The legend about
Moses’ throwing down of Kushites is present
both in Judaic (Sotah 57,7) and in Muslim
legends20. A.Shinan asserts that the description of
war with Kushites Josephus took from writings
of Hellenistic Jewish writer Artapan.21 Moreover,
S.Rappaport shows 299 examples where Josephus
gives parallels of Midrash legends which haven’t
been written down earlier, and they are written
much later.22 Thus we can see that Josephus used
the oral tradition.
Haggadah texts are present in Jewish
culture archetypically. We have noticed that in
the majority of texts of Josephus it is possible to
track the influence of Haggadah just according to
one phrase inserted by Josephus in the Bible text.
So, for example, in "Jewish Antiquities" Josephus
writes:
all the heavenly bodies" (Josephus, Ant.
Jud.I,7,1). 23
Let’s compare this text with Haggadah:
"(Abraham had been hidden by his parents
in the cave from the wrath of King Nimrod
until he was 3 years old) Then he arose
and walked about, and he left the cave, and
went along the edge of the valley. When
the sun sank, and the stars came forth, he
said, "These are the gods!" But the dawn
came, and the stars could be seen no longer,
and then he said, "I will not pay worship to
these, for they are no gods." Thereupon the
sun came forth, and he spoke, "This is my
god, him will I extol." But again the sun set,
and he said, "He is no god," and beholding
the moon, he called her his god to whom he
would pay Divine homage. Then the moon
was obscured, and he cried out: "This, too,
is no god! There is One who sets them all in
motion" (Bereshit Rabbah 38.13). 24
Haggadah story which we can see is
much more colourful and more detailed than
Josephus’ dry message which, nevertheless, is
based on folklore text significant for the Jewish
culture. It is interesting to compare the colorful
Haggadah story about King Og and the reserved
description of this legend by Josephus. In the
Bible this event is described without too many
details. It is written only that God gave the army
of Og into hands of the Jews (Numb. 21:33-36;
Deut. 3). Og himself is not described. He is just
said to be the last of Rephaim (who had been the
giants according to legend). Here is the version
of Haggadah:
"On the following morning, however, barely
at gray dawn, Moses arose and prepared
"This his (Abraham’s) opinion (that the
to attack the city, but looking toward the
One God rules the Universe. – J. M.) was
city wall, he cried in amazement, "Behold,
derived from the irregular phenomena that
in the night they have built up a new wall
were visible both at land and sea, as well as
about the city!" Moses did not see clearly in
those that happen to the sun, and moon, and
the misty morning, for there was no wall,
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but only the giant Og who sat upon the wall
with his feet touching the ground below.
Og met his death in the following fashion.
When he discovered that Israel’s camp was
three parasangs in circumference, he said:
"I shall now tear up a mountain of three
parasangs, and cast it upon Israel’s camp,
and crush them". He did as he had planned,
pulled up a mountain of three parasangs,
laid it upon his head, and came marching in
the direction of the Israelite camp, to hurl it
upon them. But what did God do? He caused
ants to perforate the mountain, so that
is slipped from Og’s head down upon his
neck, and when he attempted to shake it off,
he teeth pushed out and extended to left and
right, and did not let the mountain pass, so
that he now stood there with the mountain,
unable to throw it from him. When Moses
saw this, he took an axe twelve cubits long,
leaped ten cubits into the air, and dealt a
blow to Og’s ankle, which caused the giant’s
death" (Bereshit Rabbah. 54; Niddah 24)25.
Haggadah story is much more colorful,
expressive and fabulous, than Biblical narrative.
It is unknown whether Josephus used this
legend or some very similar one, but his narrative
is:
"Og, the king of Gilead and Gaulanitis, fell
upon the Israelites… …did he resolve still
to come and fight the Hebrews, supposing
he should be too hard for them, and being
desirous to try their valor; but failing of
his hope, he was both himself slain in the
battle, and all his army was destroyed…
Now Og had very few equals, either in the
largeness of his body, or handsomeness
of his appearance. He was also a man of
great activity in the use of his hands, so
that his actions were not unequal to the vast
largeness and handsome appearance of his
body" (Josephus, Ant.Jud.III,5,3)26.
If classic Targum with the help of Haggadah
legends widens the Bible text, Josephus compresses
Haggadah legend to one or two phrases and
returns it in such compressed form back to the
Bible narration. It reminds a Talmudic method,
so-called "remez", implicitly containing in texts of
Judaic religious culture. Probably Josephus didn’t
consider Haggadah stories as equally reliable to
the facts taken from the canonic text of the Bible.
Therefore he makes only a hint at Haggadah.
Since the judgments of Haggadah are not so
carefully verified, the discussion is conducted
in more metaphoric, poetic form. Many things
mentioned in Haggadah actually have symbolical
meaning, where the unequivocal understanding
is impossible. However the use of Haggadah plots
makes the text of "Jewish Antiquities" close to
Targum, as to the text traditional for the Jewish
culture, by the methods of interpretation of the
Bible.
Josephus’ comments are not always made
in Rabbinic manner. Josephus’ explanation of
Jewish concept shows that his work "Life" had
been intended to be read mainly by non-Jewish
readers, and, moreover, that he wished to be seen
as a positive public figure, as a person who fits
the standards prevailing in their society27. So,
in order to deserve the trust of contemporaries,
Josephus in "Jewish Antiquities" tried to
avoid the description of miracles in the Bible
stories. At the fi rst sight, doing so, he follows
the traditions of the Greek-Roman intellectual
culture. According to Lucian, it is possible to
include a myth in a text, but it is not necessary
to trust it undoubtedly; it is better if the author
would not solve this question himself, and let
everyone judge as he or she wants (Lucianus,Quo
Modo Hist.Sit Cons.,60). So, Josephus compares
the transition of the Jews through the Red Sea
to Alexander the Great’s transition through
the Pamphilite sea and adds: "However, in this
respect everyone can have his own opinion"
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(Josephus, Ant.Jud.II,16,5). Thereby, giving his
own explanation of the miracle, Josephus remains
in the course of ancient culture. However this is
not only one possible explanation of the reason
of the exclusion of miracles from the Bible
paraphrase.
For the further research of the description
of miracles in Josephus’ works it is necessary to
define, what is miracle in the Bible. According
to Y.Kaufman28 the miracles which are made
in the Bible resemble the technical magic of
Egyptians. However, unlike pagan ideas, there
is no mythological basis in this magic. For
religious consciousness a miracle is the work of
"the right hand of God". Theologically the Bible
miracles can be divided into three kinds. These
are miracles as a matter of fact, in their essence
(quoad substantian), which have nothing in
common with forces of the nature. These miracles
are present at Josephus’ narration indirectly, it is
difficult to track their presence. In this connection
it is possible to mention creation of the world by
God, which the book "Jewish Antiquities" begins
with (Josephus, Ant.Jud.I,1,1).
The miracles of second kind are the actions
accessible to forces of the nature, but not in the
given subject (quoad subjectum). Josephus tries
to avoid this kind of miracles. For example, the
sign given by God to Gideon (Jud. 6) is omitted,
because it can’t be explained rationally. Also
Josephus doesn’t write about raising from the
dead of the widow’s son by prophet Elisha (2
Kings 4:32-36). Also about the rapture of prophet
Elijah to Heaven Josephus writes:
Now at this time it was that Elijah
disappeared from among men, and no one
knows of his death to this very day29. And
indeed, as to Elijah, and as to Enoch, who
was before the deluge, it is written in the
sacred books that they disappeared, but so
that nobody knew that they died" (Josephus,
Ant.Jud.IX,2,2).
Josephus tries not to confuse the reader
belonging to Hellenistic culture by the description
of miracles inexplicable from the point of view of
physiophilosophy of that time.
The third kind of miracles includes actions
possible for the nature, but not in such a way
(quoad modum). Transition of the Jews through the
Red Sea, already mentioned by us, belongs to the
given kind of miracles (Josephus, Ant.Jud.II,16,5).
The Plagues of Egypt which also can be regarded
as miracles of the given kind, are described as
acts of nature (Josephus, Ant.Jud. XIV). Telling
about one more miracle with manna, Josephus
writes that "even now, in all, that place, this
manna comes down in rain" (Josephus, Ant.Jud.
III,1,6).30 At transition of the Jordan by Joshua the
river, according to Josephus, hadn’t parted as in
the Bible text (Joshua 3:13), but shoaled (Josephus,
Ant.Jud.V,2,3). The hailstones at Joshua’s battle
at Gibeon were not stone but simply very large
ones. And instead of telling according to the
Bible how Joshua had stopped movement of the
Sun over Gibeon, Josephus writes that God had
prolonged daytime (Josephus, Ant.Jud.V,1,17).
So Josephus tells about only those miracles
which could occur naturally, and he rationalizes
explanations of the phenomena described in the
Bible. Rational interpretation is put by him in lips
of the Bible heroes (Josephus, Ant.Jud.VI,1,2).
Josephus refers to the Jewish original when it is
impossible to give any rational interpretation to
miracles (Josephus, Ant.Jud.III,5,2).
Inclusion of certain miracle in Josephus’
work is connected with its perception in culture
of Roman Empire of the I century AD. So, for
example, in a case of Daniel, Josephus emphasizes
that the lions didn’t begin to eat the prophet
because of wonderful intervention of the Lord,
but not because of their satiety. In our opinion,
the specification occurs because the inhabitants of
the Empire had possibility to observe gladiatorial
fights with lions, who, according to rules, should
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be hungry. To survive in this situation was a
miracle. It was important for Josephus to make
the text of "Jewish Antiquities" clear for the
Roman audience and causing their sympathy.
Other interesting aspect in the description of
miracles by Josephus we can see in the episodes
connected with fire. A case of burning and
not burning down bush from which The Most
High spoke to Moses (Josephus, Ant.Jud.I,9,1),
competition of the prophet Elijah with the priests
of Baal in process of which the Lord sends fire
from heaven on the sacrifice offered by the
Jewish prophet and covered with water (Josephus,
Ant.Jud.VIII,13,5), and also the episode with
surviving of Daniel’s friends in the heated furnace
(Josephus, Ant.Jud.X,10,5) are given by Josephus
without essential changes. It is possible to make
the conclusion that the supernatural phenomenon
connected with fire couldn’t confuse readers. It is
known that Nero patronized to Mazdaistic cult,
and at the time of Josephus’ staying in Rome the
Persian religion, anyhow connected with worship
to fire, was known in the upper class of Empire.31
In this context it is interesting to notice the
absence of any mentioning of Hanukah miracle.
An episode when ritually pure oil burned eight
days instead of one (it should suffice only for
one day) isn’t included in texts of Josephus’
work, because of reason mentioned above.
Rationalistic interpretation of miracles is focused
on a Hellenistic reader. Similar change is made by
Josephus in order to make the Bible text clear to
non-Jews. It closes the text of "Jewish Antiquities"
to Targum. If Aramaic Targums made the Bible
text clear to Babylonian Jews, Josephus tries to
make the text understandable to representatives
of the Greek-Roman culture.
The full publication of the scrolls from the
Judean Desert has given impetus to reflections on
the history and development of the biblical text
during the period of Second Temple Judaism. Hans
Debel critically reviews the major contributions
to the debate and finally makes a plea to extent
Ulrich’s hermeneutical model32 to some Septuagint
text that are usually not included into his "variant
literary editions". His main argument, that these
texts are the evidence of the same dynamic
process of the interpretational tradition, merely
because they are not written in Hebrew, reveals
an unwarranted bias towards the Masoreth Text33.
Considerable deviations from Massoreth Text (in
an explanation of certain words, a transcription
of the proper names and the chronological data)
and Hellenistic coloring of narration of "Jewish
Antiquities" lead to thought that Josephus had
a copy of the Septuagint before his eyes. It is
Hellenistic coloring which distinguishes "Jewish
Antiquities" from Targums of Onkelos or PseudoJonathan. Josephus was not the first one who
wrote in Hellenistic tradition. So, Ezekiel writes
tragedies in the style of Euripides, Philo the Senior
writes epic poems34, Demetrius and Eupolemes
write secular history of Jews, Aristobulus and
Apollos have found their place in Hellenistic
philosophies35. However only philosopher Philo
of Alexandria and Josephus Flavius have taken
a worthy place both in Hellenistic and in later
Christian culture of the West.
Resume
Josephus Flavius in "Jewish Antiquities"
retells the Bible text according to Rabbinic
traditions, but adapts it in some places for the
Antique civilization of gentile Roman Empire.
Josephus’ text by its content does not always
correspond to the original. By its form "Jewish
Antiquities" resemble Targum (Bible paraphrases
in Aramaic language which was used during
service in synagogues). The fragments of books
Leviticus and Job, which has been found out
in Qumran, are actually Targums. The most
known Targum is Targum of Onkelos. It the
most literal of all known translations of Torah.
Targum Neophyte I considerably differs from
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Targum of Onkelos because the whole sections
are added to it. The latest translation of Torah
is Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, and after finishing
of it fragmentary Targums have been created.
Thus Targum is a traditional form of Rabbinic
literature, and its technique of interpretation of
the text is used by Josephus, that makes his works
the heritage of the Jewish culture.
There are signs which unite all writings
of Targum genre. Paraphrases of the Bible text
in them are created by the use of oral tradition,
construction of author’s own etymology,
commenting of difficult places in order that the
edited text would be more clear to audience.
"Jewish Antiquities" by Josephus Flavius also can
be called Targum. We are lead to this conclusion
by the following observation.
Josephus intertwines the text of the Bible
with the Rabbinistic comment. It is possible to
name such a comment "midrash". In conformity
with Targum method of interpretation of the Bible
text, Josephus gives his own etymology of words
from the original text. However he not only adds
the comment to the Bible text, but also doesn’t
retell some moments. So, Josephus had excluded
from the Bible text the stories which could
present Jews disparagingly. For example, he had
kept silence about circumcision of inhabitants
of Shechem. It is connected both with negative
attitude of Romans to tradition of circumcision
and with Josephus’ unwillingness to cause
undesirable hints on contemporary historical
and cultural realities concerning the relation of
the Jews and Samaritans. The slaying by Moses
of the Egyptian and worshiping the Golden Calf,
which are connected with anti-Semitic charges in
idolatry and human sacrifices, are also excluded
from Josephus’s narration. Some episodes in the
Bible paraphrase have been modified by Joseph
just a little. All this is connected with the fact that
Josephus in the aspect of keeping silence follows
the pattern of reading and translation of Torah
in synagogues, where, according to cultural
norms of the Age of the Second Temple, some
fragments of the Bible weren’t subject to reading
or translation.
Josephus’ narration has characteristic
difference not only from the Bible texts, but also
from the texts of Philo of Alexandria. It indicates
not only that Josephus had his own style of
narration, but also that he was acquainted with
Palestinian oral tradition. It is confirmed by the
fact that many texts of Haggadah had been written
down by him for the first time. In the majority
of texts of Josephus it is possible to track the
influence of Haggadah just by one phrase inserted
in the Bible context. The use of Haggadah plots
makes the text of "Jewish Antiquities" close to
Targum by its methods of interpretation of the
Bible.
However Josephus’ comments do not always
have Rabbinic character. He tried to avoid the
description of miracles in the Bible stories.
Theologically the Bible miracles can be divided
into three kinds. These are miracles as a matter
of fact, in their essence (quoad substantian),
which have nothing in common with forces of the
nature. These miracles are present at Josephus’
narration indirectly, it is difficult to track their
presence. The miracles of second kind are the
actions accessible to forces of the nature, but not
in the given subject (quoad subjectum). Josephus
tries to avoid this kind of miracles. The third
kind of miracles includes actions possible for the
nature, but not in such a way (quoad modum).
It is this kind of miracles which Josephus
describes in his text, and he rationalizes the Bible
miracles. Inclusion of certain miracle in "Jewish
Antiquities" is connected with perception of
it in culture of Roman society. The miracles of
only one kind, which Josephus doesn’t exclude
and doesn’t modify, are the miracles with fire. It
is connected with spreading of cult of Mitra in
Rome.
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Josephus wrote "Jewish Antiquities"
according to Hellenistic tradition. Hence,
Josephus tries to make the text of "Jewish
Antiquities" clear to a Hellenistic reader. This
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fact lets us classify "Jewish Antiquities" as a
"Hellenistic Targum". In that way Josephus tried
to reconcile traditions of Greek-Roman and
Jewish cultures.
See Feldman L. H. Josephus’ Interpretation of the Bible. Detroit, 1996; Inowlowsky S. (2005). Neither adding nor omitting
anything’: Josephus’ Promise not to modify the Scriptures in Greek and Latin context, JJS 56, 48-65.
Avios M. (2008). Josephus’ Rewriting of 1 Samuel 25, JJS 59, 71-85.
Smirnov A. Messianskie ozhidaniia I verovaniia iudeev okolo vrem’en Iisusa Khrista (ot Makkaveiskikh voin do razrusheniia Ierusalima riml’anami. [Messianic expectations and beliefs of Jews of times of Jesus Christ (from Maccabean wars
before destruction of Jerusalem by Romans)].Kazan, 1899, 171.
Yungerov P. Otzyv o sochinenii protoiereia Alekseia Smirnovapod zaglaviiem "Messianskie ozhidaniia I verovaniia
iudeev okolo vrem’en Iisusa Khrista (ot Makkaveiskikh voin do razrusheniia Ierusalima riml’anami" [Review of the composition of Protoierei Alexey Smirnov under the title "Messianic expectations and beliefs of Jews of times of Jesus Christ
(from Maccabean wars before destruction of Jerusalem by Romans)"]. Kazan, 1899.
Smirnov, 175.
Shinan A. The World of Aggadah. Tel-Aviv, 1990, 103, Alexander P.S. (1988). Aramaic translations of Hebrew Scripture,
Mikra. 7, 217-253.
Bowker J. The Targums and Rabbinic Literature: An Introduction to Jewish Interpretation of Scripture. Cambridge, 1969;
Chester A.N. (1986) Divine Revelation an Divine Titles in the Pentateuchal Targumim, Texte und Studien zum Antiken
Judentum (Tubingen).
Leoni T. (2009).The text of Josephus’s works: an Overview, JSJ 40, 149-184.
Feldman, 67
Ulmer R. (2010). The Egyptian Gods in Midrashic Text, HTR103:2, 181-204.
Scheller M. Clotta. XXXIV. Berlin, 1955, 298 sq; Lewy J. (1946). Latomus σαββω und σαββαττωσις, Zion 5, 339 sq.
Some who have had a father who reveres the Sabbath, worship nothing but the clouds, and the divinity of the heavens, and
see no difference between eating swine’s flesh, from which their father abstained, and that of man; and in time they take to
circumcision. Having been wont to flout the laws of Rome, they learn and practice and revere the Jewish law, and all that
Moses committed to his secret tome, forbidding to point out the way to any not worshipping the same rites, and conducting
none but the circumcised to the desired fountain. For all which the father was to blame, who gave up every seventh day to
idleness, keeping it apart from all the concerns of life. (Juvenalus, Saturae, XIV, 96-106) (Translated by G. G. Ramsay)
Bickerman E.J. The Jews in the Greek Age. London, 1988, 208.
Feldman, 69-74
Rappaport S. Haggadah und Exegese bei Flavius Josephus. Wien, 1930
Feldman, 69-74
Ranke L. Weltgeschichte. Leipzig, 1883, III, 15-18.
Feldman, 69-74.
Shinan, 49.
Geiger A. Was hat Mahammed aus dem Judenthum aufgenommen? Leipzig, 1900, 157.
Shinan, 52-54.
Rappaport, 1-71
Translated by William Whiston
Ginzberg L. The Legends of the Jews. Philadelphia, 1968,I,189.
Ginzberg, 345-346
Translated by William Whiston
Stern P. (2010). "Life of Josephus" : The Autobiography of Flavius Josephus’, JSJ 41, 63-93.
Kaufman Y. Religiia Drevnego Izrailia.[Religion of ancient Israel]. Bibleiskie issledovaniia. Sbornik statei. Sostavitel B.
Shwarts. [Bible researches. The collection of articles. Comp. B.Schwarz]. Moscow, 1997, 63-64
In spite of the fact that Josephus knows the text of 2 Kings 2:11
Translated by William Whiston
Cumont F. Die Misterien des Mitra. Darmstadt, 1963, 76-94.
Ulrich E.C. The Qumran Scrolls and the Biblical text, Dead Sea Scroll Fifty Years after Their Discovery: Proceeding of
the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997 .Jerusalem: The Israel Exploration Society, 2000.
Debel H. (2010) Greek "Variant Literary Editions" to the Hebrew Bible?, JJS 41, 161-190
See German translations of Philon and Ezekiil in Philipson L.M. Ezechiel und Philo.Berlin, 1830.
See German translations of fragments in Fredenthal J. Alexander Poligistor und die von ihm erhaltene erste judischer
Geschichtwerke. Breslau, 1874-1875.
References
1. Alexander P.S. (1988). Aramaic translations of Hebrew Scripture, Mikra. 7, 217-253.
2. Avios M. (2008). Josephus’ Rewriting of 1 Samuel 25, JJS 59, 71-85.
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3. Bickerman E.J. The Jews in the Greek Age. London, 1988.
4. Bowker J. The Targums and Rabbinic Literature: An Introduction to Jewish Interpretation of
Scripture. Cambridge, 1969.
5. Chester A.N. (1986) Divine Revelation an Divine Titles in the Pentateuchal Targumim, Texte
und Studien zum Antiken Judentum (Tubingen).
6. Cumont F. Die Misterien des Mitra. Darmstadt, 1963.
7. Debel H. (2010) Greek "Variant Literary Editions" to the Hebrew Bible?, JJS 41, 161-190.
8. Feldman L. H. Josephus’ Interpretation of the Bible. Detroit, 1996.
9. Fredenthal J. Alexander Poligistor und die von ihm erhaltene erste jüdischer Geschichtswerke.
Breslau, 1874-1875.
10. Geiger A. Was hat Mahammed aus dem Judenthum aufgenommen? Leipzig, 1900.
11. Ginzberg L. The Legends of the Jews. Philadelphia, 1968.
12. Inowlowsky S. (2005). Neither adding nor omitting anything’: Josephus’ Promise not to
modify the Scriptures in Greek and Latin context, JJS 56, 48-65
13. Kaufman Y. Religiia Drevnego Izrailia.[Religion of ancient Israel]. Bibleiskie issledovaniia.
Sbornik statei. Sostavitel B. Shwarts. [Bible researches. The collection of articles. Comp. B.Schwarz].
Moscow, 1997.
14. Leoni T. (2009).The text of Josephus’s works: an Overview, JSJ 40, 149-184.
15. Lewy J. (1946). Latomus σαββω und σαββαττωσις, Zion 5.
16. Philipson L.M. Ezechiel und Philo. Berlin, 1830.
17. Ranke L. Weltgeschichte. Leipzig, 1883.
18. Rappaport S. Haggadah und Exegese bei Flavius Josephus. Wien, 1930.
19. Scheller M. Clotta. XXXIV. Berlin, 1955.
20. Shinan A. The World of Aggadah. Tel-Aviv, 1990.
21. Smirnov A. Messianskie ozhidaniia I verovaniia iudeev okolo vrem’en Iisusa Khrista (ot
Makkaveiskikh voin do razrusheniia Ierusalima riml’anami. [Messianic expectations and beliefs of
Jews of times of Jesus Christ (from Maccabean wars before destruction of Jerusalem by Romans)].
Kazan, 1899.
22. Stern P. (2010). "Life of Josephus": The Autobiography of Flavius Josephus’, JSJ 41, 63-93.
23. Ulmer R. (2010). The Egyptian Gods in Midrashic Text, HTR103:2, 181-204.
24. Ulrich E.C. The Qumran Scrolls and the Biblical text, Dead Sea Scroll Fifty Years after Their
Discovery: Proceeding of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20-25, 1997 .Jerusalem: The Israel Exploration
Society, 2000.
25. Yungerov P. Otzyv o sochinenii protoiereia Alekseia Smirnovapod zaglaviiem "Messianskie
ozhidaniia I verovaniia iudeev okolo vrem’en Iisusa Khrista (ot Makkaveiskikh voin do razrusheniia
Ierusalima riml’anami" [Review of the composition of Protoierei Alexey Smirnov under the title
Messianic expectations and beliefs of Jews of times of Jesus Christ (from Maccabean wars before
destruction of Jerusalem by Romans)]. Kazan, 1899.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Julia G. Matushanskaya. «Jewish Antiquities» as Hellenistic Targum
"Иудейские древности"
как эллинистический таргум
Ю.Г. Матушанская
Казанский национальный инновационный
технологический университет
Россия, 420015, Казань, ул. К. Маркса, 60
В данной статье автор исследует специфику текста древнееврейского историка Иосифа
Флавия (I в. н. э.) "Иудейские древности" в сравнении с другими древними текстами, такими
как Библия, Мидраши, Талмуд, тексты древнегреческих и римских авторов. Цель работы –
проанализировать взаимосвязь структуры текста Иосифа Флавия с его историкокультурным контекстом. В качестве метода работы автор избрал культурологический,
философский и лингвистический анализ текста "Иудейских древностей". В результате автор
выявил взаимосвязь метода подачи материала в данной книге с традицией раввинистического
комментированного перевода (таргума). Однако сам комментарий соответствует
правилам и нормам античной историографии, что позволяет классифицировать "Иудейские
древности" Иосифа Флавия как "эллинистический таргум".
Ключевые слова: таргум, Иосиф Флавий, Мидраш, Мишна, Библия.
Научная специальность: 24.00.00 – культурология.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1734-1737
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УДК 82-14
Philosophical Lyrics
in the Poetry of Vasily Lebedev
Antonina A. Vinokurova*
North-Eastern Federal University in Yakutsk
58 Belinskiy Str, Yakutsk,
Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), 677980, Russia
Received 24.03.2014, received in revised form 18.04.2014, accepted 19.08.2014
This article analyzes the philosophical lyrics of Lebedev’s poems. Lebedev’s poems are imbued
with philosophical thoughts. In the creative work of Lebedev we have identified about 20 poems of
philosophical lyrics, the themes of which are very diverse: in these verses the poet reflects on life, the
past, the future, the purpose of life, death.
Keywors: philosophical lyrics, poetry, Vasily Lebedev, the life, the death, the image.
Research area: 24.00.00 – culture studies.
Studying the peculiarities of the creative
process and the product of creation, Iu.B. Borev
distinguishes the following components: reality –
author – creative process; text- artistic reality and
semantics (art concept) – reception [1; 456].
Among
lyrical
genres,
researchers
distinguish civil, philosophical, intimate and
pastoral poetry, insisting on the fact that different
forms of the lyric genre are mainly based on the
"thematic principle". L. Bodrova, L. Timofeev
and A. Bandura use the term "genre" to refer
to a literature class. In his theory of poetry,
G.N. Pospelov considers the ratio of the expressive
and imitative origins to be the leading principle
of classification of lyric genres [7, 108].
Vasily Lebedev was recognized and became
famous as an outstanding Even poet. His multifaceted creative personality was vividly revealed
in the field of science. He made it into history
*
of the native people, as the first Even scientist,
candidate (Ph.D.) of philological sciences.
The originality of the artistic worldview of
the indigenous peoples of the North is their firm
belief that not only bodies of family and friends
contain human life, but also all things created by
the human. Vasily Lebedev’s poetics demonstrates
this syncretism in the native language with great
artistic expression. For example, in the poem
"Unta" (Mukluks), the girl’s footwear is endowed
with special beauty:
Хэрэчэлкэн, нисалкан
Beaded
Осал унтав тэттыди [2]
Mukluks out of skins, dressed
D.E. Vasil’eva, considering Lebedev’s poetry,
wrote that "the lyrical protagonist in the works
by Vasily Lebedev is diverse and extensive. He
is a man with active life position, not a common
contemplator. His reflections on the meaning
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: kafedrasev@mail.ru
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Antonina A. Vinokurova. Philosophical Lyrics in the Poetry of Vasily Lebedev
of life, the high destiny of the human, the place
of the poet in the labour ranks are deep and
philosophical" [2, 82].
The young years pass, as the winds, the poet
compares these years to the season, calling them
spring. The lyrical protagonist reflects on his past
life and asks himself what else he can do:
Хатарнюн
Мэргэму илэ-вул
My thoughts
Нөсэгчэн бидеку инэңил
Аркакан ңэринчин[1].
Get brighter
My young days,
Хунңэгчин дэгникэн ңэнрисэн
Like the wind, have passed by.
Бининву нэлкэнин тачин-да елтэнни,
My life-spring is over
Яв-дакич онңаву эмэнин.
How much do I still have to do?
Хи, хунңэ, дэтлэди он эчэс хорукан,
Wind, why have not you taken away
Тэгэлэ өгэски он эчэс хөрукэн?
To the faraway aether, why have not you taken with
you?
Төгэми биниву нэлкэнин елтэнни [ 3].
Thus my life-spring has passed.
[А.V.]
The author reflects on the years of his
childhood overcoming the cold, he uses
metaphorical images "have tasted the icy cold":
куңарапу елтэнни, / Анңанил ңэнритэн/
Иңэньси гилсиван/ Амтаникан исурив. The
bygone life of the Evens, according to the
thoughts of Vasily Lebedev, got stuck in the rocks:
өси бини тэгэлгэн/ кадаралдула набганча.
Thoughts about the days gone by, we find in the
poems "Анңанил" (Years), "Хупкучэк уркэлэн"
(At the door of the school), "Дэтлэлкэн инэңил"
(Winged Days), «Тинив би» (Yesterday I).
Through the prism of native wildlife,
Vasily Lebedev reveals his state of soul. The
lyrical protagonist in the poem "Хоч хинмач"
(Very Fast) has the opposite feelings, when a
pine branch gets interwoven with the darkness,
then it's hard for him to think about anything,
and when the star shines in the sky, then his soul
brightens.
Мэргэму
Дёмкаттай ургэлрэн.
Өгилэ
Осикат хурамран.
Тэгэлэ
With darkness
My thoughts
Have got heavier
Somewherer up high
A star is twinkling
Somewhere faraway
In his work «Колата гөндэтэн» (Let
Them Say That I Drink) we observe conflicting
opinions about the essence of life: колата,
кэнели гөндэтэн, биниву дюлдэлэв, хирэңчин
гиркуттэн – let them say that I drink, I'm bad,
there are obstacles waiting for ahead in life, ай
бэй, як аин гөндэтэн, бэй-нюн-дэ гэрбэлэн төр
ойдун тэгэтчим – let them say that I'm good,
I'm the best, I will live this life with dignity.
Vasily Lebedev’s favorite landscape is
his native Verkhoyansk Mountains, therefore,
thinking about life, he compares бинив удян – his
life: нөкикэңчин ңунэнчин – with a tight arrow,
мавуткаңчин хумбуңчин – with the movement
of the lasso, горла хордин,/ даваччин,/ асундакит гуду тору ойчияччин- obstacles of life –
with the mountains.
S.M. Petrova in her reflection on the poem
"Этикэр" (Old Men), writes that "the old men
have got close with the nature around them and
have become a part of it" [6, 70]. Here the poet
shows the life of a man on land in a peculiar
way. Youth is fast as the wind, and old age
means respect, and therefore the poet describes
the old men with great respect. Philosophical
comprehension is accompanied by a leisurely
pace, the author uses repetition; description
of peace the poet transmits using the word
хумкэттэ – whisper, they whisper to the forest,
to the mountain top, to the coloured meadows,
to the blue flowers, to the white swans, to the
sky, to the sun.
The theme of fortitude is demonstrated in the
poem "Иңэнь төр бэиңдин" (If You Think You
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Antonina A. Vinokurova. Philosophical Lyrics in the Poetry of Vasily Lebedev
Are a Northerner). Using an annular construction
of the strophe, Vasily Lebedev draws attention
to the fact, how to live this life with dignity:
be persistent, like a rock – кадар урэмэк маң
били, your thoughts should be transparent, like
a spring flower – кунтэк ойлан герси нөчэ/
Урэмэкэн дёлбэр оли, as a stream from which a
bird is drinking – чивкачан колаңкан/ биракчан
мөгчинни.
The poet in his works shares his thoughts
of being, of human destiny. Poet asks the eternal
philosophical questions in his poem "Як гэрбэн
тэгэлгэн?" (What Is Life?). Here we see the
argument about life, about his own experiences,
how to live this life. The poem consists of 9 equal
triplets, each first line begins with a question,
every second line contains an answer and the
third one contains an imperative sentence. For
example:
Як гэрбэн тэгэлгэн?
What is life?
Эвикэ.
A game.
in Lebedev’s poems. In the poem "Ок ут-та
төр долан ирэку" (Once Upon a Time I Will
Be in the Ground), we see a kind of attitude
to passing away ок-ут-та төр долан ирэку –
by that time, when I will be in the ground.
The lyrical protagonist reflects on how young
people will be asking what he has written
about, after reading the poem? The protagonist
of the poem gives the answer to this question
being confident that his life is truly reflected
in his works.
Ок-ут-та төр долан ирэку
Once upon a time I will be in the ground
Гөндэну төрэму
Дуктаңнав эмэбдин.
And the words I said
Will remain written down.
Нөсэгчэр дукатлав
After reading my poems
Таңникан улгимдир:
Young people will ask:
-Ями-тка адыкун бичэмдэс,
-His life
Бидэкен тэгэлгэн
Он эсни ичумсэ,
Seems insufficient
As if we don't see everything
Хаван-кка дяйча-гу, яча-гу?
Таракам, хотэлрэ хоч аич!
Seems like he has hidden something?
Then have a lot of fun with it!
Often we find thoughts about enlightened
life. For example, in the poem "Хупкутчэ"
(Knowledge): хупкуттэй эдэй би одамса,
нөлтэнкэ ңэримэн эрэгэр бодамсам – I want
to continue to learn, to laways follow the bright
sunbeams.
Meditations devoted to eternity, are
frequent. For example, in the poem "Музейла"
(At the Museum) the protagonist reflects on the
future: тэгэлгэн бинивэн гөниклэн/ хояв би
унуңа туркурэм – when I think about life / there
is much I don’t understand; Мин бинив удярман
хакурин одакан мингэчин урална туркудир –
тачикан горалдин – when the road of my life
will end / other like me will also think about
eternity.
In lyrical and philosophical interpretation
of the world, an important place is occupied by
the theme of death, which is deeply national
Таракам
Later on
Бисиву тэгэлгэн
The life I’ve lived
Битлэдув барагдин илканди [2].
Will truly anser for me.
[А. V.]
Turning to the shaman theme in Lebedev’s
works demonstrates religious views of the
people.
Thus, the protagonist of the poem
"Миргилан" – shaman Gurguli – during his
shamanistic has a flight through three worlds and
the author depicts it with the following words
«дэ5сэн бисни ньааниндулин" – his wings
have touched the Heaven, "hяңан олда оодьиди/
наманьдялбу давлиндан" – having turned into
a burbot/ he swam across seas, "кадарал-да,
куунтэкэл/ дьээрэлникэн еелтэңчир" – rocks
and meadows we passed by.
Vasily Lebedev combined the originality of
thinking of a scientist and the imagery of a poet.
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Antonina A. Vinokurova. Philosophical Lyrics in the Poetry of Vasily Lebedev
The latter spiritualized the fi rst one. Therefore,
his translations from his native language into
Russian were peculiar due to the poetic features
and scientific preciseness at the same time.
The analysis of the poet’s philosophical
poetry leads us to the conclusion that Vasily
Lebedev is a poet-thinker, in his poetry
various philosophical categories are originally
interpreted. Joyous philosophical poetry of
the poet helps the reader to hope for the best,
to fill his/her life with the spirit of dignity,
pride, courage, nobility. It should be noted, that
in Lebedev’s philosophical lyrics the issue of
environmental and ethical-moral relationship
between the human, environment and society is
disclosed.
References
1. Borev, Iu.B. Teoriia literatury. Tom IV. Literaturnyi protsess [Theory of Literature. Volume
IV. Literary process]. Moscow, Institute of World Literature RAS, "Nasledie", 2001. 624 p.
2. Vasil’eva, D.E. Sviaz’ vremen. Sbornik statei [Connection of Times. Collection of Articles] /
illustrations by Skiabin S.S. Yakutsk: Publishing House, 1991. 120 p.
3. Lebedev, V. Омчэни: Дентур/ V. Lebedev. Yakutsk: Нека торэнэн книга издательстван,
1963. 68 p.
4. Lebedev, V. Хиги огални/ V. Lebedev. Yakutsk: Нека төрэңэн книга издательстван, 1965.
88 p.
5. Lebedev, V. Дялбу төрэңнэтэн/ V. Lebedev. Yakutsk: Нека торэнэн книга издательстван,
1968. 64 p.
6. Petrova, S.M. Evenkiiskaia literature v shkolakh Respubliki Sakha (Iakutii) [The Even
Literature in Schools of the Republic Sakha (Yakutia)]. Textbook – Saint Petersburg: Department of
the Publishing house "Prosveshchenie", 1994. P. 66-84.
7. Pospelov, G.N. Teoriia literatury: uchebnik dlia studentov [Theory of Literature: Textbook for
Students] / G.N. Pospelov, 1983. 112 p.
Философская лирика в поэзии В. Лебедева
А.А. Винокурова
Северо-Восточный федеральный университет
имени М.К. Аммосова
Россия, 677000, Республика Саха (Якутия),
Якутск, ул. Белинского, 58
В данной статье анализируется философская лирика поэзии В. Лебедева. Лебедевские стихи
пронизаны философскими раздумьями. В творчестве В. Лебедева нами выявлено около 20
стихотворений философской лирики, тематика которой весьма разнообразна: в этих стихах
поэт размышляет о жизни, о прошлом, о будущем, о предназначении жизни, о смерти.
Ключевые слова: философская лирика, поэзия, Василий Лебедев, жизнь, смерть, образ.
Научная специальность: 24.00.00 – культурология.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1738-1742
~~~
УДК 811.512.212
Some Features of the Language
of Verkhnekolymsky Evens
Sardana I. Sharina*
North-Eastern Federal University in Yakutsk
58 Belinskiy Str, Yakutsk,
Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), 677980, Russia
Received 05.04.2014, received in revised form 21.05.2014, accepted 17.08.2014
The paper attempts to identify some of the features of the language of the Verkhnekolymsky Even people,
which have not been previously described in the scientific publications. Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect
demonstrates along with the typical for western sub-dialects differences some peculiar grammatical
features that are not typical for other Even dialects. This fact should be taken into account when this
sub-dialect is attributed to certain dialects.
Keywords: the Even language, dialects and sub-dialects, Verkhnekolymsky subdialect, features.
Research area: 24.00.00 – culture studies.
Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect is spoken by
the Evens living in Verkhnekolymsky District of
Yakutia. In existing classifications this linguistic
formation was first distinguished as individual
one only in 2004 by A.A. Burykin, who gave it
the name "Verkhnekolymsky dialect" (Burykin:
76). Verkhnekolymsky District has still not been
thoroughly examined by Even studies researchers,
specialists in dialectology. Verkhnekolymsky
sub-dialect is not observed in the Even language
studies and no publication has referred to any texts
and samples of everyday speech, or has contained
at least the materials in the form of illustrative
examples, characteristic for Verkhnekolymsky
sub-dialect.
In March 2014 the author participated in
the expedition of the Institute of Humanities
Research and Indigenous Studies of the North
*
SB RAS (Yakutsk) and was able to work in
Verkhnekolymsky ulus of the Sakha Republic
(Yakutia). The main purpose of the expedition
was to collect materials of Verkhnekolymsky
sub-dialect of the Even language, and, if it was
possible, to record the Even folklore, typical of
this region of Yakutia.
During the expedition there were recorded
samples of everyday speech, dialogue, narrative
texts; there were made records of lexical items
and phrasal examples with them; there was
clarified the meaning of individual word forms.
Unfortunately, it turned out not possible to fix the
folklore materials.
The informants, with whom the expedition
worked, were old and elderly people: the youngest
of the native language speakers was over 60
years old, the oldest – was about 80. The young
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: sarshar@mail.ru
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Sardana I. Sharina. Some Features of the Language of Verkhnekolymsky Evens
Evens do not speak and are not able to speak and
understand their mother tongue.
Total 4715 people live in Verkhnekolymsky
District, the number of the Even people there is
72 (1.5 % of the total population). According to
our informants, in Verkhnekolymsky District
the Even language is spoken only by about 10
people (13.8 %). The Even language as a subject
is taught in 2 schools, where 23 pupils study the
Even language.
During the sampling survey conducted
in March 2014, the author revealed the
following results. The main language used
by the respondents for communication was
the Yakut language. However, the majority of
respondents stressed out that in their preschool
years the Even language also was their
language of communication. The participants
evaluate the degree of their Even language
skills ambiguously, pointing out the absence
of language environment, lack of knowledge
of folklore and so on. Thus, Verkhnekolymsky
sub-dialect belongs from a sociolinguistic point
to one of the most disadvantaged dialects of the
Even language. Therefore, the documentation
of its materials is strikingly important for
linguistic sciences. The results of the work
with the informants, Verkhnekolymsky District
residents, allow making conclusions about the
main characteristic features of Verkhnekolymsky
sub-dialect.
The
main
phonetic
features
of
Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect include the
following peculiarities:
1) There were spotted partly spirant sounds,
a lack of such a sound-type as [c] and a presence
of pharyngeal consonant [h] in some words: уhи
"rope", биhитэн "are situated", эhэм утулда
"I don’t understand". However, the speech of
informants revealed also the contrary fact, the
middle and the end parts of some words save the
sound-type [c]: аси "a woman", бисэн "is situated",
көсчидэй "to pasture deer", далси "tasty", авса
"a bag", hас "you know". The Western subdialects demonstrate the full spirant character in
all positions of the pharyngeal consonant [h].
2) There was recorded a very interesting
final metathesis of -с and a vowel in a last syllable:
бөксэ "ice", эксэ "fish scales" (the Eastern subdialects have correspondingly: бөкэс, экэс, the
Western: бөhкэ, эhкэ). This option was not found
in other dialects and sub-dialects.
3) As typical of all Western dialects, there
was noted the coronal sound [d] after sonorant
consonants: улдэ (in Eastern sub-dialects – улрэ)
"meat", нанда (in Eastern sub-dialects – нанра)
"animal skin".
4) The described dialect, as other subdialects of Yakutia Evens, exhibits a very bright
reduction ("ы" pronunciation) of vowels [а], [э].
According to our data, in Verkhnekolymsky
sub-dialect the reduced vowels [ǎ] and [ě] are
characterized by the fact that the vowel [э] has
a more frontal articulation than the back [а], i.e.
leading factor here is the position of the tongue in
the back or in the front:
Verkhnekolymsky Literary
Meaning
амǎн
амън
father
гиркǎддǎн
гиркаддън
steps
тарǎкǎм
таракъм
then
The vowel [э] as pronounced in
Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect sounds in all
positions as ы mixed vowel.
Verkhnekolymsky Literary
Meaning
ěмěр
эмър
sharp
ěрěгěр
эрэгър
always
бěргě
бэргъ
greasy
5) The sub-dialect shows coming out
(syncope) and falling (apocope) short vowels in
non-initial syllables. This is due to the formation
of simple and compound words such as: оран
"a deer" – ор½ич "from a deer", муран "a horse" –
мур½ич "from a horse", тэти "a coat" – тэттэй
"to put on a coat". The apocope is observed in the
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formation of compound words: эррөчин "yonder"
from эр "this" + урэчин "similar").
In the morphological area this sub-dialect is
also characterized by certain features.
The most remarkable morphological
peculiarity is the only one form of the first person
plural мут "we" (so this is in all Western subdialects).
The next peculiarity is the absence of
separate forms of possessive pronouns of the first
and second persons, instead of which the personal
pronouns are used, as in the example: Би абагабу
аманни, энинни иланмяр оралкан нулгибатти
эбэн бэилни бичэл. "A father, a mother of my
grandfather were nomadic Evens with thirty deer".
hи гяс нёка гу? "Is your husband a Yakut?"
The plural forms of the word stem types
оран, муран are co-accompanied by truncation
of the final [н] in the stem: ора-л "deer", мура-л
"horses".
In the sub-dialect allative-locative case
and allative-prosecutive cases are uncommon,
instead of them postposition constructions are
used: Оралчим½ал окат hолилин нулгуччэл.
"Once deer herders roamed along the river
bank".
Typical of some Western sub-dialects
metathesis for possessive forms of the second and
third person plural –hын~-hнын, – тын ~ тнын
were not found in this sub-dialect.
This sub-dialect presents both determinative
forms бэйди and мэнкэн "myself, ourselves",
displaying personal excluding meaning, indicating
a direct participation in the action of the speaker.
However, in the speech of the informants the first
form was the most often, for example: Би бэйди
hа½анаддам. "I saw myself". Би бэйди мэлэ
хэдеврэм. "I just sing хэде myself".
Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect there was
detected a model of the second ten numerals
containing postposition ойдун "over". The model
is constructed as follows: мян ойдун өмэн
"eleven" (literally "ten, over one"); мян ойдун дöр
"twelve" (literally "ten, over two"); мян ойдун
илан "thirteen" (literally "ten, over three"), etc.
This method of forming the second ten numerals
is characteristic of the dialects in Indigirka River
Basin (Western dialects).
The sub-dialect registers augmentative
and diminutive forms of collective numerals,
which are used for additional estimation of the
objects being counted: илничэмэн "all three",
илниндевэн "whole three", дыгничэмэн "all
four", дыгниндеван "whole four" and so on and
so forth. Distributive numerals together with
conventional forms as илатал "in three, by
three", дыгэтэл "in four, by four" have additional
forms of илаталди, дигэтэлди.
The second person singular verbs of present
and future tenses in the Even language have a
personal suffix -нри, in Verkhnekolymsky subdialect this personal suffix has the form of -нни,
for example: о½анни "you will become", бисинни
"you are".
In this dialect the second person plural
verbs of present and future tenses are formed by
means of a personal suffix -c, for example: hа-с
"you know", hөр-ди-с "you will leave", whereas
in Western sub-dialects instead of [с] sound type
the pharyngeal consonant [h] is used.
In Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect the verb
has the following features. In this sub-dialect
the predominant expression of the past tense is
in the forms of the past participle with the suffix
-ча-/-чэ- and personal possessive suffixes, at the
same time the forms of the third person singular
and plural have no personal indicators and plural
forms have the suffix of number –л, as in the
example: эмчэс "you (sg) came", эмчэлсэн "you
(pl) came", эмчэ "he came", эмчэл "they came".
In the informants’ speech there were also such
forms of the past tense, ending on –ри: улэлэрив
"I worked", мудакрив "I finished", эмритэн
"they arrived".
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The present tense third person singular from
the word stems ending with the vowel makes a
form бөн "gives" (in Eastern dialects бөрэн), the
past tense – бөчэ "gave".
In the second person singular forms of the
fi rst imperative mood of the verb with the fi nal
consonant -н the consonant of the word stem is
omitted, as in the example: гө-ли "tell", cf. и-ли
"enter". Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect has the
fi rst person plural forms of the fi rst imperative
mood of the verb with the suffi x -галда/-гэлдэ,
e.g.: hэдегэлдэ "let’s dance хэде", некэлдэ
"let’s do". The second person plural forms of
the fi rst imperative mood of the verb have two
parallel variations -лда/-лдэ and -лилда/-лилдэ,
e.g., гөлдэ and гөлилдэ "tell!". Despite this,
two given variations do not have any semantic
difference.
The mediopassive voice forms, which are
formed from the verb by adding the suffix -б-//-п,
e.g., бэридэй "to lose" – бэриптэй "to get lost",
бактай "to find" – бакаптай "to be found",
эмэндэй "to leave" – эмэптэй "to be left" are used
more actively than the similar forms in Eastern
dialects, besides the mediopassive voice forms
are presented not only in the personal forms of
verbs, but also in participle and adverbial forms.
Among the forms of duration/repetition
of action in the dialect active the forms -гра-/грэ-//-гара-/-гэрэ-//-½ра-/½рэ- are particularly
common: укчэндэй "to tell once" – укчэнгэрэдэй
"to tell repeatedly", хэдедэй "to dance once" –
хэденгэрэдэй "to dance repeatedly". The
examples are: Хэйэк улдэвэн эстэ дебгэрэр.
"Bear meat is not eaten". Чукачан икэмутэн
долчими, би hоч – hоч өрэ½чигрэрэм. "Listening
to bird singing, I admire very very much".
Verkhnekolymsky
sub-dialect,
unlike
other Western dialects has rather frequent forms
expressing conventional action and ending with
–ват/-вэт: нюмариваттам "I am (usually)
ashamed of", төрэвэттэ "they (usually) say".
Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect has the form
–йат/-йэт, close in its meaning to the suffix
of the usual form –ват/-вэт, but expressing
some kind of emotion, showing sympathy for the
subject of the performed action. This form was
not observed in the grammatical descriptions and
special studies, but according to our observations,
it is found in the sub-dialects of both Eastern and
Western dialects (Sharina: 66). Let’s draw an
example: Э½эе, ай бэй о½анни гөникэн hиргэчэл,
гудеил, тарит hөрйатчал. "You will be a rich,
good man, saying, they wished some blessings,
poor, then left".
Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect has also rather
frequent form of simultaneous adverbial with
the suffix -никан/-никэн. In the sub-dialect this
adverbial does not tend to distinguish between
the forms of number, functioning in the singular
form in the status of uninfected adverbials. The
reason for this phenomenon is not completely
clear, but we can assume that it may be due to
the influence of the Yakut language, for example:
Уйбаан эньми нямичаман туhут hэпкэниди,
бөчэ. "Ivan (lured) caught mother-deer with salt,
and gave". Анипчал улдэ½ур инникан hөрдэвур
бэлэмнэччэл. "(Their) presented meat, leaving,
prepared to wear on the back".
Moreover, Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect has
form of simultaneous different subject adverbial
with the suffix -½си-, e.g.: Ку½а би½сиву эвэдыт
төрэгрэрив. "When I was a child, I spoke Even".
Дялбу биhи½ситэн нулгэни½сит. "When the
parents were alive, they roamed".
Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect does not trace
the participle of (passé immédiat) past tense with
the sufix -мат/-мэт and the participle of the past
perfect tense with the suffix -тла/-тлэ.
Any particular features of adverbs as parts
of speech are not discernible in this sub-dialect.
Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect does not
contain dialectisms in its lexicon, found in farWestern dialects, however, the speech of some
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informants had the word нолима "sled". There
were also used words that are not marked in
dictionaries, for example: дянтан "burns". In
addition, Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect has quite
many borrowings from the Yakut language.
Thus, judging by the sources of the material
one can notice that Verkhnekolymsky sub-dialect
of the Even language shows some differences from
those linguistic formations, which are known in
the literature as Eastern and Western dialects. The
above mentioned differences and peculiarities are
as if between Eastern and Western dialects, and
must be taken into account when this sub-dialect
is attributed to the linguistic formation under the
name "the middle sub-dialect". Further research
here can give new, more comprehensive and
reliable data, not only in relation to the sub-dialect
spread, but also for the existing classification.
References
1. Burykin, A.A. Iazyk malochislennogo naroda v ego pis’mennoi forme (na materiale evenskogo
iazyka) [The language of small-numbered peoples in its writing form (on the material of the Even
language)]. St. Petersburg: Peterbugskoe Vostokovedenie, 2004, 384 p.
2. Dutkin, Kh.I. Allaikhovskii govor evenov Iakutii [Allaikhovsky sub-dialect of the Evens in
Yakutia]. St. Petersburg: Nauka, 1995, 144 p.
3. Kuz’mina, R.P. Iazyk lamunkhiskikh evenov [The language of the Lamunhinsky Evens].
Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2010, 113 p.
4. Lebedev, V.D. Iazyk evenov Iakutii [The language of the Evens in Yakutia]. Leningrad: Nauka,
1978, 208 p.
5. Sharina, S.I. Kategoriia kolichestvennosti v evenskom iazyke [The quantitative category in
the Even language]. St. Petersburg: Publishing House of St. Petersburg University, 1999, 115 p.
Некоторые особенности языка
верхнеколымских эвенов
С.И. Шарина
Северо-Восточный федеральный университет
имени М.К. Аммосова
Россия, 677000, Республика Саха (Якутия),
Якутск, ул. Белинского, 58
В статье предпринята попытка выявления некоторых особенностей языка верхнеколымских
эвенов, которые не были отмечены ранее в публикациях исследователей. Наряду с характерными
для говоров западного наречия отличиями при детальном рассмотрении обнаруживаются и
грамматические особенности, нетипичные для других эвенских диалектов, что должно быть
учтено при отнесении данного говора к определенным наречиям.
Ключевые слова: эвенский язык, диалекты и говоры, верхнеколымский говор, особенности.
Научная специальность: 24.00.00 – культурология.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1743-1750
~~~
УДК 304.4
Features and Modern Trends
in the Development of Museums
within the System of Higher Education
Alexandra Yu. Gil*
National Research Tomsk State University
36 Lenin, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Received 10.04.2014, received in revised form 21.05.2014, accepted 21.08.2014
The specificity of museums within the system of higher education lies in a unique combination of
museum functions in conjunction with the scientific problems of a research institution. The absence
of a clear boundary between the process of learning, the research process and the actual activities of
the museum is a unique factor in the process of preparing highly qualified specialists of high school.
As an important part of the educational and scientific process museums of higher education have
an impact on the socio-cultural development of the region, bringing science to society, culture, and
historical interpretation, acquiring the value of a multi-level learning space, a community center with
the interaction of various spheres of cultural life. There are enough emerging large-scale projects
and programs based on new communication and management technologies that are supported at the
national level, but striving to go beyond a certain state in order to improve access to the cultural heritage
stored in the collections of university museums around the world. An example is the interdisciplinary
study of the collections of university museums in Germany, web organization – POMUI in Italy, a
system of regular updates of relevant scientific data and replicating the videos in various educational
institutions (USA). Another vector of the modern development of the university museum gives direction
to work with visitors, covering interests of various categories and groups, the principle of a multi-layer
display.
Today, university museums, which are inextricably geographically and ideologically linked with
universities, go beyond the campus environment through the use of modern information and technology
expositions. In this context, the university museum is unique in its versatility and availability of space
for research and education.
Keywords: museum, network organization, multifunctionality of university museums, informational
support, new means of communication, management technologies.
Research area: 24.00.00 – culture studies.
Today, when the world community is
transforming social and cultural space with the
introduction of new means of communication
into the everyday reality, the social significance of
museums of higher education is being redefined
*
in the light of the training of specialists in
various fields of activity. As museums occupy a
significant place in the system of higher education,
being an important part of the educational and
scientific process, they create prerequisites for
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: kosasa@mail.ru, liga@tomsk.gov.ru
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the development of a network of university
museums, as well as contribute to the awareness
of the need of interaction between museums.
In addition, the relevance of the inter-museum
university space is conditioned by the factor of
growing influence of university museums in the
academic and scientific processes of society, as
well as the definition and the impact of space on
the socio-cultural development of the region as
a whole.
The specificity of university museums
lies in the synthesis of museum functions
in conjunction with scientific problems of a
research institution. The result is that there is
a new knowledge based on empirical evidence
of the seriousness of the theoretical basis. The
uniqueness of this synthesis is that this knowledge
gives a true (not distorted) perception of the
object of study, excludes fraud and falsification
of facts, historical interpretation in terms of
education and scientific research. This feature is
most relevant in the era of dominance of large
amounts of information of different levels and
content. Understanding of the subject matter of
the collection, its interconnections, theoretical
training of a museum worker carries a great
level of responsibility on the employees and
managers of the modern university museums
for safety, quality and contextual description
of the cultural heritage to an audience of young
researchers, the scientific community and the
ordinary visitor.
Another feature of the university museum is
the lack of a clear boundary between the process
of learning, the research process and the actual
activities of the museum. This specificity has
historical roots. The first information on the
establishment of the university museum refers
to 1685, when the Oxford Ashmolean Museum
opened a permanent exhibition to the public.
Ashmolean Museum was the first successful
model of the museum-laboratory, which gained
acceptance in almost every university in Europe.
Collections, which served as the basis for its
creation, including the naturalist John Tradescant
collection, were donated to the University by
Elias Ashmole in 1677. Receiving the gift of
armchair collections, antiques, coins and other
antiquities was typical of universities and
colleges up to the 17th century. The formation
of such gifts of systematic collections related
to specific disciplines, laid the foundation for
the later establishment of a number of major
university museums, which served not only the
training function, but also had value for research.
These include Sedgwick Museum, University of
Cambridge (1727), The Hunterian Museum at
the University of Glasgow (1807), Manchester
Museum (1888), and numerous less significant
collections.
European universities were the fi rst to
establish their own museums. In this case, the
impetus for their creation was the necessity for
teaching and research collections, which can be
used in various fields, especially in the natural
sciences, anthropology and classical archeology.
Over the centuries of its existence, many old
museums, as well as younger universities around
the world have collected tens of millions of
items. These rich collections are usually stored
in special facilities and are not only priceless
heritage of world culture, but actively working
and constantly growing database that allows
you to organize the training of highly qualified
personnel in different areas of knowledge. Support
and openness of the database depends on the
university museum: an established cooperation
between the universities and museums, based
on the rich experience of cooperation, expressed
itself in the implementation of joint training,
research, exhibitions and other projects, the
availability of qualified personnel able to
provide training, the presence of the university
skilled and material resources for the teaching
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of foreign languages, information technology,
management, marketing and other necessary
modern specialist subjects, the presence of
unique museum exhibits and conditions for
practical mastering the fundamentals of a
particular field of activity. Accordingly, a high
school museum is an educational and scientific,
research and educational unit of the university,
whose main task – taking part in the training
of specialists and to improve the forms and
methods of teaching and research and education
work that promotes the transfer of knowledge
concentrated in the expositions, forming
a world view of the researcher. As a result
educational work becomes an essential element
of the modern museum communication. The
openness of the modern educational system, a
variety of educational programs can be used in
an educational museum during non-traditional
forms and methods of teaching, to introduce
the study of individual disciplines within
the framework of a supplementary and basic
education. Given the specificity of educational
programs, university museums are seamlessly
integrated into the educational structure and
have the opportunity to represent and develop
new courses and forms of learning that not only
reflect the results of scientific research, but
also for skilled expositions can learn a variety
of opinions and approaches, interpretations,
discussion points and alternative hypotheses.
Prospects for the development of museums of
higher education are closely related to changes in
the image of museums, with their transformation
into a social institution that stores and provides
the necessary information. Computerization of
museum activities can be a powerful factor in the
preservation of cultural and historical heritage
of the individual provinces and regions. It is able
to improve some aspects of university museums,
improve their social status in general, and to
strengthen the teaching and educational function
in the training of specialists in various fields of
science.
Current trends and priorities for the
development of museums in higher education are
the development of innovative methods of work,
which include: the introduction of computer and
information technologies in the museum space,
professional publishing work, the publication of
scientific catalogs that allow for greater access to
the historical and cultural heritage of the region,
the integration into a single science museums
and educational space on the basis of regional
historical, cultural and natural components.
New ways of working are designed to direct
the activities of the modern museum in the
mainstream of contemporary social and cultural
changes in society. As the modern understanding
of the functions of the museum is complemented
by new forms of museum communication, which
do not preclude its traditional components. The
museum activities are being expanded, using new
means of communication and control, allowing
to be plunged into the wonderful world of real
things, "reviving" the history and culture of the
new target audience, consolidating its status as a
laboratory for scientists, apprentices for teachers,
modern museum for the visitor.
The need to use new forms of communication
and presentation of collections for different target
audiences, for both: the scientific community
and the ordinary visitor, is dictated by trends
in the global cultural space. The involvement
of university museums in this process is the
most relevant, because they contain unique
socio-cultural artifacts and scientific activities.
Museum collections at universities reflect
existing in the school research directions and
tutorials. The result is that certain university
museums have collections that are beginning
to excel similar gatherings of other museums in
their entirety and the scientific component. For
example, the University of Pavia (Italy) contains
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a collection on physics, collected by Professor
Alessandro Volta. The University of Amsterdam
has a medical collection gathered by professors
of Vrolik family. At the University of Oklahoma
there is a collection on the history of science,
which is part of the library of the University,
which houses 87 thousand volumes published
since the 15th century to the present day. In this
collection there are also biographies of scientists
and various illustrative materials on the history
of science and reprint reproductions of original
research papers.
Taking into account the importance of
university museums for scientific, historical,
cultural community there is a need for the
development of programs and projects based
mainly on international partner relationships.
The improvement of digital technologies is
essential for the growth of the cooperation that
can bring substantial benefits to many university
museums. At the national level, such a partnership
is considered to be a priority in improving the
accessibility of cultural heritage and in many
European countries, supported by the government,
which has the potential to universities and
mutually beneficial contacts, including local
administrative structures, schools and colleges,
as well as providing financial support, which in
itself is a powerful incentive for the establishment
of various partnerships. In addition, in support
of this activity of university museums special
foundation organizations are being created for
joint projects involving research collections,
structuring, and promotion of scholarship. Thus,
the project of the exhibition from the collection of
Petrie Museum became successful in cooperation
between the Petrie Museum of Egyptian
Archaeology, and two museums in Croydon and
Glasgow. It was a mutually beneficial endeavor
for all the parties. The special program gave these
museums a unique opportunity to expand the
audience through advertisements, marketing and
media responses. As a result, a collection of littleknown university was seen by more than ninety
thousand people.
In addition, in the last decade there is enough
large-scale projects and programs through the use
of new means of communication and management
technologies that are supported at the national
level, but striving to go beyond a certain state
in order to improve access to the cultural
heritage stored in the collections of university
museums around the world. An example is
the interdisciplinary study of the collections
of university museums in Germany. In 2004,
a small group of researchers of the Helmholtz
Center, Kulturtechniken interdisciplinary center
of the Humboldt University in Berlin, created a
project of interdisciplinary research of university
collections in Germany [1]. This is the ordering
of records and documents of three-dimensional
models of the German academic collections
and their presentation by means of public
Internet multimedia databases. The purpose
of this project was to catalog and collect data
on university collections, as well as to form
the basis for research on the history and origin
of collections, the history of science and the
material culture of the universities. The project
was officially completed in 2009. It resulted in
a publicly available database, which has free
access to more than thousands of university
collections in Germany, as well as providing
information on the various groups of objects
existing in the collections: chemical material,
geological, animals, plants, human remains,
artifacts, etc. But after that it was followed by
a new project "Material models in teaching and
research: indexing, documentation and analysis
of the models in the collections of universities"
(2010) [2]. This project aims at the development
and completion of on-line information system
that provides information to researchers at the
exhibits from various universities and specialties.
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Ordering, registration and documentation of
museum objects that are part of the scientific
collections, as well as their performance over a
public Internet multimedia database is making a
constructive contribution to the scientific study
of material culture. This model is integrated
into an already created information system of
university museums and collections in Germany,
which gives rise to the creators of the project
to identify new targets for the implementation
of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of
museum objects, and in particular it is planned: by
means of the electronic system to provide public
access to the cultural heritage stored in private
collections; to create a standardized thematic
dictionaries for different groups of objects; the
development of an integrated information system
aimed at a single collection, which will help the
museum staff to reduce the time to describe the
same type of objects housed in various museums,
the creation of an on-line information system
connected to the European database (for example,
in Europeana, a multi-lingual on-line server
with millions of digitized items from European
museums, libraries, archives and multi-media
collections [3]).
An example of the creation and support
of networking based on other principles than
in Germany, is a new web organization in
Italy – POMUI [4], which brings together all
of the existing web portals and websites of
Italian university museums and creates a new
connection between them in order to improve
their general availability. It is intended to
serve as a vehicle for information, knowledge
and services, emphasizing the uniqueness of
each university, presenting its museums on the
Internet. The creators of this project noted the
need to transform outdated models of museum
communication and the need to comply with the
current trends of the information society and
globalization, as well as a competitive advantage
in the representation of heritage in the use of
new means of communication and network
organization in the museum industry. According
to Italian researchers network cooperation is
facilitating access to cultural heritage, as well
as to the knowledge and services in the field
of culture. Creating a digital network of Italian
university museums is relatively simple and
practical way to overcome their differences and
to promote inter-museum exchanges. POMUI
project aims to solve these problems as a
horizontal portal, addressed to a wide audience:
employees of the museum, museum professionals,
students, researchers, scientists, the general
public. POMUI serves as a system of access to
the cultural heritage of Italy, the collections of
university museums, offering participants to
create a network of cooperation, dissemination
and exchange of historical and cultural, scientific
resources intended for the research community.
Moreover, POMUI represents a communicative
network, as a meeting place for teachers,
professors, students, leaders of scientific and
cultural institutions, social services. POMUI,
a web portal of Italian university museums,
creates links between individual institutions and
the virtual structure, which is characterized by
the uniqueness of the material presented, as well
as the ordering of images and centralization of
action on the provision of cultural and scientific
artifacts. The POMUI creators consider this
project as a step towards the creation of a number
of interactions across Europe, in particular in
the project MICHAEL [5], which is designed
to provide quick and easy access to the digital
collections of museums, libraries and archives
from different European countries, as well as the
project Europeana, which gives the opportunity
to explore the digital resources of Europe’s
museums, libraries, archives and audio-visual
collections and promotes networking in a
multilingual space.
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The creation and implementation of such
network and electronic projects is being done in
many states and countries at different levels. But
it is worth noting that the projects are in progress,
are being corrected and adjusted. Hence it seems
to be promising to develop cooperation and
networking between museums communication
with the aim of providing access to the world
cultural heritage, hidden in university museums.
Another vector of the modern development
of the university museum gives direction to work
with visitors, covering the needs of different
categories of the population. Managers of the
modern museums are trying to create a special
opportunity to interpret the collection, which
consists of various formats that meet different
level and type of education of people, the exposure
gives the impression of something multi-layered
and multi-faceted in order to allow the visitor
advance from one level to another. Creativity in the
use of advanced information and communication
technologies creates conditions that ensure the
availability of the museum wider audience. The
museum not only opens from the point of view of
science and education, but shows the formation
of culture and the dialogue of cultures. In search
of a new model of representation of its rich
collections, the staff of the university museums
adjusts principles of exposure and selection of a
thematic approach.
The exposure technology in the information
society is connected with the modernization of
methods, techniques, methods of museum work
on the basis of variability, flexibility, openness
to innovation. At the same time, the principle
of the need for flexibility in pre-given optimal
combination of traditional and innovative
elements of the museum in contemporary
culture. A specificity of the museum’s form of
communication is that the museum exhibition
as a model of reality through concrete museum
objects conveys not only the facts, but statements,
views and attitudes. The present level of exposure
as the main form of interaction with the visitor
determines the need for new, more effective
approaches to improve it, which are shown: a
change in the methodology of exposure, based on
the so-called conceptual approach or "scenarios",
involves the development of both scientific and
artistic concept of the submitted material, the
active use of audiovisual media in the exhibition,
which is a method to enhance the emotional
impact that helps a modern human, in everyday
life of whom similar agents are actively involved
and are accustomed, to adapt to the historical and
cultural space of the museum.
With rich collections and related exposition
centers, having a staff of trained museum
educators, natural history museums of universities
today are involved in the creation of thematic
(system) series of education and training videos.
It is therefore sufficient perspective view of their
activity (within the association) in the future
may be a system for regular updating of relevant
scientific data and relevant video information
(such systems already exist in the U.S.,
consumers have access to them by subscription
and free). Later the footage which was shot at
"museum" studios can be replicated in a variety
of educational institutions, as well as used in
popular educational television programs.
University museums on the basis of their
exhibitions actively create traveling exhibits and
printed materials, participate in the formation of
permanent columns in local papers and special
collections of the museum, museum workers
conduct educational activities as lectures and
teaching, and research work.
Today, university museums are inextricably
linked geographically and ideologically with
universities beyond the campus environment
through the use of modern information and
technology expositions. Museums in universities
acquire not only the status of the scientific
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institution, but also actively participate in the
social processes, bringing science to society,
culture, and historical interpretation, gaining the
value of a multi-layer learning space, community
center with the interaction of various spheres
of cultural life. In this context, the university
museum is unique in its versatility and availability
of space for research and education.
References
1. Cornelia Weber (2010). Material models as recorders of academic communities: A new project
on university collections in Germany University Museums and Collections as Recorders of Cultural and
Natural Communities Worldwide. Proceedings of the 10th Conference of the International Committee
of ICOM for Universitiy Museaum and Collections (UMAC), Shanghai, China, 7th – 12th November
2010, pp. 65-72.
2. Universitätssammlungen in Deutschland (2012), Available at: www.universitaetssammlungen.
de/modelle (accessed 10.09.2012).
3. Evropeana think culture (2012), Available at: www.europeana.eu/portal/ (accessed
10.09.2012).
4. Elena Corradini POMUI. The web portal of Italian university museums. University Museums
and Collections as Recorders of Cultural and Natural Communities Worldwide. Proceedings of the
10th Conference of the International Committee of ICOM for Universitiy Museaum and Collections
(UMAC), Shanghai, China, 7th – 12th November 2010, pp. 77-84.
5. Michal-culture (2012), Available at: www.michael-culture.org (accessed 12.06.2012).
Особенности и современные тенденции
в развитии музеев системы высшего образования
А.Ю. Гиль
Национальный исследовательский
Томский государственный университет
Россия, 634050, Томск, пр. Ленина, 36
Особенность музеев системы высшего образования заключается в уникальном сочетании
музейных функций в совокупности с научной проблематикой научно-исследовательского
учреждения. Отсутствие четкой границы между процессом обучения, процессом
исследования и собственно музейной деятельностью является уникальным фактором,
влияющим на процесс подготовки высококвалифицированных специалистов высшей школы.
Являясь важной частью учебного и научного процесса, музеи высшей школы оказывают
влияние на социокультурное развитие региона, привнося в развитие общества науку,
культуру, историческую интерпретацию, приобретая значение многоуровневого учебного
пространства, общественного центра, где происходит взаимодействие различных
сфер культурной жизни. Появляются достаточно масштабные проекты и программы
на основе использования новых средств коммуникации и управленческих технологий,
поддерживаемые на национальном уровне, но стремящиеся выйти за пределы определенного
государства с целью повышения доступности культурного наследия, хранящегося в фондах
университетских музеев по всему миру. Примером может послужить междисциплинарное
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исследование коллекций университетских музеев в Германии, веб-организация – POMUI в
Италии, система регулярного обновления профильных научных данных и тиражирование
видеоматериалов в различные учебные заведения (США). Еще один вектор современного
развития университетского музея задает направление в работе с посетителями,
охватывающее интересы различных категорий и групп населения, принцип многослойности
экспозиции.
Сегодня университетские музеи, неразрывно связанные и территориально, и идеологически
с университетами, выходят за пределы университетской среды за счет использования
современных информационных и экспозиционных технологий. В таком контексте
университетский музей становится уникальным по своей многофункциональности и
доступности местом для исследовательской и просветительской работы.
Ключевые слова: музей, сетевая организация, полифункциональность университетских
музеев, информатизация, новые средства коммуникации, управленческие технологии.
Научная специальность: 24.00.00 – культурология.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1751-1759
~~~
УДК 32
Alternative Culture:
Tradition and Innovation
Larisa A. Korobeynikova*
National Research Tomsk State University
36 Lenin, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Received 21.03.2014, received in revised form 16.04.2014, accepted 18.05.2014
Modern knowledge of culture is characterized by a turn to the studying of alternatives of cultural
development, forming a plurality of contemporary cultural concepts. The philosophy of cultural
alternativism uses the ideas of structural anthropology (M. Foucault). The alternative program requires
a change of the development paradigm generated by the scientist culture, declaring the foundation of
the cultural project, the future rehabilitation of spontaneity. Environmental ethics, romantic utopia
and the technological myth act as a source of utopian and futuristic constructions, therefore in the
alternative concepts we may single out three types of constructions: environmental, romantic utopia
and technological futurological projects. The ecophilosophy proposes a new type of spirituality, the
symbol of which is the "dancing Shiva", a symbol of the deployment of life recreating itself, the integrity
of the universe. In the romantic utopias, the idea of the future culture is focused on creating a new
type of the culture with an aesthetic-erotic orientation. Technological futurological projects appear
in the theory of alternativism not as a continuation of the scientist culture, but as an alternative to
the abnormal development of modern science and technology. We are talking about the possibility
of a radical change of the civilization and culture as a result of a scientific and technological leap,
qualitatively different from the modern scientific and technological development.
Keywords: culture, alternative concepts of culture, philosophy of culture.
Research area: 24.00.00 – culture studies.
Introduction to the Subject Matter
of Research
pluralist (20–21st centuries) paradigms of cultural
European
philosophy
traditionally
distinguishes biological evolution from culture,
which is reflected by the opposition of nature and
culture (the concept of J. Herder is an exception).
The culture is studied as a phenomenon,
interrelated with the development of society or
civilization that in the theoretical aspect was
reflected in the rationalist (18–19), cyclic (end
of the 19th century – early 20th century), and
*
research. The rationalist paradigm (J. Herder,
A. Turgot, I. Kant, F. Schelling, G. Hegel)
captures the process of linear growth of the
culture (in the form of stages, phases, images)
related to the complexity of progressive-onward
social development. The cyclical approach
is based on the concept of non-linearity and
discontinuity of historical and cultural processes
and interprets the development of socio-cultural
formations in the form of a cycle similar to the
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: kulturtsu@yandex.ru
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development of a living organism. Despite the
biological analogy, culture acts as an artificial
cyclical structure opposite to nature. In the 20–21
centuries knowledge of the culture evolved from
a unified universal monological reconstruction of
the cultural universe to the paradigm of varieties.
Culture is studied from different perspectives:
philosophy of life (W. Dilthey, G. Simmel),
phenomenology (E. Husserl), hermeneutics
(M. Heidegger, H.-G. Gadamer, J. Habermas,
P. Ricoeur), psychoanalysis and post-freudianism
(S. Freud, K. Jung, A. Adler, E. Fromm),
structuralism and post-structuralism (C. LeviStrauss, M. Foucault, R. Barthes, J. Lacan),
symbolism (E. Cassirer, S. Langer), anthropology
(M. Scheler) and others.
The turn of modern knowledge of the
culture to the study of alternatives of the cultural
development forms the pluralism of modern
cultural concepts. The specificity of modern
culture understanding lies not in the examining
its existence under the guise of change, but lies in
the revealing the essence of the changes.
Criticism of the Modernist Culture
within Alternativism
Modern culture has been criticized from
different standpoints. In traditional romantic
and socialist concepts, its essence is revealed
as something mercantile. Alternativism rests
on another opposition: artificially organized
and natural (spontaneous) existence. We can
distinguish two points of criticism of the modernist
culture in alternative concepts: understanding the
technical way of being in the world as something
universal and as a characteristic of ideological
humanitarian knowledge as a source of the
coercive organization of modern life. The first
point includes the scientism of modern European
culture as the object of main criticism, the history
of which appears to be a result of a mistake of the
mind, the wrong orientation chosen initially. The
core part of history of "madness of reason" (as
defined by the theorists of the Frankfurt School) is
the explication of totalitarian potentialities hidden
in the logical rationality. The myth, which is the
beginning and end of the bourgeois civilization,
approved alienation of nature as a fact of reality,
which is the essence of overwhelming rationality,
oppressive scientificity, and bourgeois education,
initially chosen the wrong direction, implemented
in a failed civilization. The myth and science do
not know any other way of understanding reality
other than mastery and domination over it,
which turns into the exploitation of man-by-man.
From the point of view of G. Marcuse, science
and technology serve as suppression of not only
external nature, but also of the internal one (the
person), "In the modern era technological reality
intrudes into private space and nullifies it" (G.,
1994)1. The Faustian reality principle, based on
the suppression of vital instincts of the person,
is identified by alternativists as a principle of
rationality and scientificity and is regarded as a
fundamental principle of the class-oppressive
society as a whole.
The second point of criticism of the modernist
culture in alternativism lies in its negative
assessment as a global socio-cultural revolution,
the transition from natural to artificial organized
forms of life that occurred, contrary to popular
belief, not in the material and spiritual production:
in universities, where the program was formed
by the scientific organization of consciousness.
Industrial technologism pulled man away from
nature, socio-cultural technologism separates man
and the natural environment, which is manifested
in such mechanistic features of modern European
culture, as recycling, the manufacturing principle
of organization, its usage as a fundamental
principle of human engineering, a setting for
a perspective, the influence of mass cultural
production on changes in the world. This results
in a repressive culture: on one side stands a mass
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system of cultural production, which emanates
prescriptions to another, devoid of self-reliance,
"mosaic" civilian life, combinable and mounted
according to various technological projects.
Science provides dominance in two ways: as a
productive force, it establishes the dominance
of society over nature and as a tool for objective
knowledge; it appeals to the world of objects of
the man, i.e. to its own creation, to itself. In all
cases, it guarantees the consolidation of a certain
type of dominance over the man, and the forces
that dominate the late capitalist world do not need
an external imposition of their will: it is enough to
appeal to the common sense of people beforehand
closed between the "scientified" world and all
its copies, or to the subconscious. This implies
limitless possibilities of manipulating people.
Despite the radical anti-scientism, the criticism
of modernist culture by the alternativists contains
a number of positive aspects: consideration of
rationality and science as an integrated cultural
and historical phenomenon that develops a
certain type of civilization; characteristic of the
development of science as a global socio-cultural
process; shifting the focus on the individual,
the need for its liberation from the yoke of a
repressive culture.
Origins
of Alternativism Philosophy
The philosophy of alternative culture uses
the ideas of structural anthropology (M. Foucault),
considering the emergence of capitalism as
a replacement of those abilities that produce
resistance to the rising rationalist functionalism.
The alternative program requires changes of the
development paradigm generated by the scientist
culture. At the heart of the cultural project of the
future goes a certain anthropological principle:
rehabilitation of spontaneity. Extension of this
principle to the center of alternative studies
is conditioned by the state of crisis of modern
culture. Alternativism theorists consider the
modern culture by analogy with the interpretation
of modernity according to J. Baudrillard as an
era of total simulation. A wide range of social
phenomena shows its simulation character in the
modern era. Power acts as a simulation of power
and resistance to it cannot but be simulative as
well. Information does not make sense, but plays
it, substituting communication by the simulation
of communication. Simulation is located on the
other side of true and false, on the other side of
the equivalent, beyond the rational distinctions,
which operate in any social phenomenon. Reality
as a whole is replaced by the simulation and
becomes hyper reality. Simulation as a form of
fixation of non-fixable contradictions opens the
horizon of an event on one side of which lies the
deadly and fierce determination of the supposedly
objective and immanent sense of the event, and
on the other lies blindness, which is the result
of an illusion of the meaning. The discourse of
power stands for all cultural phenomena found,
all-penetrating ability of which allows it to cross,
coordinate, interrupt any structure that gave
G. Deleuze a reason to talk about tree-likeness of
the power. Language, which symbolizes all forms
of power, functions as a treelike structure.
Modern debates on governmental issues
focus their attention on the fact that within the
boundaries of the global economic space arises
global political space in which the state loses
its competence, legitimacy and power that are
typical of the leading agent in world relations,
and gives its way to a more comprehensive "postinternationalist universe that is characterized
by diversity in politics"2. The post-international
universe is characterized by the formation of
problems of global power and global responsibility.
The researchers (K. Brown, J. Baudrillard,
J. Lacan, F. Guattari) discuss the changing nature
of power in the moment: the power is transformed
into a network, it becomes rhizomatic, rather than
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hierarchical, created and maintained not by such
attributes as violence, military power, economic
production, but by people working and consuming
in the global economy. Due to the changing nature
of power, a modern empire is different from the
hierarchical empire of the Victorian era.
"In this empire the military power of the
United States is very important in conjunction
with the civil authorities, provided corporate
capital elites, many of whom are American, but
it is not a specifically American empire in the
conventional sense of the term, it is not America
as a state. You can hold a key analogy with the
Roman Empire, a network whose power was
based on the Roman legions"3. Power, understood
in this sense, does not have a location and cannot
be controlled, it is ubiquitous, and creates an
empire consisting of non-hierarchical networks.
The upcoming transformation of culture is
impossible without creating a new metaphysics,
a new picture of the world and a new view of
human nature, as the internal freedom of the
individual implies the possibility of the evolution
of culture in different directions. Alternativists
believe materialism to be the kernel of the
obsolete worldview; they identify it as the
commitment to material progress, possession
of things and domination over nature. It is
necessary to develop an alternative metaphysical
worldview, which can give an opportunity to
comprehend the full impact of scientific and
technological progress in the future. A crisis
of values occurs when any particular type of
culture gives way to another, gives rise to various
utopian concepts, and therefore the utopianism
and futurology are important components of the
system of alternativism. The sources of utopian
and futuristic constructions lie in environmental
ethics, romantic utopia and technological myth,
so the alternative concepts are the three types of
constructions: environmental, romantic utopia
and technological futurological projects.
Alternative Concepts
of Culture
In E. Fromm`s way of thinking the conflict
between the individual and nature has an ability
to be renewed with each new generation, and
therefore cannot be eliminated in the future.
"Environmental tortures of the earth" (T. Roszak)
manifest themselves in a person’s life through
a radical transformation of the sense of being
identical to nature. Thus the myth of human`s
falling out of nature`s integrity is born. From the
standpoint of H. Skolimowski, on the contrary,
the environmental crisis will not last forever:
it is due to the principles of relationship with
the world underlying Western civilization; the
principles were formed in the culture of modern
times. The automated alienated environmental
consciousness, which has replaced the religious
one, generates the eschatology of consumption
whereas the latter replaces the sacred values. The
alternativists believe that there is a way out, which
they are looking for in a new dialogue with nature,
which becomes the basis of various evolving
theories of alternative development, focused
mainly on two areas: the practical-transformative
and enlightening. Under the first component in
the concept of ecological materialism, they study
the ecological transformation of earth in a new
world order based on the principles of ecoenergy:
a decentralized economy of small communities,
operating on renewable, non-polluting forms
of energy. An alternative project offered in
ecosocialism is based on the formation of a new
environmental culture: on the principles of limiting
the consumption of resources and centralization
of all spheres of public life. The program of
ecosocialism (A. Gorts, O. Ulrich, I. Illich)
provides for the refusal of economic rationalism,
the development of civic consciousness, a change
in the distribution of wealth. Another escape
from the ecological crisis is the development of
educational projects. It implies a way of changes
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outside the system of socio-cultural relations,
which leads to the creation of anthropological
theories of personal changes of man. The root of
the ecological crisis lies in a crisis of the inner
man himself. The environmental ethics can
facilitate the transition from the old to the new
values. H. Skolimowski offers a conception of
the spiritual world orientation, which can make
an alternative development of human culture. In
his scheme, the religious consciousness is the
thesis, the technological one is the antithesis, the
environmental one is synthesis, since the latter
overcomes the one-sidedness of the religious
consciousness, marking the return of spirituality
without subordination of religion, and removes
one-sidedness of the technological consciousness,
since the value of environmental consciousness is
focused on the universe and life. In ecophilosophy,
a new type of spirituality emerges, the symbol
of which is the "dancing Shiva", a symbol of the
deployment life recreating itself, the integrity of
the universe.
Modern romantic conceptions of culture
are heterogeneous; they have different
traditions, in Europe starting from the
Enlightenment (Rousseau), in America – from
the transcendentalists (Thoreau). Now ideas of
the romantics are perceived through the prism of
theories put forward by N. Brown, P. Goodman,
H. Marcuse, and other philosophers who criticized
modern civilization and culture, and made an
attempt to formulate an alternative that reduces
the justification of the need to move to a new
type of culture: for example, Apokatastasia (a
new utopia) by T. Roszak, the sensual culture of
H. Marcuse. If the development of mankind chose
the direction of formation of sensual culture, the
production would not depend on the principle
of rational use, and socially necessary labor
would be aimed at creating an aesthetic rather
than a repressive environment, at the creation of
recreation areas, and not mass entertainment and
relaxation, which would put forward the aesthetic
principle as a form of reality. In the romantic
perception of utopias, the idea of a future culture
is focused on creating a new type of culture with
an aesthetic-erotic orientation.
Technological futurological projects appear
in the theory of alternativism not as a continuation
of the scientist culture, and as an alternative to
the abnormal development of modern science and
technology. We are talking about the possibility
of a radical change in the civilization and culture
as a result of a scientific and technological leap,
qualitatively different from the modern scientific
and technological development. The rational
model of progress leads to a deadlock. True
optimism does not lie in an effort to protect it by
all means, but to find a replacement that would
deprive it of a future.
The works of post-industrialists contain
an attempt to soften the primitive technodeterminism of previous theories, which fatally
predetermined the further development of culture.
The future culture is portrayed as something
multivariate. The post-industrialism theorists
explain the crisis of modern society and culture
by the gap between the principles of highlyindustrialized economy (efficiency, lowest cost
of goods sold, profit maximization, rationality)
and the orientation of the contemporary
culture on hedonism, irrational behavior, antiintellectualism. The culture of the future is based
on different principles. Its formation is due to the
transition from an industrial to a service society,
the crucial codified scientific knowledge for the
implementation of technological innovation, the
transformation of a new intellectual technology "is
crucial point in theoretical analysis and decisionmaking" (D. Bell). The fact, that the technological
issues were moved to the focus of research of
postindustrial culture, is associated with the
gap between the rapid growth and its minimal
progress in the socio-cultural organization and
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the person controlling his own products. In order
to bridge this gap we need to work out a new
type of technology: combinatorial, divided into
three classes – the new information technology,
serving for the processing and transmission of
alphanumeric information; a new biotechnology;
and new materials. By the mid of the 21st century
biotechnologies are going to come to the forefront.
Based on their development, bioethics is going
to be developed as a new culture; its man task
is biological justification of moral values that
are adequate to the conditions of the new mobile
society. The adoption of such a culture will
ensure harmony and humanism in the continuous
technological progress. The representatives of
post-industrialism consider the renaissance of
the technocratic culture to be a positive sign,
not to mention the artistic application of new
technologies. Now humanity is approaching the
understanding of the technology as an art. The
development of technology requires to place it in
a broader perspective, namely in the framework
of the social (or cultural) mutation. J.-P. Quentin
emphasizes that it would be more accurate to
speak not about replacing the technoculture by a
social culture but about a progressive transition
to a new stage of civilization, which becomes the
leading social culture. It is a global innovation,
with all its components.
In the information society, knowledge and
information will act as key agents of the social
and cultural change, ensuring the transformation
of modern culture into a new type, which will be
a key element in the production of information,
which in its importance exceeds tangible
products, energy and services. The self-expansion
of information will replace the self-expansion of
capital. The informational dimension of culture
is comparable to such epoch-making processes
as industrialization and book printing, which had
their impact on working knowledge, psychology,
and styles of thinking. Culture as a system of
symbolic means is a natural object of storing and
transmitting information.
The principal difference of the information
technology from previous ones is that its
objects are not material, but mental. In culture,
the challenge is to reach a new level of human
participation in creative activities through the
creation of new forms of cultural life. In the
course of the information revolution, an objective
technological possibility of open access to any
array of human knowledge for all people for
the first time was carried out. Conditions of the
information revolution go as follows: guaranteed
access to information for all citizens, awareness
of the primacy of the personal aspect, a new
stage in the treatment of human knowledge. The
emergence of the common global information
market, stimulated by the development of
telecommunications, is now already leading to
the emergence of a new culture that is changing
the very meaning and social status of information.
Now it is difficult to assess the culture in terms
of the information shock, but you can understand
how great its role is4. The information covers all
aspects of social life, creating an information
infrastructure.
Theorists of the information society
emphasize the ambiguity and poly-alternativeness
of the future culture. Different ideas about
the future culture are determined not only by
regional and national traditions, but also research
oriented searches in reliance on traditionalism,
rational attempt to incorporate new technical
inventions in the cultural system, the experience
of designing a new social reality with a particular
style of life and a level of cultural consumption.
The researchers point out that the modern
technology can lead to a complete degeneration
of man and the environment, so it is necessary to
protect the value of human culture.
Humanitarian culture has become outdated.
With the emergence of mass media the structure
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Larisa A. Korobeynikova. Alternative Culture: Tradition and Innovation
of culture is undergoing profound changes. The
integrated system of knowledge is replaced
by a set of short-term facilities, distributed
through the media. The concept of a mosaic
culture rather than a humanitarian one is being
formed. The main distinctive feature of the new
cultural situation is its incessant variability. The
information culture theorists speak of a new
cultural paradigm. Accumulation of technical
capabilities inevitably leads to a qualitative leap.
New, unusual in its capabilities means of mass
communication appear. The future culture is a
culture based on the technological development
of high reliability. Similar to computers,
developing and improving, regenerating and
forming new generations, the culture based on
communication devices of one generation is
supposed be qualitatively different from a culture
based on a communication technology of the
next generation. Only when technical machines
of communication have taken their final place
in the system of mass communication, and have
received their aesthetic content, we can say that
the end of the first generation of communication
tools is close.
Cultural development in the future will
enable the genesis of man as a new species
(through the computer). As voluntary civic
information networks are formed by new means
of communication and human with the help of
robots becomes free from direct participation in
productive work, the conditions for the genesis of
a new type of human, the knowledgeable person,
take their shape. Anatomically speaking, this
type will not possess any special properties. The
new man is a man of high intelligence. The people
of the new type are going to build a civilization,
radically different from the one built by the person
reasonable. Society and culture of the new type
are going to be intelligent. Information forms
the basis of intellectual performance, completely
different from the material values in the following
respects: inexhaustibility, non-transferability, the
cumulative effect.
Conclusion
Alternativists offer a new interpretation
of the traditional values of modern European
culture of rationalism, individualism, humanism.
The basic principle of the emerging rationalism
is pluralism. The modernist rational thinking
has lost its vitality. A. Etzioni stresses that the
ideal of modern society the quality of life is an
alternative vision and legitimizing principle,
which does not expand, but displaces rationality5.
The necessity of the emergence of an alternative
reason, which acquires the potential to ensure
the stability of the system "biosphere – man".
The resulting collective intelligence gives the
person a certain chance to save himself in the
biosphere. The search for alternative values of
individualism leads to the assertion of a special
kind, purified from pragmatism, utilitarianism,
egoism and intricately fused with the humanistic
and democratic values. Alternativists believe that
it is necessary to develop humanism of the posttechnological era that would transform the gleaned
from past principles and norms and contributed
to the emergence of new values, restoring the
balance of man. In the new system of values
the "life mind" (H. Ortega-y-Gasset) by its very
presence must displace all the others. "The theme
of our time is to give the mind vitality in biological
localization of reasoning, in its submission to
the spontaneous" 6 (p.29). New humanism is not
nothing else but a real human revolution, the
meaning of which is the moral education of man,
in the awakening of his humanistic conscience, in
an attempt to give a heart to the heartless world.
A new view of the world implies the approval of
ecological humanism. Alternativism theorists are
aware of indivisible integrity of the world: for my
existence, I need the existence of the whole. In
this regard, natural appearance of globalism is a
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Larisa A. Korobeynikova. Alternative Culture: Tradition and Innovation
step approximating to the cosmic consciousness.
Theorists of post-industrial and information
culture are trying to portray the development of
knowledge and information as a process, which is
not an extension of interpretation of the scientistoriented culture, but rather an opposite one.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Based on this framework we see an attempt to
consider the future technologies as an art and a
desire to evaluate the informational dimension of
culture as the third revolution in the history of
modern European culture (after industrialization
and book printing).
Marcuse G. (1994). Dimensional man, 14.
Politics. History’s Revenge and Future Shock. Val. H. (2004).
Brown C. (2004). Do Great Powers Have Great Responsibilities? Great Power and Moral Agency. Global Society Vol.18,
№1.Jan, 14-15.
Toffler A. (1997). Futuroshok, 464.
Etzioni A. (August, 2011). Behavioral Economics: Towards a New Paradigm. American Behavioral Scientist. 55:8, 10991119.
Ortega-y-Gasset H. (1991). The theme of our time. What is philosоphy?
References
1. Brown C. (2004). Do Great Powers Have Great Responsibilities? Great Power and Moral
Agency. Global Society Vol.18, №1.Jan.
2. Etzioni A. (August, 2011). Behavioral. Economics: Towards a New Paradigm. American
Behavioral Scientist. 55:8, 1099-1119.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Marcuse G. (1994). Dimensional man.
Ortega-y-Gasset H. (1991). The theme of our time. What is philosоphy?
Remapping Global Politics. History’s Revenge and Future Shock. (2004).
Toffler A. (1997). Futuroshok, 464.
Альтернативная культура:
традиции и инновации
Л.А. Коробейникова
Национальный исследовательский
Томский государственный университет
Россия, 634050, Томск, пр. Ленина, 36
Современное знание о культуре характеризуется поворотом к исследованию
альтернативных вариантов развития культуры, формируя плюрализм современных
культурологических концепций. Философия культуры альтернативизма использует идеи
структуралистской антропологии (М. Фуко). Альтернативная программа требует смены
самой парадигмы развития, порожденной сциентистской культурой, провозглашая основой
культурного проекта будущего реабилитацию спонтанности. Источником утопических и
футурологических построений выступают экологическая этика, романтические утопии и
технологический миф, поэтому в альтернативных концепциях можно выделить три типа
построений: экологические, романтические утопии и технологические футурологические
проекты. В экофилософии формируется новый тип духовности, символом которой
выступает "танцующий Шива", символ развертывания жизни, воссоздания самого себя,
целостности универсума. В романтических утопиях представление о будущей культуре
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Larisa A. Korobeynikova. Alternative Culture: Tradition and Innovation
ориентировано на создание нового типа культуры с эстетически-эротической ориентацией.
Технологические футурологические проекты появляются в теории альтернативизма не
как продолжение развития сциентистской культуры, а как альтернатива неправильному
развитию современной науки и техники. Речь идет о возможности коренного изменения
цивилизации и культуры в результате научно-технического скачка, качественно отличного
от современного научно-технического развития.
Ключевые слова: культура, альтернативные концепции культуры, философия культуры.
Научная специальность: 24.00.00 – культурология.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1760-1764
~~~
УДК 316.628.2:796.83
Research on Motivation to do Boxing
Valery A. Tolstikov*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 16.07.2014, received in revised form 20.08.2014, accepted 16.09.2014
Students are a labour resource of this country, they are future parents and a base for a healthy and
successful nation. Boxing helps to improve general physical condition, meets demands for movement,
develops one’s body fit, increases social status and communicational skills.
Keywords: students, motivation, boxing, social importance, health, constitution, need for movement.
Research area: 24.00.00 – culture studies.
Students are the most vulnerable part of
the young population, especially at their initial
stage of learning process, since they have to
cope with a number of difficulties coming
from study load increase, low-level of physical
activity, comparative freedom in campus
life and challenges in social and personal
communication. Todays students are considered
to be a basic labour reserve in this country;
besides, they are future parents and their health
condition and general wellbeing pave the way
to a healthy and successful nation. Due to this
fact there is a great role of researches dedicated
to studies of motives, interests and demands of
youngsters for physical trainings (Vilenkii M.,
1990).
There is a number of potential motives for
students to take up doing sport suggested by
R.S. Nagovitsin (Nagovitsin R., 2011):
1) recreational (i.e. those which give
an opportunity to improve health
condition)
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: fizvoz4@mail.ru
# 1760 #
2) motor and activity motives (i.e. need for
movements)
3) competitional and competitive motives
(i.e. sport achievements)
4) aesthetic ( i.e. body build improvement
and plasticity)
5) communicational
(i.e.
activities
according to interests: recreational
run, tourism, cycling, sport games,
etc.)
6) informative and skills-oriented motives
(i.e. an opportunity to learn about one’s
organism and improve it)
7) creative motives (i.e. search for new
potentials in physical development)
8) professionally oriented motives (i.e.
development of skills needed in future
profession)
9) managerial (i.e. exams and final tests
pass)
10) psychologically relevant motives (i.e.
gaining of self-confidence)
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Valery A. Tolstikov. Research on Motivation to do Boxing
11) educational (i.e. self-paced training, selfcontrol, insistence skills development)
12) high – status motives (i.e. improvement
of an ability to resist in extreme and
personal conflicts)
13) cultural (i.e. influence of cultural
environment, society and "group"
rules).
The analysis of students’ attitude towards
these motives performed by R.S. Nagovitsin
showed that most students follow managerial
motives (59 %) while only 1 % of respondents put
a priority on professionally orientated motives,
which are closely connected with professional
skills development.
While boxing, one can combine several
motives at a time, for example, motor
and activity motive with competetitional,
communicational,
informative,
skillsoriented, creative, psychological, high-status
and cultural motives. In other words, boxing
creates the environment for sport achievements
as well as opportunities for body building
and communication. In the course of boxing
students can learn about their organisms and
improve themselves. Besides, it provides a good
atmosphere for creative activity. This kind
of sport helps to increase the level of selfconfidence, and aiming at sport results has
a great educational importance, i.e. selfpaced training, self-control, insistence skills
development. Boxing improves the ability
to resist in extreme and personal confl icts.
Besides, we should not forget about influence
of cultural environment, society and group
rules.
All these motives for boxing in universities
are supported by managerial motive, i.e. a
necessity to pass exams and final tests in physical
education. However, by taking up boxing students
(not without highly qualified teaching) gain
additional motives. Here we decided to prove the
statement by conducting a student survey showed
in Table 1 below.
As the table shows, the average performance
(12,32±5,68 %) of motivated responses measured
in % is the lowest in the most numerous group
(n=102) among students not involved in boxing at
all. Significantly higher (Р<0,05) this performance
(35,44±6,66 %) in the group of students (n=12)
who just want to take up boxing.
Most probable motives for students who are
not engaged in sport activity to take up boxing
are the following:
Those students who were in group (n=102)
put a priority on "managerial" motive (89 %)
as they have to pass their final tests. Physical
education is a credit subject and passing final
tests at the appropriate time as well as avoiding
conflicts with teachers and administration of the
University motivate people to do physical training
consequently.
Other motives are connected with public
views on boxing, i.e. fi rstly, it is quite the thing
today and secondly, infi rm or vulnerable people
start doing boxing for self protection. In peer
groups boxing students get positive attitude,
as boxers are usually held in respect. In this
way, boxing increases personal status if any of
conflict situations resolved by physical actions
occurs; besides, being engaged in any kind of
sport is a good opportunity to develop one’s
willpower. In this group students fi nd it doubtful
to improve their health condition in addition to
existing low demand in movement. Therefore,
there are almost no motives for taking up boxing
in this group.
Quite another situation we see in group (n=12)
where students have chosen boxing as a course
in physical education (see Table 3). They come
at training to meet their demands in movements
(100 %). Most of them consider trainings to be
a good opportunity to relieve from negative
emotions, pass final tests in physical education
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Table 1. Question form "Potential motives for taking up boxing in Institutions of Higher Education"
You have become a student at the University where physical education is a credit course. This means that if
you can not pass final tests in this discipline you would not be admitted to exams. To acquire the subject you
are offered to take up boxing. If you chose boxing how would you explain your choice?
Before (%) the
After th experiment
MOTIVES FOR BOXING( %, opinion)
experiment
(%)
n = 112 – students who are not involved in sport activity
n =12 – students before boxing and a year on boxing activity
n=102
n=12
n=12
1
2
3
4
1. There is a demand for movement
2. There is an opportunity to improve health condition
3. I want to achieve a concrete sport result
4. I want to improve appearance and impression on other people….
5. I want to improve my body
7. I want to learn and improve my organism and abilities
8. I want to perform in physical and sport activity
9. I want to develop professional skills
10. I have to take my final tests
11. I want to become more self-confident
12. I want to achieve high-status in conflicts
13. I want to control myself in stress situations and conditions
14 I want to abstract from horrid ideas
15. I want to relieve from mental strain
16. I want to improve the level of hardiness
17. I want to relieve from negative emotions
18. I want to improve self-control and self-development skills
19. I want to develop moral and willpower characteristics
20. I want to rise the feeling of civic spirit and patriotism
p =
12
15
7
6
6
3
2
1
89
27
32
2
0
0
2
0
7
23
0
12,32
100
33
58
41
17
8
8
8
66
50
58
17
8
0
17
75
33
41
0
35,44
100
58
66
50
41
8
42
66
17
100
100
91
58
66
75
91
100
100
91
69,47
±5,68
±6,66
±5,88
m=
Significance of differences between n=102 and n=12 before the
experiment
Significance of differences before and after the experiment (n=12)
Р<0,05
Table 2. Most probable motives for boxing among students not involved in sport activity (n=102)
1. I have to pass final test in physical education
2. I want to get high status in conflict situations
3. I want to become more self confident
4. I want to develop my moral and will-power characteristics
5. There is an opportunity to improve my health condition
6. I need to move actively
89 %
32 %
27 %
23 %
15 %
12 %
Table 3. Most popular motives among those students who want to do boxing (n=12)
1. There is a demand in movement
2. I can relieve from negative emotions
3. I have to pass final test in physical education
4. I want to achieve a concrete sport result
5. I want to get a high personal status in conflict situations
100 %
75 %
66 %
58 %
58 %
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Valery A. Tolstikov. Research on Motivation to do Boxing
Table 4. Motives for those students who do boxing (n=12)
1. There is a demand in movement
2. Adaptation of self-control and self-development skills
3. I want to develop my moral and will-power characteristics
4. I want to become more self confident
5. I want to get a high personal status in conflict situations
with honor, increase their personal status in
conflicts and, moreover, they want to achieve
high sport results. This group has significantly
high (Р<0,001) motivation performance of
those students who want to choose boxing and
others – who have already taken up training
(69,47±5,88 %).
In the process of training their opinion
about advantages of boxing has increased
(see Table 4). By doing exercises they meet
all demands for movement, improve their
self-discipline by mastering self-control and
self-development skills, bearing physical
fatigue, developing their moral and will-power
characteristics, becoming more self-confident
and gaining personal status in confl ict
situations.
Basically, educational motives can not
be considered as an attractive idea for young
people to take up sport activity. We try to answer
why so? The matter is that, education and selfdependence are two crucially different items.
Self-dependence, to say more directly, is a
freedom to do what exactly you want in this very
moment (for example, a baby has this instinct).
On the other side, education is closely connected
with control over one’s behavior (limitation of
freedom).
As often as not, some people separate
the process of education from the process of
re-education (here we can say about jails as a
place where one’s freedom is restricted and a
person undergoes re-education). To put it simply,
education is the process of personal qualities
formation and development (i.e. education starts
100 %
100 %
100 %
100 %
100 %
from the ground up in comparison with reeducation), whereas re-education means working
with a person who has already been formed.
We develop each other. Parents bring
up their children, children, in their turn, say
something new to their parents. A good husband
develop his wife, so a good wife does the same.
A good employer trains their employees and they
respond in the same way. As a rule, we prefer
bringing up somebody, but not being brought up
(Psychologos…, 2014). Quite often young girls are
keen on getting married to be more independent
in their behavior.
However, boxing is a teaching process
and limitation of acquired skills performance
(competitions rules and social environment),
i.e. the process of education. Future sportsman
wants to take up boxing and as a result, finds
himself involved in this process. In the course of
trainings educational results have showed up (see
Table 4). Boxing helps to relieve from negative
emotions (91 %) and develop professional skills
(66 %). It is quite significant, that according to
their opinions boxing rise the feeling of patriotism
and civic spirit (91 %).
In this way we conclude the following:
1. Students are the most vulnerable part
of the young population, especially at their
initial stage of learning process, since they have
to cope with a number of difficulties coming
from study load increase, low-level of physical
activity, comparative freedom in campus life and
challenges in social and personal communication.
Todays students are considered as a base labour
reserve; they are future parents and their health
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Valery A. Tolstikov. Research on Motivation to do Boxing
condition and general wellbeing pave the way to
healthy and successful nation.
2. Boxing helps to improve one’s
health, meets demands for active life, creates
an appropriate environment for sport results
achievements, opportunities to master one’s fit
and to communicate with other people. In the
course of boxing students can learn about their
organisms and improve themselves. Besides it
provides a good atmosphere for a creative activity.
This kind of sport helps to increase the level
of self-confidence and aiming at sport results
has a great educational importance, i.e. selfpaced training, self-control, insistence skills
development. Boxing improves the ability to
resist in extreme and personal conflicts. Besides,
we should not forget about influence of cultural
environment, society and group rules.
3. To be more precise, boxing is a teaching
process and limitation of acquired skills
performance (competitions rules and social
environment), i.e. the process of education.
Future sportsman wants to take up boxing and as
a result, finds himself involved in this process. In
the course of trainings educational results have
showed up (see Table 4). Boxing helps to relieve
from negative emotions (91 %) and develop
professional skills (66 %). It is quite significant,
that according to their opinions boxing rise the
feeling of patriotism and civic spirit (91 %).
References
1. Vilenkii M., Formation of physical culture of a teacher in the process of their professional
development//Doctoral dissertation, EdD. Moscow, 1990. 84 p.
2. Nagovitsin R., Motivation of students to do physical education in universities // Fundamental
researches. 2011. V. 8. Pp. 293.
3. Psychologos, Encyclopedia of Experimental Psychology. Online resource: http://www.
psychologos.ru/articles/view/vospitanie Accessed date 20.01.2014
Исследования мотивации занятий боксом
В.А. Толстиков
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Студенты – трудовой резерв страны, будущие родители, залог здоровья и благополучия
нации. Занятия боксом укрепляют здоровье, удовлетворяют потребность в движении,
совершенствуют телосложение, расширяют социальную значимость и коммуникативные
возможности.
Ключевые слова: студенты, мотивация,
телосложение, потребность в движении.
бокс,
Научная специальность: 24.00.00 – культурология.
социальная
значимость,
здоровье,
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1765-1774
~~~
УДК 316.752
Dynamics of Social Well-Being
of the Population of the Region in View
of Emotional and Energy Indicators
Valentin G. Nemirovskiy*
Siberian Federal University
79 Svobodny, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Received 22.06.2014, received in revised form 30.07.2014, accepted 17.09.2014
The article investigates the dynamics of social well-being of inhabitants of the Krasnoyarsk
Territory (2010-2014 years). To perform the analysis the author applied a method developed in the
framework of the "socio-cultural portrait of the region" by N.I. Lapin and L.A. Belyaeva; that method
was complemented with a scale of self-assessment of the level of life energy of the respondent.This
allowed to show a more adequate representation of the emotional-energy component of social
well-being of the respondents. The empirical basis of the study were representative surveys of the
population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory in 2010 and 2014 through the method of formal interviews,
as well as a study with the method we had developed; the study was conducted in accordance with
a similar methodology in 2011. It wasfound that in terms of all of the indicators that were used
there was a significant improvement of the social well-being of the population of the region. Such
a phenomenon is typical for many regions of Siberia. It was concluded that one maymisjudge the
significant improvement of social well-being of the population in the region in recent years as a
uniquely positive phenomenon. It can be caused not only by the improvement in living conditions
and by the increase in the effectiveness of social policies in the region, but also by other poorly
understood factors. These include, for example, the involvement into an active social life of the
representatives of new age cohorts, which internalized modern social norms and values, or by
intensive migration of social actors who are dissatisfied with life in the region to Moscow and
to foreign countries. As a result, there is an outflow of human capital from the active population
of Siberia.In addition,the elderly people leave this life in a natural way, and it was this group of
population that often had showed a negative social well-being. Therefore, the improving social
well-being of the population may mask some negative processes. Hence, there is a need for a better
understanding of the factors infl uencing the change in social well-being of the population of the
Siberian region.
Keywords: social well-being, sociology of region, sociology of emotions.
The study was accomplished with the financial support of Russian State Fund for Humanities,
the project "Dynamics of Socio-Cultural Processes in the East Siberian region in the Context
of Contemporary Modernization of Russia (based on materials of sociological research in the
Krasnoyarsk Territory), № 13-03-00379.
Research area: 22.00.00 – sociology.
*
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: valnemirov@mail.ru
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Valentin G. Nemirovskiy. Dynamics of Social Well-Being of the Population of the Region in View of Emotional…
Social well-being of the populationis one
of the most important characteristics of sociocultural and socio-economic processes in any
region, as well as in larger social and territorial
communities. There are different approaches to
its measurement described in the domestic and
foreign literature. For all its variety, the most
widely spread approach, first of all, takes into
account such social and emotional phenomena
as overall life satisfaction of the respondent, the
level of social optimism and security against a
variety of risks (Lapin, 2006). In our view, the
feeling of being safe from all dangers is certainly
an emotional phenomenon, the opposite to the
sense of fear (Nemirovsky, Nemirovskaya, 2012:
119). Accordingly, the sense of fear is one of
the elements of social well-being. Therefore, it
is difficult not to agree with D.N. Barinov that
the changes in the repertoire of social fears,
and their objects show the impact on social
well-being of the objective conditions of life of
people, and these conditions are determined by
macrosocial factors (Barinov, 2008:169). It is
not a coincidence that the analysis of the sense
(emotion) of fear in the structure of social wellbeing of the population has a long tradition.
Moreover, the very notion of social well-being
is determined by socio-emotional categories. For
example, one has to agree with the opinion of
N.V. Doolina (Doolina, 2009: 89), who stipulates
that when defining "social well-being" we need
to mention the fact that this is really functioning
social consciousness and behavior, "which
reveal the emotionally comfortable assessment
of individuals, social groups and the population
... attributed to the level of satisfaction of their
social needs, as well as its position in comparison
with other individuals, social groups ..." (Burko,
2000: 56). Thus, we can safely say that the social
well-being of the individual is largely relates to
the problematic field of sociology of emotions
(Barbalet, 1999). So, we come to such an important
indicator of social well-being as general life
satisfaction. Some authors identify the various
aspects of the satisfaction with their human
life. This kind of tradition has a long history.
It is not a coincidence that more than 20 years
ago an American scholar A. Campbell revealed
the following representations of the respondents
about the good life: economic stability, good
family relationships, strong and tough character,
loyal friends, outwardly attractive environment
(Campbell, 1981).
Indicators, which measure social well-being
of the population, are often combined in special
indexes, special tests are developed. For example,
famous Ukrainian scientists E.I. Golovakha,
N.V. Panina, A.P. Gorbachik some time ago
developed the sociological test "Integral index
of social well-being". There were two modified
versions of the test created: 44-line version of the
questionnaire (IISS-44), designed for in-depth
studies of social wellbeing, and 20-line version
(IISS-20), designed for monitoring, comparative
and operational research. The authors` methods
make it possible to measure the level of social
well-being of the population. In addition, it
allows to evaluate the effectiveness of social
policies (Golovakha, Panina, Gorbachik, 1998:
45-72). The method developed by N.I. Lapin and
L.A. Belyaeva applies the interview to measure
"... three components of social well-being of
the population: the degree of feeling protected
against 10 social risks; the degree of satisfaction
with their lives in general; the degree of social
optimism – a comparison of living standards with
the previous year, the expectations in the coming
year, confidence in the future. Using them as a
basis, the authors developed the comprehensive
index of social well-being (ISS)" (Lapin,
Belyaeva, 2010).
In our opinion, for a more holistic description
of the phenomenon of "social well-being" its
indicators should be complemented by indicators
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Valentin G. Nemirovskiy. Dynamics of Social Well-Being of the Population of the Region in View of Emotional…
of its emotional and energetic elements. We
support the view of N. L. Batalova, who assumes
that "the energy component expresses the level of
implementation of vital forces of a personality or
a social group as an ability to play and improve
their lives in different areas, showing the social
subjectivity ..." (Batalova, 2009: 8). This author
introduced an additional index: the coefficient
of socio-energy potential to the toolkit which
had previously been elaborated by N.I. Lapin
and L.A. Belyaeva. The coefficient reflects the
level of actual and potential social activity of a
young man. This indicator is based on how the
respondent himself (herself) estimates his (her)
state of health, as well as on the degree of social
activity" (Batalova, 2009: 11). In this study human
vitality was measured according to the four-point
scale; its variants of assessments and judgments
for describing the energy level of a human are
shown in Fig. 1.
We relied on the data from a survey of the
population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory (2014),
which was carried out by formal interviews at the
place of residence of respondents, on stratified,
multi-zoned, quota samples represented by sex,
age and level of education. The respondents were
selected randomly. Representativeness of the
sample is provided by keeping the proportions
between the population living in 28 settlements
of various types (areas of large cities, medium
and small cities and rural areas), gender and age
and educational structure of the adult population
of the region. The study was conducted within
the project "Socio-cultural evolution of Russia
and its regions" (supervisors N.I. Lapin,
L.A. Belyaeva). On the whole there were 1300
residents interviewed, living in the Krasnoyarsk
Territory. For comparison, we also used the data
from a similar survey conducted in the region in
2011 (n = 1100).
The feeling of being protected from a variety
of risks in the standard procedure "Socio-cultural
portrait of the region" includes ten indicators
characterizing corresponding types of social
danger. We can combine them into two main
groups of types of danger and, accordingly, "...
a feeling of insecurity / security from them on
the basis of separation of the two main sources of
such risks (threats): firstly, the external objective
conditions that an individual would like to change,
to be isolated from them, etc. Second, internal,
subjective characteristics of the person that he
(she) cannot change or does not want to change
because they, for example, can destroy his (her)
social and cultural identity, self-consciousness,
the inner "Ego".
The first group includes:
• environmental threat;
• arbitrariness of officials;
• arbitrariness of law enforcement bodies;
• poverty;
• loneliness and abandonment;
• crime.
The second includes:
• harassment because of age or sex;
• infringement because of nationality;
• harassment for their religious beliefs;
• persecution for their political beliefs «
(Nemirovsky, Nemirovskaya, 2012: 120121).
Let us see the changes that have occurred in
the perception of these threats by the inhabitants
of the region over the past 4 years (Table 1). We
shall analyze the answers "Protected + probably
protected". Let us consider the first group of
threats. Thus, the fear of the environmental threat
has decreased by 2.5 times, the arbitrariness
of officials, respectively – by 2.0 times, the
arbitrariness of law enforcement bodies – 1.5
times, poverty – 1.3 times, crime – 1, 9 times,
loneliness and abandonment remained the
same.
With respect to the second group of
threats we shall mention: the fear of harassment
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25,1
33,6
31,9
33,3
27,5
41,0
32,1
25,7
20,1
10,2
18,0
39,7
43,1
47,1
68,6
73,5
25,2
12,4
17,8
Environmental
threat
Arbitrariness
of officials
Arbitrariness
of law
enforcement
bodies
Loneliness and
abandonment
Persecution for
political beliefs
Harassment
because of age
or gender
Harassment for
their religious
beliefs
Infringement
due to
nationality
10,9
Poverty
6,4
5,7
20,8
15,9
32,8
48,7
57,9
54,0
57,0
64,0
Do not feel
protected
(unsafe)
Krasnoyarsk Kray, 2010
Feel protected
(safe); probably It is hard to say
protected
Crime
Types of
danger
70,1
70,6
53,2
39,5
38,5
19,6
13,0
16,6
19,4
13,4
22,1
23,2
26,3
40,8
23,6
34,0
30,0
27,3
21,2
23,4
Feel protected
(safe); probably It is hard to say
protected
7,8
6,2
20,5
19,7
38,0
46,5
57,1
56,1
59,4
63,2
Do not feel
protected
(unsafe)
Krasnoyarsk Kray, 2012
Table 1. Residents of Krasnoyarsk Kray on Their Protection from Social Dangers ( % of respondents)
68,9
66,2
57
41,3
40,5
26,4
20,3
30,7
23,9
21,2
23,7
23,9
28,1
36,2
25,3
35,8
31,1
29,0
28,0
24,4
Feel protected
(safe); probably It is hard to say
protected
7,4
9,9
14,9
22,5
34,2
37,8
48,5
40,3
48
54,3
Do not feel
protected
(unsafe)
Krasnoyarsk Kray, 2014
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Valentin G. Nemirovskiy. Dynamics of Social Well-Being of the Population of the Region in View of Emotional…
because of age or sex has decreased by 1.2
times, harassment due nationality decreased by
0.9 times, the harassment and persecution for
political beliefs, as well as for religious beliefs, in
practice, remained at the same level.
It can be concluded that for the period 2010 –
2014 in the Krasnoyarsk Territory the sense of
insecurity (fear) of respondents over external
objective factors and threats generated by them
has decreased by two times on average. This is,
in part, can be explained by the improvement of
living conditions in the region and in the country
as a whole. In other words, taking into account
the socio-economic and socio-cultural factors,
life in the region became more comfortable. In
the second group, fears that extend beyond the
social level have decreased slightly. That is the
level of protection against the dangers ascribed
to this group actually remained the same. This
looks logical: the existence of these fears is
largely determined by the microenvironment of
the individual, which is characterized by greater
inertia.
Satisfaction of the individual with his (her)
life serves as an essential element of social wellbeing. Consider the evaluation of polar groups
of respondents. According to the results of our
studies (Table 2), the percentage of respondents
who are "totally of satisfied" with their lives, in
the Krasnoyarsk Territory from 2010 to 2014 has
increased by 2.2 times. And in rural areas it is
higher than in urban territory: respectively, by
2.5 and 2.1 times. This may indicate the progress
made in a number of public and regional programs
aimed at improving life in rural areas and the
development of agriculture.
In general, the proportion of "not very
satisfied" with their lives over the years in the
region decreased by 1.9 times, "not satisfied" –
3 times. As you can see, the indicator of social
well-being of its residents of the region shows its
improvement over the past four years.
Analysis of the level of confidence of the
respondents about their future as an indicator of
social optimism of the region’s population shows
a similar pattern (Table 3). The share of people
in the region, who are "quite confident" about
their future, increased by 1.9 times, "completely
confident" – decreased by 1.5 times.
In many ways, social well-being of people
is determined by their degree of optimism, social
expectations (Table. 4). Now we shall consider
the polar groups of respondents. The share of
respondents who expressed the opinion that we
"are going to live much better" for four years has
grown by 2.1 times. In contrast, the proportion of
response noted "we are going to live somewhat
worse" decreased by 1.9 times, "are going to live
much worse" increased by 1.2 times and amounted
to only 1.7 %. Thus, the social expectations of the
population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory reveal a
high degree of optimism.
Table 2. Satisfaction of Residents of Krasnoyarsk Kray with Their Life in General ( % of respondents)
Types of answer
Krasnoyarsk Kray,
2010
город село
Krasnoyarsk Kray,
2012
всего город село
всего город село
Fully satisfied
9,2
8,4
9,0
11,1
13,1
11,6
Rather satisfied
40,4
41,2
40,6
43,5
37,8
42,1
Difficult to say exactly
17,0
17,2
17,1
14,8
11,9
14,1
Not very satisfied
28,6
29,4
28,8
26,7
34,0
28,5
Not satisfied at all
4,8
3,8
4,5
3,9
3,2
3,7
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Krasnoyarsk Kray,
2014
19,7
Russia, 2010
всего
21,0
20,0
12,5
47,3
38,9
45,3
46,5
16,8
20,6
17,7
14,2
14,5
18,3
15,4
21,0
1,7
1,2
1,6
5,8
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Table 3. The Degree of Confidence of Residents of Krasnoyarsk Kray about Their Future ( % of respondents)
Types of answer
Krasnoyarsk Kray,
2010
urban rural
total
Krasnoyarsk Kray,
2012
urban rural
total
Krasnoyarsk Kray,
2014
urban rural
Russia, 2010
total
Quite confident
11,1
10,2
10,8
16,6
12,8
15,7
19,4
23,5
20,4
13,9
Is likely to be confident
than not
25,7
28,5
26,4
31,0
26,3
29,8
33,3
28,5
32,1
36,5
Cannot say for sure
34,5
38,7
35,5
28,7
29,2
28,8
33,1
31,3
31,8
21,2
Is unlikely to be confident
21,3
16,2
20,1
18,4
23,4
19,5
11,2
10,0
10,9
18,2
Completely not confident
7,4
6,4
7,2
5,3
8,3
6,0
4,8
5,0
4,8
10,2
Source: the results of survey (2010, 2012, 2014, question № 17)
Table 4. Expectations in the coming year (Answers to the question "Do you think that in the coming year you and
your family will live better than today, or worse?") ( % of respondents)
Types of answer
2010
2012
2014
9,7
11,9
19,9
We are going to live a bit better
20,8
20,3
26,4
Nothing is going to change
30,3
33,3
27,3
We are going to live a bit worse
8,2
7,8
4,4
We are going to live much better
We are going to live much worse
1,4
2,3
1,7
Don`t know
29,6
24,4
20,3
Table 5. The Dynamics of the Components of Social Well-Being and Its Index (2010 -2014)
Krasnoyarsk
Kray, 2010
Krasnoyarsk
Kray, 2012
Krasnoyarsk
Kray, 2014
Russia, 2010
Protection from hazards (Kz)
0,60
0,60
0,63
0,59
Satisfaction with life in general
(Kuzh)
0,66
0,66
0,73
0,68
social optimism (Ko)
0,63
0,66
0,67
0,62
The index of social well-being (Iss)
0,62
0,64
0,68
0,63
Components of well-being, its index
The index of social well-being of the
population, calculated by the method developed
under the supervision of N.I. Lapin (Lapin,
2006) (Table 5) increased significantly: from
0.62 in 2010 to 0.68 in 2014. Most have increased
"Satisfaction with life in general (Kuzh)" and
"Social optimism (Ko.)".
According to the research, over four years
(2011-2014) Respondents' assessment of any
indicators that characterize their high vitality,
increased, for example, "almost always feel": a
huge burst of energy, inspiration, respectively,
14 % and 24 %, the state peace and harmony –
15 % and 25 % (see Fig. 1). On the contrary, with
regard to the indicators reflecting the decline
of vital energy, they decreased or remained
unchanged: the answer is "almost always feel":
special energy is not observed, but there is a
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desire to change the situation: 24 % and 19 %; the
answer is "sometimes": strength is not enough,
feel tired – 38 % and 31 %, special energy is
not observed, but there is a desire to make a
difference – 45 % and 37 %.
As you can see, the respondents in the region
in the three years have revealed an increase in the
indicators characterizing their vitality. In other
words, improved emotional and social wellbeing
in terms of energy component of the region's
residents. The reasons for this phenomenon, in our
opinion, require further study. But it is impossible
to do without resorting to heuristic sociology of
emotions (Nemirovsky, Nemirovskaya, 2012).
Similar processes occur in most regions
of the Siberian Federal District. According to
"the results of the third well-being ranking of
regions of Russia, composed by the Fund of
Development of Civil Society in assistance and
support of the Fund "Obschestvennoe Mnenie"
(Public Opinion), just five Siberian territories
were included in the group with a very high
rating. Thus, the most satisfied with their lives
are residents of Kuzbass (87 points), Khakassia
(72, previously 68 points), Tuva (67, previously
71 points), Buryatia and the Novosibirsk region
(66 points). In this case, the Kemerovo region
improved its position compared with previous
survey immediately by 13 points. The second
group with high ranking includes two Siberian
region – The Altai Republic (64, previously 61
points) and the Krasnoyarsk Territory, preserved
rating of 58 points" (Novosibirsk, 2014).
As you can see, the improvement of
social well-being of the population took place
in very different in terms of socio-economic
development and quality of life regions of
Siberia. It can be assumed that improving
the social well-being of the population of the
Krasnoyarsk Territory in all analyzed indicators
related not only to the general improvement of
the living conditions in the region. Obviously,
Fig. 1. The Dynamics of Vital Forces of the Residents of Krasnoyarsk Kray in 2011-2014 years
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the important role was played by socio-cultural
and socio-psychological factors. On the one
hand, on the social arena came the age cohorts
of the population, representatives of which are
deeply internalized by currently existing in
society social norms and values. During the
23 years that have passed since the collapse of
the period of our great country, not only a new
generation of Siberians has appeared, but also
older people en masse have managed to adapt to
the changing conditions of life. We also cannot
ignore the fact that a large proportion of those
who are dissatisfied with the conditions of life
in the Siberian region, especially the young,
migrate to the western regions of the country in
the fi rst place – to Moscow, as well as abroad.
In other words, there is a leak of the most
qualified and motivated people in the region. In
contrast, the population of Siberia "diluted" by
migrants of various nationalities of the other CIS
states, some of which obtain local citizenship.
Conditions of life in this region for them seem
much better than where they lived before.
Therefore, it would be wrong to assess the
dramatic improvement of the social well-being of
the population in the region of Siberia (as well as
other regions of the country) as a uniquely positive
phenomenon associated exclusively with the
improvement of living standards, reducing social
tensions, effective social policies in the region. In
reality, it is a complex phenomenon influenced by
various subordinate processes and factors, which
are not always taken into account by researchers.
In our opinion, it is advisable to refer to the
studies in related disciplines such as cultural
studies, which can contribute significantly to the
explanation of these processes (Koptseva, Luzan,
2012; Koptseva, Zamaraeva, 2011).
References
1. Barinov D.N. Regional’naya spetsifika sotsial’noy trevozhnosti [Regional specificity of
social anxiety]. Herald of the Chelyabinsk State University. Series: Philosophy. Sociology. Cultural
Studies (Vestnik Chelyabinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Filosofiya. Sotsiologiya.
Kul’turologiya.). №. 8. 2008. P. 165-169.
2. Batalova N.L. Sotsial’noye samochuvstviye molodezhi v usloviyakh izmenyayushchegosya
obshchestva (regional’nyy aspekt) Social well-being of young people in a changing society (regional
aspect) abstract of dissertation. Tyumen, 2009. P. 8.
3. Burko V.A. Interpretation of the indicator of "social wellbeing" // Sociology and Society.
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new ideas" St. Petersburg .: Publisher "Scythia", 2000. P. 56.
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8. Koptseva N.P., Zamaraeva J.S., Sertakova E.A. Sociocultural Research of the Cultural
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Динамика социального самочувствия
населения региона с учётом
эмоционально-энергетических показателей
В.Г. Немировский
Сибирский федеральный университет
Россия, 660041, Красноярск, пр. Свободный, 79
Статья посвящена исследованию динамики социального самочувствия жителей
Красноярского края (2010–2014 гг.). Для анализа использована методика, разработанная
в рамках «Социокультурного портрета региона» Н.И. Лапина и Л.А. Беляевой, впервые
дополненная нами шкалой самооценки уровня жизненной энергии респондента. Это
позволило более адекватно представить эмоционально-энергетическую составляющую
социального самочувствия респондентов. Эмпирической базой исследования являются
репрезентативные опросы населения Красноярского края в 2010 и 2014 гг. методом
формализованного интервью, а также исследование по созданной нами методике,
проведённое аналогичным методом в 2011 г. Установлено, что по всем используемым
индикаторам произошло значительное улучшение социального самочувствия населения
региона. Подобное явление характерно для многих регионов Сибири. Делается вывод, что
неверно оценивать существенный рост социального самочувствия населения региона
в последние годы как однозначно позитивное явление. Оно может быть вызвано не
только улучшением условий жизни и повышением эффективности социальной политики
в регионе, но и другими малоизученными факторами. К их числу, например, можно
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Valentin G. Nemirovskiy. Dynamics of Social Well-Being of the Population of the Region in View of Emotional…
отнести приход к активной социальной жизни представителей новых возрастных когорт,
интернализировавших современные социальные нормы и ценности. Или интенсивную
миграцию социальных акторов, недовольных жизнью в регионе, в Москву и за рубеж
страны. В результате происходит отток активного человеческого капитала из Сибири.
Также естественным путём уходят из жизни пожилые люди, которые тоже зачастую
проявляли негативное социальное самочувствие. Поэтому повышение социального
самочувствия населения может скрывать некоторые негативные процессы. Отсюда
вытекает необходимость более глубокого изучения факторов, влияющих на изменение
социального самочувствия населения сибирского региона.
Ключевые слова: социальное самочувствие, социология региона, социология эмоций.
Исследование выполнено при финансовой поддержке РГНФ, проект «Динамика
социокультурных процессов в Восточно-Сибирском регионе в контексте современной
модернизации России (на материалах социологических исследований в Красноярском крае)»,
№ 13-03-00379.
Научная специальность: 22.00.00 – социология.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1775-1793
~~~
УДК 316.4
Critical Assessment of Development
of a Modernizing Society in Eastern Europe:
Latent Risks for Social Inclusion
Yuriy B. Savelyev*
National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv
60 Volodymyrska Str., Kyiv, 01601, Ukraine
Received 11.03.2014, received in revised form 16.05.2014, accepted 17.09.2014
The capability approach has emphasized human freedom and possibility of choice over various
alternatives as a person’s capability set (Foster and Sen, 1997). Consequently, a rise of capabilities
is a core of human development (Sen, 1999) and essential part of modernization process (Welzel,
Inglehart and Klingemann, 2003). The paper suggests the capabilities model of social inclusion and
attempts to use such an approach to gauge human development of a modernizing society as well as
reveal hidden risks for inclusion. It is argued that despite rapid economic growth, the actual increase
of real disposable income per capita and improvement of Human Development Index in Ukraine since
the end of the 1990’s, the capabilities of its citizens have been seriously jeopardized. Ukraine fails to
keep pace with other societies of the region (except Moldova) although the levels of development of
Eastern European countries were very similar 20 years ago. This implies the growing gap in social
actors’ capabilities between the national states within the region.
Keywords: social inclusion, modernization, human development, capabilities, Eastern Europe,
Ukraine.
Research area: 22.00.00 – sociology.
Introduction
In present-day global world Eastern European
societies are too small to be considered important
on an international scale, while social scientists’
attention is concentrated on the big rising powers
of the former ‘third-world’. However, much of the
profound changes that have occurred in the world
during last two decades were triggered by the
region. It is exactly Central and Eastern Europe
where the epicentre of transformation was located
and social movements emerged that undermined
socialist regimes 25 years ago. The Eastern Bloc
*
collapsed which ended the age of a bipolar world,
boosted globalization and eventually led to the
contemporary global state of play.
Those changes were immediately reflected
by sociologists. At that time theories of neomodernization of post-socialist societies became
the mainstream idea along with an optimistic project
of transformation of Eastern European countries
into Western like democratic market economy
society. Nevertheless, despite institutional and
cultural similarity, a developmental track in the
region was apparently different which resulted
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: yursave@yahoo.com
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into different economic levels and quality of life
which were achieved by various countries. This
experience of Eastern Europe raises once again
a question of plausibility of modernization and
possible ways towards modernity. Contemporary
sociology lacks modernization theory which
would provide a tool to find an adequate answer.
As W.Knöbl noted ‘there is no stable, empirically
grounded theory… All there is… some sort of
modernization discourse, some vague ideas about
possible developmental paths of contemporary
societies.’ (Knöbl, 2003: 105)
This paper suggests using a modernization
model based on the capability approach to gauge
human development of a modernizing society
in Eastern Europe. The capability approach has
emphasized human freedom and possibility of
choice over various alternatives as a person’s
capability set and the actual functioning
combination (Foster and Sen, 1997). Within the
approach the increase of capabilities is a core of
human development process (Anand and Sen,
1994; Sen, 1999). However, this also implies
that even in the situation of equal rights and
opportunities not all people may be able to choose
options of which they are capable. Therefore,
modernization can be considered a process that
increases capabilities and enhances inclusion of
social actors. Using the capability approach to
assess modernization of a society would reveal
hidden risks for exclusion and explicate indicators
of inequality.
First, the paper provides an overview of
problems of post-socialist development and
modernization in Eastern Europe in the past
two decades. Human development is considered
a benchmark of modernization. Based on threeelement modernization and human development
model suggested by Welzel, Inglehart and
Klingemann (2003) I argue that social inclusion
is related to both the options application, which is
the freedom to choose in the capability approach,
and the choice application, which is the actually
chosen, is important dimension of modernization.
Such a theoretical framework of social inclusion
may be a contribution into application of the
capability approach in sociology to expose
developmental problems, inequality and exclusion
which would enhance the assessment of the needs
of the vulnerable groups.
Second, the paper focuses on Ukraine as a
case of the post-socialist modernizing society.
It is asserted that an optimistic prospect, which
appeared after social and economic disruption of
the 1990’s in Eastern Europe, was not uniformly
distributed for different countries. Compared to
the region, Ukraine fails to keep pace with either
Eastern or Western neighbours except Moldova
although the levels of development of most
Eastern European countries were very similar 20
years ago and Ukraine used to have the median of
regional human development value. This implies
the growing gap in capabilities between the
national states within the region.
Third, the research demonstrates limitations
of indicators of official statistics, data from
traditional surveys and Human Development
Index (HDI) linking these indicators data to
the set of capabilities. I will show that despite
positive dynamic in economic growth, average
income and human development in Ukraine in
the 2000’s, capabilities of the vast majority of its
citizens have been jeopardized. In particular, the
capability for housing, which was still very poor
in 1998, dramatically plunged in the 2000’s.
As a method of research I use original as well
as secondary data analysis comparing trends of
various existing indicators including HDI, GDP
PPP per capita, Gini index, national and regional
income and housing statistics, monthly average
wages, price trends on the secondary residential
market, self-reported data from the surveys of the
Institute of Sociology of the National Academy
of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine. The sources of
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the study comprise statistical data of the State
Statistics Committee of Ukraine, United Nations
Human Development Reports, the International
Monetary Fund data, Association of Real Estate
Specialists of Ukraine (ASNU), annual surveys of
the Institute of Sociology of the NAS of Ukraine
‘Ukrainian Society: Sociological Monitoring
1994–2010’.
Problem background
and theoretical framework
Sociologists (Esping-Andersen, 2007) and
development economists (Yusuf et al., 2009;
Sachs, 2008) emphasize that a critical problem for
contemporary society is inequality, which persists
and even has been growing in various countries as
well as in the global system overall. A challenging
question for social scientists is about varieties
of social existence and alternatives of social,
economic and cultural development (ISA, 2006).
If modernity emerged in Western (NorthernAtlantic) civilization and is spontaneous in terms
of its culture and societal evolution, Ukraine and
many other post-socialist countries are societies
with ‘catching-up development’ which determines
numerous problems of their growth and makes an
issue of inequality more acute.
Since the Eastern Bloc collapsed, theories
of neo-modernization of post-socialist countries
became the mainstream idea. An optimistic project
of transformation of post-socialist societies into
western capitalist liberal model was conceived.
P.Sztompka pointed out that since 1989 theory of
modernization has focused on post-communist
countries attempts to ‘return to Europe’, join the
modern Western civilization (Sztompka, 1996:
101).
Subsequently there has been criticism on
modernization of post-communist countries
(Allardt, 2002; Kapustin, 2003). It wasn’t a
smooth process and in a number of cases desired
modernization turned into ‘the unprecedented
demodernization of a twentieth-century country’
when society was pulled ‘backward to a premodern era’ (Cohen, 2001: 45, 169). However,
despite common difficulties there are apparent
differences in the paths of development of former
socialist countries in the region.
After the collapse of Eastern Bloc and the
Soviet Union in the beginning of the 1990’s
Central and Eastern Europe fell into two clusters
with different development tracks. While three
former Soviet Republics (Belarus, Moldova
and Ukraine) were involved into post-soviet
integration project (CIS) maintained by Russian
Federation, the other three former Soviet republics
(Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) with the rest of
Central and Eastern European societies became
determined to complete European integration.
Since the middle of the 1990’s modernization
of Central and Eastern Europe has been
‘predominantly understood in terms of a gradual
incorporation of the post-communist societies
into the European project. This process is then
mostly read as convergence in legal, institutional,
and political terms’ (Blokker, 2005: 515). This
has redefined Eastern Europe radically.
Recent enlargements of the European
Union have left three Eastern European
countries – Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine – in
a specific zone that presently embodies European
civilization borderland. Those countries share the
same features: they used to be a part of imperia
(Russian, Austro-Hungarian and then Soviet)
and may be considered as post-colonial societies;
they were involved in the Communist project of
accelerated modernization that was an alternative
to the Western one; nowadays they are located
between the EU and Russian Federation and
experience integrative process from both sides.
After the EU enlargements Eastern Europe
doesn’t even exist as an integral region. A
criterion of belonging to the European project is
much more important than geographic vicinity.
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Present-day Eastern Europe, definition of which
has always had connotation of a peripheral
region, basically narrowed to three countries
only: Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine.
At this point of time there are two peripheral
regions in Europe as a civilization. The first is
mentioned above Eastern Europe (or what has
left from it), the second – ‘Western Balkans’
(Croatia, FYR Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia including
Kosovo).1 Nevertheless, these two regions differ
significantly. While societies of Western Balkans
committed to integration process and either
have been granted candidate country status or
recognized as potential candidate countries
(European Commission, 2007), Belarus, Moldova
and Ukraine are very far from that.
Moreover, the region of Western Balkans is
radically different from Eastern Europe. Western
Balkans countries are located on the frontiers of
contemporary European project which has been
expanding its spatial body. Those societies do not
have an alternative to integration. Very probably,
sooner or later they will be incorporated to the
project. This is a just a matter of their readiness
that simply requires time. In contrast to them,
Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine are the borderland
which is located between European Union, which
represents integration on the basis of common
liberal values Western post-industrial marketeconomy democracy, and Russian Federation,
which often claims itself to be exceptional
‘Eurasian’ way of development. Therefore, in the
case of Eastern Europe there is an alternative
to integration. There are three possible ways of
development for Eastern European borderland:
one of integration options will be implemented
(either European or Russian), the region will be
conserved as the borderland which is utilized as a
buffer from both sides.
After disruption of the 1990’s a period of
rapid economic growth began in the region which
gave an optimistic prospect. However, Moldova
and Ukraine (Belarus has better performance
close to recent EU members Bulgaria and
Romania) still have the lowest ranks of GDP
per capita and Human Development Index
(HDI) in Europe (Human Development Report,
2011). Russian Federation and Belarus have
not succeeded in development of democratic
institutions. Ukrainian democracy is flawed.
More recently Russian and Ukrainian political
leaders claimed a specific (alternative to Western
model that other Eastern European societies
are trying to follow) way of development
emphasizing technical modernization and
economy based on innovations.2 The question
is whether such a way of modernization can
be efficient. Hence, it is important to gauge
development beyond economic growth (Stiglitz,
Sen, Fitoussi, 2009).
Since 1990 HDI has been widely used for
this purpose. However, since it was introduced,
HDI has been criticized as ‘conceptually weak
and empirically unsound, involving serious
problems of non-comparability over time and
space’ measure (Srinivasan, 1994: 241). R.Sugden
(1993) questioned HDI as an operational tool.
In recent 20 years HDI methodology has been
advanced and significant contributions into
conceptual development and operationalization
have been made (e.g. Nussbaum and Sen, 1993;
Martinetti, 2000; Kuklys, 2005; Comim et al.,
2008). HDI is rooted in the capability approach
that besides cross-country comparisons allows
deeper understanding of a process and factors
of modernization focusing on the increase of
capabilities as a core of human development.
Employing the capability approach, Welzel,
Inglehart and Klingemann (2003) suggested
three-element modernization model comprising
individual resources (objective means of choice),
emancipative cultural values (motives of choice)
and institutional rules (effective rights to human
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choice). In this model the focus is set, first, on
the increasing role of emancipative and selfexpression values due to the growth of resources,
second, on the linkage of emancipative values as
the motives of choice to effective freedom rights
and efficient democratic institutions. The model,
however, is limited to the linear relationships of
resources and values. It does not reveal differences
in the access to the resources, participation and
the ways of securing the access and choice.
According to A.Sen, the increase of
capabilities is a twofold set comprising the options
application, which is the freedom to choose, and
the choice application, which is the actually
chosen (Foster and Sen 1997). Ways and means
of securing human freedom and possibility of
choice are crucial and require various forms of
involvement of social actors in life of society,
i.e. their social inclusion. A rise in capabilities
is not possible without inclusion of social actors,
for it accounts for their choice application. That
is why social inclusion is considered a crucial
means of human development (Andjelkovič et
al., Анджелкович 2011). On the other hand,
lack of social inclusion also limits freedom to
choose.
Therefore, an elaborated model of human
development and modernization should embrace
a dimension of social inclusion. Theoretical
contributions (Parsons, 1966; 1977; Alexander,
1980; Wilson, 2006; Lamont, 2009; Acemoglu and
Robinson, 2012) clearly demonstrate that social
inclusion is related to integration of social system,
to social institutions, social and cultural capital
and ultimately to various forms of incorporation of
different social groups into a core society. Social
inclusion does not exclusively refer to particular
deprived groups but is an important aspect which
‘makes societies successful’ (Lamont, 2009: 151).
Social relationships of various types are built on
relative capabilities allocated for social agents
and groups which determine their actual choices.
The capabilities model of social inclusion
may be an analytical tool in understanding the
ways of securing human freedom and possibility
of choice, and, consequently, development
of a society and modernization. This model
comprises:
1. The means of providing choice (the
capabilities set) and securing access to
the resources; fair and efficient system
of redistribution of resources (Dworkin,
2002).
2. Recognition, which determines social
esteem of ‘abilities and activities’
and eventually ‘contribution to social
reproduction’ of different social groups
(Honneth, 2001: 54-55).
3. Participation which reflects the capabilities
for social interaction (Fraser, 2007).
4. Values as motives of action and choice
(Schwartz et al., 2001; Welzel, Inglehart
and Klingemann, 2003).
5. Effective democracy and rights as
institutional means of securing choice
(Welzel, Inglehart and Klingemann,
2003).
The combination of all elements accounts for
the options application as well as for the choice
application. Consequently, modernization is a
process that expands capabilities and enhances
social inclusion.
In this paper we focus on the issue of the
relative access to the resources studying the case
of a modernizing society in Eastern Europe in
comparative perspective with an attempt to reveal
hidden risks for inclusion and assess human
development via selected specific aspect of the
capabilities set.
Trends of Human Development
in Eastern Europe
This section aims to investigate the trends
of human development in Eastern European
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countries and identify possible differences in
capabilities between the national states within the
region and, in particular, between Ukraine and its
neighbour countries.
If we look at human development and
economic growth of Ukraine in recent 20 years,
we will see that decline in 1990’s followed
by rapid and persistent growth since 1999 till
global economic crisis in 2008. Such growth is
supposed to increase the capabilities of social
agents. However, estimation of such an increase
would be more informative if it is related to the
context of societies with similar development
path and corresponding level of the capabilities
in the initial point of comparison.
In 1990 Central and Eastern European
countries could be divided into 4 clusters by
two dimensions. However, if ignore a factor
of location, which is important because Soviet
republics didn’t have many institutions of an
independent state and experienced deeper crisis
in 1990’s, all 13 countries fall into 2 groups of
less developed (4 countries) and more developed
(9 countries) based on UNDP criterion HDI
equals 0.800 or above. Five out of nine countries
in a more developed cluster were the part of the
Soviet Union.
Before the collapse of the Eastern block
in 1990 there was no significant difference in
HDI value between Ukraine and the majority of
Eastern European countries. In fact, Ukraine’s
HDI value of 0,809 matched the median in the
selected set of 13 countries.3 As it follows from
Table 1, six countries had higher value than
Ukraine and six lower. Ukraine’s value was even
slightly above the mean of 0,806 in the set.
However, Slovenia and Czech Republic,
which historically had been closer to more
developed core of European civilization, had
higher level of development among others (0,851
and 0,845). Among Soviet countries Lithuania
demonstrated better performance with the value
of 0,827. Estonia, Russian Federation, Ukraine
and Latvia were approximately at the same
level with Poland and Hungary. Soviet Belarus,
Bulgaria and Romania constituted a cluster of
less developed societies. Moldova had the lowest
HDI (0,740) and was considerably behind.
Table 1. HDI of Central and Eastern European countries in 1990 – 2005
HDI Rank 2005
Country
1990
1995
2000
2005
27
Slovenia
0,851
0,857
0,891
0,917
32
Czech Republic
0,845
0,854
0,866
0,891
36
Hungary
0,813
0,817
0,845
0,874
37
Poland
0,806
0,822
0,852
0,870
43
Lithuania
0,827
0,791
0,831
0,862
44
Estonia
0,813
0,792
0,829
0,860
45
Latvia
0,804
0,771
0,817
0,855
53
Bulgaria
0,794
0,785
0,800
0,824
60
Romania
0,777
0,772
0,780
0,813
64
Belarus
0,790
0,755
0,778
0,804
67
Russian Federation
0,815
0,771
0,782
0,802
76
Ukraine
0,809
0,756
0,761
0,788
111
Moldova
0,740
0,684
0,683
0,708
Source: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2007/2008. Р. 229-230
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Table 2. Clusters of Central and Eastern European countries in 1990.
Location/HDI
More developed (HDI ≥ 0,800)
Soviet
Less developed (HDI < 0,800)
Total number
of countries
2
Belarus, Moldova
7
2
Bulgaria, Romania
6
4
13
5
Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia,
Russian Federation, Ukraine
4
Slovenia, Czech Republic,
Hungary, Poland
Non-Soviet
Overall
9
0,880
0,870
0,860
0,850
0,840
0,830
0,820
0,810
0,800
0,790
0,780
0,770
0,760
0,750
1990
Ukraine
Latvia
Poland
Romania
1995
2000
Russian Federation
Estonia
Belarus
2005
Bulgaria
Lithuania
Hungary
Fig. 1. HDI trends for 10 Central and Eastern European countries in 1990-2005
Figure 1 demonstrates dynamic in human
development of post-socialist countries in
Eastern European region. The Figure doesn’t
include Slovenia and Czech Republic that are
above the mainstream and Moldova that is much
lower. Moldova constitutes a separate case; it was
an agricultural republic of the Soviet Union. In
addition due to separatist movement it lost the
most developed part Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)
in the beginning of the 1990’s. That is why
even compared to other post-soviet countries
that were pulled backward after the USSR
collapsed Moldova can be estimated at a very low
level of development – 111 HDI rank (Human
Development Report, 2005).
The Fig. 1 shows that Poland and Hungary
didn’t experience such a fall in contrast to postsoviet countries. Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia did
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have a drop as well as other Post-Soviet countries.
However, they quickly recover after 1995. Latvia
experienced a huge HDI slump in the middle of
1990’s but developed progressively.
Bulgaria and Romania had moderate decrease
from 1990 till 1995. Their HDI trends were very
similar to the HDI trends of Russian federation
and Belarus from 1995 till 2000, but from 2000
HDI began growing much faster so that even
Romania passed Belarus and Russian Federation
by 2005. In contrast to 1990, Ukraine’s HDI
value in 2005 (0,788) was much lower of median
of the set of 13 countries (0,855) and even lower
of the 1st quartile (0,836). Ukraine had the largest
slump and is backward except Moldova which is
not in the Figure because of the extremely low
HDI value. Notably, both Ukraine and Belarus
had virtually identical minimum of HDI in 1995,
unlike Ukraine Belarus experienced much faster
increase of HDI which approached the value of
1990 in 2000 and exceeded it considerably in
2005. Belarus also improved its relative position
in the country set from 1990 to 2005.
Figure 2 shows the difference between
six post-soviet countries clearly. Lithuania,
Estonia and Latvia were by HDI at the same
level of development with Russian Federation
and Ukraine in 1990. HDI dropped dramatically
for all countries by 1995. By 2005 six countries
formed two distinct clusters. Three Baltic States
which are involved in the European project have
considerably higher HDI.
Among three Post-Soviet states Ukraine
demonstrates a typical pattern. Russian
Federation’s HDI progress is predominantly a
result of growing GDP per capita. The latter is
maintained increasingly by fuel and energy
industry. Belarus has better performance than
0,86
0,85
0,84
0,83
0,82
0,81
0,8
0,79
0,78
0,77
0,76
0,75
1990
1995
2000
2005
Ukraine
Russian Federation
Latvia
Estonia
Lithuania
Belarus
Source: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2007/2008. Р. 229-230
Fig. 2. HDI trends for 6 Post-Soviet countries in 1990-2005
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Ukraine and Russian Federation since 1995.
This is the only country among these three that
exceeded HDI value of 1990. It can be explained
by existing efforts of authoritarian regime. Such
a regime is capable of mobilizing resources for a
certain period of time.
Above we considered HDI trends of selected
societies that gave the opportunity to draw
comparisons. However, it is more important to
analyze development of Central and Eastern
European countries in the broader context to
understand their developmental track.
The US development is suggested to be a
scale for changes in the modern world. The US
is the largest Western society with the biggest
economy. It fully embodies values and principles
of market-economy democracy. Nonetheless the
US doesn’t have the highest HDI among the most
developed countries. Below data will present HDI
trends of selected countries compared against
US HDI trend between 1990 and 2005. This also
allows finding relative development shift for
each society taking into account initial country’s
position in 1990.
All Central and Eastern European countries
that are the EU member-states (EU8) demonstrate
positive dynamics in relation to the US. They
all improved their HDI ratio. The biggest
improvement demonstrate Slovenia (3,82 %) and
Poland (3,78 %). Latvia demonstrates the best
relative result among post-soviet A8 countries
(2,42 %), although its absolute HDI value is the
smallest.
Bulgaria and Romania also have HDI growing
better that the US. Although improvement is
less significant: 0,25 % and 0,94 % accordingly.
Bulgaria has the lowest value among all ten
Central and Eastern European countries. Overall
three countries have relative change range below
1 % (Bulgaria, Romania and Lithuania).
Adding Bulgaria and Romania to the
aggregate list of EU8 and EU2 makes the mean
of relative range value a bit smaller – 0,0211,
σ2 = 0,0002.
The state of affairs in the post-soviet societies
is absolutely different. All countries as well as
Russian Federation have negative dynamic in
relation to the US.
Table 3. Relative HDI change in Central and Eastern European countries (EU8) in 1990/2005
Country’s
HDI/United
States’ HDI
ratio 1990
Country’s
HDI/United
States’ HDI
ratio 2005
Relative
change range
1990/2005
0,951
1,000
1,000
0,0000
0,851
0,917
0,926
0,964
0,0382
0,845
0,891
0,919
0,937
0,0174
0,813
0,874
0,885
0,919
0,0344
0,806
0,870
0,877
0,915
0,0378
0,827
0,862
0,900
0,906
0,0065
Estonia
0,813
0,860
0,885
0,904
0,0197
Latvia
0,804
0,855
0,875
0,899
0,0242
HDI
HDI
original value original value
1990
2005
HDI Rank
2005
Country
12
Point of
reference
(US)
0,919
27
Slovenia
32
Czech
Republic
36
Hungary
37
Poland
43
Lithuania
44
45
Μean = 0,0255; σ2 = 0,0001
Source: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2007/2008. Р. 229-230
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Table 4. Relative HDI change in Bulgaria and Romania (EU2) in 1990/2005
Country’s
HDI/United
States’ HDI
ratio 1990
Country’s
HDI/United
States’ HDI
ratio 2005
Relative
change range
1990/2005
0,951
1,000
1,000
0,0000
0,794
0,824
0,864
0,866
0,0025
0,777
0,813
0,845
0,855
0,0094
HDI
HDI
original value original value
1990
2005
HDI Rank
2005
Country
12
Point of
reference
(US)
0,919
53
Bulgaria
60
Romania
Source: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2007/2008. Р. 229-230
Table 5. Relative HDI change in Borderland societies and Russian Federation in 1990/2005
Country’s
HDI/United
States’ HDI
ratio 1990
Country’s
HDI/United
States’ HDI
ratio 2005
Relative
change range
1990/2005
0,951
1,000
1,000
0,0000
0,790
0,804
0,860
0,845
-0,0142
0,815
0,802
0,887
0,843
-0,0435
Ukraine
0,809
0,788
0,880
0,829
-0,0517
Moldova
0,740
0,708
0,805
0,744
-0,0607
HDI
HDI
original value original value
1990
2005
HDI Rank
2005
Country
12
Point of
reference
(US)
0,919
64
Belarus
67
Russian
Federation
76
111
Μean = – 0,0425; σ2 = 0,0003
Source: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2007/2008. Р. 229-230
Belarus has better result (-1,42 %). The
worst situation is in Moldova (-6,07 %). Russian
Federation, which is close to Belarus by original
HDI value (0,843 against 0,845), is more than
3 times worse by relative to the US shift. The
mean of relative range value for four post-soviet
societies equals -0,0425, σ2 = 0,0003. (For three
borderland societies Belarus, Moldova, Ukraine it
equals -0,0422). The difference with the mean of
Central and Eastern European countries that are
the EU members is 0,0636 and 0,068 with EU8.
Thus, Eastern Europe was radically reshaped
after 15 years of modernization. Different clusters
formed in the region by 2005. Poland, Lithuania,
Estonia and Latvia were by HDI at the same level
of development with Bulgaria and Romania (EU2)
remain in the same cell, but they are approaching
the cluster of more developed societies Russian
Federation and Ukraine in 1990 had considerably
higher HDI in 2005. Bulgaria and Romania
(EU2), which had lower level of development that
Ukraine in 1990, approached the cluster of more
developed societies.
Notably, all old EU member-states (EU15)
countries displayed positive dynamic in relation
to the US. HDI grew more than in the US with
the mean of relative range value – 0,0204,
σ2 = 0,0001. If in 1990 none of the countries had
HDI as high as in the US, in 2005 five the EU
members exceeded that level.
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United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP) changed calculation of HDI and
classification parameters of Human development
in 2010. Since we use HDI calculated based on
2008 methodology to capture data for 1990’s
period for several post-soviet countries, it would
be logical to keep the former UNDP criterion,
according to which High human development
should be recognized with the HDI value of
0.800 or above. (Human Development Report,
2008) Following this classification, Belarus
and Russian Federation fall into a group of
countries of High human development, while
only Ukraine and Moldova among selected
countries go into a group of Medium human
development.
However, if one wants to find real
differentiation in Central and Eastern Europe,
another working criterion should be employed. It
was suggested using UNDP estimation for initial
point in 1990 to define clusters showed in Table
1. HDI value of 0,800 equalled 0,8705 of the US
HDI in 1990. Apparently, the same value of 0,800
is smaller part of US HDI in 2005 because the
latter has increased (in fact, the ratio is 0,841). If
to keep the same ratio of 0,870 as a benchmark
for defining more developed societies as it was
in 1990, absolute HDI value would be 0,827 in
2005.
Based on these calculations we can see from
Table 6 that all EU8 members fall into a group
of more developed societies, while all the rest
post-soviet countries concentrate in a cluster of
less developed societies. Russian Federation and
Ukraine lost their positions and switched to the
latter cluster. There are no non-EU countries in
the former. Bulgaria and Romania (EU2) remain
in the same cell, but they are approaching the
cluster of more developed societies.
Therefore, despite the actual growth since
1995, if related to the other societies of the region
Ukraine is drastically behind which may lead to
the gap in capabilities on the national states scale
within Eastern Europe.
Assessment of capabilities
and a risk for inclusion in Ukraine
Comparison with a regional or a group of
countries trends is one possible way to assess
human development in a modernizing society.
Another tool is measurement of the capabilities.
Traditional statistical measures often can not be
indicative of the actual capabilities and risks for
inclusion. As it follows from Table 7, inequality
indicators in Ukraine are stable over 8 years and
the situation is slightly improving.
However, the average monthly wage
statistics demonstrate rising inequality between
Table 6. Differentiation of Central and Eastern Europe in 2005.
Status/HDI
More developed (HDI ≥ 0,827)
Less developed (HDI < 0,827)
Total number of
countries
Non-EU
members
0
6
Belarus, Russian Federation,
Ukraine Moldova,
Bulgaria, Romania
6
EU members
7
Slovenia, Czech Republic,
Hungary, Poland, Lithuania,
Estonia, Latvia
0
7
Overall
7
6
13
Countries that accessed the EU in 2007 and are approaching a cluster of more developed countries are in italics.
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Table 7. Inequality measures in Ukraine in 1999-2010
Year
Share of income or consumption %
Poorest 10 %
Richest 10 %
Richest 10 % to
poorest 10 %
Gini index
1999
3,7
23,2
6,4
29,0
2007
3,8
22,5
6,0
28,2
2000 – 2010
-
-
-
27,6
Source: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2003. Р. 283; HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2009. Р. 196. HUMAN
DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2010.
Ukrainian regions and the City of Kyiv (Table
8). The gap between all regions and the capital
of Ukraine is growing and 13 of 25 regions
therein had an average wage less than 50 % of
Kyiv’s value (Ukraine’s capital) in 2008 (0 – in
1995).
National value compared to Kyiv decreased
for 14,25 % between 1995 and 2008. The biggest
difference for this period have experienced
Donetska region – 31,45 %, Dnipropetrovska –
29,97 %, Zaporizka – 25,05 %. The smallest
changes occurred in Zakarpatska region –
2,73 %, Volynska – 8,11 %, Khmelnytska –
8,51 %. Although the latter regions have average
wage less than half of Kyiv’s. Remarkably, only
3 regions of 24 (excluding the City of Kyiv and
Kyivska region) had the average monthly wages
above the national average in 2008.
From a resources perspective the capabilities
can be estimated by availability of assets and
actual access to them. Even if, for instance,
inhabitants of Kyiv have higher wages than
population in other regions it doesn’t necessarily
mean their greater capabilities, for assets can be
harder to access in Kyiv because of their higher
relative value.
According to the official state statistics, in
the last decade Ukrainians obtained on average
more fi nancial resources than in the previous
period, which implies increase in capabilities.
Based on reports of the State Committee of
Statistics of Ukraine we calculated that between
1998 and 2008 real salaries in Ukraine grew
309 % (nominal salary increased 1176 %).
Real disposable income since 2001 till 2008
has grown 263,5 %. Number of population
with average per capita total income under
subsistence minimum dropped over 4 and a
half times from 39,2 million (80,2 % of the
overall population) in 2001 to 8,1 million
(18,1 % of the population) in 2008 (official size
of subsistence minimum was raised by 231,8 %)
(State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, 2010).
These objective statistics indicators are also
supported by subjective self-assessment of the
population shown in the national representative
surveys. Number of people who felt satisfied
with their overall position in society increased
during 8 years almost 3 times from 7 % in 1998
to 20,2 % in 2006 (Panina et al., 2006).
These data makes to assume that in average
the capabilities of the population in Ukraine
improved. However, this assumption may
not embrace all set of the capabilities. As an
example, we will explore such a vital capability
as housing.
In 2001 according to the survey of the
Institute of Sociology of NAS of Ukraine 36,7 %
of the respondents lived in a private apartment
owned by their families and 35,6 % lived in a
private house (part of the house) which were in
possession of their families (Panina et al., 2006).
Hence, over 72 % of Ukrainians could feel secure
with regard to their access to housing.
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Table 8. National and regional average monthly wages as percentage of the City of Kyiv average monthly wage
in 1995-2008
1995
1998
2003
2008
Ukraine
73,00
61,94
60,71
58,75
Autonomous
Republic of Crimea
70,00
57,89
56,90
52,34
Vinnytska
58,00
46,56
43,89
45,67
Volynska
53,00
42,51
41,92
44,89
Dnipropetrovska
91,00
76,52
69,12
61,03
Donetska
97,00
78,95
72,27
65,55
Zhytomyrska
61,00
47,77
43,89
45,67
Zakarpatska
50,00
43,72
49,80
47,27
Zaporizka
84,00
74,09
71,09
58,95
Ivano-Frankivska
65,00
48,58
52,83
50,20
Kyivska
78,00
61,13
61,76
60,25
Kirovogradska
58,00
48,18
46,39
46,45
Luganska
82,00
65,99
62,29
57,55
Lvivska
62,00
53,44
55,06
51,07
Mykolayvska
68,00
58,70
61,76
52,73
Odeska
66,00
59,11
59,66
53,12
Poltavska
76,00
60,73
57,42
54,03
Rivnenska
61,00
48,58
51,25
49,54
Sumska
66,00
52,63
49,80
47,89
Ternopilska
53,00
42,11
39,95
42,71
Kharkivska
72,00
64,37
59,79
54,62
Khersonska
59,00
50,61
46,78
44,73
Khmelnytska
55,00
46,15
42,44
46,49
Cherkaska
63,00
51,42
45,99
47,46
Chernivetska
55,00
42,91
45,20
45,61
Chernigivska
57,00
49,39
44,94
44,57
City of Kyiv
100,00
100,00
100,00
100,00
Source: State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, 2010. (Wage accruals per pay-roll, UAH) Percentages calculated by the
author.
The State Statistics Committee of Ukraine
has reported that since 2000 till 2008 overall 672
thousand apartments have been put into service
with total size of 68 753 sq. m and number of
apartments built per 1000 population have risen
from 1,3 in 2000 to 2,0 in 2008; there were 22,8
sq. m average per 1 inhabitant in 2008 compared
to 20,2 sq. m in 1998 (State Statistics Committee
of Ukraine, 2010).
Average room number for a dwelling was 2,8
in 2006 compared to 2,6 in 1998, and in average
a room was shared by 1,7 inhabitants in 2006
compared to 2,0 in 1998 (Panina et al., 2006).
Number of families and single persons
registered as requiring municipal or cooperative
accommodations declined from 2 million and 29
thousand in 1998 to 1 million and 216 thousand
in 2008 (State Statistics Committee of Ukraine,
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2010). Notably, that during the same period there
were only 245 thousand families and single
persons who obtained municipal or cooperative
accommodations (State Statistics Committee of
Ukraine, 2010).
These official statistics and the survey data
depict the situation with housing for Ukrainians
as stable and slightly improving. But what is
the capability for a common Ukrainian to
acquire their own housing during life? We
calculate such capability as number of years
needed for a family of two fulltime working
persons to earn an amount to purchase a 50 sq.
m apartment for a current market price on the
secondary residential market in a particular
region. Number of years is calculated based
on the average monthly wage for a particular
region assuming that the whole wage amount
before paying taxes of one family member is
intended for the purchase.
Table 9 demonstrates that in Desnianskyi
district of the City of Kyiv, which has had the
lowest prices on the secondary residential market
in Kyiv persistently over decade, capability to
purchase a modest apartment implies saving the
whole monthly wage (without even paying taxes)
for virtually the same period of 12 years in 1998
and 2003.
This period became almost one and a half
time longer at the beginning of 2008 and reached
17 years. Meanwhile, the average monthly wage
in Kyiv increased over 3 times between 1998 and
2003 and more than 4 times between 2003 and
2008.
The actual situation with housing capabilities
in Kyiv is even more constrained. We calculated
the price of a 50 sq. m apartment based on an
average price of 1 sq. m in the district. However,
smaller apartments normally have higher price
for a 1 sq. m on the residential market. Besides,
we selected the district with the price minimum
in the city.
Table 10 presents calculations for
Sviatoshinskyi district, in which prices of 1 sq. m
were close to median for Kyiv in the considered
interval.
The period needed to earn a required
amount was with some fluctuation about 13
years in 1998 and 2003. But it exceeded 19 years
in 2008. The difference with the district with
the minimal price became more significant –
over two years. According to SVDevelopment
consulting company database the mean price for
1 sq. m in 2008 for the City of Kyiv was 3523
USD. Consequently, an apartment for the mean
price would demand over 23 years of earnings.
Table 9. Market prices for a sq. m on the secondary residential market, average monthly wages and number of
years expected to purchase a 50 sq. m apartment in Desnianskyi district of the City of Kyiv in 1998-2008
January 1998 January 2003 January 2008
Sq. m price in USD
366
UAH/USD official exchange rate
414
2 490
1,91
5,33
5,05
Sq. m price in UAH
699,06
2206,62
12574,5
Calculated price of 50 sq. m apartment in UAH
Monthly wage in the City of Kyiv
(Wage accruals per pay-roll, UAH)
34953
110331
628725
247
761
3074
11,8
12,0
17,0
Number of years expected to purchase an apartment
Sources: Association of Real Estate Specialists of Ukraine (ASNU, 2010), State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, 2010,
National Bank of Ukraine. Calculations made by the author.
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Table 10. Market prices for a sq. m on the secondary residential market, average monthly wages and number of
years expected to purchase a 50 sq. m apartment in Sviatoshinskyi district of the City of Kyiv in 1998-2008
January 1998 January 2003 January 2008
Sq. m price in USD
411
441
2810
UAH/USD official exchange rate
1,91
5,33
5,05
Sq. m price in UAH
785,01
2350,53
14190,5
Calculated price of 50 sq. m apartment in UAH
Monthly wage in the City of Kyiv
(Wage accruals per pay-roll, UAH)
39250,5
117526,5
709525
247
761
3074
13,2
12,9
19,2
Number of years expected to purchase an apartment
Sources: Association of Real Estate Specialists of Ukraine (ASNU, 2010), State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, 2010,
National Bank of Ukraine. Calculations made by the author.
380
101270
Donetsk
550
2015
400
106600
Lviv
419
1570
488
130052
Odesa
454
1633
480
127920
Kharkiv
455
1679
341
90876,5
Number of
years expected
to purchase an
apartment 2008
1876
Calculated price of
50 sq. m apartment
in UAH 2008
526
Sq. m price in USD
2008
Calculated price of
50 sq. m apartment
in UAH 2003
Dnipropetrovsk
Number of
years expected
to purchase an
apartment 2003
2008
Monthly wage
(Wage accruals
per pay-roll,
UAH)
2003
Sq. m price in USD
2003
Table 11. Average monthly wages, market prices for a sq. m on the secondary residential market and number of
years expected to purchase a 50 sq. m apartment in five Ukrainian cities in 2003-2008
16,0
2365
597162,5
26,5
16,2
2451
618877,5
25,6
25,9
3020
762550
40,5
23,5
2992
755480
38,6
16,6
2120
535300
26,6
Sources: State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, 2010, National Bank of Ukraine, SVDevelopment Consulting Company
Database. Calculations made by the author.
With the mean price of 568 USD for 1 sq. m it was
16,5 years in 2003.
Since there is the lack of data on real estate
prices in Ukrainians regions, it was possible to
calculate the index for several big cities only and
for a shorter period.
Table 11 shows that despite lower prices on
the secondary residential market comparing to
the City of Kyiv, the capability to purchase own
apartment became poorer in all big Ukrainian
regional cities in 2008. However, it is possible
to divide them in two clusters by the indicator
of years expected to purchase an apartment. The
first one embraces three cities – Dnipropetrovsk,
Donetsk and Kharkiv which with the City of
Kyiv (16,5 years) fell within range from 16 to 16,6
years in 2003. The values increased by 9,4 – 10,5
years by 2008 with the range 25,6 – 26,6 years.
Remarkably, the value in Kyiv (23 years) was
lower by 2,6 years than in Donetsk and 3,6 than
in Kharkiv in 2008.
The second cluster of cities Odesa and Lviv
had considerably higher values of 23,5 –and 25,9
years in 2003 (one third longer period than in the
first cluster). In 2008 they reached point of 38,6
and 40,5 years accordingly. (The difference of
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approximately one third with the other cluster
was kept. The difference with Kyiv grew to
over 40 %.) Although prices on the secondary
residential market in the regional cities from both
clusters were very similar: mean 417,8 (USD per 1
sq. m), standard deviation 57,3 and the coefficient
of variation 0,137 in 2003; and mean 2589,6 (USD
per 1 sq. m), standard deviation 357,03 and the
coefficient of variation 0,138 in 2008, disparity
in the capability indicator was determined by
lower monthly wages in Lviv and Odesa regions
which concurred with relatively more expensive
housing.
Thus, foregoing calculations demonstrate the
actual and significant decrease of the capability
to acquire own housing in the biggest Ukrainian
cities including the national capital. Meanwhile
other relevant statistical indicators and survey
self-reports failed to reveal the negative trend in
housing capabilities.
was already very poor in 1998, dramatically
worsened in the 2000’s.
The study is focused on the selected case
of the relative access to the resources in the
period of economic growth in conjunction
with comparison of developmental tracks
in Eastern Europe based on conventional
HDI methodology. It unveils limitations of
indicators of official statistics and available
data from traditional surveys. The capabilities
model can supplement existing methods
of measurement of social development in
sociology. The capabilities, which are allocated
for social actors and groups, determine their
actual choices. The choice application requires
social inclusion of actors. Relative access to the
resources, recognition, participation, values as
motives of action and choice, and institutional
means of securing choice can be considered
dimensions of modernization which induces a
gain in capabilities.
Conclusion
This study provides a critical observation of
development of Ukraine as a modernizing East
European society in comparative perspective.
Employing the capability approach to social
inclusion allows assessment of the access to
the resources, hidden risks for inclusion and
implicit indicators of inequality. From this
perspective social inclusion is an important
factor in human development which embraces
the means of providing and securing human
choice.
This paper shows that despite the actual
growth of GDP per capita, real disposable
income and Human Development Index since
1995, if compared to other societies of the region
that had similar level of development Ukraine is
significantly behind which implies the growing
lag in capabilities on the national states scale
within Eastern Europe. In particular, within a
decade the access to housing in Ukraine, which
Acknowledgements
Research for this article was supported
in part by the Carnegie Research Fellowship
Program, which is administered by the National
Council for Eurasian and East European Research
(NCEEER). The opinions expressed herein are
the author’s own and do not necessarily express
the views of either the Carnegie Corporation of
New York or NCEEER.
A version of this paper was presented at 81st
Annual Meeting of Eastern Sociological Society
(ESS), Philadelphia, USA, 24–27 February
2011 and some materials were used in a paper
"European Integration and Trends of Development
of Eastern European Borderland", Proceedings of
National University of "Kyiv-Mohyla Academy",
Vol. 122, 2011.
The author is grateful to Dr. Brian
Gareau (Boston College, USA) for his valuable
comments.
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1
2
3
Relation Turkey to European civilization is under discussion that is omitted in this paper. Russian Federation has a special
position that will be discussed below.
Modernization rhetoric was used in official documents and presidents’ addresses of both countries, e.g.: Послание
Президента Федеральному Собранию Российской Федерации. – 12 ноября 2009 года, Москва, Большой
Кремлёвский дворец. – Available at: http://news.kremlin.ru/transcripts/5979; Послание Президента Федеральному
Собранию Российской Федерации. – 22 декабря 2011 года, Москва, Кремль. – Available at: http://news.kremlin.ru/
news/14088; Модернізація України – наш стратегічний вибір : Щорічне Послання Президента України до Верховної
Ради України. – К., 2011. – 416 с.– Available at:http://www.president.gov.ua/docs/Poslannya_sborka.pdf; Тільки глибока
модернізація України сприятиме її швидкому розвитку : Виступ Президента України на урочистостях з нагоди
відзначення 80-річчя утворення Дніпропетровської області. – 24.02.2012. – Available at: http://www.president.gov.
ua/news/23092.html
Slovakia was excluded because of lack of the data. Russian Federation was added as a point of reference.
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15. Honneth A. (2001) Recognition or Redistribution?: Changing Perspectives on the Moral Order
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19. Human Development Report 2010. UNDP.
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Sociology Programme. Durban: ISA.
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Theory: In Gerard Delaty and Engin F. Isin (eds) Handbook of Historical Sociology. London: Sage
Publications: 96-107.
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of the world development. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Критическая оценка развития
модернизирующегося общества в Восточной Европе:
скрытые риски для социальной включенности
Ю.Б. Савельев
Киевский национальный университет им. Т. Шевченко
Украина, 01601, Киев, ул. Володимирская, 60
Возможностный подход предложил понимать человеческую свободу как возможность
выбора различных альтернативных вариантов (Foster and Sen, 1997). Рост возможностей
является основой развития человеческого потенциала (Sen, 1999) и важнейшей частью
процесса модернизации (Welzel, Inglehart and Klingemann, 2003). В статье предлагается
возможностная модель социальной включенности, которая используется для оценки
человеческого развития модернизирующегося общества. Она также позволяет выявить
скрытые риски неравенства и эксклюзии. Обосновывается, что, несмотря на быстрый
экономический рост, фактическое увеличение реальных доходов на душу населения и
улучшение индекса развития человеческого потенциала в Украине с конца 1990-х до середины
2000-х годов, возможности граждан были под серьезной угрозой. Украина отставала в
развитии от других обществ региона (за исключением Молдовы ), хотя уровни развития
стран Восточной Европы были очень похожи в начале 1990-х годов. Используемый подход
демонстрирует растущий разрыв в возможностях социальных акторов в регионе.
Ключевые слова: социальная включенность (инклюзия), модернизация, развитие, возможности,
Восточная Европа, Украина.
Научная специальность: 22.00.00 – социология.
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Journal of Siberian Federal University. Humanities & Social Sciences 10 (2014 7) 1794-1802
~~~
УДК 314.727
Temporary Migration in India:
Findings from Statistical Data
and Learnings from Case Studies
Evgeny V. Kochkina* and Srilata Sircarb
The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy
and Public Administration
82 Vernadskogo, Moscow, 119571, Russia
b
Lund University
12 Sölvegatan, 62 Lund, SE-223, Sweden
a
Received 18.06.2014, received in revised form 02.07.2014, accepted 17.09.2014
The subject of rural-urban migration in India and its close association with the question of rural
development has been studied over a long period of time. Official data suggests that short-term
migration is a rare phenomenon in India while several case studies from across the country reveal
quite the opposite. This paper has attempted to identify some loopholes in the official data. It has
further reviewed the existing literature and case studies to identify informal indebtedness as a prime
motivation for temporary migration. On the whole, the paper seeks to explore the arenas and potential
for future research on the theme of temporary rural-urban labour migration in the context of India.
Keywords: temporary migration, rural-urban linkages, rural development, India.
Research area: 22.00.00 – sociology.
1. Introduction
The subject of rural-urban migration and
its close association with the question of rural
development has been studied over a long period
of time. The discussion over this phenomenon
has largely been framed by the theory of urban
bias in development policies and strategies; and
migration has on many instances been seen as
merely the spatial transfer of poverty from rural
to urban areas without having any significant
positive impact on income poverty and overall
living conditions. However the form of migration
that has been dominant in academic interest
*
is long-term or permanent migration. Internal
temporary migration is a relatively less studied
phenomenon that has evoked interest only in the
recent times. The aim of the paper is to discuss
trends, causes and consequences of this type of
migration in present day India.
The paper is divided into three parts. It begins
with a review of literature on different aspects of
temporary migration in India. In the second part,
using statistical data from the National Sample
Survey Office (NSSO) report on Migration in
India1 we will attempt to illustrate key features of
the phenomena. In particular, we made an attempt
© Siberian Federal University. All rights reserved
Corresponding author E-mail address: ekochkin@gmail.com
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to estimate what social groups tend to choose this
kind of migration, what differences in trend in
temporary migration might be detected between
states/regions of India, and what factors motivate
temporary migration. We attempt to fill the gaps
in learning arising from this data through case
studies by independent researchers available in
the existing literature. The final part of the paper
is a detailed discussion of our main findings
where we reflect on the ramification of temporary
migration on income poverty, terms of labour and
overall rural development.
2. Literature Review
Recent studies conducted in different
developing countries have shown that internal
labor migration is growing considerably year by
year. The biggest part of migrating population
is temporary migrants. Frequently, there are poor
rural people with low level of education and other
assets who leave their family behind to search
for a temporary job as constructions or manual
workers in rural towns and big cities. According
to different estimations, about 20 million Indians
join this track each year (Deshingkar 2005:30).
The phenomenon of growing temporary
migration in India has been stated in many
recent village studies. Since the Constitution of
India safeguards the fundamental right to live
and work in any part of the country without
registering ether at the place of origin or at the
place of staying, it is difficult to quantify the
flows of migrants in the context of the country as
a whole. A survey by Banerjee and Duflo (2007)
carried out in rural areas of Udaipur shows that
“60 percent of the poorest households report that
someone from their family had lived outside for
a part of the year to obtain work” (Banerjee &
Duflo 2007:153). Similar survey conducted by an
UN team in the rural areas of Madhya Pradesh
has shown that more than 50 % of households in
studied villages had at least one family member
who was a temporary migrant (Deshingkar &
Akter 2009:55). The percent was even higher
(75 %) in the most remote and hilly tribal villages
(ibid). A study carried out by Dayal and Karan
in 12 villages of Jharkhand has demonstrated
an analogous trend; in particular, 30 % of rural
households have at least one temporary migrant
(Deshingkar 2005:31). The amount of temporary
migrants again was significantly higher among
the poorest of the poor; among migrants from the
area, 80 % were landless and 88 % were illiterate
(ibid). There are only a few examples of studies
that have been completed on the topic; however,
a common finding is that the rate of temporary
migration is significantly higher than permanent
migration and the poorest social groups or
people from the poorest areas tend to join
temporary migration. Apart from these features,
these studies pointed out some other important
characteristics of temporary migration in India.
It has been shown that usually the head of the
household is the person who migrates to find a
job, migrants typically do several trips in a year,
and the median length of a trip is not longer than
one month (Rogaly1998; Banergee & Duflo 2007;
Deshingkar & Akter 2009).
Reasons which motivate people to migrate
temporarily from rural areas to towns and cities
seem to be the most debated aspect of the issue
of temporary migration in India. The “push-pull”
model dominates the existing literature on the
topic. According to the literature, households make
a rational decision to send some of their members
to work away in an attempt to “minimize risks of
various market failures such as drought, flood, or
drop in prices” (Haberfeld et al. 1999:474). In other
words temporary migration makes household
income more stable. The second important reason
which is widely discussed in the literature is
scarcity of land. This factor is said to be the most
important motivation to migrate for such social
groups of Indian society as Scheduled Tribes and
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Castes (Haberfeld et al. 1999:474; Deshingkar
2005). The third factor pointed out by several
authors is economical diversity among different
Indian regions caused by differential industrial
and agricultural development. For example,
”workers from backward states like Bihar, Uttar
Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan routinely travel
to the developed “green revolution” states of
Maharashtra, Punjab and Gujarat”(Deshingkar
2005:30).
Scholars interested in temporary migration
flows in India argue that apart from significant
amount of drawing forces which motivate people
to migrate, there are several institutional factors
that make people migrate not permanently,
but temporary. In particular, we can mention
such factors as diversity of languages, caste
loyalty, traditions to marry at the young age, the
importance of living within household, high cost
of travel and information, close social connections
of people with their families and communities
etc (Haberfeld et al. 1999; Banerjee & Duflo
2007). Because of these factors it is less desirable
for people to migrate from one area to another
permanently. Thus, describing the reasons why
people migrate only for short periods of time
Banerjee and Duflo mentioned that “making more
money is not a huge priority, or at least not a large
enough priority to experience several months of
living alone and often sleeping on the ground in
or around the work premises”(Banerjee & Duflo
2007:165).
How profitable is temporary migration for
rural households? The question has been raised and
discussed by many scholars. Taking into account
the fact that people from the poorest social groups
usually join the process, temporary migration can
be seen as an effective instrument to fight rural
poverty. However, it must be mentioned that this
type of migration does not change the financial
situation of rural households considerably
enough. In particular, temporary migrants in
India working as construction or manual workers
are prone to frequently changing their jobs
(Banerjee & Duflo 2007:153). In this situation,
it is quite difficult for them to accumulate new
skills and contacts. In other words, frequently
the only possible job opportunity for this type of
migrants is manual, badly paid, low status work
(Rogaly 1998:22).
3. Results
3.1. Who Are the Temporary Migrants2
in India and How Many Are They?
The NSSO report on Migration in India
(2007-08) defines a migrant as any member of a
household “whose last usual place of residence
(UPR), at any time in the past, was different
from the current place of enumeration” (NSSO
2007-08: 11). In contrast, the definition of shortterm migration did not involve change of UPR at
all. Any member of a household who had stayed
away from his current place of enumeration for
a period of one month or more but less than six
months within the last 365 days, for the purpose
of employment or in search of employment, was
counted as a short-term migrant (ibid). This
definition of short-term migration is significant
because it takes into account the purpose behind
such temporary movement i.e. employment or
search of employment. Unlike the category of
permanent migrants which includes women who
migrate due to marriage, this category focuses
specifically on migration induced mainly by
economic factors. This should be an important
consideration while evaluating the numbers that
the NSSO reports.
According to the report, short-term migration
did not form a significant part of the study of
migration in India because the rate of shortterm migration was only 1.7 % in rural areas and
negligible (less than one per cent) in urban areas
(ibid: H-iii). However these rates are calculated as
proportion of entire population. Since the definition
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itself takes into account the purpose of migration,
the rates should be calculated as proportion of the
workforce (population between the ages of 15
and 59)3. Since the report concentrates only on
data from rural areas the same has to be done in
this paper hereafter. Although the NSSO study is
not a census, the sampling size and strategy are
aimed at making generalization of the findings
reliable (ibid: 1). On the basis of these facts, the
following deductions can be made: the absolute
number of short-term migrants in rural areas
is 1.7 % of the total rural population which is
approximately 14.5 million individuals4, this
number when seen as a proportion of the rural
workforce5 constitutes 3 % of the total rural
workforce. Despite being large in absolute terms,
the figure is still quite small as compared to the
proportions revealed by some other small-scale
studies by independent researchers quoted in the
prior sections. One of the reasons for this could
be the fact that the NSSO study is a household
based study rather than an individual based
one. It is likely that many short-term migrants
may be living as individuals rather than as part
of households. While the Census regards such
individuals as households in their own right, the
same is not true of the NSSO study. Moreover,
short-term migrants are not counted in the outmigrants category which makes the estimation of
their exact number further difficult.
Even with all these limitations in mind, the
socio-economic profile of the short-term migrant
thrown up by the data from the NSSO study
is quite telling. First of all, for every 28 male
short-term migrants, there were only 5 female
short-term migrants indicating that short-term
migration is nearly six times more prevalent
among males than among females (NSSO 200708: Table15 Appendix A). Secondly, when the
sample was divided into deciles on the basis of
Monthly Per Capita Expenditure (MPCE) the
incidence of short-term migration was seen to be
increasing in deciles of decreasing MPCE with
highest concentration in the two lowest deciles
(ibid: 94). Since the data was not disaggregated
on the basis of caste and religion, it is difficult
to profile the short-term migrants on these
bases. But on the basis of existing studies it can
be safely argued that short-term migration is
a strategy of the poorest income groups which
are most often constituted by marginalized
groups such as Scheduled Castes, Scheduled
Tribes and religious minorities such as Muslims.
Further corroboration of this can be found in the
qualitative studies that explore the motivations
behind short-term migration.
3.2. What Motivates Short-term
Migration in India?
The NSSO report states that 51 % of male
short-term migrants migrated within the state
of their usual residence while 72 % of them
migrated to urban areas. For female short-term
migrants, migration within the state was higher
at 69 % but migration to urban areas was lower
at 42 %. While the definition already takes into
account the purpose of employment or search of
employment, the usual principal activity status
of these migrants further corroborates this.
According to the report construction, agriculture
and low-skill manufacturing together constituted
80 % of the usual principal activity of short-term
migrants, with construction engaging 43 % of
males and agriculture engaging 45 % of female
migrants. These figures make it abundantly
clear that employment is the prime motivation
behind undertaking short-term migration but
also brings forth the observation that the forms
of employment of the short-term migrants are
not such that are expected to be high-income or
capable of upward social mobility. This leads
to the question why some sections of the rural
population are migrating seasonally to find
employment in activities that are not apparently
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economically or socially uplifting. The answer to
this can be found in some specific case focused
studies conducted by various scholars.
Several articles in the volume titled India’s
Unfree Workforce: Of Bondage Old and New
(Bremen et al 2009) associate the issue of
indebtedness to seasonal migration and informal
employment. Srivastava (2009 cited in Bremen et
al 2009) points out that in the absence of formal
sources of credit many vulnerable sections in
rural areas are forced to enter into “voluntary,
informal debt relations” that are marked by high
rates of interest and power relations shaped by
caste affiliations. Seasonal migration is often
resorted to as a means to repay debt rather than
merely to enhance income. Other studies (Heuze
& Guerin cited in Bremen et al 2009) emphasize
on the role of intermediaries and the network
of middlemen involved in recruiting seasonal
migrant labour in both agriculture and rural nonfarm sectors. Studies based in the brick kilns of
West Bengal and Tamil Nadu (Shah 2006) have
revealed that the recruiters often pay advances
to the workers which enables them to repay their
debts but simultaneously keeps them tied to the
informal low wage jobs for which payment is
made at the end of the season. This payment then
goes into repaying the advances of the recruiters
thus generating a vicious cycle of permanent
indebtedness.
It has been argued that in such cases,
familial, caste and kinship ties further reinforce
dependency and consequent bondage rather than
acting as empowering forces. For instance, David
Picherit’s (2009 cited in Bremen et al 2009)
ethnographic study of the hierarchy of middlemen
in migration processes in villages of Andhra
Pradesh revealed that migrants belonging to the
same caste as the recruiters were more vulnerable
to informal bondage and obligatory informal
employment than those belonging to other castes.
It also led to a tendency among the migrants to
aspire to rise within the hierarchy of recruiters
thus replicating the process over time and keeping
the community tied to the system. In this regard
the construction of identity becomes another
important source of motivation for seasonal
migrants (Rogaly et al 2003, Shah 2006).
A study of the recruitment process for
migrant workers in rice cultivation in West
Bengal (Rogaly et al 2003) involved ‘upper caste’
employers having to visit, accept hospitality from
and establish familiarity with Scheduled Tribes,
which they did grudgingly in the absence of an
alternative. This process not only enabled the
work-seekers to evaluate which employer was
more trustworthy but also gave a boost to their selfesteem and image as a community. A similar study
of seasonal workers from Jharkhand migrating to
brick kilns in other states (Shah 2006) showed
that this was seen as an opportunity by the young
workers to escape the supervision of parents at
home and explore a new place and opportunities
for prohibited amorous relationships (:93). Thus
this seasonal migration acted as a source of
liberation that paved the way for young workers
to acquire their own independent sense of self.
3.3. What trends
in temporary migration might
be detected between states?
According to NSSO data the rate of
permanent migration is significantly higher in
India than rates of temporary migration. Thus,
only 5 % of all migrants from Indian rural
areas are migrating temporarily. However, if
we estimate the rate among different states and
genders within those states, we can see significant
differences (see Fig. 1). For instance, the rate of
temporary migration is very high from rural areas
of such states as Manipur (92 % of all migrants
migrate temporarily), Arunachal Pradesh (80 %),
Nagaland (62 %), and Lakshadweep (56 %). By
contrast, the lowest rates of temporary migration
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Fig. 1. The figure was generated by authors of the paper based on NSSO data (NSSO 2007-08: 54-56). It describes percentage
of temporary migrants among all migrants from different Indian states. It is important to mention that the figure shows rates
of temporary migration only from rural areas
occur in such states as Madhya Pradesh, Haryana,
Jharkhand, Daman & Diu – temporary migrants
constitute only 1-2 % of all migration flows from
rural areas of these states.
Taking into account such factors as gender
we can see that the highest rate of male temporary
migration again occur in such states as Manipur
(98 % of all male migrants migrate temporary),
Arunachal Pradesh (92 %), Nagaland (84 %),
Lakshadweep (60 %). The highest rate of female
temporary migration is found in rural regions of
the same four states Manipur (83 % of all female
migrants migrate temporary), Arunachal Pradesh
(47 %), Nagaland (47 %), Lakshadweep (60 %).
The lowest rate of male temporary migration was
found in 4 states: Daman & Diu (1 %) Mizoram
(6 %), Haryana (11 %), Madhya Pradesh (14 %).
It should be mentioned that in twenty states, the
percentage of female temporary migration is not
higher than 5 %. The lowest rate of such migration
was found in rural area of four states: Jharkhand,
Assam, Daman & Diu, Madhya Pradesh – in
all these states the percentage of females who
migrate temporarily among all female migrants
is less than 2 %. It is important to mention that
rates of female and male temporary migration
significantly and quite strongly correlate to each
other (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0,825;
p<0.01). The implications of these findings have
been discussed in the following section.
4. Discussion of Results
It is evident that there are serious gaps in the
official data concerning short-term migration in
India. There are great discrepancies in the rate
of temporary migration estimated by region
specific case studies and that projected by the
NSSO study. This may be due to the fact that
temporary migration is concentrated in certain
regions and in certain income groups which may
have had restricted representation in the sample.
For instance, data from the north-east states of
Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and Nagaland reflect
very high rates of temporary migration although
they may have had low representation in the
sample due to their low share in total population
of the country. Similarly, social groups like
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes which
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are repeatedly referred to in several case studies
are minorities in terms of their representation in
the population. Thus there needs to be a statistical
study specifically focused on measuring shortterm migration in the country.
This brings us to the issue of trends and
patterns, which fi nds passing mention in the
report. State-wise disaggregation reveals that
despite limitations of sampling etc temporary
migration seems to be a regional phenomenon.
The north-east seems to be the hot-bed of
temporary migration. This is not surprising
since Scheduled Tribes constitute a large part
of the population of this region and they have
been identified in the case studies as a group
vulnerable to short-term migration. The region
is also backward in terms of both agricultural
production and industrial development. Thus
the overt reason of employment or search of
employment is logically applicable to temporary
migrants from these states. It will be interesting
to fi nd data on the destination of these temporary
migrants and analyse if they fi nd employment
within the respective state or outside. The report
does not disaggregate data on destinations at
the state level but considering the overall high
proportion of in-state temporary migration, some
speculations can be made about the destinations.
What the report fails to take into account is the
issue of indebtedness that figures large in all the
recent case studies.
Since much of the indebtedness is through
informal arrangements, there seems to be a large
gap in the official data in this regard. In fact, the
data on remittances and the use of remittances
does not take into account remittances from
short-term migration thus making a blanket
assumption that the motivation behind this form
1
2
of migration is merely income enhancement. It is
possible that a more in-depth study would reveal
the use of short-term remittances for payment of
informal debts and would also reveal a mechanism
of continuous debt creation that keeps specific
social groups trapped in the cycle of temporary
migration and debt payment. This has serious
implications for policies of social security and
rural financial inclusion. As the case studies
suggest, indebtedness reduces the potential of
short-term migration to alleviate income poverty
and the network of moneylenders, recruiters and
employers may have damaging implications for
the terms of labour.
5. Conclusion
To summarise the key findings of the paper,
official data suggests that short-term migration
is a rare phenomenon in India while several case
studies from across the country reveal quite the
opposite. The paper has attempted to identify
some loopholes in the official data. There is
consensus in all studies over the fact that shortterm migration is concentrated in lowest income
groups and is most prevalent among weaker
social groups such as Scheduled Castes and
Scheduled Tribes. Indebtedness is brought up as a
major motivation for temporary migration in the
case studies but in the absence of official data on
informal indebtedness, it is difficult to analyse the
relationship between these two phenomena. This
in turn makes it difficult to estimate the potential
of temporary migration for poverty reduction
and income enhancement. Thus on the whole,
short-term migration in India has tremendous
potential for future research that can shed light
on policy solutions for important aspects of rural
development.
The NSSO is under the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Govt. of India. It is the only official source
of national level household data in India apart from the census. Data for this report was collected during the 64th Round
of NSS from July 2007 to June 2008. The report was published in June 2010.
‘Temporary Migration’ and ‘Short-term Migration’ are used interchangeably in this paper.
# 1800 #
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Evgeny V. Kochkin and Srilata Sircar. Temporary Migration in India: Findings from Statistical Data and Learnings…
3
4
5
Workforce in the Census of India 2001 is defi ned as the population between the ages of 15 and 59 who are either employed
or are willing to be employed. Due to absence of data and purposes of simplification here it is taken to be all population
within the age-group of 15 to 59.
The population of India is 1.2 billion of which 72 % or 850 million is rural population. 1.7 % of this is 14.5 million. See
Census of India, 2001 available at http://censusindia.gov.in/
57 % is the national average for population in this age group and the numerical equivalent for rural population would be
485 million.
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2. Banerjee, A. and Duflo, E. (2007). “The Economic Lives of the Poor”. Journal of Economic
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final.pdf, 21.02.2011.
Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
Evgeny V. Kochkin and Srilata Sircar. Temporary Migration in India: Findings from Statistical Data and Learnings…
Временная миграция в Индии:
анализ кейсов и статистических данных
Е.В. Кочкина, Шрилата Сиркарб
а
Российская академия народного хозяйства
и государственной службы при Президенте РФ
Россия, 119571, Москва, пр. Вернадского, 82
б
Университет Люнда
SE-223 62, Швеция, Люнд, Солвегатен, 12
Предмет внутренней миграции из села в город изучался в Индии на протяжении долгого
времени. Согласно официальным данным, временная миграция из села в город очень редка
в условиях современной Индии. Однако изучение отдельных кейсов из различных районов
страны показывает совершенно обратную картину. Цель данной работы – пролить
свет на недостающую информацию в официальной статистике. А именно в статье
рассматриваются следующие аспекты внутренней миграции в условиях современной
Индии: объемы внутренней миграции по различным штатам; социальные группы, которые
с большей вероятностью отправляются во временную миграцию; факторы, мотивирующие
людей выбирать временную миграцию как форму заработка для своего домохозяйства.
Ключевые слова: внутренняя миграция, социальные связи между городом и селом, миграция из
села в город, Индия.
Научная специальность: 22.00.00 – социология.
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